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Sample records for fish rivulus marmoratus

  1. Phenotypic differences between the sexes in the sexually plastic mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Mark J.; Ferro, Jack M.; Mattox, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    the sexes in a sexchanging vertebrate, the mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus), to elucidate potential factors that might drive the ‘decision’ to switch sex. Rivulus populations consist of self-fertilizing hermaphrodites and males. Hermaphrodites transition into males under certain environmental...

  2. Environmental physiology of the mangrove rivulus, Kryptolebias marmoratus, a cutaneously breathing fish that survives for weeks out of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patricia A

    2012-12-01

    The mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) is an excellent model species for understanding the physiological mechanisms that fish use in coping with extreme environmental conditions, particularly cutaneous exchange during prolonged exposure to air. Their ability to self-fertilize and produce highly homozygous lineages provides the potential for examining environmental influences on structures and related functions without the complications of genetic variation. Over the past 10 years or so, we have gained a broader understanding of the mechanisms K. marmoratus use to maintain homeostasis when out of water for days to weeks. Gaseous exchange occurs across the skin, as dramatic remodeling of the gill reduces its effective surface area for exchange. Ionoregulation and osmoregulation are maintained in air by exchanging Na(+), Cl(-), and H(2)O across skin that contains a rich population of ionocytes. Ammonia excretion occurs in part by cutaneous NH(3) volatilization facilitated by ammonia transporters on the surface of the epidermis. Finally, new evidence indicates that cutaneous angiogenesis occurs when K. marmoratus are emersed for a week, suggesting a higher rate of blood flow to surface vessels. Taken together, these and other findings demonstrate that the skin of K. marmoratus takes on all the major functions attributed to fish gills, allowing them to move between aquatic and terrestrial environments with ease. Future studies should focus on variation in response to environmental changes between homozygous lineages to identify the genetic underpinnings of physiological responses.

  3. Environmental Physiology of the Mangrove Rivulus, Kryptolebias marmoratus, A Cutaneously Breathing Fish That Survives for Weeks Out of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) is an excellent model species for understanding the physiological mechanisms that fish use in coping with extreme environmental conditions, particularly cutaneous exchange during prolonged exposure to air. Their ability to self-fertilize and produce highly homozygous lineages provides the potential for examining environmental influences on structures and related functions without the complications of genetic variation. Over the past 10 years or so, we have gained a broader understanding of the mechanisms K. marmoratus use to maintain homeostasis when out of water for days to weeks. Gaseous exchange occurs across the skin, as dramatic remodeling of the gill reduces its effective surface area for exchange. Ionoregulation and osmoregulation are maintained in air by exchanging Na+, Cl−, and H2O across skin that contains a rich population of ionocytes. Ammonia excretion occurs in part by cutaneous NH3 volatilization facilitated by ammonia transporters on the surface of the epidermis. Finally, new evidence indicates that cutaneous angiogenesis occurs when K. marmoratus are emersed for a week, suggesting a higher rate of blood flow to surface vessels. Taken together, these and other findings demonstrate that the skin of K. marmoratus takes on all the major functions attributed to fish gills, allowing them to move between aquatic and terrestrial environments with ease. Future studies should focus on variation in response to environmental changes between homozygous lineages to identify the genetic underpinnings of physiological responses. PMID:22693260

  4. Photoreactivation rescue and dark repair demonstrated in UV-irradiated embryos of the self-fertilizing fish Rivulus ocellatus marmoratus (Teleostei; Aplocheilidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, E.-H.; Yi, A.-K.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of photoreactivation (PR) rescue and dark repair on the survival of UV-irradiated embryos of the hermaphroditic fish (Rivulus ocellatus marmoratus) are reported. When UV-irradiated embryos were illuminated by photoreactivating light (PRL) from fluorescent lamps, survival at the hatching stage was markedly increased. The maximum recovery to UV damage was shown by embryos that were exposed to PRL for at least 6 h after UV irradiation. The effect of PRL decreased 30 min after UV irradiation and not PR rescue ws detected beyond 96 h. Treatment with 2 mM caffeine for 48 h after UV irradiation increased the sensitivity of the embryos in the dark. The above results demonstrate that Rivulus embryos have an efficient PR system and a caffeine-sensitive dark repair capacity. (author). 31 refs.; 5 figs

  5. Marine, freshwater and aerially acclimated mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) use different strategies for cutaneous ammonia excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Christopher A.; Wilson, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins are ammonia gas (NH3) channels known to be involved in ammonia transport in animals. Because of the different osmoregulatory and ionoregulatory challenges faced by teleost fishes in marine and freshwater (FW) environments, we hypothesized that ammonia excretion strategies would differ between environments. Also, we hypothesized that cutaneous NH3 volatilization in air-acclimated fish is facilitated by base secretion. To test these hypotheses, we used the skin of the euryhaline amphibious mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus). The skin excretes ammonia and expresses Rh glycoproteins. Serosal-to-mucosal cutaneous ammonia flux was saturable (0–16 mmol/l ammonia, Km of 6.42 mmol/l). In FW, ammonia excretion increased in response to low mucosal pH but decreased with pharmacological inhibition of Na+/H+ exchangers (NHE) and H+ ATPase. Conversely, in brackish water (BW), lowering the mucosal pH significantly decreased ammonia excretion. Inhibitors of NHE also decreased ammonia excretion in BW fish. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that both the Rh isoform, Rhcg1, and NHE3 proteins colocalized in Na+/K+ ATPase expressing mitochondrion-rich cells in the gills, kidney, and skin. We propose that the mechanisms of cutaneous ammonia excretion in FW K. marmoratus are consistent with the model for branchial ammonia excretion in FW teleost fish. NH4+ excretion appeared to play a stronger role in BW. NH4+ excretion in BW may be facilitated by apical NHE and/or diffuse through paracellular pathways. In aerially acclimated fish, inhibition of NHE and H+ ATPase, but not the Cl−/HCO3− exchanger, significantly affected cutaneous surface pH, suggesting that direct base excretion is not critical for NH3 volatilization. Overall, K. marmoratus use different strategies for excreting ammonia in three different environments, FW, BW, and air, and Rh glycoproteins and NHE are integral to all. PMID:23389109

  6. First record of Rivulus marmoratus Poey, 1880 From the South American continent (Pisces: Cyprinodontidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taphorn, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    Rivulus marmoratus Poey, 1880 has previously been found only in south Florida, Cuba, the Bahamas, Barbuda, St. Martin and several islands off the Venezuelan coast (Curaçao, Bonaire and Gran Roque) (Hoedeman, 1958; Böhlke & Chaplin, 1968). In September of 1978, one of my students, Mr. Edgard W.

  7. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (bisphenol A, 4-nonylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol) modulate expression of two distinct cytochrome P450 aromatase genes differently in gender types of the hermaphroditic fish Rivulus marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Mi; Seo, Jung Soo; Kim, Il-Chan; Yoon, Yong-Dal; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2006-06-30

    To understand the effect of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on cytochrome P450 aromatase (rm-cyp19) gene expression between gender types in the hermaphroditic fish Rivulus marmoratus, we cloned two distinct rm-cyp19 genes using RT-PCR with degenerative primers, obtained full-length cDNAs using 5'- and 3'-RACE-PCR methods, and completely sequenced them. The brain aromatase (rm-cyp19b) cDNA consisted of 2,124 bp including the open reading frame (ORF), which encoded a putative protein of 505 amino acids. The ovarian aromatase (rm-cyp19a) cDNA consisted of 2,075 bp, including the ORF encoding a putative protein of 516 amino acids. Expression patterns of rm-cyp19b and rm-cyp19a mRNAs were investigated in embryos of different developmental stages and in seven different tissues of adult fish. The rm-cyp19b gene in hermaphrodite and secondary male R. marmoratus was predominantly expressed in the brain, while the rm-cyp19a gene was expressed gender-specifically in the gonad. The expression of rm-cyp19b mRNA increased from stage 1 (2 d post fertilization) to stage 4 (12 d post fertilization) in a developmental stage-dependent manner but steeply decreased in the hatching stage. Compared to the rm-cyp19b gene, the abundance of ovarian aromatase rm-cyp19a transcripts was very low, and its expression was first detected at stage 3 and then decreased gradually to the hatching stage. Alteration of rm-cyp19b and rm-cyp19a gene expression was further analyzed in the brain and gonad by real-time RT-PCR 96 h after EDC exposure in hermaphrodites and secondary males. The brain aromatase rm-cyp19b gene was up-regulated in the brain after 4-nonylphenol (4-NP)-exposure, while the ovarian aromatase rm-cyp19a gene was significantly down-regulated in the gonad. In 300 microg/L 4-tert octylphenol (4-tert-OP), or 600 microg/L bisphenol A-exposed brain and gonad, both rm-cyp19b and rm-cyp19a genes were up-regulated. In the case of secondary males, the rm-cyp19b gene was highly expressed in

  8. The role of dyadic interactions in the mixed-mating strate-gies of the mangrove rivulus Kryptolebias marmoratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly N. LUKE,David L. BECHLER

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The mangrove rivulus Kryptolebias marmoratus a small cyprinodont fish native to tropical and subtropical waters from Florida to Brazil, is one of two known self-fertilizing, hermaphroditic vertebrates of which K. marmoratus displays androdioecy, a complex system of reproduction in which hermaphrodites and males are present. This study describes the behavioral repertoires observed during dyadic interactions in the laboratory. Kryptolebias marmoratus exhibited 23 distinctive acts or behaviors. Acts were divided into four categories: aggressive, submissive, neutral, and reproductive. Leading and following behaviors played important roles in the behavioral repertoires of these fish. In hermaphrodite-male dyads, males exclusively initiated the reproductive process and actively pursued hermaphrodites. When hermaphrodites were paired, there was no evidence that they behaved like other simultaneous hermaphrodites that alternate sexual roles (e.g. serranids. Hermaphrodites were extremely aggressive towards one another, and the aggressor established dominance rapidly. Male-male dyads were divided into two subdivisions based on the presence or absence of the caudal ocellus on one fish. A caudal ocellus on one male appeared to signal the possibility of a potential mating partner to males lacking it. Pairings of males without an ocellus were similar to hermaphrodite-hermaphrodite dyads in that both members of the pair were aggressive towards one another. These observations may be indicative of interactions taking place in natural communities or assemblages of fish in which both males and hermaphrodites occur and provide evidence on the role of dyadic interactions in the mixed-mating strategies [Current Zoology 56 (1: 6–17 2010].

  9. Cutaneous vasoregulation during short- and long-term aerial acclimation in the amphibious mangrove rivulus, Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C A; Litwiller, S L; Murrant, C L; Wright, P A

    2012-03-01

    The mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) is an amphibious fish and evidence suggests that the cutaneous surface is the primary site of gas exchange during emersion. The aim of this study was to determine whether cutaneous blood vessels were regulated in the caudal fin during the initial transition from water to aerial exposure, and after 10 days of aerial acclimation. Acute changes (first 3 min following emersion) in the cutaneous vessels diameter were measured in real-time on live fish using light microscopy. The data show that under control conditions, only arterioles in the caudal fin were vasoactive. During the first 20s of aerial acclimation the arterioles significantly constricted (-2.1 ± 0.4 μm), which was followed immediately by a relaxation (from 40 to 180 s). This vasoconstriction was eliminated with the addition of phentolamine (50 μmoll(-1)), which indicates that the vasoconstriction was mediated by α-adrenoreceptors. Longer-term changes in the cutaneous surface vasculature were determined using fluorescent immunohistochemistry and antibodies for the endothelial marker, CD31. Fish aerially acclimated for 10 days exhibited significantly higher levels of endothelial fluorescence in the caudal fin when compared to control fish in water, indicating endothelial cell production (i.e. angiogenesis). These data combined show that for every emersion episode, there is an initial α-adrenergic mediated vasoconstriction, which is most likely, a stress response. This is then followed by a long-term acclimation involving an upregulation in endothelial cell production, which would subsequently enhance blood perfusion to the cutaneous surface and potentially increase the capacity for gas exchange with the external environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasticity of skin water permeability and skin thickness in the amphibious mangrove rivulus Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffell, Quentin; Turko, Andy J; Wright, Patricia A

    2018-03-01

    The skin of amphibious fishes is a multipurpose organ, important for gas and ion exchange and nitrogen excretion when fish are out of water (emersed). We tested the hypothesis that skin permeability is altered to maintain water balance through changes in water permeability and skin thickness during salinity acclimation and/or when fish emerse, using the euryhaline, amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus as a model. We first recorded the behaviour of fish out of water to determine which part of the cutaneous surface was in contact with the substrate. Fish spent about 70% of their time on their ventral surface when out of water. Osmotic permeability of the skin was assessed in fish acclimated to 0.3 or 45‰ using 3 H 2 O fluxes in an in vitro micro-Ussing chamber setup. In freshwater-acclimated fish, 3 H 2 O influx across the skin was significantly higher compared to hypersaline-acclimated fish, with no significant changes in efflux. Prolonged emersion (7 days) resulted in an increase in skin 3 H 2 O influx, but not efflux in fish acclimated to a moist 45‰ substrate. In a separate experiment, dorsal epidermal skin thickness increased while the ventral dermis thickness decreased in fish emersed for over a week. However, there was no link between regional skin thickness and water flux in our experiments. Taken together, these findings suggest that K. marmoratus alter skin permeability to maximize water uptake while emersed in hypersaline conditions, adjustments that probably help them survive months of emersion during the dry season when drinking to replace water loss is not possible.

  11. Neuroepithelial cells and the hypoxia emersion response in the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Kelly S; Jonz, Michael G; Wright, Patricia A

    2011-08-01

    Teleost fish have oxygen-sensitive neuroepithelial cells (NECs) in the gills that appear to mediate physiological responses to hypoxia, but little is known about oxygen sensing in amphibious fish. The mangrove rivulus, Kryptolebias marmoratus, is an amphibious fish that respires via the gills and/or the skin. First, we hypothesized that both the skin and gills are sites of oxygen sensing in K. marmoratus. Serotonin-positive NECs were abundant in both gills and skin, as determined by immunohistochemical labelling and fluorescence microscopy. NECs retained synaptic vesicles and were found near nerve fibres labelled with the neuronal marker zn-12. Skin NECs were 42% larger than those of the gill, as estimated by measurement of projection area, and 45% greater in number. Moreover, for both skin and gill NECs, NEC area increased significantly (30-60%) following 7 days of exposure to hypoxia (1.5 mg l(-1) dissolved oxygen). Another population of cells containing vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) proteins were also observed in the skin and gills. The second hypothesis we tested was that K. marmoratus emerse in order to breathe air cutaneously when challenged with severe aquatic hypoxia, and this response will be modulated by neurochemicals associated chemoreceptor activity. Acute exposure to hypoxia induced fish to emerse at 0.2 mg l(-1). When K. marmoratus were pre-exposed to serotonin or acetylcholine, they emersed at a significantly higher concentration of oxygen than untreated fish. Pre-exposure to receptor antagonists (ketanserin and hexamethonium) predictably resulted in fish emersing at a lower concentration of oxygen. Taken together, these results suggest that oxygen sensing occurs at the branchial and/or cutaneous surfaces in K. marmoratus and that serotonin and acetylcholine mediate, in part, the emersion response.

  12. Copper alters hypoxia sensitivity and the behavioural emersion response in the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, Tamzin A; Simon, Robyn A; Turko, Andy J; Wright, Patricia A

    2017-08-01

    Elevated levels of metals have been reported in mangrove ecosystems worldwide. Mangrove fishes also routinely experience severe environmental stressors, such as hypoxia. In the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus (mangrove rivulus), a key behavioural response to avoid aquatic stress is to leave water (emersion). We hypothesized that copper (Cu) exposure would increase the sensitivity of this behavioural hypoxia avoidance response due to histopathological effects of Cu on gill structure and function. K. marmoratus were exposed to either control (no added Cu) or Cu (300μg/L) for 96h. Following this period, fish were exposed to an acute hypoxic challenge (decline in dissolved oxygen to ∼0% over 15min), and the emersion response was recorded. Gills were examined for histological changes. Fish exposed to Cu emersed at a higher dissolved oxygen level (7.5±0.6%), relative to the control treatment group (5.8±0.4%). Histological analysis showed that the gill surface area increased and the interlamellar cell mass (ILCM) was reduced following Cu exposure, contrary to our prediction. Overall, these data indicate that Cu induces hypoxia-like changes to gill morphology and increases the sensitivity of the hypoxia emersion response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Emersion behaviour underlies variation in gill morphology and aquatic respiratory function in the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turko, A J; Tatarenkov, A; Currie, S; Earley, R L; Platek, A; Taylor, D S; Wright, P A

    2018-04-13

    Fishes acclimated to hypoxic environments often increase gill surface area to improve O 2 uptake. In some species, surface area is increased via reduction of an interlamellar cell mass (ILCM) that fills water channels between gill lamellae. Amphibious fishes, however, may not increase gill surface area in hypoxic water because these species can, instead, leave water and breathe air. To differentiate between these possibilities, we compared wild amphibious mangrove rivulus Kryptolebias marmoratus from two habitats that varied in O 2 availability - a hypoxic freshwater pool versus nearly anoxic crab burrows. Fish captured from crab burrows had less gill surface area (as ILCMs were enlarged by ∼32%), increased rates of normoxic O 2 consumption and increased critical O 2 tension compared with fish from the freshwater pool. Thus, wild mangrove rivulus do not respond to near-anoxic water by decreasing metabolism or increasing O 2 extraction. Instead, fish from the crab burrow habitat spent three times longer out of water, which probably caused the observed changes in gill morphology and respiratory phenotype. We also tested whether critical O 2 tension is influenced by genetic heterozygosity, as K. marmoratus is one of only two hermaphroditic vertebrate species that can produce both self-fertilized (inbred) or out-crossed (more heterozygous) offspring. We found no evidence for inbreeding depression, suggesting that self-fertilization does not impair respiratory function. Overall, our results demonstrate that amphibious fishes that inhabit hypoxic aquatic habitats can use a fundamentally different strategy from that used by fully aquatic water-breathing fishes, relying on escape behaviour rather than metabolic depression or increased O 2 extraction ability. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Fish embryos on land: terrestrial embryo deposition lowers oxygen uptake without altering growth or survival in the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Michael W; Turko, Andy J; Wright, Patricia A

    2015-10-01

    Few teleost fishes incubate embryos out of water, but the oxygen-rich terrestrial environment could provide advantages for early growth and development. We tested the hypothesis that embryonic oxygen uptake is limited in aquatic environments relative to air using the self-fertilizing amphibious mangrove rivulus, Kryptolebias marmoratus, which typically inhabits hypoxic, water-filled crab burrows. We found that adult mangrove rivulus released twice as many embryos in terrestrial versus aquatic environments and that air-reared embryos had accelerated developmental rates. Surprisingly, air-reared embryos consumed 44% less oxygen and possessed larger yolk reserves, but attained the same mass, length and chorion thickness. Water-reared embryos moved their opercula ∼2.5 more times per minute compared with air-reared embryos at 7 days post-release, which probably contributed to the higher rates of oxygen uptake and yolk utilization we observed. Genetically identical air- and water-reared embryos from the same parent were raised to maturity, but the embryonic environment did not affect growth, reproduction or emersion ability in adults. Therefore, although aspects of early development were plastic, these early differences were not sustained into adulthood. Kryptolebias marmoratus embryos hatched out of water when exposed to aerial hypoxia. We conclude that exposure to a terrestrial environment reduces the energetic costs of development partly by reducing the necessity of embryonic movements to dispel stagnant boundary layers. Terrestrial incubation of young would be especially beneficial to amphibious fishes that occupy aquatic habitats of poor water quality, assuming low terrestrial predation and desiccation risks. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Delayed impacts of developmental exposure to 17-α-ethinylestradiol in the self-fertilizing fish Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Anne-Sophie; Fellous, Alexandre; Earley, Ryan L; Silvestre, Frédéric

    2016-11-01

    17-α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is one of the most potent endocrine disrupting compounds found in the aquatic environments, and is known to strongly alter fish reproduction and fitness. While the effects of direct exposure to EE2 are well studied in adults, there is an increasing need to assess the impacts of exposure during early life stages. Sensitivity to pollutants during this critical window can potentially affect the phenotype later in life or in subsequent generations. This study investigated phenotypic outcome of early-life exposure to 17-α-ethinylestradiol during development and in adults of the mangrove rivulus, Kryptolebias marmoratus. Being one of the only two known self-fertilizing hermaphroditic vertebrates, this fish makes it possible to work with genetically identical individuals. Therefore, using rivulus makes it possible to examine, explicitly, the phenotypic effects of environmental variance while eliminating the effects of genetic variance. Genetically identical rivulus were exposed for the first 28days post hatching (dph) to 0, 4 or 120ng/L of EE2, and then were reared in uncontaminated water until 168dph. Growth, egg laying and steroid hormone levels (estradiol, cortisol, 11-ketotestosterone, testosterone) were measured throughout development. Exposed fish showed a reduction in standard length directly after exposure (28dph), which was more pronounced in the 120ng/L group. This was followed by compensatory growth when reared in clean water: all fish recovered a similar size as controls by 91dph. There was no difference in the age at maturity and the proportions of mature, non-mature and male individuals at 168dph. At 4ng/L, fish layed significantly fewer eggs than controls, while, surprisingly, reproduction was not affected at 120ng/L. Despite a decrease in fecundity at 4ng/L, there were no changes in hormones levels at the lower concentration. In addition, there were no significant differences among treatments immediately after exposure

  16. Hypercapnia and low pH induce neuroepithelial cell proliferation and emersion behaviour in the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Cayleih E; Turko, Andy J; Jonz, Michael G; Wright, Patricia A

    2015-10-01

    Aquatic hypercapnia may have helped to drive ancestral vertebrate invasion of land. We tested the hypothesis that amphibious fishes sense and respond to elevated aquatic PCO2 by behavioural avoidance mechanisms, and by morphological changes at the chemoreceptor level. Mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) were exposed to 1 week of normocapnic control water (pH 8), air, hypercapnia (5% CO2, pH 6.8) or isocapnic acidosis (pH 6.8). We found that the density of CO2/H(+) chemoreceptive neuroepithelial cells (NECs) was increased in hypercapnia or isocapnic acidosis-exposed fish. Projection area (a measure of cell size) was unchanged. Acute exposure to progressive hypercapnia induced the fish to emerse (leave water) at water pH values ∼6.1, whereas addition of HCl to water caused a more variable response with a lower pH threshold (∼pH 5.5). These results support our hypothesis and suggest that aquatic hypercapnia provides an adequate stimulus for extant amphibious fishes to temporarily transition from aquatic to terrestrial habitats. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Ontogeny of the morphology-performance axis in an amphibious fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styga, Joseph M; Houslay, Thomas M; Wilson, Alastair J; Earley, Ryan L

    2017-12-01

    Establishing links between morphology and performance is important for understanding the functional, ecological, and evolutionary implications of morphological diversity. Relationships between morphology and performance are expected to be age dependent if, at different points during ontogeny, animals must perform in different capacities to achieve high fitness returns. Few studies have examined how the relationship between form and function changes across ontogeny. Here, we assess this relationship in the amphibious mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) fish, a species that is both capable of and reliant on "tail-flip jumping" for terrestrial locomotion. Tail-flip jumping entails an individual transferring its weight to the caudal region of the body, launching itself from the substrate to navigate to new aquatic or semi-aquatic habitats. By combining repeated trials of jumping performance in 237 individuals from distinct age classes with a clearing and staining procedure to visualize bones in the caudal region, we test the hypotheses that as age increases (i) average jumping performance (body lengths jumped) will increase, (ii) the amount of variation for each trait will change, and (iii) the patterns of covariation/correlation among traits, which tell us about the integration of form with function, will also change. We find a significant increase in size-adjusted jumping performance with age, and modification to the correlation structure among traits across ontogeny. However, we also find that significant links between form and function evident in young animals disappear at later ontogenetic stages. Our study suggests that different functional mechanisms may be associated with high performance at different stages of development. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Gill remodelling during terrestrial acclimation reduces aquatic respiratory function of the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turko, Andy J; Cooper, Chris A; Wright, Patricia A

    2012-11-15

    The skin-breathing amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus experiences rapid environmental changes when moving between water- and air-breathing, but remodelling of respiratory morphology is slower (~1 week). We tested the hypotheses that (1) there is a trade-off in respiratory function of gills displaying aquatic versus terrestrial morphologies and (2) rapidly increased gill ventilation is a mechanism to compensate for reduced aquatic respiratory function. Gill surface area, which varied inversely to the height of the interlamellar cell mass, was increased by acclimating fish for 1 week to air or low ion water, or decreased by acclimating fish for 1 week to hypoxia (~20% dissolved oxygen saturation). Fish were subsequently challenged with acute hypoxia, and gill ventilation or oxygen uptake was measured. Fish with reduced gill surface area increased ventilation at higher dissolved oxygen levels, showed an increased critical partial pressure of oxygen and suffered impaired recovery compared with brackish water control fish. These results indicate that hyperventilation, a rapid compensatory mechanism, was only able to maintain oxygen uptake during moderate hypoxia in fish that had remodelled their gills for land. Thus, fish moving between aquatic and terrestrial habitats may benefit from cutaneously breathing oxygen-rich air, but upon return to water must compensate for a less efficient branchial morphology (mild hypoxia) or suffer impaired respiratory function (severe hypoxia).

  19. Effects of increasing temperature due to aquatic climate change on the self-fertility and the sexual development of the hermaphrodite fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Beom; Kim, Young Jun; Soyano, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of increasing temperature on the reproductive performance of fish, different thermal conditions (i.e., 25.0, 26.5, 27.5, 28.5, 30.0 °C) were used in this study and the self-fertilizing hermaphrodite fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus, was exposed to these different thermal conditions. During an exposure period of 30 to 150 days, the gonadosomatic index (GSI), gonadal development, the levels of plasma 17β-estradial (E2) and testosterone (T), hepatic vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA abundance, and the number of self-fertilized eggs were analyzed. This study confirmed that a high water temperature above 27.5 °C led to the suppression of self-fertility of hermaphroditic fish from 30 days after exposure. The oocyte quality and maturation would be affected by the disruption of hepatic VTG synthesis at a high water temperature of 30 °C, which resulted in the reduced the self-fertility in K. marmoratus. Consequently, this study suggests that elevated water temperature due to aquatic climate change prior to sexual maturation and the onset of spawning can lead to the reproductive dysfunction of hermaphroditic K. marmoratus.

  20. The amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus uses different strategies to maintain oxygen delivery during aquatic hypoxia and air exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turko, Andy J; Robertson, Cayleih E; Bianchini, Kristin; Freeman, Megan; Wright, Patricia A

    2014-11-15

    Despite the abundance of oxygen in atmospheric air relative to water, the initial loss of respiratory surface area and accumulation of carbon dioxide in the blood of amphibious fishes during emersion may result in hypoxemia. Given that the ability to respond to low oxygen conditions predates the vertebrate invasion of land, we hypothesized that amphibious fishes maintain O2 uptake and transport while emersed by mounting a co-opted hypoxia response. We acclimated the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus, which are able to remain active for weeks in both air and water, for 7 days to normoxic brackish water (15‰, ~21kPa O2; control), aquatic hypoxia (~3.6kPa), normoxic air (~21 kPa) or aerial hypoxia (~13.6kPa). Angiogenesis in the skin and bucco-opercular chamber was pronounced in air- versus water-acclimated fish, but not in response to hypoxia. Aquatic hypoxia increased the O2-carrying capacity of blood via a large (40%) increase in red blood cell density and a small increase in the affinity of hemoglobin for O2 (P50 decreased 11%). In contrast, air exposure increased the hemoglobin O2 affinity (decreased P50) by 25% without affecting the number of red blood cells. Acclimation to aerial hypoxia both increased the O2-carrying capacity and decreased the hemoglobin O2 affinity. These results suggest that O2 transport is regulated both by O2 availability and also, independently, by air exposure. The ability of the hematological system to respond to air exposure independent of O2 availability may allow extant amphibious fishes, and may also have allowed primitive tetrapods to cope with the complex challenges of aerial respiration during the invasion of land. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Out of the frying pan into the air--emersion behaviour and evaporative heat loss in an amphibious mangrove fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Daniel J; Sylvester, Emma V A; Turko, Andy J; Tattersall, Glenn J; Wright, Patricia A

    2015-10-01

    Amphibious fishes often emerse (leave water) when faced with unfavourable water conditions. How amphibious fishes cope with the risks of rising water temperatures may depend, in part, on the plasticity of behavioural mechanisms such as emersion thresholds. We hypothesized that the emersion threshold is reversibly plastic and thus dependent on recent acclimation history rather than on conditions during early development. Kryptolebias marmoratus were reared for 1 year at 25 or 30°C and acclimated as adults (one week) to either 25 or 30°C before exposure to an acute increase in water temperature. The emersion threshold temperature and acute thermal tolerance were significantly increased in adult fish acclimated to 30°C, but rearing temperature had no significant effect. Using a thermal imaging camera, we also showed that emersed fish in a low humidity aerial environment (30°C) lost significantly more heat (3.3°C min(-1)) than those in a high humidity environment (1.6°C min(-1)). In the field, mean relative humidity was 84%. These results provide evidence of behavioural avoidance of high temperatures and the first quantification of evaporative cooling in an amphibious fish. Furthermore, the avoidance response was reversibly plastic, flexibility that may be important for tropical amphibious fishes under increasing pressures from climatic change. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Out of the frying pan into the air—emersion behaviour and evaporative heat loss in an amphibious mangrove fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Daniel J.; Sylvester, Emma V. A.; Turko, Andy J.; Tattersall, Glenn J.; Wright, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Amphibious fishes often emerse (leave water) when faced with unfavourable water conditions. How amphibious fishes cope with the risks of rising water temperatures may depend, in part, on the plasticity of behavioural mechanisms such as emersion thresholds. We hypothesized that the emersion threshold is reversibly plastic and thus dependent on recent acclimation history rather than on conditions during early development. Kryptolebias marmoratus were reared for 1 year at 25 or 30°C and acclimated as adults (one week) to either 25 or 30°C before exposure to an acute increase in water temperature. The emersion threshold temperature and acute thermal tolerance were significantly increased in adult fish acclimated to 30°C, but rearing temperature had no significant effect. Using a thermal imaging camera, we also showed that emersed fish in a low humidity aerial environment (30°C) lost significantly more heat (3.3°C min−1) than those in a high humidity environment (1.6°C min−1). In the field, mean relative humidity was 84%. These results provide evidence of behavioural avoidance of high temperatures and the first quantification of evaporative cooling in an amphibious fish. Furthermore, the avoidance response was reversibly plastic, flexibility that may be important for tropical amphibious fishes under increasing pressures from climatic change. PMID:26490418

  3. Genetic composition of laboratory stocks of the self-fertilizing fish Kryptolebias marmoratus: a valuable resource for experimental research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Tatarenkov

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The hermaphroditic Mangrove Killifish, Kryptolebias marmoratus, is the world's only vertebrate that routinely self-fertilizes. As such, highly inbred and presumably isogenic "clonal" lineages of this androdioecious species have long been maintained in several laboratories and used in a wide variety of experiments that require genetically uniform vertebrate specimens. Here we conduct a genetic inventory of essentially all laboratory stocks of the Mangrove Killifish held worldwide. At 32 microsatellite loci, these stocks proved to show extensive interline differentiation as well as some intraline variation, much of which can be attributed to post-origin de novo mutations and/or to the segregation of polymorphisms from wild progenitors. Our genetic findings also document that many of the surveyed laboratory strains are not what they have been labeled, apparently due to the rather frequent mishandling or unintended mixing of various laboratory stocks over the years. Our genetic inventory should help to clarify much of this confusion about the clonal identities and genetic relationships of laboratory lines, and thereby help to rejuvenate interest in K. marmoratus as a reliable vertebrate model for experimental research that requires or can capitalize upon "clonal" replicate specimens.

  4. Metabolic adjustments during semi-aestivation of the marble swamp eel (Synbranchus marmoratus, Bloch 1795 - a facultative air breathing fish Ajustes metabólicos do muçum (Synbranchus marmoratus, Bloch 1795 - um peixe de respiração aérea facultativa - durante semi-estivação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Moraes

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic changes, principally in intermediary metabolism and nitrogen excretion, were investigated in the marble swamp eel (Synbranchus marmoratus after 15 and 45 days of artificially induced semi-aestivation. Glucose, glycogen, lactate, pyruvate, free amino acids, triglycerides, ammonia, urea, and urate contents were determined in liver, kidney, white muscle, heart, brain, and plasma. Lactate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, glutamine synthase, ornithine carbamoyl transferase, and arginase enzymes were assayed. The teleost S. marmoratus maintained initial energetic demands by lipid oxidation. The course of normal oxidative processes was observed through tissue enzyme profiles. After the lipid stores were exhausted, the fish consumed body proteins. Constant values of hematocrit during induced semi-aestivation suggested that the water balance remained normal. Therefore, the surrounding water was probably did not trigger the semi-aestivation in this teleost. Decrease of ammonia and increase of renal urea synthesis after 45 days of semi-aestivation led to the assumption that an alternative form of eliminating ammonia exists. Metabolic changes entailed by starvation were proposed to explain the biosynthesis of small molecules involved in the semi-aestivation of S. marmoratus.Foram investigadas variações metabólicas em muçum (Synbranchus marmoratus após 15 e 45 dias de semi-estivação artificial induzida, com ênfase no metabolismo intermediário e excreção de nitrogênio. Glicose, glicogênio, lactato, piruvato, aminoácidos livres, triglicerídios, amônia, uréia e uratos foram determinados em fígado, rim, músculo branco, coração, cérebro, e plasma. As enzimas lactato desidrogenase, glutamato desidrogenase, malato desidrogenase, aspartato amino transferase, alanina amino transferase, glutamina sintetase, ornitina carbamil transferase e arginase foram

  5. Amphibious fish jump better on land after acclimation to a terrestrial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Emily M; Turko, Andy J; Scott, Graham R; Wright, Patricia A

    2016-10-15

    Air and water differ dramatically in density and viscosity, posing different biomechanical challenges for animal locomotion. We asked how terrestrial acclimation influences locomotion in amphibious fish, specifically testing the hypothesis that terrestrial tail flip performance is improved by plastic changes in the skeletal muscle. Mangrove rivulus Kryptolebias marmoratus, which remain largely inactive out of water, were exposed to water or air for 14 days and a subgroup of air-exposed fish was also recovered in water. Tail flip jumping performance on land improved dramatically in air-acclimated fish, they had lower lactate levels compared with control fish, and these effects were mostly reversible. Muscle plasticity significantly increased oxidative muscle cross-sectional area and fibre size, as well as the number of capillaries per fibre. Our results show that reversible changes to the oxidative skeletal muscle of K. marmoratus out of water enhance terrestrial locomotory performance, even in the absence of exercise training. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species (Teleostei: Rivulidae) from western Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodet Rodriguez

    2015-04-24

    Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species, is described from a small stream in Sierra de Cajalbana, northwestern Cuba. It is readily distinguished from Rivulus cylindraceus Poey by the combination of an exclusive color pattern and meristic characters such as a d-type frontal scalation pattern (versus e-type pattern in Rivulus cylindraceus). The current diagnosis of Rivulus berovidesi based on chromatic, morphological and meristic characters is consistent with a recent molecular analysis of this genus in Cuba.

  7. Co-expression of antioxidant enzymes with expression of p53, DNA repair, and heat shock protein genes in the gamma ray-irradiated hermaphroditic fish Kryptolebias marmoratus larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Jae-Sung [Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo-Mi; Kim, Ryeo-Ok [Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Jung Soo [Pathology Team, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Busan 619-902 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il-Chan [Division of Life Sciences, Korea Polar Research Institute, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young-Mi, E-mail: ymlee70@smu.ac.kr [Department of Green Life Science, College of Convergence, Sangmyung University, Seoul 110-743 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Seong, E-mail: jslee2@hanyang.ac.kr [Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Novel identification of DNA repair-related genes in fish. •Investigation of whole expression profiling of DNA repair genes upon gamma radiation. •Analysis of effects of gamma radiation on antioxidant system and cell stress proteins. •Usefulness of verification of pathway-based profiling for mechanistic understanding. -- Abstract: To investigate effects of gamma ray irradiation in the hermaphroditic fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus larvae, we checked expression of p53, DNA repair, and heat shock protein genes with several antioxidant enzyme activities by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and biochemical methods in response to different doses of gamma radiation. As a result, the level of gamma radiation-induced DNA damage was initiated after 4 Gy of radiation, and biochemical and molecular damage became substantial from 8 Gy. In particular, several DNA repair mechanism-related genes were significantly modulated in the 6 Gy gamma radiation-exposed fish larvae, suggesting that upregulation of such DNA repair genes was closely associated with cell survival after gamma irradiation. The mRNA expression of p53 and most hsps was also significantly upregulated at high doses of gamma radiation related to cellular damage. This finding indicates that gamma radiation can induce oxidative stress with associated antioxidant enzyme activities, and linked to modulation of the expression of DNA repair-related genes as one of the defense mechanisms against radiation damage. This study provides a better understanding of the molecular mode of action of defense mechanisms upon gamma radiation in fish larvae.

  8. Predator-driven brain size evolution in natural populations of Trinidadian killifish (Rivulus hartii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Matthew R.; Broyles, Whitnee; Beston, Shannon M.; Munch, Stephan B.

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrates exhibit extensive variation in relative brain size. It has long been assumed that this variation is the product of ecologically driven natural selection. Yet, despite more than 100 years of research, the ecological conditions that select for changes in brain size are unclear. Recent laboratory selection experiments showed that selection for larger brains is associated with increased survival in risky environments. Such results lead to the prediction that increased predation should favour increased brain size. Work on natural populations, however, foreshadows the opposite trajectory of evolution; increased predation favours increased boldness, slower learning, and may thereby select for a smaller brain. We tested the influence of predator-induced mortality on brain size evolution by quantifying brain size variation in a Trinidadian killifish, Rivulus hartii, from communities that differ in predation intensity. We observed strong genetic differences in male (but not female) brain size between fish communities; second generation laboratory-reared males from sites with predators exhibited smaller brains than Rivulus from sites in which they are the only fish present. Such trends oppose the results of recent laboratory selection experiments and are not explained by trade-offs with other components of fitness. Our results suggest that increased male brain size is favoured in less risky environments because of the fitness benefits associated with faster rates of learning and problem-solving behaviour. PMID:27412278

  9. Mining of biomarker genes from expressed sequence tags and differential display reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in the self-fertilizing fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus and their expression patterns in response to exposure to an endocrine-disrupting alkylphenol, bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Mi; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Kim, Il-Chan; Raisuddin, Sheikh; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2007-06-30

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and differentially expressed cDNAs from the self-fertilizing fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus were mined to develop alternative biomarkers for endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). 1,577 K. marmoratus cDNA clones were randomly sequenced from the 5'-end. These clones corresponded to 1,518 and 1,519 genes in medaka dbEST and zebrafish dbEST, respectively. Of the matched genes, 197 and 115 genes obtained Unigene IDs in medaka dbEST and zebrafish dbEST, respectively. Many of the annotated genes are potential biomarkers for environmental stresses. In a differential display reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (DD RT-PCR) study, 56 differential expressed genes were obtained from fish liver exposed to bisphenol A. Of these, 16 genes were identified after BLAST search to GenBank, and the annotated genes were mainly involved in catalytic activity and binding. The expression patterns of these 16 genes were validated by real-time RT-PCR of liver tissue from fish exposed to bisphenol A. Our findings suggest that expression of these 16 genes is modulated by endocrine disrupting chemicals, and therefore that they are potential biomarkers for environmental stress including EDCs exposure.

  10. Phylogeography of Cuban Rivulus: evidence for allopatric speciation and secondary dispersal across a marine barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de León, José Luis; León, Gunnary; Rodríguez, Rodet; Metcalfe, Cushla J; Hernández, Damir; Casane, Didier; García-Machado, Erik

    2014-10-01

    The genus Rivulus is currently comprised of two species, R. cylindraceus and R. insulaepinorum, which are endemic to Cuba. However, the taxonomic status of the latter species remains dubious because of the poor quality of the original description. In addition, a recent barcoding survey suggests that the two species may be conspecific. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the two species represent a single evolutionary clade. To delimit the species and their evolutionary history, we used a combination of molecular phylogenetic analyses, with both mitochondrial and nuclear sequences, tests of phylogeographic hypotheses, combined with morphological measurements and information on known dispersal barriers and species distribution. None of the data sets support R. insulaepinorum and R. cylindraceus as separate taxa. However, a new species, restricted to the northwestern part of the main island, was identified by phylogenetic analyses, body colour pattern and geographical distribution. The evolutionary distance between the two lineages (cytb, d=15%; CAM-4, d=2.5%) indicates a long period of divergence. Phylogeographic analyses shed light on the dispersal history of R. cylindraceus, which probably originated on the Isla de la Juventud. They also suggest that each lineage had contrasting histories; Rivulus sp. is restricted to a relatively small geographic area whereas R. cylindraceus has dispersed considerably and more than once from its centre of origin, probably facilitated by sea level fluctuations. These results strengthen previous findings, i.e. that the diversity of Cuban freshwater fishes is far from well-known and deserves more in-depth studies, and that vicariance and dispersal events have resulted in a complex biogeographical landscape which has had a significant impact on the freshwater fishes of the Caribbean islands. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tributyltin exposure causes brain damage in Sebastiscus marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiliang; Zuo, Zhenghong; Chen, Rong; Chen, Yixin; Wang, Chonggang

    2008-09-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous marine environmental contaminant characterized primarily by its reproductive toxicity. However, the neurotoxic effect of TBT has not been extensively described, especially in fishes which have a high number of species in the marine environment. This study was conducted to investigate the neurotoxic effects of TBT at environmental levels (1, 10, and 100ngl(-1)) on female Sebastiscus marmoratus. The results showed that TBT exposure induced apoptosis in brain cells of three regions including the pallial areas of the telencephalon, the granular layer of the optic tectum, and the cerebellum. In addition, the increase of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide levels, and the decrease of Na+/K+-ATPase activity were found in the brain. The results strongly indicated neurotoxicity of TBT to fishes. According to the regions in which apoptosis was found in the brain, TBT exposure might influence the schooling, sensory and motorial functions of fishes.

  12. Colour Variation of an Individual of Hart’s Rivulus (Rivulus hartii found in a Habitat Rich in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Pitch Lake of Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan S. Mohammed

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Typical coloured Rivulus hartii have been documented in South America and the twinisland state of Trinidad and Tobago in habitats ranging from rock pools to slow moving streams.After repeated sampling at the Pitch Lake, an area rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons inTrinidad, a single individual was found within a pool of the lake with abnormal colouration. Thefish exhibited normal behavior and showed no signs of pathology.

  13. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF FEED ON GROWTH, SURVIVAL AND DIGESTIVE ENZYME ACTIVITY OF EARLY JUVENILE-STAGE MARBLE GOBY, Oxyeleotris marmoratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Darwis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The stable mass seed production technique of marble goby, Oxyeleotris marmoratus has not yet been established due to high mortality occurring on the early juvenile stage and/or after 40 days after hatching (d AH. In order to establish the mass seed production technique, O. marmoratus juveniles of 40 d AH were reared for 60 days to determine growth, survival and digestive enzyme activity at different types of feed (trash fish, artificial feed and Artemia sp. nauplii. Specific growth rate (5.32 and survival rate (91.3% in juveniles fed Artemia sp. nauplii showed significantly higher (P<0.05 than those of juveniles fed trash fish and artificial feed. At the end of the experiment, the mean specific trypsin, amylase and lipase activities of juveniles fed Artemia sp. nauplii were recorded as 0.04 mU mg protein-1m-1, 0.114 mg maltose mg protein-1h-1 and 9.58 m Units, respectively, and they were significantly higher than those of juveniles fed trash fish and artificial feed. In the present study it was shown that O. marmoratus early juveniles had more efficient digestibility and absorption the nutrient when fed with Artemia.

