WorldWideScience

Sample records for fish poultry eggs

  1. Validation of an optical surface plasmon resonance biosensor assay for screening (fluoro)quinolones in egg, fish and poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huet, A.C.; Charlier, C.; Weigel, S.; Benrejeb Godefroy, S.; Delahaut, P.

    2009-01-01

    A surface plasmon resonance biosensor immunoassay has been developed for multi-residue determination of 13 (fluoro)quinolone antibiotics in poultry meat, eggs and fish. The following performance characteristics were determined according to the guidelines laid down for screening assay validation in E

  2. Validation of an optical surface plasmon resonance biosensor assay for screening (fluoro)quinolones in egg, fish and poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huet, A.C.; Charlier, C.; Weigel, S.; Benrejeb Godefroy, S.; Delahaut, P.

    2009-01-01

    A surface plasmon resonance biosensor immunoassay has been developed for multi-residue determination of 13 (fluoro)quinolone antibiotics in poultry meat, eggs and fish. The following performance characteristics were determined according to the guidelines laid down for screening assay validation in E

  3. Validation of an optical surface plasmon resonance biosensor assay for screening (fluoro)quinolones in egg, fish and poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huet, A.C.; Charlier, C.; Weigel, S.; Benrejeb Godefroy, S.; Delahaut, P.

    2009-01-01

    A surface plasmon resonance biosensor immunoassay has been developed for multi-residue determination of 13 (fluoro)quinolone antibiotics in poultry meat, eggs and fish. The following performance characteristics were determined according to the guidelines laid down for screening assay validation in

  4. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been...

  5. The fish egg microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Y. Liu Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp. The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen Saprolegnia Emerging oomycete pat

  6. The fish egg microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Y. Liu Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp. The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen Saprolegnia Emerging oomycete

  7. Meat, Poultry and Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mackerel, lake trout, herring, sardines, albacore tuna and salmon. Some types of fish may contain high levels ... cholesterol. However, liver is rich in iron and vitamins. A small serving (3 ounces) is OK about ...

  8. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A

    2001-01-01

    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family......, denominated the parvalbumins. This cross-reactivity has been indicated to be of clinical relevance for several species, since patients with a positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge to cod will also react with other fish species, such as herring, plaice and mackerel. In spite...

  9. Meat, Fish, and Poultry Processing Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of industrial wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes studies on: (1) meat industry wastes; (2) fish-processing waste treatment; and (3) poultry-processing waste treatment. A list of 76 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Egg residue considerations during the treatment of backyard poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmulak, Tara; Tell, Lisa A; Gehring, Ronette; Baynes, Ronald E; Vickroy, Thomas W; Riviere, Jim E

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this digest was to provide US veterinarians guidance on the responsible treatment of backyard poultry flocks. The treatment of backyard poultry can be a daunting task for veterinarians because only limited resources are available; however, it is likely to become an increasingly common task owing to the increasing popularity of backyard poultry throughout the United States, especially in urban and suburban areas. Although backyard poultry flock owners may consider their birds pets, the FDA considers them food-producing animals, and veterinarians should follow all regulations that pertain to food-producing animals when administering or prescribing drugs to those birds. The lack of FDA-approved drugs for use in laying hens frequently necessitates the use of drugs in an extralabel manner in backyard poultry. Unfortunately, information regarding the depletion of drug residues in eggs from hens treated with various drugs in an extralabel manner is sparse or lacking, and veterinarians need to be cognizant of this issue, especially when the eggs from treated hens are intended for human consumption.

  11. 78 FR 19182 - Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... for certain meat, poultry, and egg products through the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). ACE is... Products Inspection Act (PPIA) (21 U.S.C. 451 et seq.) prohibit the importation of meat and poultry... (U.S.C. 1046). FSIS meat, poultry, and egg products import regulations require importers to apply for...

  12. Energy density of marine pelagic fish eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis-Vestergaard, J.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the literature on pelagic fish eggs enabled generalizations to be made of their energy densities, because the property of being buoyant in sea water appears to constrain the proximate composition of the eggs and thus to minimize interspecific variation. An energy density of 1.34 J mul......(-1) of total egg volume is derived for most species spawning eggs without visible oil globules. The energy density of eggs with oil globules is predicted by (σ) over cap = 1.34 + 40.61 x (J mul(-1)) where x is the fractional volume of the oil globule. (C) 2002 The Fisheries Society of the British...

  13. Energy density of marine pelagic fish eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis-Vestergaard, J.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the literature on pelagic fish eggs enabled generalizations to be made of their energy densities, because the property of being buoyant in sea water appears to constrain the proximate composition of the eggs and thus to minimize interspecific variation. An energy density of 1.34 J mul...

  14. Egg and sperm quality in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobe, Julien; Labbé, Catherine

    2010-02-01

    Fish egg quality can be defined as the ability of the egg to be fertilized and subsequently develop into a normal embryo. Similarly, sperm quality can be defined as its ability to successfully fertilize an egg and subsequently allow the development of a normal embryo. In the wild or under aquaculture conditions, the quality of fish gametes can be highly variable and is under the influence of a significant number of external factors or broodstock management practices. For these reasons, the topic of gamete quality has received increasing attention. Despite the significant efforts made towards a better understanding of the factors involved in the control of gamete quality, the picture is far from being complete and the control of gamete quality remains an issue in the aquaculture industry. Some of the factors responsible for the observed variability of gamete quality remain largely unknown or poorly understood. In addition very little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the control of egg and sperm quality. In the present review, the molecular and cellular characteristics of fish gametes are presented with a special interest for the mechanisms that could participate in the regulation of gamete quality. Then, after defining egg and sperm quality, and how can it can be accurately estimated or predicted, we provide an overview of the main factors that can impact gamete quality in teleosts.

  15. PRODUCTION OF POULTRY MEAT AND EGGS IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA AND IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Bošnjaković

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat and eggs are a significant source of nutrients in the human diet. Poultry products are widely consumed because they are nutritionally valuable, there are no religious restrictions on consumption, it is relatively easy to prepare diverse meals based on poultry, and the price of such products is relatively low. The aim of this research was to investigate the development of poultry production in the Republic of Croatia in the period 2010-2014, comprising the period of two years after Croatia joined the EU. The paper also compares data of poultry production in Croatia and in the EU. Over the period in question, total meat production in Croatia was reduced by 23%, meat import was increased by 45%, poultry meat export was increased by 46%, and production of eggs decreased by 20%. At the same time, in the EU countries poultry production was increased by 8.8% on average, export was increased by 10%, and import was reduced by 3.7%, while the egg production stagnated. In 2014, consumption of poultry meat in Croatia was 18.3 kg per capita, and in the EU 26.8 kg per capita. Self-sufficiency in the poultry production over the analyzed period was not satisfactory, therefore in the coming years, Croatia will have to develop quickly this important branch of livestock breeding. In addition to conventional production, faster development refers to production of organic and functional poultry products.

  16. The performance of poultry egg farms after the 2006 avian influenza outbreak in north central, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Y. Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the performance of the poultry egg farms after the outbreak of avian influenza in 2006 in the north central part of Nigeria. Seventeen poultry (17 farms were purposefully sampled for the study. The net farm income model, simple descriptive statistics and data envelopment analysis were used as analytical tools. The result shows that the poultry farms are making profits after the losses obtained due to the outbreak of avian influenza (AVI. The revenue from eggs and spent layers constitutes 52.3 % and 47.7 % of the total revenue respectively. The medium size farms are however making higher profits and are more technically efficient than the small size poultry farms. The technical efficiency scores for the small scale farms range from 0.23-1 with a mean of 0.51, while that for the medium size farms range from 0.38-1 with a mean of 0.73. The major constraints affecting poultry egg production include; fluctuations in egg production and high cost of feeds as well as vaccines. The study concluded that the performance of poultry egg farms in Nigeria can be enhanced through improvements in technical efficiency or an increase in scale of operation. The provision of subsidies to poultry farmers by the government was however recommended to ease the high production cost.

  17. Eggs and Poultry Purchase, Storage, and Preparation Practices of Consumers in Selected Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Koppel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to begin characterizing purchase, storage, handling, and preparation of poultry products and eggs by selected consumers in three Asian countries: India, Korea, and Thailand. Approximately 100 consumers in each location were recruited to participate in this study. The consumers were surveyed about eggs and poultry purchase behavior characteristics, such as temperatures and locations, storage behavior, such as storage locations in the refrigerator or freezer, preparation behavior, such as washing eggs and poultry before cooking, and handling behavior, such as using cutting boards during cooking. The results indicated differences in purchase and storage practices of raw eggs. Most Korean consumers purchased refrigerated eggs and stored the eggs in the refrigerator, while Indian and Thai consumers bought eggs that were stored at room temperature, but would refrigerate the eggs at home. Approximately half of the consumers in each country froze raw meat, poultry, or seafood. Food preparation practices showed potential for cross-contamination during cooking, such as using the same cutting board for different kinds of foods or not washing hands with soap and water. The results presented in this pilot study may lead to development of educational messages and raising consumer awareness of food safety practices in Asian countries.

  18. Eggs and Poultry Purchase, Storage, and Preparation Practices of Consumers in Selected Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri; Suwonsichon, Suntaree; Chitra, Uma; Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to begin characterizing purchase, storage, handling, and preparation of poultry products and eggs by selected consumers in three Asian countries: India, Korea, and Thailand. Approximately 100 consumers in each location were recruited to participate in this study. The consumers were surveyed about eggs and poultry purchase behavior characteristics, such as temperatures and locations, storage behavior, such as storage locations in the refrigerator or freezer, preparation behavior, such as washing eggs and poultry before cooking, and handling behavior, such as using cutting boards during cooking. The results indicated differences in purchase and storage practices of raw eggs. Most Korean consumers purchased refrigerated eggs and stored the eggs in the refrigerator, while Indian and Thai consumers bought eggs that were stored at room temperature, but would refrigerate the eggs at home. Approximately half of the consumers in each country froze raw meat, poultry, or seafood. Food preparation practices showed potential for cross-contamination during cooking, such as using the same cutting board for different kinds of foods or not washing hands with soap and water. The results presented in this pilot study may lead to development of educational messages and raising consumer awareness of food safety practices in Asian countries. PMID:28234307

  19. ECONOMICS AND SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF REGISTERED POULTRY EGG PRODUCERS IN ILORIN, KWARA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurudeen Ayoyinka Jatto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzed the economics and social characteristics of registered poultry egg producers in Ilorin, Kwara State. Primary data was used for the study. The data was collected using structured questionnaires administered to 150 stratified sampled registered poultry egg producer. Both descriptive and gross margin analysis were employed to analyze the data. Socio-economic analyses revealed that 68.7% of the poultry egg farmers were males with a mean age of 40 years and 78% having tertiary education with a mean year of poultry experience of 7years. 76.7% were married with a mean family size of 4. Majority (53.3% of the farmers were civil servant with a mean farm size of 334 number of birds and 50% of the farmers have been participating in cooperative society for over 6 to 10 years with majority (84.7% having no extension contact. The gross margin calculated shows that the farms had an average margin of N3,652 per bird per year and the net average revenue of N3,024 per bird per year showing that poultry egg production is profitable. It was recommended that government should endeavour to subsidize inputs such as feed ingredients and this can be achieved through poultry farmer's participation in crop production.

  20. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the flock of origin and found no evidence of communicable diseases of poultry. (vi) The eggs were... regions where exotic Newcastle disease or highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 is considered to... RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE...

  1. 40 CFR 180.6 - Pesticide tolerances regarding milk, eggs, meat, and/or poultry; statement of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., meat, and/or poultry but there is a reasonable expectation of finite residues in light of data... poultry but there is no reasonable expectation of finite residues in light of data such as those..., eggs, meat, and/or poultry; statement of policy. 180.6 Section 180.6 Protection of...

  2. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ELECTRO TECHNOLOGICAL OZONIZATION OF EGG STORES OF POULTRY FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voloshin A. P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sanitization of eggs is an essential way to fight bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms. Hatchability of eggs and the safety of day-old chicks are dependent on the quality of eggs processing. Leading scientists of our country have proved high efficacy of ozone application for processing of hatching eggs. To obtain a positive result by this method of sanitizing hatching eggs ozone, it is necessary to create a uniform concentration of ozone around the egg store volume. Decrease in ozone concentration from the set point may result in insufficient exposure to pathogens and because of this, may reduce hatchability. Significant excess of ozone concentration from the set point can kill the embryo. Because of mathematical modeling of electro eggs ozone treatment process, there was a mathematical model of the process of electroozonation of egg stores of poultry farms. This model takes into account decomposition of ozone on the surface of eggs and decomposition of ozone on the walls of an egg store. This mathematical model proves the desired control action at different initial data, such as: the required concentration of ozone in the egg store, the number of eggs, egg store geometric dimensions, the fan power, the design parameters of the discharge unit, the location of the ozone generator in the room

  3. Determination of Egg Shell Quality with P Control Charts in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis Çelik Güney

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Broken or cracked eggs are important factor in determining the quality of the egg shell. Manufacturers are experience great losses because broken or cracked eggs aren’t evaluated. The manufacturers need control charts throughout the production to determine whether process is under control. In this study, broken and cracked eggs which are taken Cukurova University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, Poultry Businesses during 52 weeks are determined. P control charts of the data’s are taken in poultry business during 52 weeks is drawn due to determining whether there is under the control. Three methods were used for drawing control charts. In the end of this study, it has been determined to be not under control of the process.

  4. Food Handling Behaviors Observed in Consumers When Cooking Poultry and Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Chambers Iv, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Cates, Sheryl; Koppel, Kadri

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that many consumers do not follow recommended food safety practices for cooking poultry and eggs, which can lead to exposure to Salmonella and Campylobacter. Past research has been done primarily through surveys and interviews, rather than observations. The objective of this project was to determine through observations whether consumers follow food safety guidelines. Consumers (n = 101) divided among three locations (Manhattan, KS; Kansas City, MO area; and Nashville, TN) were observed as they prepared a baked whole chicken breast, a pan-fried ground turkey patty, a fried egg, and scrambled eggs. The end point temperature for the cooked products was taken (outside the view of consumers) within 30 s after the consumers indicated they were finished cooking. Thermometer use while cooking was low, although marginally higher than that of some previous studies: only 37% of consumers used a thermometer for chicken breasts and only 22% for turkey patties. No one used a thermometer for fried or scrambled eggs. Only 77% of the chicken and 69% of the turkey was cooked to a safe temperature (165°F [74°C]), and 77% of scrambled and 49% of fried eggs reached a safe temperature (160°F [71°C]). Safe hand washing was noted in only 40% of respondents after handling the chicken breast and 44% after handling the ground turkey patty. This value decreased to 15% after handling raw eggs for fried eggs and to 17% for scrambled eggs. These results show that there is a high prevalence of unsafe behaviors (undercooking and poor hand washing technique) when cooking poultry and eggs and a great need for improvement in consumer behavior with poultry and eggs.

  5. Improved microbial screning assay for the detection of quinolone residues in poultry and eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikkemaat, M.G.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Elferink, J.W.A.; Cocq, A.; Nielen, M.W.F.; Egmond, van H.J.

    2007-01-01

    An improved microbiological screening assay is reported for the detection of quinolone residues in poultry muscle and eggs. The method was validated using fortified tissue samples and is the first microbial assay to effectively detect enrofloxacin, difloxacin, danofloxacin, as well as flumequine and

  6. Development of a Biogas-powered Poultry Egg Incubator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    This study advances the utilization of biogas energy for chick production. ... The eggs were turned using a semi-automated device. ... pollution. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Incubator Description. The still-air incubator, with 12.7 mm thick.

  7. Seroprevalence of egg drop syndrome--76 virus as cause of poor egg productivity of poultry in Nsukka, South East Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeibe, M C O; Okoroafor, O N; Eze, J I; Eze, I C

    2008-02-01

    To determine if egg drop syndrome 76 virus infection is among the causes of lowered egg productivity in commercial poultry farms in South Eastern Part of Nigeria and to know the prevalence of the infection, ten farms with history of lowered egg production in Nsukka local government area of Enugu State were randomly selected. Sera from ten hens in each of the selected farms were assayed for antibodies against EDS 76 virus by the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test. The mean HI titre of the ten hens in each of the farms was recorded as EDS - 76 antibody titre for the farm. Nine out of the 10 farms tested were positive for EDS - 76 antibodies with HI titres ranging between 16 and 256. Out of 10 flocks with production of 65% and above 9 were EDS-76 HI negative.

  8. Rheological behaviour of egg white and egg yolk from different poultry specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbár, V.; Nedomová, Š.; Votava, J.; Buchar, J.

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this study is differences in rheological behaviour of hen (ISA BROWN), goose (Anser anser f. domestica) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) egg white and egg yolk. The rheological behaviour of egg white and egg yolk was studied using a concentric cylinder viscometer. Rheological behaviour was pseudoplastic and flow curves were fitted by the Herschel-Bulkley model and Ostwald-de Waele model with high values of coeficients of determination R2. The meaning of rheological parameters on friction factors during flow of egg white and egg yolk in real tube has been shown. Preliminary information on time-dependent behaviour of tested liquids has been also obtained.

  9. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised...

  10. Comparative Study on the Protease Inhibitors from Fish Eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ustadi; K.Y.Kim; S.M.Kim

    2005-01-01

    The protease inhibitor was purified from five different fish eggs. The molecular weights of Pacific herring, chum salmon, pond smelt, glassfish, and Alaska pollock egg protease inhibitors were 120, 89, 84.5, 17, and 16.8kDa, respectively. The specific inhibitory activity of glassfish egg protease inhibitor was the highest followed by those of Pacific herring and Alaska pollock in order. The specific inhibitory activity and purity of glassfish egg protease inhibitor were 19.70 U mg-1 protein and 164.70 folds of purification, respectively. Glassfish egg protease inhibitor was reasonably stable at 50 - 65 ℃ and pH 8,which was more stable at high temperature and pH than protease inhibitors from the other fish species. Glassfish egg protease inhibitor was noncompetitive with inhibitor constant (Ki) of 4.44 nmol L-1.

  11. Research on Non-destructive Comprehensive Detection and Grading of Poultry Eggs Based on Intelligent Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shucai; Cheng, Jinxiu; Wen, Youxian

    This study presents a light-duty automation system for the automatization of detecting and grading poultry eggs, namely SIRDGE, short for System of Intelligent Robot Detecting and Grading Eggs. This system combines crack detection, inner quality detection and eggs conveying in detecting and grading, which are all performed by a joint-robot to fully automate egg detection and gradation. The hardware components and software structure of the system are presented. Necessary explanation of the main hardware and the software is made, which includes video image capturing and camera calibration, image processing and feature extraction, motion control and route planning of the robot, MCU control for the vacuum sucker, knocking sound processing and crack detection, color image processing and inner quality detection, etc. Property testing of SIRDGE has been done in the research.

  12. Transport and dispersal of fish eggs and larvae are important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    populations. ... sume that fish with pelagic eggs and larvae will spawn ... with highest concentrations deeper than 20 m, indicates active movement out of the layer moving ...... KING, D. P. F. 1977a — Influence of temperature, dissolved oxygen.

  13. 9 CFR 93.905 - Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.905 Section 93.905 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. (a) For all live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes... fish, fertilized eggs, or gametes, the number, species, and the purpose of the importation, the name of...

  14. Toxicity of dissolved ozone to fish eggs and larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asbury, C.; Coler, R.

    1980-07-01

    To find levels of dissolved residual ozone lethal to fish eggs and larvae during brief exposures, continuous-flow toxicity tests were performed with eggs and larvae of yellow perch (Perca flavescens), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), eggs of white sucker (Catastomus commersoni), and larvae of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). The 50 and 99% lethal concentrations with confidence limits were calculated. Eggs of the species tested were more tolerant than larvae, which were destroyed by very brief exposures (less than 2 minutes) to residuals less than 0.1 mg/1. Because of the sensitivity of the larvae, residual ozone concentrations in natural waters should remain well below 50 ..mu..g/1.

  15. Deciphering microbial landscapes of fish eggs to mitigate emerging diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Bruijn, de I.; Jack, A.L.H.; Drynan, K.; Berg, van den A.H.; Thoen, E.; Sandoval-Sierra, V.; Skaar, I.; West, van P.; Diéguez-Uribeondo, J.; Voort, van der M.; Mendez, R.; Mazzola, M.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Animals and plants are increasingly suffering from diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes. These emerging pathogens are now recognized as a global threat to biodiversity and food security. Among oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause significant declines in fish and amphibian populations. Fish eggs ha

  16. Evaluation of egg production after adoption of biosecurity strategies by backyard poultry farmers in West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Samanta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: On the basis of identified source of major bacterial infections at four agro-climatic zones in West Bengal the cost-effective biosecurity strategy was formulated for backyard poultry farmers. The aim of the present study was to assess the adoption. So, the study was aimed to detect the adoption level of the formulated biosecurity strategy to mitigate the Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination level in the sources and its correlation with egg production in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared querying regarding the biosecurity measures presently followed by the farmers, if any and egg production of their birds. Subsequent to the interview the formulated biosecurity strategy was conveyed. After 3 months, the interview with the same questionnaire was conducted to the same farmers to detect their adoption level. Results: The change in practices were noted in certain parameters which differs significantly (p<0.01 or p<0.05. As a consequence, the average egg production/flock was increased in 3 months after adoption of the strategy (618.2±37.77/flock in comparison to last 3 months average before adoption of the strategy (495.3±30.00/flock which also differs significantly (p<0.01. Conclusion: The present study detected the implementation of the biosecurity strategy in backyard poultry farming in West Bengal can substantially benefit the farmers in terms of increased egg production.

  17. Restriction of meat, fish, and poultry in omnivores improves mood: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beezhold, Bonnie L; Johnston, Carol S

    2012-02-14

    Omnivorous diets are high in arachidonic acid (AA) compared to vegetarian diets. Research shows that high intakes of AA promote changes in brain that can disturb mood. Omnivores who eat fish regularly increase their intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), fats that oppose the negative effects of AA in vivo. In a recent cross-sectional study, omnivores reported significantly worse mood than vegetarians despite higher intakes of EPA and DHA. This study investigated the impact of restricting meat, fish, and poultry on mood. Thirty-nine omnivores were randomly assigned to a control group consuming meat, fish, and poultry daily (OMN); a group consuming fish 3-4 times weekly but avoiding meat and poultry (FISH), or a vegetarian group avoiding meat, fish, and poultry (VEG). At baseline and after two weeks, participants completed a food frequency questionnaire, the Profile of Mood States questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales. After the diet intervention, VEG participants reduced their EPA, DHA, and AA intakes, while FISH participants increased their EPA and DHA intakes. Mood scores were unchanged for OMN or FISH participants, but several mood scores for VEG participants improved significantly after two weeks. Restricting meat, fish, and poultry improved some domains of short-term mood state in modern omnivores. To our knowledge, this is the first trial to examine the impact of restricting meat, fish, and poultry on mood state in omnivores.

  18. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Enterobacteriaceae in Shell Eggs from Small-Scale Poultry Farms and Farmers' Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilonzo-Nthenge, A; Nahashon, S N; Godwin, S; Liu, S; Long, D

    2016-12-01

    Public health concerns over the emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria have increased recently. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae in shell eggs purchased from small poultry farms and farmers' markets. A total of 504 eggs were pooled to make 252 composite samples, consisting of 2 eggs per composite. The microbial quality of shell eggs was determined by standard quantitative, biochemical, and PCR techniques. Susceptibility to 13 antimicrobial agents was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique, and results were interpreted based on Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute values. Shell eggs and egg contents were positive for Escherichia coli (11.9 and 5.2%, respectively), Enterobacter (9.1 and 7.9%), and Serratia (11.5 and 4.8%). Salmonella was isolated from 3.6% of egg shells but not from egg contents. Mean (±SD) Enterobacteriaceae levels (4.4 ± 2.0 log CFU per eggshell) on shell eggs from poultry farms was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that on shell eggs from farmers' markets (2.1 ± 1.3 log CFU per eggshell). Of the 134 isolates recovered, resistance among isolates from farm and market shell eggs to erythromycin was most common (48.5 and 32.8%, respectively) followed by ampicillin (44.8 and 17.2%), and tetracycline (29.9 and 17.2%). The multiple antibiotic resistance index value for E. coli and Pantoea was 0.62, and that for Salmonella and Klebsiella terrigena was 0.08, indicating that Enterobacteriaceae in shell eggs can be resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents. These data reveal that shell eggs from small poultry farms and farmers' markets can harbor antimicrobial resistant pathogenic and commensal bacteria. Thus, failure to properly handle shell eggs poses a potential health hazard to consumers.

  19. Assessment of gender differentials in economic and technical efficiency of poultry egg, a case study in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafis Odunlami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gender has been seen as an important factor in the distribution and utilization of productive resources worldwide. In the agricultural sector, gender differential could influence the sourcing and efficient utilization of factors of production, particularly in the livestock sub-sector of the economy. This study assessed the gender differentials in economic and technical efficiency of poultry eggs production in Lagos State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used to select respondent poultry farmers. The first and second stages were the purposive selection of five Local Government Areas (LGAs reputed for poultry production and farm settlements in the state. The third stage involved a simple random sampling of 150 poultry farms consisting of 75 farms each managed by a male and a female Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA. The SFA revealed that for male management of poultry egg farms, labour input (p<0.01 and cost of medications (p<0.05 increased the poultry egg output. On the other hand, for female management, stock of birds (p<0.01, labour input (p<0.01 and feed cost (p<0.01 were the factors that increased poultry eggs output. The inefficiency model revealed that male farmers were more technically efficient (p<0.01 than female counterparts. Female managed poultry farms had less productivity (0.90 compared to males(1.22. However, 88.1% of male farms compared to 86.7% of female farms had economic efficiency ratios between 0.29 and 0.79. The study concluded that gender had impact on poultry farmers’ efficiency in the study area. The study therefore recommended that training should be organised for female managed farms while male managed farms should utilize less of cost intensive capital input.

  20. Economic Appraisal of Small and Medium Scale Poultry Egg Production in Ife and Ilesha Metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busari Ahmed Olugbenga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study appraised the economic performance of small and medium scale poultry egg production in Ife and Ilesha metropolis, Osun State Nigeria. A purposive sampling was used to select one hundred and twenty poultry egg farmers, cluster sampling was used to select areas where small and medium scale were concentrated in the study area then sixty (60 small scale and sixty (60 medium scale were randomly selected to form the population of the study. Data were collected through structured interview schedule. Descriptive statistics such as means and percentages were employed for budgetary analysis and economic performance. The ordinary least square was used to determine the significant variables influencing the gross margin of poultry egg farmers at different levels of scale of production. The study shows that the gross margin of small farms was ₦575.65 while the gross margin of medium farms was ₦43672.62. The total production cost of small and medium farms were ₦1480.25 and ₦29654.43 respectively. The results further reveal that costs of feed constituted the largest share of the total costs for the two categories of farm size. The amount spent on drug and feed were the only significant determining factors of revenue accruable to both categories of poultry egg farmers. Although, poultry egg production was profitable in the study area, the level of profit depended on the scale of operation.

  1. Integrated Poultry-Fish Farming Systems for Sustainable Rural Livelihood Security in Kumaon Hills of Uttarakhand

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The study has analyzed socio-economic impact of poultry based farming system on farmers for their livelihood security and women empowerment. The analysis is based on the data collected from 95 poultry farmers selected from three hill districts of Kumaon region for two production years, 2011-12 and 2012- 13. It has been observed that the farmers’ access to day-old chicks (DOCs)/fish seed/fingerlings plays the key role in popularization of integrated poultry-fish farming. The economics of pre...

  2. Prospective investigation of poultry and fish intake in relation to cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Carrie R.; Cross, Amanda J.; Graubard, Barry I.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Park, Yikyung; Sinha, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Dietary guidelines advise consumers to limit intake of red meat and choose lean protein sources, such as poultry and fish. Poultry consumption has been steadily increasing in the U.S., but the effect on cancer risk remains unclear. In a large U.S. cohort, we prospectively investigated poultry and fish intake and cancer risk across a range of malignancies in men and women. Diet was assessed at baseline (1995–1996) with a food frequency questionnaire in 492,186 participants of the National Inst...

  3. Transfer of fat-soluble pesticides from contaminated feed to poultry tissues and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, D J

    2008-05-01

    1. Implementation of Good Manufacturing Practice and HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points) in the production of poultry feed requires efficient tools for profiling risks associated with pesticide use in the production of crops for feed. 2. This paper describes a simple model that may be of use in the first tiers of risk profiling of feeds. 3. The model adequately reproduced the pattern of residues in fat and eggs of laying hens dosed with a selection of lipophilic pesticides that may be used in the production of crops for poultry feeds: deltamethrin, diflubenzuron, fipronil, lindane, piperonyl butoxide and spinosad. 4. Simulations suggest results derived from studies on laying chickens can be extrapolated to other laying birds. 5. Poultry meat production systems focus on maximising growth of birds giving rise to significant potential for dilution of residues that transfer to fat from feed. 6. Simulations of residues in fat of chickens, ducks, geese and turkeys exposed to a lipophilic pesticide with an elimination half-life of one day at 10 mg/kg body weight/d from hatching to typical market ages suggest residues in fat that are highest in turkeys > chickens > geese > ducks. 7. The model is of use in interpreting published dosing studies and predicting likely residues in birds at times after last exposure/dosing.

  4. Variability in the distribution of planktonic fish eggs and larvae in the nearshore waters off Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Nair, V.R.; Desai, B.N.

    represented different environmental conditions. Fish eggs and larvae were common in the area of study with maximum abundance in December 1979 and April/ August 1980. Mean density of fish eggs was maximum along the Mahim transect while population of larvae...

  5. Survey of the anticoccidial feed additive nicarbazin (as dinitrocarbanilide residues) in poultry and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Martin; Campbell, Katrina; O'Keeffe, Michael; Capurro, Emiliana; Kennedy, Glenn; Elliott, Christopher T

    2008-01-01

    A survey was carried out on the occurrence of dinitrocarbanilide (DNC), the marker residue for nicarbazin, in poultry produced in Ireland during 2002-2004. Liver (n = 736) and breast muscle samples (n = 342) were tested. DNC residues were found in 40 and 26% of liver and breast muscle samples at levels greater than 12.5 and 5 microg kg(-1), respectively. DNC residues were found at >200 microg kg(-1) in 12 and 0% of liver and muscle samples, respectively. Samples of breast muscle (n = 217) imported from 11 countries were also tested for DNC residues. A lower incidence of DNC residues (6%) was found in imported breast muscle. Egg samples (n = 546) were tested and DNC residues were found in nine samples, with levels ranging between 14 and 122 microg kg(-1). Analysis of poultry, carried out as part of official food inspection in the period 2004-2006, indicated a reduction in the number of broiler liver samples containing DNC at >200 microg kg(-1), to approximately 7%. Low levels of DNC residues continue to be found in <2% of egg samples.

  6. Persistent Organohalogens in Paired Fish Fillet and Eggs: Implications for Fish Consumption Advisories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianming; Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P

    2016-04-13

    Fish consumption is associated with both health benefits from high-quality proteins, minerals, vitamins, and fatty acids and risks from contaminants in fish. Fish consumption advisories are issued by many government agencies to keep exposure to contaminants at a safe level. Such advisories are typically based on fillets and neglect consumption of other fish parts such as eggs by certain subpopulations. To evaluate potential for dietary exposure to toxic organic chemicals via fish eggs, we analyzed polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dlPCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in paired fillet and eggs of fish from a tributary to Lake Ontario, one of the North American Great Lakes. All wet weight based concentrations in fish eggs were statistically higher than in the paired fillet samples. In fish eggs, concentrations of Σ14PBDEs, Σ14PCNs, and Σ12dlPCBs were 41-118, 0.3-1.7, and 30-128 ng/g wet weight (ww), respectively; Σ3PCDD/Fs and total (dlPCB+ PCDD/Fs) toxic equivalents (TEQs) were 4-22 and 9-54 pg/g ww, respectively. In fillet samples, Σ14PBDEs, Σ14PCNs, and Σ12dlPCBs were 4-116, 0.05-0.66, and 6-85 ng/g, respectively; Σ3PCDD/Fs and TEQs were 2-10 and 3.4-31 pg/g ww, respectively. In contrast, the fillets had higher lipid normalized concentrations than the paired egg samples, suggesting that these chemicals did not reach equilibrium between the fillets and eggs. Accordingly, measured concentrations in eggs or empirical relationship with fillet rather than prediction from equilibrium partitioning model should be used to evaluate contaminant exposure via consumption of fish eggs. For fatty fish from the lower Great Lakes area, we suggest one fillet meal be reduced from the advised fish consumption frequency for consumptions of 207 ± 37, 39 ± 2, 105 ± 51, and 119 ± 9 g fish eggs of brown trout, Chinook salmon, Coho salmon, and rainbow trout, respectively.

  7. First record predation on white sturgeon eggs by sympatric fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A.I.; Beckman, L.G.

    1996-01-01

    We report the occurrence of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus eggs in guts of four species of fish from the Columbia River. Three of the species—northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis, largescale sucker Catostomus macrocheilus, and prickly sentpin Cottus asper—are native to the river and one, common carp Cvprinus carpio, is exotic.

  8. Changes in Meat/Poultry/Fish Consumption in Australia: From 1995 to 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Zhixian; Raubenheimer, David; Cunningham, Judy; Rangan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine temporal changes in meat/poultry/fish consumption patterns between 1995 and 2011–2012 in the Australian population. Meat/poultry/fish consumption from all food sources, including recipes, was analysed by gender, age group, and socio-economic status using 24-h recall data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (n = 13,858) and the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n = 12,153). The overall proportion of people consuming meat/poultry/fish remained stable (91.7% versus 91.3%, p = 0.55), but a shift in the type of meat consumed was observed. Red meat, including beef and lamb, was consumed by fewer people over the time period (from 56% to 49%), whereas poultry consumption increased (from 29% to 38%). Amounts of all meat/poultry/fish consumed were reportedly higher in 2011–2012 compared with 1995. This resulted in similar (red meat, and processed meat) or slightly higher (poultry, and fish) per-capita intakes in 2011–2012. The magnitude of change of consumption varied between children and adults, and by gender. Monitoring trends in consumption is particularly relevant to policy makers, researchers and other health professionals for the formulation of dietary recommendations and estimation of potential health outcomes. PMID:27886131

  9. Changes in Meat/Poultry/Fish Consumption in Australia: From 1995 to 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Zhixian; Raubenheimer, David; Cunningham, Judy; Rangan, Anna

    2016-11-24

    The purpose of the study was to examine temporal changes in meat/poultry/fish consumption patterns between 1995 and 2011-2012 in the Australian population. Meat/poultry/fish consumption from all food sources, including recipes, was analysed by gender, age group, and socio-economic status using 24-h recall data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (n = 13,858) and the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n = 12,153). The overall proportion of people consuming meat/poultry/fish remained stable (91.7% versus 91.3%, p = 0.55), but a shift in the type of meat consumed was observed. Red meat, including beef and lamb, was consumed by fewer people over the time period (from 56% to 49%), whereas poultry consumption increased (from 29% to 38%). Amounts of all meat/poultry/fish consumed were reportedly higher in 2011-2012 compared with 1995. This resulted in similar (red meat, and processed meat) or slightly higher (poultry, and fish) per-capita intakes in 2011-2012. The magnitude of change of consumption varied between children and adults, and by gender. Monitoring trends in consumption is particularly relevant to policy makers, researchers and other health professionals for the formulation of dietary recommendations and estimation of potential health outcomes.

  10. Growth/survival of Salmonella enteritidis on fresh poultry and fish stored under vacuum or modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nychas, G J; Tassou, C C

    1996-08-01

    The effect of vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging on the growth/survival of Salmonella enteritidis on fresh poultry and fish (Boops boops) is described. Salmonella enteritidis survived but did not grow significantly in all samples (poultry or fish) at 3 degrees C. At 10 degrees C the numbers of Salm. enteritidis increases rapidly in vacuum-packed samples and in samples flushed with 100% N2, 20% CO2/80% O2 of both types of proteinaceous food. Growth was also evident in fish and poultry flushed with 100% CO2; however the rate of growth was greater in fish samples rather than in poultry.

  11. Fish egg size: a characteristic determined by parental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana RM Mazzoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a trade-off between relative batch fecundity and egg size has been widely documented (e.g. Brown & Shine 2009. Studies on the evolution of parental care and its relationship with fish egg size were stimulated by the work of Shine (1978, who proposed several possible hypotheses, including one that predicted that the onset of parental care preceded the increase in egg size. This hypothesis has since been challenged by Nussbaum & Schultz (1989 and more recently by Summers et al. (2006, who proposed an alternative hypothesis in which the evolution of large eggs was said to precede the evolution of parental care and not the reverse. Here, we examined 313 species of bony fish, including 152 species with parental care (PC and 161 species without parental care (NPC, and found evidence that fully supports the hypothesis of Shine (1978. Additionally, we explain how strengthening this hypothesis could impact the development of phylogenies. We also make suggestions for future studies on gene regulatory mechanisms that could explain the evolution of parental care and egg size in bony fish within a more modern context of developmental ecology. Our analysis uses data describing the mean size of ripe eggs and the occurrence of parental care in 313 species of bony fish belonging to 53 families in 11 orders. Data for 22 of the 313 species were collected by us from the Tocantins River. Data for the remaining species were obtained from the literature: 6 species from the Paraná River (Suzuki et al. 2000, 149 species from large African lakes and some pelagic marine species (Duponchelle et al. 2008, 74 marine species (Pauly & Pullin 1988, and 65 species from the Tocantins River (Neuberger 2010. Of these 313 total species, 161 (51.4% are PC species and 152 (48.6% are NPC species. We analyzed a minimum of eight mature females from each of the 16 species we collected, and for each female, we measured 10 mature oocytes and derived the mean diameter of

  12. 9 CFR 93.903 - Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.903 Section 93.903 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., and gametes. (a) Live fish, fertilized eggs, or gametes of SVC-susceptible species imported into the... must be submitted for each shipment of live fish, fertilized eggs, or gametes of SVC-susceptible...

  13. A Review on Effects of Probiotic Supplementation in Poultry Performance and Cholesterol Levels of Egg and Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarekegn Getachew

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microbial food/feed ingredients that have a beneficial effect on health that stimulates the growth of beneficial microorganisms and reduces the amount of pathogens, thus improving the intestinal microbial balance of the host and lowering the risk of gastro-intestinal diseases. Probiotics can be harmful to debilitated and immuno-compromised populations. An accurate dosage of administration has yet to be established despite the wide-use of probiotics. Probiotics have antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, hypocholesterolemic, antihypertensive, anti-osteoporosis, and immunomodulatory effects. Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Leuconostoc, Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Bacillus, Saccharomyces, Aspergillus and Pediococcus species are most commonly used probiotics in poultry production. When supplemented to chicken probiotics improve feed-intake, growth performance, meat quality, egg production, egg quality and have cholesterol lowering potential in poultry products. However, some studies reported no significant effect of probiotics on feed-intake, production traits, products’ quality and cholesterol level.

  14. Functional responses of North Atlantic fish eggs to increasing temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsoukali, Stavroula; Visser, Andre; MacKenzie, Brian

    2016-01-01

    -days and survival of fish eggs from 32 populations of 17 species in the North Atlantic to different temperatures in order to determine potential consequences of global warming for these species. The response of development time exhibited a similar decreasing trend with respect to temperature across species....... The similar slopes of regression lines relating lntransformed development time and temperature indicate similar sensitivity to temperature changes. Across-species differences were mainly driven by intercept values, indicating up to 8- fold differences in development time at given temperature...

  15. Assessment of gender differentials in economic and technical efficiency of poultry egg, a case study in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Hafis Odunlami; Peter Adebola Okuneye; Musekiku Adebayo Shittu; Ajani R. Sanusi; Issa Olalekan Eledgbede; Fatima Kies

    2016-01-01

    Gender has been seen as an important factor in the distribution and utilization of productive resources worldwide. In the agricultural sector, gender differential could influence the sourcing and efficient utilization of factors of production, particularly in the livestock sub-sector of the economy. This study assessed the gender differentials in economic and technical efficiency of poultry eggs production in Lagos State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used to select respondent po...

  16. Characterization of poultry egg-white avidins and their potential as a tool in pretargeting cancer treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Hytönen, Vesa P.; Laitinen, Olli H.; Grapputo, Alessandro; Kettunen, Anu; Savolainen, Janne; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Marttila, Ari T; Nordlund, Henri R.; Nyholm, Thomas K M; Paganelli, Giovanni; Kulomaa, Markku S

    2003-01-01

    Chicken avidin and bacterial streptavidin are proteins used in a wide variety of applications in the life sciences due to their strong affinity for biotin. A new and promising use for them is in medical pretargeting cancer treatments. However, their pharmacokinetics and immunological properties are not always optimal, thereby limiting their use in these applications. To search for potentially beneficial new candidates, we screened egg white from four different poultry species for avidin. Avid...

  17. Poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Pinto de Medeiros

    2010-01-01

    The quality of the egg farm is determined by the quality of the shell, resistant to handling, age, genetic origin and health condition of chickens, as well as the duration and conditions of storage. This study aimed to evaluate the productive performance and egg quality of laying hens supplemented with organic minerals. Used in 2400 Dekalb hens with 42 weeks of age. Throughout the period of the experiment was given the supplement. The animals were divided, at random into 2 groups, each ...

  18. PERFORMANCE OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS FED FISH MEAL AND POULTRY BY-PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. ADAM SULIEMAN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the Department of Fisheries and Wild life Science, College of Science and Technology of Animal Production, Sudan University of Science and Technology, to determine the feed efficiency of two locally formulated diets (A and B on performance of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Two iso-caloric iso-nitrogenus diets were formulated by adding 60% wheat bran, 30% cotton seed cake and 10% poultry by-product (offal+intestine, while the diet (B contained 60% wheat bran, 30% cotton seed cake and 10% fish meal. The fish were fed twice a day at affixed feeding rate of 5% body weight of fish per day for 90 days. The total body weight, total length and standard length were measured every 10 days throughout the experimental period. The growth response and performance data of the studied fish (Oreochromis niloticus fed with diet (B containing fishmeal recorded a better growth response than that fish fed poultry by- product meal (diet A. The final weight increment, specific growth rate (SGR, feed conversion ratio (FCR and protein efficiency ratio (PER over the experimental period showed lowest value for the group fed the diet with poultry by-product (Diet A compared to those fed with the fishmeal (Diet B. Except the apparent protein utilization (APU was recorded higher for those fed with Diet A (23.31 than Diet B (11.99. The groups fed diet (A attained SGR 0.24, FCR 1.9, PER 0.75, APU 23.31, while it recorded in group (B, SGR 0.34, FCR 1.2, PER 1.06, APU 11.99. Therefore, fish meal is better as compared to poultry by-products for Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus nutrition.

  19. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ELECTRO TECHNOLOGICAL OZONIZATION OF EGG STORES OF POULTRY FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Voloshin A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitization of eggs is an essential way to fight bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms. Hatchability of eggs and the safety of day-old chicks are dependent on the quality of eggs processing. Leading scientists of our country have proved high efficacy of ozone application for processing of hatching eggs. To obtain a positive result by this method of sanitizing hatching eggs ozone, it is necessary to create a uniform concentration of ozone around the egg store volume. Decrease in ozone conc...

  20. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ELECTRO TECHNOLOGICAL OZONIZATION OF EGG STORES OF POULTRY FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Voloshin A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitization of eggs is an essential way to fight bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms. Hatchability of eggs and the safety of day-old chicks are dependent on the quality of eggs processing. Leading scientists of our country have proved high efficacy of ozone application for processing of hatching eggs. To obtain a positive result by this method of sanitizing hatching eggs ozone, it is necessary to create a uniform concentration of ozone around the egg store volume. Decrease in ozone conc...

  1. Organochlorine pesticide residuals in chickens and eggs at a poultry farm in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, S. [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Geosciences and Center for Applied Environmental Research, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110-2499 (United States)], E-mail: taos@urban.pku.edu.cn; Liu, W.X.; Li, X.Q.; Zhou, D.X.; Li, X.; Yang, Y.F.; Yue, D.P. [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Coveney, R.M. [Department of Geosciences and Center for Applied Environmental Research, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110-2499 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Chicken organs, animal feed, droppings, and ambient air were sampled at a farm in Beijing to determine the concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs). Mean fresh weight concentrations of HCHs and DDTs were 0.122 {+-} 0.061 ng/g and 0.051 {+-} 0.038 ng/g in the muscles. These values are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those reported in China in 1980. Contaminated feed was the main source of HCHs and DDTs. Only 12.8% of HCH and 3.3% of DDT of the amount consumed were excreted. Accumulated quantities of HCHs and DDTs increased during growth. However, concentrations of HCHs and DDTs did not increase because of dilution from rapid growth. Based on the observed residual levels in mature chicken and the average diet of residents of China, the contributions from chicken and egg consumption to per capita daily intake of HCHs and DDTs were 487% and 88% of those of fish consumption. - Ingestion of chicken and eggs is an important pathway of HCHs and DDTs exposure.

  2. The association of red meat, poultry, and egg consumption with risk of hip fractures in elderly Chinese: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fang-fang; Fan, Fan; Xue, Wen-qiong; Xie, Hai-li; Wu, Bao-hua; Tu, Su-lan; Ouyang, Wei-fu; Chen, Yu-ming

    2013-10-01

    The epidemiological evidence that the consumption of red meat, poultry or eggs may be associated with the risk of hip fractures is inconsistent and no studies have differentiated between types of red meat or poultry. We evaluated the association between the consumption of red meat, poultry or eggs and the risk of hip fracture. A 1:1 age- (±3years) and gender-matched case-control study of 646 pairs (female/male: 484/162) of elderly Chinese was conducted between June 2009 and January 2013 in Guangdong, China. Information on meat and egg consumption was collected using a 79-item food frequency questionnaire administered in face-to-face interviews. Conditional logistic regression was used to test the relationship between intake of red meat, poultry, and eggs and the risk of hip fracture. Multivariate ORs and their 95% CIs were estimated. After adjusting for potential confounders, risk of hip fracture was found to be positively associated with total red meat consumption (P for trend poultry or egg consumption. The adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for hip fractures, comparing extreme quartiles, were 2.94 (1.82, 4.76) for total red meat, 1.11 (0.74, 1.66) for total poultry, and 0.99 (0.63, 1.56) for eggs. Subtype analyses indicated that the unfavorable effect of total red meat was primarily associated with the consumption of fatty pork and organ meat, whereas fatty and lean poultry had opposite effects. Men with higher fatty pork intake tended to have greater risk than women (P interaction=0.019). Our findings suggest that greater consumption of fatty, but not lean, red meat and poultry may increase the risk of hip fracture. These results provide preliminary evidence for the feasibility of a dietary program for the prevention of hip fractures, which should be confirmed by further studies. © 2013.

  3. Population Dynamics of Salmonella enterica Serotypes in Commercial Egg and Poultry Production ▿

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Fresh and processed poultry have been frequently implicated in cases of human salmonellosis. Furthermore, increased consumption of meat and poultry has increased the potential for exposure to Salmonella enterica. While advances have been made in reducing the prevalence and frequency of Salmonella contamination in processed poultry, there is mounting pressure on commercial growers to prevent and/or eliminate these human pathogens in preharvest production facilities. Several factors contribute ...

  4. Characterization of egg laying hen and broiler fecal microbiota in poultry farms in Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videnska, Petra; Rahman, Md Masudur; Faldynova, Marcela; Babak, Vladimir; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella; Krizek, Ivan; Smole-Mozina, Sonja; Kovac, Jasna; Szmolka, Ama; Nagy, Bela; Sedlar, Karel; Cejkova, Darina; Rychlik, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Poultry meat is the most common protein source of animal origin for humans. However, intensive breeding of animals in confined spaces has led to poultry colonisation by microbiota with a zoonotic potential or encoding antibiotic resistances. In this study we were therefore interested in the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes and microbiota composition in feces of egg laying hens and broilers originating from 4 different Central European countries determined by real-time PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, respectively. strA gene was present in 1 out of 10,000 bacteria. The prevalence of sul1, sul2 and tet(B) in poultry microbiota was approx. 6 times lower than that of the strA gene. tet(A) and cat were the least prevalent being present in around 3 out of 10,000,000 bacteria forming fecal microbiome. The core chicken fecal microbiota was formed by 26 different families. Rather unexpectedly, representatives of Desulfovibrionaceae and Campylobacteraceae, both capable of hydrogen utilisation in complex microbial communities, belonged among core microbiota families. Understanding the roles of individual population members in the total metabolism of the complex community may allow for interventions which might result in the replacement of Campylobacteraceae with Desulfovibrionaceae and a reduction of Campylobacter colonisation in broilers, carcasses, and consequently poultry meat products.

  5. Characterization of egg laying hen and broiler fecal microbiota in poultry farms in Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Videnska

    Full Text Available Poultry meat is the most common protein source of animal origin for humans. However, intensive breeding of animals in confined spaces has led to poultry colonisation by microbiota with a zoonotic potential or encoding antibiotic resistances. In this study we were therefore interested in the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes and microbiota composition in feces of egg laying hens and broilers originating from 4 different Central European countries determined by real-time PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, respectively. strA gene was present in 1 out of 10,000 bacteria. The prevalence of sul1, sul2 and tet(B in poultry microbiota was approx. 6 times lower than that of the strA gene. tet(A and cat were the least prevalent being present in around 3 out of 10,000,000 bacteria forming fecal microbiome. The core chicken fecal microbiota was formed by 26 different families. Rather unexpectedly, representatives of Desulfovibrionaceae and Campylobacteraceae, both capable of hydrogen utilisation in complex microbial communities, belonged among core microbiota families. Understanding the roles of individual population members in the total metabolism of the complex community may allow for interventions which might result in the replacement of Campylobacteraceae with Desulfovibrionaceae and a reduction of Campylobacter colonisation in broilers, carcasses, and consequently poultry meat products.

  6. 9 CFR 93.902 - Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Aquatic.... (3) Mexican border ports. Otay Mesa, CA. (b) Designation of other ports. Other ports may...

  7. Lack of association of poultry and eggs intake with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y; Wu, G

    2017-09-01

    We carried out a meta-analysis to explore the association between poultry and eggs consumption and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk according to the published observational studies. A search of databases was performed in MEDLINE and EMBASE from their inception to March 2015. We derived meta-analytic estimates using random-effects models, and assessed between-study heterogeneity using the Cochran's Q and I(2) statistics. We identified a total of nine case-control and three prospective cohort studies, including 11,271 subjects with NHL. The summary relative risks for high vs. low analyses were 1.04 (95% confidence intervals [CIs]: 0.86-1.27; pheterogeneity <.001, I(2)  = 84.0%) for poultry consumption and 1.15 (95% CIs: 0.87-1.51; pheterogeneity <.001, I(2)  = 85.3%) for egg consumption. Meta-regression analysis showed that study locations, study quality, type of Food Frequency Questionnaire and confounders adjusted for total energy intake contributed to the high heterogeneity among the studies on poultry consumption, whereas no significant factors were responsible for the high heterogeneity among the studies on eggs consumption. Limited data suggested a null association between consumption of poultry and eggs and NHL subtypes. Findings from our meta-analysis indicate that consumption of poultry and eggs may be not related to NHL risk. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited information about nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition of fatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp.. The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fatty acid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained 17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggs contained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.

  9. Detection of Chromium (Cr using X-ray Fluorescence Technique and Investigation of Cr Propagation from Poultry Feeds to Egg and Chicken Flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifuzzaman Rajib

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents possibility of detecting the presence of Chromium (Cr in poultry in Rajshahi area using X-ray fluorescence (XRF technique. It also investigates the propagation of Cr from poultry feeds to chicken flesh. Poultry feeds were collected from different vendors at Rajshahi. It was found that some of the locally produced poultry feeds contained a considerable amount of Cr that propagates to the chicken meat and egg. This Cr might be hazardous for human health. Among the four most widely used feeds in Rajshahi region maximum Cr concentration of 17.3 ppm was detected in “Adorsho feed (Pabna”. Transmission of Cr from feed to egg and various parts of chicken were investigated with chicken samples of different ages grown by feeding “Adorsho feed”. An average of 4.3 ppm of Cr was found in Yolk and 2.7 ppm was found in the egg-white. Highest concentration of Cr was found to be 5.9 ppm in the brain of 29-days old chicken. The concentration of Cr was different in various parts of chicken depending on its age. The experimental results indicate that the XRF technique can be used efficiently to detect the presence and transmission of heavy metals like Cr from feed to egg and poultry

  10. Using copper sulfate to control egg fungus at Keo Fish Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keo Fish Farm is the biggest producer of hybrid striped bass fry in the world. The hatchery manager asked about treatments to control fungus on eggs which occurred fairly often. Our lab has been working on gaining FDA-approval to use copper sulfate to control fungus on catfish eggs, so we were con...

  11. Efficacy of a vacuum benthos sampler for collecting demersal fish eggs from gravel substratum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetz, C. R.; Jennings, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    We used two densities of eggs (low=900 eggs/m2; high=5100 eggs/m2) in laboratory experiments to estimate the recovery efficiency of the Brown benthos sampler for collecting fish eggs from gravel substrate and to determine if differences (e.g., 5-fold) in egg density in the substratum could be detected with the sampler. The mean egg recovery efficiency of the sampler in the low and high density treatments was 30% (SE=8.7) and 35% (SE=3.8), respectively. The difference between the treatment means was not significant. Therefore, data from the two treatments were pooled and used to estimate the recovery efficiency of the sampler (32.7%, SE=4.4). However, we were able to detect a 5?? difference in the number of eggs collected with the sampler between the two treatments. Our estimate of the recovery efficiency of the sampler for collecting fish eggs was less than those reported for the sampler's efficiency for collecting benthic macroinvertebrates. The low recovery efficiency of the sampler for collecting fish eggs does not lessen the utility of the device. Rather, ecologists planning to use the sampler must estimate the recovery efficiency of target fauna, especially if density estimates are to be calculated, because recovery efficiency probably is less than 100%. ?? Munksgaard, 1997.

  12. Poultry egg components as cereal bait additives for enhancing rodenticide based control success and trap index of house rat, Rattus rattus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neena Singla; Deepia Kanwar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the acceptance and efficacy of cereal bait containing different concentrations of poultry egg components in laboratory and poultry farms to control house rat,Rattus rattus Methods: Acceptance of cereal bait containing different concentrations (2%, 5% and 10%) of poultry egg components such as egg shell powder (ESP), egg albumin (EA) and crushed egg shell as bait additives were studied after exposing them to different groups of rats in bi-choice with bait without additive. Behaviour of rats towards cereal bait containing 2% concentration of different egg components was recorded in no-choice conditions through Food Scale Consumption Monitor. In poultry farm predominantly infested with R. rattus, acceptance and efficacy of 2%zinc phosphide bait containing 2% EA and ESP was evaluated. Trap success of single rat traps containing chapatti pieces smeared with 2% EA and 2% ESP was also evaluated in poultry farm.Results:(R. rattus). containing 2% and 5% ESP and all the three concentrations of EA compared to plain bait by female rats and that of baits containing 5% and 10% EA by male rats. In no-choice test, non-significantly higher consumption, number of bouts made and time spent towards bait containing 2% EA was found by rats of both sexes. In poultry farm, acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait containing 2% EA and ESP was significantly (P<0.05) more than 2% zinc phosphide bait without additive. No significant difference was, however, found in trap success of single rat traps containing chapatti pieces smeared with 2% concentration of EA and ESP placed in the poultry farm.Conclusions:Present data support the use of 2% egg albumin and egg shell powder in cereal bait In bi-choice tests, significantly (P<0.05) higher preference was observed for baits to enhance acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait against R. rattus. This may further help in checking the spread of rodent borne diseases to animals and humans.

  13. 40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans... Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of a..., tree nuts, milk, soybeans, eggs (including putrescent eggs), fish, crustacea, and wheat are exempted...

  14. Seasonal fluctuation in the distribution of eggs and larvae of flat fishes (Pleuronectiformes - Pisces) in the Cochin Backwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.

    Attempts have been made to correlate the abundance of eggs and larvae of flat fishes belonging to families Cynoglossidae and Soleidae with the hydrographical parameters of the environment, particularly the salinity. The eggs and larvae were found...