  14. Feeding ecology of Rivulus luelingi (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae in a Coastal Atlantic Rainforest stream, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Abilhoa

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the killifish Rivulus luelingi collected in a black water stream of the Coastal Atlantic Rainforest in southern Brazil were investigated. Eight samplings were made between April 2003 and January 2004. The diet, assessed through a similarity matrix with the estimated contribution values of food items, included microcrustaceans, aquatic immature insects (larvae and pupae, aquatic adult insects, terrestrial insects, insect fragments, spiders, and plant fragments. Differences in the diet according to temporal variations (months were registered, but changes related with size classes evaluated and high/low precipitation period were not observed. The species presented an insectivorous feeding habit, and its diet in the studied stream was composed of autochthonous (mainly aquatic immature insects and allochthonous (mainly insect fragments material.

  15. Feeding ecology of Rivulus luelingi (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae in a Coastal Atlantic Rainforest stream, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Abilhoa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the killifish Rivulus luelingi collected in a black water stream of the Coastal Atlantic Rainforest in southern Brazil were investigated. Eight samplings were made between April 2003 and January 2004. The diet, assessed through a similarity matrix with the estimated contribution values of food items, included microcrustaceans, aquatic immature insects (larvae and pupae, aquatic adult insects, terrestrial insects, insect fragments, spiders, and plant fragments. Differences in the diet according to temporal variations (months were registered, but changes related with size classes evaluated and high/low precipitation period were not observed. The species presented an insectivorous feeding habit, and its diet in the studied stream was composed of autochthonous (mainly aquatic immature insects and allochthonous (mainly insect fragments material.Neste estudo foram investigados os hábitos alimentares do peixe anual Rivulus luelingi em um riacho de água escura da Floresta Atlântica Costeira do Sul do Brasil. Oito amostragens foram realizadas entre abril de 2003 e janeiro de 2004. A dieta, avaliada através de uma matriz de similaridade com os valores de contribuição estimados para os itens alimentares, inclui microcrustáceos, insetos imaturos aquáticos, insetos aquáticos e terrestres, fragmentos de insetos, aranhas e fragmentos de plantas. Diferenças relacionadas ao período amostral (meses foram registradas, mas mudanças na dieta em função das classes de tamanho avaliadas e o período de alta/baixa precipitação não foram observadas. A espécie apresentou hábito alimentar insetívoro, e sua dieta no riacho estudado foi composta por itens autóctones (principalmente insetos imaturos aquáticos e alóctones (principalmente fragmentos de insetos.

  16. Effects of X-irradiation and thymectomy on the immune response of the marine teleost, Sebastiscus marmoratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, T.

    1986-01-01

    Effects of X-irradiation and thymectomy on the immune response of the rock fish, S. marmoratus were studied. Animals were thymectomized and irradiated at the dose of 2000 R. In non-thymectomized and irradiated fish, injected with SRBC one week after irradiation, antibody production was completely suppressed and they required twice the time for rejection of scales allografted three days after irradiation. On the other hand, fish which were irradiated four days after thymectomy and injected one week after irradiation, showed a fairly high level of antibody, although, in the allograft rejection, no significant difference was observed when compared to the irradiated fish. Furthermore, animals thymectomized, irradiated and autoimplanted showed higher production of antibody when immunized three months after irradiation compared to matched controls. In the same manner, in the allograft rejection, a slight restoration was found in fish reconstituted with a non-irradiated thymus. From these results, it is considered that, as in mammals, the adult thymus of fish plays an important role in recovery from the damage to the immune system caused by irradiation. Furthermore, a combination of X-irradiation and thymectomy suggests that suppressor T-cells which are resistant to X-rays exist in the fish thymus

  17. Chronic exposure to paclobutrazol causes hepatic steatosis in male rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus and the mechanism involved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Lingbin [State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Li Jinshou [Department of Biological Engineering, Ningde Normal University, Ningde City, Fujian (China); Zuo Zhenghong [State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Chen Meng [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Wang Chonggang, E-mail: cgwang@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China)

    2013-01-15

    Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a triazole-containing fungicide which is widely used in agriculture. Acute toxicity can follow its extensive use but it is generally weaker than traditional pesticides such as organochlorine and organophosphorus. However, its adverse effects on aquatic organisms need to be investigated. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of PBZ exposure on the hepatic lipid metabolism of Sebastiscus marmoratus. After PBZ exposure for 50 days, hepatic lipid droplets were enlarged and the hepatic total lipid, triglyceride, total cholesterol and free fatty acid content had increased in a dose dependent manner compared to the control. The mRNA expression of lipid metabolism associated genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), androgen receptor, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, fatty acid synthesis, fatty acid bing protein 4, liver X receptor {alpha} (LXR{alpha}) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase were up-regulated by PBZ exposure. These results indicated that triazole-containing fungicides might affect the metabolism and health of fish via the multi-signal pathways of nuclear receptors such as PPARs and LXR.

  18. The use of rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus as a sentinel species to assess petroleum hydrocarbons pollution: A case study in Quanzhou Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Jun; Zheng, Ronghui; Kuang, Weiming; Hong, Fukun; Xie, Qing; Zhang, Yusheng

    2017-11-30

    To monitor the biological effects of marine pollution, choosing a native fish species and establishing suitable biomarkers are required. In this study, the full-length cDNA of cyp1a1 was cloned from Sebastiscus marmoratus (SM-CYP1A1). Then the dose-response and time-course induction of hepatic CYP1A1 mRNA by the crude oil water-soluble fraction (WSF) were determined. Subsequently, SM-CYP1A1 mRNA was applied to investigate the biological effect of petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in Quanzhou Bay, China. The transcription levels of hepatic CYP1A1 were significantly elevated in fish caged in the polluted sites for 2weeks compared with those of the reference site, which were correlated with the concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in the surface seawaters. The results suggest that S. marmoratus is a potential sentinel organism to monitor marine pollutants and the hepatic CYP1A1 mRNA can serve as a sensitive biomarker to organic xenobiotics in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in marbled water frog Telmatobius marmoratus: first record from Lake Titicaca, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossel, John; Lindquist, Erik; Craig, Heather; Luthman, Kyle

    2014-11-13

    The pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been associated with amphibian declines worldwide but has not been well-studied among Critically Endangered amphibian species in Bolivia. We sampled free-living marbled water frogs Telmatobius marmoratus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Isla del Sol, Bolivia, for Bd using skin swabs and quantitative polymerase chain reactions. We detected Bd on 44% of T. marmoratus sampled. This is the first record of Bd in amphibians from waters associated with Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. These results further confirm the presence of Bd in Bolivia and substantiate the potential threat of this pathogen to the Critically Endangered, sympatric Titicaca water frog T. culeus and other Andean amphibians.

  20. The Use of "Kryptolebias marmoratus" Eggs as an Educational Tool for Embryology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genade, Tyrone

    2016-01-01

    Plastic embryological models lack the excitement of seeing real, live embryos. Chick embryos are often used to demonstrate embryological development and blood circulation to students but this necessitates the death of the organism. "Kryptolebias marmoratus" embryos are large and can be viewed by means of a light microscope without need…

  1. Effects of benzo(a)pyrene on the skeletal development of Sebastiscus marmoratus embryos and the molecular mechanism involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chengyong; Zuo Zhenghong; Shi Xiao; Li Ruixia; Chen Donglei; Huang Xin; Chen Yixin; Wang Chonggang

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental contaminants, which have been known to be carcinogenic and teratogenic. However, the skeletal development toxicity of PAHs and the mechanism involved remain unclear. In fishes, the neurocranial and craniofacial skeleton develop as cartilage. The signaling molecules of hedgehog (Hh) family play crucial roles in regulating skeletal development. In the present study, rockfish (Sebastiscus marmoratus) embryos were exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) for 7 days at environmental levels (0.05, 0.5 and 5 nmol/L) which resulted in craniofacial skeleton deformities. BaP exposure reduced the cell proliferation activity in the craniofacial skeleton as detected by quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization. The expression of Sonic hedgehog (Shh), rather than Indian hedgehog (Ihh), was down-regulated in the craniofacial skeleton in the 0.5 and 5 nmol/L groups. Consistent with the Shh results, the expression of Ptch1 and Gli2 was decreased by BaP exposure and BMP4 was presented on changes in the 0.5 and 5 nmol/L groups. These results suggested that BaP could impair the expression and function of Shh signaling pathway, perturbing the proliferation of chondrocytes and so disturbing craniofacial skeletal development.

  2. Effects of benzo(a)pyrene on the skeletal development of Sebastiscus marmoratus embryos and the molecular mechanism involved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Chengyong [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Subtropical Wetland Ecosystem Research, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Zuo Zhenghong [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Subtropical Wetland Ecosystem Research, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Shi Xiao; Li Ruixia; Chen Donglei; Huang Xin; Chen Yixin [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Subtropical Wetland Ecosystem Research, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Wang Chonggang, E-mail: cgwang@xmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Subtropical Wetland Ecosystem Research, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China)

    2011-01-25

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental contaminants, which have been known to be carcinogenic and teratogenic. However, the skeletal development toxicity of PAHs and the mechanism involved remain unclear. In fishes, the neurocranial and craniofacial skeleton develop as cartilage. The signaling molecules of hedgehog (Hh) family play crucial roles in regulating skeletal development. In the present study, rockfish (Sebastiscus marmoratus) embryos were exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) for 7 days at environmental levels (0.05, 0.5 and 5 nmol/L) which resulted in craniofacial skeleton deformities. BaP exposure reduced the cell proliferation activity in the craniofacial skeleton as detected by quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization. The expression of Sonic hedgehog (Shh), rather than Indian hedgehog (Ihh), was down-regulated in the craniofacial skeleton in the 0.5 and 5 nmol/L groups. Consistent with the Shh results, the expression of Ptch1 and Gli2 was decreased by BaP exposure and BMP4 was presented on changes in the 0.5 and 5 nmol/L groups. These results suggested that BaP could impair the expression and function of Shh signaling pathway, perturbing the proliferation of chondrocytes and so disturbing craniofacial skeletal development.

  3. [Dietary composition and food competition of six main fish species in rocky reef habitat off Gouqi Island].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Shou-Yu; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Zhao, Jing; Xu, Min; Lin, Jun

    2012-02-01

    Based on the monthly investigation data of fish resources in the rocky reef habitat off Gouqi Island from March 2009 to February 2010, this paper studied the dietary composition of three native fish species (Sebasticus marmoratus, Hexagrammos otakii and Hexagrammos agrammus) and three non-native fish species (Lateolabrax japonica, Nibea albiflora and Larimichthys polyactis). The analysis of gut content indicated that the main prey items of these six dominant fish species were Caprellidae, Gammaridea, juvenile S. marmoratus, Engraulis japonicas and Acetes chinensis and the dietary composition of each of the 6 fish species had obvious seasonal variation. There was an intense food competition between native species H. otakii and H. agrammus in autumn, between non-native species N. albiflora and L. polyactis in summer, between non-native species N. albiflora and native species S. marmoratus in autumn, and between non-native species N. albiflora and native species H. otakii in winter. It was suggested the non-native species N. albiflora was the key species in the food competition among the six dominant fish species in this rocky reef habitat, and thus the feeding behaviors of these six fish species could have definite effects on the resource capacity of juvenile S. marmoratus.

  4. Use of eugenol in Jundiá da Amazônia (Leiarius marmoratus: effects on sedation and evaluation hemogasometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claucia Aparecida Honorato

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate the use of eugenol as an anesthetic for jundiá da Amazônia (Leiarius marmoratus, measuring the time to anesthesia induction in different concentrações and their effects in gas exchange. The results were analyzed according to a completely randomized design (DIC with eight treatments (control, 10, 20, 40, 80, 120, 150, 200 mg L-1 of eugenol and ten repetitions. Time values of anesthetic induction and recovery, according to the level of eugenol underwent polynomial regression (p<0.05. The analysis of variance (ANOVA and averages were compared by Tukey test. Were determined the time of anesthesia and recovery. The parameters were analyzed blood glucose, pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2, concentration of bicarbonate (HCO-3, sodium (Na, potassium (K, calcium (Ca and chloride (Cl. The concentrations of 40 and 80 mg.L-1 of eugenol were the ones who presented time deep anesthesia induction of 59.5 ± 17.5 sec. and 58.4 ± 18.6 sec. respectively. The concentrations above 120 mg. L-¹ presented mortality. These fish subjected to different level of eugenol did not show changes in blood oxygen pressure (PaO2 and carbon dioxide (PaCO2. The fish when subjected to concentrations above 80 mg L-1 showed an increase of bicarbonate. The plasma glucose values showed significant elevation in response to the bath with anesthetic eugenol. The concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium and plasma protein remained constants indicating that the process of anesthesia was not long lasting enough to induce changes in the electrolyte balance. Within the conditions of this study, it can be concluded that eugenol is a suitable anesthetic for the silver. This product may be used at a concentration of 40 mg. L-1 without causing changes hemogasométrica.

  5. Nine co-localized cytochrome P450 genes of the CYP2N, CYP2AD, and CYP2P gene families in the mangrove killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus genome: Identification and expression in response to B[α]P, BPA, OP, and NP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Kim, Bo-Mi; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Kang, Hye-Min; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Kim, Il-Chan; Hwang, Un-Ki; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-06-01

    The CYP2 genes are the largest and most diverse cytochrome P450 (CYP) subfamily in vertebrates. We have identified nine co-localized CYP2 genes (∼55kb) in a new cluster in the genome of the highly resilient ecotoxicological fish model Kryptolebias marmoratus. Molecular characterization, temporal and tissue-specific expression pattern, and response to xenobiotics of these genes were examined. The CYP2 gene clusters were characterized and designated CYP2N22-23, CYP2AD12, and CYP2P16-20. Gene synteny analysis confirmed that the cluster in K. marmoratus is similar to that found in other teleost fishes, including zebrafish. A gene duplication event with diverged catalytic function was observed in CYP2AD12. Moreover, a high level of divergence in expression was observed among the co-localized genes. Phylogeny of the cluster suggested an orthologous relationship with similar genes in zebrafish and Japanese medaka. Gene expression analysis showed that CYP2P19 and CYP2N20 were consecutively expressed throughout embryonic development, whereas CYP2P18 was expressed in all adult tissues, suggesting that members of each CYP2 gene family have different physiological roles even though they are located in the same cluster. Among endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), benzo[α]pyrene (B[α]P) induced expression of CYP2N23, bisphenol A (BPA) induced CYP2P18 and CYP2P19, and 4-octylphenol (OP) induced CYP2AD12, but there was no significant response to 4-nonylphenol (NP), implying differential catalytic roles of the enzyme. In this paper, we identify and characterize a CYP2 gene cluster in the mangrove killifish K. marmoratus with differing catalytic roles toward EDCs. Our findings provide insights on the roles of nine co-localized CYP2 genes and their catalytic functions for better understanding of chemical-biological interactions in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cloning and characterization of 29 tetranucleotide and two dinucleotide polymorphic microsatellite loci from the endangered marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rew, MB; Peery, MZ; Beissinger, Steven R.; Berube, M; Lozier, JD; Rubidge, EM; Palsboll, PJ

    We developed 31 novel, polymorphic microsatellite loci in the marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus), a critically endangered seabird. Variability was tested on 15 individuals from the Santa Cruz, California population, with each locus characterized by two to 12 alleles. Observed levels of

  7. Status review of the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in Alaska and British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, John F.; Kuletz, K.J.; Burger, A.E.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Friesen, Vicki L.; Birt, T.P.; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Drew, G.S.; Harding, A.M.A.; Bixler, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    The Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) is a small, diving seabird inhabiting inshore waters of the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. This species feeds on small, schooling fishes and zooplankton, and nests primarily on the moss-covered branches of large, old-growth conifers, and also, in some parts of its range, on the ground. We reviewed existing information on this species to evaluate its current status in the northern part of its range-Alaska (U.S.) and British Columbia (Canada). Within the southern part of its range (Washington, Oregon, and California, U.S.), the Marbled Murrelet was listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1993, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) needed information on the species throughout its range for ESA deliberations. We compiled published information on the conservation status, population biology, foraging ecology, population genetics, population status and trends, demography, marine and nesting habitat characteristics, threats, and ongoing conservation efforts for Marbled Murrelets in Alaska and British Columbia. We conducted a new genetic study using samples from a segment of the range that had not been included in previous studies (Washington, Oregon) and additional nuclear intron and microsatellite markers. We also analyzed available at-sea survey data from several locations for trend. To understand the reasonableness of the empirical trend data, we developed demographic models incorporating stochasticity to discern what population trends were possible by chance. The genetic studies substantially confirmed previous findings on population structure in the Marbled Murrelet. Our present work finds three populations: (1) one comprising birds in the central and western Aleutian Islands; (2) one comprising birds in central California; and (3) one comprising birds within the center of the range from the eastern Aleutians to northern California. Our knowledge of genetic structure within this

  8. Oxygen drives skeletal muscle remodeling in an amphibious fish out of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Giulia S; Turko, Andy J; Wright, Patricia A

    2018-04-24

    Skeletal muscle remodeling in response to terrestrial acclimation improves the locomotor performance of some amphibious fishes on land, but the cue for this remodeling is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that muscle remodeling in the amphibious Kryptolebias marmoratus on land is driven by higher O 2 availability in atmospheric air, and the alternative hypothesis that remodeling is induced by a different environmental or physiological condition fish experience on land. Fish were acclimated to 28 days of air, aquatic hyperoxia, hypercapnia, hypoxia, elevated temperature, or fasting conditions. Air, fasting, and hyperoxic conditions increased (>25%) the size of oxidative fibers in K. marmoratus while hypoxia had the reverse effect (23% decrease). Surprisingly, hyperoxia-acclimation also resulted in a transformation of the musculature to include large bands of oxidative-like muscle. Our results show that K. marmoratus is highly responsive to environmental O 2 levels and capitalize on O 2 -rich opportunities to enhance O 2 utilization by skeletal muscle. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Genetic architecture of the marbled goby Pomatoschistus marmoratus (Perciformes, Gobiidae) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejri, Randa; Arculeo, Marco; Hassine, Oum Kalthoum Ben; Brutto, Sabrina Lo

    2011-02-01

    The marbled goby Pomatoschistus marmoratus, a species inhabiting coastal Mediterranean lagoons, has been studied by measuring its mitochondrial DNA variation. This analysis revealed a Mediterranean west vs east split and, subsequently, an eastern differentiation among the Libyan-Tunisian Gulf, the Adriatic Sea and the Aegean Sea. The high cohesion between the samples collected in the vast area of western Mediterranean contrasts with the genetic mosaic of the more sub-structured eastern Mediterranean. This western homogeneity can not yet be fully explained even if a human-mediated migratory flow, due to a maritime traffic, has been posited. The pattern in the eastern basin revealed a genetic architecture possibly due to the non-migratory habit of the gobid. Within this perspective, the role of the Mediterranean lagoon habitat should be related to how much it amplifies the effects of historical (e.g. past sea-level changes) and environmental (e.g. present-day hydrographic regime) processes as regards the genetic structure of the inhabiting species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Amended diagnosis and redescription of Pristimantis marmoratus (Boulenger, 1900 (Amphibia: Craugastoridae, with a description of its advertisement call and notes on its breeding ecology and phylogenetic relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe J.R. Kok

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The frog Pristimantis marmoratus was originally described as Hylodes marmoratus by George A. Boulenger in 1900 based on a single specimen reported to have been collected at the foot of Mount Roraima in Guyana in 1898. We herein discuss the exact location of the type locality of P. marmoratus and provide a redescription of the species based on new material from Kaieteur National Park and from the slopes of Maringma-tepui in Guyana. We also describe the previously unknown vocalization and breeding ecology of the species, and conducted an exploratory molecular analysis of the phylogenetic relationships within the genus Pristimantis represented by the members of the “unistrigatus species group” in the Guiana Shield. Pristimantis marmoratus is a small-sized species mainly distinguished from its known Guiana Shield congeners by the combination of F I < II, SVL ≤ 20.4 in males, presence of vocal slits in males, granular/pustulate dorsal skin with well-developed scapular ridges, basal webbing between fingers, fringes on fingers and toes, crossed iris, diffuse yellow or pale green wash on groin, and absence of flashy colour on axillary/pre-axillary region. The advertisement call consists of a single note repeated at a rate of ca 11 calls/min with a dominant frequency ranging from 2756 to 3101 Hz. Pristimantis marmoratus is primarily arboreal, exclusively active at dusk, and probably restricted to the pristine rainforests of the Pantepui uplands and highlands, east of the Gran Sabana between ca 600 and 1800 m above sea level. Preliminary molecular analyses recovered Pristimantis marmoratus as sister to an unnamed species from the Eastern Guiana Shield. On grounds of the newly established distributional extent we suggest maintaining the IUCN conservation status as Least Concern.

  11. Testing the effectiveness of automated acoustic sensors for monitoring vocal activity of Marbled Murrelets Brachyramphus marmoratus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragg, Jenna L.; Burger, Alan E.; Piatt, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Cryptic nest sites and secretive breeding behavior make population estimates and monitoring of Marbled Murrelets Brachyramphus marmoratus difficult and expensive. Standard audio-visual and radar protocols have been refined but require intensive field time by trained personnel. We examined the detection range of automated sound recorders (Song Meters; Wildlife Acoustics Inc.) and the reliability of automated recognition models (“recognizers”) for identifying and quantifying Marbled Murrelet vocalizations during the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons at Kodiak Island, Alaska. The detection range of murrelet calls by Song Meters was estimated to be 60 m. Recognizers detected 20 632 murrelet calls (keer and keheer) from a sample of 268 h of recordings, yielding 5 870 call series, which compared favorably with human scanning of spectrograms (on average detecting 95% of the number of call series identified by a human observer, but not necessarily the same call series). The false-negative rate (percentage of murrelet call series that the recognizers failed to detect) was 32%, mainly involving weak calls and short call series. False-positives (other sounds included by recognizers as murrelet calls) were primarily due to complex songs of other bird species, wind and rain. False-positives were lower in forest nesting habitat (48%) and highest in shrubby vegetation where calls of other birds were common (97%–99%). Acoustic recorders tracked spatial and seasonal trends in vocal activity, with higher call detections in high-quality forested habitat and during late July/early August. Automated acoustic monitoring of Marbled Murrelet calls could provide cost-effective, valuable information for assessing habitat use and temporal and spatial trends in nesting activity; reliability is dependent on careful placement of sensors to minimize false-positives and on prudent application of digital recognizers with visual checking of spectrograms.

  12. Modeling marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) habitat using LiDAR-derived canopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan C.; Eskelson, Bianca N.I.; Haggerty, Patricia K.; Nelson, S. Kim; Vesely, David G.

    2014-01-01

    LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) is an emerging remote-sensing tool that can provide fine-scale data describing vertical complexity of vegetation relevant to species that are responsive to forest structure. We used LiDAR data to estimate occupancy probability for the federally threatened marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in the Oregon Coast Range of the United States. Our goal was to address the need identified in the Recovery Plan for a more accurate estimate of the availability of nesting habitat by developing occupancy maps based on refined measures of nest-strand structure. We used murrelet occupancy data collected by the Bureau of Land Management Coos Bay District, and canopy metrics calculated from discrete return airborne LiDAR data, to fit a logistic regression model predicting the probability of occupancy. Our final model for stand-level occupancy included distance to coast, and 5 LiDAR-derived variables describing canopy structure. With an area under the curve value (AUC) of 0.74, this model had acceptable discrimination and fair agreement (Cohen's κ = 0.24), especially considering that all sites in our sample were regarded by managers as potential habitat. The LiDAR model provided better discrimination between occupied and unoccupied sites than did a model using variables derived from Gradient Nearest Neighbor maps that were previously reported as important predictors of murrelet occupancy (AUC = 0.64, κ = 0.12). We also evaluated LiDAR metrics at 11 known murrelet nest sites. Two LiDAR-derived variables accurately discriminated nest sites from random sites (average AUC = 0.91). LiDAR provided a means of quantifying 3-dimensional canopy structure with variables that are ecologically relevant to murrelet nesting habitat, and have not been as accurately quantified by other mensuration methods.

  13. Morphological differences in the skin of marble trout Salmo marmoratus and of brown trout Salmo trutta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Sivka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite being genetically very closely related, the marble trout Salmo marmoratus and the brown trout Salmo trutta exhibit marked phenotypic differences, particularly with regard to skin pigmentation. Histological analysis of skin from the head and gill cover of differently aged individuals of the two species was carried out in order to characterize differences in skin structure. The basic structure of skin of the individuals studied corresponded with that described for other salmonids, though the head epidermis was somewhat thicker in S. marmoratus than in S. trutta, thickening with age in both species. Numerous secretory goblet cells and sporadic secretory sacciform cells were observed in the upper and middle part of the epidermis in both species. Melanophores were present in both species only in the dermis, and were bigger in S. marmoratus and present at lower average density than in S. trutta, and more or less constant across all age classes. In adult S. marmoratus with fully established marble pigmentation, light areas at low density with small (i.e. aggregated melanophores were present, while in S. trutta melanophores were more uniformly distributed.

  14. La dieta y fauna de endoparásitos del pejesapo Gobiesox marmoratus Jenyns, 1842 (Pisces: Gobiesocidae en el litoral central de Chile están conectadas pero no correlacionadas Feeding habits and endoparasite fauna of the clingfish Gobiesox marmoratus Jenyns, 1842 (Pisces: Gobiesocidae on the central coast of Chile are intertwined, but not correlated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cecilia Pardo-Gandarillas

    2004-12-01

    similarity is documented in the composition of the endoparasitic fauna and the diet of the clingfish G. marmoratus Jenyns, 1842, between three localities off the central coast of Chile separated about 400 km from their nearest neighbor(s. Clingfish in the samples were similar between localities in total body length. The parasite fauna was composed by 16 metazoan taxa (including five Myxozoa. Parasites were found in 38.8 % of the 108 clingfish examined, whereas 32.4 % of the fish in the samples had stomach contents, where 37 prey items were recognized. The even rarer cases of co-occurrence of parasites and prey impeded the search of correlations between both type of variables, such as that between the dietary width and parasite richness. Composition of parasite infracommunities and diet changed along host ontogeny. The diet of juvenile and adult clingfish consisted mainly of amphipods, decapod crustaceans and mollusks at the three localities. The numerical descriptors of the diet and of infracommunities (total abundance, diversity and richness are similar between the localities and along the host ontogeny. The composition of the endoparasitic fauna necessarily depends on the diet of the clingfish, but there is no statistical correlation between both variables. This can be due to the small maximum body size reached by the adults, to the short length of the digestive tract, to the differences in the rate and frequency at which parasites and prey enter and stay in the hosts, to the level of taxonomic resolution attained in prey and/or parasites, and to having decided to include or not rare prey/parasites in the analyses

  15. Ready for a fight? The physiological effects of detecting an opponent's pheromone cues prior to a contest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mark J; Williams, John; Sinderman, Benjamin; Earley, Ryan L

    2015-10-01

    Reception of pheromone cues can elicit significant physiological (e.g. steroid hormone levels) changes in the recipient. These pheromone-induced physiological changes have been well documented for male-female interactions, but scarcely in same-sex interactions (male-male and female-female). We sought to address this dearth in the current literature and examine whether mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus) could detect and, ultimately, mount a physiological response to the pheromone signature of a potential, same-sex competitor. We examined steroid hormone levels in mangrove rivulus exposed to one of three treatments: 1) isolation, 2) exposure to pheromones of a size-matched partner, and 3) pheromone exposure to a size-matched opponent followed by a physical encounter with the opponent. We found that exposure to a competitor's pheromone cues elicited a significant increase in testosterone levels. Increases in testosterone were similar across genetically distinct lineages derived from geographically distinct populations. Further, testosterone levels were similar between individuals only exposed to pheromone cues and individuals exposed to both pheromone cues and a subsequent physical encounter. Our findings led us to generate a number of testable predictions regarding how mangrove rivulus utilize pheromone signals in social interactions, the molecular mechanisms linking social stimuli and hormonal responses, and the possible adaptive benefits of hormonal responsiveness to receiving a potential competitor's pheromone cues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Status Review of the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in Alaska and British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    provincial government for a range of values including wildlife, biodiversity, soils , visual quality, water, and fish, all of which may contribute in part to...murrelet at or near its nest site on Storey Island in Prince William Sound. Based on damaged eggshells remaining in failed nests, Naslund and others...Egg or eggshell fragments found 7 2 0 1 Records where information on forest cover was available General cover type Area was forested 4 5 1 9 Not

  17. Place learning prior to and after telencephalon ablation in bamboo and coral cat sharks (Chiloscyllium griseum and Atelomycterus marmoratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Theodora; Bleckmann, Horst; Schluessel, Vera

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed complex spatial learning and memory in two species of shark, the grey bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium griseum) and the coral cat shark (Atelomycterus marmoratus). It was hypothesized that sharks can learn and apply an allocentric orientation strategy. Eight out of ten sharks successfully completed the initial training phase (by locating a fixed goal position in a diamond maze from two possible start points) within 14.9 ± 7.6 sessions and proceeded to seven sets of transfer tests, in which sharks had to perform under altered environmental conditions. Transfer tests revealed that sharks had oriented and solved the tasks visually, using all of the provided environmental cues. Unintentional cueing did not occur. Results correspond to earlier studies on spatial memory and cognitive mapping in other vertebrates. Future experiments should investigate whether sharks possess a cognitive spatial mapping system as has already been found in several teleosts and stingrays. Following the completion of transfer tests, sharks were subjected to ablation of most of the pallium, which compromised their previously acquired place learning abilities. These results indicate that the telencephalon plays a crucial role in the processing of information on place learning and allocentric orientation strategies.

  18. Historical considerations and comments on the type series of Cyrtodactylus marmoratus Gray, 1831, with an updated comparative table for the bent-toed geckos of the Sunda Islands and Sulawesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecke, Sven; Kieckbusch, Max; Hartmann, Lukas; Kaiser, Hinrich

    2016-10-17

    Cyrtodactylus marmoratus Gray, 1831, a species of bent-toed gecko exhibiting a precloacal groove in males, was described on the basis of specimens collected by Heinrich Kuhl and Johan Conrad van Hasselt in Java, Greater Sunda Islands, Indonesia. Kluge (1985) subsequently designated a lectotype for C. marmoratus from a series of these specimens (i.e., syntypes), now housed in the herpetological collection at Naturalis (formerly the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie; RMNH), Leiden, the Netherlands. Our work at Naturalis shows that the type series of C. marmoratus at RMNH actually comprises two sets of specimens, and that examination of specimens from one set or the other by different authors, including Kluge (1985), is responsible for some confusion surrounding the type series of this species. As a consequence, we present relevant morphological data for all 14 specimens constituting the type series of C. marmoratus at RMNH for the first time. The type status of two specimens of C. marmoratus in the collection at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France, remains unresolved at present. Owing to the inconsistent naming and application of terms for some key characters (e.g., groove, sulcus, pit, hollow, depression) used in the diagnoses of Cyrtodactylus species, we here propose a set of novel and useful definitions that are supported by photographs. We also illustrate the sexually dimorphic expression of this character in C. marmoratus. Finally, we present a revised comparative table for the bent-toad geckos of the Sunda Islands and Sulawesi.

  19. Bioaccumulation of sodium alkyl sulfate zinc chloride and their mixture in young goby proterorhinus marmoratus pall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topcuoglu, S.; Birol, E. (Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul (Turkey))

    1982-12-01

    The bioaccumulation of labelled surfactant, 35S-labelled sodium lauryl sulfate and 65Zn-labelled zinc chloride, was investigated both as a mixture and alone by themselves in young goby. The concentration factor of 7.15 was calculated for the surfactant in the whole-body fish and there was no effect of zinc chloride on this bioaccumulation process. Biological half-life of the surfactant was around 35 hours. The effects of surfactants on the zinc accumulation were also followed under the same conditions. The results indicated that the sodium lauryl sulfate had no effect on the accumulation of zinc, however, the other surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, caused a significant increase in the zinc accumulation in comparison with the control group, during the uptake period.

  20. Bioaccumulation of sodium alkyl sulfate zinc chloride and their mixture in young goby proterorhinus marmoratus pall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcuoglu, S.; Birol, E.

    1982-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of labelled surfactant, 35S-labelled sodium lauryl sulfate and 65Zn-labelled zinc chloride, was investigated both as a mixture and alone by themselves in young goby. The concentration factor of 7.15 was calculated for the surfactant in the whole-body fish and there was no effect of zinc chloride on this bioaccumulation process. Biological half-life of the surfactant was around 35 hours. The effects of surfactants on the zinc accumulation were also followed under the same conditions. The results indicated that the sodium lauryl sulfate had no effect on the accumulation of zinc, however, the other surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, caused a significant increase in the zinc accumulation in comparison with the control group, during the uptake period. (author)

  1. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cause Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Fish Allergy Fish Allergy Learn about fish allergy, how to read ... that you must avoid both. Allergic Reactions to Fish Finned fish can cause severe and potentially life- ...

  2. Skeletal stiffening in an amphibious fish out of water is a response to increased body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turko, Andy J; Kültz, Dietmar; Fudge, Douglas; Croll, Roger P; Smith, Frank M; Stoyek, Matthew R; Wright, Patricia A

    2017-10-15

    Terrestrial animals must support their bodies against gravity, while aquatic animals are effectively weightless because of buoyant support from water. Given this evolutionary history of minimal gravitational loading of fishes in water, it has been hypothesized that weight-responsive musculoskeletal systems evolved during the tetrapod invasion of land and are thus absent in fishes. Amphibious fishes, however, experience increased effective weight when out of water - are these fishes responsive to gravitational loading? Contrary to the tetrapod-origin hypothesis, we found that terrestrial acclimation reversibly increased gill arch stiffness (∼60% increase) in the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus when loaded normally by gravity, but not under simulated microgravity. Quantitative proteomics analysis revealed that this change in mechanical properties occurred via increased abundance of proteins responsible for bone mineralization in other fishes as well as in tetrapods. Type X collagen, associated with endochondral bone growth, increased in abundance almost ninefold after terrestrial acclimation. Collagen isoforms known to promote extracellular matrix cross-linking and cause tissue stiffening, such as types IX and XII collagen, also increased in abundance. Finally, more densely packed collagen fibrils in both gill arches and filaments were observed microscopically in terrestrially acclimated fish. Our results demonstrate that the mechanical properties of the fish musculoskeletal system can be fine-tuned in response to changes in effective body weight using biochemical pathways similar to those in mammals, suggesting that weight sensing is an ancestral vertebrate trait rather than a tetrapod innovation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. (Hyperolius marmoratus) populations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How far can reed frogs migrate and maintain gene- flow when bced by barriers of unsuitable habitat and sepa- rated by considerable geographical distances? ..... IAGEID. S.S. 1994. Lb:tropllOn:tic and morphometric cviucl1(;c for t\\\\O species of the genus Hana (Amphibia, Ranidae) and sum oftheir vari

  4. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fish Allergy KidsHealth / For Parents / Fish Allergy What's in this ... Print en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the same ...

  5. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... symptoms are linked to the presence of IgE-antibodies recognizing parvalbumin, the fish panallergen. This view was challenged by results from recent studies as follows. 1. Allergic reactions which are limited to single or several fish species (mono-or oligosensitisations) apply not only to single cases...... but patients with this phenotype constitute an important sub-group among fish-allergic individuals. 2. Newly identified fish allergens, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, are of high relevance as the majority of the fish-allergic individuals seem to develop specific IgE against these proteins. The present...

  6. Comparison of metallothionein concentrations and tissue distribution of trace metals in crabs (Pachygrapsus marmoratus) from a metal-rich estuary, in and out of the reproductive season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouneyrac, C; Amiard-Triquet, C; Amiard, J C; Rainbow, P S

    2001-07-01

    Crabs, Pachygrapsus marmoratus, were sampled in June 1997 and February 1998 from two sites (at the mouth and 25 km upstream) in the metal-rich Gironde estuary, France. Gills and hepatopancreas were analysed for metal (Cd, Cu, Zn) and metallothionein (MT) contents, in order to examine the influence of both biological and environmental factors on the physico-chemical forms of detoxified metal storage in the crabs. The concentrations of MT and both cytosolic and insoluble metals were not greatly different between males and females, and the influence of organ weights was also minimal. Intersite differences were observed, probably resulting from the gradient of salinity in the estuary, which interacts with both the chemical speciation and bioavailability of metals, and the general protein metabolism of the crabs. Seasonal changes were also important, probably in interaction with the moult and reproductive cycles. In February, concentrations of insoluble metals were generally higher than in June, in both organs, suggesting that essential metals, particularly Zn, are stored during winter then remobilised during the breeding season. The natural variability in the concentrations of MT often concealed any relationship with accumulated metal concentrations. Thus MT in crabs cannot be considered as a useful biomarker of metal pollution.

  7. Multitasking in an eye: the unusual organization of the Thermonectus marmoratus principal larval eyes allows for far and near vision and might aid in depth perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowasser, Annette; Buschbeck, Elke K

    2014-07-15

    Very few visual systems diverge fundamentally from the basic plans of well-studied animal eyes. However, investigating those that do can provide novel insights into visual system function. A particularly unusual system exists in the principal larval eyes of a visually guided aquatic predator, the sunburst diving beetle, Thermonectus marmoratus (Coleoptera: Dystiscidae). These eyes are characterized by complex layered distal and proximal retinas. We previously reported that their principal eye E2 has a bifocal lens, and previous behavioral experiments suggested that these larvae have a unilateral range-finding mechanism that may involve their bizarre eye organization. In the present study, we expanded our optical measurements and found that: (1) E1 also has a bifocal lens, (2) E1 is best suited for far vision while E2 is best suited for near vision and (3) throughout their typical hunting range, the positions of focused images shift across specific retinal layers. This anatomical and optical organization in principle could support unilateral range finding. Taken together, our findings outline an unusual visual mechanism that is likely to be essential for the extraordinary hunting ability of these larvae. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Biology and ecomorphology of stream fishes from the rio Mogi-Guaçu basin, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiane M. Ferreira

    Full Text Available The córrego Paulicéia is a direct tributary of the rio Mogi-Guaçu, located in Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. This stream runs inside a savannah-like (cerrado environment and it associated vegetation. Biological and ecomorphological aspects of its fish community were studied in three stretches of the stream, denominated herein as the upper, middle and lower courses. The fish fauna recorded in this study consisted of 15 species, belonging to five orders and nine families, based in a total of 715 collected individuals representing 1,450 kg of biomass. The most important abiotic factors related to the occurrence and distribution of the fish fauna were the substrate, current speed, and presence or absence of riparian vegetation. The analysis of 336 stomach contents of 13 species demonstrated that 65% of food items are autochthonous, 32% allochthonous, and 3% are of unknown origin. Four alimentary guilds could be identified, based on the predominant food items: omnivores with tendency to insectivory - Astyanax paranae, A. fasciatus and Piabina argentea; larvivores - Corydoras difluviatilis, Cetopsorhamdia iheringi, Phenacorhamdia tenebrosa, Characidium gomesi, Eigenmannia virescens, and Rhamdia quelen; periphyton feeders - Hisonotus sp., Hypostomus ancistroides and Synbranchus marmoratus; and piscivore - Hoplias malabaricus. Reproductions data are presented for Astyanax altiparanae and Hisontus sp. Three ecomorphological groups could be established, based on swimming, feeding, and microhabitat strategies: nektonic (A. fasciatus, A. paranae, Bryconamericus stramineus, P. argentea, H. malabaricus and Phallotorynus jucundus, benthic (C. gomesi, P. tenebrosa, C. iheringi, R. quelen, C. difluviatilis, H. ancistroides and Hisonotus sp., and necktobenthic (E. virescens and S. marmoratus.

  9. Fish Rhabdoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, G.; Winton, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many important viral pathogens of fish are members of the family Rhabdoviridae. The viruses in this large group cause significant losses in populations of wild fish as well as among fish reared in aquaculture. Fish rhabdoviruses often have a wide host and geographic range, and infect aquatic animals in both freshwater and seawater. The fish rhabdoviruses comprise a diverse collection of isolates that can be placed in one of two quite different groups: isolates that are members of the established genusNovirhabdovirus, and those that are most similar to members of the genus Vesiculovirus. Because the diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses are important to aquaculture, diagnostic methods for their detection and identification are well established. In addition to regulations designed to reduce the spread of fish viruses, a significant body of research has addressed methods for the control or prevention of diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses, including vaccination. The number of reported fish rhabdoviruses continues to grow as a result of the expansion of aquaculture, the increase in global trade, the development of improved diagnostic methods, and heightened surveillance activities. Fish rhabdoviruses serve as useful components of model systems to study vertebrate virus disease, epidemiology, and immunology.

  10. Fish health and fish quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    Aquaculture is an expanding worldwide industry producing an increasing amount of fish every year. The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon many biological and non-biological factors. Infectious diseases are known to cause bleedings and damage of the muscle tissue that may lead to scarring...... are poorly described in fish. The present work in this thesis focused on: 1) examination of potential changes in the quality regarding texture of the muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after previous infection with the bacterial pathogens Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum; 2...... of these studies showed that previous infections by Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum gave rise to subsequent changes regarding textural quality parameters in fresh fish meat, while no differences were seen for cold-smoked meat from the same fish. The texture in previous infected fish was less flaky and less...