  15. A phylogenetic analysis of egg size, clutch size, spawning mode, adult body size, and latitude in reef fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimatis, Katja; Riginos, Cynthia

    2016-06-01

    Theoretical treatments of egg size in fishes suggest that constraints on reproductive output should create trade-offs between the size and number of eggs produced per spawn. For marine reef fishes, the observation of distinct reproductive care strategies (demersal guarding, egg scattering, and pelagic spawning) has additionally prompted speculation that these strategies reflect alternative fitness optima with selection on egg size differing by reproductive mode and perhaps latitude. Here, we aggregate data from 278 reef fish species and test whether clutch size, reproductive care, adult body size, and latitudinal bands (i.e., tropical, subtropical, and temperate) predict egg size, using a statistically unified framework that accounts for phylogenetic correlations among traits. We find no inverse relationship between species egg size and clutch size, but rather that egg size differs by reproductive mode (mean volume for demersal eggs = 1.22 mm3, scattered eggs = 0.18 mm3, pelagic eggs = 0.52 mm3) and that clutch size is strongly correlated with adult body size. Larger eggs were found in temperate species compared with tropical species in both demersal guarders and pelagic spawners, but this difference was not strong when accounting for phylogenetic correlations, suggesting that differences in species composition underlies regional differences in egg size. In summary, demersal guarders are generally small fishes with small clutch sizes that produce large eggs. Pelagic spawners and egg scatterers are variable in adult and clutch size. Although pelagic spawned eggs are variable in size, those of scatterers are consistently small.

  16. Bacterial contamination of eggs and behaviour of poultry flocks in the free range environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Talia; Drake, Kelly; Gole, Vaibhav; Chousalkar, Kapil; Hazel, Susan

    2016-12-01

    The free range production system is becoming more common in Australia and is expected to increase. Free range hens are exposed to more stressors in comparison to hens from barn and cage systems and it is suggested that stress can increase bacterial shedding on eggs. The aims of this study were to examine the level of total bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae populations, as well as the presence of Salmonella and Campylobacter, in eggs collected from two free range flocks on two different farms and to conduct longitudinal observations of the behaviour and welfare of hens in the free range production system. Hen age (weeks) was shown to have a significant effect (increase) on the level of total bacteria on the egg shell surface and in shell pores, as well as having an effect on feather condition score. As the hens aged, the frequency of external visual egg characteristics increased, as did feather condition score (where feather condition was poorer). These observations indicate areas which should be investigated further to improve the food safety of eggs and optimise the welfare of free range hens. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bathymetric gradients of fecundity and egg size in fishes: A Mediterranean case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Arcaya, Ulla; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Murua, Hilario; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Bahamon, Nixon; Recasens, Laura; Rotllant, Guiomar; Company, Joan B.

    2016-10-01

    There is a general hypothesis that species inhabiting deep-sea waters have lower fecundity and larger eggs than shallower species. However, there are few comparative studies which explore this trend because of the complexity of sampling in deep waters, especially in fishes. We present here the first analysis of fecundity and egg size with depth along an isothermal environment. We calculate the relative fecundity and egg size of 11 species of demersal deep-sea fish from the western Mediterranean and included in our analyses published data for an additional 14 species from the same geographic area. The results show that the relative fecundity (eggs per g of individual) of the analyzed fishes slightly decreased along the bathymetric gradient, whereas egg size increased with depth. When the analysis was conducted including only species from the order Gadiformes, the most speciose group in the region and with the widest depth range of distribution (50-2000 m), there was no relationship between relative fecundity and depth, while the deepest species had larger egg sizes than shallower ones. The finding of similar relative fecundities but larger egg sizes suggests that these deep-sea species are investing a higher amount of energy in the production of offspring than shallower water counterparts. The results are discussed in relation to the isothermal characteristics of the deep Mediterranean Sea and ecological adaptations for reproductive success.

  18. Egg size-dependent expression of growth hormone receptor accompanies compensatory growth in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, F H I D; Berishvili, G; Taborsky, B

    2012-02-07

    Large egg size usually boosts offspring survival, but mothers have to trade off egg size against egg number. Therefore, females often produce smaller eggs when environmental conditions for offspring are favourable, which is subsequently compensated for by accelerated juvenile growth. How this rapid growth is modulated on a molecular level is still unclear. As the somatotropic axis is a key regulator of early growth in vertebrates, we investigated the effect of egg size on three key genes belonging to this axis, at different ontogenetic stages in a mouthbrooding cichlid (Simochromis pleurospilus). The expression levels of one of them, the growth hormone receptor (GHR), were significantly higher in large than in small eggs, but remarkably, this pattern was reversed after hatching: young originating from small eggs had significantly higher GHR expression levels as yolk sac larvae and as juveniles. GHR expression in yolk sac larvae was positively correlated with juvenile growth rate and correspondingly fish originating from small eggs grew faster. This enabled them to catch up fully in size within eight weeks with conspecifics from larger eggs. This is the first evidence for a potential link between egg size, an important maternal effect, and offspring gene expression, which mediates an adaptive adjustment in a relevant hormonal axis.

  19. Egg size-dependent expression of growth hormone receptor accompanies compensatory growth in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, F. H. I. D.; Berishvili, G.; Taborsky, B.

    2012-01-01

    Large egg size usually boosts offspring survival, but mothers have to trade off egg size against egg number. Therefore, females often produce smaller eggs when environmental conditions for offspring are favourable, which is subsequently compensated for by accelerated juvenile growth. How this rapid growth is modulated on a molecular level is still unclear. As the somatotropic axis is a key regulator of early growth in vertebrates, we investigated the effect of egg size on three key genes belonging to this axis, at different ontogenetic stages in a mouthbrooding cichlid (Simochromis pleurospilus). The expression levels of one of them, the growth hormone receptor (GHR), were significantly higher in large than in small eggs, but remarkably, this pattern was reversed after hatching: young originating from small eggs had significantly higher GHR expression levels as yolk sac larvae and as juveniles. GHR expression in yolk sac larvae was positively correlated with juvenile growth rate and correspondingly fish originating from small eggs grew faster. This enabled them to catch up fully in size within eight weeks with conspecifics from larger eggs. This is the first evidence for a potential link between egg size, an important maternal effect, and offspring gene expression, which mediates an adaptive adjustment in a relevant hormonal axis. PMID:21752823

  20. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern Of Bacterial Pathogens Isolated From Poultry Manure Used To Fertilize Fish Ponds In New Bussa, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funso Omojowo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to isolate and identify antibiotic resistant bacteria from poultry manure usually used for pond fertilization. Poultry manure from 120 Chickens in National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research (NIFFR integrated fish farms, New-Bussa, Nigeria was collected. Five bacterial pathogens; Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus and Aeromonas hydrophila were isolated. Antibiotic susceptibility testing carried out using the disk diffusion technique. Antibiotics used were; ofloxacin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, ampicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol. All the isolated organisms were 100% sensitive to ofloxacin. The multiple resistance pattern revealed that 100% were resistant to tetracycline, 84.34% resistant to ampicillin, 76.68% resistant to amoxicillin, 66% resistant to chloramphenicol, 66% resistant to gentamicin, 29% resistant to erythromycin, 28.34% resistant to nalidixic acid. The risk posed by untreated poultry manure used in fish pond fertilization and the public health implications of these results were discussed.

  1. Salmonella Enteritidis strains from poultry exhibit differential responses to acid stress, oxidative stress, and survival in the egg albumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Devendra H; Casavant, Carol; Hawley, Quincy; Addwebi, Tarek; Call, Douglas R; Guard, Jean

    2012-03-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is the major foodborne pathogen that is primarily transmitted by contaminated chicken meat and eggs. We recently demonstrated that Salmonella Enteritidis strains from poultry differ in their ability to invade human intestinal cells and cause disease in orally challenged mice. Here we hypothesized that the differential virulence of Salmonella Enteritidis strains is due to the differential fitness in the adverse environments that may be encountered during infection in the host. The responses of a panel of six Salmonella Enteritidis strains to acid stress, oxidative stress, survival in egg albumen, and the ability to cause infection in chickens were analyzed. This analysis allowed classification of strains into two categories, stress-sensitive and stress-resistant, with the former showing significantly (p<0.05) reduced survival in acidic (gastric phase of infection) and oxidative (intestinal and systemic phase of infection) stress. Stress-sensitive strains also showed impaired intestinal colonization and systemic dissemination in orally inoculated chickens and failed to survive/grow in egg albumen. Comparative genomic hybridization microarray analysis revealed no differences at the discriminatory level of the whole gene content between stress-sensitive and stress-resistant strains. However, sequencing of rpoS, a stress-regulatory gene, revealed that one of the three stress-sensitive strains carried an insertion mutation in the rpoS resulting in truncation of σ(S). Finding that one of the stress-sensitive strains carried an easily identifiable small polymorphism within a stress-response gene suggests that the other strains may also have small polymorphisms elsewhere in the genome, which likely impact regulation of stress or virulence associated genes in some manner.

  2. First identification of eggs of the Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea) in human stool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yera, Hélène; Kuchta, Roman; Brabec, Jan; Peyron, François; Dupouy-Camet, Jean

    2013-06-01

    We report the first case of egg isolation of the Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Bothriocephalidea) from human stool. A male patient from Saint Laurent du Maroni (French Guiana) presenting abdominal pain was examined in France for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites. Diphyllobothrium-like eggs were observed in his stool. However, molecular phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of rDNA and COI genes showed that the eggs observed belong to a bothriocephalidean cestode B. acheilognathi. The adult life stages of B. acheilognathi cestodes are known as invasive parasites of a wide spectrum of fish; however, they have not been described to parasitize any mammals. This human infection seems to be accidental and represents a parasite passage through human intestine after the consumption of an infected fish host. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  4. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, Dale C; Fitzsimons, John D; Tillitt, Donald E; Brown, Scott B

    2009-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  5. Floating along buoyancy levels: dispersal and survival of western Baltic fish eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petereit, C.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Franke, A.

    2014-01-01

    Vertical distribution is an important feature of pelagic fish eggs and yolk sac larvae impacting their survival and dispersal, especially in heterogeneous and highly variable estuarine environments like the Baltic Sea. Egg densities determining the vertical distribution pattern were experimentally...... ascertained for cod (Gadus morhua), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the western Baltic Sea. Plaice eggs floated at lower mean (± standard deviation) density range (1.0136 ± 0.0007 g cm-3) compared to cod (1.0146 ± 0.0009 g cm-3) and flounder eggs (1.0160 ± 0.0015 g cm-3...... for any of the species. Available egg density data for Baltic Sea cod, plaice and flounder are summarized considering ICES subdivisions and stock management units. A hydrodynamic drift modeling approach was applied releasing drifters in the Belt Sea continuously from December to May, covering the species...

  6. Hypoxia increases the risk of egg predation in a nest-guarding fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Karin; Kvarnemo, Charlotta; Andrén, Maria Norevik;

    2016-01-01

    For fish with parental care, a nest should meet both the oxygenation needs of the eggs and help protect them against predators. While a small nest opening facilitates the latter, it impedes the former and vice versa. We investigated how the presence of potential egg predators in the form of shore...... in high oxygen reduced fanning, males in low oxygen did not. Filial cannibalism was unaffected by treatment. Sand gobies thus prioritize egg ventilation over the protection afforded by small nest openings under hypoxia and adopt defensive behaviour to avert predator attention, even though this does...

  7. Attenuation of Zn-induced hyperleptinemia/leptin resistance in Wistar rat after feeding modified poultry egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taneja Satish

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity is increasing exponentially world over. Leptin resistance/hyperleptinemia is attributed to its cause in majority of the obese humans where mutation in genetic component or ob gene has not been found operative. The generation of oxidative stress was suggested as its cause. In our previous study, we have reported that the inclusion of antioxidant enriched modified poultry egg (ME in diet reversed the ionic imbalance and ameliorated the oxidative stress caused by excessive Zn in diet. In the present study, the efficacy of ME verses conventional egg (CE was tested on Zn-induced leptin resistance in rat model to ascertain if the supplementation of antioxidants in the form of egg can reverse Zn-induced leptin resistance to leptin sensitive state. Methods Hyperleptinemia was induced in rats by feeding them Zn-supplemented hyperleptinemic diets-I and II (Zn-HL-Diet for 2 months. Thereafter, half of them were fed either on CE or ME mixed Zn-HL-diets I and II for another two months. The data was analyzed applying one way Anova and Tukey’s HSD post hoc test. Results The results revealed that food intake, gain in body weight, height and number/unit surface area of intestinal microvillus and serum leptin, glucose, insulin and cortisol were higher in CE and Zn-HL-Diet treated groups; serum Zn, Cu, Mg were higher and Cu and Mg in tissues were lower in them than the control group. In ME treated groups, these parameters were lower and were close to the control group. These changes resulted from the restoration of ionic balance of Zn, Cu and Mg in the blood serum and tissues including liver and hair in ME treated rats. Conclusion The data suggest that Zn-induced leptin resistance can be attenuated through restoring the ionic balance of Zn, Cu and Mg through inclusion of antioxidants in diet such as these modified eggs. But further clinical studies are required before they are put to use for human consumption.

  8. Female preference for nests with many eggs : A cost-benefit analysis of female choice in fish with paternal care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraak, SBM; Weissing, Franz

    1996-01-01

    In several fish species with paternal care, females prefer males guarding many eggs in their nest. This preference might be advantageous because the presence of many other eggs dilutes the risk of newly laid eggs being eaten by the father. To evaluate this hypothesis quantitatively, we constructed a

  9. The function of anal fin egg-spots in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya Theis

    Full Text Available Color and pigmentation patterns of animals are often targets of sexual selection because of their role in communication. Although conspicuous male traits are typically implicated with intersexual selection, there are examples where sex-specific displays play a role in an intrasexual context, e.g. when they serve as signals for aggression level and/or status. Here, we focus on the function of a conspicuous male ornament in the most species-rich tribe of cichlid fishes, the haplochromines. A characteristic feature of these ca. 1500 species are so-called egg-spots in form of ovoid markings on the anal fins of males, which are made up of carotenoid based pigment cells. It has long been assumed that these yellow, orange or reddish egg-spots play an important role in the courtship and spawning behavior of these maternal mouth-brooding fishes by mimicking the eggs of a conspecific female. The exact function of egg-spots remains unknown, however, and there are several hypotheses about their mode of action. To uncover the function of this cichlid-specific male ornament, we used female mate choice experiments and a male aggression test in the haplochromine species Astatotilapia burtoni. We manipulated the number and arrangement of egg-spots on the anal fins of males, or removed them entirely, and tested (1 female preference with visual contact only using egg-traps, (2 female preference with free contact using paternity testing with microsatellites and (3 male aggression. We found that females did not prefer males with many egg-spots over males with fewer egg-spots and that females tended to prefer males without egg-spots over males with egg-spots. Importantly, males without egg-spots sired clutches with the same fertilization rate as males with egg-spots. In male aggression trials, however, males with fewer egg-spots received significantly more attacks, suggesting that egg-spots are an important signal in intrasexual communication.

  10. Evolution of egg dummies in Tanganyikan cichlid fishes: the roles of parental care and sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amcoff, M; Gonzalez-Voyer, A; Kolm, N

    2013-11-01

    Sexual selection has been suggested to be an important driver of speciation in cichlid fishes of the Great Lakes of Africa, and the presence of male egg dummies is proposed to have played a key role. Here, we investigate how mouthbrooding and egg dummies have evolved in Tanganyikan cichlids, the lineage which seeded the other African radiations, with a special emphasis on the egg dummies. Using modern phylogenetic comparative analyses and a phylogeny including 86% of the 200 described species, we provide formal evidence demonstrating correlated evolution between mouthbrooding and egg dummies in Tanganyikan cichlids. These results concur with existing evidence, suggesting that egg dummies have evolved through sensory exploitation. We also demonstrate that there is a strong evolutionary correlation between the presence of egg dummies and both pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection. Moreover, egg dummy evolution was contingent on the intensity of pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection in Tanganyikan cichlids. In sum, our results provide evidence supporting the hypothesis of egg dummies evolving through sensory exploitation and highlight the role of sexual selection in favouring the evolution and maintenance of this trait. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Downstream passage of fish larvae and eggs through a small-sized reservoir, Mucuri river, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo S. Pompeu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In South America, one important symptom of the failure of fish passages to sustain fish migratory recruitment is the inability of eggs and larvae to reach the nurseries. This is especially so when the breeding areas are located upstream of a reservoir, and the floodplain is downstream of the dam. Therefore, the transport of fish larvae and eggs across reservoir barriers is a key factor in the development of effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we evaluate the potential for migratory fish larvae and egg transportation across a small size reservoir in eastern Brazil. We sampled fish daily between 15th October 2002 and 15th February 2003 (spawning period in the Mucuri River, immediately upstream of the reservoir and downstream of the Santa Clara Power Plant dam. Our study was the first to indicate the possibility of successful larval passage through the reservoir of a hydroelectric reservoir and dam in South America, and showed that the passage of migratory fish larvae was associated significantly with residence time of water in the reservoir. The relatively short water residence time and elevated turbidity of the Santa Clara's reservoir waters during the rainy season certainly contributed to the successful passage, and can be considered as key factors for a priori evaluations of the feasibility of a downstream larval passage.

  12. Characterization of poultry egg-white avidins and their potential as a tool in pretargeting cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytönen, Vesa P; Laitinen, Olli H; Grapputo, Alessandro; Kettunen, Anu; Savolainen, Janne; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Marttila, Ari T; Nordlund, Henri R; Nyholm, Thomas K M; Paganelli, Giovanni; Kulomaa, Markku S

    2003-05-15

    Chicken avidin and bacterial streptavidin are proteins used in a wide variety of applications in the life sciences due to their strong affinity for biotin. A new and promising use for them is in medical pretargeting cancer treatments. However, their pharmacokinetics and immunological properties are not always optimal, thereby limiting their use in these applications. To search for potentially beneficial new candidates, we screened egg white from four different poultry species for avidin. Avidin proteins, isolated from the duck, goose, ostrich and turkey, showed a similar tetrameric structure, similar glycosylation and stability against both temperature and proteolytic activity of proteinase K as chicken avidin. Biotin-binding properties of these avidins, measured using IAsys optical biosensor, were similar to those found in avidin from the chicken. Three of these novel avidins, however, showed different immunological cross-reactivities when compared with chicken avidin. The patient sera responses to duck, goose and ostrich avidins were also lower than those observed for chicken and turkey avidins. Our findings suggest that the use of these proteins offers advantages over chicken avidin and bacterial streptavidin in pretargeting applications.

  13. A sensory bias has triggered the evolution of egg-spots in cichlid fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Egger

    Full Text Available Although, generally, the origin of sex-limited traits remains elusive, the sensory exploitation hypothesis provides an explanation for the evolution of male sexual signals. Anal fin egg-spots are such a male sexual signal and a key characteristic of the most species-rich group of cichlid fishes, the haplochromines. Males of about 1500 mouth-brooding species utilize these conspicuous egg-dummies during courtship--apparently to attract females and to maximize fertilization success. Here we test the hypothesis that the evolution of haplochromine egg-spots was triggered by a pre-existing bias for eggs or egg-like coloration. To this end, we performed mate-choice experiments in the basal haplochromine Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor, which manifests the plesiomorphic character-state of an egg-spot-less anal fin. Experiments using computer-animated photographs of males indeed revealed that females prefer images of males with virtual ('in-silico' egg-spots over images showing unaltered males. In addition, we tested for color preferences (outside a mating context in a phylogenetically representative set of East African cichlids. We uncovered a strong preference for yellow, orange or reddish spots in all haplochromines tested and, importantly, also in most other species representing more basal lines. This pre-existing female sensory bias points towards high-quality (carotenoids-enriched food suggesting that it is adaptive.

  14. Spawning Behavior, Egg Development, Larvae and Juvenile Morphology of Hyphessobrycon eques (Pisces: Characidae) Characidae Fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Min; Kim, Na-Ri; Han, Kyeong-Ho; Han, Ji-Hyeong; Son, Maeng-Hyun; Cho, Jae-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Hyphessobrycon eques is a famous fish for ornamental fish market and aquarium. They are inhabit in regions of Amazon and Paraguay River basin. Serpae fishs were investigated 2–3 males are chased to female, and then males attempted to simulate the females abdomen. After fertilization, eggs were kept in incubators at 28°C. The fertilized eggs had adhesive and demesal characteristics and had a mean diameter of 0.92 ± 0.01 mm. Larvae hatched at 16 hrs post fertilization. The hatched larvae averaged 2.90 ± 0.16 mm in total length (LT). Complete yolk sac resorption and mouth opening occurred on the third day post hatching. At 45 days post hatching, the larvae were 12.5 ± 1.60 mm LT and had reached the juvenile stage. PMID:25949194

  15. Identifying pelagic fish eggs in the southeast Yucatan Peninsula using DNA barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Cruz, E; Vásquez-Yeomans, L; Carrillo, L; Valdez-Moreno, M

    2016-12-01

    In the waters surrounding Banco Chinchorro in the Mexican Caribbean are spawning and nursery areas for many types of fish. In this natural environment, as opposed to under controlled laboratory conditions, it is almost impossible to link an individual egg to the adult that laid it. This makes identifying the species of the eggs difficult. However, DNA barcodes have made this easier. In the present study, 300 eggs were processed for molecular analysis, from which 139 sequences were obtained. We identified 42 taxa (33 species with their binomial names), 35 genera, and 24 families. The identified eggs included those from Ariomma melanum, which is the first recording of this species in the Mexican Caribbean. Eggs from economically important fish species were also identified, including frigate tuna (Auxis thazard), crevalle jack (Caranx hippos), common dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus), sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus), white marlin (Kajikia albida), skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis), blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus), and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). We have also described new morphological characteristics and captured photographs for 21 species, as well as obtained new information about spawning locality and time for 16 species. This valuable information will provide the basis to develop more effective conservation measures for sustainable fisheries and protection of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System.

  16. Hypoxia increases the risk of egg predation in a nest-guarding fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvarnemo, Charlotta; Andrén, Maria Norevik; Larsson, Therése

    2016-01-01

    For fish with parental care, a nest should meet both the oxygenation needs of the eggs and help protect them against predators. While a small nest opening facilitates the latter, it impedes the former and vice versa. We investigated how the presence of potential egg predators in the form of shore crabs Carcinus maenas affects nest building, egg fanning, defensive displays and filial cannibalism of egg-guarding male sand gobies Pomatoschistus minutus under two levels of dissolved oxygen. In the high oxygen treatment, males retained their nest opening size in the presence of crabs, while males in low oxygen built large nest openings both in the absence and presence of crabs, despite the fact that crabs were more likely to successfully intrude into nests with large entrances. Males in low oxygen also fanned more. In the presence of crabs males increased their defensive displays, but while males in high oxygen reduced fanning, males in low oxygen did not. Filial cannibalism was unaffected by treatment. Sand gobies thus prioritize egg ventilation over the protection afforded by small nest openings under hypoxia and adopt defensive behaviour to avert predator attention, even though this does not fully offset the threat from the egg predators. PMID:27853611

  17. Juvenile exposure to predator cues induces a larger egg size in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Francisca H. I. D.; Taborsky, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    When females anticipate a hazardous environment for their offspring, they can increase offspring survival by producing larger young. Early environmental experience determines egg size in different animal taxa. We predicted that a higher perceived predation risk by juveniles would cause an increase in the sizes of eggs that they produce as adults. To test this, we exposed juveniles of the mouthbrooding cichlid Eretmodus cyanostictus in a split-brood experiment either to cues of a natural predator or to a control situation. After maturation, females that had been confronted with predators produced heavier eggs, whereas clutch size itself was not affected by the treatment. This effect cannot be explained by a differential female body size because the predator treatment did not influence growth trajectories. The observed increase of egg mass is likely to be adaptive, as heavier eggs gave rise to larger young and in fish, juvenile predation risk drops sharply with increasing body size. This study provides the first evidence that predator cues perceived by females early in life positively affect egg mass, suggesting that these cues allow her to predict the predation risk for her offspring. PMID:21976689

  18. Poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) infestation: a broad impact parasitological disease that still remains a significant challenge for the egg-laying industry in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigognault Flochlay, Annie; Thomas, Emmanuel; Sparagano, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, has been described for decades as a threat to the egg production industry, posing serious animal health and welfare concerns, adversely affecting productivity, and impacting public health. Research activities dedicated to controlling this parasite have increased significantly. Their veterinary and human medical impact, more particularly their role as a disease vector, is better understood. Nevertheless, red mite infestation remains a serious concern, particularly in Europe, where the prevalence of red mites is expected to increase, as a result of recent hen husbandry legislation changes, increased acaricide resistance, climate warming, and the lack of a sustainable approach to control infestations. The main objective of the current work was to review the factors contributing to this growing threat and to discuss their recent development in Europe. We conclude that effective and sustainable treatment approach to control poultry red mite infestation is urgently required, included integrated pest management.

  19. Salmonella Enteritidis in meat, poultry, and pasteurized egg products regulated by the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service, 1998 through 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Patricia L; Naugle, Alecia L; Jackson, Charlene R; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Rose, Bonnie E; Pritchard, Katrine M; Levine, Priscilla; Saini, Parmesh K; Schroeder, Carl M; Dreyfuss, Moshe S; Tan, Regina; Holt, Kristin G; Harman, Jane; Buchanan, Stephanie

    2007-03-01

    The U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) tests for Salmonella in meat, poultry, and egg products through three regulatory testing programs: the Pathogen Reduction-Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (PR-HACCP) program, the ready-to-eat program for meat and poultry products, and the pasteurized egg products program. From 1998 through 2003, 293,938 samples collected for these testing programs were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella enterica serotypes. Of these samples, 12,699 (4.3%) were positive for Salmonella, and 167 (1.3%) of the positive samples (0.06% of all samples) contained Salmonella Enteritidis. The highest incidence of Salmonella Enteritidis was observed in ground chicken PR-HACCP samples (8 of 1,722 samples, 0.46%), and the lowest was found in steer-heifer PR-HACCP samples (0 of 12,835 samples). Salmonella Enteritidis isolates were characterized by phage type, pulsed-field gel electrophoretic pattern, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Phage typing of 94 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates identified PT13 (39 isolates) and PT8 (36 isolates) as the most common types. One isolate from a ready-to-eat ham product was characterized as PT4. Electrophoretic analysis of 148 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates indicated genetic diversity among the isolates, with 28 unique XbaI electrophoretic patterns identified. Of these 148 isolates, 136 (92%) were susceptible to each of 16 antimicrobials tested. Two isolates were resistant to ampicillin alone, and 10 isolates were resistant to two or more antimicrobials. Isolation of Salmonella Enteritidis from FSIS-regulated products emphasizes the need for continued consumer education on proper food handling and cooking practices and continued work to decrease the prevalence of Salmonella in meat, poultry, and pasteurized egg products.

  20. Associations between unprocessed red and processed meat, poultry, seafood and egg intake and the risk of prostate cancer: A pooled analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kana; Spiegelman, Donna; Hou, Tao; Albanes, Demetrius; Allen, Naomi E; Berndt, Sonja I; van den Brandt, Piet A; Giles, Graham G; Giovannucci, Edward; Alexandra Goldbohm, R; Goodman, Gary G; Goodman, Phyllis J; Håkansson, Niclas; Inoue, Manami; Key, Timothy J; Kolonel, Laurence N; Männistö, Satu; McCullough, Marjorie L; Neuhouser, Marian L; Park, Yikyung; Platz, Elizabeth A; Schenk, Jeannette M; Sinha, Rashmi; Stampfer, Meir J; Stevens, Victoria L; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Visvanathan, Kala; Wilkens, Lynne R; Wolk, Alicja; Ziegler, Regina G; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A

    2016-05-15

    Reports relating meat intake to prostate cancer risk are inconsistent. Associations between these dietary factors and prostate cancer were examined in a consortium of 15 cohort studies. During follow-up, 52,683 incident prostate cancer cases, including 4,924 advanced cases, were identified among 842,149 men. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate study-specific relative risks (RR) and then pooled using random effects models. Results do not support a substantial effect of total red, unprocessed red and processed meat for all prostate cancer outcomes, except for a modest positive association for tumors identified as advanced stage at diagnosis (advanced(r)). For seafood, no substantial effect was observed for prostate cancer regardless of stage or grade. Poultry intake was inversely associated with risk of advanced and fatal cancers (pooled multivariable RR [MVRR], 95% confidence interval, comparing ≥ 45 vs. <5 g/day: advanced 0.83, 0.70-0.99; trend test p value 0.29), fatal, 0.69, 0.59-0.82, trend test p value 0.16). Participants who ate ≥ 25 versus <5 g/day of eggs (1 egg ∼ 50 g) had a significant 14% increased risk of advanced and fatal cancers (advanced 1.14, 1.01-1.28, trend test p value 0.01; fatal 1.14, 1.00-1.30, trend test p value 0.01). When associations were analyzed separately by geographical region (North America vs. other continents), positive associations between unprocessed red meat and egg intake, and inverse associations between poultry intake and advanced, advanced(r) and fatal cancers were limited to North American studies. However, differences were only statistically significant for eggs. Observed differences in associations by geographical region warrant further investigation.

  1. Inter- and Intra-specific variation in egg size among reef fishes across the Isthmus of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ross Robertson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of planktonic food supplies and temperature on pelagic fish larvae are thought to be the primary environmental determinants of adaptive variation in egg size. Differences between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Panama in primary production (higher in the Pacific due to upwelling and temperature (less seasonal in the non-upwelling Caribbean allow testing such ideas. We compared the volumes, dry weights and energy content of eggs of 24 species of reef fishes from the two sides of the isthmus during the cool and warm seasons. Both egg volume and egg dry weight were good predictors of egg energy content among species, although not within species. Caribbean species produced larger eggs than their close relatives in the Pacific. In the Pacific, eggs were significantly larger during the cool upwelling season than during the warm, non-upwelling period, with a similar but weaker seasonal pattern evident in the Caribbean. The production of larger eggs in the low-productivity Caribbean is consistent with the hypothesis that species produce larger eggs and offspring when larval food supplies are lower. Parallel patterns of seasonal variation in eggs size and the greater strength of that relationship in the Pacific indicate that temperature drives seasonal variation in egg size within species. The decline in egg size with increasing temperature, a general pattern among ectotherms, may be a physiological side-effect, due to differing effects of temperature on various metabolic processes during oogenesis or on hormones that influence growth and reproduction. Alternatively, the seasonal pattern may be adaptive in these fishes, by affecting larval performance or maintaining a particular timeline of major events during embryonic development.

  2. Inoculation of a Poultry Isolate Salmonella enteritidis on Egg Vitelline Membrane: Survival and Growth in Egg Components after Different Refrigeration Storage Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. R. Howard

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro study was designed to determine the extent of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis survival and growth permissiveness in egg components isolated from shell eggs held at refrigeration temperature over an 8 week time period. Eggs were collected from a commercial laying facility at one-week intervals for eight weeks and stored at refrigeration temperature. After storage, eggs were dipped in ethanol, cracked aseptically and separated into yolk and albumen samples. S. enteritidis resistant to novobiocin and nalidixic acid were inoculated on to the surface of the yolk membrane at a concentration of approximately 106 CFU mLˉ1. Yolks were then covered with albumen and incubated for 24 hrs at 25°C. After incubation, eggs were separated into component parts. Samples were removed from yolk, albumen and yolk membrane and diluted 10-fold in sterile phosphate buffered saline. In albumen, S. enteritidis counts were increased in weeks 3 and 8 compared to week 1 (trial 2. The frequency of eggs exhibiting net growth of S. enteritidis in albumen occurred at week 7 versus weeks 0 and 1 in trial 1 and weeks 3 and 8 versus weeks 0 and 2 in trial 2. In the membrane fraction, the frequency of eggs exhibiting net growth of S. enteritidis occurred at weeks 5 and 8 versus week 0 in trial 2. In the yolk fractions, S. enteritidis counts recovered from week 6 eggs were significantly higher (PS. enteritidis positive eggs were greater in week 8 than week 5 in trial 1. This suggests that egg components recovered from aged eggs stored at refrigeration temperatures infrequently supported S. enteritidis net growth but generally did not inhibit survivability.

  3. Validation of the Reveal(®) 2.0 Group D1 Salmonella Test for Detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in Raw Shell Eggs and Poultry-Associated Matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozola, Mark; Biswas, Preetha; Viator, Ryan; Feldpausch, Emily; Foti, Debra; Li, Lin; Le, Quynh-Nhi; Alles, Susan; Rice, Jennifer

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted to assess the performance of the Reveal(®) 2.0 Group D1 Salmonella lateral flow immunoassay for use in detection of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in raw shell eggs and poultry-associated matrixes, including chicken carcass rinse and poultry feed. In inclusivity testing, the Reveal 2.0 test detected all 37 strains of SE tested. The test also detected all but one of 18 non-Enteritidis somatic group D1 Salmonella serovars examined. In exclusivity testing, none of 42 strains tested was detected. The exclusivity panel included Salmonella strains of somatic groups other than D1, as well as strains of other genera of Gram-negative bacteria. In matrix testing, performance of the Reveal 2.0 test was compared to that of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook reference culture procedure for chicken carcass rinse and to that of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual for raw shell eggs and poultry feed. For all matrixes evaluated, there were no significant differences in the ability to detect SE when comparing the Reveal 2.0 method and the appropriate reference culture procedure as determined by probability of detection statistical analysis. The ability of the Reveal 2.0 test to withstand modest perturbations to normal operating parameters was examined in robustness experiments. Results showed that the test can withstand deviations in up to three operating parameters simultaneously without significantly affecting performance. Real-time stability testing of multiple lots of Reveal 2.0 devices established the shelf life of the test device at 16 months postmanufacture.

  4. Egg deposition by lithophilic-spawning fishes in the Detroit and Saint Clair Rivers, 2005–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Carson G.; Craig, Jaquelyn M.; Roseman, Edward F.; Fischer, Jason L.; Manny, Bruce A.; Kennedy, Gregory W.

    2017-03-14

    A long-term, multiseason, fish egg sampling program conducted annually on the Detroit (2005–14) and Saint Clair (2010–14) Rivers was summarized to identify where productive fish spawning habitat currently exists. Egg mats were placed on the river bottom during the spring and fall at historic spawning areas and candidate fish spawning habitat restoration sites throughout both rivers. Widespread evidence was found of lithophilic spawning by numerous native fish species, including walleye (Sander vitreus), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), suckers (Catostomidae spp.), and trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus). Walleye, lake whitefish, and suckers spp. spawned in nearly every region of each river in all years on both reef and nonreef substrates. Lake sturgeon eggs were collected almost exclusively over constructed reefs. Catch-per-unit effort of walleye, lake whitefish, and sucker eggs was much greater in the Detroit River than in the Saint Clair River, while Saint Clair River sites supported the greatest collections of lake sturgeon eggs. Collections during this study of lake sturgeon eggs on man-made spawning reefs suggest that artificial reefs may be an effective tool for restoring fish populations in the Detroit and Saint Clair Rivers; however, the quick response of lake sturgeon to spawn on newly constructed reefs and the fact that walleye, lake whitefish, and sucker eggs were often collected over substrate with little interstitial space to protect eggs from siltation and predators suggests that lack of suitable spawning habitat may continue to limit reproduction of lithophilic-spawning fish species in the Saint Clair-Detroit River System.

  5. Comparative studies on egg, meat, and semen qualities of native and improved chicken varieties developed for backyard poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunshi, Santosh; Doley, Sunil; Kadirvel, G

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate/compare the sensory attributes of eggs and meat, egg qualities, proximate composition of eggs, and semen qualities of slow growing native (Miri and Mizo-local) and fast growing improved chicken varieties (Gramapriya and Vanaraja) under hill ecosystem of northeastern India. Significantly higher egg weight, egg volume, and albumen volume were observed in Gramapriya followed by Vanaraja, Mizo-local, and Miri chickens. However, yolk volume was significantly higher in Vanaraja and Gramapriya varieties as compared to native chickens. Yolk to albumen ratio was significantly lower in Gramapriya as compared to Vanaraja and Miri chicken. Consumer liking of eggs for aroma, flavor, and overall acceptability of Miri, Mizo-local, and Vanaraja were significantly higher than that of Gramapriya. Genetic groups did not differ significantly in appearance and proximate composition of eggs. No significant differences were observed between various genetic groups for sensory attributes of meat samples. Semen volume was significantly (p < or = 0.01) lower while sperm concentration was significantly (p < or = 0.01) higher in native chicken as compared to the improved chicken varieties. However, pH, mass activity, sperm motility, and livability did not differ significantly among genetic groups although Mizo-local had significantly higher abnormal sperm count. The study concluded that the genetic groups with different growth rate differed significantly for various egg quality parameters and semen characteristics but not for sensory attributes of meat and proximate composition of eggs.

  6. Intraguild predation between small pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay: impact on anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) egg mortality

    KAUST Repository

    Bachiller, Eneko

    2015-05-12

    Small pelagic fish can play an important role in various ecosystems linking lower and upper trophic levels. Among the factor behind the observed inter-annual variations in small pelagic fish abundance, intra- and inter-specific trophic interactions could have a strong impact on the recruitment variability (e.g. anchovy). Egg cannibalism observed in anchovies has been postulated to be a mechanism that determines the upper limit of the population density and self-regulates the population abundance of the species. On the other hand, predation by other guild species is commonly considered as a regulation mechanism between competing species. This study provides empirical evidence of anchovy cannibalism and predation of the main small pelagic fish species on anchovy eggs and estimates the effect of intraguild predation on the anchovy egg mortality rate. Results show that, depending on the year (2008–2009), up to 33 % of the total anchovy egg mortality was the result of sardine predation and up to 4 % was the result of egg cannibalism together with predation by Atlantic and Atlantic Chub mackerel and sprat. Results also indicate that in the Bay of Biscay, fluctuations in the survival index of the early life stages of anchovy are likely to be attributable at least in part to egg cannibalism and especially to a high sardine predation on anchovy eggs. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  7. Non-invasive analytical technology for the detection of contamination, adulteration, and authenticity of meat, poultry, and fish: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamruzzaman, Mohammed; Makino, Yoshio; Oshita, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    The requirement of real-time monitoring of food products has encouraged the development of non-destructive measurement systems. Hyperspectral imaging is a rapid, reagentless, non-destructive analytical technique that integrates traditional spectroscopic and imaging techniques into one system to attain both spectral and spatial information from an object that cannot be achieved with either digital imaging or conventional spectroscopic techniques. Recently, this technique has emerged as one of the most powerful and inspiring techniques for assessing different meat species and building chemical images to show the distribution maps of constituents in a direct and easy manner. After presenting a brief description of the fundamentals of hyperspectral imaging, this paper reviews the potential applications of hyperspectral imaging for detecting the adulteration, contamination, and authenticity of meat, poultry, and fish. These applications envisage that hyperspectral imaging can be considered as a promising non-invasive analytical technique for predicting the contamination, adulteration, and authenticity of meat, poultry, and fish in a real-time mode.

  8. Diploidized eggs reprogram adult somatic cell nuclei to pluripotency in nuclear transfer in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenshchikova, Ekaterina; Kaftanovskaya, Elena; Motosugi, Nami; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Arai, Katsutoshi; Kinoshita, Masato; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Ozato, Kenjiro; Wakamatsu, Yuko

    2007-12-01

    Reprogramming of adult somatic cell nuclei to pluripotency has been unsuccessful in non-mammalian animals, primarily because of chromosomal aberrations in nuclear transplants, which are considered to be caused by asynchrony between the cell cycles of the recipient egg and donor nucleus. In order to normalize the chromosomal status, we used diploidized eggs by retention of second polar body release, instead of enucleated eggs, as recipients in nuclear transfer of primary culture cells from the caudal fin of adult green fluorescent protein gene (GFP) transgenic medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). We found that 2.7% of the reconstructed embryos grew into adults that expressed GFP in various tissues in the same pattern as in the donor fish. Moreover, these fish were diploid, fertile and capable of passing the marker gene to the next generation in Mendelian fashion. We hesitate to call these fish 'clones' because we used non-enucleated eggs as recipients; in effect, they may be chimeras consisting of cells derived from diploid recipient nuclei and donor nuclei. In either case, fish adult somatic cell nuclei were reprogrammed to pluripotency and differentiated into a variety of cell types including germ cells via the use of diploidized recipient eggs.

  9. Analysis of illumination systems in poultry farms for fertile eggs production; Analise de sistemas de iluminacao em granjas de producao de ovos ferteis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Rodrigo Aparecido; Tavares, Maria Herminia Ferreira [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas

    2000-07-01

    In the productive chain of the aviculture, the most consumed input, ignoring the ration, is the electric energy, mainly in production of one day's chicks, occurring consumption in all the phases, from the egg's production to the incubation. For the egg's production, it is used a huge amount of light, due to the exhibition's need to the light in the wave's length of the yellow color, indispensable factor for the bird maintain the fertile egg's production in a excellent level. The reduction of the energy's expense is related to the improvement of the illumination's systems, since the common system is formed by lamps of large potency, low efficiency and brief useful life. Among the 9 poultries from Parana's West and Southwest, just one uses 20000 incandescent lamps of 100 W. So, our work has aimed to develop a illumination's system that used a smaller amount of lamps, demanded smaller amount of electric energy and presented larger durability. The illumination's systems with vapor of sodium 70, mixed vapor 250 and fluorescent H O 110 were mounted, being obeyed the minimum index of luminosity of 40 luxes. The electric measures were performed through a digital recorder, with data being taken every 5 minutes, during one month. The system with vapor of sodium has proved to be the most economic and durable. (author)

  10. Influence of supplemental dietary poultry fat, phytase, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the egg characteristics of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of 2 supplemental levels of dietary poultry fat (PF) and the combination of PF, phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (D3) on the egg characteristics of commercial layers inoculated with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) were investigated in 2 trials. Sham and FMG inoculatio...

  11. Characteristics of pulsed photo-stimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence for the identification of gamma irradiated poultry eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed photo-stimulated luminescence (PPSL) is a simple screening method that can be employed qualitatively at the spot for the detection of eggs treated with ionizing radiation. Due to the variations in the results during storage, the eggs of ostrich, duck, hen, and quail were irradiated to doses of 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy. Most of the samples were incorrectly identified during storage after four months of irradiation. Thermoluminescence (TL)technique was also tried by using egg shells in order to confirm the irradiation treatment in eggs. TL glow curves were recorded between the temperatures 50℃ to 400℃ at the rate of 5°/s for all the control and irradiated samples. On the basis of integrated areas of first glow curves (TL1), the glow curve ratios (TL1/TL2) and the shapes of maxima of TL1,the irradiation treatment of all the eggs was confirmed. Furthermore, the presence of calcite and aragonite minerals that cause the TL signal in the egg shells were studied using X-ray diffraction spectrometry.

  12. Comparative impacts of temperature and trade-offs on egg ecology of north Atlantic pelagic fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsoukali, Stavroula; MacKenzie, Brian

    The early life history stages of fish are considered the most vulnerable and can be strongly affected by environmental variability, leading to population fluctuations. Temperature has a major role on development and mortality rates, with consequences for recruitment and overall stock productivity....... We collated development and survival data from publications on laboratory egg incubation experiments to investigate and compare the development, daily mortality and survival of fish eggs from pelagic species in the north Atlantic at different temperatures, and to investigate whether trade-offs exist...

  13. Linking spawning ground extent to environmental factors - patterns and dispersal during the egg phase of four North Sea fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höffle, Hannes; van Damme, Cindy J. G.; Fox, Clive J.

    2017-01-01

    , the location of the spawning grounds appeared stable on the broad scale but centres of egg abundance varied between the surveyed years. Potential effects of long-term climate change and anthropogenic short-term disturbances, such as seismic surveys, on fish reproduction are discussed, pointing out the demand...

  14. How low can they go when going with the flow? Tolerance of egg and larval fishes to rapid decompression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boys, Craig A.; Robinson, Wayne; Miller, Brett; Pflugrath, Brett; Baumgartner, Lee J.; Navarro, Anna; Brown, Richard; Deng, Zhiqun

    2016-05-26

    Egg and larval fish that drift downstream are likely to encounter river infrastructure and consequently rapid decompression, which may result in significant injury. In juvenile fish, pressure-related injury (or barotrauma) occurs when pressures fall sufficiently below the pressure at which the fish has acclimated. Because eggs and larvae are less-developed and more fragile than juveniles, there is a presumption that they may be at least as, if not more, susceptible to barotrauma injury, but studies to date report inconsistent results and none have considered the relationship between pressure change and barotrauma over a sufficiently broad range of pressure changes to enable detrimental levels to be properly determined. To address this, we exposed eggs and larvae of three physoclistic species to rapid decompression in a barometric chamber over a broad range of discrete pressure changes. Eggs, but not larvae, were unaffected by all levels of decompression tested. At exposure pressures below ~40 kPa, or ~40% of atmospheric pressure, swim bladder deflation occurred in all species and internal haemorrhage was observed in one species. None of these injuries killed the fish within 24 hours, but subsequent mortality cannot be excluded. Consequently, if larval drift is expected, it seems prudent to maintain exposure pressures at river infrastructure at 40% or more of the pressure to which a drifting larvae has acclimated.

  15. An evaluation of soybean lecithin as an alternative to avian egg yolk in the cryopreservation of fish sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Cengiz; Bozkurt, Yusuf; Yavas, Ilker

    2013-08-01

    Plant-derived lecithin has been used as a more sanitary alternative to avian egg yolk in livestock sperm cryopreservation protocols but its efficacy for cryopreserving fish sperm has not previously been tested comparatively. Here various concentrations of soybean lecithin were evaluated for the cryopreservation of carp (Cyprinus carpio) sperm. Sexually mature fish were induced to spermiation and ovulation with ovopel. The extenders were prepared by using 300 mM glucose, 10% DMSO, supplemented with different ratios of lecithin (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) and 10% egg yolk (control I). Negative control was made without egg yolk and soybean lecithin (control II). The pooled semen was diluted separately at ratio of 1:3 (v/v) by using egg yolk and soybean-based extenders. Diluted semen placed into 0.25 ml straws were equilibrated at 4 °C for 15 min and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor. Fertilization was conducted using a ratio of 1 × 10(5)spermatozoa/egg. Supplementation of 10% lecithin to extender showed the best cryoprotective effect for sperm motility and duration of motility against freezing damage compared to 15%, 20% and control II groups (plecithin provided a greater result in terms of fertilization success when compared to extenders containing 20% lecithin or control II (plecithin has a similar cryoprotective actions with conventional egg yolk-based extender against freezing damages and fertilization. Therefore, soybean lecithin is a suitable alternative to avian egg yolk for the cryopreservation of fish sperm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Heritability and adaptive significance of the number of egg-dummies in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Meyer, Axel

    2011-08-07

    Cichlid fishes are a textbook example of rapid speciation and exuberant diversity--this applies especially to haplochromines, a lineage with approximately 1800 species. Haplochromine males uniquely possess oval, bright spots on their anal fin, called 'egg-spots' or 'egg-dummies'. These are presumed to be an evolutionary key innovation that contributed to the tribe's evolutionary success. Egg-spots have been proposed to mimic the ova of the mouthbrooding females of the corresponding species, contribute to fertilization success and even facilitate species recognition. Interestingly, egg-spot number varies extensively not only between species, but also within some populations. This high degree of intraspecific variation may appear to be counterintuitive since selection might be expected to act to stabilize traits that are correlated with fitness measures. We addressed this 'paradox' experimentally, and found that in the haplochromine cichlid Astatotilapia burtoni, the number of egg-spots was related to male age, body condition and dominance status. Intriguingly, the egg-spot number also had a high heritable component (narrow sense heritability of 0.5). These results suggest that the function of egg-spots might have less to do with fertilization success or species recognition, but rather relate to mate choice and/or male-male competition, helping to explain the high variability in this important trait.

  17. Vitamin D3 and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Content of Retail White Fish and Eggs in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Dunlop

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary vitamin D may compensate for inadequate sun exposure; however, there have been few investigations into the vitamin D content of Australian foods. We measured vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OHD3 in four species of white fish (barramundi, basa, hoki and king dory, and chicken eggs (cage and free-range, purchased from five Australian cities. Samples included local, imported and wild-caught fish, and eggs of varying size from producers with a range of hen stocking densities. Raw and cooked samples were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array. Limits of reporting were 0.2 and 0.1 μg/100 g for vitamin D3 and 25(OHD3, respectively. The vitamin D3 content of cooked white fish ranged from <0.1 to 2.3 μg/100 g, and the 25(OHD3 content ranged from 0.3 to 0.7 μg/100 g. The vitamin D3 content of cooked cage eggs ranged from 0.4 to 0.8 μg/100 g, and the 25(OHD3 content ranged from 0.4 to 1.2 μg/100 g. The vitamin D3 content of cooked free-range eggs ranged from 0.3 to 2.2 μg/100 g, and the 25(OHD3 content ranged from 0.5 to 0.8 μg/100 g. If, as has been suggested, 25(OHD3 has five times greater bioactivity than vitamin D3, one cooked serve (100 g of white fish, and one cooked serve of cage or free-range eggs (120 g may provide 50% or 100%, respectively, of the current guidelines for the adequate intake of vitamin D (5 µg for Australians aged 1–50 years.

  18. Cold-shock eliminates female nucleus in fertilized eggs to induce androgenesis in the loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, a teleost fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morishima Kagayaki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgenesis (all-male inheritance is generally induced by means of irradiating the eggs to inactivate the maternal genome, followed by fertilization with normal sperm. In fish, the conventional technique for induced androgenesis has been applied for rapid fixation to traits, recovery of cryopreserved genotypes, sex-control, etc. A new method of androgenesis that eliminates the need to irradiate the egg was proposed using the loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (a teleost fish. Results When the eggs of wild-type females were fertilized with sperm of albino or orange phenotype males and cold-shocked at 0 to 3°C for 60 min duration just after fertilization, generally more than 30% (with a peak of 100% of the hatched progeny were androgenotes. While a few of them were the normal diploid, most of them turned out to be abnormal haploid. All-male inheritance was verified by the expression of the recessive color trait (albino or orange and microsatellite genotypes comprising only paternally derived alleles. Nuclear behavior after the cold-shock treatment was traced by microscopic observation of DAPI (4'6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained samples and hematoxylin-eosin stained histological sections, and the extrusion of egg (maternal nucleus was observed in eggs treated in the optimum timing. Conclusion In this paper, we demonstrate that cold-shock treatment (at 0 and 3°C of loach eggs for 60 min just after fertilization successfully induces androgenetic haploid development. The most likely mechanism of cold-shock induced androgenesis is an elimination of the egg nucleus together along with the second polar body and subsequent development of a decondensed sperm nucleus or male pronucleus.

  19. Modeling fish egg production and spatial distribution from acoustic data: a step forward into the analysis of recruitment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ospina-Álvarez

    Full Text Available To date, there are numerous transport simulation studies demonstrating the relevance of the hydrodynamics for the advection, dispersion and recruitment of early stages of marine organisms. However, the lack of data has conditioned the use of realistic locations for the model setup and configuration in transport studies. This work (I demonstrates the key role played by the use of the realistic initial position of the eggs of small pelagic fishes in the analysis of late-larval recruitment in coastal nursery areas and (II provides a general solution for deriving future egg positions and abundances from adult biomass obtained from acoustic surveys and available fecundity data. Using European anchovy in the NW Mediterranean as a case study, we first analyzed the impact of the initial location, timing, egg buoyancy and diel vertical migration of larvae on the potential late-larval recruitment to coastal areas. The results suggested that prior knowledge of the initial spawning grounds may substantially affect the estimates of potential recruitment. We then integrated biological and acoustics-derived data (the biomass and size structure, sex ratio, a weight-batch fecundity model, mean weight, number of fish and mean spawning to build a predictive model for interannual egg production. This model was satisfactorily contrasted with field data for two years obtained with the Daily Egg Production Method (DEPM. We discuss our results in the context of the fluctuations of European anchovy egg abundance from 2003 through 2010 in the NW Mediterranean and in terms of the potential applicability of the acoustics-based spatial predictive egg production model.

  20. RapidChek SELECT Salmonella enteritidis test system for the detection of Salmonella enteritidis in poultry house drag swabs, shell egg pools, and chicken carcass rinsates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Mark T; Gonzalez, Verapaz; Sutzko, Meredith I; Allen, Ann-Christine Olsson; Creamer, Samantha; Onisk, Dale V; Lindpaintner, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The RapidChek SELECT Salmonella Enteritidis Test System was validated for the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in poultry house drag swabs, shell egg pools, and chicken carcass rinsates. The method utilizes RapidChek SELECT Salmonella (AOAC PTM License No. 080601) proprietary primary and secondary enrichment media. Following enrichment, an immunochromatographic test strip is inserted into the tube containing the secondary enrichment broth, developed for 10 min, and interpreted. Salmonella Enteritidis-inoculated samples (1-5 CFU SE/analytical unit) were tested by the test method as well as the appropriate cultural reference method U.S. Food and Drug Administration-Bacteriological Analytical Manual (drag swabs and egg pools) or U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service (chicken carcass rinsates). A total of 80 samples were tested by both methods in the study. Fifty-two samples were positive by the RapidChek SELECT Salmonella Enteritidis method and 38 were found positive by the respective reference method. The sensitivity of the method was 100% and the specificity was 100%. The accuracy of the test method was 137%, indicating that the method was more sensitive than the reference method. The RapidChek SELECT Salmonella Enteritidis method was tested with 82 Salmonella Group D1 strains including 63 Salmonella Enteritidis strains as well as 32 non-Salmonella Group D1 strains representing 10 bacteria genera. The test method detected all 82 Group D1 strains (100% sensitivity). None of the non-Salmonella Group D1 or other genera of bacteria were detected, indicating a specificity of 100%. The method was shown to be highly robust and stable under control and accelerated stability conditions.

  1. Prevalence and antibiogram of Salmonella species isolated from poultry products in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Iroha Ifeanyichukwu; Ejikeugwu Chika; Anioketta Ogonna; Iroha Chidinma; Ajah Monique; Moses Ikechukwu; Eluu Stanley; Nwakaeze Emmanuel; Afiukwa Ngozi; Nwuzo Agabus

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Salmonella species isolated from various poultry products including chicken meat, poultry eggs, poultry bird's drinking water, and poultry feed. Materials and methods: A total of 79 samples comprising of chicken meat (n=20), egg shell (n=15), poultry egg contents (n=18), drinking water (n=14), and poultry feed (n=12) were bacteriologically and microscopically analyzed for the isolation of Salmonell...

  2. Egg shell and yolk quality characteristics of layers fed with sugarcane press residue in soya and fish based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Suma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sugarcane press residue (SPR, a by-product of sugarcane industry, which is rich in inorganic salts was assessed at different levels in both soya based and fish based diets of layers for egg shell and yolk quality characteristics. Materials and Methods: SPR was incorporated in 32-week-old white leghorn layer diets at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% either in the soya based or fish based diets to form T1 to T8 diets, respectively. Each diet was offered to five replicates of four laying hens each constituting a total of one sixty birds kept for 84 days under colony cages. Results: Mean egg shell thickness obtained from eggs of experimental hens measured was 0.342, 0.329, 0.320, 0.322, 0.319, 0.332, 0.328 and 0.336 mm in T1 through T8 groups, respectively. About the main factor effects, both showed non-significant results. Similarly, influence of different treatment diets, in imparting colour to the yolks, was found to be non-significant (p>0.05 at different 28-day time intervals. Further, the average yolk index values ranged non-significantly from 0.360 (T6 to 0.383 (T4. Conclusion: The SPR can be incorporated into layer diet as a source of inorganic as well as organic nutrients without affecting its egg quality characteristics.

  3. A Method for Simulating Sedimentation of Fish Eggs to Generate Biological Effects Data for Assessing Dredging Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    used to attach a 150 µm screen (Nylon screen, Pentair Aquatic Eco- Systems ; Sanford, NC) onto the end of the elbow located inside the chamber to...in close proximity to species of concern, and are of known contamination . For the experiments, sediments were analyzed for chemical contamination ...experiment. Sedimentation experiments were performed in the Fish Larvae and Egg Exposure System (FLEES) located at the ERDC (Lutz et al. 2012). The

  4. A real-time PCR assay to estimate invertebrate and fish predation on anchovy eggs in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Albaina, A.

    2015-02-01

    In order to investigate the role of predation on eggs and larvae in the recruitment of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus), sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and 52 macrozooplankton taxa were assayed for anchovy remains in the gut during the 2010 spawning season using a molecular method. This real-time PCR based assay was capable of detecting 0.005. ng of anchovy DNA (roughly 1/100 of a single egg assay) in a reliable way and allowed detecting predation events up to 6. h after ingestion by small zooplankton taxa. A total of 1069 macrozooplankton individuals, 237 sardines and 213 sprats were tested. Both fish species and 32 macrozooplankton taxa showed remains of anchovy DNA within their stomach contents. The two main findings are (1) that the previously neglected macrozooplankton impact in anchovy eggs/larvae mortality is in the same order of magnitude of that due to planktivorous fishes and that, (2) the predation pressure was notably different in the two main spawning centers of Bay of Biscay anchovy. While relatively low mortality rates were recorded at the shelf-break spawning center, a higher predation pressure from both fish and macrozooplankton was exerted at the shelf one.