  11. Environmental and organismal predictors of intraspecific variation in the stoichiometry of a neotropical freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabaawi, Rana W; Kohler, Tyler J; Zandoná, Eugenia; Travis, Joseph; Marshall, Michael C; Thomas, Steven A; Reznick, David N; Walsh, Matthew; Gilliam, James F; Pringle, Catherine; Flecker, Alexander S

    2012-01-01

    The elemental composition of animals, or their organismal stoichiometry, is thought to constrain their contribution to nutrient recycling, their interactions with other animals, and their demographic rates. Factors that affect organismal stoichiometry are generally poorly understood, but likely reflect elemental investments in morphological features and life history traits, acting in concert with the environmental availability of elements. We assessed the relative contribution of organismal traits and environmental variability to the stoichiometry of an insectivorous Neotropical stream fish, Rivulus hartii. We characterized the influence of body size, life history phenotype, stage of maturity, and environmental variability on organismal stoichiometry in 6 streams that differ in a broad suite of environmental variables. The elemental composition of R. hartii was variable, and overlapped with the wide range of elemental composition documented across freshwater fish taxa. Average %P composition was ∼3.2%(±0.6), average %N∼10.7%(±0.9), and average %C∼41.7%(±3.1). Streams were the strongest predictor of organismal stoichiometry, and explained up to 18% of the overall variance. This effect appeared to be largely explained by variability in quality of basal resources such as epilithon N:P and benthic organic matter C:N, along with variability in invertebrate standing stocks, an important food source for R. hartii. Organismal traits were weak predictors of organismal stoichiometry in this species, explaining when combined up to 7% of the overall variance in stoichiometry. Body size was significantly and positively correlated with %P, and negatively with N:P, and C:P, and life history phenotype was significantly correlated with %C, %P, C:P and C:N. Our study suggests that spatial variability in elemental availability is more strongly correlated with organismal stoichiometry than organismal traits, and suggests that the stoichiometry of carnivores may not be

  12. Environmental and organismal predictors of intraspecific variation in the stoichiometry of a neotropical freshwater fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana W El-Sabaawi

    Full Text Available The elemental composition of animals, or their organismal stoichiometry, is thought to constrain their contribution to nutrient recycling, their interactions with other animals, and their demographic rates. Factors that affect organismal stoichiometry are generally poorly understood, but likely reflect elemental investments in morphological features and life history traits, acting in concert with the environmental availability of elements. We assessed the relative contribution of organismal traits and environmental variability to the stoichiometry of an insectivorous Neotropical stream fish, Rivulus hartii. We characterized the influence of body size, life history phenotype, stage of maturity, and environmental variability on organismal stoichiometry in 6 streams that differ in a broad suite of environmental variables. The elemental composition of R. hartii was variable, and overlapped with the wide range of elemental composition documented across freshwater fish taxa. Average %P composition was ∼3.2%(±0.6, average %N∼10.7%(±0.9, and average %C∼41.7%(±3.1. Streams were the strongest predictor of organismal stoichiometry, and explained up to 18% of the overall variance. This effect appeared to be largely explained by variability in quality of basal resources such as epilithon N:P and benthic organic matter C:N, along with variability in invertebrate standing stocks, an important food source for R. hartii. Organismal traits were weak predictors of organismal stoichiometry in this species, explaining when combined up to 7% of the overall variance in stoichiometry. Body size was significantly and positively correlated with %P, and negatively with N:P, and C:P, and life history phenotype was significantly correlated with %C, %P, C:P and C:N. Our study suggests that spatial variability in elemental availability is more strongly correlated with organismal stoichiometry than organismal traits, and suggests that the stoichiometry of carnivores

  13. Fish pelleting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    fish meal pelletizing machine utilized 4kg of ingredients to produce 3.77kg pellets at an effi- ciency of .... Design and fabrication of fish meal pellet processing machine ... 53 ... horsepower for effective torque application on .... two edges were tacked with a spot weld to hold ... then welded on to the shaft making sure that the.

  14. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  15. Fish reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rocha, Maria João; Arukwe, Augustine; Kapoor, B. G

    2008-01-01

    ... of reproductive systems is essential for such studies. Fishes comprise over 28,000 species, with a remarkable variability in morphology, physiology and environmental adaptation. Knowledge on fish reproduction is scattered across numerous sources that shows a dynamic research field. The Editors believe it to be an opportune moment for a...

  16. Fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Daniel J.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Li, Hiram W.; Li, Judith; Hauer, F. Richard; Lamberti, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Methods to sample fishes in stream ecosystems and to analyze the raw data, focusing primarily on assemblage-level (all fish species combined) analyses, are presented in this chapter. We begin with guidance on sample site selection, permitting for fish collection, and information-gathering steps to be completed prior to conducting fieldwork. Basic sampling methods (visual surveying, electrofishing, and seining) are presented with specific instructions for estimating population sizes via visual, capture-recapture, and depletion surveys, in addition to new guidance on environmental DNA (eDNA) methods. Steps to process fish specimens in the field including the use of anesthesia and preservation of whole specimens or tissue samples (for genetic or stable isotope analysis) are also presented. Data analysis methods include characterization of size-structure within populations, estimation of species richness and diversity, and application of fish functional traits. We conclude with three advanced topics in assemblage-level analysis: multidimensional scaling (MDS), ecological networks, and loop analysis.

  17. Toxin gene determination and evolution in scorpaenoid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Po-Shun; Shiao, Jen-Chieh

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we determine the toxin genes from both cDNA and genomic DNA of four scorpaenoid fish and reconstruct their evolutionary relationship. The deduced protein sequences of the two toxin subunits in Sebastapistes strongia, Scorpaenopsis oxycephala, and Sebastiscus marmoratus are about 700 amino acid, similar to the sizes of the stonefish (Synanceia horrida, and Synanceia verrucosa) and lionfish (Pterois antennata and Pterois volitans) toxins previously published. The intron positions are highly conserved among these species, which indicate the applicability of gene finding by using genomic DNA template. The phylogenetic analysis shows that the two toxin subunits were duplicated prior to the speciation of Scorpaenoidei. The precedence of the gene duplication over speciation indicates that the toxin genes may be common to the whole family of Scorpaeniform. Furthermore, one additional toxin gene has been determined in the genomic DNA of Dendrochirus zebra. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that an additional gene duplication occurred before the speciation of the lionfish (Pteroinae) and a pseudogene may be generally present in the lineage of lionfish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fish fauna from Gârla Pasărea, a heavy modified former floodplain watercourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NĂVODARU Ion

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The “Gârla Pasarea” was a former flood plane watercourse in connection with Vedea River discharged in Danube River. The floodplane was embanked for agriculture polder, Vedea River was redirected to discharge direct into Danube River and Gârla Pasarea was cut in several sectors, connected through underground tubes. Fish fauna inventory of Gârla Pasarea was performed in august 2007, using for shallow water backpack electrofisher and deep large water by Nordic gillnets. The species richness includes 15 fish species with a gradient of increasing from upstream to downstream. The most frequent species (very abundant are two exotic respectively, Pseudorasbora parva and Carassius gibelio that survive in extreme condition. Four species are included in Annexes of Emergency Order of Romanian Govern No.57/2007, concerning regime of natural protected area,conservation of natural habitats and wild flora and fauna, respectively Aspius aspius, Cobitis danubialis (elangoides and Misgurnus fossilis are included in Annex 3 that need designate of Special Protected Area for conservation (SPA, andProterorhinus marmoratus (semilunaris is included in Annex 4B, for species of national interest that need strict protection. Recovering and conservation of fish fauna need ecological restoration based on rebuilding of longitudinal connectivity of Gârla Pasarea sectors, reconnect with Vedea River and lateral connectivity of Danube River with it former floodplane.

  19. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  20. Contest experience and body size affect different types of contest decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ju; Hsu, Yuying

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the relative importance of contest experience and size differences to behavioral decisions over the course of contests. Using a mangrove rivulus fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus, we showed that although contest experience and size differences jointly determined contest outcomes, they affected contestants' interactions at different stages of contests. Contest experience affected behavioral decisions at earlier stages of contests, including the tendency and latency to launch attacks, the tendency to escalate contests into mutual attacks and the outcome of non-escalated contests. Once contests were escalated into mutual attacks, the degree of size difference affected the fish's persistence in escalation and chance of winning, but contest experience did not. These results support the hypothesis that contest experience modifies individuals' estimation of their fighting ability rather than their actual strength. Furthermore, (1) in contests between two naïve contestants, more than 60 % of fish that were 2-3 mm smaller than their opponent escalated the contest to physical fights, even though their larger opponents eventually won 92 % of escalated fights and (2) fish with a losing experience were very likely to retreat in the face of an opponent 2-3 mm smaller than them without escalating. The result that a 2-3 mm size advantage could not offset the influence of a losing experience on the tendency to escalate suggests that, as well as depending on body size, the fish's physical strength is influenced by other factors which require further investigation.

  1. Alabama ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  2. Maryland ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data...

  3. Hawaii ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this data...

  4. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data...

  5. Louisiana ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and other...

  6. Fish fauna recovery in a newly re-flooded Mediterranean coastal lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrakis, Emmanuil; Sylaios, Georgios; Kamidis, Nikolaos; Markou, Dimitrios; Sapounidis, Argyris

    2009-08-01

    Drana Lagoon, located at the NW site of Evros River Delta, was drained in 1987 and re-flooded in 2004 within the framework of an integrated wetland restoration project. This study presents the results of a monitoring program of the lagoon's oceanographic, water quality and fish fauna characteristics, during the pre- and post-restoration period. Results depict the presence of high salinity water (up to 41) due to seawater intrusion, strong evaporation in its interior and inadequate freshwater inflows. Overall, nutrient levels were low depicting local changes. Tidal variability at the mouth was approximately 0.2 m, producing high velocity tidal currents (up to 0.75 m/s). Eleven fish fauna species were collected; seven species were caught in both the inlet channel and the lagoon during the pre-restoration period and nine species in the post-restoration period. Atherina boyeri (37.6%) and Pomatoschistus marmoratus (31.7%) dominated the lagoon during the post-restoration period. Most of the A. boyeri specimens (88.5%) were caught inside the lagoon, while P. marmoratus had an almost equal distribution in the inlet channel and the lagoon (56.3% and 43.7% respectively). The presence of species of the Mugilidae family (5.2% total average catches after lagoon re-flooding) was mainly in the inlet channel (12.6% of the average catches) and not inside the lagoon (only 1.3% of the average catches). The small number of fish species inhabiting the lagoon might be the result of the recent restoration or it could be related with the increased water flow observed at the lagoon mouth during the flood and ebb tidal phases, and also in the presence of a smooth bank in the concrete waterspout that connects the entrance channel with the lagoon. The limited presence of the Mugilidae juveniles inside the lagoon could be related to the prevailing tidal inlet dynamics (i.e. strong ebb flow at lagoon inlet), thus preventing the species to enter the lagoon. In order to restore the lagoon

  7. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  8. Do bacteria, not fish, produce 'fish kairomone'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.; Van Gool, E.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-associated chemicals enhance phototactic downward swimming in Daphnia. If perch were treated with the antibiotic ampicillin, this enhancement was significantly decreased. Therefore, not fish, but bacteria associated with fish, seem to produce this kairomone. [KEYWORDS: Diel vertical migration;

  9. Artificial barriers prevent genetic recovery of small isolated populations of a low-mobility freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R A; Gauffre, B; Pavlova, A; Beheregaray, L B; Kearns, J; Lyon, J; Sasaki, M; Leblois, R; Sgro, C; Sunnucks, P

    2018-01-12

    Habitat loss and fragmentation often result in small, isolated populations vulnerable to environmental disturbance and loss of genetic diversity. Low genetic diversity can increase extinction risk of small populations by elevating inbreeding and inbreeding depression, and reducing adaptive potential. Due to their linear nature and extensive use by humans, freshwater ecosystems are especially vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. Although the effects of fragmentation on genetic structure have been extensively studied in migratory fishes, they are less understood in low-mobility species. We estimated impacts of instream barriers on genetic structure and diversity of the low-mobility river blackfish (Gadopsis marmoratus) within five streams separated by weirs or dams constructed 45-120 years ago. We found evidence of small-scale (barriers, as expected for a fish with low mobility. Genetic diversity was lower above barriers in small streams only, regardless of barrier age. In particular, one isolated population showed evidence of a recent bottleneck and inbreeding. Differentiation above and below the barrier (F ST  = 0.13) was greatest in this stream, but in other streams did not differ from background levels. Spatially explicit simulations suggest that short-term barrier effects would not be detected with our data set unless effective population sizes were very small (barriers is reduced and requires more genetic markers compared to panmictic populations. We also demonstrate the importance of accounting for natural population genetic structure in fragmentation studies.

  10. Fish irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Tengumnuay, C.; Juangbhanich, C.

    1970-01-01

    Chub-mackerel was chosen for the study because they are the most common fish in Thailand. Preliminary investigations were conducted to determine the maximum radiation dose of gamma-rays by organoleptic tests. The samples were subjected to radiation at various doses up to 4 Mrad. Many experiments were conducted using other kinds of fish. The results showed that 1 Mrad would be the maximum acceptable dose for fish. Later, the influence of the radiation dose from 0.1-1 Mrad was studied in order to find the optimum acceptable dose for preservation of fish without off-flavour. For this purpose, the Hedonic scale was used. It was found that 0.2 and 0.5 Mrad gave the best result on Chub mackerel. The determinations of optimum dose, organoleptic, microbiological and trimethylamine content changes were done. The results showed that Chub mackerel irradiated at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 Mrad stored at 3 0 C for 71 days were still acceptable, on the contrary the untreated samples were found unacceptable at 14 days. The trimethylamine increment was significantly higher in the untreated samples. At 15 days storage, trimethylamine in the non-irradiated Chub-mackerel was about 10 times higher than the irradiated ones. At 51 and 79 days storage, about 13 times higher in the control samples than the irradiated samples except 0.1 Mrad. Only 2 times higher was found for the 0.1 Mrad. The microbiological results showed that the irradiation above 0.2 Mrad gave favorable extension of shelf-life of fish

  11. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...... biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram......- positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish...

  12. Fish gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fish Immunoglobulins

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Mashoof; Michael F. Criscitiello

    2016-01-01

    The B cell receptor and secreted antibody are at the nexus of humoral adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize what is known of the immunoglobulin genes of jawed cartilaginous and bony fishes. We focus on what has been learned from genomic or cDNA sequence data, but where appropriate draw upon protein, immunization, affinity and structural studies. Work from major aquatic model organisms and less studied comparative species are both included to define what is the rule for an immunoglob...

  14. Fish cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Bshary, Redouan; Brown, Culum

    2017-01-01

    The central nervous system, and the brain in particular, is one of the most remarkable products of evolution. This system allows an individual to acquire, process, store and act on information gathered from the environment. The resulting flexibility in behavior beyond genetically coded strategies is a prime adaptation in animals. The field of animal cognition examines the underlying processes and mechanisms. Fishes are a particularly interesting group of vertebrates to study cognition for two...

  15. Fish hemoglobins

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,P.C. de; Bonilla-Rodriguez,G.O.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta) and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemica...

  16. Fish hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  17. Fish Tales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-01-01

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not

  18. Fish Tales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical

  19. Fishing activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand; Puig, Pere; Martin, Jacobo; Micallef, Aaron; Krastel, Sebastian; Savini, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Unlike the major anthropogenic changes that terrestrial and coastal habitats underwent during the last centuries such as deforestation, river engineering, agricultural practices or urbanism, those occurring underwater are veiled from our eyes and have continued nearly unnoticed. Only recent advances in remote sensing and deep marine sampling technologies have revealed the extent and magnitude of the anthropogenic impacts to the seafloor. In particular, bottom trawling, a fishing technique consisting of dragging a net and fishing gear over the seafloor to capture bottom-dwelling living resources has gained attention among the scientific community, policy makers and the general public due to its destructive effects on the seabed. Trawling gear produces acute impacts on biota and the physical substratum of the seafloor by disrupting the sediment column structure, overturning boulders, resuspending sediments and imprinting deep scars on muddy bottoms. Also, the repetitive passage of trawling gear over the same areas creates long-lasting, cumulative impacts that modify the cohesiveness and texture of sediments. It can be asserted nowadays that due to its recurrence, mobility and wide geographical extent, industrial trawling has become a major force driving seafloor change and affecting not only its physical integrity on short spatial scales but also imprinting measurable modifications to the geomorphology of entire continental margins.

  20. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  1. Fish welfare: Fish capacity to experience pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Teleost fish possess similar nociceptive processing systems to those found in terrestrial vertebrates. It means that they react to potential painful stimuli in a similar manner as mammals and birds. However, the welfare of fish has been the focus of less research than that of higher vertebrates. Humans may affect the welfare of fish through fisheries, aquaculture and a number of other activities. There is scientific evidence to support the assumption that fish have the capacity to experience pain because they possess functional nociceptors, endogenous opioids and opioid receptors, brain structures involved in pain processing and pathways leading from nociceptors to higher brain structures. Also, it is well documented that some anaesthetics and analgesics may reduce nociceptive responses in fish. Behavioural indicators in fish such as lip-rubbing and rocking behaviours are the best proof that fish react to potential painful stimuli. This paper is an overview of some scientific evidence on fish capacity to experience pain.

  2. Fish for Feed vs Fish for Food

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Geoff L.

    2004-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food producing industry sector in the world. Demand for feed ingredients, particularly for preferred protein sources such as fishmeal, fish oil and ‘trash fish’, has also increased, raising questions about sustainability and uses of fish for aquaculture feeds or directly as human food. Approximately 30 million metric tonnes (MMT) of fish from capture fisheries are used each year to produce fishmeal and fish oil. The species used are not usually consumed dire...

  3. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, L; Huss, H H

    1996-11-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram-positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish is well understood, much less is known about spoilage of lightly preserved fish products. It is concluded that the spoilage is probably caused by lactic acid bacteria, certain psychotrophic Enterobacteriaceae and/or Photobacterium phosphoreum. However, more work is needed in this area.

  4. Fishing Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transplants

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Yunhan

    2011-01-01

    Fish has been the subject of various research fields, ranging from ecology, evolution, physiology and toxicology to aquaculture. In the past decades fish has attracted considerable attention for functional genomics, cancer biology and developmental genetics, in particular nuclear transfer for understanding of cytoplasmic-nuclear relationship. This special issue reports on recent progress made in fish stem cells and nuclear transfer.

  5. Determination of steroid hormones in fish tissues by microwave-assisted extraction coupled to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes-Alonso, Rayco; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2017-12-15

    Steroid hormones produce adverse effects on biota as well as bioaccumulation in fish and seafood, making it necessary to develop methodologies to evaluate these compounds in samples related to the food chain. This work presents an analytical method for evaluating 15 steroid hormones in fish tissue. It is based on microwave-assisted extraction and solid-phase extraction coupled to ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (MAE-SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS). The proposed method shows appropriate detection limits (0.14-49.0ngg -1 ), recoveries in the range of 50% and good repeatability. After optimization, the method was applied to different tissues from two small fishes of the Canary Islands that constitute an important level of the food web (Boops boops and Sphoeroides marmoratus) and were exposed to the outfall of the Las Palmas de Gran Canaria wastewater treatment plant. The concentrations of eight detected compounds ranged from below the quantification limits to 3.95μgg -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Changes in benthic fish assemblages as a consequence of coastal works in a coastal lagoon: The Mar Menor (Spain, Western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ruzafa, A; García-Charton, J A; Barcala, E; Marcos, C

    2006-01-01

    The benthic fish assemblage of the Mar Menor consisted of 37 species. Dominant species are: Gobius cobitis, Lipophrys pavo and Tripterygion tripteronotus on infralittoral rocks; Pomatoschistus marmoratus, Callionymus pussillus, Callionymus risso and Solea vulgaris on sandy bottoms and Gobius niger, Syngnathus abaster, Hippocampus ramulosus and Symphodus cinereus on Cymodocea nodosa-Caulerpa prolifera mixed beds. From 1985 to 1989 tourist development has led to the creation of new beaches and the installation of artificial rocky structures for retaining sediments. Dredging for the extraction of sand and subsequent pumping altered sediment characteristics causing a real stress leading to the substitution of typical sandy bottoms communities with Cymodocea nodosa by Caulerpa prolifera communities on mud. Soft bottom fish assemblages responded to changes in vegetation cover and substratum characteristics mainly changing the species composition, while artificial hard substrata contain a similar fish community than natural ones, harbouring even richer and more diverse assemblages. This positive effect of breakwaters should not obscure their likely negative effects on hydrodynamics and the subsequent changes of sediment quality and vegetation cover on the breakwaters' area of influence.

  7. Fish under exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, A.P.; Planas, J.V.

    2011-01-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish

  8. Meet the surrogate fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Bob; Neitzel, Duane; Moxon, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    This article gives details of the US Department of Energy's innovative research into the development of a sensor system that will work as a surrogate fish to provide information to aid the design of fish-friendly turbines for hydroelectric power plants. The selection of the dams for the testing of sensor fish, the release and recovery of the sensor fish, the recording of the physical forces exerted on fish as they pass through the turbines, and use of the information gathered to build more sensor fish are discussed. Fish investigations conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are briefly described. (UK)

  9. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  10. Three Kinds of Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2012-01-01

    There are three kinds of fish. Fish you were given, fish you bought and fish you lease. This might sound a bit odd, but it is nevertheless the basis for the activities of Danish commercial fishers since the introduction of transferable fishing concessions (TFCs) in 2007. In the current 2012 reform...... of market based systems are wild speculation, concentration and monopolization of fishing access and subsequent leasing with fishing communities and new entrants very likely being worse off (see for example the chapter “From fishing rights to financial derivatives” is this volume or Olson 2011; Sumaila 2010...... will examine five Danish fishing operations and discuss how they have reacted in different ways to the newly introduced system of transferable fishing concessions. By introducing TFCs as a solution to fleet overcapacity, the EU Commission will also be introducing a system where buying, selling and leasing...

  11. Hawaiian Fish Distributors Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is proprietary sales data from one Kona-based fish dealer for August 1986 to Decemeber 1988. Fishing was generally around Kona. This is Dealer Data and is...

  12. Pittsburgh Fish Fry Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Lenten Fish Fry records for the Greater Pittsburgh region. Data is collected before and during the Lenten fish fry season each year by Code for Pittsburgh. Data is...

  13. Fishing fleet profiling methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferraris, Jocelyne

    2002-01-01

    A fishing fleet profile aims tho assist in understanding the complexity and structure of fisheries from a technical and socio-economic point of view, or from the point of view of fishing strategies...

  14. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  15. Scorpion fish sting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002849.htm Scorpion fish sting To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scorpion fish are members of the family Scorpaenidae, which includes ...

  16. Fish population dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulland, J. A

    1977-01-01

    This book describes how the dynamics of fish populations can be analysed in terms of the factors affecting their rates of growth, mortality and reproduction, with particular emphasis on the effects of fishing...

  17. Molecular and cytogenetic analyses of cryptic species within the Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch, 1795 (Synbranchiformes: Synbranchidae grouping: species delimitations, karyotypic evolution and intraspecific diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Utsunomia

    Full Text Available The fish species Synbranchus marmoratushas been reported to exist as a species complex due to high intraspecific karyotypic variability in spite of the difficulty or impossibility to distinguish them using morphological traits alone. The goal of this work was to use cytogenetic and molecular methods to determine the species delimitations and understand the karyoevolution ofS. marmoratususing samples collected from distinct Brazilian localities. Among the analyzed specimens, a large degree of cytogenetic variation related to diploid numbers and karyotype structure was observed, with karyotypes showing 2n=42, 44 and 46 chromosomes. In addition, using sequences of three mitochondrial genes, the phylogenetic relationships between every sample with a known karyotype were determined, which revealed significant nucleotide divergence among the karyomorphs. Also, the analyses indicate that chromosomal rearrangements occurred independently within the distinct lineages of S. marmoratuscomplex, which resulted in the appearance of distinct karyotypic variants in a non-linear fashion related to diploid numbers and in the appearance of similar non-homologous chromosomes. Finally, the integration of both molecular cytogenetic and phylogenetic approaches allowed the determination of specific chromosomes possibly involved in rearrangements and a better understanding about the evolutionary processes involved in the differentiation ofSynbranchusgenus.

  18. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabd...

  19. Fish eye optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Michalova, S.

    2017-07-01

    We report on small student (high—school) project of the Czech Academy of Sciences dealing with animal (fish) eyes and possible application in science and technology. Albeit most fishes have refractive eyes, the recent discoveries confirm that some fishes have reflective eyes with strange arrangements as well.

  20. Turbine related fish mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicher, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to assess the factors affecting turbine-related fish mortality. The mechanics of fish passage through a turbine is outlined, and various turbine related stresses are described, including pressure and shear effects, hydraulic head, turbine efficiency, and tailwater level. The methodologies used in determining the effects of fish passage are evaluated. The necessity of adequate controls in each test is noted. It is concluded that mortality is the result of several factors such as hardiness of study fish, fish size, concentrations of dissolved gases, and amounts of cavitation. Comparisons between Francis and Kaplan turbines indicate little difference in percent mortality. 27 refs., 5 figs

  1. Fish allergy: in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  2. Do Fish Resist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Joseph Wadiwel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of scientific studies on the question of whether fish feel pain. Some have suggested that some fish indeed do feel pain and that this has significant welfare implications (2003. Others have argued that fish do not have the brain development necessary to feel pain. In terms of number of animals killed, the slaughter of sea animals for human consumption significantly exceeds that of any land animals that we use for food, and sea animal slaughter practices frequently lack any basic welfare protections. If fish can be shown to feel pain—or more importantly, if humans can agree that fish feel pain—then this would place a significant question mark over many contemporary fishing practices.  This article substitutes the question 'Do Fish Feel Pain?' with an alternative: 'Do Fish Resist?' It explores the conceptual problems of understanding fish resistance, and the politics of epistemology that surrounds and seeks to develop a conceptual framework for understanding fish resistance to human capture by exploring the development of fishing technologies - the hook, the net and contemporary aquaculture.

  3. Augmented fish health monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michak, P.; Rogers, R.; Amos, K.

    1991-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Historically, all agencies involved with fish health in the Columbia Basin were conducting various levels of fish health monitoring, pathogen screening and collection. The goals of this project were; to identify, develop and implement a standardized level of fish health methodologies, develop a common data collection and reporting format in the area of artificial production, evaluate and monitor water quality, improve communications between agencies and provide annual evaluation of fish health information for production of healthier smolts. This completion report will contain a project evaluation, review of the goals of the project, evaluation of the specific fish health analyses, an overview of highlights of the project and concluding remarks. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  4. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector...

  5. Columbia River ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this...

  6. Western Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and anadromous fish species in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  7. Health effects of fish and fish oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chandra, Ranjit Kumar

    1989-01-01

    .... Based on epidemiologic data, it has been suggested that a fish-containing diet is beneficial in the prevention and management of a variety of disorders including coronary heart disease, hypertension, and psoriasis...

  8. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for estuarine, benthic, and pelagic fish in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  9. Fish elevator and method of elevating fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truebe, J.; Drooker, M.S.

    1984-02-14

    A means and method are disclosed for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprise a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water. 6 figs.

  10. Fish elevator and method of elevating fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truebe, Jonathan; Drooker, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    A means and method for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprises a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water.

  11. Adoption Of Improved Fish Technologies Among Fish Farmers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A shortfall exists between fish supply and fish demand in the country despite the introduction of improved technology to fish farmers. This led to huge wage bill on the importation of fish to meet the protein need of the ever increasing population. This prompted this study with focus on adoption of improved fish technologies ...

  12. Immunostimulants in fish diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannam, A.L.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Various immunostimulants and their methods of application in fish culture are examined in this review. Important variables such as life stage and innate disease resistance of the fish; immunostimulant used, its structure and mode of action; and the fish's environment are discussed. Conflicting results have been published about the efficacy of immunostimulants in fish diets. Some researchers have had positive responses demonstrated as increased fish survival, others have not. Generally, immunostimulants enhance individual components of the non-specific immune response but that does not always translate into increased fish survival. In addition, immunostimulants fed at too high a dose or for too long can be immunosuppressive. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com ].

  13. Vaccination in Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    vaccines have reduced the need for usage of antibiotics with more than 99 % since the 1980s. Fish can be vaccinated by three different administration routes: injection, immersion and oral vaccination. Injection vaccination (intraperitoneal injection of vaccine) is the most time consuming and labor...... intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...... respond to vaccination by increasing the specific antibody titer and by activating the cellular responses. My talk will cover vaccination methods in fish, immune responses and some adverse effect of oil-adjuvanted vaccines in fish with reference to our work in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....

  14. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  15. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species

  16. Fish and hydroelectricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorpette, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the problems that hydroelectric plants have regarding fish populations. The utilities that operate these plants are finding that accommodating migrating fish presents unique engineering challenges, not the least of which involves designing and building systems to protect fish species whose migratory behavior remains something of a mystery. Where such systems cannot be built, the status of hydroelectric dams may be in doubt, as is now the case with several dams in the United States. A further twist in some regions in the possibility that certain migratory fish will be declared threatened or endangered-a development that could wreak havoc on the hydroelectric energy supply in those regions

  17. Of Fish and Micrornas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bela-Ong, Dennis; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    Fish is an important small vertebrate multidisciplinary model for investigating various aspects of reproduction, development, disease (immunology, toxicology, carcinogenesis), and aging. It is also an important model for comparative and evolutionary studies because it represents the lower...... to the mechanisms of control of gene expression, impacting a broad range of biological processes. Thus far, >25, 000 miRNA sequences have been identified in 193 species, including fish. In fish, the interest on miRNAs started with the analysis of their expression and function during embryonic development. In our...... selection markers to identify disease-resistant fish....

  18. Intelligent Fish Freshness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gholam Hosseini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish species identification and automated fish freshness assessment play important roles in fishery industry applications. This paper describes a method based on support vector machines (SVMs to improve the performance of fish identification systems. The result is used for the assessment of fish freshness using artificial neural network (ANN. Identification of the fish species involves processing of the images of fish. The most efficient features were extracted and combined with the down-sampled version of the images to create a 1D input vector. Max-Win algorithm applied to the SVM-based classifiers has enhanced the reliability of sorting to 96.46%. The realisation of Cyranose 320 Electronic nose (E-nose, in order to evaluate the fish freshness in real-time, is experimented. Intelligent processing of the sensor patterns involves the use of a dedicated ANN for each species under study. The best estimation of freshness was provided by the most sensitive sensors. Data was collected from four selected species of fishes over a period of ten days. It was concluded that the performance can be increased using individual trained ANN for each specie. The proposed system has been successful in identifying the number of days after catching the fish with an accuracy of up to 91%.

  19. Fish silage as feed ingredient for fish and livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurangwa, E.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Poelman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present report analyses through a literature review the potential of fish silage to valorise fish processing by-products into economically relevant protein sources for fish and livestock feed production in East Africa.

  20. Fish-allergic patients may be able to eat fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Ahmad A; Bahna, Sami L

    2015-03-01

    Reported fish allergy prevalence varies widely, with an estimated prevalence of 0.2% in the general population. Sensitization to fish can occur by ingestion, skin contact or inhalation. The manifestations can be IgE or non-IgE mediated. Several fish allergens have been identified, with parvalbumins being the major allergen in various species. Allergenicity varies among fish species and is affected by processing or preparation methods. Adverse reactions after eating fish are often claimed to be 'allergy' but could be a reaction to hidden food allergen, fish parasite, fish toxins or histamine in spoiled fish. Identifying such causes would allow free consumption of fish. Correct diagnosis of fish allergy, including the specific species, might provide the patient with safe alternatives. Patients have been generally advised for strict universal avoidance of fish. However, testing with various fish species or preparations might identify one or more forms that can be tolerated.

  1. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Areas Protected From Fishing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Designated Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) areas where fishing or the use of fishing gears has been restricted or modified in order to minimize the adverse effects of...

  2. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized for...

  3. Anadromous fish behaviour important for fish passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kynard, B.E.

    1993-01-01

    An understanding of the behavior of target fish species is necessary for proper design, location, and operation of a successful upstream or downstream fishway for anadromous migrants. Important fish behaviors are seasonal and daily timing of migration; rheotaxis and near field behavior; stimulus-response behavior; swimming capability; shoaling behavior; response to physical environmental factors such as illumination, sound, water depth, current velocity, and structure; response to chemicals; and response to biological factors such as competition for space and response to predators. The information on migrant fish behavior is reviewed, using examples from the literature on the behavior of eastern anadromous species, particularly Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and American shad (Alosa sapidissima). 87 refs

  4. PARASITES OF FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The intent of this chapter is to describe the parasites of importance to fishes maintained and used in laboratory settings. In contrast to the frist edition, the focus will be only on those parasites that pose a serious threat to or are common in fishes held in these confined en...

  5. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Perspectives on fish impingement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    Data on fish impingement and related parameters are being gathered at a large number of power stations throughout the country at substantial monetary and manpower costs. A national survey of fish impingement at power plants was conducted and much of the information compiled in a standardized format--an effort that we think will aid in planning improvements in the design, siting, and operation of the cooling-water intakes. This paper examines the objectives of the fish impingement studies, monitoring programs, variables affecting fish impingement, siting and design criteria, state-of-the-art of screening systems, and suggestions for meeting 316(b) requirements. It also discusses where the emphasis should be placed in future fish-impingement related activities

  7. Fish allergy in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Cristina Y; Reche, Marta; Fiandor, Ana; Valbuena, Teresa; Cuevas, Teresa; Esteban, Manuel Martin

    2008-11-01

    Fish and its derived products play an important role in human nutrition, but they may also be a potent food allergen. Fish can be an ingested, contact, and inhalant allergen. Gad c I, a Parvalbumin, the major allergen in codfish, is considered as fish and amphibian pan-allergen. Prevalence of fish allergy appears to depend on the amount of fish eaten in the local diet. In Europe, the highest consumption occurs in Scandinavian countries, Spain and Portugal. In Spain, fish is the third most frequent allergen in children under 2 yr of age after egg and cow's milk. An adverse reaction to fish may be of non-allergic origin, due to food contamination or newly formed toxic products, but the most frequent type of adverse reactions to fish are immunologic-mediated reactions (allergic reactions). Such allergic reactions may be both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated. Most cases are IgE-mediated, due to ingestion or contact with fish or as a result of inhalation of cooking vapors. Some children develop non-IgE-mediated type allergies such as food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome. The clinical symptoms related to IgE-mediated fish allergy are most frequently acute urticaria and angioedema as well as mild oral symptoms, worsening of atopic dermatitis, respiratory symptoms such as rhinitis or asthma, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting. Anaphylaxis may also occur. Among all the species studied, those from the Tunidae and Xiphiidae families appear to be the least allergenic.

  8. Exotic Fish in Exotic Plantations: A Multi-Scale Approach to Understand Amphibian Occurrence in the Mediterranean Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Cruz

    Full Text Available Globally, amphibian populations are threatened by a diverse range of factors including habitat destruction and alteration. Forestry practices have been linked with low diversity and abundance of amphibians. The effect of exotic Eucalyptus spp. plantations on amphibian communities has been studied in a number of biodiversity hotspots, but little is known of its impact in the Mediterranean region. Here, we identify the environmental factors influencing the presence of six species of amphibians (the Caudata Pleurodeles waltl, Salamandra salamandra, Lissotriton boscai, Triturus marmoratus and the anurans Pelobates cultripes and Hyla arborea/meridionalis occupying 88 ponds. The study was conducted in a Mediterranean landscape dominated by eucalypt plantations alternated with traditional use (agricultural, montados and native forest at three different scales: local (pond, intermediate (400 metres radius buffer and broad (1000 metres radius buffer. Using the Akaike Information Criterion for small samples (AICc, we selected the top-ranked models for estimating the probability of occurrence of each species at each spatial scale separately and across all three spatial scales, using a combination of covariates from the different magnitudes. Models with a combination of covariates at the different spatial scales had a stronger support than those at individual scales. The presence of predatory fish in a pond had a strong effect on Caudata presence. Permanent ponds were selected by Hyla arborea/meridionalis over temporary ponds. Species occurrence was not increased by a higher density of streams, but the density of ponds impacted negatively on Lissotriton boscai. The proximity of ponds occupied by their conspecifics had a positive effect on the occurrence of Lissotriton boscai and Pleurodeles waltl. Eucalypt plantations had a negative effect on the occurrence of the newt Lissotriton boscai and anurans Hyla arborea/meridionalis, but had a positive effect on

  9. Why fishing magnifies fluctuations in fish abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christian N K; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Sandin, Stuart A; Hewitt, Roger; Hollowed, Anne; Beddington, John; May, Robert M; Sugihara, George

    2008-04-17

    It is now clear that fished populations can fluctuate more than unharvested stocks. However, it is not clear why. Here we distinguish among three major competing mechanisms for this phenomenon, by using the 50-year California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) larval fish record. First, variable fishing pressure directly increases variability in exploited populations. Second, commercial fishing can decrease the average body size and age of a stock, causing the truncated population to track environmental fluctuations directly. Third, age-truncated or juvenescent populations have increasingly unstable population dynamics because of changing demographic parameters such as intrinsic growth rates. We find no evidence for the first hypothesis, limited evidence for the second and strong evidence for the third. Therefore, in California Current fisheries, increased temporal variability in the population does not arise from variable exploitation, nor does it reflect direct environmental tracking. More fundamentally, it arises from increased instability in dynamics. This finding has implications for resource management as an empirical example of how selective harvesting can alter the basic dynamics of exploited populations, and lead to unstable booms and busts that can precede systematic declines in stock levels.

  10. Why do fish school?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matz LARSSON

    2012-01-01

    Synchronized movements (schooling) emit complex and overlapping sound and pressure curves that might confuse the inner ear and lateral line organ (LLO) of a predator.Moreover,prey-fish moving close to each other may blur the electro-sensory perception of predators.The aim of this review is to explore mechanisms associated with synchronous swimming that may have contributed to increased adaptation and as a consequence may have influenced the evolution of schooling.The evolutionary development of the inner ear and the LLO increased the capacity to detect potential prey,possibly leading to an increased potential for cannibalism in the shoal,but also helped small fish to avoid joining larger fish,resulting in size homogeneity and,accordingly,an increased capacity for moving in synchrony.Water-movements and incidental sound produced as by-product of locomotion (ISOL) may provide fish with potentially useful information during swimming,such as neighbour body-size,speed,and location.When many fish move close to one another ISOL will be energetic and complex.Quiet intervals will be few.Fish moving in synchrony will have the capacity to discontinue movements simultaneously,providing relatively quiet intervals to allow the reception of potentially critical environmental signals.Besides,synchronized movements may facilitate auditory grouping of ISOL.Turning preference bias,well-functioning sense organs,good health,and skillful motor performance might be important to achieving an appropriate distance to school neighbors und aid the individual fish in reducing time spent in the comparatively less safe school periphery.Turning preferences in ancestral fish shoals might have helped fish to maintain groups and stay in formarion,reinforcing aforementioned predator confusion mechanisms,which possibly played a role in the lateralization of the vertebrate brain [Current Zoology 58 (1):116-128,2012].

  11. Technical Resources for Fish and Shellfish Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on ways to develop local fish advisories, access national state and local fish advisories, obtain information on fish tissue contamination and fish tissue studies, and access information on fish consumption and human health.

  12. Which Fish Should I Eat? Perspectives Influencing Fish Consumption Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Anna L.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Mariën, Koenraad; Rheinberger, Christoph M.; Schoeny, Rita; Sunderland, Elsie; Korrick, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diverse perspectives have influenced fish consumption choices. Objectives: We summarized the issue of fish consumption choice from toxicological, nutritional, ecological, and economic points of view; identified areas of overlap and disagreement among these viewpoints; and reviewed effects of previous fish consumption advisories. Methods: We reviewed published scientific literature, public health guidelines, and advisories related to fish consumption, focusing on advisories targeted at U.S. populations. However, our conclusions apply to groups having similar fish consumption patterns. Discussion: There are many possible combinations of matters related to fish consumption, but few, if any, fish consumption patterns optimize all domains. Fish provides a rich source of protein and other nutrients, but because of contamination by methylmercury and other toxicants, higher fish intake often leads to greater toxicant exposure. Furthermore, stocks of wild fish are not adequate to meet the nutrient demands of the growing world population, and fish consumption choices also have a broad economic impact on the fishing industry. Most guidance does not account for ecological and economic impacts of different fish consumption choices. Conclusion: Despite the relative lack of information integrating the health, ecological, and economic impacts of different fish choices, clear and simple guidance is necessary to effect desired changes. Thus, more comprehensive advice can be developed to describe the multiple impacts of fish consumption. In addition, policy and fishery management inter-ventions will be necessary to ensure long-term availability of fish as an important source of human nutrition. PMID:22534056

  13. Histamine fish poisoning revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehane, L; Olley, J

    2000-06-30

    Histamine (or scombroid) fish poisoning (HFP) is reviewed in a risk-assessment framework in an attempt to arrive at an informed characterisation of risk. Histamine is the main toxin involved in HFP, but the disease is not uncomplicated histamine poisoning. Although it is generally associated with high levels of histamine (> or =50 mg/100 g) in bacterially contaminated fish of particular species, the pathogenesis of HFP has not been clearly elucidated. Various hypotheses have been put forward to explain why histamine consumed in spoiled fish is more toxic than pure histamine taken orally, but none has proved totally satisfactory. Urocanic acid, like histamine, an imidazole compound derived from histidine in spoiling fish, may be the "missing factor" in HFP. cis-Urocanic acid has recently been recognised as a mast cell degranulator, and endogenous histamine from mast cell degranulation may augment the exogenous histamine consumed in spoiled fish. HFP is a mild disease, but is important in relation to food safety and international trade. Consumers are becoming more demanding, and litigation following food poisoning incidents is becoming more common. Producers, distributors and restaurants are increasingly held liable for the quality of the products they handle and sell. Many countries have set guidelines for maximum permitted levels of histamine in fish. However, histamine concentrations within a spoiled fish are extremely variable, as is the threshold toxic dose. Until the identity, levels and potency of possible potentiators and/or mast-cell-degranulating factors are elucidated, it is difficult to establish regulatory limits for histamine in foods on the basis of potential health hazard. Histidine decarboxylating bacteria produce histamine from free histidine in spoiling fish. Although some are present in the normal microbial flora of live fish, most seem to be derived from post-catching contamination on board fishing vessels, at the processing plant or in the

  14. SIS - Fish Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fish Assessment data set within the Species Information System (SIS) constraints information related to fishery stock assessments, including assessment meta-data...

  15. West Coast Fishing Ethnography

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Created as part of a 2012 BOEM study on OCS renewable energy space-use conflicts, this data contains the commercial and recreational fishing locations off the...

  16. In Place of Fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ounanian, Kristen

    Communities historically reliant on fisheries have faced changing circumstances in terms of their livelihoods, identities, demographics, and viabilities. I examine various manifestations of fisheries dependence and the process of transition as related to six cases of fishing communities undergoing...

  17. Fish-friendly future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookshier, P.; Newman, Gemma

    2001-01-01

    The latest US research into ways of reducing the harm to fish from hydroelectric turbines is outlined. Laboratory studies, field studies and advanced computational studies are being carried out to improve the understanding of and reduce the effects of stress and injury to fish from turbines. The Advanced Hydro Turbine System programme is part of the Department of Energy's Hydropower Programme. Turbine passage injuries are caused by a number of mechanisms, leaving the fish either dead or stunned. Advanced turbine technology can help to minimise fish injury and can add dissolved oxygen to the discharged water, thus improving water quality. Turbine modifications are aimed at all species, but studies have focussed on salmon, trout and eels. The new minimum gap runner (MGR) appear as efficient as standard Kaplan turbines

  18. Freshwater Fish Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater fish are ecologically important in stream ecosystems, and they provide people with significant food, recreation, and conservation value as biological indicator of freshwater streams. Historically, the streams and rivers of southern New England supported moderately dive...

  19. Fishing Community Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To enable fisheries managers to comply with National Standard 8 (NS8), NMFS social scientists around the nation are preparing fishing community profiles that present...

  20. Social learning in fish

    OpenAIRE

    Atton, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Social learning is known to be a common phenomenon in fish, which they utilise under many different contexts, including foraging, mate-choice and migration. Here I review the literature on social learning in fish and present two studies. The first examines the ability of threespined sticklebacks to use social learning in the enhancement of food preferences. The second study examines the ability of both threespined sticklebacks and ninespined sticklebacks to use social learning in the avoidanc...

  1. Innovation in utilization of fish tanks for fish culture among fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated innovation in utilization of fish tanks for fish culture among fish farmers in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Data for this study was obtained through the administration of questionnaire and scheduled interview to 120 sampled fish farmers randomly selected from the study ...