  5. New DAPI and FISH findings on egg maturation processes in related hybridogenetic and parthenogenetic Bacillus hybrids (Insecta, Phasmatodea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marescalchi, O; Scali, V

    2001-10-01

    Bacillus stick insects have proved adequate for studying a wide array of reproductive modes: sexual, parthenogenetic, hybridogenetic, androgenetic. Hybridogenetic strains (B. rossius-grandii) were thought to discard the paternal "grandii" haploset during first meiotic division and keep the "rossius" hemiclone, whereas the clonal B. whitei (=rossius/grandii) would maintain its hybrid structure by fusing back two nonsister nuclei-each derived from previously segregated heterospecific complements-by the end of the 2(nd) meiotic division. New investigations on laid eggs and ovariole squashes, either DAPI stained or FISH labeled, revealed that in hybridogens the "grandii" set is excluded from the germ line prior to meiosis and that a DNA extra-synthesis should occur to produce hemiclonal eggs after two cytologically normal meiotic divisions. On the other hand, in B. whitei eggs no genome segregation appears to occur and an intrameiotic DNA extra-synthesis must take place to produce 2n tetrachromatidic oocytes I; these divide twice and give unreduced clonal eggs. The new findings bring hybridogenetic oogenesis of Bacillus to be coincident with that of the known hemiclonal organisms and point to an independent onset of B. whitei from hemiclonal strains. In addition, B. whitei gains a closer resemblance to B. lynceorum owing to the sharing of a cytologically identical egg maturation mechanism, of the same maternal ancestor and of peculiar chromosomal features. It is here suggested that B. lynceorum originated from the incorporation of an "atticus" genome into a B. whitei egg, according to a pathway of repeated hybridization often occurred with other polyploid hybrids.

  6. Baseline levels of melamine in food items sold in Canada. II. Egg, soy, vegetable, fish and shrimp products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Lau, Benjamin P-Y; Ménard, Cathie; Corrigan, Catherine; Sparling, Melissa; Gaertner, Dean; Cao, Xu-Liang; Dabeka, Bob; Hilts, Carla

    2010-01-01

    A variety of egg-containing, soy-based, fish, shrimp and vegetable products sold in Canada were analysed for melamine (MEL) using a sensitive solid-phase extraction LC-MS/MS analytical method. MEL was detected above the method quantification limit of 0.004 mg/kg in 98 of the 378 samples analysed. Concentrations in the various food product groups ranged 0.00507-0.247 mg/kg (egg-containing items), 0.00408-0.0479 mg/kg (soy-based meat substitutes), 0.00409-1.10 mg/kg (fish and shrimp products), and 0.00464-0.688 mg/kg (vegetable products). MEL was detected less frequently in egg- and soy-containing products. The presence of MEL in most of the Canadian Total Diet Study shrimp composites collected after 2001 suggested the residues in shrimp were caused by a relatively recent exposure to MEL. All concentrations of MEL reported were lower than the 2.5 mg/kg interim standard established for MEL in items containing milk and milk-derived ingredients and the respective maximum residue limits for cyromazine and its metabolite, melamine, in vegetables set by the Canadian Government (2009; http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/securit/chem-chim/melamine/qa-melamine-qr-eng.php#8 ). The consumption of foods containing these low levels of MEL does not constitute a health risk for consumers.

  7. 2014年国内外禽蛋市场回顾及未来展望%Poultry Eggs Markets at Home and Abroad in 2014 and Their Outlooks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 李干琼; 于海鹏; 王玉庭; 李哲敏

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, affected by the overall macroeconomic environment and consumer demand, the production of China's poultry eggs increased to 28.94 million tons, with a five-year lower growth rate at 0.6%. For the influences from the supply and demand situation and seasonal factor, the average price of China's poultry eggs hit a record high, up to 10.83 yuan per kilogram, increasing by 9.4%. The formula feed prices of laying hens rose compared with last year, as well as layer chicken prices. The price rate of egg and feed rose significantly and laying hens made good breeding profits. The imports of poultry eggs decreased, while the exports grew, which led to evident trade surplus. Looking forward to 2015, with the increasing stock of laying hens, poultry eggs production will increase, egg supply will tend to be loose and eggs prices are likely to go down in some extent. In the short term, due to the cold winter weather and enhancing consumption substitute of meat for egg, eggs prices will continue falling before the Spring Festival in 2016. During the Spring Festival, eggs prices are expected to rebound slightly by festival consumption, and after that, the prices will still have room to fall.%︰2014年,受整体宏观经济环境以及消费需求等因素影响,禽蛋产量略有增长,为2894万t,同比增长0.6%,为近5年来较低增长水平;在供需情况以及季节性因素等的综合影响下,禽蛋均价创历史新高,达10.83元/kg,同比上涨9.4%。蛋鸡配合饲料价格同比上涨,蛋雏鸡价格同比上涨;蛋料价格比涨幅明显,蛋鸡养殖效益较好。全年禽蛋进口规模减少,出口规模增长,贸易顺差明显。预计2015年,随着在产蛋鸡存栏量的不断增加,禽蛋产量将会增加,鸡蛋供给趋于宽松,蛋价仍有一定的下行空间。短期来看,受冬季天气寒冷﹑肉类消费对鸡蛋替代性增强影响,预计2016年春节前蛋价将会继续回落;春节期间,在节日消费的提振下,蛋价有

  8. Comparative studies on in vitro sperm decondensation and pronucleus formation in egg extracts between gynogenetic and bisexual fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG JIAN LI; JIAN FANG GUI

    2003-01-01

    A cell-free system based upon the egg extracts from gynogenetic gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)or bisexual red common carp (Cyprinus carpio red variety) was developed to investigate developmentalbehaviors of the demembranated sperm nuclei. Both red common carp and gibel carp sperm nuclei coulddecondense fully and form pronuclei in the red common carp egg extracts. Gibel carp sperm nuclei couldalso decondense fully and form pronuclei in the gibel carp egg extracts, but red common carp sperm nucleicould not decondense sufficiently in the same extracts. The significant differences of morphological changeswere further confirmed by ultrastructural observation of transmission electron microscopy. The data furtheroffer cytological evidence for gonochoristic reproduction in the gynogenetically reproducing gibel carp. Inaddition, the sperm nuclei in vitro decondensation is dependent on the pH in the extracts, and the decon-densed efficiency is optimal at pH 7. However, no DNA replication was observed in the two kinds of eggextracts during the incubation period of the sperm nuclei. It is suggested that the egg extracts preparedfrom the gynogenetic gibel carp should be a valid in vitro system for studying molecular mechanism ongynogenesis and reproduction mode diversity in fish.

  9. A study on the meat and bone meal and poultry by-product meal as protein substitutes of fish meal in practical diets for Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Baigang; Wang, Fuzhen; Yu, Yu

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM) as the replacement of fish meal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of Litopenaeus vannamei. The basal diets were formulated with 22% fish meal and other ingredients which provided about 40% protein and 9% lipid in the diet. The experimental diets included MBM or PBM to replace 0, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of total fish meal respectively. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric in gross terms. The results showed that there were no significant differences (Pτ;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 60% fish meal had been replaced with MBM, while the percent weight gain (WG, %), body length gain (BLG, %) and ADC significantly decreased when the MBM was up to 80% of the fish meal. There were no significant differences (Pτ;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among all the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 80% fish meal had been replaced with PBM.

  10. A Study on the Meat and Bone Meal and Poultry By-product Meal as Protein Substitutes of Fish Meal in Practical Diets for Litopenaeus vannamei Juveniles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wei; MAI Kangsen; ZHANG Baigang; WANG Fuzhen; YU Yu

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal(MBM)and poultry by-product meal(PBM)as the replacement of fish meal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficients(ADC)of Litopenaeus vannamei. The basal diets were formulated with 22% fish meal and other ingredients which provided about 40% protein and 9% lipid in the diet. The experimental diets included MBM or PBM to replace 0, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of total fish meal respectively. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric in gross terms. The results showed that there were no significant differences(P>0.05)in growth performance and ADC among the treatments fed with the diets in which 0-60% fish meal had been replaced with MBM, while the percent weight gain(WG,%), body length gain(BLG,%)and ADC significantly decreased when the MBM was up to 80% of the fish meal. There were no significant differences(P>0.05)in growth performance and ADC among all the treatments fed with the diets in which 0-80% fish meal had been replaced with PBM.

  11. CO-Selenium in fish tissue: Prediction equations for conversion between whole body, muscle, and eggs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The lower Gunnison River and the Colorado River are designated critical habitat for two endangered fish species: the Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) and...

  12. Egg Development of the Ussurian Bullhead Fish, Leiocassis ussuriensis (Pisces: Bagridae) and Morphological Development of Its Larvae and Juveniles

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jae-Min; Yim, Hu-Sun; Lee, Yong-Sik; Kim, Heung-Yun; Han, Kyeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study was examined the ovogenesis of Ussurian bullhead, Leiocassis ussuriensis and the morphological development of its larvae and juveniles and to use the results as basic information for the preservation of species and resource enhancement. For artificial egg collection, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) was injected at a rate of 10 IU per gram of fish weight. During breeding period, water temperature maintained at 24.5~26.5°C (mean 25.0±0.05°C). The process of ovogenesis reached the ...

  13. Replacement of fish meal by poultry by-product meal, food grade, in diets for juvenile spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisantema Hernández

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of replacing fish meal protein at different levels with poultry by product meal food grade (PBM-FG was assessed in diets for spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus. Four diets were formulated, the control diet fish meal was used as the main protein source (FM; the other three diets had increasing levels of PBM-FG replacing 25, 50 or 75% of the fish meal protein respectively. The diets were fed close to apparent satiation, three times a day to quadruplicate groups of juvenile snapper (average body weight 11.0 ± 0.04 g. The fish were randomly distributed into groups of 15 fish in a 120 L seawater tank. The response of snapper to diets containing graded levels of fish meal was evaluated by measuring weight gain, feed efficiency, body composition, hematological parameters and apparent nutrient digestibility during a 12-week period. The replacing of the 25% of fish meal protein by PBM-FG did show a similar trend for feed efficiency and growth performance than control diet. Feed efficiency and growth performance was reduced at 75% level of fish meal protein replacement by PBM-FG, due to deficiencies of lysine and methionine. The final whole-body proximate composition did not differ among treatments. The hematological characteristics were similar among the treatments control, 25 and 50%, but the fish fed PBM-FG 75% showed the lowest levels for total protein and glucose parameters. The dietary dry matter and protein apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs decreased with increasing dietary PBM-FG. High values for lipid ADCs were observed in all diets.

  14. High-resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy of fish muscle, eggs and small whole fish via Hadamard-encoded intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghao Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy has become an important technique for tissue studies. Since tissues are in semisolid-state, their high-resolution (HR spectra cannot be obtained by conventional NMR spectroscopy. Because of this restriction, extraction and high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR MAS are widely applied for HR NMR spectra of tissues. However, both of the methods are subject to limitations. In this study, the feasibility of HR (1H NMR spectroscopy based on intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence (iMQC technique is explored using fish muscle, fish eggs, and a whole fish as examples. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intact salmon muscle tissues, intact eggs from shishamo smelt and a whole fish (Siamese algae eater are studied by using conventional 1D one-pulse sequence, Hadamard-encoded iMQC sequence, and HR MAS. RESULTS: When we use the conventional 1D one-pulse sequence, hardly any useful spectral information can be obtained due to the severe field inhomogeneity. By contrast, HR NMR spectra can be obtained in a short period of time by using the Hadamard-encoded iMQC method without shimming. Most signals from fatty acids and small metabolites can be observed. Compared to HR MAS, the iMQC method is non-invasive, but the resolution and the sensitivity of resulting spectra are not as high as those of HR MAS spectra. CONCLUSION: Due to the immunity to field inhomogeneity, the iMQC technique can be a proper supplement to HR MAS, and it provides an alternative for the investigation in cases with field distortions and with samples unsuitable for spinning. The acquisition time of the proposed method is greatly reduced by introduction of the Hadamard-encoded technique, in comparison with that of conventional iMQC method.

  15. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know that some people are allergic to certain foods, like peanuts or shrimp. When a person has a food allergy , his ... sure you're still getting protein from other foods. Some good ones are meat, poultry, fish, and legumes (beans and peanuts). If you have ...

  16. Control of poultry red mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most important ectoparasite in European egg production. The mites hide in cracks and crevices in the near vicinity of the resting places of the birds, coming out to feed mainly during the night. Under favourable conditions the population can...... grow rapidly, leading to serious problems. Large mite populations may cause anaemia or even death to the poultry, but also in lower numbers mites may be a nuisance to the birds causing decreased egg production and egg quality. Furthermore, they may have the potential of acting as reservoir...

  17. Biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF), bioaccumulation factor (BAF), and contaminant levels in prey fish to indicate the extent of PAHs and OCPs contamination in eggs of waterbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, C K; Liang, Y; Leung, S Y; Wang, H; Dong, Y H; Young, L; Giesy, J P; Wong, M H

    2013-12-01

    Samples of pond sediment, fish, and shrimp were collected from the Ramsar site at Mai Po marshes, Hong Kong (south China), and samples of pond sediment, fish, and shrimp, as well as eggs of water birds (Chinese Pond Herons (Ardeola bacchus) and Little Egrets (Egretta garzetta)), were collected from two smaller wetland sites at Jiangsu Province (mid-China), between 2004 and 2007. Accumulation levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the biota were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF). For fish and shrimp, BSAFs of OCPs (3.8-56) were greater than those of PAHs (0.12-6.3). BSAFs and BAFs of 11-79 and 4-34, respectively, were registered for OCPs in eggs of the birds and were greater than those for PAHs (0.11-1.5 and 0.02-1.3, respectively). Assuming that fish were the main prey of the birds, greater bioaccumulation of OCPs was detected for both bird species (BAFs =4.5-34), while accumulation of PAHs was only detected in Little Egret (BAF=1.3). A significant linear relationship (p<0.01) was observed between concentrations of OCPs in bird eggs and in the prey fish. The present study provides a new possibility of using OCP levels detected in prey fish to predict the extent of OCPs contamination in eggs of waterbirds including the endangered species, as a noninvasive method.

  18. Identification of the origin and localization of chorion (egg envelope) proteins in an ancient fish, the white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kenji; Conte, Fred S; McInnis, Elizabeth; Fong, Tak Hou; Cherr, Gary N

    2014-06-01

    In many modern teleost fish, chorion (egg envelope) glycoproteins are synthesized in the liver of females, and the expression of those genes is controlled by endogenous estrogen released from the ovary during maturation. However, among the classical teleosts, such as salmonid, carp, and zebrafish, the chorion glycoproteins are synthesized in the oocyte, as in higher vertebrates. Sturgeon, which are members of the subclass Chondrostei, represent an ancient lineage of ray-finned fishes that differ from other teleosts in that their sperm possess acrosomes, their eggs have numerous micropyles, and early embryo development is similar to that of amphibians. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms of chorion formation and the phylogenetic relationship between sturgeon and other teleosts, we used specific antibodies directed against the primary components of sturgeon chorion glycoproteins, using immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry approaches. The origin of each chorion glycoprotein was determined through analyses of both liver and ovary, and their localization during ovarian development was investigated. Our data indicate that the origin of the major chorion glycoproteins of sturgeon, ChG1, ChG2, and ChG4, derive not only from the oocyte itself but also from follicle cells in the ovary, as well as from hepatocytes. In the follicle cell layer, granulosa cells were found to be the primary source of ChGs during oogenesis in white sturgeon. The unique origins of chorion glycoproteins in sturgeon suggest that sturgeons are an intermediate form in the evolution of the teleost lineage.

  19. Development of an optical surface plasmon resonance biosensor assay for (fluoro) quinolones in egg, fish, and poultry meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huet, A.C.; Charlier, C.; Singh, G.; Benrejeb Godefroy, S.; Leivo, J.; Vehniainen, M.; Nielen, M.W.F.; Weigel, S.; Delahaut, P.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an optical biosensor inhibition immunoassay, based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) principle, for use as a screening test for 13 (fluoro)quinolones, including flumequine, used as veterinary drugs in food-producing animals. For this, we immobilised various

  20. Development of an optical surface plasmon resonance biosensor assay for (fluoro) quinolones in egg, fish, and poultry meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huet, A.C.; Charlier, C.; Singh, G.; Benrejeb Godefroy, S.; Leivo, J.; Vehniainen, M.; Nielen, M.W.F.; Weigel, S.; Delahaut, P.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an optical biosensor inhibition immunoassay, based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) principle, for use as a screening test for 13 (fluoro)quinolones, including flumequine, used as veterinary drugs in food-producing animals. For this, we immobilised various

  1. Adaptive sequence evolution in a color gene involved in the formation of the characteristic egg-dummies of male haplochromine cichlid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzburger, Walter; Braasch, Ingo; Meyer, Axel

    2007-11-15

    The exceptionally diverse species flocks of cichlid fishes in East Africa are prime examples of parallel adaptive radiations. About 80% of East Africa's more than 1 800 endemic cichlid species, and all species of the flocks of Lakes Victoria and Malawi, belong to a particularly rapidly evolving lineage, the haplochromines. One characteristic feature of the haplochromines is their possession of egg-dummies on the males' anal fins. These egg-spots mimic real eggs and play an important role in the mating system of these maternal mouthbrooding fish. Here, we show that the egg-spots of haplochromines are made up of yellow pigment cells, xanthophores, and that a gene coding for a type III receptor tyrosine kinase, colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor a (csf1ra), is expressed in egg-spot tissue. Molecular evolutionary analyses reveal that the extracellular ligand-binding and receptor-interacting domain of csf1ra underwent adaptive sequence evolution in the ancestral lineage of the haplochromines, coinciding with the emergence of egg-dummies. We also find that csf1ra is expressed in the egg-dummies of a distantly related cichlid species, the ectodine cichlid Ophthalmotilapia ventralis, in which markings with similar functions evolved on the pelvic fin in convergence to those of the haplochromines. We conclude that modifications of existing signal transduction mechanisms might have evolved in the haplochromine lineage in association with the origination of anal fin egg-dummies. That positive selection has acted during the evolution of a color gene that seems to be involved in the morphogenesis of a sexually selected trait, the egg-dummies, highlights the importance of further investigations of the comparative genomic basis of the phenotypic diversification of cichlid fishes.

  2. Adaptive sequence evolution in a color gene involved in the formation of the characteristic egg-dummies of male haplochromine cichlid fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braasch Ingo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exceptionally diverse species flocks of cichlid fishes in East Africa are prime examples of parallel adaptive radiations. About 80% of East Africa's more than 1 800 endemic cichlid species, and all species of the flocks of Lakes Victoria and Malawi, belong to a particularly rapidly evolving lineage, the haplochromines. One characteristic feature of the haplochromines is their possession of egg-dummies on the males' anal fins. These egg-spots mimic real eggs and play an important role in the mating system of these maternal mouthbrooding fish. Results Here, we show that the egg-spots of haplochromines are made up of yellow pigment cells, xanthophores, and that a gene coding for a type III receptor tyrosine kinase, colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor a (csf1ra, is expressed in egg-spot tissue. Molecular evolutionary analyses reveal that the extracellular ligand-binding and receptor-interacting domain of csf1ra underwent adaptive sequence evolution in the ancestral lineage of the haplochromines, coinciding with the emergence of egg-dummies. We also find that csf1ra is expressed in the egg-dummies of a distantly related cichlid species, the ectodine cichlid Ophthalmotilapia ventralis, in which markings with similar functions evolved on the pelvic fin in convergence to those of the haplochromines. Conclusion We conclude that modifications of existing signal transduction mechanisms might have evolved in the haplochromine lineage in association with the origination of anal fin egg-dummies. That positive selection has acted during the evolution of a color gene that seems to be involved in the morphogenesis of a sexually selected trait, the egg-dummies, highlights the importance of further investigations of the comparative genomic basis of the phenotypic diversification of cichlid fishes.

  3. Egg and larval distributions of seven fish species in north-east Atlantic waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibaibarriaga, L.; Irigoien, X.; Santos, M.; Eltink, A.T.G.W.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of egg and larvae of mackerel, horse mackerel, sardine, hake, megrim, blue whiting and anchovy along the European Atlantic waters (south Portugal to Scotland) during 1998 is described. Time of the year, sea surface temperature and bottom depth are used to define the spawning habitat

  4. Where do egg production methods for estimating fish biomass go from here?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickey-Collas, M.; Somarakis, S.; Witthames, P.R.; Damme, van C.J.G.; Uriarte, A.R.; Lo, N.C.H.; Bernal, M.

    2012-01-01

    The special theme volume of Fisheries Research is intended to synthesise the current understanding of the methods and applicability of egg production methods (EPM). It originates from a workshop in Athens which also focused on the future challenges to both the science and logistics of carrying out a

  5. Effect of replacement of fish meal by meat and bone meal and poultry by-product meal in diets on the growth and immune response of Macrobrachium nipponense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Xie, Shouqi; Lei, Wu; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia

    2004-08-01

    The potential use of poultry by-product meal (PBM) and meat and bone meal (MBM) as alternative dietary protein sources for juvenile Macrobrachium nipponense was studied by a 70-day growth trial. Triplicate groups of M. nipponense (initial body weight: 0.37 g) were fed at 20.7-22.4 degrees C on each of the five isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets (protein content about 38%) with different replacement of fish meal by MBM or PBM. The control diet used white fish meal as the sole protein source, the other four diets were prepared with 15% or 50% fish meal protein substituted by either MBM (MBM(15), MBM(50)) or PBM (PBM(15), PBM(50)). The results showed that replacement of fish meal by MBM in diets did not affect growth performance of M. nipponense (P > 0.05), while specific growth rate in PBM(15) was significantly higher than that in other groups (P meal protein in diets for M. nipponense.

  6. Urban contaminants project: Data for sediment, fish and eggs collected from Chester Creek, Anchorage, Alaska 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Urbanization has degraded the water quality and adversely impacted biological communities in the lakes and streams of Anchorage. Pollution from point and nonpoint...

  7. Interacting effects of discharge and channel morphology on transport of semibuoyant fish eggs in large, altered river systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Worthington

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation and flow regulation are significant factors related to the decline and extinction of freshwater biota. Pelagic-broadcast spawning cyprinids require moving water and some length of unfragmented stream to complete their life cycle. However, it is unknown how discharge and habitat features interact at multiple spatial scales to alter the transport of semi-buoyant fish eggs. Our objective was to assess the relationship between downstream drift of semi-buoyant egg surrogates (gellan beads and discharge and habitat complexity. We quantified transport time of a known quantity of beads using 2-3 sampling devices at each of seven locations on the North Canadian and Canadian rivers. Transport time was assessed based on median capture time (time at which 50% of beads were captured and sampling period (time period when 2.5% and 97.5% of beads were captured. Habitat complexity was assessed by calculating width∶depth ratios at each site, and several habitat metrics determined using analyses of aerial photographs. Median time of egg capture was negatively correlated to site discharge. The temporal extent of the sampling period at each site was negatively correlated to both site discharge and habitat-patch dispersion. Our results highlight the role of discharge in driving transport times, but also indicate that higher dispersion of habitat patches relates to increased retention of beads within the river. These results could be used to target restoration activities or prioritize water use to create and maintain habitat complexity within large, fragmented river systems.

  8. Spatial and temporal distribution of fish eggs and larvae in a subtropical coastal lagoon, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C. P. Macedo-Soares

    Full Text Available This study investigated the variation in abundance, distribution and composition of ichthyoplankton in a lagoon in southern Brazil through the year and at different stations within the lagoon. Ibiraquera Lagoon is a shallow coastal lagoon connected to the sea by a semi-permanent sandbar. Ichthyoplankton samples were collected monthly from December 2003 to December 2004, with a 200 µm mesh net using horizontal surface hauls. A colder, drier period was detected, contrasting with warm months during which salinity varied depending on rainfall and whether the sandbar was open or closed. The mean abundance of ichthyoplankton over the study period was 459.6 ± 76.2 (SE eggs · 100 m-3 and 63.6 ± 7.9 (SE larvae · 100 m-3, and they were present during all months. Significantly higher abundances of eggs and larvae were observed during warm months. The community was dominated by the family Engraulidae followed by Clupeidae, Gobiidae and Mugilidae. Engraulidae and Clupeidae were present throughout the year, with greater abundances in months with higher temperatures. Some coastal fish species spawn in Ibiraquera Lagoon, mainly near to the sandbar, demonstrating that the lagoon is a spawning area for coastal stock. We recommend the establishment of environmental procedures to promote the conservation of Ibiraquera Lagoon and its ichthyoplankton community.

  9. Biomagnification factors (fish to osprey eggs from Willamette River, Oregon, U.S.A.) for PCDDS, PCDFS, PCBS, and OC pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, Charles J.; Kaiser, James L.; Grove, Robert A.; Bentley, V.R.; Elliot, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    A migratory population of 78 pairs of Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting along the Willamette River in westernOregon was studied in 1993. The study was designed to determinecontaminant concentrations in eggs, contaminant concentrationsin fish species predominant in the Ospreys diet, andBiomagnification Factors (BMFs) of contaminants from fish specieseaten to Osprey eggs. Ten Osprey eggs and 25 composite samplesof fish (3 species) were used to evaluate organochlorine (OC)pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinateddibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans(PCDFs). Mercury was also analyzed in fish. Geometric meanresidues in Osprey eggs were judged low, e.g., DDE 2.3 g g-1 wet weight (ww), PCBs 0.69 g g-1, 2,3,7,8-TCDD 2.3 ng kg-1, and generally well below known threshold values for adverse effects on productivity, and the population was increasing. Osprey egg residue data presentedby River Mile (RM) are discussed, e.g., higher PCDDs were generally found immediately downstream of paper mills and eggsfrom the Willamette River had significantly elevated PCBs and PCDDs compared to reference eggs collected nearby in the CascadeMountains. Prey remains at nest sites indicated that the Largescale Sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) and NorthernPikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) accounted for an estimated 90.1% of the biomass in the Osprey diet, and composite samples of these two species were collected from different sampling sites throughout the study area for contaminant analyses. With the large percentage of the fishbiomass in the Osprey diet sampled for contaminants (and fisheaten by Ospreys similar in size to those chemically analyzed),and fish contaminant concentrations weighted by biomass intake, a mean BMF was estimated from fish to Osprey eggs for the largeseries of contaminants. BMFs ranged from no biomagnification(0.42) for 2,3,7,8-TCDF to 174 for OCDD. Our findings for themigratory Osprey were compared to BMFs for the resident

  10. Method of analysis for the determination of tetracycline rsidues in meat, kidney, fat, skin, fish, egg and milk : procedure and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keukens, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the RIKILT-DLO method tor the determination of tetracycline in liver, kidney, fat or skin with adhering fat for from chickens, cows and skin with adhering fat from pigs. The method was originally validated for meat of different animals, eggs milk, fish, liver an

  11. Development and validation of confirmatory method for analysis of nitrofuran metabolites in milk, honey, poultry meat and fish by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Alkan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have devoloped and validated a confirmatory analysis method for nitrofuran metabolites, which is in accordance with European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC requirements. Nitrofuran metabolites in honey, milk, poultry meat and fish samples were acidic hydrolised followed by derivatisation with nitrobenzaldehyde and liquid-liquid extracted with ethylacetate. The quantitative and confirmative determination of nitrofuran metbolites was performed by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS in the positive ion mode. In-house method validation was performed and reported data of validation (specificity, linearity, recovery, CCα and CCβ. The advantage of this method is that it avoids the use of clean-up by Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE. Furthermore, low levels of nitrofuran metabolites are detectable and quantitatively confirmed at a rapid rate in all samples.

  12. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS...

  13. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  14. Red meat, poultry, and fish intake and breast cancer risk among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic white women: The Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Andre E; Lundgreen, Abbie; Wolff, Roger K; Fejerman, Laura; John, Esther M; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Ingles, Sue A; Boone, Stephanie D; Connor, Avonne E; Hines, Lisa M; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Giuliano, Anna; Joshi, Amit D; Slattery, Martha L; Stern, Mariana C

    2016-04-01

    There is suggestive but limited evidence for a relationship between meat intake and breast cancer (BC) risk. Few studies included Hispanic women. We investigated the association between meats and fish intake and BC risk among Hispanic and NHW women. The study included NHW (1,982 cases and 2,218 controls) and the US Hispanics (1,777 cases and 2,218 controls) from two population-based case-control studies. Analyses considered menopausal status and percent Native American ancestry. We estimated pooled ORs combining harmonized data from both studies, and study- and race-/ethnicity-specific ORs that were combined using fixed or random effects models, depending on heterogeneity levels. When comparing highest versus lowest tertile of intake, among NHW we observed an association between tuna intake and BC risk (pooled OR 1.25; 95 % CI 1.05-1.50; trend p = 0.006). Among Hispanics, we observed an association between BC risk and processed meat intake (pooled OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.18-1.71; trend p < 0.001), and between white meat (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.67-0.95; trend p = 0.01) and BC risk, driven by poultry. All these findings were supported by meta-analysis using fixed or random effect models and were restricted to estrogen receptor-positive tumors. Processed meats and poultry were not associated with BC risk among NHW women; red meat and fish were not associated with BC risk in either race/ethnic groups. Our results suggest the presence of ethnic differences in associations between meat and BC risk that may contribute to BC disparities.

  15. 9 CFR 93.904 - Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in cell culture, using either the epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) or fathead minnow (FHM) cell... isolation through cell culture, if the Administrator determines that such assays provide equivalent... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health certificate for live fish...

  16. Transcriptomic changes underlie altered egg protein production and reduced fecundity in an estuarine model fish exposed to bifenthrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brander, Susanne M; Jeffries, Ken M; Cole, Bryan J; DeCourten, Bethany M; White, J Wilson; Hasenbein, Simone; Fangue, Nann A; Connon, Richard E

    2016-05-01

    Pyrethroid pesticides are a class of insecticides found to have endocrine disrupting properties in vertebrates such as fishes and in human cell lines. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are environmental contaminants that mimic or alter the process of hormone signaling. In particular, EDCs that alter estrogen and androgen signaling pathways are of major concern for fishes because these EDCs may alter reproductive physiology, behavior, and ultimately sex ratio. Bifenthrin, a pyrethroid with escalating usage, is confirmed to disrupt estrogen signaling in several species of fish, including Menidia beryllina (inland silverside), an Atherinid recently established as a euryhaline model. Our main objective was to broadly assess the molecular and physiological responses of M. beryllina to the ng/L concentrations of bifenthrin typically found in the environment, with a focus on endocrine-related effects, and to discern links between different tiers of the biological hierarchy. As such, we evaluated the response of juvenile Menidia to bifenthrin using a Menidia-specific microarray, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on specific endocrine-related genes of interest, and a Menidia-specific ELISA to the egg-coat protein choriogenin, to evaluate a multitude of molecular-level responses that would inform mechanisms of toxicity and any underlying causes of change at higher biological levels of organization. The sublethal nominal concentrations tested (0.5, 5 and 50ng/L) were chosen to represent the range of concentrations observed in the environment and to provide coverage of a variety of potential responses. We then employed a 21-day reproductive assay to evaluate reproductive responses to bifenthrin (at 0.5ng/L) in a separate group of adult M. beryllina. The microarray analysis indicated that bifenthrin influences a diverse suite of molecular pathways, from baseline metabolic processes to carcinogenesis. A more targeted examination of gene expression via q

  17. Control of poultry red mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most important ectoparasite in European egg production. The mites hide in cracks and crevices in the near vicinity of the resting places of the birds, coming out to feed mainly during the night. Under favourable conditions the population can...... grow rapidly, leading to serious problems. Large mite populations may cause anaemia or even death to the poultry, but also in lower numbers mites may be a nuisance to the birds causing decreased egg production and egg quality. Furthermore, they may have the potential of acting as reservoir....../carriers for various micro-organisms e.g. Salmonella. In SAFEHOUSE, an EU-project running from 2006-2009, partners from 11 European countries aim at developing new methods for prevention and control of Salmonella in egg production systems with particular focus on the transition to enriched cages in the EU. Enriched...

  18. Qualidade do ovo de galinhas poedeiras criadas em galpões no semi-árido paraibano Quality of eggs of laying hens reared in poultry houses in the semi-arid Paraiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair L. Trindade

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliar índices ambientais dos galpões e os zootécnicos em aves de postura leve da linhagem Lohamann, em condições de verão e inverno de 2005 na região do semi-árida paraibana, foi o objetivo primordial deste trabalho, no qual se utilizaram 34.500 aves com diferentes idades: 32, 50, 60 e 71 semanas, acondicionadas em quatro galpões. Avaliaram-se os índices ambientais temperatura do ar, umidade relativa do ar, índice de temperatura do globo negro e umidade, carga térmica de radiação e velocidade do vento; e os produtivos (produção total de ovos, peso do ovo, peso do albúmen, peso da gema e peso das cascas, parâmetros geométricos (área e volume e a unidade Haugh (UH do ovo, em função da idade. Quanto ao ambiente no interior dos aviários, não houve diferença significativa na media dos índices ambientais, que ficaram dentro da zona de conforto. A idade das aves teve influência nos índices produção total, peso do ovo e peso da gema. A maior produção foi obtida com aves mais jovens, enquanto o peso do ovo e da gema foi com aves de maior idade. Os parâmetros geométricos volume e área do ovo não foram influenciados pela idade das aves. Conforme a UH os ovos de melhor qualidade se referem aos das aves com 32 e 50 semanas.The objective of this research was to evaluate production indexes for laying hens of the Lohamann lineage, under the summer and winter conditions of 2005, in São José da Mata district of Campina Grande, which is located in the Paraíban semi-arid region. 34.500 hens were used with ages of 32, 50, 60 and 71 weeks, and which were reared in four poultry houses. The production indexes (total production of eggs, egg weight, albumen weight, egg yolk weight, and rinds weight, geometric parameters (area and volume and Haugh unit of egg were calculated as a function of hen age. The production indexes in all rearing systems followed the technical recommendations. The age of the hens influenced the indexes of

  19. 鱼卵中半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂研究进展%Advances in Cysteine Protease Inhibitor in Fish Eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭强; 顾婷婷; 吴守亮; 韩曜平

    2011-01-01

    The structure, classification, function and inhibition mechanism of the cystatin super family members in fish eggs were mainly introduced, and the role of cystatin in eggs was further explored. Applications of the protease inhibitors in aspects of medicine and food were summarized.%通过介绍鱼卵中cystatin超家族成员的结构、分类、功能及抑制机理,进一步探讨了cystatin在卵中的作用。并对目前抑制剂在医药、食品等领域的应用作一阐述。

  20. Development and validation of a multi-analyte method for the regulatory control of carotenoids used as feed additives in fish and poultry feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Ursula; Serano, Federica; von Holst, Christoph

    2017-08-01

    Carotenoids are used in animal nutrition mainly as sensory additives that favourably affect the colour of fish, birds and food of animal origin. Various analytical methods exist for their quantification in compound feed, reflecting the different physico-chemical characteristics of the carotenoid and the corresponding feed additives. They may be natural products or specific formulations containing the target carotenoids produced by chemical synthesis. In this study a multi-analyte method was developed that can be applied to the determination of all 10 carotenoids currently authorised within the European Union for compound feedingstuffs. The method functions regardless of whether the carotenoids have been added to the compound feed via natural products or specific formulations. It is comprised of three steps: (1) digestion of the feed sample with an enzyme; (2) pressurised liquid extraction; and (3) quantification of the analytes by reversed-phase HPLC coupled to a photodiode array detector in the visible range. The method was single-laboratory validated for poultry and fish feed covering a mass fraction range of the target analyte from 2.5 to 300 mg kg(-)(1). The following method performance characteristics were obtained: the recovery rate varied from 82% to 129% and precision expressed as the relative standard deviation of intermediate precision varied from 1.6% to 15%. Based on the acceptable performance obtained in the validation study, the multi-analyte method is considered fit for the intended purpose.

  1. Expression of GFP in nuclear transplants generated by transplantation of embryonic cell nuclei from GFP-transgenic fish into nonenucleated eggs of medaka, Oryzias latipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, K; Kani, S; Kinoshita, M; Ozato, K; Wakamatsu, Y

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate whether foreign genes can be used as genetic markers of donor nuclei in fish nuclear transplantation, expression of the GFP gene derived from donor nuclei was examined in nuclear transplants in medaka (Oryzias latipes). Embryonic nuclei were obtained from blastula embryos produced by crossing of transgenic fish of the wild-type strain heterozygous for the GFP gene with nontransgenic ones or by mutual crossing between transgenic fish. The GFP gene was driven by the promoter of the medaka elongation factor gene, EF-1alpha-A, which is known to induce GFP expression in many tissues except for the muscle in the transgenic fish. The nuclei were transplanted into nonenucleated unfertilized eggs of the orange-red strain. Adult nuclear transplants were successfully obtained at the rate of about 2% of the operated eggs. They were triploid and had no reproductive potential. The GFP gene was expressed in embryos, fry, and adults of nuclear transplants in a pattern similar to that in the transgenic fish. These results indicate that GFP is useful as a foreign genetic marker of donor nuclei in fish nuclear transplantation.

  2. Antimicrobial egg cleaning by the fringed darter (Perciformes: Percidae: Etheostoma crossopterum): implications of a novel component of parental care in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouft, Jason H; Page, Lawrence M; Plewa, Michael J

    2003-11-22

    Broad-spectrum antimicrobial compounds have recently been identified in the epidermal mucus of fishes and probably serve as a first line of defence against microbial pathogens. Because of the ubiquitous nature of fungi and bacteria in aquatic systems, defence against these pathogens should be required throughout the lifespan of fishes, including the egg stage. We conducted experiments on Etheostoma crossopterum (Percidae: Catonotus), the fringed darter, to determine if the presence of a guarding male inhibits microbial colonization of eggs. Based on results from a combination of in-stream experiments, in vitro microbial assays, and morphological characteristics and behaviour of breeding males, we propose that antimicrobial egg cleaning by the guarding male is an effective component of parental care in these fish. Although innate antimicrobial compounds have been identified in a variety of organisms ranging from insects to vertebrates, integration of these compounds into a species's reproductive life history has been identified only in a small number of insect species. The results from this study not only indicate that E. crossopterum males provide a novel form of vertebrate parental care, but also have implications regarding the evolution of parental care in fishes and transitional evolutionary stages from no parental care to male parental care.

  3. Protein turnover in the breast muscle of broiler chicks and studies addressing chlorine dioxide sanitation of hatching eggs, poultry leg problems and wheat middling diets for laying hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Developmental changes occurred in breast muscle Ks measured by {sup 14}C-tyrosine incorporation at 10, 16, 22 and 34 days of age. Protein synthesis rates decreased as the birds matures: 30 to 11.2%/d between 10 and 34 days of age. In a second study birds fed diets low in lysine or protein-energy had reduced fractional rates of protein synthesis and free tyrosine, branched chain and large neutral amino acid concentrations as compared to control birds the same body weight. Artificial weight loading and reduced dietary protein levels were used to study the effects of body weight on the severity of leg deformities in chicks and poults. Experiments investigating the practicality of wheat middlings as an alternate feedstuff for laying hens suggested that high levels in the diet will reduce egg production, feed conversion, hen livability and egg yolk color. Lastly, chlorine dioxide foam and dipping solutions were compared with formaldehyde fumigation for sanitizing hatching eggs.

  4. Rural Poultry Farming with Improved Breed of Backyard Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Livestock and poultry rearing is an imperative factor for improving the nutritional security of rural poor in India. Rural farmers rear Desi type chicken with low egg and meat production in backyard system. For developing the rural poultry farming, improved backyard poultry like Vanaraja/Gramapriya birds rearing is of utmost important. These improved birds can rear in both intensive and free ranging system. Birds can be reared for egg production in small numbers (10- 20) in fre...

  5. Inhibitory effects of silver zeolite on in vitro growth of fish egg pathogen, Saprolegnia sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Ali Johari; Mohammad Reza Kalbassi; Il Je Yu

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of powdered silver zeolite (SZ) on the in vitro growth of the fish pathogen Saprolegnia sp. Methods: The antifungal activity of SZ was evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations using two-fold serial dilutions of powdered SZ in a glucose yeast extract agar at 22 °C. The growth of Saprolegnia sp. on the SZ agar treatments was compared to that on SZ-free agar controls. Results:The results showed that SZ had an inhibitory effect on the in vitro growth of the tested fungi. The minimum inhibitory concentration of SZ for Saprolegnia sp. was also calculated at 600 mg/L, which is equal to 0.06 percent. Conclusions:SZ is a potential good candidate to replace teratogenic and toxic agents, such as malachite green in aquaculture systems.

  6. Egg Development of the Ussurian Bullhead Fish, Leiocassis ussuriensis (Pisces: Bagridae) and Morphological Development of Its Larvae and Juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Min; Yim, Hu-Sun; Lee, Yong-Sik; Kim, Heung-Yun; Han, Kyeong-Ho

    2015-12-01

    This study was examined the ovogenesis of Ussurian bullhead, Leiocassis ussuriensis and the morphological development of its larvae and juveniles and to use the results as basic information for the preservation of species and resource enhancement. For artificial egg collection, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) was injected at a rate of 10 IU per gram of fish weight. During breeding period, water temperature maintained at 24.5~26.5°C (mean 25.0±0.05°C). The process of ovogenesis reached the two-cell stage in 50 minutes after fertilization. In 73 hours of fertilization the movement of the embryoid body became active state and the larvae began to hatch from the tail through the oolemma. Length of prelarvae were 6.33~6.50 mm long (mean 6.40±0.06 mm) just after hatching having yolk with their mouth not opened. After thirty eight days of hatching, juveniles were 30.6∼32.5 mm long (mean 31.5±0.65 mm). The color was dark yellowish brown throughout the entire body, and the number of caudal fin rays developed to thirty six perfectly.

  7. PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, OC pesticides and mercury in fish and osprey eggs from Willamette River, Oregon (1993, 2001 and 2006) with calculated biomagnification factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Kaiser, J.L.; Grove, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    The osprey (Pandion haliaetus) population nesting along the main stem Willamette River and lower Santiam River was first studied to evaluate contaminants and reproductive rates in 1993 when 78 occupied nests were present. By 2001, the population increased to 234 occupied nests, a 13.7% annual rate of population increase. A sample egg was collected from each of a series of nests along the Upper River (river mile 55-187) in 1993, 2001 and 2006 to evaluate trends of persistent contaminants (organochlorine [OC] pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs], and polychlorinated dibenzofurans [PCDFs]). Nearly all OC pesticide residues decreased significantly, e.g., p, p?-DDE (DDE) from 2,350 to 1,353 to 210 ??g/kg wet weight (ww). PCBs followed a similar pattern over time, e.g., ???PCBs 688 to 245 to 182 ??g/kg ww, while PCDDs and PCDFs showed a more precipitous decline (often 85-95%) between 1993 and 2001, with no egg analyses warranted in 2006. During 2001-2002, sample osprey eggs were also collected from nests at three Headwater Reservoirs and two lower reaches (Newberg Pool and Tidal Portland) of the Willamette River, as well as the lower portion of the Santiam River to evaluate spatial residue patterns. Significant differences were seldom detected among the different sampling areas for OC pesticides (probably due to small sample sizes), although higher concentrations were often seen in the lower reaches, e.g., DDE 901 ??g/kg ww (Headwater Reservoirs), 1,353 (Upper River), 1,384 (Newberg Pool) and 2,676 (Tidal Portland). PCB congener concentrations in eggs were usually higher in the Tidal Portland reach than at other locations and often significantly higher than at the Headwater Reservoirs or Upper River. Mercury (first analyzed in eggs in 2001), PCDDs and PCDFs were extremely low in 2001/2002 with no significant spatial patterns. Whole fish composite samples of largescale sucker (Catastomus macrocheilus) and northern

  8. CalCOFI Egg Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  9. The influence of dietary palm olein, fish oil and lard on the egg yolk and plasma lipid composition, and performances of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodzic, A; Hamamdzic, M; Gagic, A; Mihaljevic, M; Vegara, M; Krnic, J; Pasic Juhas, E

    2008-01-01

    The influence of dietary palm olein, in comparison to fish oil and lard, on lipid levels in egg yolk and blood plasma, the fatty acid composition of egg yolk, and various production parameters were studied. Brown Lohman laying hens (n=45) were randomly assigned into three groups of 15 birds, and treated with experimental diets with either 3% palm olein (PO), fish oil (FO) or lard (L) for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, feed consumption was significantly lower for hens fed the PO diet, except week 6 of the experiment. The concentration of plasma triglycerides was increased by all experimental diets, whereas there were no significant increases of plasma total lipid and total cholesterol concentrations only in the PO group. For yolk lipids a decrease in triglycerides in the FO and L groups was observed, while total cholesterol and total lipid were significantly decreased in the PO group. Feeding with the PO diet resulted in the lowest concentrations of palmitic, stearic and linoleic acid, as well as in the highest concentration of monounsaturated oleic acid in the yolk total lipid. It was concluded that the composition of yolk lipids did not closely match the concentrations of lipids observed in experimental diets or plasma. Based on the current work it seems that the PO diet modulates egg yolk lipid content best.

  10. 9 CFR 82.8 - Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.8 Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area....

  11. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208 Section 93.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY,...

  12. 9 CFR 93.219 - Declaration for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for poultry. 93.219 Section 93.219 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND...

  13. 9 CFR 93.205 - Certificate for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for poultry. 93.205 Section 93.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND...

  14. Poultry housing and husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, H A

    2010-08-01

    1. In order to conduct this anniversary review, 10 excellent papers were carefully selected from the 148 available papers published on housing and husbandry in British Poultry Science (BPS) over the past 50 years. 2. The 10 selected papers on this subject covered mainly the housing and husbandry of laying hens, but two of them dealt with various aspects of broiler production. 3. Aspects of housing considered included a wide range of intensive and extensive systems of broiler and egg production. Specific topics included the effects of husbandry system on bird welfare, including skeletal damage in laying hens and contact dermatitis in broiler chickens, as well as the design and management of nest boxes, perches, feeders and drinkers, conventional laying cages (CCs), furnished laying cages (FCs) and non-cage systems (NCs). 4. A variety of the findings in these and related papers have enlightened our understanding of many aspects of poultry housing and husbandry; most of them have found application in the poultry industry and thus improved its efficiency.

  15. Effect of Environmental Exposure of Arsenic on Cattle and Poultry in Nadia District, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Bakul Kumar; Bhar, Moloy Kumar; Patra, Pabitra Hriday; Majumdar, Debasish; Dey, Radha Raman; Sarkar, Samar; Mandal, Tapan Kumar; Chakraborty, Animesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate an alternative source of arsenicosis in human food chain through livestock. Thirty milch cattle and 20 poultry birds along with their eggs were selected randomly from two endemic villages of Nadia district and one nonendemic villages of Hooghly district in West Bengal, India. Milk, feces, urine, and hair samples of cattle and feed materials, such as water and straw, were collected to analyze arsenic status. Arsenic concentration in egg yolk and albumen from poultry eggs and different poultry organs after culling was estimated. Distribution of arsenic in animal body indicates that major portion of arsenic was eliminated through feces, urine, and milk. Poultry egg yolk, albumen, and poultry products retain arsenic in all organs. Cows and poultry birds reared in endemic zone retain significantly higher concentration of arsenic. Consumption of egg, agricultural produces grown in contaminated soil, and milk might have produced arsenicosis and may be considered as alternative source of arsenic contamination. PMID:22736905

  16. Using the Fish Larvae and Egg Exposure System (FLEES) to Generate Effects Data for Informing Environmental Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    M., M. G. Fox, and T. H. Whillans. 1999. Influence of turbidity on piscivory in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Canadian Journal of...Wilkens, and A. J. Kennedy. In prep. Effects of suspended sediment on smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) eggs and larvae. Submitted to Journal of...smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) eggs and larvae. Submitted to Journal of Great Lakes Research. ERDC TN-DOER-E42 March 2017 6 This finding is

  17. A simple device for measuring the minimum current velocity to maintain semi-buoyant fish eggs in suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Julia S.; Cheek, Brandon D.; Chen, Qingman; Groeschel, Jillian R.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Grabowski, Timothy B.

    2013-01-01

    Pelagic broadcast spawning cyprinids are common to Great Plains rivers and streams. This reproductive guild produces non-adhesive semi-buoyant eggs that require sufficient current velocity to remain in suspension during development. Although studies have shown that there may be a minimum velocity needed to keep the eggs in suspension, this velocity has not been estimated directly nor has the influence of physicochemical factors on egg buoyancy been determined. We developed a simple, inexpensive flow chamber that allowed for evaluation of minimum current velocity needed to keep semi-buoyant eggs in suspension at any time frame during egg development. The device described here has the capability of testing the minimum current velocity needed to keep semi-buoyant eggs in suspension at a wide range of physicochemical conditions. We used gellan beads soaked in freshwater for 0, 24, and 48 hrs as egg surrogates and evaluated minimum current velocities necessary to keep them in suspension at different combinations of temperature (20.0 ± 1.0° C, 25.0 ± 1.0° C, and 28.0 ± 1.0° C) and total dissolved solids (TDS; 1,000 mg L-1, 3,000 mg L-1, and 6,000 mg L-1). We found that our methodology generated consistent, repeatable results within treatment groups. Current velocities ranging from 0.001–0.026 needed to keep the gellan beads in suspension were negatively correlated to soak times and TDS and positively correlated with temperature. The flow chamber is a viable approach for evaluating minimum current velocities needed to keep the eggs of pelagic broadcast spawning cyprinids in suspension during development.

  18. 9 CFR 93.213 - Appearance of disease among poultry in quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance of disease among poultry in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  19. SPECIFIC CONTROL OF SALMONELLA IN POULTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimenov N.V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientifically based and clinically validated new tools and methods to combat Salmonella infection in poultry, allowing to ensure the safety and health safety products - eggs and poultry meat. The method of selective decontamination involves the use of bivalent bacteriophage that is based on highly selected phages Phagum Salmonella typhimurium and Phagum Salmonella enteritidis, as well as probiotic laktobifadola. The developed tools and methods of selective decontamination followed by immunization with inactivated vaccine associated "Virosalm" allows you to eliminate salmonella infection in poultry.

  20. Backyard Poultry

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-18

    Dr. Colin Basler, an epidemiologist with CDC, discusses his article on Salmonella infections associated with keeping live poultry in backyards.  Created: 1/18/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/18/2017.

  1. Impact of Heat Stress on Poultry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas J. Lara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and controlling environmental conditions is crucial to successful poultry production and welfare. Heat stress is one of the most important environmental stressors challenging poultry production worldwide. The detrimental effects of heat stress on broilers and laying hens range from reduced growth and egg production to decreased poultry and egg quality and safety. Moreover, the negative impact of heat stress on poultry welfare has recently attracted increasing public awareness and concern. Much information has been published on the effects of heat stress on productivity and immune response in poultry. However, our knowledge of basic mechanisms associated to the reported effects, as well as related to poultry behavior and welfare under heat stress conditions is in fact scarce. Intervention strategies to deal with heat stress conditions have been the focus of many published studies. Nevertheless, effectiveness of most of the interventions has been variable or inconsistent. This review focuses on the scientific evidence available on the importance and impact of heat stress in poultry production, with emphasis on broilers and laying hens.

  2. Multi-residue determination of 115 veterinary drugs and pharmaceutical residues in milk powder, butter, fish tissue and eggs using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasenaki, Marilena E; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2015-06-23

    A simple and sensitive multi-residue method for the determination of 115 veterinary drugs and pharmaceuticals, belonging in more than 20 different classes, in butter, milk powder, egg and fish tissue has been developed. The method involves a simple generic solid-liquid extraction step (solvent extraction, SE) with 0.1% formic acid in aqueous solution of EDTA 0.1% (w/v)-acetonitrile (ACN)-methanol (MeOH) (1:1:1, v/v) with additional ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Precipitation of lipids and proteins was promoted by subjecting the extracts at very low temperature (-23°C) for 12h. Further cleanup with hexane ensures fat removal from the matrix. Analysis was performed by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Two separate runs were performed for positive and negative ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Particular attention was devoted to extraction optimization: different sample-to-extracting volume ratios, different concentrations of formic acid in the extraction solvent and different ultrasonic extraction temperatures were tested in butter, egg and milk powder samples. The method was also applied in fish tissue samples. It was validated, on the basis of international guidelines, for all four matrices. Quantitative analysis was performed by means of standard addition calibration. For over 80% of the analytes, the recoveries were between 50% and 120% in all matrices studied, with RSD values in the range of 1-18%. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.008 μg kg(-1) (oxfendazole in butter) to 3.15 μg kg(-1) (hydrochlorthiazide in egg). The evaluated method provides reliable screening, quantification, and identification of 115 veterinary drug and pharmaceutical residues in foods of animal origin and has been successfully applied in real samples.

  3. Advanced Oxidation Process sanitation of hatching eggs reduces Salmonella in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reduction of Salmonella contamination of eggs is important in improving the microbial food safety of poultry and poultry products. Developing interventions to reduce Salmonella contamination of eggs is important to improving the microbial quality of eggs entering the hatchery. Previously, the hydr...

  4. 77 FR 75118 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY... the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI). The Committee is being..., poultry, and processed egg products, inspection, safety, and other matters that fall within the scope...

  5. Poultry Production and Marketing in Nepal : with Comparison to Other South Asian Countries.

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to assess the present situation of the Nepalese poultry industry and its comparison to other South Asian Countries with the help of survey and available secondary data. There were about 15.9 million poultry producing 10,962 Mt meat and 421,460 thousands of eggs including commercial and backyard poultry in the year 1996/97. The commercial poultry produced 269 eggs in 48 weeks of production with feed conversion ratio 2.9. The per Kg production cost of eggs was ab...

  6. Poultry power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loram, G.

    2000-02-01

    This article gives details of the world's largest power plant fired by poultry litter and forestry waste fired in Thetford, UK. The processing of the waste, the injection of the waste by air, the plant operation, and the cleaning of the flue gas are described. The low levels of odour and noise, and the environmental benefits of the plant which produces no methane or carbon dioxide emissions are noted. (uk)

  7. Determination of residues of sulphonamide in eggs and laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Shazia; Ahmad, H B; Nawaz, R

    2007-07-01

    Eggs were collected from different areas of Faisalabad city. The quantity of sulphonamides was determined in yolk, white and whole egg and compared with the permissible limit 1 microg/ml for sulphadimethoxine available in literature. In another experiment, a group of hens were kept at a poultry farm after medicating them with darvisal liquid to see if the residues of sulphonamide pass into the eggs of poultry. The period of existence of residues was noted.

  8. Lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus) egg mass and reef fish density SCUBA survey in the Strait of Georgia, February 15-22, 2012

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    by R.P. McPhie and J.R. King

    2012-01-01

    ...) egg mass density estimates. Previous lingcod egg mass SCUBA surveys involving egg mass counts were conducted at this index site in 1990, 1991, 1994, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2010, and 2011...

  9. Assessment of antifungal effects of copper nanoparticles on the growth of the fungus Saprolegnia sp. on white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Kalatehjari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the in-vitro effects of copper nanoparticles on the growth of the fungus Saprolegnia sp. isolated from white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum eggs. The antifungal effects were measured by determining the minimum lethal concentration of copper nanoparticles on Saprolegnia sp. in yeast extract glucose chloramphenicol (YGC agar at 25 °C. Saprolegnia grown in YGC agar without added copper nanoparticles served as negative controls. Our study showed that copper nanoparticles at a minimum concentration of 10 ppm have antifungal effects on Saprolegnia sp. The antifungal effects of copper nanoparticles are positively correlated to both concentration and time of exposure. This study showed that the antifungal properties of copper nanoparticles make it a good alternative to malachite green, which is carcinogenic.

  10. CURRENT STATE OF POULTRY BREEDING AND ITS FUTURE TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Poultry production in eastern Croatia is developed by individual producers mainly in semi intensive way, and within the organized poultry systems where the process is organized in a modern, intensive way. There is a tradition of breeding hens and geese in this area. Poultry products - meat and eggs are important in supplying the population with animal protein, minerals and vitamins. Modern hybrid hens are used for egg production and for meat production in the intensive production. Today geese breeding in these areas are completely neglected. Croatia as a member of European Union, has possibility of the placement of autochthonous breeds of poultry such as Hrvatica hen, Zagorje turkey and Podravian goose. Financial supports at the national level are allocated for the first two autochthonous breeds of poultry because these breeds can, with good production traits, represent genetic resources and strategic reserves in the future development of domestic poultry genotypes. Poultry production is especial emphasis in accordance with the criteria of welfare and health of poultry. This paper discusses further development of poultry in terms of production of poultry meat and eggs as a functional food. The composition and content of nutricines in meat and eggs can be affected by feed composition. Desired nutricines are installed in muscular tissue of poultry by using feed and adding some components. Consumption of eggs and poultry meat enriched by selenium, lutein and omega-3 fatty acids affects the improvement of the quality of the human diet. The recent researches show that chicken can effectively be enriched in carnosine - ingredients that are now taught as “anti-aging” factor. Enrichment of poultry products with nutricines gives greater importance to these foods in the diet of the population than the former one, mainly based on the nutritional aspect. Greater selection of quality poultry products can be a significant factor in the development of

  11. Chemical Composition of Vermicompost Made from Organic Wastes through the Vermicomposting and Composting with the Addition of Fish Meal and Egg Shells Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of compost is an important indicator that determines the quality of compost. This study compared the chemical composition of vermicompost resulting from the process of vermicomposting alone with combined vermicomposting and composting with addition of egg shells flour and fish meal. Organic wastes used were the mixture of spent mushrooms waste, coconut husks, cow dung, vegetables residue, and leaf litter. Lumbricus rubellus was the species of earthworm used in the vermicomposting process. In the composting process, egg shells flour and fish meal are added into the vermicompost as additives materials. The results indicate that the combined vermicomposting and composting process with addition the additives materials improves the chemical composition of vermicompost compared to using vermicomposting process alone. The change of chemical composition was indicated by a decrease in C-organic content and C/N ratio by 29% and 99%, respectively, while the content of N, P, K and S increased by 52%, 67.5%, 29% and 25%, respectively due to the addition of additives material in the composting process. The largest increase of vermicompost nutrient content occurred in the Ca content by an average of up to 7-fold. While polyphenols, lignin and cellulose content of vermicompost decreased slightly. The treatment of two mixture (a spent mushrooms waste, cow dung and vegetables residue, and (b spent mushroom waste, cow dung, vegetables residue, and leaf litter gave the best chemical composition. However, to determine the quality, we need to test the product in a plant growth bioassay as a follow-up study.