  2. Fishing down the largest coral reef fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Douglas

    2014-07-15

    Studies on remote, uninhabited, near-pristine reefs have revealed surprisingly large populations of large reef fish. Locations such as the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, northern Marianas Islands, Line Islands, U.S. remote Pacific Islands, Cocos-Keeling Atoll and Chagos archipelago have much higher reef fish biomass than islands and reefs near people. Much of the high biomass of most remote reef fish communities lies in the largest species, such as sharks, bumphead parrots, giant trevally, and humphead wrasse. Some, such as sharks and giant trevally, are apex predators, but others such as bumphead parrots and humphead wrasse, are not. At many locations, decreases in large reef fish species have been attributed to fishing. Fishing is well known to remove the largest fish first, and a quantitative measure of vulnerability to fishing indicates that large reef fish species are much more vulnerable to fishing than small fish. The removal of large reef fish by fishing parallels the extinction of terrestrial megafauna by early humans. However large reef fish have great value for various ecological roles and for reef tourism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Trophic structure of a fish community in Bananal stream subbasin in Brasília National Park, Cerrado biome (Brazilian Savanna, DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Schneider

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the trophic structure of the fish community in the Bananal stream subbasin, which belongs to a well-preserved Cerrado area (Brazilian Savanna in Brasília National Park, Brazil. We also evaluated the influence of environmental variations in the diet of fish species. Four samples were taken in each 30 m long established transect, two in the rainy season and two in the dry season. A total of 1,050 stomachs of the 13 most abundant species were analyzed. A total of 36 food items were consumed, where 24 were autochthonous, 8 allochthonous, and 4 of undetermined origin. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS analysis, in addition to the results of frequency of occurrence and abundance charts, was used to determine four groups of feeding guilds: detritivores, omnivores (tending toward herbivory and invertivory, invertivores and piscivores. Around 69% of the volume of resources consumed was allochthonous, which proves the importance of the resources provided by riparian vegetation. The contribution of autochthonous and allochthonous items in the diet differed due to seasonality for Aspidoras fuscoguttatus, Astyanax sp., Characidium xanthopterum, Hyphessobrycon balbus, Kolpotocheirodon theloura, Moenkhausia sp., Phalloceros harpagos, and Rivulus pictus. Despite the Cerrado climate characteristics, there was no significant influence of season on the fish diet. The absence of seasonal variation and the predominance of allochthonous items in the fish diet are probably associated with the presence of riparian vegetation, which acts as a transition area in the Cerrado biome and provides resources for the aquatic fauna. This work shows the importance of studies in non-disturbed areas considered here as a source of information concerning the biology of fish species and as a guide for direct conservation policies on the management of aquatic resources, recovery of damaged areas and determination of priority areas for

  4. Cowlitz Falls fish passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system

  5. Fish robotics and hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, George

    2010-11-01

    Studying the fluid dynamics of locomotion in freely-swimming fishes is challenging due to difficulties in controlling fish behavior. To provide better control over fish-like propulsive systems we have constructed a variety of fish-like robotic test platforms that range from highly biomimetic models of fins, to simple physical models of body movements during aquatic locomotion. First, we have constructed a series of biorobotic models of fish pectoral fins with 5 fin rays that allow detailed study of fin motion, forces, and fluid dynamics associated with fin-based locomotion. We find that by tuning fin ray stiffness and the imposed motion program we can produce thrust both on the fin outstroke and instroke. Second, we are using a robotic flapping foil system to study the self-propulsion of flexible plastic foils of varying stiffness, length, and trailing edge shape as a means of investigating the fluid dynamic effect of simple changes in the properties of undulating bodies moving through water. We find unexpected non-linear stiffness-dependent effects of changing foil length on self-propelled speed, and as well as significant effects of trailing edge shape on foil swimming speed.

  6. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non-virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  7. Freshwater and fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxen, R.

    1997-01-01

    Severe radioactive contamination of the freshwater environment could have serious consequences for both drinking water and fish. Most of the Nordic countries have an abundance of freshwater lakes and rivers. Finland alone has about 56,000 lakes, each with a surface area of 1 hectare or more. Nearly 10% of Finland's surface is covered with lakes and rivers. In Sweden, about 9% of the surface area is freshwater, in Norway about 5%, and in Denmark only about 2%. Freshwater plays a minor role in Iceland, but even there numerous rivers discharge from the volcanic soils to the Ocean. Cs-137 and 90 Sr are likely to be the most important radionuclides with respect to long term radioactive contamination of freshwater. If radioactive deposition occurs in the absence of snow and ice radionuclides will contaminate the surface water directly and may rapidly enter the aquatic food chain. Fish which eat contaminated plankton become contaminated almost immediately. Deposition during summer increases the transfer for radionuclides to fish since fish metabolism is faster during the warm season. During the cold period, fish metabolism is slow and thus uptake and excretion of radiocaesium are also slow. (EG)

  8. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K; Laing, Kerry J; Winton, James R

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  9. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen K. Purcell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  10. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Fish consumption and track to a fish feed formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai-Juan, Soong; Ramli, Razamin; Rahman, Rosshairy Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Strategically located in the equator, Malaysia is blessed with plenty of fish supply. The high demand in fish consumption has helped the development in the fishery industry and provided numerous jobs in the secondary sector, contributing significantly to the nation's income. A survey was conducted to understand the trend of current demands for fish for the purpose of designing a feed formulation, which is still limited in this area of study. Results showed that grouper fish in restaurants commanded a very high price compared to other species of fish. Tiger grouper gained the highest demand in most restaurants, while giant grouper had the highest price in restaurants. Due to the demand and challenges to culture this type of fish, a framework for fish feed formulation is proposed. The formulation framework when materialized could be an alternative to the use of trash fish as the feed for grouper.

  12. Soluble protein isolated from low cost fish and fish wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Lekshmy Nair, A.; Gopakumar, K.

    1982-01-01

    The method of preparation, composition, amino acid content, protein efficiency ratio and areas of possible application of water soluble protein isolates from low cost fish and fish wastes are discussed in detail in this communication.

  13. Fish parasites, fish food, and the marine environment | Nnadi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper addresses the incontrovertible fact that fish and fish products have historically been a reliable supplier of protein, in particular, and food, in general for humans. Seventy to a hundred metric tons arc caught each year since the early seventies. Fish protein represents about twenty five percent of the total animal ...

  14. Fish Commoditization: Sustainability Strategies to Protect Living Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Mimi E.; Pitcher, Tony J.

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of early fishing on aquatic ecosystems were minimal, as primitive technologies were used to harvest fish primarily for food. As fishing technology grew more sophisticated and human populations dispersed and expanded, local economies transitioned from subsistence to barter and trade. Expanded trade networks and mercantilization led to…

  15. Economic differential of integrated fish, rice cum piggery and fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish, rice cum piggery and fish, rice cum poultry production integration platforms were set up to perfect the ideas of integrated fish farming in Sierra Leone. Water quality parameters measured biweekly included: dissolved oxygen, water temperature, pH, water hardness, water alkalinity, ammonia, nitrate, BOD and nitrite.

  16. Temperature - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  17. LCA of Danish fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    The article presents the main results from a PhD dissertation about environmental impacts from Danish fish products.......The article presents the main results from a PhD dissertation about environmental impacts from Danish fish products....

  18. KLA - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  19. Pickering nuclear fish diversion net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, J.; Lew, A. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Pickering Fish Diversion Net - An Engineered Environmental Solution that has significantly reduced fish impingement at the Pickering Nuclear Facility. Note: As a recent urgent request/discussed by Mark Elliot, CNE-OPG and Jacques Plourde, CNS.

  20. Guidelines for Eating Fish that Contain Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about how to minimize exposure to methylmercury while eating fish. Read about fish advisories, how to use them to consume fish safely, and use the national fish advisories locator to find them in an area near you.

  1. How to Represent a Fish?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elspeth Probyn

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article canvasses a broad range of fish representations across several disciplines. It asks what cultural studies can learn from scientific representation of fish, and argues that in turn cultural studies can be a nuanced understanding of the work of images. The objective of the article is to open debate about fish and their sustainability beyond discrete disciplines and/or ideologies. This, it is argued, is crucial if we are to go beyond a simplified cultural politics of fish.

  2. Fish Oil in Diabetic Nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Peter; Hansen, Birgitte V.; Nielsen, Flemming S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent studies in nondiabetic kidney diseases suggest that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish oil) may have beneficial effects on albuminuria, kidney function, arterial blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. Therefore, we evaluated the long-term effect of fish...... in the fish oil compared with the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Our study does not suggest that fish oil has beneficial effects on albuminuria, kidney function, blood pressure, and dyslipidemia in normotensive IDDM patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy....

  3. The fish egg microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Y. Liu

    Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp.

    The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen

  4. De fiscale fishing expedition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmann, E.

    2016-01-01

    In de fiscale literatuur en/of mediaberichten duikt met enige regelmaat de term ‘fishing expedition’ op. De term wordt in rechterlijke uitspraken en in beleid genoemd, in nationale en internationale context. Het valt op dat voor die term kennelijk slechts indirecte definities bestaan, althans ik heb

  5. Oral vaccination of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen

  6. Access and Fishing Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    a detailed ethnographic description of five different fishing operations and then compare them on a number of different fronts. This will direct us to some general differences in their modes of operation in relation to the vessel quota share (VQS) system and lead us to the next chapter, where the principal...

  7. Fish and shellfish allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalayasingam, Meera; Lee, Bee-Wah

    2015-01-01

    Fish and shellfish consumption has increased worldwide, and there are increasing reports of adverse reactions to fish and shellfish, with an approximate prevalence of 0.5-5%. Fish allergy often develops early in life, whilst shellfish allergy tends to develop later, from adolescence onwards. Little is known about the natural history of these allergies, but both are thought to be persistent. The clinical manifestations of shellfish allergy, in particular, may vary from local to life-threatening 'anaphylactic' reactions within an individual and between individuals. Parvalbumin and tropomyosin are the two major allergens, but several other allergens have been cloned and described. These allergens are highly heat and biochemically stable, and this may in part explain the persistence of these allergies. Diagnosis requires a thorough history, skin prick and in-vitro-specific IgE tests, and oral challenges may be needed for diagnostic confirmation. Strict avoidance of these allergens is the current standard of clinical care for allergic patients, and when indicated, an anaphylactic plan with an adrenaline auto-injector is prescribed. There are no published clinical trials evaluating specific oral immunotherapy for fish or shellfish allergy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Fish welfare in capture fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, L.J.L.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Vis, van de J.W.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Concerns about the welfare of production animals have extended from farm animals to fish, but an overview of the impact of especially capture fisheries on fish welfare is lacking. This review provides a synthesis of 85 articles, which demonstrates that research interest in fish welfare in capture

  9. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain transgenic fishes with accelerated growth and for designing surrogate fishes. Methods for receiving unisexual shoals of salmon and sturgeon female fishes with the view of obtaining a large quantity of caviar, as well as receiving sterile (triploid fishes are analyzed. Great attention is given to androgenesis, particularly to disperm one, in connection with the problem of conserving rare and vanishing fish species using only sperm genetic material. Examples how distant hybrids may be obtained with the use of disperm androgenesis and alkylated DNA are given. Methods of obtaining fish primordium germ cells, recent developments in cultivation of fish stem cells and their use in biotechnology, as well as ones of transplantation of oogonium and spermatogonium to obtain surrogate fishes. The examples of successful experiments on spermatogonial xenotransplantation and characteristic of antifreezing fish proteins and also the prospect of their practical usage are given.

  10. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  11. Improving fish survival through turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Much of what is known about fish passage through hydroturbines has been developed by studying migratory species of fish passing through large Kaplan turbine units. A review of the literature on previous fish passage research presented in the accompanying story illustrates that studies have focused on determining mortality levels, rather than identifying the causal mechanism involved. There is a need for understanding how turbine designs could be altered to improve fish passage conditions, how to retrofit existing units, and how proposed hydro plant operational changes may affect fish survival. The US Army Corps of Engineers has developed a research program to define biologically based engineering criteria for improving fish passage conditions. Turbine designs incorporating these criteria can be evaluated for their effects on fish survival, engineering issues, costs, and power production. The research program has the following objectives: To gain a thorough knowledge of the mechanisms of fish mortality; To define the biological sensitivities of key fish species to these mechanisms of mortality; To develop new turbine design criteria to reduce fish mortality; To construct prototype turbine designs, and to test these designs for fish passage, hydro-mechanical operation, and power production; and To identify construction and power costs associated with new turbine designs

  12. Consumers’ attitude towards fish meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Conte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of this paper is to show the factors that may affect consumers’ attitude towards farmed fish products. Consumers ask new products on the basis of different quality attributes: stability, safety, composition, better health effects, environment protection, etc. Different and controversial opinions on farmed and wild fish are also explored by literature review. The authors pay attention also to fish welfare as an emerging issue and effective information about fish products as a factor exerting a positive influence on consumers’ decision of purchase. Some relevant legislative notes on the paper’s topics are also cited. The qualitative aspects of aquaculture fish and the consumers’ demand and choice need further studies, according to some factors, such as the changing consumers’ attitudes towards fish products, the different fish quality perception and the development in the aquaculture systems.

  13. Fishing degrades size structure of coral reef fish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James P W; Williams, Ivor D; Edwards, Andrew M; McPherson, Jana; Yeager, Lauren; Vigliola, Laurent; Brainard, Russell E; Baum, Julia K

    2017-03-01

    Fishing pressure on coral reef ecosystems has been frequently linked to reductions of large fishes and reef fish biomass. Associated impacts on overall community structure are, however, less clear. In size-structured aquatic ecosystems, fishing impacts are commonly quantified using size spectra, which describe the distribution of individual body sizes within a community. We examined the size spectra and biomass of coral reef fish communities at 38 US-affiliated Pacific islands that ranged in human presence from near pristine to human population centers. Size spectra 'steepened' steadily with increasing human population and proximity to market due to a reduction in the relative biomass of large fishes and an increase in the dominance of small fishes. Reef fish biomass was substantially lower on inhabited islands than uninhabited ones, even at inhabited islands with the lowest levels of human presence. We found that on populated islands size spectra exponents decreased (analogous to size spectra steepening) linearly with declining biomass, whereas on uninhabited islands there was no relationship. Size spectra were steeper in regions of low sea surface temperature but were insensitive to variation in other environmental and geomorphic covariates. In contrast, reef fish biomass was highly sensitive to oceanographic conditions, being influenced by both oceanic productivity and sea surface temperature. Our results suggest that community size structure may be a more robust indicator than fish biomass to increasing human presence and that size spectra are reliable indicators of exploitation impacts across regions of different fish community compositions, environmental drivers, and fisheries types. Size-based approaches that link directly to functional properties of fish communities, and are relatively insensitive to abiotic variation across biogeographic regions, offer great potential for developing our understanding of fishing impacts in coral reef ecosystems. © 2016

  14. FishFrame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degel, Henrik; Jansen, Teunis

    2006-01-01

    . Development and test of software modules can be done once and reused by all. The biggest challenge in this is not technical – it is in organisation, coordination and trust. This challenge has been addressed by FishFrame - a web-based datawarehouse application. The “bottom-up” approach with maximum involvement...... of end users from as many labs and user groups as possible has been rather slow but quite successful in building international trust and cooperation around the system. This is mandatory prerequisites when our primary goal is not the programming project itself, but the creation of a tool that adds real...... value to users and in the end improves the way we work with our data. FishFrame version 4.2 is presented and the lessons learned from the process are discussed....

  15. ChillFish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller

    2016-01-01

    Breathing exercises can help children with ADHD control their stress level, but it can be hard for a child to sustain attention throughout such an exercise. In this paper, we present ChillFish, a breath-controlled biofeedback game designed in collaboration with ADHD professionals to investigate...... the possibilities of combining breathing exercises and game design. Based on a pilot study with 16 adults, we found that playing ChillFish had a positive effect, helping the participants to reach a relaxed state similar to the one offered by traditional breathing exercises. Further, we analyze the opportunities...... and challenges of creating a tangible respiration-based controller and use it as a core game mechanic. Finally, we discuss the challenge of balancing engagement and relaxation in physically controlled games for children with ADHD in order to make a game that can be calming and still sustain their attention....

  16. Herpesviruses that Infect Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Kotler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses are host specific pathogens that are widespread among vertebrates. Genome sequence data demonstrate that most herpesviruses of fish and amphibians are grouped together (family Alloherpesviridae and are distantly related to herpesviruses of reptiles, birds and mammals (family Herpesviridae. Yet, many of the biological processes of members of the order Herpesvirales are similar. Among the conserved characteristics are the virion structure, replication process, the ability to establish long term latency and the manipulation of the host immune response. Many of the similar processes may be due to convergent evolution. This overview of identified herpesviruses of fish discusses the diseases that alloherpesviruses cause, the biology of these viruses and the host-pathogen interactions. Much of our knowledge on the biology of Alloherpesvirdae is derived from research with two species: Ictalurid herpesvirus 1 (channel catfish virus and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus.

  17. Herpesviruses that infect fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Larry; Dishon, Arnon; Kotler, Moshe

    2011-11-01

    Herpesviruses are host specific pathogens that are widespread among vertebrates. Genome sequence data demonstrate that most herpesviruses of fish and amphibians are grouped together (family Alloherpesviridae) and are distantly related to herpesviruses of reptiles, birds and mammals (family Herpesviridae). Yet, many of the biological processes of members of the order Herpesvirales are similar. Among the conserved characteristics are the virion structure, replication process, the ability to establish long term latency and the manipulation of the host immune response. Many of the similar processes may be due to convergent evolution. This overview of identified herpesviruses of fish discusses the diseases that alloherpesviruses cause, the biology of these viruses and the host-pathogen interactions. Much of our knowledge on the biology of Alloherpesvirdae is derived from research with two species: Ictalurid herpesvirus 1 (channel catfish virus) and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus).

  18. Herpesviruses that Infect Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Larry; Dishon, Arnon; Kotler, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Herpesviruses are host specific pathogens that are widespread among vertebrates. Genome sequence data demonstrate that most herpesviruses of fish and amphibians are grouped together (family Alloherpesviridae) and are distantly related to herpesviruses of reptiles, birds and mammals (family Herpesviridae). Yet, many of the biological processes of members of the order Herpesvirales are similar. Among the conserved characteristics are the virion structure, replication process, the ability to establish long term latency and the manipulation of the host immune response. Many of the similar processes may be due to convergent evolution. This overview of identified herpesviruses of fish discusses the diseases that alloherpesviruses cause, the biology of these viruses and the host-pathogen interactions. Much of our knowledge on the biology of Alloherpesvirdae is derived from research with two species: Ictalurid herpesvirus 1 (channel catfish virus) and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus). PMID:22163339

  19. Beyond biodiversity: fish metagenomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Ardura

    Full Text Available Biodiversity and intra-specific genetic diversity are interrelated and determine the potential of a community to survive and evolve. Both are considered together in Prokaryote communities treated as metagenomes or ensembles of functional variants beyond species limits.Many factors alter biodiversity in higher Eukaryote communities, and human exploitation can be one of the most important for some groups of plants and animals. For example, fisheries can modify both biodiversity and genetic diversity (intra specific. Intra-specific diversity can be drastically altered by overfishing. Intense fishing pressure on one stock may imply extinction of some genetic variants and subsequent loss of intra-specific diversity. The objective of this study was to apply a metagenome approach to fish communities and explore its value for rapid evaluation of biodiversity and genetic diversity at community level. Here we have applied the metagenome approach employing the barcoding target gene coi as a model sequence in catch from four very different fish assemblages exploited by fisheries: freshwater communities from the Amazon River and northern Spanish rivers, and marine communities from the Cantabric and Mediterranean seas.Treating all sequences obtained from each regional catch as a biological unit (exploited community we found that metagenomic diversity indices of the Amazonian catch sample here examined were lower than expected. Reduced diversity could be explained, at least partially, by overexploitation of the fish community that had been independently estimated by other methods.We propose using a metagenome approach for estimating diversity in Eukaryote communities and early evaluating genetic variation losses at multi-species level.

  20. Beyond biodiversity: fish metagenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardura, Alba; Planes, Serge; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity and intra-specific genetic diversity are interrelated and determine the potential of a community to survive and evolve. Both are considered together in Prokaryote communities treated as metagenomes or ensembles of functional variants beyond species limits.Many factors alter biodiversity in higher Eukaryote communities, and human exploitation can be one of the most important for some groups of plants and animals. For example, fisheries can modify both biodiversity and genetic diversity (intra specific). Intra-specific diversity can be drastically altered by overfishing. Intense fishing pressure on one stock may imply extinction of some genetic variants and subsequent loss of intra-specific diversity. The objective of this study was to apply a metagenome approach to fish communities and explore its value for rapid evaluation of biodiversity and genetic diversity at community level. Here we have applied the metagenome approach employing the barcoding target gene coi as a model sequence in catch from four very different fish assemblages exploited by fisheries: freshwater communities from the Amazon River and northern Spanish rivers, and marine communities from the Cantabric and Mediterranean seas.Treating all sequences obtained from each regional catch as a biological unit (exploited community) we found that metagenomic diversity indices of the Amazonian catch sample here examined were lower than expected. Reduced diversity could be explained, at least partially, by overexploitation of the fish community that had been independently estimated by other methods.We propose using a metagenome approach for estimating diversity in Eukaryote communities and early evaluating genetic variation losses at multi-species level.

  1. Concentration factors for fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, W.; Lauer, R.; Melzer, M.; Siebert, W.

    1978-01-01

    Concentration factors are defined as operators allowing to calculate the specific activity of fish meat from a given concentration of an element in the water. This parameter depends among others from the content of stable isotopes and homologues in the different waters. If this parameter is reasonably to be used for model calculations it must be referred to water with all of its content substances, these calculations also being based on this type of 'water'. (orig.) [de

  2. Fish eye optics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René; Michalová, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2017), s. 94-99 ISSN 1335-1842. [INTEGRAL/BART Workshop /14./. Karlovy Vary, 03.04.2017-07.04.2017] Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA13-33324S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : fish eye optics * lobster eye optics * X-ray monitoring Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 0.336, year: 2016

  3. Oral vaccination of fish

    OpenAIRE

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen breakdown in the harsh gastric environment, but also to the high tolerogenic gut environment and to inadequate vaccine design. In this review we discuss current approaches used to develop oral vaccines fo...

  4. Fish Synucleins: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Toni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Synucleins (syns are a family of proteins involved in several human neurodegenerative diseases and tumors. Since the first syn discovery in the brain of the electric ray Torpedo californica, members of the same family have been identified in all vertebrates and comparative studies have indicated that syn proteins are evolutionary conserved. No counterparts of syns were found in invertebrates suggesting that they are vertebrate-specific proteins. Molecular studies showed that the number of syn members varies among vertebrates. Three genes encode for α-, β- and γ-syn in mammals and birds. However, a variable number of syn genes and encoded proteins is expressed or predicted in fish depending on the species. Among biologically verified sequences, four syn genes were identified in fugu, encoding for α, β and two γ (γ1 and γ2 isoforms, whereas only three genes are expressed in zebrafish, which lacks α-syn gene. The list of “non verified” sequences is much longer and is often found in sequence databases. In this review we provide an overview of published papers and known syn sequences in agnathans and fish that are likely to impact future studies in this field. Indeed, fish models may play a key role in elucidating some of the molecular mechanisms involved in physiological and pathological functions of syn proteins.

  5. Dynamite fishing in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Lorna M; Kalangahe, Baraka

    2015-12-30

    Fishing using explosives is common in Tanzanian waters; it is considered to be more widely practised now than at any other point in history. Mwambao Coastal Community Network, a Tanzanian NGO carried out a multi-stakeholder consultation in April 2014 initiated through the concern of private investors and tourism operators. Consultations were held with villagers, fisheries officers, government officers, hoteliers, dive operators, fish processors, NGOs and other key individuals, and shed some light on key factors enabling this practice to flourish. Key areas identified for attention include engendering political will at all levels, upholding of the law through a non-corrupt enforcement and judicial system, and defining clear roles and responsibilities for monitoring and surveillance. The work identified other successful initiatives which have tackled this pervasive practice including projects that build local capacity for marine governance, villages that have declared themselves intolerant of blast-fishing, and private-public partnerships for patrol and protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fish Ontology framework for taxonomy-based fish recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Najib M.; Khan, Haris A.; Then, Amy Y-Hui; Ving Ching, Chong; Gaur, Manas

    2017-01-01

    Life science ontologies play an important role in Semantic Web. Given the diversity in fish species and the associated wealth of information, it is imperative to develop an ontology capable of linking and integrating this information in an automated fashion. As such, we introduce the Fish Ontology (FO), an automated classification architecture of existing fish taxa which provides taxonomic information on unknown fish based on metadata restrictions. It is designed to support knowledge discovery, provide semantic annotation of fish and fisheries resources, data integration, and information retrieval. Automated classification for unknown specimens is a unique feature that currently does not appear to exist in other known ontologies. Examples of automated classification for major groups of fish are demonstrated, showing the inferred information by introducing several restrictions at the species or specimen level. The current version of FO has 1,830 classes, includes widely used fisheries terminology, and models major aspects of fish taxonomy, grouping, and character. With more than 30,000 known fish species globally, the FO will be an indispensable tool for fish scientists and other interested users. PMID:28929028

  7. Fish Ontology framework for taxonomy-based fish recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib M. Ali

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Life science ontologies play an important role in Semantic Web. Given the diversity in fish species and the associated wealth of information, it is imperative to develop an ontology capable of linking and integrating this information in an automated fashion. As such, we introduce the Fish Ontology (FO, an automated classification architecture of existing fish taxa which provides taxonomic information on unknown fish based on metadata restrictions. It is designed to support knowledge discovery, provide semantic annotation of fish and fisheries resources, data integration, and information retrieval. Automated classification for unknown specimens is a unique feature that currently does not appear to exist in other known ontologies. Examples of automated classification for major groups of fish are demonstrated, showing the inferred information by introducing several restrictions at the species or specimen level. The current version of FO has 1,830 classes, includes widely used fisheries terminology, and models major aspects of fish taxonomy, grouping, and character. With more than 30,000 known fish species globally, the FO will be an indispensable tool for fish scientists and other interested users.

  8. 75 FR 6058 - Federal Sport Fish Restoration; California Department of Fish and Game Fish Hatchery and Stocking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ...] Federal Sport Fish Restoration; California Department of Fish and Game Fish Hatchery and Stocking Program... (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, for the EIR/EIS jointly prepared with CDFG. Under the Sport Fish Restoration... has authority to grant Federal funds from the Sport Fish Restoration and Boating Trust Fund to support...

  9. Swimbladder on Fish Target Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunardi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses of target strength (TS for the Selar boops (Oxeye scad and Megalaspis cordyla (Torpedo scad, the most commercially fish in Malaysia. TS can be determined from in situ measurements and acoustic calculation of fish model. TS value, depth, and position (x-y-z of targeted fish can be viewed from echogram using FQ-80 Analyzer by in situ measurement. X-ray imaged can be deployed to develop the acoustic fish model. The percentage of length and upper surface area for swimbladder to body fish of Selar boops more than Megalaspis cordyla can be measured after X-ray process. The percentage of width and volume of swimbladders to its each body are no significantly difference for both fish. These data of swimbladder physic support the result of in situ measurement which TS of Megalaspis cordyla stronger Selar boops.

  10. Tendency in fishing development and fish consumption in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tešić Milan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Production and catch of fish in Serbia increases from year to year, while in the world it reached its peak at the beginning of this century. Serbia has all the favorable natural and economic conditions for further development of fishing. Out of total production, that is, annual fish catch in Serbia, the greatest part is sold by organized purchase, lower part is exported, and the reminder goes to the market through retail. It is well known that food consumption, therefore fish consumption, depends on several factors such as the production level, retail price, consumers purchasing power and their eating habits. Therefore, when analyzing the tendency of production and consumption of fish in Serbia, it is important to investigate the influence of production, price and purchasing power of consumers on it. In order to investigate the set objective, there were used corresponding quantitative data obtained by Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. On the basis of the original data, there were determined certain parameters, which were used as variables for calculation of correlational-regressive and maginal analysis for determining the elasticity of demand and consummation of fish per capita in Serbia. Production and catch of fish in Serbia tended to increase during the observed period, with annual growth rate of 17.4%. Beside the fact that annual growth rate is 4.8%, fish consumption per capita in Serbia is still quite small (X=4.89kg, what is a consequence of population habit to consume predominantly meat. In our study we have found out that fish consumption in Serbia mostly depend on fish production per capita (rxy=0.6364, as well as on groos (rxy=0.6045 and net (rxy=0.5969 earnings. Also, it is determined that consumption elasticity has the highest growth in regard to fish production per capita. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31011

  11. Farming in a fish tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youth, H

    1992-01-01

    Water, fish, and vegetables are all things that most developing countries do not have enough of. There is a method of food production called aquaculture that integrates fish and vegetable growing and conserves and purifies water at the same time. A working system that grows vegetables and fish for regional supermarkets in Massachusetts is a gravity fed system. At the top of the system is a 3,000 gallon fish rearing tank that measures 12 feet in diameter. Water trickles out of the tank and fish wastes are captured which can be composted and used in farm fields. The water goes into a bio filter that contains bacteria which convert harmful ammonia generated from fish waste into beneficial nitrate. Then the water flows into 100 foot long hydroponic tanks where lettuce grows. A 1/6 horsepower pump return the purified water to the fish tank and completes the cycle. The key to success is maintaining a balance between the fish nutrients and waste and the plants nutrients and waste. The system is estimated to produce 35,000 heads of lettuce and 2 tons of fish annually which translates into $23,500. The system could be adapted to developing countries with several modifications to reduce the start up cost.

  12. Life histories of potamodromous fishes [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell F. Thurow

    2016-01-01

    Potamodromous fishes move and complete their life cycle entirely within freshwater. Myers (1949) proposed the term potamodromous to distinguish freshwater migratory fishes from diadromous fishes, which migrate between the sea and freshwater and oceanodromous fishes that migrate wholly within the sea. Diadromous fishes include anadromous, catadromous and amphidromous...

  13. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing. 404.10 Section 404.10... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster fishing... species. (1) Notwithstanding the prohibitions in § 404.7(a) and (h), commercial fishing for bottomfish and...

  14. Radioactivity of fish II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obo, F; Wakamatsu, C; Hiwatashi, Y; Tamari, T; Yoshitake, N; Tajima, D

    1955-01-01

    Various tissues of fish captured east of Formosa after the Bikini H-Bomb experiment had radioactivities (detected on May 27, 1954) in counts/min/ash from 5 g. fresh tissues: blood 2414, eyeball 49, heart muscle 111, white muscle 11, red muscle (chiai) 123, bone 46, skin 28, pancreas 131, liver 522, stomach muscle 106, stomach contents 52, spermatozoa 47, and spleen 504. High radioactivities in blood and blood synthesizing organs (liver and spleen) were emphasized. The radioactivity in the blood had a half-life of 34 to 35 days and the maximum energy of ..beta..-ray of approximate 0.4 m.e.v.

  15. Effect of Recreational Fish Feeding on Reef Fish Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... that the reaction to bread at feeding sites was quicker than at control sites, which indicates that some species learn to feed on this novel source of food. Keywords:human-animal interactions, reef fish, recreational fish feeding, tourism impacts, MPAs, coral reefs, Kenya West Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science Vol.

  16. Fishing effects on energy use by North Sea fishes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jennings, S.; Hal, van R.; Hiddink, J.G.; Maxwell, T.A.D.

    2008-01-01

    Fishing affects patterns of energy use in fish populations, as demonstrated by changes in population energy consumption and the size and age when energy demands are greatest. We compare theoretical predictions and observed patterns of energy use (expressed as the primary production required to

  17. Fish Karyome: A karyological information network database of Indian Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Pathak, Ajey Kumar; Pati, Rameshwar; Singh, Shri Prakash; Singh, Mahender; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Kumar, Ravindra

    2012-01-01

    'Fish Karyome', a database on karyological information of Indian fishes have been developed that serves as central source for karyotype data about Indian fishes compiled from the published literature. Fish Karyome has been intended to serve as a liaison tool for the researchers and contains karyological information about 171 out of 2438 finfish species reported in India and is publically available via World Wide Web. The database provides information on chromosome number, morphology, sex chromosomes, karyotype formula and cytogenetic markers etc. Additionally, it also provides the phenotypic information that includes species name, its classification, and locality of sample collection, common name, local name, sex, geographical distribution, and IUCN Red list status. Besides, fish and karyotype images, references for 171 finfish species have been included in the database. Fish Karyome has been developed using SQL Server 2008, a relational database management system, Microsoft's ASP.NET-2008 and Macromedia's FLASH Technology under Windows 7 operating environment. The system also enables users to input new information and images into the database, search and view the information and images of interest using various search options. Fish Karyome has wide range of applications in species characterization and identification, sex determination, chromosomal mapping, karyo-evolution and systematics of fishes.

  18. Fish oil quality of by-product (fish skin from swangi fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Ode Huli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The skin of swangi fish is a potential fish skin to be produced for fish oil. The objectives of this research were aimed to determine the yield and the best quality of fish oil and also to compare fatty acid profile of the fish according to different extraction methods. Fish oil extractions were used by wet rendering method with extraction temperatures of 60, 70, 80, 90, 100°C for 20, 30, and 40 minutes. Fish oil quality was determined by the chemical oil characteristics i.e. PV, FFA, AV, anisidin, and TOTOX. Fatty acid profile was analyzed using gas chromatography (Shimadzu. The results of the study showed that the highest fish oil yield in each treatment was obtained extraction temperature of 60°C for 30 minutes with percentage of 0.33, (70°C for 30 minutes 0.46, (80°C for 30 minutes 1.23, (90°C for 20 minutes 1.14 and (100°C for 20 minutes 0.84. These values were lower compare to Bligh & Dyer and Soxhlet methods. Then, the best fish oil quality was resulted on temperature extraction of 60°C for 30 minutes with PV, FFA, anisidin, AV, and TOTOX were 9.17 meq/kg, 6.92%, 13,77 mg KOH/g, 0.86 meq/kg and 19.19 meq/kg, respectively. FUFA fatty acid compositions of swangi skin fish oil especially EPA and DHA in wet rendering method were gained 0.73% and 2.53%, respectively. These results were lower than Bligh & Dyer method which was consisted of 3.66% (EPA, and 13.29% (DHA and also Soxhlet extraction method with value of EPA was 2.78% and DHA was 9.62%.Keywords: EPA, extraction temperature, DHA, fish oil quality, fish skin

  19. Fishes and humankind III. Editorial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. G. Jones

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The publication of this group of three papers form part of the 1987 meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoologists Fish Remains Working Group which took place at the University of York, U. K. The papers illustrate an increased awareness of the significance of ichthyological research to archaeology and cover three areas of research: taphonomy; fishing artefacts; and fish remains recovered from an excavation. Jones sheds some light on the relative robustness of the bewildering array of elements in a fish skeleton by recording damage to a skeleton when it is trampled. His paper suggests an index of robustness which might be used to assess the degree of fragmentation in archaeological assemblages. Kemp reports on the excavation of a small medieval building located adjacent to medieval fish ponds created by Cistercian monks in North Yorkshire, England. In addition to the structural evidence, an impressive assemblage of weights, presumably net weights, found on or near the site is published. Perhaps most significant is a large lead weight which may have been used to weight catches of fish from the ponds. Fish remains recovered from two excavations at the quayside at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England are discussed by Nicholson. Around 6000 identified bones form the basis for the study, the majority of which were identified as Gadid (cod family or herring. While the main food fishes typify fish bone assemblages from most post-Roman urban archaeological sites, the identification of small fishes such as sandeels, smelt, gobies and buttefish may indicate the utilisation of fish not nowadays considered as food at all. Given the diversity of species (30 individual species identified it is suggested that the remains from the main bone-producing organic horizons, dated to the late twelfth to thirteenth centuries, may include discard from a nearby fishmarket.

  20. Using Smart Packaging in Fish and Fish Based Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Tuğçe AKSUN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Food packaging have three main roles during protection, preservation and storage are still involved better continuance of food quality. Evolution of civilization and improvement of new kind of food stuffs, packaging industry must created new possibilities for preventation of food quality during shelf-life. The quality and safety of perishable food is related to microbial quality has got a significance role. Fish is a very perishable food product. It is a very low acidic food and thus is very liable to the expansion of food poisoning bacteria. Also decomposition of fish can be by reason of enzymatic spoilage, oxidation and/or bacterial spoilage. Fish is an important resource of polyunsaturated fatty acids stated to have defensive effects in opposition to heartconnected diseases. Some smart packaging mechanisms liable to determine this break down incident thought storage. In this review, smart packaging technologies that could be used to detect breakdown compounds from packed fish and fish products.

  1. Dam spills and fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This short paper reports the main topics discussed during the two days of the annual colloquium of the Hydro-ecology Committee of EdF. The first day was devoted to the presentation of the joint works carried out by EdF, the Paul-Sabatier University (Toulouse), the Provence St-Charles University (Marseille), the ENSAT (Toulouse) and the CEMAGREF (Lyon and Aix-en-Provence) about the environmental impact of dam spills on the aquatic flora and fauna downstream. A synthesis and recommendations were presented for the selection and characterization of future sites. The second day was devoted to the hydro-ecology study of the dam reservoir of Petit-Saut (French Guyana): water reoxygenation, quality evolution, organic matter, plankton, invertebrates and fishes. The 134 French dams concerned by water spills have been classified according to the frequency of spills, the variations of flow rates created, and their impacts on fishing, walking, irrigation, industry, drinking water, navigation, bathing. Particular studies on different sites have demonstrated the complexity of the phenomena involved concerning the impact on the ecosystems and the water quality. (J.S.)

  2. Fish ladders: safe fish passage or hotspot for predation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Agostinho

    Full Text Available Fish ladders are a strategy for conserving biodiversity, as they can provide connectivity between fragmented habitats and reduce predation on shoals that accumulate immediately below dams. Although the impact of predation downstream of reservoirs has been investigated, especially in juvenile salmonids during their downstream movements, nothing is known about predation on Neotropical fish in the attraction and containment areas commonly found in translocation facilities. This study analysed predation in a fish passage system at the Lajeado Dam on the Tocantins River in Brazil. The abundance, distribution, and the permanence (time spent of large predatory fish along the ladder, the injuries imposed by piranhas during passage and the presence of other vertebrate predators were investigated. From December 2002 to October 2003, sampling was conducted in four regions (downstream, along the ladder, in the forebay, and upstream of the reservoir using gillnets, cast nets and counts or visual observations. The captured fish were tagged with thread and beads, and any mutilations were registered. Fish, birds and dolphins were the main predator groups observed, with a predominance of the first two groups. The entrance to the ladder, in the downstream region, was the area with the highest number of large predators and was the only region with relevant non-fish vertebrates. The main predatory fish species were Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hydrolycus armatus, and Serrasalmus rhombeus. Tagged individuals were detected predating along the ladder for up to 90 days. Mutilations caused by Serrasalmus attacks were noted in 36% of species and 4% of individuals at the top of the ladder. Our results suggested that the high density of fish in the restricted ladder environment, which is associated with injuries suffered along the ladder course and the presence of multiple predator groups with different predation strategies, transformed the fish corridor into a hotspot for

  3. Relative and combined effects of habitat and fishing on reef fish communities across a limited fishing gradient at Ningaloo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Shaun K; Babcock, Russ C; Fisher, Rebecca; Holmes, Thomas H; Moore, James A Y; Thomson, Damian P

    2012-10-01

    Habitat degradation and fishing are major drivers of temporal and spatial changes in fish communities. The independent effects of these drivers are well documented, but the relative importance and interaction between fishing and habitat shifts is poorly understood, particularly in complex systems such as coral reefs. To assess the combined and relative effects of fishing and habitat we examined the composition of fish communities on patch reefs across a gradient of high to low structural complexity in fished and unfished areas of the Ningaloo Marine Park, Western Australia. Biomass and species richness of fish were positively correlated with structural complexity of reefs and negatively related to macroalgal cover. Total abundance of fish was also positively related to structural complexity, however this relationship was stronger on fished reefs than those where fishing is prohibited. The interaction between habitat condition and fishing pressure is primarily due to the high abundance of small bodied planktivorous fish on fished reefs. However, the influence of management zones on the abundance and biomass of predators and target species is small, implying spatial differences in fishing pressure are low and unlikely to be driving this interaction. Our results emphasise the importance of habitat in structuring reef fish communities on coral reefs especially when gradients in fishing pressure are low. The influence of fishing effort on this relationship may however become more important as fishing pressure increases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Let us fish4tomorrow

    OpenAIRE

    J.D., Farrugia

    2015-01-01

    All over the world, governments and stakeholders are trying to cope with overfishing. Overfishing is when too much fish is caught which leads to an overall degradation of the marine ecosystem. It is the non-sustainable use of ocean resources. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/let-us-fish4tomorrow/

  5. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This review on ciguatera fish poisoning contains information on the ciguatera intoxication syndrome and the provoking ciguatoxins (CTXs) and gambiertoxin-4b (GTX-4B), of which CTX-1 is a major component at the end of food chain (the carnivore fish). Data on chemical structures and detection methods

  6. Biodiversity of arctic marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mecklenburg, Catherine W.; Møller, Peter Rask; Steinke, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Taxonomic and distributional information on each fish species found in arctic marine waters is reviewed, and a list of families and species with commentary on distributional records is presented. The list incorporates results from examination of museum collections of arctic marine fishes dating b...

  7. Radioprotective effect of fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadzhijski, L.; Alyakov, M.; Tsvetkova, E.; Kavrakirova, S.; Chamova, S.; Chaneva, M.

    1993-01-01

    New fish cans were prepared in the Institute of Fish Industry, Burgas (BG), containing pectin and additives. A biological experimental study was conducted to investigate the decontaminating effect of the new products. The results demonstrated no decontaminating effect in relation to radiocesium and radiostrontium. A pronounced prophylactic effect was observed in case of external irradiation, judged by endogenous spleen colonies. (author)

  8. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  9. Guidelines for risk-based fish inspection

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Fish and fishery products are nutritious and healthy and are an important source of food and livelihood for many millions of people worldwide. Fish inspection is concerned with ensuring that the consumer has access to safe and nutritious fish and fish products, whether the fish is from domestic sources of supply, imported or to be exported to consumers in another country. The present guidelines will assist fish inspectors to carry out these responsibilities--Publisher's description.

  10. Do Fish Enhance Tank Mixing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Laursen, Jesper; Craig, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    The design of fish rearing tanks represents a critical stage in the development of optimal aquaculture systems, especially in the context of recirculating systems. Poor hydrodynamics can compromise water quality, waste management and the physiology and behaviour of fish, and thence, production...... potential and operational profitability. The hydrodynamic performance of tanks, therefore, represents an important parameter during the tank design process. Because there are significant complexities in combining the rigid principles of hydrodynamics with the stochastic behaviour of fish, however, most data...... upon tank hydrokinetics has been derived using tanks void of fish. Clearly, the presence of randomly moving objects, such as fish, in a water column will influence not only tank volumes by displacing water, but due to their activity, water dynamics and associated in-tank processes. In order...

  11. Snapshots of past fish faunas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Inge Bødker; Ediger, Vedat

    2016-01-01

    Analyses of fish remains from sediment cores make it possible to detect not only commonly caught fish from prehistoric times, but also species without any economic importance, but with high value of paleaoecological reconstructions. In this study, fish bones from sediment cores reaching several...... thousand years back and taken in the Baltic and Black Seas were analysed. All fish remains dealt with postdate the last glaciations and are from the last marine/brackish stages of both seas. In the Baltic cores, 13+ species were found, the most abundant ones being sand-eel and clupeids (herring and sprat...... before industrial fishing for them began. Clupeids, in the Baltic samples also sand-eel, dominate the materials. Both contain species that would hardly be expected on archaeological sites. Experience from this study leads to methodological recommendations regarding dating of material from sediment cores...