  12. Insects - a natural nutrient source for poultry - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Józefiak, D; Josefiak, A; Kieronczyk, B

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of poultry meat and eggs is expected to increase considerably in the nearest future, which creates the demand for new poultry feed ingredients in order to support sustainable intensive production. Moreover, the constant improvement of the genetic potential of poultry has resulted...... in an increased nutrient density in poultry feeds, which limits the possibility to include low quality feed ingredients. Therefore, the feed industry needs new sources of highly digestible protein with a desirable amino acid composition to substitute other valuable but limited protein sources of animal origin...

  13. Evaluation of standardized ileal digestible valine:lysine, total lysine:crude protein, and replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline amino acids on growth performance of nursery pigs from seven to twelve kilograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemechek, J E; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M

    2014-04-01

    Five experiments were conducted to evaluate replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline AA for 7- to 12-kg pigs. In all experiments, pigs (PIC TR4 × 1050) were fed a common diet for 3 d postweaning, treatment diets for 14 d (d 0 to 14), and, again, a common diet for 14 d (d 14 to 28). Treatment diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.30% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys. Experiment 1 evaluated replacing dietary fish meal with crystalline AA. For the 6 treatments, crystalline Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Ile, Val, Gln, and Gly all increased to maintain minimum AA ratios as fish meal decreased (4.50, 3.60, 2.70, 1.80, and 0.90 to 0.00%). There was no difference in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among treatments, validating a low-CP, AA-fortified diet for subsequent experiments. Experiment 2 evaluated deleting crystalline AA from a low-CP, AA-fortified diet with 6 treatments: 1) a positive control similar to the diet validated in Exp. 1, 2) positive control with l-Ile deleted, 3) positive control with l-Trp deleted, 4) positive control with l-Val deleted, 5) positive control with l-Gln and l-Gly deleted, and 6) positive control with l-Ile, l-Trp, l-Val, l-Gln, and l-Gly deleted (NC). Pigs fed the positive control or Ile deleted diet had improved (P meal was adjusted as a source of dispensable N to achieve the target Lys:CP. There were no differences in growth performance among pigs fed different Lys:CP diets. Experiment 4 evaluated increasing SID Val:Lys with Val at 57.4, 59.9, 62.3, 64.7, 67.2, and 69.6% of Lys. Average daily gain and ADFI increased (quadratic, P meal, meat and bone meal, or poultry byproduct meal). Low- and high-crystalline AA diets contained 4.5 or 1% fish meal, 6 or 1.2% meat and bone meal, and 6 or 1% poultry byproduct meal, respectively. No AA × protein source interactions were observed. From d 0 to 14, no differences in growth performance among protein sources was found, whereas increasing

  14. USE OF MULTIPHOTON LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY TO IMAGE BENZO[A]PYRENE AND METABOLITES IN FISH EGGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiphoton laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM) is a promising tool to study the tissue distribution of environmental chemical contaminants during fish early life stages. One such chemical for which this is possible is benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that a...

  15. Contaminant concentrations in Florida raptor eggs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Inviable eggs from the nests of Florida bald eagles and ospreys were collected opportunistically from 1987 through 1989. Egg contents were analyzed for...

  16. CalCOFI Egg Counts Positive Tows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  17. Loggerhead Sea Turtle Egg Transplant Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 10th year of the Loggerhead Sea Turtle Egg Transplant Program has just concluded with a much lower hatching success than anticipated. Eggs were transferred from...

  18. Raising Backyard Poultry in Rural Bangladesh: Financial and Nutritional Benefits, but Persistent Risky Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanta, I S; Hasnat, Md A; Zeidner, N; Gurley, E S; Azziz-Baumgartner, E; Sharker, M A Y; Hossain, K; Khan, S U; Haider, N; Bhuyan, A A; Hossain, Md A; Luby, S P

    2017-10-01

    Poultry is commonly raised by households in rural Bangladesh. In 2007, the Government of Bangladesh began a mass media campaign to disseminate 10 recommended precautions to prevent transmission of H5N1 from poultry to humans. This longitudinal study explored the contribution of backyard poultry on household economy and nutrition and compared poultry-raising practices to government recommendations. From 2009 to 2012, we enrolled a nationally representative sample of 2489 primary backyard poultry raisers from 115 rural villages selected by probability proportional to population size. Researchers interviewed the raisers to collect data on poultry-raising practices. They followed the raisers for 2-12 months to collect data on household income and nutrition from poultry. Income from backyard poultry flocks accounted for 2.8% of monthly household income. Return on annual investment (ROI) per flock was 480%. Yearly, median family consumption of eggs was one-fifth of the total produced eggs and three poultry from their own flock. Respondents' reported practices conflicted with government recommendations. Sixty per cent of raisers had never heard of avian influenza or 'bird flu'. Among the respondents, 85% handled sick poultry or poultry that died due to illness, and 49% slaughtered or defeathered sick poultry. In 37% of households, children touched poultry. Fifty-eight per cent never washed their hands with soap after handling poultry, while <1% covered their nose and mouth with a cloth when handling poultry. Only 3% reported poultry illness and deaths to local authorities. These reported practices did not improve during the study period. Raising backyard poultry in rural Bangladesh provides important income and nutrition with an excellent ROI. Government recommendations to reduce the risk of avian influenza transmission did not impact the behaviour of poultry producers. Further research should prioritize developing interventions that simultaneously reduce the risk of

  19. Prevalence and antibiogram of Salmonella species isolated from poultry products in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iroha Ifeanyichukwu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Salmonella species isolated from various poultry products including chicken meat, poultry eggs, poultry bird's drinking water, and poultry feed. Materials and methods: A total of 79 samples comprising of chicken meat (n=20, egg shell (n=15, poultry egg contents (n=18, drinking water (n=14, and poultry feed (n=12 were bacteriologically and microscopically analyzed for the isolation of Salmonella species. Results: Overall, this study reported a high prevalence of Salmonella species (62% from various poultry products especially in poultry (chicken meat and poultry egg contents where the percentage occurrence of Salmonella species was 100% and 20.4% respectively. The antibiogram conducted on the Salmonella species isolated from the various poultry samples reveal that all the isolates were multi-drug resistant to more than 50% of the tested antibiotics especially to tetracycline, gentamicin, tobramycin, nitrofurantoin and imipenem. However, most of the Salmonella species were also found to be highly susceptible to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ertapenem and ceftazidime. It was also observed in this study that the highest level of resistance to the tested antibiotics was recorded in Salmonella species isolated from poultry meat samples. Conclusion: Salmonellosis due to the consumption of contaminated or infected poultry products could pose serious public health problem to the general public if allowed. Thus, poultry farms and other poultry product outlets should be operated under sanitized conditions that ward-off the incidence of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella. The use of antibiotics as growth promoting agents and prophylaxis in the production of poultry birds in this region should be discouraged and ndash; since such practices allowed drug-resistant bacteria to emerge and spread in the community. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 353-359

  20. Transgenic zebrafish eggs containing bactericidal peptide is a novel food supplement enhancing resistance to pathogenic infection of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yung; Yang, Ping-Hsi; Kao, Chia-Ling; Huang, Han-I; Tsai, Huai-Jen

    2010-03-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) was used as a bioreactor to produce bovine lactoferricin (LFB), which has wide-ranging antimicrobial activity. We constructed an expression plasmid in which LFB was fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and driven by zebrafish beta-actin promoter. After microinjection, six transgenic founders were screened on the basis of GFP appearance. Among them, a stable ZBL-5 line was selected by the ubiquitous and strong expression of GFP. Using PCR and Western blot analysis, we confirmed that the recombinant LFB-GFP protein was produced by the F2 progeny derived from the ZBL-5 line. The bactericidal agar plate assay proved that the functional domain of LFB was released from the LFB-GFP fusion protein, resulting in strong bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli, Edwardsiella tarda and Aeromonas hydrophila. Furthermore, adult zebrafish were given one feeding of fifty 72-hpf transgenic embryos. The treated fish were then immersed in freshwater containing 1 x 10(5) CFU ml(-1)E. tarda for 7 days. The survival rate of the treated zebrafish was significantly higher than that of fish fed with fifty wild-type embryos (75 +/- 12.5% versus 4 +/- 7.2%). This line of evidence suggested that pathogen resistance can be enhanced by using transgenic embryos containing LFB-GFP as a food supplement for fish, while, at the same time, reducing the demand of chemical antibiotics.

  1. Heat Stress on Poultry: Metabolism, Effects and Efforts to Overcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasil Tamzil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Poultry industries in the tropics are challenged by high ambient temperatures and humidities which cause poultry suffer from heat stress. Heat stress contributes to the instability of certain compounds, such as enzymes. Consequently the enzymes function reduces. Affecting the physiological and hormonal conditions of the poultry. In such condition, the body will attempt to restore homeostasis to the state before it happened. When physiological failed to meet the condition, the body will use the genetic pathway by activating Heat Shock Protein (HSP genes to protect proteins which are sensitive to high temperatures. Heat stress in poultry triggers the emergence of various diseases and affects the growth of poultry and egg production. These negative effects on poultry can be minimized by selecting the type of chickens which are tolerant to high ambient temperature, modifying microclimates of cages and adding anti-stress compounds through feed and or drink.

  2. The structural requirements of epitopes with IgE binding capacity demonstrated by three major allergens from fish, egg and tree pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, S; Apold, J; Holen, E; Vik, H; Florvaag, E; Dybendal, T

    1991-01-01

    Three major allergens from cod fish, egg white and tree pollen, were characterized by studies on their allergenic and antigenic structures. The major allergen of cod fish, Allergen M "parvalbumins pI 4.75", is composed of 113 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 12,328 daltons. It comprised three domains, AB, CD and EF, consisting of 3 helices interspaced by one loop. Each of the loops of the CD and EF domains each coordinates one Ca2+. The antigenicity and allergenicity of Allergen M was deduced from studying the modified protein and some particular synthetic peptides. Three sites were encompassing IgE binding epitopes namely peptides 33-44, 65-74 and 88-96. A novel peptide (49-64), of the CD-domain, was demonstrated to be allergenically/antigenically active and cross reactive with birch pollen allergen, which incidentally was used as a negative control. This site encompassed two repetitive sequences (D-E-D-K) and (D-E-L-K), suggested to be mutually critical for the specificity of antibody binding. This hypothesis was reconfirmed by SPPS of several analogous peptides of region 39-64. Furthermore, peptide 88-103 of the EF-domain was similarly synthesized; it functioned as a monovalent hapten, blocking and not eliciting allergic reaction. Moreover, peptide 13-32 of domain AB, the non-calcium binding domain, was thoroughly tested. The results of PK inhibition showed clear activity and the peptide was found to function at the level of a divalent determinant. Ovalbumin (OA) is the most dominant of five major allergens of egg white and universally used as model protein. OA allergenic epitopes were shown to be mainly determined by the primary structure and depend on certain peptide chain length. The N-terminal decapeptide (OA 1-10) was shown to react with reaginic IgE. Direct skin test on egg allergic patients, showed no activity and the site was therefore concluded to encompasses one single Ig binding haptenic epitope. Peptide OA 323-339, was demonstrated to

  3. LEVEL OF CHOLESTEROL AND FATTY ACIDS IN THE EGGS OF DIFFERENT SPECIES OF POULTRY. TEORES DE COLESTEROL E ÁCIDOS GRAXOS EM OVOS DE DIFERENTES ESPÉCIES DE AVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. OLIVEIRA

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to evaluate the cholesterol level fatty acids of triacylglicerol and phosphofolipids of eggs of the different poultry species. The following results were observed: cholesterol: goose duck> turkey > chicken > quail. Fatty acids of triacylglicerols: palmitic acid: turkey > quail goose > duck chicken. Estearic acid: quail chicken> goose duck perua. Oleic acid : goose > chicken> quail duck turkey. α-Linoleic acid: chicken> turkey quail > goose duck. Arachidonic acid: turkey > quail duck> chicken> goose. Docosahexanoic acid: turkey> duck goose chicken > quail. Phospholipids of fatty acids: palmí]itic acid: duck> goose quail > chicken turkey. Estearic acid: chicken turkey > quail> goose > duck. Oleic acid: duck goose > quail > turkey> chicken. α-Linoleic acid: turkey > chicken quail > duck goose. Arachidonic acid: duck > goose > quail chicken > turkey. Docosahexanoic acid: chicken> goose > turkey> quail duck. These results can be of importance for food tables and dietetic treatment of patients.

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o teor de colesterol, ácidos graxos de triacilgliceróis e de fosfolipídeos de ovos de diferentes espécies de aves. Foram observados os seguintes resultados: As concentrações de colesterol foram maiores na: pata ≅ gansa > perua > galinha > codorna. As concentrações de ácidos graxos de triacilgliceróis: ácido palmítico: perua> gansa codorna > galinha >pata. Ácido esteárico: codorna galinha > gansa pata perua. Ácido oléico: gansa > galinha >codorna pata perua. Ácido -linoléico: galinha >codorna > perua > gansa pata. Ácido araquidônico: perua > codorna pata > galinha> gansa. Ácido docosaexanóico: perua > pata gansa galinha > codorna. Ácidos graxos de fosfolipídeos: ácido palmítico: pata > gansa codorna > galinha perua. Ácido esteárico: galinha

  4. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93.212 Section 93.212 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTR...

  5. Prevalence and key figures for the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae infections in poultry farm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparagano, Olivier; Pavlićević, Aleksandar; Murano, Takako; Camarda, Antonio; Sahibi, Hamid; Kilpinen, Ole; Mul, Monique; van Emous, Rick; le Bouquin, Sophie; Hoel, Kristian; Cafiero, Maria Assunta

    2009-06-01

    Recent surveys and sample collection have confirmed the endemicity of Dermanyssus gallinae in poultry farming worldwide. The reduction in number and efficacy of many acaricide products has accentuated the prevalence rates of this poultry ectoparasite observed more often in non intensive systems such as free-range, barns or backyards and more often in laying hens than in broiler birds. The lack of knowledge from producers and the utilisation of inadequate, ineffective or illegal chemicals in many countries have been responsible for the increase in infestation rates due to the spread of acaricide resistance. The costs for control methods and treatment are showing the tremendous economic impact of this ectoparasite on poultry meat and egg industries. This paper reviews the prevalence rates of this poultry pest in different countries and for different farming systems and the production parameters which could be linked to this pest proliferation.

  6. Verification of Egg Farming Systems from the Netherlands and New Zealand Using Stable Isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, Karyne M.; Ruth, Van Saskia; Alewijn, Martin; Philips, Andy; Rogers, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotopes were used to develop authentication criteria of eggs laid under cage, barn, free range, and organic farming regimens from The Netherlands and New Zealand. A training set of commercial poultry feeds and egg albumen from 49 poultry farms across The Netherlands was used to determine

  7. Morphological characteristics and egg production of forced-moult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    Key words: Egg production, layers, forced-moult, morphology. INTRODUCTION ... The experiment was conducted in the Poultry Unit of the Teaching and Research ... started to drop, their eyeballs and eye rings became dull. Also, the comb ...

  8. Multiresidue Screening of Veterinary Drugs in Meat, Milk, Egg, and Fish Using Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, JeongWoo; Park, Su-Jeong; Park, Hae-Chul; Hossain, Md Akil; Kim, Myeong-Ae; Son, Seong-Wan; Lim, Chae-Mi; Kim, Tae-Wan; Cho, Byung-Hoon

    2017-06-01

    New approaches to veterinary drug screening based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToF/MS) are rapid and have high selectivity and sensitivity. In this study, we developed a multiresidue method for screening over 100 veterinary drug residues using ion trap (IT)-ToF/MS. The screened compounds comprised major drug classes used in veterinary practice, representing the following: amphenicols, anthelmintics, benzimidazoles, β-lactams, coccidiostats, ionophores, macrolides, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, quinolones, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and tranquilizers. The method was developed based on chromatographic retention time, specific accurate mass, isotope distribution, and fragment data. Each compound was validated at three levels, and the mass accuracy, accuracy, and repeatability were calculated. All parameters showed acceptable values and conformed to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria. This screening method can simultaneously analyze over 100 veterinary drugs in meat, milk, eggs, and fish in a single analytical run.

  9. Development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of neomycin residues in pig muscle, chicken muscle, egg, fish, milk and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Xu, B; Zhang, Y; He, J X

    2009-05-01

    A colorimetric competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was developed using polyclonal antibody to determine neomycin residues in food of animal origin. No cross-reactivity of the antibody was observed with other aminoglycosides. The limit of detection of the method was 0.1μg/kg. A simple and efficient sample extraction method was established with recoveries of neomycin ranged from 75% to 105%. The detection limits were 5μg/kg(l) in pig muscle, chicken muscle, fish and milk, 10μg/kg in kidney and 20μg/kg in egg, respectively. Chemiluminescence assay was developed for detecting neomycin residues in pig muscle and chicken muscle. The limit of detection of the method was 0.015μg/kg, and the detection limits were 1.5μg/kg in pig muscle and 6μg/kg in chicken muscle. The ELISA tests were validated by HPLC, and the results showed a good correlation (r(2)) which was greater than 0.9.

  10. Inter-annual and inter-specific differences in the drift of fish eggs and yolksac larvae in the North Sea: A biophysical modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myron A. Peck

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We employed 3-D biophysical modeling and dispersion kernel analysis to explore inter-annual and inter-specific differences in the drift trajectories of eggs and yolksac larvae of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, sprat (Sprattus sprattus and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus in the North Sea. In this region, these four species exhibit peak spawning during the boreal winter, late winter/early spring, late spring/early summer, and mid-summer respectively, but utilize the same spawning locations (our simulations included Dogger Bank, Southern Bight and the German Bight. Inter-annual differences in the temperature history, and an increase in the area of dispersion and final distribution at the end of the yolksac phase were more pronounced (and related to the North Atlantic Oscillation for winter- and early spring-spawners compared to late spring/summer spawners. The progeny of the latter experienced the largest (up to 10-fold inter-annual differences in drift distances, although absolute drift distances were modest (~2 to 30 km when compared to those of the former (~ 20 to 130 km. Our results highlight the complex interplay that exists between the specific life history strategies of the different species and the impacts of the variability in (climate-driven physical factors during the earliest life stages of marine fish.

  11. The fatty acid and cholesterol composition of enriched egg yolk lipids obtained by modifying hens’ diets with fish oil and flaxseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçyn, Hasan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fish oil and flaxseed in the diets of laying hens on the cholesterol and fatty acid composition of egg lipids were studied. Isa-White laying hens and five experimental diets were used. The first diet was used as the control. Fish oil (1.5%, flaxseed (4.32% and 8.64 or both of them (1.5% fish oil and 4.32% flaxseed were added to the others and hens were fed for 30 and 60 days. The cholesterol and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined. No significant difference (pSe han estudiado los efectos producidos por la presencia de aceite de pescado y linaza, en la dieta de gallinas ponedoras, sobre la composición en colesterol y ácidos grasos de los lípidos del huevo. Se han utilizado gallinas ponedoras Isa-White y cinco tipos de dietas experimentales. La primera dieta fue usada como control. Se añadió aceite de pescado (1.5%, linaza (4.32% y 8.64 o ambos (1.5% aceite de pescado y 4.32% linaza a las otras dietas y se alimentó a las gallinas durante 30 y 60 días, determinándose la composición en colesterol y ácidos grasos de las yemas. No se encontró diferencia significativa (p<0.05 debida a las dietas en el contenido de colesterol de las yemas excepto en la que contenía 8.64% de linaza. El contenido total de ácidos grasos saturados disminuyó en todas las dietas en comparación con la dieta control. El contenido total de ácidos grasos n-3 fue significativamente mayor en todas las dietas. El cambio predominante en las dietas que contenían linaza se encontró en el contenido de ácido linolénico. El contenido de los ácidos eicosapentaenoico, docosapentaenoico y docosahexaenoico de todas las dietas fue significativamente mayor.

  12. Fishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜群山

    2002-01-01

    @@ Last Saturday my cousin (表兄) came to my home. We were very happy to see each other. We decided that the next day we went to fish. We got up very early that day. When we left home,the moon could still be seen in the sky.

  13. Preventing introduction and spread of Dermanyssus gallinae in poultry facilities using the HACCP method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mul, Monique F; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M

    2009-06-01

    Preventing the establishment of ectoparasitic poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) populations is key in ensuring welfare and egg production of laying hens and absence of allergic reactions of workers in poultry facilities. Using the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point method, a panel of experts identified hazards and associated risks concerning the introduction and spread of this mite in poultry facilities. Together we provide an overview of possible corrective actions that can be taken to prevent population establishment. Additionally, a checklist of the most critical control points has been devised as management tool for poultry farmers. This list was evaluated by Dutch and British poultry farmers. They found the checklist feasible and useful.

  14. Village poultry production system

    OpenAIRE

    Wondmeneh, E.; Waaij, van der, Liesbeth; Udo, H.M.J.; Tadelle, D.; van Arendonk,

    2016-01-01

    This study identified perception of poultry farmers’ on impact of interventions in village poultry production and quantified the impacts of interventions on flock and economic performance using modelling. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on perceptions of poultry keeping and performances from 240 randomly selected households in two districts of Ethiopia. Crop was the major source of income, and poultry generated supplementary income. Farmers perceived that demand and price ...

  15. Coccidiostats in unmedicated feedingstuffs for poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radičević, T.; Janković, S.; Stefanović, S.; Nikolić, D.; Đinović-Stojanović, J.; Spirić, D.

    2017-09-01

    Coccidiostats are compounds that are widely used as feed additives to prevent and treat coccidiosis, a contagious disease affecting mainly poultry, and which is associated with warm and humid conditions, as can be found on poultry farms. In Serbia and in the EU, specific coccidiostats are authorized as poultry feed additives. A wide range of these products is available for prevention (as additives) and treatment of coccidiosis (as veterinary medicinal products). The aim of this study is to present findings of residues of coccidiostats in unmedicated feed for chickens for fattening and laying hens as possible causes for coccidiostat residues in liver and eggs. The reasons for these compounds occurring in animal tissues and primary products of animal origin could be an inappropriate withdrawal period after the last administration of medicated feed or cross-contamination of unmedicated feed during the production on the same production line as medicated feedingstuffs, because of inadequate cleaning procedures and/or hygiene practices.

  16. Feeding and management strategies for rural poultry production in Central Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goromela, E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Central Tanzania, rural poultry, scavengeable feed resources, nutrient composition, crop contents, season, farming system, chemical composition, supplementary feeding, weaning, egg production, growth rate, survival rate, laying management, indigenous chickens The main objective of the

  17. effects of climate change on poultry production in ondo state, nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-03-19

    Mar 19, 2013 ... change affects egg and meat production pattern and 95.2% of the respondents agreed that moist ... the poultry farmers more about the effects posed by climate change on ... other domestic animals (Avila,1985; Demeke,.

  18. Preventing introduction and spread of Dermanyssus gallinae in poultry facilities using the HACCP method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mul, M.F.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Preventing the establishment of ectoparasitic poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) populations is key in ensuring welfare and egg production of laying hens and absence of allergic reactions of workers in poultry facilities. Using the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point method, a panel of e

  19. A Model for Promoting Poultry Industry Development in Togo: Part 1. Management Practices and Incubation Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tona, K.; Agbonon, A.; Eklu-Gadegbeku, K.; Teteh, A.; Simons, P.; Buyse, J.; Everaert, N.; Kemp, B.; Decuypere, E.; Gbeassor, M.

    2014-01-01

    In commercial poultry husbandry practice, the hatchery takes over the incubation of bird eggs in order to provide as many day-old chicks as needed at any time to farmers. The main bottleneck for poultry industry development in Togo is the lack of day-old chick supply. Indeed, there is no proficient

  20. Effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on ram semen freeze ability and fertility using soybean lecithin- and egg yolk-based extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, R; Sharafi, M; Zare Shahneh, A; Towhidi, A; Kohram, H; Zhandi, M; Esmaeili, V; Shahverdi, A

    2016-10-01

    Ram semen cryopreservation is not efficient for artificial insemination in commercial herds. Beneficial effects of dietary fish oil have been evaluated for cryopreservation of ram semen in soybean lecithin (SL) and egg yolk (EY)-based extenders. A factorial study (two diets × two extenders) was used to analyze the effects of two diets supplemented with fish oil (n-3 fatty acid) or palm oil (saturated fatty acids; [SFAs]) to freeze ram semen in two extenders containing SL or EY. Motility characteristics, membrane integrity, abnormal morphology, mitochondria activity, acrosome integrity, apoptotic status, and fertilizing ability were assessed after freeze-thawing. Although diet had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effects on the quality parameters of frozen-thawed sperm, effects of extenders on these traits were not significant (P > 0.05). The higher significant (P ≤ 0.05) percentage of total motility and progressive motility were observed in n-3/SL (44.83 ± 1.56 and 28.33 ± 1.4) and n-3/EY (43.33 ± 1.56 and 28.50 ± 1.4) than SFA/SL (32.16 ± 1.56 and 14.00 ± 1.4) and SFA/EY (31.66 ± 1.56 and 12.66 ± 1.4) groups. Moreover, n-3/SL and n-3/EY produced the higher significant (P ≤ 0.05) percentage of membrane integrity of sperm (39.83 ± 1.4 and 37.33 ± 1.4) than SFA/SL and SFA/EY (29.83 ± 1.4 and 28.5 ± 1.4). For viability results, the higher significant percentage of live sperm was observed in n-3/SL and n-3/EY (43.16 ± 1.38 and 45.66 ± 1.38) than SFA/SL and SFA/EY (28.66 ± 1.38 and 27.5 ± 1.38). For fertility trials, n-3-based diets (n-3/SL and n-3/EY) improved significantly (P ≤ 0.05) pregnancy rate (44% and 46%), parturition rate (42% and 42%), and lambing rate (46% and 44%) compared with the SFA-based diets (SFA/SL and SFA/EY). No interaction effects have been found between diets and extenders (P > 0.05). It seems that dietary fish oil can improve the semen performance after freezing-thawing process and

  1. Comparison of algal and fish sources on the oxidative stability of poultry meat and its enrichment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, C; Gibbs, R A; Givens, D I

    2010-01-01

    Human consumption of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) is below recommendations, and enriching chicken meat (by incorporating LC n-3 PUFA into broiler diets) is a viable means of increasing consumption. Fish oil is the most common LC n-3 PUFA supplement used but is unsustainable and reduces the oxidative stability of the mat. The objective of this experiment was to compare fresh fish oil (FFO) with fish oil encapsulated (EFO) in a gelatin matrix (to maintain its oxidative stability) and algal biomass at a low (LAG, 11), medium (MAG, 22), or high (HAG, 33 g/kg of diet) level of inclusion. The C22:6n-3 contents of the FFO, EFO, and MAG diets were equal. A control (CON) diet using blended vegetable oil was also made. As-hatched 1-d-old Ross 308 broilers (144) were reared (21 d) on a common starter diet then allocated to treatment pens (4 pens per treatment, 6 birds per pen) and fed treatment diets for 21 d before being slaughtered. Breast and leg meat was analyzed (per pen) for fatty acids, and cooked samples (2 pens per treatment) were analyzed for volatile aldehydes. Concentrations (mg/100 g of meat) of C20:5n-3, C22:5n-3, and C22:6n-3 were (respectively) CON: 4, 15, 24; FFO: 31, 46, 129; EFO: 18, 27, 122; LAG: 9, 19, 111; MAG: 6, 16, 147; and HAG: 9, 14, 187 (SEM: 2.4, 3.6, 13.1) in breast meat and CON: 4, 12, 9; FFO: 58, 56, 132; EFO: 63, 49, 153; LAG: 13, 14, 101; MAG: 11, 15, 102; HAG: 37, 37, 203 (SEM: 7.8, 6.7, 14.4) in leg meat. Cooked EFO and HAG leg meat was more oxidized (5.2 mg of hexanal/kg of meat) than the other meats (mean 2.2 mg/kg, SEM 0.63). It is concluded that algal biomass is as effective as fish oil at enriching broiler diets with C22:6 LC n-3 PUFA, and at equal C22:6n-3 contents, there is no significant difference between these 2 supplements on the oxidative stability of the meat that is produced.