  12. Clostridium botulinum in irradiated fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, G.

    1977-01-01

    The properties of the Cl. botulinum resp. its toxin are described with a view to a combined heat and radiation treatment for fish conservation. The method is tested in several laboratories on 10 different fish products. It is found that the spore former Cl. botulinum is a critical factor in this type of preservation which can hardly be overcome although this method has organoleptic advantages over heat pasteurization of fish. At a storage temperatue over 5 0 C, there is a strong increase in toxin; the same applies to fish with a high fat content. Under poor hygienic conditions, the risk is markedly increased. The author recommends strict control measures in the production and distribution of fish, i.e. cooling and salt treatment. (AJ) [de

  13. Phylogenetic classification of bony fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur-R, Ricardo; Wiley, Edward O; Arratia, Gloria; Acero, Arturo; Bailly, Nicolas; Miya, Masaki; Lecointre, Guillaume; Ortí, Guillermo

    2017-07-06

    Fish classifications, as those of most other taxonomic groups, are being transformed drastically as new molecular phylogenies provide support for natural groups that were unanticipated by previous studies. A brief review of the main criteria used by ichthyologists to define their classifications during the last 50 years, however, reveals slow progress towards using an explicit phylogenetic framework. Instead, the trend has been to rely, in varying degrees, on deep-rooted anatomical concepts and authority, often mixing taxa with explicit phylogenetic support with arbitrary groupings. Two leading sources in ichthyology frequently used for fish classifications (JS Nelson's volumes of Fishes of the World and W. Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes) fail to adopt a global phylogenetic framework despite much recent progress made towards the resolution of the fish Tree of Life. The first explicit phylogenetic classification of bony fishes was published in 2013, based on a comprehensive molecular phylogeny ( www.deepfin.org ). We here update the first version of that classification by incorporating the most recent phylogenetic results. The updated classification presented here is based on phylogenies inferred using molecular and genomic data for nearly 2000 fishes. A total of 72 orders (and 79 suborders) are recognized in this version, compared with 66 orders in version 1. The phylogeny resolves placement of 410 families, or ~80% of the total of 514 families of bony fishes currently recognized. The ordinal status of 30 percomorph families included in this study, however, remains uncertain (incertae sedis in the series Carangaria, Ovalentaria, or Eupercaria). Comments to support taxonomic decisions and comparisons with conflicting taxonomic groups proposed by others are presented. We also highlight cases were morphological support exist for the groups being classified. This version of the phylogenetic classification of bony fishes is substantially improved, providing resolution

  14. The campaign to DNA barcode all fishes, FISH-BOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R D; Hanner, R; Hebert, P D N

    2009-02-01

    FISH-BOL, the Fish Barcode of Life campaign, is an international research collaboration that is assembling a standardized reference DNA sequence library for all fishes. Analysis is targeting a 648 base pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. More than 5000 species have already been DNA barcoded, with an average of five specimens per species, typically vouchers with authoritative identifications. The barcode sequence from any fish, fillet, fin, egg or larva can be matched against these reference sequences using BOLD; the Barcode of Life Data System (http://www.barcodinglife.org). The benefits of barcoding fishes include facilitating species identification, highlighting cases of range expansion for known species, flagging previously overlooked species and enabling identifications where traditional methods cannot be applied. Results thus far indicate that barcodes separate c. 98 and 93% of already described marine and freshwater fish species, respectively. Several specimens with divergent barcode sequences have been confirmed by integrative taxonomic analysis as new species. Past concerns in relation to the use of fish barcoding for species discrimination are discussed. These include hybridization, recent radiations, regional differentiation in barcode sequences and nuclear copies of the barcode region. However, current results indicate these issues are of little concern for the great majority of specimens.

  15. Genomics and fish adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinho Antunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The completion of the human genome sequencing in 2003 opened a new perspective into the importance of whole genome sequencing projects, and currently multiple species are having their genomes completed sequenced, from simple organisms, such as bacteria, to more complex taxa, such as mammals. This voluminous sequencing data generated across multiple organisms provides also the framework to better understand the genetic makeup of such species and related ones, allowing to explore the genetic changes underlining the evolution of diverse phenotypic traits. Here, recent results from our group retrieved from comparative evolutionary genomic analyses of varied fish species will be considered to exemplify how gene novelty and gene enhancement by positive selection might have been determinant in the success of adaptive radiations into diverse habitats and lifestyles.

  16. Physiology of fish endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plisetskaya, E M

    1989-06-01

    From the very beginning of physiological studies on the endocine pancreas, fish have been used as experimental subjects. Fish insulin was one of the first vertebrate insulins isolated and one of the first insulins whose primary and then tertiary structures were reported. Before a second pancreatic hormone, glucagon, was characterized, a physiologically active 'impurity', similar to that in mammalian insulin preparations, was found in fish insulins.Fish have become the most widely used model for studies of biosynthesis and processing of the pancreatic hormones. It seems inconceivable, therefore, that until the recent past cod and tuna insulins have been the only purified piscine islet hormones available for physiological experiments. The situation has changed remarkably during the last decade.In this review the contemporary status of physiological studies on the fish pancreas is outlined with an emphasis on the following topics: 1) contents of pancreatic peptides in plasma and in islet tissue; 2) actions of piscine pancreatic hormones in fish; 3) specific metabolic consequences of an acute insufficiency of pancreatic peptides; 4) functional interrelations among pancreatic peptides which differ from those of mammals. The pitfalls, lacunae and the perspectives of contemporary physiological studies on fish endocrine pancreas are outlined.

  17. Water intake fish diversion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taft, E.P. III; Cook, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    A fish diversion apparatus uses a plane screen to divert fish for variety of types of water intakes in order to protect fish from injury and death. The apparatus permits selection of a relatively small screen angle, for example ten degrees, to minimize fish injury. The apparatus permits selection of a high water velocity, for example ten feet per second, to maximize power generation efficiency. The apparatus is especially suitable retrofit to existing water intakes. The apparatus is modular to allow use plural modules in parallel to adjust for water flow conditions. The apparatus has a floor, two opposite side walls, and a roof which define a water flow passage and a plane screen within the passage. The screen is oriented to divert fish into a fish bypass which carries fish to a safe discharge location. The dimensions of the floor, walls, and roof are selected to define the dimensions of the passage and to permit selection of the screen angle. The floor is bi-level with a level upstream of the screen and a level beneath screen selected to provide a uniform flow distribution through the screen. The apparatus may include separation walls to provide a water flow channel between the apparatus and the water intake. Lead walls may be used to adjust water flow conditions into the apparatus. The apparatus features stoplog guides near its upstream and downstream ends to permit the water flow passage to be dewatered. 3 figs

  18. Climate Change and Fish Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Paul P. S.; Lassa, Jonatan; Caballero-Anthony, Mely

    Human consumption of fish has been trending upwards in the past decades and this is projected to continue. The main sources of fish are from wild fisheries (marine and freshwater) and aquaculture. Climate change is anticipated to affect the availability of fish through its effect on these two sources as well as on supply chain processes such as storage, transport, processing and retail. Climate change is known to result in warmer and more acid oceans. Ocean acidification due to higher CO2 concentration levels at sea modifies the distribution of phytoplankton and zooplankton to affect wild, capture fisheries. Higher temperature causes warm-water coral reefs to respond with species replacement and bleaching, leading to coral cover loss and habitat loss. Global changes in climatic systems may also cause fish invasion, extinction and turnover. While this may be catastrophic for small scale fish farming in poor tropical communities, there are also potential effects on animal protein supply shifts at local and global scales with food security consequences. This paper discusses the potential impacts of climate change on fisheries and aquaculture in the Asian Pacific region, with special emphasis on Southeast Asia. The key question to be addressed is “What are the impacts of global climate change on global fish harvests and what does it mean to the availability of fish?”

  19. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for Long Island, New York. Vector polygons...

  20. Fish Farmers' Perception of Climate change impact on fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Madukwe

    Information on personal characteristics revealed that most of the ... family's ownership of fish smoking processing assets contributed to climate ..... Deep freezer. 8. 4.8 .... The information needs and information-seeking behaviour of fishermen ...

  1. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, pelagic, benthic, and estuarine fish species in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Vector...

  2. The fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff

    2017-01-01

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, the causative agent of white spot disease (ichthyophthiriasis) is a major burden for fish farmers and aquarists globally. The parasite infects the skin and the gills of freshwater fish, which may acquire a protective adaptive immune response against this disease...... and recognition of carcinogenic and environmentally damaging effects the most efficient compounds are prohibited. A continuous search for novel substances, which are highly effective against the parasites and harmless for the fish is ongoing. These compounds should be environmentally friendly and cost...

  3. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L.K.; Hansen, Tine Kjær; Norgaard, A.

    2001-01-01

    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  4. Selectivity of fish ladders: a bottleneck in Neotropical fish movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sérgio Agostinho

    Full Text Available Although dozens of fish ladders have been constructed at dams of Brazilian reservoirs, there are few studies evaluating their efficiency as a tool for the conservation of Neotropical ichthyofauna, especially for migratory species. Therefore, the present study evaluated the selectivity of the species that entered and ascended the fish ladder located next to Lajeado Dam (Luis Eduardo Magalhães Hydroelectric Power Plant on the Tocantins River. Samples were taken monthly from November, 2002 through October, 2003, in the resting pools of the ladder, using cast nets, and in the downstream stretch, using gillnets. The selectivity of the ladder in attracting fish was evaluated by comparing the occurrence, relative abundance, dominance and the congruence of abundance ranks of migratory and non-migratory species in the ladder and in the stretch of river immediately downstream. Species richness and fish abundance in the resting pools were used to evaluate selectivity along the ladder. The effects on selectivity by temporal variations in water level downriver and maximum flow velocity in the fish ladder were also analyzed. Out of the 130 species recorded downriver, 62.3% were caught in the ladder, and migratory species were clearly favored. However, more than 2/3 of the catch belonged to only three species (Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Psectrogaster amazonica and Oxydoras niger. Although the majority of the species that entered the ladder were able to reach its top, there was a sharp reduction in abundance of individuals towards the top. Temporal variations in the water level below the dam influenced richness and abundance of fish concentrated downstream and in the ladder, with lower values during periods of low water. In the ladder, a maximum flow velocity of 2.3 m/s, although also selective, proved to be more appropriate for fish ascension than a velocity of 2.8 m/s. It was concluded that the entry and ascension of the fish in the ladder were not congruent with

  5. The evaluation of energy in fish feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haidar, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    New and alternative plant ingredients are increasingly incorporated in fish feed due to the scarcity of captured fish and increased fishmeal and fish oil prices. As a result, current fish feeds are characterized by a highly variable ingredients composition, leading to a similar variability in the

  6. Fishing. Unit 1, Colorado Division of Wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, George K.; Smith, Dwight R.

    This booklet on fishing is part of a series developed to encourage youth to pursue outdoor projects. Fish anatomy, equipment, casting techniques, knot and leader tying, hooks, fishing areas, cleaning and cooking fish, types of bait, lures, and regulations are discussed and illustrated. Suggested activities and field trips are listed. (MR)

  7. Cyprinid fishes: systematics, biology, and exploitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winfield, Ian J; Nelson, Joseph S

    1991-01-01

    .... As this family is extremely important as forage fish for other animals, as food fish for humans and are commonly used as models in experimental work, the book will be of great interest to all those with an interest in freshwater fish, fish ecology, fisheries biology and aquaculture systems.

  8. Undulatory fish swimming : from muscles to flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, U.K.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Undulatory swimming is employed by many fish for routine swimming and extended sprints. In this biomechanical review, we address two questions: (i) how the fish's axial muscles power swimming; and (ii) how the fish's body and fins generate thrust. Fish have adapted the morphology of their axial

  9. Multisensor for fish quality determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, G.; Nesvadba, P.; Di Natale, C.

    2004-01-01

    The European fish industry is still reluctant to implement methods other than sensory to monitor freshness and quality of fish products, although general concensus exists about the importance of various quality attributes and the need for methods to monitor quality. The objective of the project...... FAIR CT98-4076 (MUSTEC) was to evaluate several physico-chemical techniques and to integrate their outputs into a more robust estimate of the freshness quality of fish. The techniques used for this multisensor approach were based on visible light spectroscopy, electrical properties, image analysis...... sensory score. The outcome provides a basis for the construction and industrial exploitation of multi-sensor-devices for defining the quality of fish....

  10. AKRO: Guided Angler Fish Landings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Beginning in 2014, the the halibut Catch Sharing Plan (CSP) authorizes annual transfers of commercial halibut IFQ as guided angler fish (GAF) to charter halibut...

  11. Massachusetts Recreational Fishing Demand Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stated preference choice experiment data were collected in 2012 from Massachuestts saltwater recreational fishermen. Saltwater anglers fishing in Massachusetts (MA)...

  12. Who cares about fish welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Grimsrud, Kristine; Nielsen, Hanne Marie

    2015-01-01

    . Research limitations/implications – In this study willingness to pay is measured using a hypothetical choice experiment. Values people express as citizens, however, may not accurately predict true consumer behaviour. This is generally referred to as “citizen-consumer duality” and may have affected...... about the appropriate way to pay for better welfare standards in fish production. Design/methodology/approach – On the basis of two focus group sessions, a survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to a representative sample of 2,147 Norwegian households via e-mail. Findings – Results showed...... the results. Practical implications – The study shows that there is a national market for welfare-assured fish products, but education initiatives focusing on fish farming and fish welfare issues would further influence the attitudes and purchasing habits of Norwegian consumers. Originality/value – Although...

  13. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A

    2001-01-01

    , denominated the parvalbumins. This cross-reactivity has been indicated to be of clinical relevance for several species, since patients with a positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge to cod will also react with other fish species, such as herring, plaice and mackerel. In spite......Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  14. Pine Bluff Arsenal Fish Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peacock, Lance

    2000-01-01

    Arkansas has a diverse ichthyofauna of over 215 species of fishes distributed in sixty-three genera and twenty-seven families which occupy a myriad of different aquatic habitats within its poltical boundaries...

  15. Fish sampling with active methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubečka, Jan; Godo, O. R.; Hickley, P.; Prchalová, Marie; Říha, Milan; Rudstam, L.; Welcomme, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 123, July (2012), s. 1-3 ISSN 0165-7836 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : fish stock assessment * active and passive gear * intercalibration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.695, year: 2012

  16. Tortugas Reef Fish Census (CRCP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a long term data set collecting visual census transect data on reef fishes at staions located at Rileys Hump, Tortugas South Ecological Reservee.

  17. Hawaii ESI: FISHPT (Fish Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for native stream and anchialine pool fish species in coastal Hawaii. (Anchialine pools are small,...

  18. (Zimmerman, 1780) Ecomorphology of fishes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deals with ecology and physiology, the authors show that the ... a Symposium on the Ecomorphology of Fishes held during ... A functional analysis follows, providing the causal ... incorporation of phylogenetic components may then be used.

  19. The fishes of Genome 10K

    KAUST Repository

    Bernardi, Giacomo

    2012-09-01

    The Genome 10K project aims to sequence the genomes of 10,000 vertebrates, representing approximately one genome for each vertebrate genus. Since fishes (cartilaginous fishes, ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned fishes) represent more than 50% of extant vertebrates, it is planned to target 4,000 fish genomes. At present, nearly 60 fish genomes are being sequenced at various public funded labs, and under a Genome 10K and BGI pilot project. An additional 100 fishes have been identified for sequencing in the next phase of Genome 10K project. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  20. The fishes of Genome 10K

    KAUST Repository

    Bernardi, Giacomo; Wiley, Edward O.; Mansour, Hicham; Miller, Michael R.; Ortí , Guillermo; Haussler, David H.; O'Brien, Stephen J O; Ryder, Oliver A.; Venkatesh, Byrappa

    2012-01-01

    The Genome 10K project aims to sequence the genomes of 10,000 vertebrates, representing approximately one genome for each vertebrate genus. Since fishes (cartilaginous fishes, ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned fishes) represent more than 50% of extant vertebrates, it is planned to target 4,000 fish genomes. At present, nearly 60 fish genomes are being sequenced at various public funded labs, and under a Genome 10K and BGI pilot project. An additional 100 fishes have been identified for sequencing in the next phase of Genome 10K project. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Fueling Global Fishing Fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyedmers, Peter H.; Watson, Reg; Pauly, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Over the course of the 20th century, fossil fuels became the dominant energy input to most of the world's fisheries. Although various analyses have quantified fuel inputs to individual fisheries, to date, no attempt has been made to quantify the global scale and to map the distribution of fuel consumed by fisheries. By integrating data representing more than 250 fisheries from around the world with spatially resolved catch statistics for 2000, we calculate that globally, fisheries burned almost 50 billion L of fuel in the process of landing just over 80 million t of marine fish and invertebrates for an average rate of 620 L/t. Consequently, fisheries account for about 1.2% of global oil consumption, an amount equivalent to that burned by the Netherlands, the 18th-ranked oil consuming country globally, and directly emit more than 130 million t of CO 2 into the atmosphere. From an efficiency perspective, the energy content of the fuel burned by global fisheries is 12.5 times greater than the edible protein energy content of the resulting catch

  2. 21 CFR 102.45 - Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.45 Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fish sticks or...

  3. Statistical modelling of fish stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Trine

    1999-01-01

    for modelling the dynamics of a fish population is suggested. A new approach is introduced to analyse the sources of variation in age composition data, which is one of the most important sources of information in the cohort based models for estimation of stock abundancies and mortalities. The approach combines...... and it is argued that an approach utilising stochastic differential equations might be advantagous in fish stoch assessments....

  4. Habitat segregation in fish assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Ibbotson, A.T.

    1990-01-01

    The segregation of habitats of fish assemblages found in the chalk streams and rivers within the Wessex, South West and Southern Water Authority boundaries in southern England have been examined. Habitat segregation is the most frequent type of resource partitioning in natural communities. The habitat of individual fish species will be defined in order to determine the following: (1) the requirements of each species in terms of depth, current velocity, substrate, cover etc.; (2) identify the ...

  5. Fish screens at hydroelectric diversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    Preventing downstream migrating fish from entering the turbines at hydroelectric projects is a standard mitigation goal of state and federal fishery management agencies. The object is to minimize the adverse impacts to the fish associated with the exclusion and passage through the bypass water conveyance facilities. In the western United States, most of the fishery management agencies have fish screen design criteria that focus on the approach and transportational velocities, maximum opening dimensions of the screen material, and the cleaning standards. Recently, more attention has been given to fish behavioral traits such as attraction and sustained and darting swimming speed, which has resulted in more attention to the position of the screens to the flow and the length of time the downstream migrants are exposed to the screens. Criteria for length of time of exposure, size and position of bypass, flow and velocities in the bypass entrances, discharge requirements back into the receiving water, and exposure to predation have created unique challenges to the fish screen designer. This paper discusses some of the more recent types of fixed fish screens that are being installed at hydroelectric plants that meet these challenges

  6. Swimming activity in marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, C S

    1985-01-01

    Marine fish are capable of swimming long distances in annual migrations; they are also capable of high-speed dashes of short duration, and they can occupy small home territories for long periods with little activity. There is a large effect of fish size on the distance fish migrate at slow swimming speeds. When chased by a fishing trawl the effect of fish size on swimming performance can decide their fate. The identity and thickness of muscle used at each speed and evidence for the timing of myotomes used during the body movement cycle can be detected using electromyogram (EMG) electrodes. The cross-sectional area of muscle needed to maintain different swimming speeds can be predicted by relating the swimming drag force to the muscle force. At maximum swimming speed one completed cycle of swimming force is derived in sequence from the whole cross-sectional area of the muscles along the two sides of the fish. This and other aspects of the swimming cycle suggest that each myotome might be responsible for generating forces involved in particular stages of the tail sweep. The thick myotomes at the head end shorten during the peak thrust of the tail blade whereas the thinner myotomes nearer the tail generate stiffness appropriate for transmission of these forces and reposition the tail for the next cycle.

  7. The evolution of vertebrate eye size across an environmental gradient: phenotype does not predict genotype in a Trinidadian killifish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beston, Shannon M; Wostl, Elijah; Walsh, Matthew R

    2017-08-01

    Vertebrates exhibit substantial variation in eye size. Eye size correlates positively with visual capacity and behaviors that enhance fitness, such as predator avoidance. This foreshadows a connection between predation and eye size evolution. Yet, the conditions that favor evolutionary shifts in eye size, besides the well-known role for light availability, are unclear. We tested the influence of predation on the evolution of eye size in Trinidadian killifish, Rivulus hartii. Rivulus are located across a series of communities where they coexist with visually oriented piscivores ("high predation" sites), and no predators ("Rivulus-only" sites). Wild-caught Rivulus from high predation sites generally exhibited a smaller relative eye size than communities that lack predators. Yet, such differences were inconsistent across rivers. Second-generation common garden reared fish revealed repeatable decreases in eye size in Rivulus from high predation sites. We performed additional experiments that tested the importance of light and resources on eye size evolution. Sites that differ in light or resource availability did not differ in eye size. Our results argue that differences in predator-induced mortality underlie genetically-based shifts in vertebrate eye size. We discuss the drivers of eye size evolution in light of the nonparallel trends between the phenotypic and common garden results. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Investigation of Fish Consumption in Giresun City

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Türkmen; Aysun Türkmen; Köksal Duran

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the fish consumption in Giresun by survey method. Fish meat was compared with other meat types according to education, level of income, consumption rate and quantity. In research carried out according to the random sampling method. Questions were asked face to face a total of 433 persons. A total 428 participants (98.9%) stated that they consumed fish. However, the most consumed meat type is chicken, second is fish. A total 91% participant preferred marine fish...

  9. Fish and mussels: importance of fish for freshwater mussel conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Sousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Co-extinctions have received trivial consideration in discussions about the global conservation crisis, even though recent studies have emphasised their importance. This situation is even more pronounced in freshwater ecosystems where this phenomenon is largely unrecognized. In this presentation we explore the role of fish for freshwater mussels’ conservation. Freshwater mussels’ need fish as a host to complete their life cycle and given this premise is expected that changes in the fish community due to species extinctions or additions may have great effects. We reviewed the published information and we found: 1 that most of the studies were published in the last few years; 2 that most of the studies were performed in North America (69%, which is probably due to the high number of endemic threatened species in this continent; 3 that most of the mussel species that are specialists in fish hosting are listed as vulnerable or endangered (55%; 4 most studies were performed in laboratory (83% and 5 that the majority of studies were focused on life cycle or on identifying suitable fish hosts of freshwater mussel species with few studies focusing on threats. Since the interaction between fish and freshwater mussels can be easily disrupted and serious threats to this interaction have arisen (e.g. loss and fragmentation of habitat, changes in river flow, climate change, introduction of invasive species, pollution a more holistic approach is needed to find the best management strategies to conserve these animals. In addition, more field studies are required and more information on African, South American and Asian species is essential. Neglect the possible fundamental role of fish in the decline or extinction of freshwater mussels may impair the success of any measure devoted to their conservation; therefore, this issue cannot be ignored.

  10. THE CLASSIC WAY OF FISH PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurica Kalember

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Today's population faces great difficulties in fish marketing, although it is very valuable food. The classic supply with fresh fish has little influence on its consumption, which is not remarkable anyhow. Therefore one shulud be reminded on the classic, almost forgotten, ways of fish processing that can substantially increase fish assortment and improve its distribution. After cleaning and cutting the fish (primary procedures in its processing, comes salting, after which the salted fish can become an end-product or it can be one of many semi-products in the fish production chain. The most common methods of fish salting are dry-salting, dry-wet-salting (Greek-Dalmatian and wet-salting (pickling. The aim of fish drying is its dehydratation. Our country has the experience of traditional drying, sun-drying and natural drying of fish. Each of these has its own special qualities, depending on the fish species and the drying temperature. Smoked fish gets a very distinctive and spicy aroma and a specific colour. There are two kinds of smoking - cold and warm - based on the smoke derived from burning some special trees or, lately, from smoke preparations. Marinades are old procedures of fish processing in acetic acid and specific spices which can be prepared cold, fried or cooked. Fish-roe of some specific fish species has a special value and is considered a delicacy. The most precious black caviar is derived from the sturgeon roe and some of its related species.

  11. Fish Marketing of Ribbon Fish (Trichiurus sp. in Nusantara Fishing Port (NFPat Palabuhanratu, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Bambang Azis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to study the marketing process of ribbon fish (Trichiurus sp., including the marketing margin, marketing agencies, traders and marketing channels The research was carried out for 3 mo in Nusantara Fishing Port (NFP, Palabuhanratu, Sukabumi, West Java. A case study was used in this research. A purposive sampling method was used to collect data from 55 respondents of fish marketing, consisting of fishermen, agents, traders, and retailers, who were involved in the marketing of ribbon fish in NFP Palabuhanratu. The result of the research showed that ribbon fish production in Palabuhanratu fluctuated from year to year. There are two types of ribbon fish marketing, i.e. type one is from fishermen to retailers, and type two is indirect marketing from fisherman to consumers through intermediate traders (exporters. The greatest marketing margin was obtained from the first type, while the smallest marketing margin was obtained from type two. The form of the market was considered to be oligopsony market. Fisherman’s share is greatest in the collectors and the smallest share is on retailers. Marketing process in traders is efficient due to its lowest margin and highest fisherman’s share.

  12. Do fish have rights in artisanal fisheries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha MK

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal fishers in developing world are unaware that fish are capable of suffering or discomfort, though researches have shown that fish do feel pain. Five fish welfare domains have been identified which constitute their rights in their environment. The needs of wild fish are usually provided in their natural, undisturbed and unperturbed aquatic environment, of which the fish will prefer. However, various anthropogenic activities by humans (including artisanal fisheries itself and some natural perturbations in the watershed, riparian zone, water body of the fish habitat and on the fish tend to take away these needs thereby compromising the fish welfare. These activities include environmental degradation, boat/canoe building, use of motorized engine boats/canoes, use of active and passive fishing gears, obnoxious cultural, religious and social fishing practices, fish harvesting, handling and processing among others. One way to understand the welfare needs of an individual fish is to understand its biology. Poor welfare conditions could then be assessed by how far the individual fish has deviated from the normal conditions. Non-intrusive signs based on the health, behavior, morphological anomalies, swimming, reduction in population and growth, outbreak of parasitic infections, injuries and loss of condition can be used to assess fish whose welfare has been compromised. Artisanal fishers should not only be concerned with catch, but, also the welfare of the fish being caught. This is because if the welfare of the fish is compromised, it is going to definitely affect the catch. As indispensable as fish is to humans, humans should not derive its pleasure at the expense of fish suffering. Human activities that impinge on the welfare of wild fish may not necessarily be stopped, but at least minimized in order to have continued sustainable artisanal exploitation of the fisheries.

  13. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish...

  14. The economics of fishing the high seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Enric; Mayorga, Juan; Costello, Christopher; Kroodsma, David; Palomares, Maria L D; Pauly, Daniel; Sumaila, U Rashid; Zeller, Dirk

    2018-06-01

    While the ecological impacts of fishing the waters beyond national jurisdiction (the "high seas") have been widely studied, the economic rationale is more difficult to ascertain because of scarce data on the costs and revenues of the fleets that fish there. Newly compiled satellite data and machine learning now allow us to track individual fishing vessels on the high seas in near real time. These technological advances help us quantify high-seas fishing effort, costs, and benefits, and assess whether, where, and when high-seas fishing makes economic sense. We characterize the global high-seas fishing fleet and report the economic benefits of fishing the high seas globally, nationally, and at the scale of individual fleets. Our results suggest that fishing at the current scale is enabled by large government subsidies, without which as much as 54% of the present high-seas fishing grounds would be unprofitable at current fishing rates. The patterns of fishing profitability vary widely between countries, types of fishing, and distance to port. Deep-sea bottom trawling often produces net economic benefits only thanks to subsidies, and much fishing by the world's largest fishing fleets would largely be unprofitable without subsidies and low labor costs. These results support recent calls for subsidy and fishery management reforms on the high seas.

  15. Fish mucus metabolome reveals fish life-history traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverter, M.; Sasal, P.; Banaigs, B.; Lecchini, D.; Lecellier, G.; Tapissier-Bontemps, N.

    2017-06-01

    Fish mucus has important biological and ecological roles such as defense against fish pathogens and chemical mediation among several species. A non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomic approach was developed to study gill mucus of eight butterflyfish species in Moorea (French Polynesia), and the influence of several fish traits (geographic site and reef habitat, species taxonomy, phylogeny, diet and parasitism levels) on the metabolic variability was investigated. A biphasic extraction yielding two fractions (polar and apolar) was used. Fish diet (obligate corallivorous, facultative corallivorous or omnivorous) arose as the main driver of the metabolic differences in the gill mucus in both fractions, accounting for 23% of the observed metabolic variability in the apolar fraction and 13% in the polar fraction. A partial least squares discriminant analysis allowed us to identify the metabolites (variable important in projection, VIP) driving the differences between fish with different diets (obligate corallivores, facultative corallivores and omnivorous). Using accurate mass data and fragmentation data, we identified some of these VIP as glycerophosphocholines, ceramides and fatty acids. Level of monogenean gill parasites was the second most important factor shaping the gill mucus metabolome, and it explained 10% of the metabolic variability in the polar fraction and 5% in the apolar fraction. A multiple regression tree revealed that the metabolic variability due to parasitism in the polar fraction was mainly due to differences between non-parasitized and parasitized fish. Phylogeny and butterflyfish species were factors contributing significantly to the metabolic variability of the apolar fraction (10 and 3%, respectively) but had a less pronounced effect in the polar fraction. Finally, geographic site and reef habitat of butterflyfish species did not influence the gill mucus metabolome of butterflyfishes.

  16. Relation of contaminants to fish intersex in riverine sport fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshaber, Casey A; Penland, Tiffany N; Kwak, Thomas J; Cope, W Gregory; Heise, Ryan J; Law, J Mac; Shea, Damian; Aday, D Derek; Rice, James A; Kullman, Seth W

    2018-06-20

    Endocrine active compounds (EACs) are pollutants that have been recognized as an emerging and widespread threat to aquatic ecosystems globally. Intersex, the presence of female germ cells within a predominantly male gonad, is considered a biomarker of endocrine disruption caused by EACs. We measured a suite of EACs and assessed their associated impacts on fish intersex occurrence and severity in a large, regulated river system in North Carolina and South Carolina, USA. Our specific objective was to determine the relationship of contaminants in water, sediment, and fish tissue with the occurrence and severity of the intersex condition in wild, adult black bass (Micropterus), sunfish (Lepomis), and catfish (Ictaluridae) species at 11 sites located on the Yadkin-Pee Dee River. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ethinylestradiol (EE2), and heavy metals were the most prevalent contaminants that exceeded effect levels for the protection of aquatic organisms. Fish intersex condition was most frequently observed and most severe in black basses and was less frequently detected and less severe in sunfishes and catfishes. The occurrence of the intersex condition in fish showed site-related effects, rather than increasing longitudinal trends from upstream to downstream. Mean black bass and catfish tissue contaminant concentrations were higher than that of sunfish, likely because of the latter's lower trophic position in the food web. Principal component analysis identified waterborne PAHs as the most correlated environmental contaminant with intersex occurrence and severity in black bass and sunfish. As indicated by the intersex condition, EACs have adverse but often variable effects on the health of wild sport fishes in this river, likely due to fluctuations in EAC inputs and the dynamic nature of the riverine system. These findings enhance the understanding of the relationship between contaminants and fish health and provide information to guide ecologically

  17. The offshore benthic fish community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantry, Brian F.; Lantry, Jana R.; Weidel, Brian C.; Walsh, Maureen; Hoyle, James A.; Schaner, Teodore; Neave, Fraser B.; Keir, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Lake Ontario’s offshore benthic fish community includes primarily slimy sculpin, lake whitefish, rainbow smelt, lake trout, burbot, and sea lamprey. Of these, lake trout have been the focus of an international restoration effort for more than three decades (Elrod et al. 1995; Lantry and Lantry 2008). The deepwater sculpin and three species of deepwater ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) that were historically important in the offshore benthic zone became rare or were extirpated by the 1960s (Christie 1973; Owens et al. 2003; Lantry et al. 2007b; Roth et al. 2013). Ecosystem changes continue to influence the offshore benthic fish community, including the effects of dreissenid mussels, the near disappearance of burrowing amphipods (Diporeia spp.) (Dermott et al. 2005; Watkins et al. 2007), and the increased abundance and expanded geographic distribution of round goby (see Nearshore Fish Community chapter) (Lantry et al. 2007b). The fish-community objectives for the offshore benthic fish community, as described by Stewart et al. (1999), are:

  18. PIXE analysis of fish otoliths. Application to fish stock discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Nobuaki; Sakamoto, Wataru; Tateno, Koji; Yoshida, Koji.

    1996-01-01

    PIXE was adopted to analyze trace elements in otoliths of Japanese flounder to discriminate among several local fish stocks. The otoliths were removed from samples caught at five different sea areas along with the coast of the Sea of Japan: Akita, Ishikawa, Kyoto (2 stations), and Fukuoka. Besides calcium as main component, strontium, manganese, and zinc were detected. Especially Sr concentrations were different among 4 areas except between 2 stations in Kyoto. It suggested that the fish in the 2 stations in Kyoto were the same stock differed to the others. (author)

  19. Fish radurization on board of mediterranean fishing boats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonardi, M.; Tata, A.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a feasibility-study carrie out by ENEA with the technical support of ICRAP. Owing to its conclusions, the authors can locate some areas of possible application of fish-radurization both for the inner and for the foreign market. The former may offer in particular the opportunity of the on-board radurization, because of its peculiar characteristics. The latter may be particularly receptive in the case of those countries where refrigerating line is lacking and where the distribution of fresh fish-products seems rather difficult

  20. Fishing-gear restrictions and biomass gains for coral reef fishes in marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart J; Edgar, Graham J; Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Soler, German; Bates, Amanda E

    2018-04-01

    Considerable empirical evidence supports recovery of reef fish populations with fishery closures. In countries where full exclusion of people from fishing may be perceived as inequitable, fishing-gear restrictions on nonselective and destructive gears may offer socially relevant management alternatives to build recovery of fish biomass. Even so, few researchers have statistically compared the responses of tropical reef fisheries to alternative management strategies. We tested for the effects of fishery closures and fishing gear restrictions on tropical reef fish biomass at the community and family level. We conducted 1,396 underwater surveys at 617 unique sites across a spatial hierarchy within 22 global marine ecoregions that represented 5 realms. We compared total biomass across local fish assemblages and among 20 families of reef fishes inside marine protected areas (MPAs) with different fishing restrictions: no-take, hook-and-line fishing only, several fishing gears allowed, and sites open to all fishing gears. We included a further category representing remote sites, where fishing pressure is low. As expected, full fishery closures, (i.e., no-take zones) most benefited community- and family-level fish biomass in comparison with restrictions on fishing gears and openly fished sites. Although biomass responses to fishery closures were highly variable across families, some fishery targets (e.g., Carcharhinidae and Lutjanidae) responded positively to multiple restrictions on fishing gears (i.e., where gears other than hook and line were not permitted). Remoteness also positively affected the response of community-level fish biomass and many fish families. Our findings provide strong support for the role of fishing restrictions in building recovery of fish biomass and indicate important interactions among fishing-gear types that affect biomass of a diverse set of reef fish families. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Possibilities of the fish pass restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čubanová, Lea

    2018-03-01

    According to the new elaborated methodology of the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic: Identification of the appropriate fish pass types according to water body typology (2015) each barrier on the river must be passable. On the barriers or structures without fish passes new ones should be design and built and on some water structures with existed but nonfunctional fish passes must be realized reconstruction or restoration of such objects. Assessment should be done in terms of the existing migratory fish fauna and hydraulic conditions. Fish fauna requirements resulting from the ichthyological research of the river section with barrier. Hydraulic conditions must than fulfil these requirements inside the fish pass body.

  2. Fish Oncology: Diseases, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Nadeau, Marie-Eve; Groff, Joseph M

    2017-01-01

    The scientific literature contains a wealth of information concerning spontaneous fish neoplasms, although ornamental fish oncology is still in its infancy. The occurrence of fish neoplasms has often been associated with oncogenic viruses and environmental insults, making them useful markers for environmental contaminants. The use of fish, including zebrafish, as models of human carcinogenesis has been developed and knowledge gained from these models may also be applied to ornamental fish, although more studies are required. This review summarizes information available about fish oncology pertaining to veterinary clinicians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Federal hydropower projects as well as private power utility systems have had a devastating impact upon anadromous fish resources that once flourished in the Columbia River and it's tributaries. Several areas were completely blocked to anadromous fish by dams, causing the native people who's number one food resource was salmon to rely entirely upon resident fish to replace lost fisheries resources. The Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery is an artificial production program to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses in the ''Blocked Area'' above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams pursuant to Resident Fish Substitution Policy of the Northwest Power Planning Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. The hatchery was accepted into the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program in 1984 as a resident fish substitution measure and the hatchery was completed in 1990. The minimum production quota for this facility is 22,679 kg (50,000 lbs.) of trout. To achieve this quota the Colville Tribal Hatchery was scheduled to produce 174,000 fingerling rainbow trout (5 grams/fish), 330,000 sub-yearling rainbow trout (15 grams/fish), 80,000 legal size rainbow trout (90 grams/fish), 196,000 fingerling brook trout (5 grams/fish), 330,000 subyearling brook trout (15 grams/fish) and 60,000 lahontan cutthroat trout (15 grams/fish) in 2001. All fish produced are released into reservation waters, including boundary waters in an effort to provide a successful subsistence /recreational fishery for Colville Tribal members as well as a successful non-member sport fishery. The majority of the fish distributed from the facility are intended to provide a ''carry-over'' fishery. Fish produced at the facility are intended to be capable of contributing to the natural production component of the reservation fish populations. Contribution to the natural production component will be achieved by producing and releasing fish of sufficient quality and quantity for fish to survive to spawning maturity, to spawn

  4. Sub-indicator: Prey fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidel, Brian C.; Dunlop, Erin

    2017-01-01

    Prey fish communities across the Great Lakes continue to change, although the direction and magnitude of those changes are not consistent across the lakes. The metrics used to categorize prey fish status in this and previous periods are based on elements that are common among each of the lake’s Fish Community Objectives and include diversity and the relative role of native species in the prey fish communities. The diversity index categorized three of lakes as ‘fair’, while Superior and Erie were ‘good’ (Table 1). The short term trend, from the previous period (2008-2010) to the current period (2011-2014) found diversity in Erie and Superior to be unchanging, but the other three lakes to be ‘deteriorating’, resulting in an overall trend categorization of ‘undetermined’ (Table 1). The long term diversity trend suggested Lakes Superior and Erie have the most diverse prey communities although the index for those prey fish have been quite variable over time (Figure 1). In Lake Huron, where non-native alewife have substantially declined, the diversity index has also declined. The continued dominance of alewife in Lake Ontario (96% of the prey fish biomass) resulted in the lowest diversity index value (Figure 1). The proportion of native species within the community was judged as ‘good’ in Lakes Superior and Huron, ‘fair’ in Michigan and Erie and ‘poor’ in Ontario (Table 2). The short term trend was improving in in all lakes except Michigan (‘deteriorating’) and Ontario (‘unchanging’), resulting in an overall short term trend of ‘undetermined’ (Table 2). Over the current period, Lake Superior consistently had the highest proportion native prey fish (87%) while Lake Ontario had the lowest (1%) (Figure 2). Lake Michigan’s percent native has declined as round goby increase and comprises a greater proportion of the community. Native prey fish make up 51% of Lake Erie, although basin-specific values differed (Figure 2). Most notably

  5. Radiobiological studies with marine fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The experimental methodology employed in radiobiological studies with fish is discussed and reviewed. The problems of care and maintenance of healthy stock fish are cons. (author)idered, including the techniques of egg and larval rearing. A variety of methods have been used to study the accumulation and loss of radionuclides, including labelled water, food and injections, and their relative merits are discussed in conjunction with the parameters affecting these processes. Other, more specialized, techniques that aid the physiological interpretation of tracer experiments are also discussed. Finally, consideration is given to some of the mathematical models that have been applied to radiobiological studies with fish, and of their value in extrapolating laboratory data to environmental conditions

  6. Particle effects on fish gills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Cao; Kania, Per W.; Buchmann, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    Particles composed of inorganic, organic and/or biological materials occur in both natural water bodies and aquaculture facilities. They are expected to affect fish health through a direct chemical, mechanical and biological interaction with gills during ventilation but the nature of the reactions...... and the relative importance of mechanical versus chemical and biological stimulation are unknown. The present work presents an immune gene expression method for evaluation of gill disturbance and sets a baseline for the mechanical influence on fish gills of chemically inert spherical particles. The method may...... be applied to investigate particle impact at different combinations of temperature, fish size, water quality and particle composition. Spherical polystyrene particles (diameters 0.2 μm, 1 μm, 20 μm, 40 μm and 90 μm) were adopted as the particle model and the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings...

  7. Development of Catamaran Fishing Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jamaluddin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Multihull due to a couple of advantages has been the topic of extensive research work in naval architecture. In this study, a series of investigation of fishing vessel to save fuel energy was carried out at ITS. Two types of ship models, monohull (round bilge and hard chine and catamaran, a boat with two hulls (symmetrical and asymmetrical were developed. Four models were produced physically and numerically, tested (towing tank and simulated numerically (CFD code. The results of the two approaches indicated that the catamaran mode might have drag (resistance smaller than those of monohull at the same displacement. A layout of catamaran fishing vessel, proposed here, indicates the freedom of setting the deck equipments for fishing vessel.

  8. Conservation physiology of marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology...... to different extents, ranging from no explicit consideration to detailed physiological mechanisms, and across scales from a single fish to global fishery resources. Biologists from different sub-disciplines are collaborating to rise to the challenge of projecting future changes in distribution and productivity...

  9. Perfluoroalkyl substances and fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Krista Y; Raymond, Michelle; Blackowicz, Michael; Liu, Yangyang; Thompson, Brooke A; Anderson, Henry A; Turyk, Mary

    2017-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are an emerging class of contaminants. Certain PFAS are regulated or voluntarily limited due to concern about environmental persistence and adverse health effects, including thyroid disease and dyslipidemia. The major source of PFAS exposure in the general population is thought to be consumption of seafood. In this analysis we examine PFAS levels and their determinants, as well as associations between PFAS levels and self-reported fish and shellfish consumption, using a representative sample of the U.S. Data on PFAS levels and self-reported fish consumption over the past 30 days were collected from the 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, and 2013-2014 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Twelve different PFAS were measured in serum samples from participants. Ordinary least squares regression models were used to identify factors (demographic characteristics and fish consumption habits) associated with serum PFAS concentrations. Additional models were further adjusted for other potential exposures including military service and consumption of ready-to-eat and fast foods. Seven PFAS were detected in at least 30% of participants and were examined in subsequent analyses (PFDA, PFOA, PFOS, PFHxS, MPAH, PFNA, PFUA). The PFAS with the highest concentrations were PFOS, followed by PFOA, PFHxS and PFNA (medians of 8.3, 2.7, 1.5 and 1.0ng/mL). Fish consumption was generally low, with a median of 1.2 fish meals and 0.14 shellfish meals, reported over the past 30 days. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, total fish consumption was associated with reduced MPAH, and with elevated PFDE, PFNA and PFuDA. Shellfish consumption was associated with elevations of all PFAS examined except MPAH. Certain specific fish and shellfish types were also associated with specific PFAS. Adjustment for additional exposure variables resulted in little to no change in effect estimates for seafood variables. PFAS are emerging

  10. [Imported tropical fish causes ciguatera fish poisoning in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Katharina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Vetter, Irina; Ebbecke, Martin; Friedemann, Miriam; Desel, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Ciguatera is a seafood-borne illness caused by consumption of tropical fish contaminated with ciguatoxins, lipophilic polyethers that are produced in benthic dinoflagellates and accumulate through the marine food chain. Ciguatera cases in Europe usually occur in travellers returning from tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific and Carribean, where ciguatera is endemic. In 2012, several cases of ciguatera occurred in Germany due to sale of contaminated fish products originating from the Indian Ocean. Although the symptomatology in these cases were typical of ciguatera, with patients reporting gastrointestinal discomfort including nausea, vomiting and diarrhea as well as neurological effects including widespread intense pruritus, paresthesias, hypothermia or altered temperature sensation and diffuse pain, correct diagnosis was delayed in all cases due to lack of awareness of the treating medical practitioners. In light of increasing global mobility, trade, and occurrence of ciguatoxic fish in previously non-endemic areas, ciguatera should be considered as a possible diagnosis if gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occur shortly after consumption of fish. Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart.

  11. Mixture of residual fish hydrolysate and fish extract hydrolysate to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus licheniformis 6346 activated in nutrient broth-starch was inoculated to a locally formulated solid medium (paddy husk, rice flour, (NH4)2SO4, cuttle fish powder, murate potash, table salt, triple super phosphate, sesame oil, coconut oil and tap water) and the highest -amylase activity was obtained on day 5 (1075 U g ...

  12. SOME PARASITIC WORMS IN FRESHWATER FISHES AND FISH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and on the other hand to forms in freshwater fishes of the Indo-Malaysian region, it would ... about 25 p.m in total length, of which the sickle-shaped terminal structure .... The ejaculatory duct is short and runs from the genital ...... This larva appears to be very common in C. gariepinus collected ..... Onderstepoort J. vet. Sci.

  13. Mixture of residual fish hydrolysate and fish extract hydrolysate to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... 42°C. Replacement of nutrient broth-starch with residual fish hydrolysate-starch led to the enzyme production to .... Paddy husk, raw unpolished rice, fertilizers such as ..... Saunders BC (eds) Practical Organic Chemistry. 4th.

  14. scale fish- eries: a comparison of two fishing settlements in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is widely recognised as having a major influence on marine ecosystems ... sanal and small - scale fisheries can be difficult due to geographi- ... ever - growing coastal populations, the number of small - scale ... northern Madagascar near the city of Antsiranana, ... increasingly becoming a tourist destination, and some fish-.

  15. Fish Farmers' Perception of Climate change impact on fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Madukwe

    *Department of Agricultural Extension and Management ... Respondents in the area perceived climate change factors ... rural farmers who implement their regular annual farm business plans risk total ... 2010). Constraints to increased fish production in Nigeria include, among others, ..... Build ponds close to water sources.

  16. Oxygen Uptake - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  17. Fungal decay of traditional fishing craft

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, R.

    The artisanal fishermen land major portion of fish caught in India, employing traditional fishing craft and methods. These craft are built of indigenous wood and undergo rapid biodeterioration causing great economic loss. Soft-rot fungi...

  18. Biochemical genetics of some Indian fishes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.; Qasim, S.Z.

    similarities in their protein make up, whereas these taxonomically apart showed striking differences. Thus, the usefulness of employing this method was clearly demonstrated in fish taxonomy. The study of genetic struture of fish populations through the analysis...

  19. Northeast Commercial Fishing Vessel Cost Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Typically, commercial fishing businesses incur three major types of costs: fixed or annual costs; which are incurred annually irrespective of whether any fishing...

  20. Dissolved Oxygen - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  1. Anisakidae in fishing products sold in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Ferrantelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the parasite diseases associated with the consumption of raw fish that occurs with some frequency is the anisakiasis, a human disease caused by the accidental ingestion of larval nematodes of the genus Anisakis, family Anisakidae. At the National Reference Centre for Anisakiasis (C.Re.N.A. from October 2012 to February 2013, a number of 231 bony fish (Trichiuridae, Engraulidae, Scombridae and Clupeidae were received from different fishing sites in Sicily. Anisakis pegreffii is the main species detected in fish, as identified by molecular analysis based on polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, while Anisakis simplex sensu stricto was found only in Scomber scombrus caught in the Mediterranean Sea (Fishing Areas 37, in the Spanish coast (Fishing Areas 37 and in the Atlantic Ocean (Fishing Areas 34. Larvae of the genus Pseudoterranova were found only in fish caught in the Norwegian Sea.

  2. Fish Aggregation Sites in the Florida Keys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spawning aggregations are an important event in the life-history of many coral reef fish species. During short time periods (typically during full moons), fish will...

  3. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISHPT (Fish Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for anadromous fish streams in Southeast Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent locations of fish streams....

  4. Fish production practices and use of aquaculture technologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated types of improved aquaculture technologies used by the ... fish farmers culture fish in earthen ponds, for commercial and home consumption ... fishes/m2 (98.3%), water quality management (99.1%) and fish ...

  5. Forecasting Tools Point to Fishing Hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Private weather forecaster WorldWinds Inc. of Slidell, Louisiana has employed satellite-gathered oceanic data from Marshall Space Flight Center to create a service that is every fishing enthusiast s dream. The company's FishBytes system uses information about sea surface temperature and chlorophyll levels to forecast favorable conditions for certain fish populations. Transmitting the data to satellite radio subscribers, FishBytes provides maps that guide anglers to the areas they are most likely to make their favorite catch.

  6. DNA metabarcoding of fish larvae for detection of non-native fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy approaches to investigate potential efficiencies. Fish larvae present an interesting opportunity for non-native fish early detection because...

  7. Bioactive Components in Fish Venoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegman, Rebekah; Alewood, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Animal venoms are widely recognized excellent resources for the discovery of novel drug leads and physiological tools. Most are comprised of a large number of components, of which the enzymes, small peptides, and proteins are studied for their important bioactivities. However, in spite of there being over 2000 venomous fish species, piscine venoms have been relatively underrepresented in the literature thus far. Most studies have explored whole or partially fractioned venom, revealing broad pharmacology, which includes cardiovascular, neuromuscular, cytotoxic, inflammatory, and nociceptive activities. Several large proteinaceous toxins, such as stonustoxin, verrucotoxin, and Sp-CTx, have been isolated from scorpaenoid fish. These form pores in cell membranes, resulting in cell death and creating a cascade of reactions that result in many, but not all, of the physiological symptoms observed from envenomation. Additionally, Natterins, a novel family of toxins possessing kininogenase activity have been found in toadfish venom. A variety of smaller protein toxins, as well as a small number of peptides, enzymes, and non-proteinaceous molecules have also been isolated from a range of fish venoms, but most remain poorly characterized. Many other bioactive fish venom components remain to be discovered and investigated. These represent an untapped treasure of potentially useful molecules. PMID:25941767

  8. Fluid Mechanics of Fish Swimming

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 1. Fluid Mechanics of Fish Swimming - Lift-based Propulsion. Jaywant H Arakeri. General Article Volume 14 Issue 1 January 2009 pp 32-46. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Migratory Fishes of South America

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 262. ..... The abundance of most migratory fish was greater in the wet year. .... intensities in years of different flood intensities in the Upper Paraná (1985–1987 were dry years, whereas 1992–1993 were wet years). ...... Costa, M. R. C., G. Hermann, C. S. Martins, L. V. Lins, and I. R. Lamas.

  10. Tinned fish with radioprotective ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaneva, M.; Minkova, M.; Zajko, G.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of food ingredients with pronounced radioprotective properties is made. The protective effect of fish proteins and some vegetable oils is mentioned. As suitable additives to tinned fish during the manufacturing process the β carotene, anthocyans and apple pectin are pointed out. β-carotene possesses the ability to absorb radiations. It can be added either as a pure crystalline substance or dissolved in the vegetable oil. Anthocyans have an antimutagen effect due to their ability to inhibit free radical reactions. Some vegetable polyphenols can be added with wine. The Bulgarian anthocyan concentrate Enobagrin (made by extraction of marc and wine) is also proposed. A combination of Enobagrin, β-tocopherol and pyracetam decreases the postradiation hypoplasia. Special attention is paid to the importance of the pectin in intoxication with heavy radioactive metals. It is thought that the pectin forms unsoluble complex compounds with Fe, Zn, Cd, Co, Pb, Hg, Mn, Cr. The binding energy depends on the available carboxylic groups. Some experiments showing the interaction of the pectin with 90 Sr are mentioned. In the tinned fish the pectin can be introduced with tomato paste. Vegetables rich in pectin and carotene - carrots and tomato concentrate - can be added as well. Proposed enriched tinned fish can be used as a preventive radioprotective food under conditions of increased radiation risk. 19 refs

  11. THYROCALCITONIN STUDIES IN ELASMOBRANCH FISH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P. D. STAHL AND A. D. KENNY. Department Pharmacology and Space Sciences Research Centre,. University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. INTRODUCTION. We recently reported a hypocalcaemic and hypophosphataemic action of mammalian thyro- caltitonin in the teleost fish Ictalurus melas (Louw, Sutton and Kenny 1967) ...

  12. Marine line fish research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1979-04-01

    Full Text Available This report outlines the framework for a marine line fish programme under the aegis of the South African National Committee for Oceanographic Research (SANCOR). An attempt is made to assess the state of knowledge about South African marine line...

  13. Consumer perceptions of farmed fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Machiel J.; Banović, Marija; Guerrero, Lluis; Krystallis, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate possible cross-cultural consumer segments in the EU aquaculture market and provide direction and focus for marketing strategies for farmed fish products. Design/methodology/approach: Selected psychographic constructs (i.e. category involvement,

  14. Fish immunity to scuticociliate parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piazzon de Haro, M.C.; Leiro, J.M.; Lamas, J.

    2013-01-01

    Some species of scuticociliates (Ciliophora) behave as facultative parasites and produce severe mortalities in cultured fish. Pathogenic scuticociliates can cause surface lesions and can also penetrate inside the body, where they feed on tissue and proliferate in the blood and most internal organs,

  15. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone...

  16. Use of number by fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Agrillo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research on human infants, mammals, birds and fish has demonstrated that rudimentary numerical abilities pre-date the evolution of human language. Yet there is controversy as to whether animals represent numbers mentally or rather base their judgments on non-numerical perceptual variables that co-vary with numerosity. To date, mental representation of number has been convincingly documented only for a few mammals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we used a training procedure to investigate whether mosquitofish could learn to discriminate between two and three objects even when denied access to non-numerical information. In the first experiment, fish were trained to discriminate between two sets of geometric figures. These varied in shape, size, brightness and distance, but no control for non-numerical variables was made. Subjects were then re-tested while controlling for one non-numerical variable at a time. Total luminance of the stimuli and the sum of perimeter of figures appeared irrelevant, but performance dropped to chance level when stimuli were matched for the cumulative surface area or for the overall space occupied by the arrays, indicating that these latter cues had been spontaneously used by the fish during the learning process. In a second experiment, where the task consisted of discriminating 2 vs 3 elements with all non-numerical variables simultaneously controlled for, all subjects proved able to learn the discrimination, and interestingly they did not make more errors than the fish in Experiment 1 that could access non-numerical information in order to accomplish the task. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Mosquitofish can learn to discriminate small quantities, even when non-numerical indicators of quantity are unavailable, hence providing the first evidence that fish, like primates, can use numbers. As in humans and non-human primates, genuine counting appears to be a 'last resort' strategy in fish, when no other

  17. Invasion of parasitic isopods in marine fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapathy Rameshkumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To carry out a detailed three-year observation study on isopod parasites infestation in fish. Methods: Fish samples were collected from different localities in various landing centers along the Tamil Nadu coastal area. The prevalence and mean intensity were calculated. The proximate composition of infestation and uninfestation were studied in different marine fishes. A comparative analysis of bacteria and fungi in the infected and uninfected regions of fishes were analysed. Results: Tweenty six species including 12 genera of isopods (Cymothoidae distributed in 39 species of marine fishes along the Tamil Nadu coast. The isopod parasites were attached in three different microhabitats in host fishes viz. , buccal, branchial and body surfaces. They exhibited host and site specific occurrence. Maximum prevalence 17.11% was recorded in March 2010 and minimum 0.27% in Febuary 2010. The intensity ranged from 1 to 1.7 parasites per fish during the different months from Decmber 2008 to November 2011. There was a decrease in the protein, carbohydrate and lipid content in the infested fishes compared to uninfected fishes. A comparative analysis of bacteria and fungi in the infected and uninfected region of fishes were analysed. It revealed that infected portions had dense bacterial load as observed in the lesions of infected fishes than uninfected fishes. Conclusion: Factors which are able to induce parasitic manifestation are stock quality, stocking density, environmental conditions, biological and physiological characteristics of parasite, zoo technical measures, food quantity, feeding strategies, etc.

  18. 75 FR 20986 - Permits; Foreign Fishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    .... Comments on this notice may also be submitted by e-mail to [email protected] . Include in the... engage in fishing consisting solely of transporting fish or fish products at sea from a point within the... that state to a point outside the United States. In addition, Public Law 104-297, section 105(e...

  19. Perceptions of European stakeholders of pulse fishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, M.L.; Trapman, B.K.; Rasenberg, M.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    This research project examines the concerns and questions of European stakeholders about pulse fishing, in order to assess to what extent the knowledge agenda on pulse fishing covers these issues. To get a first impression of the concerns about pulse fishing, and to get an idea of the stakeholders

  20. 77 FR 30995 - Permits; Foreign Fishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... Office of International Affairs at 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (phone: (301) 427-8365... fishing consisting solely of transporting fish or fish products at sea from a point within the United States Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) or, with the concurrence of a state, within the boundaries of that...

  1. 78 FR 36526 - Permits; Foreign Fishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... of International Affairs at 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (phone: (301) 427-8386... engage in fishing consisting solely of transporting fish or fish products at sea from a point within the United States Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) or, with the concurrence of a state, within the boundaries of...

  2. Coldwater fish in wadeable streams [Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason B. Dunham; Amanda E. Rosenberger; Russell F. Thurow; C. Andrew Dolloff; Philip J. Howell

    2009-01-01

    Small, wadeable streams comprise the majority of habitats available to fishes in fluvial networks. Wadeable streams are generally less than 1 m deep, and fish can be sampled without the use of water craft. Cold waters are defined as having mean 7-d summer maximum water temperatures of less than 20°C and providing habitat for coldwater fishes.

  3. 50 CFR 223.203 - Anadromous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anadromous fish. 223.203 Section 223.203... Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.203 Anadromous fish. Available guidance documents cited in the...)(1) of the ESA (16 U.S.C. 1538(a)(1)) relating to endangered species apply to fish with an intact...

  4. Fish intake in pregnancy and child growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratakis, N.; Roumeliotaki, T.; Oken, E.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Maternal fish intake in pregnancy has been shown to influence fetal growth. The extent to which fish intake affects childhood growth and obesity remains unclear. OBJECTIVE To examine whether fish intake in pregnancy is associated with offspring growth and the risk of childhood overweig...

  5. SMOKED AND FROZEN FISH CONSUMPTION AND MARKETING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apusigah

    There is also a high demand for fish because it is an important source of cheap first class protein ... While hotel kitchens deep fry, grill and bake for ... fish and the price per kilogram of both smoked and frozen fish with a view to improving the.

  6. Fish is healthy, but too expensive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard; Stacey, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays most consumers perceive fish as a healthy and nutritious meal and many are fully aware of the various nutritious values of fish. In spite of this, the consumption of fish has diminished or stagnated in many European countries in recent years....

  7. Copepoda parasites in economically important fish, Mugilidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FUNMILAYO

    of economically important fish, both from the wild and fish farms, thus making them difficult to market. In this study ... Sakiti, 1997; Gbankoto et al., 2003) but no work has been carried out on ... digital weighing balance and recorded. ..... Life Sci. J. 9(3):733-737. Paperna I, Lahav M (1971). New records and further data on fish.

  8. Changes in the North Sea fish community: evidence of indirect effects of fishing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daan, N.; Gislason, Henrik; Pope, J.

    2005-01-01

    , but such changes may simply reflect the cumulative, direct effects of fishing through selective removal of large individuals. If there is resilience in a fish community towards fishing, we may expect increases in specific components, for instance as a consequence of an associated reduction in predation and....... Taking average fishing mortality of assessed commercial species as an index of exploitation rate of the fish community, it appears that fishing effort reached its maximum in the mid-1980s and has declined slightly since. If the observed changes in the community are caused by indirect effects of fishing...

  9. Chemokines in teleost fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Alí; Tafalla, Carolina

    2011-12-01

    Chemokines are chemoattractant cytokines defined by the presence of four conserved cysteine residues which in mammals can be divided into four subfamilies depending on the arrangement of the first two conserved cysteines in their sequence: CXC (α), CC (β), C and CX(3)C classes. Evolutionarily, fish can be considered as an intermediate step between species which possess only innate immunity (invertebrates) and species with a fully developed acquired immune network such as mammals. Therefore, the functionality of their different immune cell types and molecules is sometimes also intermediate between innate and acquired responses. The first chemokine gene identified in a teleost was a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) chemokine designated as CK1 in 1998. Since then, many different chemokine genes have been identified in several fish species, but their role in homeostasis and immune response remains largely unknown. Extensive genomic duplication events and the fact that chemokines evolve more quickly than other immune genes, make it very difficult to establish true orthologues between fish and mammalian chemokines that would help us with the ascription of immune roles. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge of chemokine biology in teleost fish, focusing mainly on which genes have been identified so far and highlighting the most important aspects of their expression regulation, due to the great lack of functional information available for them. As the number of chemokine genes begins to close down for some teleost species, there is an important need for functional assays that may elucidate the role of each of these molecules within the fish immune response. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Consumption patterns and why people fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    Recreational and subsistence fishing play major roles in the lives of any people, although their importance in urban areas is often underestimated. There are fish and shellfish consumption advisories in the new York-New Jersey harbor estuary, particularly in the waters of the Newark Bay Complex. This paper examines fishing behavior, consumption patterns, and the reasons that people fish in the Newark Bay Complex. I test the null hypotheses that there are no differences among Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, and whites in consumption patterns for fish and crabs and in the reasons that they fish or crab. Most people either fished or crabbed, but not both. People who fish and crab ate more grams of crab than fish in a given meal; people who crab only consumed more grams of crab at a meal than those who fish only consumed of fish. Although 30% or more of the people who fished and crabbed in the Newark Bay Complex did not eat their self-caught fish or crabs 8-25% of the people ate more than 1500 g/month. Some people angling in the Newark Bay Complex are eating crabs at a rate well over 1500 g/month, and about 70% are eating crabs even though there is a total ban on both harvest and consumption because of the health risks from dioxin. Consumption patterns were negatively correlated with mean income and positively correlated with mean age. Most people rated relaxation and being outdoors the highest reasons or angling, although on an open-ended question they usually listed recreation. There were no ethnic differences in reasons for angling, although other studies have shown ethnic differences in consumption. Obtaining fish or crabs to eat, give away, trade, or sell were rated low, suggesting that consumption advisories fail partly because people are not primarily fishing or food

  11. Parvalbumin--the major tropical fish allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dawn Li-Chern; Neo, Keng Hwee; Yi, Fong Cheng; Chua, Kaw Yan; Goh, Denise Li-Meng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Giam, Yoke Chin; Van Bever, Hugo P S; Lee, Bee Wah

    2008-08-01

    Fish allergy is common in countries where consumption is high. Asian nations are amongst the world's largest consumers of fish but the allergen profiles of tropical fish are unknown. This study sought to evaluate the allergenicity of four commonly consumed tropical fish, the threadfin (Polynemus indicus), Indian anchovy (Stolephorus indicus), pomfret (Pampus chinensis) and tengirri (Scomberomorus guttatus). Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity with parvalbumin of cod fish (Gad c 1), the major fish allergen, was also studied. Detection of tropical fish and cod specific-IgE was performed by UniCap assay, and skin prick tests were also carried out. The IgE-binding components of tropical fish were identified using IgE immunoblot techniques, and cross-reactivity with Gad c 1 was assessed by ELISA inhibition and IgE immunoblot inhibition. Clinically, nine of 10 patients studied were allergic to multiple fish. All patients exhibited detectable specific-IgE to cod fish (10 of 10 skin prick test positive, eight of 10 UniCap assay positive) despite lack of previous exposure. The major allergen of the four tropical fish was the 12-kDa parvalbumin. IgE cross-reactivity of these allergens to Gad c 1 was observed to be moderate to high in the tropical fish studied. Parvalbumins are the major allergens in commonly consumed tropical fish. They are cross-reactive with each other as well as with Gad c 1. Commercial tests for cod fish appear to be sufficient for the detection of tropical fish specific-IgE.

  12. Fish & Wildlife Annual Project Summary, 1983.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-07-01

    BPA's Division of Fish and Wildlife was created in 1982 to develop, coordinate and manage BPA's fish and wildlife program. Division activities protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife resources impacted by hydroelectric development and operation in the Columbia River Basin. At present the Division spends 95% of its budget on restoration projects. In 1983, 83 projects addressed all aspects of the anadromous fish life cycle, non-migratory fish problems and the status of wildlife living near reservoirs.

  13. Intake of mercury through fish consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmani, S.B.; Kiprawi, A.Z.; Ismail, R.B.; Hassan, R.B.; Wood, A.K.; Rahman, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Fish has been known as a source of non-occupational mercury exposure to fish consuming population groups, and this is shown by the high hair mercury levels. In this study, hair samples collected from fishermen and their families, and commercial marine fishes were analyzed for mercury and methylmercury by neutron activation and gas chromatography. The results showed a correlation between hair mercury levels and fish consumption patterns. The levels of mercury found in this study were similar to those reported by other workers for fish consuming population groups worldwide. (author)

  14. Discharge residence of TLD tagged fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romberg, G.P.; Prepejchal, W.

    1974-01-01

    Although visual observations suggested that fish remained in the discharge for considerable periods, temperature-sensitive tags indicated the majority of fish spend less than 50 hr or 10 percent of the time at discharge temperatures. During 1974 a second fish tagging study was conducted, using temperature-sensitive tags to yield discharge residence times of Lake Michigan salmonids at Point Beach thermal discharge. Preliminary results revealed that many fish tag values were close to Unit I line indicating that calculated maximum discharge residence times for these fish will be nearly 100 percent of the elapsed time

  15. Assuring fish safety and quality in international fish trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ababouch, Lahsen . E-mail lahsen.ababouch@fao.org

    2006-01-01

    International trade in fishery commodities reached US$ 58.2 billion in 2002, a 5% improvement relative to 2000 and a 45% increase over 1992 levels. Within this global trade, developing countries registered a net trade surplus of US$ 17.4 billion in 2002 and accounted for almost 50% by value and 55% of fish exports by volume. This globalization of fish trade, coupled with technological developments in food production, handling, processing and distribution, and the increasing awareness and demand of consumers for safe and high quality food have put food safety and quality assurance high in public awareness and a priority for many governments. Consequently, many countries have tightened food safety controls, imposing additional costs and requirements on imports. As early as 1980, there was an international drive towards adopting preventative HACCP-based safety and quality systems. More recently, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of an integrated, multidisciplinary approach to food safety and quality throughout the entire food chain. Implementation of this approach requires an enabling policy and regulatory environment at national and international levels with clearly defined rules and standards, establishment of appropriate food control systems and programmes at national and local levels, and provision of appropriate training and capacity building. This paper discusses the international framework for fish safety and quality, with particular emphasis on the United Nation's Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO) strategy to promote international harmonization and capacity building

  16. Fishing, fish consumption and advisory awareness among Louisiana's recreational fishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katner, Adrienne; Ogunyinka, Ebenezer; Sun, Mei-Hung; Soileau, Shannon; Lavergne, David; Dugas, Dianne; Suffet, Mel

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents results from the first known population-based survey of recreational fishers in Louisiana (n=1774). The ultimate goal of this study was to obtain data in support of the development of regional advisories for a high exposure population with unique seafood consumption patterns. Between July and August of 2008, a survey was mailed to a random sample of licensed recreational fishers to characterize local fishing habits, sportfish consumption, and advisory awareness. Eighty-eight percent of respondents reported eating sportfish. Respondents ate an estimated mean of four fish meals per month, of which, approximately half were sportfish. Over half of all sportfish meals (54%) were caught in the Gulf of Mexico or bordering brackish areas. Sportfish consumption varied by license and gender; and was highest among Sportsman's Paradise license holders (2.8±0.2 meals per month), and males (2.2±0.1 meals per month). The most frequently consumed sportfish species were red drum, speckled trout, catfish, bass, crappie and bream. Advisory awareness rates varied by gender, ethnicity, geographic area, license type, age and education; and were lowest among women (53%), African-Americans (43%), fishers from the southeast of Louisiana (50%), holders of Senior Hunting and Fishing licenses (51%), individuals between 15 and 19 years of age (41%), and individuals with less than a high school education (43%). Results were used to identify ways to optimize monitoring, advisory development and outreach activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assuring fish safety and quality in international fish trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ababouch, Lahsen [United Nations, Food and Agricultural Organization, Chief, Fish Utilization and Marketing Services, FAO Headquarters, F-607 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail lahsen.ababouch@fao.org

    2006-07-01

    International trade in fishery commodities reached US$ 58.2 billion in 2002, a 5% improvement relative to 2000 and a 45% increase over 1992 levels. Within this global trade, developing countries registered a net trade surplus of US$ 17.4 billion in 2002 and accounted for almost 50% by value and 55% of fish exports by volume. This globalization of fish trade, coupled with technological developments in food production, handling, processing and distribution, and the increasing awareness and demand of consumers for safe and high quality food have put food safety and quality assurance high in public awareness and a priority for many governments. Consequently, many countries have tightened food safety controls, imposing additional costs and requirements on imports. As early as 1980, there was an international drive towards adopting preventative HACCP-based safety and quality systems. More recently, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of an integrated, multidisciplinary approach to food safety and quality throughout the entire food chain. Implementation of this approach requires an enabling policy and regulatory environment at national and international levels with clearly defined rules and standards, establishment of appropriate food control systems and programmes at national and local levels, and provision of appropriate training and capacity building. This paper discusses the international framework for fish safety and quality, with particular emphasis on the United Nation's Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO) strategy to promote international harmonization and capacity building.

  18. [Progress in transgenic fish techniques and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xing; Tian, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Feng-Ying

    2011-05-01

    Transgenic technique provides a new way for fish breeding. Stable lines of growth hormone gene transfer carps, salmon and tilapia, as well as fluorescence protein gene transfer zebra fish and white cloud mountain minnow have been produced. The fast growth characteristic of GH gene transgenic fish will be of great importance to promote aquaculture production and economic efficiency. This paper summarized the progress in transgenic fish research and ecological assessments. Microinjection is still the most common used method, but often resulted in multi-site and multi-copies integration. Co-injection of transposon or meganuclease will greatly improve the efficiency of gene transfer and integration. "All fish" gene or "auto gene" should be considered to produce transgenic fish in order to eliminate misgiving on food safety and to benefit expression of the transferred gene. Environmental risk is the biggest obstacle for transgenic fish to be commercially applied. Data indicates that transgenic fish have inferior fitness compared with the traditional domestic fish. However, be-cause of the genotype-by-environment effects, it is difficult to extrapolate simple phenotypes to the complex ecological interactions that occur in nature based on the ecological consequences of the transgenic fish determined in the laboratory. It is critical to establish highly naturalized environments for acquiring reliable data that can be used to evaluate the environ-mental risk. Efficacious physical and biological containment strategies remain to be crucial approaches to ensure the safe application of transgenic fish technology.

  19. Area-based management and fishing efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, P.; Ulrich, Clara; Pastoors, M.

    2002-01-01

    The scope of this study is to investigate the extent to which area-based management may have influenced the fishing efficiency of the Danish and Dutch demersal fleets harvesting cod, plaice and sole in the North Sea. Special consideration is given to the 'plaice box', a restricted area where...... fishing is prohibited to towed-gear fleets of horsepower exceeding 300 hp. An index of fishing power is calculated as the log-ratio between the catch per unit effort (CPUE) of any vessel and some survey abundance index. Annual trends in fishing are calculated as the year-effect derived from a general...... linear model (GLM) analysis of the index of fishing power. The fishing efficiency of Danish gill-netters and, to some extent, Danish seiners, has overall increased inside the 'plaice box', whilst remaining relatively stable outside. However, the fishing efficiency of the other exemption fleets has...

  20. Freshwater fishes of Tsitsikamma National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Russell

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the distribution and relative abundance of freshwater fishes in the Tsitsikamma National Park. Fish assemblages in six river systems were sampled in 2001, with a total of 323 fish from eight species recorded. Indigenous fish collected included four freshwater species (Pseudobarbus afer, Pseudobarbus tenuis, Sandelia capensis, Anguilla mossambica, three estuarine species (Monodactylus falciformis, Caffrogobius gilchristi, Myxus capensis, and one alien (Micropterus salmoides. One additional indigenous species (Galaxias zebratus and two aliens (Salmo trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss could potentially occur within the park. The topography and locality of the park presents a unique opportunity to meaningfully conserve the endangered P. tenuis as well as other fish characteristic of the eastern reaches of the Cape Floristic Region. Management action is required to minimise opportunities for further establishment and spread of alien fish species and to conserve indigenous fish assemblages within the park.

  1. Fish habitat mitigation measures for hydrotechnical projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhail, G.D.; MacMillan, D.B.; Katopodis, C.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the identification and mitigation of environmental impacts of hydrotechnical projects, particularly on fish and fish habitats, have become a major component of project planning and design. Potential impacts to fish and fish habitat may include increased fish mortality, decreased species diversity, and loss or decreases in fish production due to loss of habitat or alteration of its suitability. These impacts arise from flooding of riverine habitat, alteration of flow quantity and distribution, changes in morphology, and alteration of water quality, including suspended sediments, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and mercury. The results of a study for the Canadian Federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans Central and Arctic Region, examining fish habitat mitigation techniques for their applicability to hydrotechnical projects in Canada are summarized. The requirements for achievement and verification of the no net loss policy for a project are discussed. 10 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Effects of herbicides on fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Keith R.; Dalhoff, Kristoffer; Volz, David

    2013-01-01

    Herbicides are used to control weeds and are usually targeted to processes and target sites that are specific to plants. As a result, most herbicides are not acutely toxic to fish. Exceptions to this general rule are uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and some herbicides that interfere...... with cell division. Chronic and sublethal effects have been studied for some herbicides, but fewer data are available for these effects than for acute effects. The sublethal effects of herbicides that have been studied include reproduction, stress, olfaction, and behavior. Although some of these responses......, and reproduction. As with all pesticides, herbicides may have indirect effects in fish. These effects are mediated by herbicide-induced changes in food webs or in the physical environment. Indirect effects can only occur if direct effects occur first and would be mediated by the killing of plants by herbicides...

  3. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    of licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production......Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccination is based on the administration of the gene encoding the vaccine antigen, rather than the antigen itself. Subsequent expression of the antigen by cells in the vaccinated hosts triggers the host immune system. Among the many experimental DNA vaccines tested...... in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important...

  4. Light organ symbioses in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haygood, M G

    1993-01-01

    Most bioluminescent fishes are self-luminescent, but a substantial minority of bioluminescent teleosts produce light that is due to symbiotic luminous bacteria housed in elaborate light organs. The majority of symbiotically bioluminescent fishes (ten families in five orders) harbors common free-living species of marine luminous bacteria: Photobacterium phosphoreum, P. leiognathi, and P. fischeri (= Vibrio fischeri). Others, associated with the beryciform family Anomalopidae and nine families in the lophiiform suborder Ceratioidei, have apparently obligate symbionts that have recently been identified by small subunit (16S) rRNA analysis as new groups within the genus Vibrio. This article summarizes what is currently known about relationships between light organ symbionts and their hosts, including characteristics of light organ environments, physiology of light organ symbionts, and the evolution of light organ symbionts and their associations.

  5. Consumer evaluation of fish quality as basis for fish market segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Vermeir, Iris; Brunsø, Karen

    2007-01-01

    evaluation: personal relevance attached to fish quality and self-confidence in fish quality evaluation, which allow segmenting the market in four fish consumer segments. The segments are typified as Uninvolved, Uncertain, Self-confident and Connoisseurs, and have distinctive behavioural, attitudinal......This paper focuses on consumer evaluation of fish quality and its association with fish consumption, risk and benefit beliefs and information processing variables. Cross-sectional data were collected from a sample of 429 consumers in March 2003 in Belgium. Two dimensions shape fish quality...... and socio-demographic profiles. The Uninvolved are mainly young males, have the lowest fish consumption level, weakest belief in health benefits from eating fish, and lowest interest in both search and credence information cues. Uncertain fish consumers are mainly females, with a tendency of lower education...

  6. Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: a randomised clinical trial with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Østerdal, M L; Salvig, J D

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on duration of pregnancy, conditional on the woman's habitual fish intake. DESIGN: Multicentre 1:1 randomised clinical trial of effect of fish oil in a high-risk population of pregnant women in whom habitual fish intake was assessed...... at randomisation. SETTING: Nineteen university delivery wards in seven European countries. SUBJECTS: Pregnant women with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), or pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in a previous pregnancy (group 1, n=495); with twin pregnancies (group 2, n=367......); or with suspicion of IUGR or threatening preeclampsia in the current pregnancy (group 3, n=106). Women were stratified into low, middle, or high fish consumers. METHODS: The intervention group received fish oil capsules providing 2.7 g long-chain n-3 fatty acids per day (n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA...

  7. Population genetic diversity of marble goby (Oxyeleotris marmoratus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2017-03-31

    Mar 31, 2017 ... Our study will provide valuable information for facilitating the ... traditional method with constructing microsatellite-enriched library (Luo et al. .... important that the protection of wild stock and more wild resources should be ...

  8. Population genetic diversity of marble goby (Oxyeleotris marmoratus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cheng Zhao

    2017-12-08

    Dec 8, 2017 ... Indian Academy of Sciences. ONLINE ... east Asia, especially in Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and. Vietnam (Inger and ... cial culture of marble goby has suffered from germplasm degradation ..... Southeast Asia. Through ...

  9. Occurrence of PCDD/F, PCB, PBDE, PFAS, and organotin compounds in fish meal, fish oil and fish feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, K; Hallikainen, A; Ruokojärvi, P; Airaksinen, R; Koponen, J; Rannikko, R; Kiviranta, H

    2011-10-01

    We analysed polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F, dioxins), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in 13 fish meal, five fish oil, and seven fish feed samples. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), organotin compounds (OTC), and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) were analysed in ten fish meal, two fish oil, and two fish feed samples. All measured TEQ concentrations of PCDD/F and PCB were below the maximum levels set by Directive 2002/32/EC. There was no correlation between concentrations of WHOPCDD/F-TEQ and indicator PCB in our samples. The most common congeners among PBDEs were BDE-47 and BDE-100. BDE-209 was present in five fish meals of the ten analysed. Tributyltin (TBT) was the predominant congener in all samples except in three fish meals, where monobutyltin (MBT) was the major congener. Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) was the predominant congener in six fish meals of the ten analysed. There was large variation in concentrations and congener distributions of the studied compounds between our samples. Our results underline a need to pay special attention to the origin and purity of feed raw material of marine origin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Swimming Performance of Toy Robotic Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petelina, Nina; Mendelson, Leah; Techet, Alexandra

    2015-11-01

    HEXBUG AquaBotsTM are a commercially available small robot fish that come in a variety of ``species''. These models have varying caudal fin shapes and randomly-varied modes of swimming including forward locomotion, diving, and turning. In this study, we assess the repeatability and performance of the HEXBUG swimming behaviors and discuss the use of these toys to develop experimental techniques and analysis methods to study live fish swimming. In order to determine whether these simple, affordable model fish can be a valid representation for live fish movement, two models, an angelfish and a shark, were studied using 2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and 3D Synthetic Aperture PIV. In a series of experiments, the robotic fish were either allowed to swim freely or towed in one direction at a constant speed. The resultant measurements of the caudal fin wake are compared to data from previous studies of a real fish and simplified flapping propulsors.

  11. Marine soundscape shaped by fishing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquereau, Laura; Lossent, Julie; Grall, Jacques; Chauvaud, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Marine communities face anthropogenic pressures that degrade ecosystems. Because underwater soundscapes carry information about habitat quality, we explored whether destructive impacts of fishing could be evaluated via the soundscape. Maerl beds are recognized as biodiversity hotspots and they experience major worldwide degradation owing to fishing. We collected field acoustic recordings in maerl beds exposed to different fishing practices. We found that unfished maerl beds were threefold louder and exhibited sound frequencies more diversified than those recorded in fished maerl beds. Analyses of associated fauna samples indicated that snapping shrimps provided a major contribution to the maerl bed soundscape. Moreover, sea urchins and squat lobsters most likely contributed to differences between the soundscapes of unfished and fished maerl beds. Our results supported the idea that the soundscape can provide valuable information on maerl bed ecosystem health related to fishing activity.

  12. Nutrition, feeding, and behavior of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Santosh P; Tibbetts, Sean M

    2009-05-01

    Nutrition and feeding influence growth, reproduction, and health of fish and their response to physiologic and environmental stressors and pathogens. The basics of fish metabolism are similar to those of warm-blooded animals in that they involve food intake, digestion, absorption, and transport of nutrients to the various tissues. Fish, however, being the most primitive form of vertebrates, possess some distinguishing features which will be discussed. Unlike warm-blooded animals, which are homoeothermic, fish are poikilothermic, so their body temperature and metabolic rate depends on the water temperature and this has practical implications for the nutrition, feeding and health of fish. Several behavioral responses have been linked to methods of feeding, feeding habits, frequency of feeding, mechanisms of food detection, and food preferences. Fish are also unique among vertebrates in their ability to absorb minerals not only from their diets but also from water through their gills and skin.

  13. Monitoring fish distributions along electrofishing segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    Electrofishing is widely used to monitor fish species composition and relative abundance in streams and lakes. According to standard protocols, multiple segments are selected in a body of water to monitor population relative abundance as the ratio of total catch to total sampling effort. The standard protocol provides an assessment of fish distribution at a macrohabitat scale among segments, but not within segments. An ancillary protocol was developed for assessing fish distribution at a finer scale within electrofishing segments. The ancillary protocol was used to estimate spacing, dispersion, and association of two species along shore segments in two local reservoirs. The added information provided by the ancillary protocol may be useful for assessing fish distribution relative to fish of the same species, to fish of different species, and to environmental or habitat characteristics.

  14. Concentration of elements in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs from the 2008 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs. Whole-body, fillet, or egg samples of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Ictalurus furcatus, Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), walleye (Sander vitreus), crappie (Pomoxis annularis, Pomoxis nigromaculatus), shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and Missouri saddled darter (Etheostoma tetrazonum) were collected from 23 sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs also were collected from walleye (Sander vitreus) at one of the sites.

  15. An indicator for ecosystem externalities in fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars; Andersen, Ken Haste; Vestergaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem externalities arise when one use of an ecosystem affects its other uses through the production functions of the ecosystem. We use simulations with a size-spectrum ecosystem model to investigate the ecosystem externality created by fishing of multiple species. The model is based upon...... general ecological principles and is calibrated to the North Sea. Two fleets are considered: a "forage fish" fleet targeting species that mature at small sizes and a "large fish" fleet targeting large piscivorous species. Based on the marginal analysis of the present value of the rent, we develop...... a benefit indicator that explicitly divides the consequences of fishing into internal and external benefits. This analysis demonstrates that the forage fish fleet has a notable economic impact on the large fish fleet, but the reverse is not true. The impact can be either negative or positive, which entails...

  16. Bacterial spoilage profiles to identify irradiated fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alur, M.D.; Venugopal, V.; Nerkar, D.P.; Nair, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    Effects of low dose gamma-irradiation of fish product on spoilage potentials of bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus megaterium, and Pseudomonas marinoglutinosa) and mixed flora were examined for ability to proliferate in radurized fish and produce volatile acids (TVA) and bases (TVBN). Bacteria proliferated well in unirradiated and irradiated fish, but formation of VA and VB were lower in irradiated than unirradiated counterparts. This was found in Bombay duck, Indian mackerel, white pomfret, seer and shrimp gamma-irradiated at 0 to 5 kGy under ice. TVA and TVBN produced by the organisms or mixed flora from fish were only 30-50% those of controls. A method for identifying radiation-processed fish could evolve based on lower susceptibility of irradiated fish to bacterial spoilage

  17. New ways of keeping fish fresh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    Take a fillet of cod and expose it to a controlled quantity of nuclear radiation. What happens? Its appearance is unchanged, but the fish - kept in a cool store - will still be edible and practically indistinguishable from fresh fish days, sometimes weeks, after ordinarily treated fish has had to be thrown away. Advantages seem from this addition to preservation methods are reported following experimental trials on cod, lobsters and shrimps. (author)

  18. Bibliographic review of works accomplished about irradiated chicken, fish and fish products , spices and condiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, B.; Dias Filho, M.

    1983-07-01

    Table of foods that can be irradiated and its respective nominal doses are shown. Bibliographic reviews of works performed about irradiated chicken, fish and fish products, spices and condiments are shown. The irradiation purpose in chicken were to increase the shelf-life and to eliminate the pathogenic microorganism in chicken stored below 10 0 C; in fish and fish products the purposes were to control the insect infestation in dry-fish during the storage and the sell exposure to reduce the macrobian charge in packed and non packed fish and in fish products. To reduce pathogenic microorganism in packing and unpacking fish; in spices and condiments to control the insect infestation, to reduce the microbial contamination. (L.M.J.)

  19. 2010 Great Lakes Human Health Fish Tissue Study Fish Tissue Data Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) is providing the fish tissue results from the 2010 Great Lakes Human Health Fish Tissue Study (GLHHFTS). This document includes the “data dictionary” for Mercury, PFC, PBDE and PCBs.

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine fish species in South Florida. Vector polygons in this data set represent fish...

  1. EPA Office of Water (OW): Fish Consumption Advisories and Fish Tissue Sampling Stations NHDPlus Indexed Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Fish Consumption Advisories dataset contains information on Fish Advisory events that have been indexed to the EPA Office of Water NHDPlus v2.1 hydrology and...

  2. Monetary values of freshwater fish and fish-kill counting guidelines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1982-01-01

    .... The product is a set of documented monetary values of freshwater fish that may be used, in conjunction with standard sampling programs outlined in Part II of this book, to assess the value of fish...

  3. Preservation of fish and fish products by use of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, Noemi.

    1986-09-01

    This report reviews the use of the radurization process in the preservation of fish and fish products. The literature describes several aspects of the process such as the fish species and the doses required, the wholesomeness of the radurized fish, and recommendations by international authorities on the applicability of the process. Areas of further research have been identified. The report concludes that radurization is an effective process for extending the shelf life of fish and fish products. Doses ranging from 0.75 to 2.5 kGy extend the shelf life two to three times compared to unirradiated controls. The loss of nutritional value at these doses is insignificant, and no deleterious short- or long-term toxicological effects have been detected in studies on animals. However, further study is required on consumer acceptance, economic feasibility, and radiation sensitivity of parasites in fish and fish products. 159 refs

  4. Enviromental contaminants in Puget Sound fish - Histological Preparation and Chemical Analyses of Puget Sound Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of a long-term contaminant-monitoring program of fish in Puget Sound and Georgia Basin, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and NWFSC have...

  5. The Zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hocutt, Charles H; Wiley, E. O

    1986-01-01

    ..., and Pleistoscene glaciation. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes is a comprehensive treatment of the freshwater biogeography of North America, with implications for other disciplines...

  6. Lindane residues in fish inhabiting Nigerian rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okereke, G.U.; Dje, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis for residues of lindane in fish collected from various rivers close to rice agroecosystems showed that the concentrations of lindane ranged from none detectable to 3.4 mg kg -1 . Fish from rivers where strict regulations prohibits its use had no detectable lindane residues while appreciable amounts of lindane were found in fish were such restriction was not enforced with the variation attributed to the extent of use of lindane in the area of contamination. The investigation confirms that the use of lindane in rice production in Nigeria can cause the contamination of fish in nearby rivers. (author). 16 refs, 2 tab

  7. The identification of irradiated fish: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.

    1987-01-01

    This report reviews different methods of detecting whether fish and fish products have been irradiated. A brief description of each method is followed by a discussion of its advantages and disadvantages. It is concluded that none of the methods available to date can establish beyond doubt whether fish has been irradiated or not and to what dose. It is recommended that a short-term research program be carried out to test the suitability of the o-tyrosine method to detect radiation treatment of fish. Although the method has not been fully developed, the preliminary results with chicken meat are very promising. 31 refs

  8. Influence of ionizing radiation on fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.A.S.

    1998-01-01

    Seafood are important sources of nutrients such as proteins of high biological value as well as other important nutrients for human. Common carp fish have a low commercial value due to the presence of fine spines between muscles in addition to the poor yield of fillets. The aim of this investigation was production of fish burger from the common carp fish and studying the possibility of using gamma irradiation doses of 2,4, and 6 kGy for increasing the shelf-life of cold stored fish burger samples as well as improving the hygienic quality of frozen storage ones in comparison with the addition of potassium sorbate as a preservative

  9. Founders of fish culture - European origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, F.F.

    1936-01-01

    Just where true fish culture appeared in history depends entirely upon what one considers fish culture to be. If the transportation of fishes from regions of plenty to those of few is to be regarded as fish culture - as it is by some even today - then this story should start in remotest antiquity and deal with an amazing series of failures. However, fish culture to be classed as a science must include far more than mere transportation, it must include a deliberate effort on the part of man to master a technique of fish raising which will yield results far superior to Nature's. Accordingly, the wheel of history must be spun forward to the fifteenth century, A. D., when man first conceived the idea that with care and exactitude, he could improve upon Nature. The fish cultural efforts of the Chinese, the Egyptians, the Greeks, and the Romans may be skipped over in a hurry, for they represented little more than the transportation and rearing of wild fish. With the renaissance of modern civilization in Europe came the birth of scientific fish culture.

  10. Radionuclide accumulations in Clinch River fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Easterly, C.E.; Shank, K.E.

    1976-01-01

    Fish samples were collected from several locations above Melton Hill Dam, which is upstream from the liquid effluent release point of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The sampling locations were chosen to determine the accumulation of natural and man-made radionuclides in fish from areas in the Clinch River not influenced by the Laboratory's liquid effluents. Bass, carp, crappie, shad, bluegill, and other sunfish were collected; ten fish per species were composited to form a single sample for each location. The gamma-emitting radionuclide concentrations were determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Estimates of radiological dose to man subsequent to ingestion of these fish are made

  11. Paramyxoviruses of fish: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Theodore R.; Batts, William N.; Kibenge, Frederick S. B.; Godoy, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The first fish paramyxovirus was isolated from normal adult Chinook salmon returning to a coastal hatchery in Oregon in the fall of 1982. Subsequently, the virus was isolated from other stocks of adult Chinook salmon and one stock of adult coho salmon in California, Oregon, Washington and Alaska, leading to its designation as the Pacific salmon paramyxovirus (PSPV). The slow-growing virus can be isolated from tissues and ovarian fluids of healthy adult fish returning to spawn and apparently causes no clinical signs of disease or mortality. In 1995, a different and widely disseminated paramyxovirus was isolated from farmed Atlantic salmon in Norway and was designated as Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (ASPV). Although this virus caused no disease or mortality when injected into juvenile Atlantic salmon, ASPV has been associated with proliferative gill inflammation in sea-reared yearling fish; however, additional infectious agents may be involved in the etiology of the condition. Sequence analysis of PSPV and ASPV isolates using the polymerase gene established their placement in the family Paramyxoviridaeand has shown the two viruses to be closely related but sufficiently different from each other and from other known paramyxoviruses to possibly represent new genera within the family. The viruses can be diagnosed by isolation in cell culture with final confirmation by molecular methods. Other paramyxovirus-like agents have been observed or isolated from rainbow trout in Germany, from seabream in Japan associated with epithelial necrosis, from turbot in Spain associated with erythrocytic inclusion bodies and buccal/opercular hemorrhaging and from koi and common carp associated with gill necrosis in the European Union.

  12. Fish consumption behavior and fish farming attitude in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Qader Khan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore fish consumption behavior and fish farming attitude of the Saudi households in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. The survey was conducted in Sharurah town situated in Najran province. The data were collected through a well-structured questionnaire from 100 respondents residing in the province. Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used to see the significant and non-significant impact of the two variables. The results showed that majority (37% of the respondents fell in the age group of 25–34 and majority (35% of the respondents have high level of education i.e. up to university level. The results also depicted that majority (31% of the people consume fish and were aware of the nutritional value of fish. However, majority (85% of the respondents were not satisfied by the fish price. The results further indicated that none of the respondent was engaged in fish farming activity i.e. they had no fish farms at their homes. Furthermore, majority (83% respondents had no intentions to start fish farming at their homes in future. The study concludes that fish consumption and preference is high in the study area and people prefer fish more than chicken and meat for consumption purposes because of their knowledge regarding the nutritional value of fish. However, the age and educational level have negative impact on the respondent’s opinion about fish price in the study area. The study recommends that proper policies should be formulated to educate people about fish farming (aquaponics and its importance through fisheries extension services to enhance the interest of people in fish farming. Keywords: Fish consumption, Fish farming, Attitude, Intentions, Saudi Arabia, Aquaponics

  13. A Study of Fish Lice (Argulus Sp.) Infection in Freshwater Food Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Aalberg K.; Koščová L.; Šmiga Ľ.; Košuth P.; Koščo J.; Oros M.; Barčák D.; Lazar P.

    2016-01-01

    Argulus sp., commonly referred to as fish lice, are crustacean ectoparasites of fishes. The hematophagous parasites attach to and feed off the integument of their hosts. Outbreaks of epizootics have been reported worldwide, causing mass mortalities and having serious economic implications for fish farms and culture efforts. Argulus fish lice may also serve as vectors of infectious diseases and as intermediate hosts of other parasites. Two native European species, A. foliaceus and A. coregoni,...

  14. [Effects of fish on field resource utilization and rice growth in rice-fish coculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Hu, Liang Liang; Ren, Wei Zheng; Guo, Liang; Wu, Min Fang; Tang, Jian Jun; Chen, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Rice field can provide habitat for fish and other aquatic animals. Rice-fish coculture can increase rice yield and simultaneously reduce the use of chemicals through reducing rice pest occurrence and nutrient complementary use. However, how fish uses food sources (e.g. phytoplankton, weeds, duckweed, macro-algal and snail) from rice field, and whether the nutrients releasing from those food sources due to fish transforming can improve rice growth are still unknown. Here, we conducted two field experiments to address these questions. One was to investigate the pattern of fish activity in the field using the method of video recording. The other was to examine the utilization of field resources by fish using stable isotope technology. Rice growth and rice yield were also exa-mined. Results showed that fish tended to be more active and significantly expanded the activity range in the rice-fish coculture compared to fish monoculture (fish not living together with rice plants). The contributions of 3 potential aquatic organisms (duckweed, phytoplankton and snail) to fish dietary were 22.7%, 34.8% and 30.0% respectively under rice-fish coculture without feed. Under the treatment with feed, however, the contributions of these 3 aquatic organisms to the fish die-tary were 8.9%, 5.9% and 1.6% respectively. The feed contribution was 71.0%. Rice-fish coculture significantly increased the nitrogen concentration in rice leaves, prolonged tillering stage by 10-12 days and increased rice spike rate and yield. The results suggested that raising fish in paddy field may transform the nutrients contained in field resources to bioavailable for rice plants through fish feeding activity, which can improve rice growth and rice yield.

  15. Contents of radionuclides and heavy metals in fish roe of commercial fish of the Zaporizhya reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belokon', A.S.; Marenkov, O.N.; Dvoretskij, A.I.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive radiation-toxicological studies of fish roe of some commercial fish of the Zaporizhya Reservoir were conducted. It was found that the greatest number of 137 Cs (4,5 Bq/kg) and 90 Sr (3,2 Bq/kg) was accumulated by fish roe of perch. Heavy metals (cadmium, copper, zinc and lead), and natural radionuclides 226 Ra and 232 Th were accumulated to a greater amount of bream fish roe

  16. Assessments of fish catch composition of marine artisanal fishery in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish is a major source of protein in human diets. Fish demand has been on the increase due to increase in human population which has resulted to wide gap between fish demand and supply. This study was carried out to elucidate the major fish species that are economically important in the study area. Assessment of fish ...

  17. Fish resources of Lagos State coastal wetlands | Ayodele | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fishing is the major occupation of the people found along the coastal wetland of Lagos State. Fishing is carried out all the year round. This study examines the fishing Activities, Gear composition and fishing methods in order to obtain the fish species and harvest composition of the study area. This paper is based on the ...

  18. 25 CFR 242.5 - Disposition of unmarketable fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of unmarketable fish. 242.5 Section 242.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.5 Disposition of unmarketable fish. All unmarketable live fish taken...

  19. 50 CFR 622.38 - Landing fish intact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that is operating under the respective trip limits. Such cut-off fish also may be sold. A maximum of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Landing fish intact. 622.38 Section 622.38... Landing fish intact. The operator of a vessel that fishes in the EEZ is responsible for ensuring that fish...

  20. 75 FR 22423 - Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R9-EA-2010-N071] Sport Fishing and.... SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a public meeting of the Sport Fishing and... of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App., we announce that the Sport Fishing and Boating...

  1. 76 FR 7579 - Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R9-EA-2011-N015] Sport Fishing and.... SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a public meeting of the Sport Fishing and... announce that the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council will hold a meeting on Thursday, March 3...

  2. Changes in the North Sea fish community: evidence of indirect effects of fishing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, N.; Gislason, H.; Pope, J.G.; Rice, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate changes in the North Sea fish community with particular reference to possible indirect effects of fishing, mediated through the ecosystem. In the past, long-term changes in the slope of size spectra of research vessel catches have been related to changes in fishing effort, but such

  3. Fish losses due to bacterial flora and infections of fishes in Kainji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assesses the losses incurred as a result of bacterial flora and infection in captured and cultured fish. The role played by these bacterial flora on the overall quality and health of fish is discussed. Bacteria have been reported to cause diseases in ponds and increase in the spoilage rate of raw and preserved fish in ...

  4. Predator avoidance in extremophile fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2013-02-06

    Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis.

  5. MACROZOOBENTHOS IN CARP FISH FRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Debeljak

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative components of macrozoobenthos was investigated on six fish farms with 8-10 ha-1 each at "Donji Miholjac". The ponds were stocked with 200,000 individuals per ha! of three-day-old carp larvae. The fry were fed with animal protein throughout the culturing season. The qualitative and quabtitative macrozoobenthos components formed mainly due to systematic groups of Oligochaeta and Chironomidae. The average size of Oligohaeta varied in each pond from 119 to 944 individuals per m-2 and from 2.18 to 14.09 g per m-2, and the larvae of Chironomidae from 174 to 1086 ind. per m-2 and from 2.66 to 14.09 g per m-2. Variation s of the total macrozoobenthos was within the amplitude of from 28 to 5805 ind. per m-2 and from 0.11 to 73.72 g. per m-2. In mid summer it was determined that there was a fall in the amount of macrozoobenthos in all fish ponds (Table 6.

  6. Fish populations in Plynlimon streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Crisp

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In Plynlimon streams, brown trout (Salmo trutta L. are widespread in the upper Wye at population densities of 0.03 to 0.32 fish m-2 and show evidence of successful recruitment in most years. In the upper Severn, brown trout are found only in an area of c. 1670 -2 downstream of Blaenhafren Falls at densities of 0.03 to 0.24 fish -2 and the evidence suggests very variable year to year success in recruitment (Crisp & Beaumont, 1996. Analyses of the data show that temperature differences between afforested and unafforested streams may affect the rates of trout incubation and growth but are not likely to influence species survival. Simple analyses of stream discharge data suggest, but do not prove, that good years for recruitment in the Hafren population were years of low stream discharge. This may be linked to groundwater inputs detected in other studies in this stream. More research is needed to explain the survival of the apparently isolated trout population in the Hafren.

  7. Predator Avoidance in Extremophile Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis. PMID:25371337

  8. Histology of the first fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.P.; Sansom, I.J.; Repetski, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    THE first description of Anatolepis Bockelie & Fortey was from early Ordovician sediments of Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen1,2, but the genus is now known from many localities in North America and Greenland, ranging in age from the Late Cambrian period to the Early Ordovician3-6. Although initially interpreted as an agnathan fish2,3 that predated other representatives7, this has been widely disputed because the available histological data were unconvincing6,8-10 and the scales fell outside the known morphological range of other accepted early vertebrates9-11. Further doubt was cast upon the vertebrate affinity of Anatolepis when specimens from East Greenland were interpreted as the cuticular fragments of aglaspid arthropods6, although this interpretation has also been refuted12. Here we report on the morphology and histology of large collections of Anatolepis, and demonstrate the presence of dentine, a tissue unique to vertebrates, confirming that the taxon is both a vertebrate and the oldest known fish.

  9. Monitoring of heavy metals in marine and freshwater fishes and nutritional evaluation of fish consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rina Mulyaningsih

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a food source of minerals. Uptake of heavy metals in fish could come from water, sediment and fish feed. Monitoring of minerals content and contaminants in fish has been carried out to evaluate nutrition and food safety, using neutron activation analysis techniques. Marine fish species that being analyzed are Kembung (Rastrelliger faughni), mackerel (Acanthocybium solandri), Tuna (Authis thazard) and freshwater fishes are Bawal (Colossoma macropomum), Nila (Oreochromis niloticus), Mas (Cyprinus carpio), sampled from 6 markets in North Jakarta. Monitoring results indicate that the essential minerals contained in fish are Fe, K, Na, Zn, Ca, Mg, and Se. Se and Ca concentrations in marine fish are higher than in freshwater fish. The concentration of other essential elements varies depending on the type of fish. The concentration of arsenic in marine fish is 3 times higher than that of freshwater fish; Hg and Cr content in all fish species were observed. From the evaluation of the adequacy of nutrition, with assuming a consumption of 86.68 g fish/day, for men aged 19 - 30 years, and referring to data from the Institute of Medicine USA, the Ca intake : 2.5 - 6.3; Cl : 1.5 - 3.3; Fe : 11.5 - 26.9; Na : 1.5 - 4.1; K : 3.4 - 6.7 and Zn 3.9 - 7.2% of the recommended value. Cr intake exceeds the recommended value, while As and Hg is not recommended in the food. In fact these metals contained in the studied fish, but the concentration is still below the value of standards issued by BPOM. (author)

  10. Fish skin provides invisibility in open ocean (image 11)

    National Science Foundation

    2017-02-10

    Full Text Available Skin preparation from fish shows birefringence under cross polarization microscopy Skin preparation from fish shows birefringence under cross polarization microscopySkin preparation from fish shows birefringence under cross polarization microscopy Skin pr

  11. Biomass and Abundance of Herbivorous Fishes on Coral Reefs off ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effects of fishing intensity, reef geomorphology and benthic cover. Distance from the .... on herbivorous fish communities relevant to the proposed ... fragments, nearshore coastal fringing reefs ..... Over-fishing and coral bleaching pose the most ...

  12. Homestead fish farmers' production profile in Osun state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Homestead fish farming in the Nigeria is carried out by small scale operators in small fresh water ponds. ... fish farmers in Osun state is also characterized by a high level of use of improved fish farming techniques and improved technologies.

  13. Cash from trash: Using and reducing fish bycatch | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-28

    Oct 28, 2010 ... Some time ago, the world's commercial fishers threw away many of the fish they netted. ... Unlike the catch-and-release practices so common in sport fishing, ... devices on fishing gear, as well as other management practices.

  14. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Shark Predation Mitigation Fishing Excursions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fishing excursion information, including summary tables of: Fishing/culling efforts, including date, islets, latitude/longitude, fishing method, soak times, culled...

  15. New salty waffle products "Fish Krekis" with fish & plant semifinished products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorova Dina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the directions of expansion of the range of wafer snack products of high nutritional value by using fish & plant semifinished products. The study scientifically grounds the benefits of using the new fish & plant semifinished products in manufacturing waffle salty snack products. The data provided in the article prove that the use of the fish & plant semifinished products & herbal ingredients enable a range of the new wafer snack products «Fish krekis» with high content of proteins, organic calcium, fiber and vitamins, with improved consumer properties, as well as more efficient use of Ukrainian raw fish materials.

  16. Radiologic contamination of fish. III. Radiochemical studies of contaminated fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, T

    1955-01-01

    The decay rate of the radioactivity of the organs of fish caught by the crew of the Shunkotsu Maru was measured. After 3 months, the spleens, kidneys, and gonads retained considerable radioactivity, suggesting the presence of long-lived radioactive elements. At the end of this time, the liver and other organs retained only about 10% of the initial radioactivity and the bile had lost most of its activity. The retention by the pyloric coeca and the intestinal contents varied considerably and was probably dependent on the food consumed. Absorption of the ash of the organs on Dowex 50 and elution located most of the activity in the fractions eluted with 0.5% oxalic acid and 5% citrate buffers of pH 4.1 and 4.6. Qualitative separation with carriers identified the main radioactive element of the citrate buffer, pH 4.1, eluate as /sup 65/Zn.

  17. Rice-Fish Culture in China

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Bumper harvests of both rice and fish provided more protein, improved ...... and photosynthesizing bacteria are the primary producers and the raw materials used ... 5-cm deep in the booting and earing stages, and about 6-cm deep in the milk ...... of fish have different shapes and feeding habits, fat contents, and distributions.

  18. Fish and Shellfish Associated Disease Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of disease outbreaks related to fish and shellfish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers the chemical, bacterial, and viral diseases that are transmitted by fish and shellfish. A list of 50 references is also presented. (HM)

  19. Fish farmers' perceptions of constraints affecting aquaculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on fish farmers' perceptions of constraints affecting aquaculture development in Akwa-Ibom State of Nigeria. Random sampling procedure was used to select 120 respondents from whom primary data was collected. Data analysis was with the aid of descriptive statistics. Results show that fish farming ...

  20. On the dynamics of exploited fish populations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beverton, R. J. H; Holt, Sidney J

    1993-01-01

    ...-brooding cichlids, and viviparity in many sharks and toothcarps. Moreover, fish are of considerable importance to the survival of the human species in the form of nutritious, delicious and diverse food. Rational exploitation and management of our global stocks of fishes must rely upon a detailed and precise insight of their biology. The...

  1. Biofilm responses to marine fish farm wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz-Lazaro, Carlos; Navarrete-Mier, Francisco; Marin, Arnaldo

    2011-01-01

    The changes in the biofilm community due to organic matter enrichment, eutrophication and metal contamination derived from fish farming were studied. The biofilm biomass, polysaccharide content, trophic niche and element accumulation were quantified along an environmental gradient of fish farm wastes in two seasons. Biofilm structure and trophic diversity was influenced by seasonality as well as by the fish farm waste load. Fish farming enhanced the accumulation of organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals by the biofilm community. The accumulation pattern of these elements was similar regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community. This suggests that the biofilm communities can be considered a reliable tool for assessing dissolved aquaculture wastes. Due to the ubiquity of biofilms and its wide range of consumers, its role as a sink of dissolved wastes may have important implications for the transfer of aquaculture wastes to higher trophic levels in coastal systems. - Research highlights: → Biofilms can act as a trophic pathway of fish farm dissolved wastes. → Biofilms are reliable tools for monitoring fish farm dissolved wastes. → The influence of the fish farm dissolved wastes can be detected 120-350 m from farm. - Under the influence of fish farming biofilm accumulates organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals, regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community.

  2. Histamine (Scombroid) Fish Poisoning: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Charles; Teuber, Suzanne; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-02-01

    Histamine fish poisoning, also known as scombroid poisoning, is the most common cause of ichythyotoxicosis worldwide and results from the ingestion of histamine-contaminated fish in the Scombroidae and Scomberesocidae families, including mackerel, bonito, albacore, and skipjack. This disease was first described in 1799 in Britain and re-emerged in the medical literature in the 1950s when outbreaks were reported in Japan. The symptoms associated with histamine fish poisoning are similar to that of an allergic reaction. In fact, such histamine-induced reactions are often misdiagnosed as IgE-mediated fish allergy. Indeed, histamine fish poisoning is still an underrecognized disease. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of scombroid disease. Because more than 80% of fish consumed in the USA is now imported from other countries, the disease is intimately linked with the global fish trade (National Marine Fisheries Service, 2012). Preventing future scombroid outbreaks will require that fishermen, public health officials, restaurant workers, and medical professionals work together to devise international safety standards and increase awareness of the disease. The implications of scombroid poisoning go far beyond that of fish and have broader implications for the important issues of food safety.

  3. Biomechanics of swimming in developing larval fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voesenek, Cees J.; Muijres, Florian T.; Leeuwen, Van Johan L.

    2018-01-01

    Most larvae of bony fish are able to swim almost immediately after hatching. Their locomotory system supports several vital functions: fish larvae make fast manoeuvres to escape from predators, aim accurately during suction feeding and maymigrate towards suitable future habitats. Owing to their

  4. Effects of pollution on freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKim, J.M.; Christensen, G.M.; Tucker, J.H.; Benoit, D.A.; Lewis, M.J.

    1974-01-01

    Various aspects of pollution effects on fishes are reviewed under the following headings: methodology; water quality; pesticide pollutants; industrial pollutants; domestic pollutants; radioactive pollutants; and other pollutants. A table is presented to show acute and chronic toxicity of inorganic and organic pollutants to freshwater fish. (U.S.)

  5. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  6. Area-based management and fishing efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchal, P.; Ulrich, C.; Pastoors, M.

    2002-01-01

    The scope of this study is to investigate the extent to which area-based management may have influenced the fishing efficiency of the Danish and Dutch demersal fleets harvesting cod, plaice and sole in the North Sea. Special consideration is given to the `plaice box', a restricted area where fishing

  7. Omics approaches in fish quality and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Guerra Monteiro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Omics is a new technology that uses genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics to investigate metabolites from foods. The global demand for fish has shown a progressive increase because it is a significant source of high quality protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially omega-3, and essential minerals. However, there are barriers in the fishery production chain such as lack of standardization, knowledge, and technology transfer to industry. Moreover, fish effective monitoring is difficult due to restricted quality parameters and analytical methods determined by current Brazilian legislation. This review details the limiting chemical parameters and recent advances in analytical procedures for fish quality determination. To improve fish quality monitoring, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N, trimethylamine (TMA, ammonia, pH, and biogenic amines values should be revised and established by fish category and/or type of fish product. On the other hand, protein carbonyl concentration, free fatty acids (FFAs, peroxide values (POV, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS should be included in the national legislation. Simultaneously, the official authorities should take into account effective, practical, and low cost analytical methodologies, which lead to faster results in order to facilitate and enhance the quality control of the products from the fish production chain, ensuring the consumer’s health. Moreover, analytical techniques for the identification of fish species must be introduced in the Brazilian legislation in order to avoid illegal substitutions and negative impacts to consumers.

  8. 76 FR 27636 - Permits; Foreign Fishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ...: Mi Ae Kim, Trade and Marine Stewardship Division, Office of International Affairs, NMFS, 1315 East... consisting solely of transporting fish or fish products at sea from a point within the United States Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) or, with the concurrence of a state, within the boundaries of that state to a...

  9. Kalispel Resident Fish Project : Annual Report, 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Todd; Olson, Jason

    2003-03-01

    In 2002 the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) continued monitoring enhancement projects (implemented from 1996 to 1998) for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), westslope cutthroat (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Additional baseline fish population and habitat assessments were conducted, in 2002, in tributaries to the Pend Oreille River. Further habitat and fish population enhancement projects were also implemented in 2002.

  10. 36 CFR 2.3 - Fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... impact populations of native species adversely, and park management plans do not call for elimination of... time of catching the person did not possess the legal limit of fish. (8) Fishing from motor road bridges, from or within 200 feet of a public raft or float designated for water sports, or within the...

  11. An Adjustment Restriction on Fish Quota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Diana; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Haijema, Rene; Groeneveld, R.A.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2017-01-01

    Management objectives of the European Union for North Sea fish stocks are shifting towards considering both biological sustainability and economic benefits. As part of multiannual management plans, an adjustment restriction on fish quota has been introduced. Its objective is to obtain an

  12. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond

  13. An O-"fish"-ial Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, James; Krustchinsky, Rick; Vanek, Karen; Nguyen, Kim-Thoa

    2009-01-01

    In this "O-"fish"-ial" research project, third-grade students use multiple resources to research several fish species, write a research paper and develop a PowerPoint presentation to communicate their findings. In addition, students actually examine these species up close with samples from the local market, and then conclude the project with a…

  14. Feed intake and oxygen consumption in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, S.

    2013-01-01

    In fish, the voluntary feed intake is influenced by dietary, environmental and/or physiological factors. It is well known that under hypoxia the concentration of oxygen in the water (DO) determines the feed intake of fish. However at non-limiting water DO levels (normoxia), several other

  15. What determines fresh fish consumption in Croatia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Marina; Matulić, Daniel; Jelić, Margareta

    2016-11-01

    Although fresh fish is widely available, consumption still remains below the recommended intake levels among the majority of European consumers. The economic crisis affects consumer food behaviour, therefore fresh fish is perceived as healthy but expensive food product. The aim of this study was to determine the factors influencing fresh fish consumption using an expanded Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) as a theoretical framework. The survey was conducted on a heterogeneous sample of 1151 Croatian fresh fish consumers. The study investigated the relationship between attitudes, perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, moral obligation, involvement in health, availability, intention and consumption of fresh fish. Structural Equation Modeling by Partial Least Squares was used to analyse the collected data. The results indicated that attitudes are the strongest positive predictor of the intention to consume fresh fish. Other significant predictors of the intention to consume fresh fish were perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, health involvement and moral obligation. The intention to consume fresh fish showed a strong positive correlation with behaviour. This survey provides valuable information for food marketing professionals and for the food industry in general. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biofilm responses to marine fish farm wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz-Lazaro, Carlos, E-mail: carsanz@um.es [Departamento de Ecologia e Hidrologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Navarrete-Mier, Francisco; Marin, Arnaldo [Departamento de Ecologia e Hidrologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    The changes in the biofilm community due to organic matter enrichment, eutrophication and metal contamination derived from fish farming were studied. The biofilm biomass, polysaccharide content, trophic niche and element accumulation were quantified along an environmental gradient of fish farm wastes in two seasons. Biofilm structure and trophic diversity was influenced by seasonality as well as by the fish farm waste load. Fish farming enhanced the accumulation of organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals by the biofilm community. The accumulation pattern of these elements was similar regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community. This suggests that the biofilm communities can be considered a reliable tool for assessing dissolved aquaculture wastes. Due to the ubiquity of biofilms and its wide range of consumers, its role as a sink of dissolved wastes may have important implications for the transfer of aquaculture wastes to higher trophic levels in coastal systems. - Research highlights: > Biofilms can act as a trophic pathway of fish farm dissolved wastes. > Biofilms are reliable tools for monitoring fish farm dissolved wastes. > The influence of the fish farm dissolved wastes can be detected 120-350 m from farm. - Under the influence of fish farming biofilm accumulates organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals, regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community.

  17. Fishing Facts Unlimited. Enterprise: Man & Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Technical and Industrial Education.

    Fishing Facts Unlimited, a student conducted enterprise in Technical and Industrial Education at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale has been a very successful operation, both financially and in providing a community service. The service provided by the enterprise was the production and sales of a 48-page fishing guide to Southern Illinois.…

  18. [Fish intake and risk of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybkowska, Ewa; Świderski, Franciszek; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bożena

    2014-10-17

    The aim of the study was to present the current state of knowledge concerning the relationship between the consumption of fish as materials rich in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA) omega-3, and the risk of prostate cancer. Many scientific reports confirm the health benefits from the consumption of fish and protective properties of LC PUFA omega-3 in relation to prostate cancer. However, there are reports that indicate a relationship of the high consumption of PUFA with the risk of prostate cancer. The way of processing and preservation of the fish, and other factors not included in previous studies, could have some importance in the etiology of this disease. High susceptibility of PUFA to oxidation changes and the technological fish processing (smoking, high-temperature cooking methods) contribute to the formation of many compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines - which may influence the formation of cancers - including prostate cancer. It is necessary to ensure an adequate amount of LC PUFA omega-3 in the diet through the consumption of proper quality fish and fish oils. Particular attention should be paid to the high susceptibility of PUFA to the oxidative processes, and the method of processing, preservation and storage of fish. Also pollution from the environment can significantly reduce the impact of health benefits of PUFA and fish, and even be the cause of cancers, including prostate cancer. Further research in this area should be more targeted to assess the impact of nutritional factors for the development of such tumors.

  19. Fish based diets cause archaeological dating problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Rørbæk, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    Every time our ancestors cooked freshwater fish in ceramic vessels, they unwittingly set a Carbon-14 trap for future archaeologists......Every time our ancestors cooked freshwater fish in ceramic vessels, they unwittingly set a Carbon-14 trap for future archaeologists...

  20. Effects of Pollution on Freshwater Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brungs, W. A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of pollution on freshwater fish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) water quality; (2) pesticide pollutants; (3) chemical pollutants; (4) miscellaneous pollutants; and (5) physical factors of pollution on freshwater fish. A list of 338 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. Fish benefits from offshore wind farm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leonhard, Simon B.; Stenberg, Claus; Støttrup, Josianne

    2013-01-01

    The studies up until 2006 showed few effects on the fish fauna that could be attributed to the establishment and operation of the wind farms. Fish abundance and diversity were not higher inside the wind farms than in the areas outside the wind farms. One obvious reason for this could be that the ...

  2. Consumer research on fish in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Based on input received from participants in the EU FAIR PL 98- 4174 Concerted Action programme "Fish Quality Labelling and Monitoring" (CA-FQLM), and on published research results, an overview is given of the recent findings on consumer attitudes and behaviour in relation to fish in Europe. The ...

  3. Swimbladder Allometry of Selected Midwater Fish Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-05

    Gibbs, R. II., Jr., 1971. "Notes on Fishes of the Genus Eustomias ( Stomiatoidei , Melanstomiatidae) in Bermuda Waters, With the Description of...N00140-70-C-0307, Smithsonian Institution. Goodyear, R. H. and R. H. Gibbs, Jr., 1970. "Systematics and Zoogeography of Stomiatoid Fishes of the

  4. Scripted Reading Programs: Fishing for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan-Owens, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    "Give a man a fish and he will eat for a day. Teach a man to fish and he will eat for the rest of his life." This popular Chinese proverb is an apt metaphor for the dilemma faced by principals and curriculum coordinators when deciding whether to purchase a scripted commercial reading program. Although a scripted reading program may solve…

  5. Fish is food--the FAO's fish price index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveterås, Sigbjørn; Asche, Frank; Bellemare, Marc F; Smith, Martin D; Guttormsen, Atle G; Lem, Audun; Lien, Kristin; Vannuccini, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    World food prices hit an all-time high in February 2011 and are still almost two and a half times those of 2000. Although three billion people worldwide use seafood as a key source of animal protein, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations-which compiles prices for other major food categories-has not tracked seafood prices. We fill this gap by developing an index of global seafood prices that can help to understand food crises and may assist in averting them. The fish price index (FPI) relies on trade statistics because seafood is heavily traded internationally, exposing non-traded seafood to price competition from imports and exports. Easily updated trade data can thus proxy for domestic seafood prices that are difficult to observe in many regions and costly to update with global coverage. Calculations of the extent of price competition in different countries support the plausibility of reliance on trade data. Overall, the FPI shows less volatility and fewer price spikes than other food price indices including oils, cereals, and dairy. The FPI generally reflects seafood scarcity, but it can also be separated into indices by production technology, fish species, or region. Splitting FPI into capture fisheries and aquaculture suggests increased scarcity of capture fishery resources in recent years, but also growth in aquaculture that is keeping pace with demand. Regionally, seafood price volatility varies, and some prices are negatively correlated. These patterns hint that regional supply shocks are consequential for seafood prices in spite of the high degree of seafood tradability.

  6. Fish is food--the FAO's fish price index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigbjørn Tveterås

    Full Text Available World food prices hit an all-time high in February 2011 and are still almost two and a half times those of 2000. Although three billion people worldwide use seafood as a key source of animal protein, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO of the United Nations-which compiles prices for other major food categories-has not tracked seafood prices. We fill this gap by developing an index of global seafood prices that can help to understand food crises and may assist in averting them. The fish price index (FPI relies on trade statistics because seafood is heavily traded internationally, exposing non-traded seafood to price competition from imports and exports. Easily updated trade data can thus proxy for domestic seafood prices that are difficult to observe in many regions and costly to update with global coverage. Calculations of the extent of price competition in different countries support the plausibility of reliance on trade data. Overall, the FPI shows less volatility and fewer price spikes than other food price indices including oils, cereals, and dairy. The FPI generally reflects seafood scarcity, but it can also be separated into indices by production technology, fish species, or region. Splitting FPI into capture fisheries and aquaculture suggests increased scarcity of capture fishery resources in recent years, but also growth in aquaculture that is keeping pace with demand. Regionally, seafood price volatility varies, and some prices are negatively correlated. These patterns hint that regional supply shocks are consequential for seafood prices in spite of the high degree of seafood tradability.

  7. Fishing destabilizes the biomass flow in the marine size spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Rochet, M.-J.; Benoît, E.

    2011-01-01

    Fishing impacts on marine food webs are predicted by simulations of a size spectrum community model. In this model, predation is determined by predator and prey size and abundance, and drives predator growth and prey mortality. Fishing amplifies temporal oscillations in the biomass flow. Oscillations appear at lower fishing intensity and have wider amplitude when fishing is selective (removes a narrow size range) and/or when large fish are targeted, than when fishing is more balanced (catchin...

  8. Comparative studies of metals in fish organs, sediments and water from Nigerian fresh water fish ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipinmoroti, K.O.; Oshodi, A.A.; Owolabi, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Fish samples (Illisha africana) were collected from six man-made fish pond in Edo and Ondo states, Nigeria. Some organs of the fish sediment and water from the fish habitat were analysed for Cd, Pb, Hg, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu and Cr, Physico-chemical properties of water samples from the ponds were also re-corded. The concentration of the metals varied in the sediment water as well as in different organs of the fish. However, chromium was absent in all the samples. The descending order of metal concentration in fish organs was: gills intestine, head and muscle. To avoid harmful accumulation of these metals in the human system, the gills and the intestine should preferably be discarded while processing fish for consumption. The head with a relatively high concentration of calcium might be useful in feed formulation. (author)

  9. Restricted fish feeding reduces cod otolith opacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, H.; Folkvord, A.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of reduced feeding and constant temperature on cod otolith opacity. Three groups of juvenile cod were given restricted food rations at different times for 4 months, resulting in depressed somatic growth. Otolith opacity was measured on pictures...... in otolith opacity were found between individual fish both within groups and between groups. In two of the three groups significantly more translucent otolith material was deposited in response to reduced feeding. Our results show that variations in feeding and hence fish growth resulted in variation...... in otolith opacity, but the effect was minor compared to that of variations in ambient temperature. The combined influence of these effects, which both act on fish metabolism, are most likely controlling the seasonal opacity changes observed in wild fish. Our results help explain the variations seen in fish...

  10. Ciguatera fish poisoning. A southern California epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, E D; Tanner, P; Turchen, S G; Tunget, C L; Manoguerra, A; Clark, R F

    1995-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning results from the bioconcentration of a variety of toxins produced by marine dinoflagellates. Signs and symptoms vary widely, but it usually presents as gastrointestinal and neurologic complaints beginning shortly after the ingestion of fish containing the toxins. Symptoms may persist for months and sometimes even years. Although cases have been reported throughout the United States, epidemics are most common along tropical and subtropical coasts and usually involve the ingestion of large carnivorous fish. We review the literature and report the first epidemic of 25 cases of ciguatera fish poisoning presenting to area hospitals in Southern California that were successfully tracked by the Department of Health Services and isolated to fish caught off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Images Figure 1. PMID:7667980

  11. A checklist of fishes of Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bijukumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the fishes of Kerala State is presented, along with their scientific and common names (English and Malayalam, endemism, IUCN Red List status, listing under different Schedules of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act and in the Appendices of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES. Nine Hundred and five species of fishes are recorded from the inland and marine waters of Kerala comprising of 41 orders and 172 families. Close to 30% of the freshwater fish species found in Kerala are endemic to the State. Only 8% of the total fishes of Kerala are listed as threatened in the IUCN Red List, of which the majority are freshwater species. Several hundred fish species occurring in the marine waters of Kerala have not yet been assessed for their conservation status by IUCN.  

  12. Consumer interest in fish information and labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Vermeir, Iris

    2007-01-01

    of information cues with regard to fish. Qualitative exploratory research was performed in May 2004 through focus group discussions in two European countries: Belgium and Spain. Personal sources are found as the most important information sources with regard to fish. Although a majority of consumers use......Consumers' cognitive mechanisms and their perception of product properties are markedly affected by information. This paper focuses on consumers' information needs and interests related to fish. The objective is to explore consumers' use of internal and external information sources and their use...... mandatory information cues on fish labels, they express doubts whether information provided on the labels can be trusted. People who are more experienced and have higher familiarity with fish, seem to be more efficient in searching and using information. Instead of providing one message for the consumers...

  13. Potential hazards in smoke-flavored fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; Jiang, Jie; Li, Donghua

    2008-08-01

    Smoking is widely used in fish processing for the color and flavor. Smoke flavorings have evolved as a successful alternative to traditional smoking. The hazards of the fish products treated by liquid-smoking process are discussed in this review. The smoke flavoring is one important ingredient in the smoke-flavored fish. This paper gives the definition of smoke flavorings and the hazard of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) residue in the smoke flavorings on the market. It gives also an assessment of chemical hazards such as carcinogenic PAHs, especially Benzo-[ a]pyrene, as well as biological hazards such as Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, histamine and parasites in smoke-flavored fish. The limitations in regulations or standards are discussed. Smoke flavored fish have lower content of PAHs as compared with the traditional smoking techniques if the PAHs residue in smoke flavorings is controlled by regulations or standards.

  14. The Gut Microbiota of Marine Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, Sian; Culloty, Sarah; Whooley, Jason; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul

    2018-01-01

    The body of work relating to the gut microbiota of fish is dwarfed by that on humans and mammals. However, it is a field that has had historical interest and has grown significantly along with the expansion of the aquaculture industry and developments in microbiome research. Research is now moving quickly in this field. Much recent focus has been on nutritional manipulation and modification of the gut microbiota to meet the needs of fish farming, while trying to maintain host health and welfare. However, the diversity amongst fish means that baseline data from wild fish and a clear understanding of the role that specific gut microbiota play is still lacking. We review here the factors shaping marine fish gut microbiota and highlight gaps in the research. PMID:29780377

  15. Mercury and its toxic effects on fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Morcillo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg and its derivative compounds have been parts of widespread pollutants of the aquatic environment. Since Hg is absorbed by fish and passed up the food chain to other fish-eating species, it does not only affect aquatic ecosystems but also humans through bioaccumulation. Thus, the knowledge of toxicological effects of Hg on fish has become one of the aims in research applied to fish aquaculture. Moreover, the use of alternative methods to animal testing has gained great interest in the field of Toxicology. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of individual organ systems associated with Hg poisoning on fish. Such data are extremely useful to the scientific community and public officials involved in health risk assessment and management of environmental contaminants as a guide to the best course of action to restore ecosystems and, in turn, to preserve human health.

  16. Extinction vulnerability of coral reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Nicholas A J; Chabanet, Pascale; Evans, Richard D; Jennings, Simon; Letourneur, Yves; Aaron Macneil, M; McClanahan, Tim R; Ohman, Marcus C; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Wilson, Shaun K

    2011-04-01

    With rapidly increasing rates of contemporary extinction, predicting extinction vulnerability and identifying how multiple stressors drive non-random species loss have become key challenges in ecology. These assessments are crucial for avoiding the loss of key functional groups that sustain ecosystem processes and services. We developed a novel predictive framework of species extinction vulnerability and applied it to coral reef fishes. Although relatively few coral reef fishes are at risk of global extinction from climate disturbances, a negative convex relationship between fish species locally vulnerable to climate change vs. fisheries exploitation indicates that the entire community is vulnerable on the many reefs where both stressors co-occur. Fishes involved in maintaining key ecosystem functions are more at risk from fishing than climate disturbances. This finding is encouraging as local and regional commitment to fisheries management action can maintain reef ecosystem functions pending progress towards the more complex global problem of stabilizing the climate. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  17. Wake shed by an accelerating carangiform fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Shang-Chieh; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2008-11-01

    We reveal an important fact that momentum change observed in the wake of an accelerating carangiform fish does not necessarily elucidate orientations of propulsive forces produced. An accelerating Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) was found to shed a wake with net forward fluid momentum, which seemed drag-producing. Based on Newton's law, however, an accelerating fish is expected to shed a thrust wake with net rearward fluid momentum, rather than a drag wake. The unusual wake pattern observed is considered to be resulted primarily from the effect of pressure gradient created by accelerating movements of the fish. Ambient fluids tend to be sucked into low pressure zones behind an accelerating fish, resulting in forward orientations of jets recognizable in the wake. Accordingly, as to an accelerating fish, identifying force orientations from the wake requires considering also the effect of pressure gradient.

  18. Fish consumption limit for mercury compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Esmaili-Sari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Methyl mercury can carry out harmful effects on the reproductive, respiratory, and nervous system of human. Moreover, mercury is known as the most toxic heavy metal in nature. Fish and seafood consumption is the major MeHg exposure route for human. The present study tries to cover researches which have been conducted on mercury levels in 21 species of fish from Persian Gulf, Caspian Sea and Anzali Wetland during the past 6 years, and in addition to stating mercury level, it provides recommendations about the restriction of monthly fish consumption for each species separately. Material and methods: Fish samples were transferred to the laboratory and stored in refrigerator under -20oC until they were dissected. Afterwards, the muscle tissues were separated and dried. The dried samples were ground and changed into a homogenous powder and then the mercury concentration rate has been determined by advanced mercury analyzer, model 254. Results: In general, mercury contamination in fishes caught from Anzali Wetland was much more than fishes from Caspian Sea. Also, from among all studied fishes, oriental sole (Euryglossa orientalis, caught from Persian Gulf, allocated the most mercury level to itself with the rate of 5.61ml per kg., therefore, it exercises a severe consumption restriction for pregnant women and vulnerable groups. Conclusion: Based on the calculations, about 50% of fishes, mostly with short food chain, can be easily consumed during the year. However, with regard to Oriental sole (Euryglossa orientalis and shark (Carcharhinus dussumieri, caught from Persian Gulf, special consideration should be taken in their consumption. On the other hand, careful planning should be made for the high rate of fish consumption among fishing community.

  19. The impact on the fishing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchan, G.; Allan, R.

    1992-01-01

    When the first signs of the oil boom manifested themselves on the Scottish business and community scene in the early 1970's those in the fishing industry in particular had no idea of the magnitude of the impact that it would have on their way of life or the manner in which they had traditionally earned their living. Some 20 years on from that emerging scenario, the reality must e faced that the fishing industry has a very formidable and still growing competitor in the North Sea, which has at times threatened to overwhelm fishing, in terms of its sheer technical, economic and political muscle and know-how. This chapter examines the individual aspects of the interaction between the fishing industry and the oil resource development process that contribute to the overall impact. These include: lack of consultation with the fishing industry by the government when granting exploration licences; the location of platforms, drilling rigs, subsea installations and suspended well-heads; damage occurring when fishing gear makes contact with pipelines lying proud on the seabed in traditional fishing grounds; the amount of debris dumped by the oil and gas industry; economic loss suffered by the fishing industry as a result of its exclusion from many traditional areas; concern over decommissioned and abandoned off-shore installations. Nevertheless, it is acknowledged that the fishing industry has derived significant benefits from the presence of the oil industry in the North Sea, particularly from the readiness of platform personnel to respond to needs and emergencies on any fishing vessels. (UK)

  20. Habitat degradation and fishing effects on the size structure of coral reef fish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S K; Fisher, R; Pratchett, M S; Graham, N A J; Dulvy, N K; Turner, R A; Cakacaka, A; Polunin, N V C

    2010-03-01

    Overfishing and habitat degradation through climate change pose the greatest threats to sustainability of marine resources on coral reefs. We examined how changes in fishing pressure and benthic habitat composition influenced the size spectra of island-scale reef fish communities in Lau, Fiji. Between 2000 and 2006 fishing pressure declined in the Lau Islands due to declining human populations and reduced demand for fresh fish. At the same time, coral cover declined and fine-scale architectural complexity eroded due to coral bleaching and outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci. We examined the size distribution of reef fish communities using size spectra analysis, the linearized relationship between abundance and body size class. Spatial variation in fishing pressure accounted for 31% of the variation in the slope of the size spectra in 2000, higher fishing pressure being associated with a steeper slope, which is indicative of fewer large-bodied fish and/or more small-bodied fish. Conversely, in 2006 spatial variation in habitat explained 53% of the variation in the size spectra slopes, and the relationship with fishing pressure was much weaker (approximately 12% of variation) than in 2000. Reduced cover of corals and lower structural complexity was associated with less steep size spectra slopes, primarily due to reduced abundance of fish < 20 cm. Habitat degradation will compound effects of fishing on coral reefs as increased fishing reduces large-bodied target species, while habitat loss results in fewer small-bodied juveniles and prey that replenish stocks and provide dietary resources for predatory target species. Effective management of reef resources therefore depends on both reducing fishing pressure and maintaining processes that encourage rapid recovery of coral habitat.

  1. Detection and identification of globally distributed mycobacterial fish pathogens in some ornamental fish in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shubhra; Sharma, Rolee; Shukla, Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Mycobacteriosis is a progressive disease of a wide range of wild and captive, marine and freshwater fish species. Conventional detection of fish Mycobacteria is based on histopathology, culture, and biochemical characteristics. The present study analyzed the occurrence of Mycobacteria in clinically ill ornamental fish of different species, from different places of India. In first group, 60 fish were examined for presence of granulomatous inflammation and acid-fast bacteria. Thirty-eight (63.34 %) fish were positive for granulomatous inflammations. Presences of acid-fast bacteria were detected in 27 (45 %) fish having granulomatous inflammation and in two (3.33 %) fish without granulomatous inflammation. In total, AFB were found in 29 (48.34 %) of the 60 fish examined. In second group, 20 fish having granulomatous inflammation, 12 (60 %) samples were positive using Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N) staining and 11 (55 %) of them were culture positive. Eight (40 %) samples were Z-N negative but two (10 %) of them were culture positive. In total, 13 (65 %) of the 20 examined fish were culture positive. On the basis of biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequencing, 13 isolates were identified: five as Mycobacterium fortuitum, five as Mycobacterium gordonae, and three as Mycobacterium chelonae. In comparison of two decontamination methods, 2 % HCl treatment was better than 4 % NaOH treatment. Mycobacteria recovery from decontaminated samples was significantly high on Lowenstein-Jensen medium compared to Middlebrook 7H11 agar and Stonebrink (SB) media. The disease is transmissible from fish to fish and also from fish to human, so the significance of Mycobacteria in ornamental fish should not be overlooked.

  2. Mercury and stable isotope signatures in caged marine fish and fish feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onsanit, Sarayut; Chen, Min; Ke, Caihuan [State Key Laboratory for Marine Environmental Science, College of Oceanography and Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang, Wen-Xiong [State Key Laboratory for Marine Environmental Science, College of Oceanography and Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury concentrations in caged fish were closely related to Hg concentrations in fish feeds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The trophic transfer factor of methylmercury was dependent on fish feeds, and was the highest for fish fed on pellet feeds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fish farming may be a good way of reducing the human exposure to Hg because Hg levels can be carefully controlled. - Abstract: Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in four species of marine caged carnivorous fish, one species of herbivorous fish and three types of fish feeds (dried pellet feed, forage fish and fish viscera), collected from five cage sites in the rural areas along Fujian coastline, China. For the carnivorous fish, the concentrations of THg and MeHg ranged from 0.03 to 0.31 {mu}g/g and from 0.02 to 0.30 {mu}g/g on wet weight basis, respectively. The concentrations were lower for the herbivorous fish with both within the range of 0.01-0.03 {mu}g/g. Out of the three tested fish feeds, tuna viscera contained the highest level of mercury (0.20 {mu}g/g THg and 0.13 {mu}g/g MeHg), with pellet feed containing the lowest level (0.05 {mu}g/g THg and 0.01 {mu}g/g MeHg). The calculated trophic transfer factor of MeHg was the highest (12-64) for fish fed on pellet feeds, and was the lowest for fish fed on tuna viscera. A significant relationship was found between Hg concentrations in caged fish and in fish feeds, thus Hg was primarily accumulated from the diet. Furthermore, the stable isotope {delta}{sup 15}N was positively correlated with the Hg concentration in two caged sites, indicating that {delta}{sup 15}N may be a suitable tool for tracking mercury in caged fish. We conclude that fish farming may be a good way of reducing the human exposure to Hg because mercury levels can be carefully controlled in such farming systems.

  3. Mercury and stable isotope signatures in caged marine fish and fish feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onsanit, Sarayut; Chen, Min; Ke, Caihuan; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mercury concentrations in caged fish were closely related to Hg concentrations in fish feeds. ► The trophic transfer factor of methylmercury was dependent on fish feeds, and was the highest for fish fed on pellet feeds. ► Fish farming may be a good way of reducing the human exposure to Hg because Hg levels can be carefully controlled. - Abstract: Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in four species of marine caged carnivorous fish, one species of herbivorous fish and three types of fish feeds (dried pellet feed, forage fish and fish viscera), collected from five cage sites in the rural areas along Fujian coastline, China. For the carnivorous fish, the concentrations of THg and MeHg ranged from 0.03 to 0.31 μg/g and from 0.02 to 0.30 μg/g on wet weight basis, respectively. The concentrations were lower for the herbivorous fish with both within the range of 0.01–0.03 μg/g. Out of the three tested fish feeds, tuna viscera contained the highest level of mercury (0.20 μg/g THg and 0.13 μg/g MeHg), with pellet feed containing the lowest level (0.05 μg/g THg and 0.01 μg/g MeHg). The calculated trophic transfer factor of MeHg was the highest (12–64) for fish fed on pellet feeds, and was the lowest for fish fed on tuna viscera. A significant relationship was found between Hg concentrations in caged fish and in fish feeds, thus Hg was primarily accumulated from the diet. Furthermore, the stable isotope δ 15 N was positively correlated with the Hg concentration in two caged sites, indicating that δ 15 N may be a suitable tool for tracking mercury in caged fish. We conclude that fish farming may be a good way of reducing the human exposure to Hg because mercury levels can be carefully controlled in such farming systems.

  4. "Flat-Fish" Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The picture shows a "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber being prepared in the ISR workshop for testing prior to installation in the Split Field Magnet (SFM) at intersection I4. The two shells of each part were hydroformed from 0.15 mm thick inconel 718 sheet (with end parts in inconel 600 for easier manual welding to the arms) and welded toghether with two strips which were attached by means of thin stainless steel sheets to the Split Field Magnet poles in order to take the vertical component of the atmospheric pressure force. This was the thinnest vacuum chamber ever made for the ISR. Inconel material was chosen for its high elastic modulus and strenght at chamber bake-out temperature. In this picture the thin sheets transferring the vertical component of the atmosferic pressure force are attached to a support frame for testing. See also 7712182, 7712179.

  5. Stochastic stomach theory of fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Jan

    1998-01-01

    searching time and meal size as well as the average rate of food consumption decrease considerably in the more realistic case of variable meal sizes. The model is able to account for the high frequency of empty stomachs, which occurs simultaneously with a relatively high observed mean stomach content. Need......Fish stomach dynamics is discussed and introduced analytically by a simple individually-based stomach model for total stomach content. The predator encounters food (meals) in a Poisson process, starting to search for a new meal when the stomach is empty. Basic equations for the frequency...... distributions of stomach content are derived for general classes of meal-size distributions and rate models of gastric evacuation. Probability characteristics in steady-state of empty and non-empty stomachs are evaluated from first principles with particular attention to the square root rate model of gastric...

  6. Development of forage cryo minced fish technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titova S. A.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The technology of grinding the frozen fish raw material using the useful model of a piston-type extrusion plant with cold working bodies for fodder minced fish (cryo minced fish feed by the method of cryoextrusion has been developed. The possibility of replacing the standard manufacturing operations (defrosting and subsequent grinding of raw materials to the one (cryoextrusion has been substantiated. The optimal shape of holes of the die for forcing the raw material has been determined in the form of "hourglass", the hole diameter is 7 mm, the length of the process of pushing is 40 s. It has been established that the finished product (cryo minced fish feed has a homogeneous grinding, juicy, crumbly texture, the temperature in the thickness of the product is equal to the temperature of the raw material before processing (–18 °C. The technological scheme of producing the minced fish feed by the method of cryoextrusion has been developed. Researching the chemical composition of fish and feed of mince produced by the traditional and developed methods it has been established that protein content in the cryo minced fish feed remains unchanged. The amino acid composition of cryo minced fish feed has been determined, the amount of essential amino acids is 365.6 mg/g of protein. In the proteins of the cryo minced fish feed methionine has been contained in the minimum quantity (10.0 mg/g protein and in the maximum – serine (155.3 mg/g protein. In the protein of the cryo minced fish feed the only limiting amino acid is methionine. The coefficient of rationality of the cryo minced fish feed whiting is equal to 0.33. The product is not toxic, is not subject to contamination with dangerous microorganisms, has high biological value, contains necessary in animal nutrition mineral elements, the energy value per 100 g of the product is 87 kcal. The combination of the processes of cryoextrusion and lyophilization allows to obtain a new food product with high

  7. Artisan fishing and the fishing company in Óbidos, Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Aviz

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This work is product of the Project "The time of the plant: the disciplinamento of the workers of the fishing industry (Óbidos-Pará: a comparative study", developed in the years of 2002 and 2003 in the municipality of Óbidos, Pará, objectifying to understand the importance of the time in the disciplinamento of the work in the obidense fishing company. Interviews opened in entrepreneurs had been carried through of fish, controlling, heads of quality control, people in charge of hall and other actors involved in the sector fishing boat and applied half-open questionnaires with laborers and fishing. One used the photographic, recording register and the notebook of notations. The research was carried through in the fishing companies Mundial and Pasquarelli, Colony Z-19 Fishing, in the boats (river Amazon of the artisan fishing and in its residences. As central focus it was looked for to unmask the characteristics of the 'disciplined time' in the sector of improvement of the fishing company, and to detach the joint of the 'natural time' in the process of capture of the fished one. Leaving of these estimated, it was used the 'disciplined time' and the 'natural time' conceived by Thompson (1975.

  8. Fish allergens at a glance: variable allergenicity of parvalbumins, the major fish allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Annette; Swoboda, Ines; Arumugam, Karthik; Hilger, Christiane; Hentges, François

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand, some individuals have IgE antibodies directed against unique, species-specific parvalbumin epitopes, and these patients show clinical symptoms only with certain fish species. Furthermore, different parvalbumin isoforms and isoallergens are present in the same fish and might display variable allergenicity. This was shown for salmon homologs, where only a single parvalbumin (beta-1) isoform was identified as allergen in specific patients. In addition to the parvalbumins, several other fish proteins, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, seem to be important allergens. New clinical and molecular insights advanced the knowledge and understanding of fish allergy in the last years. These findings were useful for the advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis and also for the management of fish allergies consisting of advice and treatment of fish-allergic patients.

  9. Fish allergens at a glance: Variable allergenicity of parvalbumins, the major fish allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette eKuehn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand, some individuals have IgE antibodies directed against unique, species-specific parvalbumin epitopes, and these patients show clinical symptoms only with certain fish species. Furthermore, different parvalbumin isoforms and isoallergens are present in the same fish and might display variable allergenicity. This was shown for salmon homologs, where only a single parvalbumin (beta-1 isoform was identified as allergen in specific patients. In addition to the parvalbumins, several other fish proteins, enolases, aldolases and fish gelatin, seem to be important allergens.New clinical and molecular insights advanced the knowledge and understanding of fish allergy in the last years. These findings will be useful for the advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis but also for the management of fish allergies consisting of advice and treatment of fish-allergic patients.

  10. A Fast-Starting Robotic Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya; Watts, Matthew; Conte, Joe; Hover, Franz; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2009-11-01

    We have built a simple mechanical system to emulate the fast-start performance of fish. The system consisted of a thin metal beam covered by a urethane rubber fish body. The body form of the mechanical fish in this work was modeled from a pike species, which is the most successfully studied fast-start specialist species. The mechanical fish was held in curvature and hung in water by two restraining lines, which were simultaneously released by pneumatic cutting mechanisms. The potential energy in the beam was transferred into the fluid, thereby accelerating the fish, similar to a pike. We measured the resulting velocity and acceleration, as well as the efficiency of propulsion for the mechanical fish model and also ran a series of flow visualization tests to observe the resulting flow pattern. We also studied the influence of stiffness and geometry of the tail on the efficiency of propulsion and flow pattern. The hydrodynamic efficiency of the fish, calculated by the transfer of energy, was around 10%. Flow visualization of the mechanical fast-start wake was also analyzed, showing that the acceleration is associated with the fast movement of an intense vortex in a near-lateral direction.

  11. Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project, Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    Implementation of the Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project -- Phase 2 would significantly improve the production of anadromous fish in the Yakima River system. The project would provide offsite mitigation and help to compensate for lower Columbia River hydroelectric fishery losses. The Phase 2 screens would allow greater numbers of juvenile anadromous fish to survive. As a consequence, there would be higher returns of adult salmon and steelhead to the Yakima River. The proposed action would play an integral part in the overall Yakima River anadromous fish enhancement program (fish passage improvement, habitat enhancement, hatchery production increases, and harvest management). These would be environmental benefits associated with implementation of the Fish Passage and Protective Facilities Phase 2 Project. Based on the evaluation presented in this assessment, there would be no significant adverse environmental impacts if the proposed action was carried forward. No significant adverse environmental effects have been identified from construction and operation of the Yakima Phase 2 fish passage project. Proper design and implementation of the project will ensure no adverse effects will occur. Based on the information in this environmental analysis, BPA's and Reclamation's proposal to construct these facilities does not constitute a major Federal action that could significantly affect the quality of the human environment. 8 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Fish innate immunity against intestinal helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, B S; Bosi, G; DePasquale, J A; Manera, M; Giari, L

    2016-03-01

    Most individual fish in farmed and wild populations are infected with parasites. Upon dissection of fish, helminths from gut are often easily visible. Enteric helminths include several species of digeneans, cestodes, acanthocephalans and nematodes. Some insights into biology, morphology and histopathological effects of the main fish enteric helminths taxa will be described here. The immune system of fish, as that of other vertebrates, can be subdivided into specific and aspecific types, which in vivo act in concert with each other and indeed are interdependent in many ways. Beyond the small number of well-described models that exist, research focusing on innate immunity in fish against parasitic infections is lacking. Enteric helminths frequently cause inflammation of the digestive tract, resulting in a series of chemical and morphological changes in the affected tissues and inducing leukocyte migration to the site of infection. This review provides an overview on the aspecific defence mechanisms of fish intestine against helminths. Emphasis will be placed on the immune cellular response involving mast cells, neutrophils, macrophages, rodlet cells and mucous cells against enteric helminths. Given the relative importance of innate immunity in fish, and the magnitude of economic loss in aquaculture as a consequence of disease, this area deserves considerable attention and support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. African Fish Biodiversity, Fishbase and Fishculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boden, G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, about 28 600 fish species are considered valid, whilst the total number is estimated at 30 000 to 35 000. For Africa, about 3 000 valid fresh- and brackish water species are currently recognized. Conserving the biodiversity of these fishes and at the same time managing their exploitation in a sustainable way is a difficult exercise. In sub-Saharan Africa, the importance of aquaculture is not very high. Nonetheless, 18 different species are used commercially, of which six have a non-African origin. Documenting and characterizing the ichthyodiversity is vital for conservation and sustainable development purposes. The presence of a large collection, a specialised library and a considerable know-how in the Africa Museum has led to various revisions, checklists, species (redescriptions and regional guides. All the information on African fishes is currently being entered in FishBase, a huge freely accessible database with information on the taxonomy, ecology and various other aspects of the biology of fishes, based on scientific publications and reviewed by specialists. FishBase also includes high quality tools for applied research on fishes, such as a disease wizard, biogeography tools, trophic pyramids, and the species invasiveness tool.

  14. Fish movement in an Atlantic Forest stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Mazzoni

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Given the importance of fish movement to the dynamics and maintenance of stream dwelling fish communities from the Atlantic Forest, we analysed patterns of fish movement in a coastal stream from Southeastern Brazil, using mark-recapture technique. Displacement distance of each species were presented and discussed considering seasonal (rainy and dry and body size patterns. We marked 10 species along the stream and recaptured 440 (34.6% of the 1,270 marked fishes. The species with significant number of upstream moving individuals were Astyanax janeiroensis, Characidium interruptum, Astyanax hastatus, Parotocinclus maculicauda and Awaous tajasica. Only Pimelodella lateristriga presented significant differences between resident and moving individuals. Characidium interruptum and A. tajasica demonstrated greater downstream and upstream movement, respectively, moving up to 2,100 m. Even after controlling for species identity we found no significant correlation between fish length and individual displacement distance. Fishes moved longer distances during the rainy season, in accordance to the breeding season. Patterns of fish movement were in agreement to life-history traits of many of the studied species and can be reflecting specific behaviour and morphologies.

  15. Can north american fish passage tools work for South american migratory fishes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rafael Mariano Baigún

    Full Text Available In North America, the Numerical Fish Surrogate (NFS is used to design fish bypass systems for emigrating juvenile salmon as they migrate from hatchery outfalls and rearing habitats to adult habitat in the oceans. The NFS is constructed of three linked modules: 1 a computational fluid dynamics model describes the complex flow fields upstream of dams at a scale sufficiently resolved to analyze, understand and forecast fish movement, 2 a particle tracking model interpolates hydraulic information from the fixed nodes of the computational fluid model mesh to multiple locations relevant to migrating fish, and 3 a behavior model simulates the cognition and behavior of individual fish in response to the fluid dynamics predicted by the computational fluid dynamics model. These three modules together create a virtual reality where virtual fish exhibit realistic dam approach behaviors and can be counted at dam exits in ways similar to the real world. Once calibrated and validated with measured fish movement and passage data, the NFS can accurately predict fish passage proportions with sufficient precision to allow engineers to select one optimum alternative from among many competing structural or operational bypass alternatives. Although South American fish species are different from North American species, it is likely that the basic computational architecture and numerical methods of the NFS can be used for fish conservation in South America. Consequently, the extensive investment made in the creation of the NFS need not be duplicated in South America. However, its use in South America will require that the behavioral response of the continent's unique fishes to hydrodynamic cues must be described, codified and tested before the NFS can be used to conserve fishes by helping design efficient South American bypass systems. To this end, we identify studies that could be used to describe the movement behavior of South American fishes of sufficient detail

  16. How many fish in a tank? Constructing an automated fish counting system by using PTV analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, S.; Takagi, T.; Takehara, K.; Kimura, N.; Hiraishi, T.; Komeyama, K.; Torisawa, S.; Asaumi, S.

    2017-02-01

    Because escape from a net cage and mortality are constant problems in fish farming, health control and management of facilities are important in aquaculture. In particular, the development of an accurate fish counting system has been strongly desired for the Pacific Bluefin tuna farming industry owing to the high market value of these fish. The current fish counting method, which involves human counting, results in poor accuracy; moreover, the method is cumbersome because the aquaculture net cage is so large that fish can only be counted when they move to another net cage. Therefore, we have developed an automated fish counting system by applying particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) analysis to a shoal of swimming fish inside a net cage. In essence, we treated the swimming fish as tracer particles and estimated the number of fish by analyzing the corresponding motion vectors. The proposed fish counting system comprises two main components: image processing and motion analysis, where the image-processing component abstracts the foreground and the motion analysis component traces the individual's motion. In this study, we developed a Region Extraction and Centroid Computation (RECC) method and a Kalman filter and Chi-square (KC) test for the two main components. To evaluate the efficiency of our method, we constructed a closed system, placed an underwater video camera with a spherical curved lens at the bottom of the tank, and recorded a 360° view of a swimming school of Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes). Our study showed that almost all fish could be abstracted by the RECC method and the motion vectors could be calculated by the KC test. The recognition rate was approximately 90% when more than 180 individuals were observed within the frame of the video camera. These results suggest that the presented method has potential application as a fish counting system for industrial aquaculture.

  17. Fish consumption preferences and factors influencing it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ferit Can

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption preferences are affected by individuals’ socioeconomic characteristics. The aims of the present paper were (i to obtain information on fish consumption level and frequency; (ii to investigate the associations between the socioeconomic characteristics of consumers and their preferences; and (iii to examine the influence of determinants on fish consumption. Data were gathered through a questionnaire completed by a total of 127 randomly selected individuals from different socioeconomic backgrounds from the Antakya, Turkey. The average consumption was found to be 2.98 kg/person/year for fish. Anchovies, gilt-head sea bream, and sea bass were reported as the most consumed three species, respectively. Significant differences in fish consumption were found among age groups, gender groups, and education groups, as well as between marital statuses. A majority of the consumers eat fish once a month throughout the year or only during the winter months. Fish consumption level and frequency were significantly positively correlated with education (p<0.01, income (p<0.05 and total meat consumption (p<0.01. The stepwise multiple regression model explained 41.7% (p<0.01 of the total variance for fish consumption. The amount and frequency of the consumption in the region, which is very far below the world and Turkey average especially for lower socioeconomic groups and for less-consumed fish species, can be increased by certain policies, such as training, advertising and different marketing strategies. Moreover, consumption should be distributed equally throughout the year instead of consuming only in certain seasons.

  18. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airaksinen, Riikka, E-mail: Riikka.Airaksinen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Mannio, Jaakko [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  19. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune; Mannio, Jaakko; Hallikainen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) (ΣOTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of ΣOTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day -1 , which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day -1 set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the ΣOTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  20. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together with a f......A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...... with a fast acting effect on fish oil....

  1. Fish, seafood and food from inland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, A.

    1985-01-01

    Systematic monitoring of fish for radioactive nuclides yields data on the radiation exposure of the population as a consequence of fish consumption, and information on radioecological parameters (uptake by ingestion). Radioecological investigations have been made in the environment of nuclear installations and in marine regions where dumping of radioactive solid wastes was known to have been done. The paper reports on whole-fish monitoring for contamination with Sr-90 and Cs-137, and on examinations of pikes in the Kolksee of Northern Germany, for Cs-137 contamination. (DG) [de

  2. Technologies for evaluating fish passage through turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2003-10-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of two types of technologies to observe fish and near neutrally buoyant drogues as they move through hydropower turbines. Existing or reasonably modified light-emitting and ultrasonic technologies were used to observe flow patterns, the response of fish to flow, and interactions between fish and turbine structures with good spatial and temporal accuracy. This information can be used to assess the biological benefits of turbine design features such as reductions in gaps at the tips and hub of turbine runner blades, reshaping wicket gates and stay vanes, modifications to draft tube splitter piers, and design changes that enhance egress through the powerhouse and tailrace.

  3. Automatic turbot fish cutting using machine vision

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Rodríguez, Fernando; Barral Martínez, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the design of an automated machine to cut turbot fish specimens. Machine vision is a key part of this project as it is used to compute a cutting curve for specimen’s head. This task is impossible to be carried out by mechanical means. Machine vision is used to detect head boundary and a robot is used to cut the head. Afterwards mechanical systems are used to slice fish to get an easy presentation for end consumer (as fish fillets than can be easily marketed ...

  4. Quantifying relative fishing impact on fish populations based on spatio-temporal overlap of fishing effort and stock density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Morten; Eero, Margit

    2013-01-01

    Evaluations of the effects of management measures on fish populations are usually based on the analyses of population dynamics and estimates of fishing mortality from stock assessments. However, this approach may not be applicable in all cases, in particular for data-limited stocks, which may...... GAM analyses to predict local cod densities and combine this with spatio-temporal data of fishing effort based on VMS (Vessel Monitoring System). To quantify local fishing impact on the stock, retention probability of the gears is taken into account. The results indicate a substantial decline...... in the impact of the Danish demersal trawl fleet on cod in the Kattegat in recent years, due to a combination of closed areas, introduction of selective gears and changes in overall effort....

  5. Lipid oxidation in milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing enriched with neat fish oil or pre-emulsified fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    stability than fish-oil-enriched dressings, irrespective of the mode of fish oil addition. Yoghurt thus seemed to be a good delivery system of lipids containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Different effects of adding fish oil either as neat fish oil or as a fish-oil-in-water emulsion were observed...... of neat fish oil was a good option for preserving the final quality in yoghurt and dressings, but a pre-emulsion may still be considered for the fish oil enrichment of certain food products, for example, milk. Keywords: Fish oil; lipid oxidation; oil-in-water emulsion; n-3 PUFA; milk; yoghurt; salad......Abstract: This study compared the oxidative stabilities of fish-oil-enriched milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing and investigated the effects on oxidation of adding either neat fish oil or a fish-oil-in-water emulsion to these products. Milk emulsions had higher levels of a fishy off...

  6. Effects of fire on fish populations: Landscape perspectives on persistance of native fishes and nonnative fish invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J.B.; Young, M.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Rieman, B.

    2003-01-01

    Our limited understanding of the short and long-term effects of fire on fish contributes to considerable uncertainty in assessments of the risks and benefits of fire management alternatives. A primary concern among the many potential effects of fire is the effects of fire and fire management on persistence of native fish populations. Limited evidence suggests vulnerability of fish to fire is contingent upon the quality of affected habitats, the amount and distribution of habitat (habitat fragmentation), and habitat specificity of the species in question. Species with narrow habitat requirements in highly degraded and fragmented systems are likely to be most vulnerable to fire and fire-related disturbance. In addition to effects of fire on native fish, there are growing concerns about the effects of fire on nonnative fish invasions. The role of fire in facilitating invasions by nonnative fishes is unknown, but experience with other species suggests some forms of disturbance associated with fire may facilitate invasion. Management efforts to promote persistence of fishes in fire-prone landscapes can take the form of four basic alternatives: (1) pre-fire management; (2) post-fire management; (3) managing fire itself (e.g. fire fighting); and (4) monitoring and adaptive management. Among these alternatives, pre-fire management is likely to be most effective. Effective pre-fire management activities will address factors that may render fish populations more vulnerable to the effects of fire (e.g. habitat degradation, fragmentation, and nonnative species). Post-fire management is also potentially important, but suffers from being a reactive approach that may not address threats in time to avert them. Managing fire itself can be important in some contexts, but negative consequences for fish populations are possible (e.g. toxicity of fire fighting chemicals to fish). Monitoring and adaptive management can provide important new information for evaluating alternatives, but

  7. Evaluation of Fish Passage Conditions for Juvenile Salmonids Using Sensor Fish at Detroit Dam, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, Joanne P.

    2010-01-01

    Fish passage conditions through two spillways at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions through Spillbay 3 and Spillbay 6 at 1.5- and 3.5-ft gate openings, identifying potential fish injury regions of the routes. The study was performed in July 2009, concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish and live fish were deployed at elevations approximately 3 ft above structure at depths determined using a computational fluid dynamics model. Data collected were analyzed to estimate (1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision and shear events by passage route sub-regions; (2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and (3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates.

  8. Identification of tetrodotoxin and fish species in a dried dressed fish fillet implicated in food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Deng-Fwu; Hsieh, Yu-Wen; Shiu, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Shu-Kong; Cheng, Chao-An

    2002-02-01

    There were five victims of neurotoxic food poisoning from a dried dressed fish fillet in Changhua County, Taiwan, in February 2000. The toxicity of the dried dressed fish fillets was 243 mouse units per g according to a tetrodotoxin bioassay. The partially purified toxin was identified as tetrodotoxin and anhydrotetrodotoxin. The sequence of the 376-nucleotide region in the cytochrome b gene of the mitochondrial DNA exhibited the same genotype as that of the toxic puffer fish Lagocephalus lunaris. The same single restriction site for Hinfl was found in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from the dried dressed fish fillet and the muscle of L. lunaris, yielding two DNA fragments of 170 and 206 bp. However, no restriction site for Hinfl was found in the PCR products from other toxic puffer fishes, including Takifugu niphobles, Takifugu oblongus, and Takifugu rubripes. Therefore, the species of the dried dressed fish fillet was identified as L. lunaris and its causative agent was identified as tetrodotoxin.

  9. Fish Marketing of Ribbon Fish (Trichiurus sp.) in Nusantara Fishing Port (NFP)at Palabuhanratu, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambang, Azis Nur

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this research is to study the marketing process of ribbon fish (Trichiurus sp.), including the marketing margin, marketing agencies, traders and marketing channels The research was carried out for 3 mo in Nusantara Fishing Port (NFP), Palabuhanratu, Sukabumi, West Java. A case study was used in this research. A purposive sampling method was used to collect data from 55 respondents of fish marketing, consisting of fishermen, agents, traders, and retailers, who were involved in the marketing of ribbon fish in NFP Palabuhanratu. The result of the research showed that ribbon fish production in Palabuhanratu fluctuated from year to year. There are two types of ribbon fish marketing, i.e. type one is from fishermen to retailers, and type two is indirect marketing from fisherman to consumers through intermediate traders (exporters). The greatest marketing margin was obtained from the first type, while the smallest marketing margin was obtained from type two. The form of the market was considered to be oligopsony market. Fisherman's share is greatest in the collectors and the smallest share is on retailers. Marketing process in traders is efficient due to its lowest margin and highest fisherman's share.

  10. FISH and PNA FISH for the diagnosis of Q fever endocarditis and vascular infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudent, Elsa; Lepidi, Hubert; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Raoult, Didier

    2018-06-13

    Purpose. Endocarditis and vascular infections are common manifestations of persistent localized infection due to Coxiella burnetii and recently, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was proposed as an alternative tool for their diagnosis. In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of FISH in a series of valve and vascular samples infected by C. burnetii. Methods. We tested 23 C. burnetii -positive valves and thrombus samples obtained from patients with Q fever endocarditis. Seven aneurysms and thrombus specimens were retrieved from patients with Q fever vascular infection. Samples were analyzed by culture, immunochemistry and FISH with oligonucleotide and PNA probes targeting C. burnetii -specific 16S ribosomal RNA sequences. Results. Immunohistochemical analysis was positive for five (17%) samples with significantly more copies of C. burnetii DNA than the negative ones ( p= 0.02). FISH was positive for 13 (43%) samples and presented 43% and 40% sensitivity compared to qPCR and culture, respectively. PNA FISH detected C. burnetii in 18 (60%) samples and presented 60% and 55% sensitivity compared to qPCR and culture, respectively. Immunohistochemistry had 38% and 28% sensitivity compared to FISH and PNA FISH, respectively. Samples found positive by both immunohistochemistry and PNA FISH contained significantly more copies of C. burnetii DNA than the negative ones ( p= 0.03). Finally, PNA FISH was more sensitive than FISH (60% versus 43%) for the detection of C. burnetii Conclusion. We provide evidence that PNA FISH and FISH are important assays for the diagnosis of C. burnetii endocarditis and vascular infections. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Fish allergens at a glance: Variable allergenicity of parvalbumins, the major fish allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Annette eKuehn; Ines eSwoboda; Karthik eArumugam; Christiane eHilger; François eHentges; François eHentges

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand,...

  12. Fish Allergens at a Glance: Variable Allergenicity of Parvalbumins, the Major Fish Allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehn, Annette; Swoboda, Ines; Arumugam, Karthik; Hilger, Christiane; Hentges, François

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand,...

  13. Production of Fish Hydrolysates Protein From Waste of Fish Carp (Cyprinus Carpio) by Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Saputra, Dede; Nurhayati, Tati

    2016-01-01

    Fish Protein Hydrolysates (FPH) is the mixed products of polypeptide, dipeptides, and amino acid. It can be produced from materials that contained of protein by acid reaction, base reaction or enzymatic hydrolysis. The objectives of this study were to study the production of FPH from fish carp meat at post rigor phase and viscera by enzymatic hydrolysis, to determine the specific activity of papain enzyme, and to determine the solubility of FPH. Capacity of fish hydrolyzing can be identified ...

  14. Technical Suitability and Static Stability of Sungkur Fishing Boats for Fish and Shrimp Catching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusmilyansari; Rosadi, E.; Iriansyah

    2017-10-01

    Sungkur fishing gear is operated actively on one the side of fishing boat, which requires technical suitability and fishing gear stability to ensure success in fish catching. This is a case study which aimed to analyze some technical issues related to the boat, boat’s hydrostatic parameters, and the boat’s stability. The data were collected though observation, measuring the boat to obtain the offset table. The data were analyzed numerically and descriptively. The data were processed with technical formula, Microsoft Office’s Excel software, graphic display, minitab, statistical data processing, and maxsurf program. The research results showed that: (1) the sungkur fishing boat dimensional ratio L/B (6.47 - 7.00); L/D (10.90 - 11.20) and B/D (1.60 - 1.668) is within the range value of Indonesian fishing boats suitable to operate the fishing gear by towing or dragging. However, during fish catching operation, there have been problems in a hydrodynamic force due to the fishing gear movement, which affect the fish catching efficiency. (2) The boat’s coefficient of fineness is in the fine type shape; the displacement on each waterline has increased; the loads of the boat are getting larger following the increase of waterline from one to five; this is also shown from the increasing midship area value. Ton per centimeter immersion to change wl 1 by 1 cm needs 0.04 tons of weight. (3) Sungkur fishing boat have a good static stability, which is proven by the positive value of angle of maximum GZ by 79.1 - 83.6. In other words, the boat has the ability to return to its original position after tilting; however, stability dynamics happens because fishing gear operation are located on just one side of boat.

  15. Contamination with heavy metals and bacteria in some local and imported fish and fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, S.B.; El-Dashlout, A.A.; El-Schiwee, M.A.; EL-Shourbagy, G.A.; Ibrahim, R.E.

    2004-01-01

    Some local and imported fish and fish products sold in retail markets of three cities at Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, were examined against heavy metals contamination (i.e. Pb, Cd and Hg) and the presence of some specific groups of bacteria. The results showed that concentrations of Pb in fresh and frozen fish, salted and smoked fish and canned fish samples were lower than the permissible limits recommended by the Egyptian Organization 1993 (1.0 mg/kg). On the other hand, all the tested fish and fish products of collected samples showed levels of Cd (0.29-0.41 mg/kg) higher than the permissible limit (0.10 mg/kg) recommended by the Egyptian Organization. Such limits should be re-considered because the limit determined by WHO (1992) was 0.5 mg/kg. Mercury level in fresh mullet was equal or lower (0.46-0.50 mg/kg) than the limit of Egyptian Organization (0.50 mg/kg) while other fresh and frozen fish, salted and smoked fish samples had higher Hg than the allowance. In most cases, imported canned products of sardine, mackerel and tuna had higher Pb, Cd and Hg concentrations than that found in the local ones. Among fresh fish samples, such as mackarona, contained the highest total bacterial count, while mullet was the lowest. Considering salted and smoked fish, heavy salted mullet had the highest total bacterial count, while the lowest number was recorded in salted sardine. Smoked herring showed lowest total bacterial count than salted samples. Generally, no correlation was observed between fish species or consumption place and the contamination with heavy metals and bacteria

  16. Values, attitudes and intention to consume wild fish versus farmed fish in Nha Trang

    OpenAIRE

    Nelka Rajani, Pemattuge

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the consumers’ values and the difference in consumption, attitude and intention to consume wild fish versus farmed fish in Vietnam. Second, it aimed to investigate the relationship between values, attitudes and intention to consume wild versus farmed fish by applying value-attitude-behavior model. The measurement scales used here were adapted from previous studies found in the literature. The survey was conducted in Nha Trang, Vietnam, amon...

  17. Comparison of fish-community size spectra based on length ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimates of fish-community size spectra are promising indicators of the impact of fishing on fish assemblages. Size spectra consist of logarithmic graphs of abundance plotted against fish body size. Size spectra may either be constructed from length frequency data or estimated from the mean sizes and abundances of the ...

  18. Fish for food | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... Bolivia has the lowest per-capita consumption of fish among South American nations, but that could soon change. Members the Amazon Fish for Food project are working to encourage the sustainable use of the country's fish resources through fishing and aquaculture. This article is part of an ongoing series ...

  19. Towards sustainable fish feed production using novel protein sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganovic, V.

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fish and fish-related products is increasing. Due to improved welfare and suggested health benefits, consumers are now eating more fish. In 2008, global fisheries supplied the world with about 142 million tons of fish, of which 115 million tons was used as human food, which is

  20. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a... human consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that are consumed by...

  1. 21 CFR 172.340 - Fish protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.340 Fish protein isolate. (a) The food additive fish... accordance with recognized good manufacturing practice for fish to be used as human food. (4) The additive... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fish protein isolate. 172.340 Section 172.340 Food...

  2. 21 CFR 172.385 - Whole fish protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.385 Whole fish protein concentrate. The food additive whole fish protein concentrate may be safely used as a food supplement in accordance with the... fish that are used in other forms for human food. (b) The additive consists essentially of a dried fish...

  3. 77 FR 61626 - Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ...-FVWF97920900000-XXX] Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... meeting of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council (Council). A Federal advisory committee, the... Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council will hold a meeting. Background The Council was formed in...

  4. 76 FR 47606 - Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ...] Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council (Council). DATES: The meeting will be held on Wednesday... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App., we announce that the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council...

  5. 78 FR 61866 - Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    ...-FVWF97920900000-XXX] Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... meeting of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council (Council). A Federal advisory committee, the... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App., we announce that the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council...

  6. 76 FR 81959 - Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ...] Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council (Council). DATES: The meeting will be held on Wednesday... requirements of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App., we announce that the Sport Fishing and...

  7. 78 FR 33856 - Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ...-FVWF97920900000-XXX] Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... public teleconference of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council (Council). DATES... announce that Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council will hold a teleconference. Background The...

  8. 77 FR 29359 - Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ...-FVWF979209000005D-XXX] Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... meeting of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council (Council). A Federal advisory committee, the... requirements of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App., we announce that the Sport Fishing and...

  9. 76 FR 1628 - Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ...] Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... teleconference of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council (Council). DATE(S): We will hold the... sport fishing, boating, and conservation communities and is organized to enhance partnerships among...

  10. 78 FR 53156 - Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council; Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ...-FVWF97920900000-XXX] Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council; Teleconference AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... (Service), announce a public teleconference of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council (Council.... App., we announce that Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council will hold a teleconference...

  11. 78 FR 23587 - Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ...-FVWF97920900000-XXX] Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... meeting of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council (Council). A Federal advisory committee, the... the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App., we announce that the Sport Fishing and Boating...

  12. The distribution, composition and abundance of fish species in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish composition and abundance of two Gold mine reservoir were investigated between May, 2008 and May, 2009. Seven fish families comprising of twelve species of fish were caught during the period of study. The families of fish caught included Anabantidae, Channidae, Clariidae, Cichlidae, Melanopluridae, Mormyridae ...

  13. Invasive alien freshwater fishes in the Wilderness Lakes System, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Invasive alien freshwater fishes in the Wilderness Lakes System, a wetland of international importance in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. ... A total of 87 893 fish comprising 16 species were caught. In addition to confirming the ... Key words: freshwater fish, invasive alien fishes, estuary, RAMSAR site, diversity.

  14. First record of predation by the alien invasive freshwater fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First record of predation by the alien invasive freshwater fish Micropterus salmoides L. (Centrarchidae) on migrating estuarine fishes in South Africa. ... Estuarine fish species, Monodactylus falciformis, and two species of the family Mugilidae, Mugil cephalus and Myxus capensis, were the most common fish prey in both size ...

  15. 50 CFR 660.395 - Essential Fish Habitat (EFH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) 660.395... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.395 Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Essential fish habitat (EFH) is defined as those waters and substrate necessary to fish for spawning, breeding, feeding or growth to maturity (16 U.S.C...

  16. Determination of alpha radionuclides in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, L.; Matel, L.; Rosskopfova, O.

    2002-01-01

    The specific activity of alpha radionuclides was determined in biological samples. The biological samples were chosen in kinds of fish, concretely mackerels, herrings and haddocks. Experimental data were presented on the poster

  17. The Zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hocutt, Charles H; Wiley, E. O

    1986-01-01

    .... It stresses the intimate relationship between geological changes in the landscape on fish dispersal and evolution. For biologists, geologists, and geographers actively involved in biogeography, this book serves as a valuable-and practical-reference.

  18. Individual differences in cognition among teleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Bisazza, Angelo

    2017-08-01

    Individual differences in cognitive abilities have been thoroughly investigated in humans and to a lesser extent in other mammals. Despite the growing interest in studying cognition in other taxonomic groups, data on individual differences are scarce for non-mammalian species. Here, we review the literature on individual differences in cognitive abilities in teleost fishes. Relatively few studies have directly addressed this topic and have provided evidence of consistent and heritable individual variation in cognitive abilities in fish. We found much more evidence of individual cognitive differences in other research areas, namely sex differences, personality differences, cerebral lateralisation and comparison between populations. Altogether, these studies suggest that individual differences in cognition are as common in fish as in warm-blooded vertebrates. Based on the example of research on mammals, we suggest directions for future investigation in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Amino acids profile of four Nile fish

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    juba

    Environment and Natural Resources Research Institute, the National Centre for ... different species of the Nile fish (Elagba et al., 2010). ... was found to differ between species, sexes, sizes, .... Their ratios were different in body structures of.

  20. The Bacterial Microflora of Fish, Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Austin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of numerous studies indicate that fish possess bacterial populations on or in their skin, gills, digestive tract, and light-emitting organs. In addition, the internal organs (kidney, liver, and spleen of healthy fish may contain bacteria, but there is debate about whether or not muscle is actually sterile. Using traditional culture-dependent techniques, the numbers and taxonomic composition of the bacterial populations generally reflect those of the surrounding water. More modern culture-independent approaches have permitted the recognition of previously uncultured bacteria. The role of the organisms includes the ability to degrade complex molecules (therefore exercising a potential benefit in nutrition, to produce vitamins and polymers, and to be responsible for the emission of light by the light-emitting organs of deep-sea fish. Taxa, including Pseudomonas, may contribute to spoilage by the production of histamines in fish tissue.