  2. Protein profiles of hatchery egg shell membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Eggshells, which consist largely of calcareous outer shell and shell membranes, constitute a significant part of poultry hatchery waste. The shell membranes (ESM) not only contain proteins that originate from egg whites but also from the developing embryos and different contaminants of m...

  3. Vaccines and vaccination for avian influenza in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) vaccines have been developed and used to protect poultry and other birds in various countries of the world. Protection is principally mediated by an immune response to the subtype-specific hemagglutinin (HA) protein. AI vaccines prevent clinical signs of disease, death, egg pr...

  4. Efeito de Bixa orellana na alteração de características de ovos de galinhas Effect of Bixa orellana in the alteration of characteristics of poultry laying eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Nalesso Costa Harder

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, avaliar os efeitos da adição de urucum (Bixa orellana L. na ração de galinhas poedeiras, quanto à possível interferência na qualidade dos ovos. Para obtenção das amostras foram utilizados 125 animais, divididos em cinco tratamentos: Controle (0% - T1 e quatro tratamentos com adição de urucum na ração (0,5% - T2; 1,0% - T3; 1,5% - T4 e 2,0% - T5. Os animais foram separados aleatoriamente em cinco blocos de cinco animais, totalizando 25 animais por parcela. Os ovos, após coletados, foram classificados usando ovoscópio, pesados, realizada análise de gravidade específica, unidade Haugh, altura de albúmen e gema, espessura da casca, diâmetro e índice de gema. As diferentes dietas não afetaram: peso; gravidade específica; altura do albumén; espessura da casca; altura de gema; diâmetro de gema. Pôde ser observado que a adição de urucum, na ração de poedeiras, não alterou a maior parte dos parâmetros de qualidade física do ovo, somente a unidade Haugh e o índice de gema apresentaram diferença (pThis research evaluated the effects of addition of anatto (Bixa orellana L. to feed laying hens to verify the possible interference of the anatto on egg quality. The eggs were obtained from 125 animal divided in 5 treatments: Control (0% - T1 and four treatments with addition of anatto (0.5% - T2; 1.0% - T3; 1.5% - T4 and 2.0% - T5. The laying hens were separated in five blocks, each block with 5 animals, with total 25 animals by parcel. The eggs picked were classified using eggscopic, weighed, specific gravity, Haugh unit, albumen and yolk height, thickness of the shell, diameter and index yolk. Different feeds did not modify: weight; specific gravity; albumen height, thickness of the shell; yolk height and diameter of yolk. About the eggs quality analysis, addition of anatto did not show significance (p>0.05 among the treatments to most of the parameters of physical quality of eggs, only

  5. Poultry production's environmental impact on water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, C W

    1991-05-01

    Poultry meat and eggs are rapidly becoming the major source of animal protein in the diets of American consumers. Such expansion has resulted in a similar increase in waste management problems. The national production of broilers and mature chickens was 5.68 billion, 242 million turkeys, 31 million ducks, and 69 trillion table eggs in 1989 based on the USDA National Statistics Survey. Annual production of fecal waste from poultry flocks was 8.8 million tons on a dry weight basis plus more than 106,000 metric tons of broiler hatchery waste. Add to this 37 million dead birds and condemnations at processing plants (figures are also from USDA for 1989 based on USDA National Statistics Survey). When all this waste is added together, the task of keeping the environment clean becomes monumental. The following waste management practices can and must take care of these poultry industry waste products: sanitary land fills, rendering facilities, extrusion machinery, compost plants, lagoons or holding tanks, and land application techniques.

  6. Prevalence of Dermanyssus gallinae (Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae) in industrial poultry farms in North-East Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Sakly, Nadhem; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae (Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae), a mite of poultry, represents the most important ecotoparasite of egg-laying poultry in several countries. We estimated the prevalence of D. gallinae infestation in 38 industrial poultry farms (28 egg-laying and 10 reproductive hen farms) in the governorate of Nabeul (North-East Tunisia). Traps were placed in two locations of each farm during 24 h in August. The overall prevalence at the farms was estimated to be 34%. A total number of 329 D. gallinae were collected, giving an intensity of 0.0028 and an abundance of 0.0015. Infestation intensity and abundance were significantly higher in egg production farms than reproductive farms. There was no correlation between the intensity of infestation and temperature. An exponential correlation was observed between the birds' age and infestation intensity. We recommend a systematic survey of poultry farms during the whole breeding period. Prompt treatment is recommended to avoid the exponential increase of mite population.

  7. Raising Backyard Poultry in Rural Bangladesh: Financial and Nutritional Benefits, but Persistent Risky Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanta, I. S.; Hasnat, Md A.; Zeidner, N.

    2016-01-01

    was 480%. Yearly, median family consumption of eggs was one-fifth of the total produced eggs and three poultry from their own flock. Respondents’ reported practices conflicted with government recommendations. Sixty per cent of raisers had never heard of avian influenza or ‘bird flu’. Among the respondents...

  8. Smallholder Poultry Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Karsten Nellemann; Thomsen, Karin; Whyte, Michael;

    Smallholder poultry production is practised by most rural households throughout the developing world; despite the fact that its contribution to livelihoods appears to be of little nominal value when observed by researchers and other outsiders. This paper utilizes a Sustainable Livelihoods Framework...... of smallholder poultry productionhave been given little attention in research and or in development projects. Poultry has played, and still plays, important social and cultural roles in the life of rural people, not least for building social relations with other villagers. While income and consumption have been...... poultry keeping to the income and internal household position of women. Institutional structures are not favourable to smallholder poultry production. The interventions that could enhance productivity are well recognized, but the animal health services needed to promote these interventions are, in general...

  9. ENRICHMENT OF POULTRY PRODUCTS WITH FUNCTIONAL INGREDIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary role of food is to provide nutritive stuffs in sufficient amounts to meet nutritive requirements. However, recent scientific findings confirm assumptions that particular food or its ingredients had positive physiological and psychological effects on health. Functional food is referred to food rich in ingredients, having beneficial effects on one or more functions in an organism. By consuming functional food consumers can expect some health benefits. Production of poultry products as functional food is getting more important on foreign markets while portion of such products on domestic food market is insignificant. The aim of this paper is to present possibilities for enrichment of poultry products, such as broiler and turkey meat and chicken eggs, as they can be characterized as functional food. Functional ingredients in poultry products are polyunsaturated fatty acids (LNA, EPA and DHA and antioxidants. Enrichment of poultry products with the stated ingredients that are beneficial for human health is subject of many researches, and only recently have researches been directed towards assessment of market sustainability of such products.

  10. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... we all know skipping breakfast is never a good idea anyway). Living with an egg allergy means you have to ... be just part of your action plan for living with a severe egg allergy. It's also a good idea to carry an over-the-counter antihistamine ...

  11. Salmonellosis in poultry breeding in view of introducing vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resanović Radmila

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increased demand of consumers for safe poultry products, efficient control of pathogenic microorganisms that cause diseases in humans is becoming the chief challenge in contemporary poultry production. Poultry meat, eggs and related products present the main source of salmonellosis in humans that occurs as a result of the consumption of contaminated food. Any serotype of Salmonella spp. that is not strictly linked to the host is capable of causing gastrointestinal disorders of various degrees in humans. However, according to the World Health Organization (WHO, Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis has been the leading cause of salmonellosis in humans over the past 10 years. One of the available prophylactic measures is resorting to the vaccination of poultry against salmonellosis. Several vaccines against poultry salmonellosis, produced by different manufacturers, have been registered in Serbia. In order for these vaccines to become widely used in our country, it is necessary that the factors in primary poultry production are aquainted with the mechanisms of action of these vaccines, the effects achieved by their implementation, the economic feasibility, and the possibilities for monitoring in keeping with the valid legal regulations. Certainly, vaccination should not be taken as the only method in the prophylaxis of salmonellosis, but as one of the very important methods in a series of biosafety and other measures that should be applied on poultry farms for the successful curbing of salmonellosis infections.

  12. The role of poultry industry in indian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SC Vetrivel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry farming in India, in spite of several constraints, has progressed considerably during the last decade. The present study has been undertaken to examine various aspects related to the growth and development of poultry production in the country. Poultry production in India was confined to backyards till recently. Local breed of birds were reared for the supply of eggs and meat. The increasing demand for poultry products necessitates augmenting the supply by importing improved breeds of poultry. In 1961, the proportion of hybrid populations in the total population of poultry was about 2 percent. Within a couple of decades, these birds have dominated the market sidelining the indigenous birds. The technological advances have revolutionized the role and the structure of poultry industry in India. It became one of the most specialized enterprises in many parts of the country. A general confidence has been created among the people that green revolution has ushered an era of self-reliance in the food grain production. The rapidly growing population has created some doubts in the said hypothesis. In fact, crop production alone may not solve the food problem of the country. The advances in cereal technology, of course, can fill the empty stomach, but it may not help in the balanced growth of the human body. The chief ingredients of balanced diet also comprise proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins, which are essential for growth. The supply of these items can easily be increased through increased production of livestock products.

  13. Delicious Eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ONE day I learned a new method to cook eggs from one of my neighbors. The ingredients are two or three eggs and about 100 grams of tofu. First, beat the eggs in a bowl until they am Well mixed. Add some salt. Cut the tofu into small cubes and put them into the bowl as well. Then put the bowl in a steamer and steam for about ten minutes. When the eggs become a soft jelly, turn off the stove and let the dish cool before garnishing it with minced coriander, scallion and a teaspoon of sesame oil (or chili oil if you prefer). Serve. I served the steamed eggs with tofu to my family at supper. The appealing

  14. Antibiotic Residues in Edible Poultry Tissues and Products in Nigeria: A Potential Public Health Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jallailudeen Rabana Lawal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are used by the veterinarians and poultry industry to enhance growth rates, health of the birds, feed efficiency, egg production and for therapeutic reasons to reduce the incidence of poultry diseases. Antibiotics had been used in poultry production for both therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. Most poultry farmers in Nigeria have employed the use of various antibiotics with or without the guidance of veterinarians. Although antibiotics benefit most of its uses, the illegal use of these drugs has led to the accumulation of toxic antibiotic residues in edible poultry products destined for human consumption. And this poses a major threat and hazard to the public that could be toxicological, microbiological or immunological. Several analytical techniques are available to screen edible poultry products with levels of toxic antibiotic residues. Drug withdrawal period and maximum residue level of antibiotics should be strictly observed in treated birds before any poultry product (meat or eggs is passed “wholesome” for human consumption. There are still few researches addressing this major public health problem coupled with lack of awareness in Nigeria. Therefore, there is need for public enlightenment campaign on the dangers of antibiotic residues in edible poultry tissues and products to the teeming populace and restriction and regulation of indiscriminate use of antibiotics in poultry production and industry to curb the incidence of this public health hazard in Nigeria.

  15. Farm Models and Eco-Health of Poultry Production Clusters (PPCs) following Avian Influenza Epidemics in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Worapol Aengwanich

    2014-01-01

    Thailand is located in Southeast Asia and is a country that was affected by highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemics during 2003–2004. Nevertheless, the Thai government’s issuance policy of strict control and prevention of the disease has resulted in efficient disease control of avian influenza (AI). Poultry farmers have been both positively and negatively affected by this policy. There are three poultry cluster models worthy of attention in Thailand: (1) egg chicken poultry cluster...

  16. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican...

  17. 75 FR 44935 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Certificate for Poultry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to request an extension of approval of an information collection associated with the export of poultry and poultry hatching eggs from the United States.

  18. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 8 hours following the reaction. Getting the Flu Vaccine In the past, it was recommended that anyone ... talk to a doctor about whether receiving the flu vaccine was safe because it is grown inside eggs. ...

  19. Knowledge and Attitudes towards Handling Eggs in the Home: An Unexplored Food Safety Issue?

    OpenAIRE

    Harriet Whiley; Beverley Clarke; Kirstin Ross

    2017-01-01

    Foodborne illness is a global public health issue, with food handling in the home identified as an underestimated source. In Australia, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of salmonellosis with the majority of outbreaks linked to eggs. This study investigated Australian eggs consumer attitudes, behaviours and risk perceptions associated with the handling of raw eggs in the home. It was identified that 67% of participants chose free range eggs, 11% kept poultry, 7% did not h...

  20. EVOLUTION AND STRATEGY OF POULTRY PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinaida BARBACARU (Pistol,

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Poultry farming is a strategic branch of the livestock sector with high potential recovery in a short period of time. Today poultry farming in our country is developed in three basic systems: industrial-intensive, household-intensive and household-extensive, more importance and priority being given to intensive-industry system, the share of which in the production of eggs and meat consumption, is 50-60% of the total volume of poultry production. Intensive-industrial system is characteristic of poultry factories using biological material with valuable productive potential, are equipped with modern technological equipment, which ensures increasing the rate of production and delivery of eggs and meat, poultry achieve high production, reducing costs per unit production. In this system annually will produce 25-30 thousand tons of meat, 280-350 million eggs for consumption, including 100-150 million eggs for export. The household-intensive system is specific for small and medium farms is characteristic of which optimal dimension is considered of 1-10 thousand laying hens or up to 20-40 thousand chickens bred for meat. Household-extensive system is specific for individual poultry farms; the production obtained was mainly used to ensure family needs.

  1. Zoonoses, public health, and the backyard poultry flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunkemeyer, Vanessa L

    2011-09-01

    Raising a small flock of poultry for eggs, meat, and possibly companionship is becoming an increasingly popular hobby in the United States. Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus, forma domestica), turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo, forma domestica), and members of the family Anatidae including ducks, geese, and swans are commonly kept in these privately owned backyard flocks. Multiple bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic diseases which affect poultry are known zoonotic pathogens. This article reviews these zoonoses and gives recommendations for flock biosecurity, as well as for prevention of infection in both birds and humans. Diseases associated with other gallinaceous birds are only selectively discussed.

  2. 9 CFR 93.217 - Import permit and declaration for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permit and declaration for poultry. 93.217 Section 93.217 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH,...

  3. 9 CFR 93.214 - Import permit and declaration for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permit and declaration for poultry. 93.214 Section 93.214 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH,...

  4. 9 CFR 93.206 - Declaration and other documents for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration and other documents for poultry. 93.206 Section 93.206 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH...

  5. Las Vegas Wash Monitoring and Characterization Study: Ecotoxicologic Screening Assessment of Selected Contaminants of Potential Concern in Sediment, Whole Fish, Bird Eggs, and Water, 2005-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Las Vegas Wash is the sole drainage from the Las Vegas Valley watershed to Lake Mead. The four flow components in the Las Vegas Wash are tertiary treated...

  6. Las Vegas Wash Monitoring and Characterization Study: Ecotoxicologic Screening Assessment of Selected Contaminants of Potential Concern in Sediment, Whole Fish, Bird Eggs, and Water, 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Since 1998, the Las Vegas Wash Coordination Committee has implemented long-term management strategies for the Las Vegas Wash (Wash). A series of projects was...

  7. Farm Models and Eco-Health of Poultry Production Clusters (PPCs following Avian Influenza Epidemics in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worapol Aengwanich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Thailand is located in Southeast Asia and is a country that was affected by highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI epidemics during 2003–2004. Nevertheless, the Thai government’s issuance policy of strict control and prevention of the disease has resulted in efficient disease control of avian influenza (AI. Poultry farmers have been both positively and negatively affected by this policy. There are three poultry cluster models worthy of attention in Thailand: (1 egg chicken poultry clusters over ponds; (2 egg chicken poultry clusters in coops raised from the ground and managed by a cooperative; and (3 poultry clusters in closed coops under contract with the private sector. Following the AI epidemics, additional poultry husbandry and biosecurity systems were developed, thereby generating income and improving the quality of life for poultry farmers. Nevertheless, raising large clusters of poultry in the same area results in disadvantages, particularly problems with both air and water pollution, depending upon the environments of each poultry model. Furthermore, the government’s policy for controlling AI during epidemics has had a negative effect on the relationship between officials and farmers, due to poultry destruction measures.

  8. Aflatoxin B1 in poultry: toxicology, metabolism and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Sumit; Kim, Ji Eun; Coulombe, Roger

    2010-12-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are ubiquitous in corn-based animal feed and causes hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic effects. The most important AF in terms of toxic potency and occurrence is aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Poultry, especially turkeys, are extremely sensitive to the toxic and carcinogenic action of AFB1, resulting in millions of dollars in annual losses to producers due to reduced growth rate, increased susceptibility to disease, reduced egg production and other adverse effects. The extreme sensitivity of turkeys and other poultry to AFB1 is associated with efficient hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated bioactivation and deficient detoxification by glutathione S-transferases (GST). Discerning the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of this extreme sensitivity of poultry to AFB1, will contribute in the development of novel strategies to increase aflatoxin resistance. Since AFB1 is an unavoidable contaminant of corn-based poultry feed, chemoprevention strategies aimed at reducing AFB1 toxicity in poultry and in other animals have been the subject of numerous studies. This brief review summarizes many of the key recent findings regarding the action of aflatoxins in poultry.

  9. Changes in poultry litter toxicity with simulated acid rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, G.; Krishnamurthy, S. (Univ. of Maryland, Princess Anne (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The Delmarva Peninsula on the Eastern Shore of Maryland ranks 4th in the nation in poultry production and generates 9,500 metric tons of poultry manure/litter per day. The poultry litter contains many macro and micro nutrients and is an excellent source of fertilizer. The litter also contains antibiotics, heavy metals, hormones and many microorganisms. Land application of this litter has been the only means of its utilization and disposal. With rainfall, surface water run-off (leachate), from land on which litter has been applied, reaches the Cheasapeake Bay from this region. This leachate with its high organic and inorganic salt contents and high biochemical oxygen demand can severely disrupt the aquatic life and cause fish kills. The objective of this research was to study the effect of simulated acid rain (pH 3, 4 and 5) on the toxicity of poultry litter extracts.

  10. Análise de diferentes sistemas de iluminação para aviários de produção de ovos férteis Analysis of different illumination systems for poultry houses of producing fertile eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Jordan

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Excluindo-se a ração, o insumo mais utilizado na cadeia produtiva da avicultura é a energia elétrica, principalmente na produção de pintinhos de um dia, ocorrendo consumo em todas as fases, desde a obtenção do ovo até a incubação. Para a produção do ovo consome-se grande quantidade de energia elétrica nos sistemas de iluminação dos aviários, devido à necessidade de exposição da poedeira à luz no comprimento de cor amarela. A redução dos gastos com energia elétrica está ligada à melhoria dos sistemas de iluminação, já que o sistema usual é formado por lâmpadas incandescentes de grande potência, baixa eficiência e vida útil curta. Assim, através deste trabalho, desenvolvido em uma granja do Sudoeste do Paraná, objetivou-se desenvolver um sistema de iluminação em que se utilizasse menor quantidade de lâmpadas, demandasse menor carga de energia elétrica e apresentasse maior durabilidade. Foram montados, então, os sistemas de iluminação a vapor de sódio 70 W, vapor mista 250 W e fluorescente HO 110 W, obedecendo-se ao índice mínimo de iluminância de 40 lux. Análise técnico-econômica dos dados levantados durante o período de duração do lote demonstrou que o sistema a vapor de sódio é o mais econômico e durável.Besides the ration, the most consumed input in the productive chain of the poultry industry is the electrical energy, mainly in the production of one day chicks, consuming energy in all the periods, from the egg production to incubation. For the egg production, huge amount of energy is used, in illumination systems of poultry houses in the wave length of the yellow color. The reduction of the energy expenses is tied up to the improvement of the illumination systems, since lamps of higher power, low efficiency and less durable, form the usual system. So, this work, developed in Southwest Parana, has aimed to develop an illumination system which uses a lesser amount of lamps, demanding less

  11. Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Arné

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood.

  12. Avian influenza surveillance in backyard poultry of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscaglia, C; Espinosa, C; Terrera, M V; De Benedetti, R

    2007-03-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is an exotic disease in Argentina. A surveillance program for AI was conducted in backyard poultry during 1998-2005 in two regions: 1) region A, which included the avian population in the provinces that border Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay, and 2) region B, which included the rest of the provinces of the country. More than 8000 serum samples were tested for antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and/or agar gel immunodiffusion tests, and more than 18,000 tracheal and cloacal swabs were tested for virus by isolation in embryonated specific-pathogen-free eggs. This study was part of the AI prevention program in Argentina, which includes other avian populations such as commercial poultry and all the controls for importation and exportation of live birds. The results from backyard poultry were negative for AI.

  13. Silicas for control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, Veronika; Perler, Erika

    2006-01-01

    Control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae is a challenge for organic as well as conventional egg producers. In organic agriculture, control should be attempted by mechanically acting substances (e.g. oils or diatomaceous earth), before acaricides are applied. Diatomaceous earth (DE) without acaricides was at least as effective as DE supplemented with pyrethrum or essential oils and a liquid formulation of silica in vitro. In on farm experiments, DE was effective during a limited pe...

  14. Rural Poultry Farming with Improved Breed of Backyard Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Pathak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Livestock and poultry rearing is an imperative factor for improving the nutritional security of rural poor in India. Rural farmers rear Desi type chicken with low egg and meat production in backyard system. For developing the rural poultry farming, improved backyard poultry like Vanaraja/Gramapriya birds rearing is of utmost important. These improved birds can rear in both intensive and free ranging system. Birds can be reared for egg production in small numbers (10- 20 in free range conditions if plenty of natural feed resources are available. Chicks need brooding during initial 6 weeks of age to maintain the required body temperature and to protect from predators. In nursery rearing, feeding of broiler starter up to 28 days is better option but it can also be formulated with locally available materials. At 42 days of age, the birds can be let out under backyard free-range conditions. Birds should be vaccinated specifically against the Newcastle disease and fowl pox. The backyard poultry farming with improved birds provide a solution to food security to the needy villagers paving a way for sustainable agriculture in rural areas of India.

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Leaves Extracts of Diplazium muricatum and Diplazium travancoricum on Poultry Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nallaiyan, S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Indian poultry industry in general, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, layer industry in particular, is remarkably fast and it is growing on leaps and bounds with respect to poultry egg production. The layer birds in poultry were affected by bacterial pathogens. However, antimicrobial activities of Diplazium muricatum and Diplazium travancoricum were examined using agar diffusion method against E. coli, Bacillus and Klebsiella isolated from poultry litter collected from poultry farms. The experimental studies revealed, the crude extracts of Diplazium muricatum and D. travancoricum used in this study were inhibited the growth of microorganisms and zone of clearance ranged from 9 to 16 mm. The results indicated that D. muricatum and D. travancoricum had the potential antimicrobial compounds and great potential to use as a feed ingredient to prevent the pathogens.

  16. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahbari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg produc­tion, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites."nMethods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites per­formed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plas­tic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer,s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites."nResults: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa."nConclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions.  Keywords: Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus bursa, Poultry, Iran

  17. THE USE OF CHICKPEAS (CICER ARIETINUM IN POULTRY DIETS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. BAMPIDIS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chickpeas can be used as a high energy and protein feed in poultry diets to support growth and egg production. In common with other grain legumes, chickpeas can also contain anti-nutritional factors such as trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors that can impair the utilization of the nutrients by poultry. Heat treatment is an effective method to increase the amount of protein available for intestinal digestibility. This review evaluates chickpeas in regard to their nutrient composition, anti-nutritional factors content, and their impact on poultry performance. The possible reasons and implications of these results are discussed.

  18. Sautéed Fish Slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Ingredients: A fresh fish, cooking oil, scallion, ginger, egg white, salt, MSG, cooking wine, cornstarch. Directions: 1. Clean and scale the fish and take out the internal organs. 2. Fillet the fish. Slice the fish into thin pieces. Coat the fish

  19. Microbiological Spoilage of Eggs and Egg Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebuski, Joseph R.; Freier, Timothy A.

    Chicken eggs are the eggs most commonly consumed by humans. The US per capita consumption was 255 eggs in 2005. Approximately 77 billion eggs were produced in the USA in 2005 (American Egg Board, 2005). Of these about 30% were further processed in some manner and the remainder were consumed as whole shell eggs. The greatest increase in production and consumption of eggs, however, is in the developing countries. China is now the number one producer of eggs, with the USA second, and India third. In fact, developing countries currently have >67% of the global egg production share (Clark, 2007). Only a small percentage of eggs are exported because shell eggs are relatively difficult to transport.

  20. Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

  1. Respiratory Diseases of Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new Respiratory Diseases of Poultry CRIS will be established effective October 1, 2006. Initially, the disease agents to be studied will include Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Bordetella avium (BART) and Pasteurella multocida. The research will focus on development of more effective vacc...

  2. Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

  3. Smallholder Poultry Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Karsten Nellemann; Thomsen, Karin; Whyte, Michael

    Smallholder poultry production is practised by most rural households throughout the developing world; despite the fact that its contribution to livelihoods appears to be of little nominal value when observed by researchers and other outsiders. This paper utilizes a Sustainable Livelihoods Framewo...

  4. Performance and egg quality of aged laying hens fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    principal objective of MBM supplementation to poultry diets is to benefit from MBM's high protein, ... Four hundred and thirty-two 85-week old layer hens of a brown egg layer strain ... Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approved the techniques and .... Duncan's multiple range test was carried out to detect the ...

  5. Vaccination of chickens decreased Newcastle disease virus contamination in eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease is an important health issue of poultry causing major economic losses and inhibits trade worldwide. Vaccination is used as a control measure, but it is unknown whether vaccination will prevent virus contamination of eggs. In this study, hens were sham-vaccinated or received one or ...

  6. Effect of Fishmeal Supplementation on Egg Production of Rhode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Period 4, feed intake in g per day and egg production percent were 96.1 and 40.7, respectively for the layers fed ..... lag period before the higher supply of nutrients were translated ..... strains under single and double cage housing. Poultry ...

  7. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbari, S; Nabian, S; Ronaghi, H

    2009-01-01

    Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg production, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites. Methods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites performed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plastic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer’s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites. Results: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa. Conclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions. PMID:22808378

  8. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahbari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg produc­tion, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites.Methods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites per­formed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plas­tic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer,s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites.Results: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa.Conclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions.

  9. Using egg production data to quantify within-flock transmission of low pathogenic avian influenza virus in commercial layer chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, J L; Elbers, A.R.W.; Goot, van der, V.S.; Bontje, D.M.; Koch, G.; Wit, de, C.T.; Stegeman, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Even though low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIv) affect the poultry industry of several countries in the world, information about their transmission characteristics in poultry is sparse. Outbreak reports of LPAIv in layer chickens have described drops in egg production that appear to be correlated with the virus transmission dynamics. The objective of this study was to use egg production data from LPAIv infected layer flocks to quantify the within-flock transmission parameters of th...

  10. Using egg production data to quantify within-flock transmission of low pathogenic avian influenza virus in commercial layer chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales, J.L.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Goot, van der J.A.; Bontje, D.M.; Koch, G.; Wit, de J.J.; Stegeman, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Even though low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIv) affect the poultry industry of several countries in the world, information about their transmission characteristics in poultry is sparse. Outbreak reports of LPAIv in layer chickens have described drops in egg production that appear to be

  11. Infections may select for filial cannibalism by impacting egg survival in interactions with water salinity and egg density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-07-01

    In aquatic environments, externally developing eggs are in constant contact with the surrounding water, highlighting the significance of water parameters and pathogens for egg survival. In this study we tested the impact of water salinity, egg density and infection potential of the environment on egg viability in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus), a small fish that exhibits paternal egg care and has a marine origin, but which in the Baltic Sea lives in brackish water. To manipulate the infection potential of the environment, we added either a Saprolegnia infection vector into UV-filtered water or a fungicide into natural Baltic Sea water. Saprolegnia are widely spread water moulds that are a key cause of egg mortality in aquatic organisms in fresh- and brackish water. We found that increased water salinity indeed decreased the egg infection rate and had a positive effect on egg viability, while high egg density tended to have the opposite effect. However, the different factors influenced egg viability interactively, with a higher egg density having negative effects at low, but not in high, salinity. Thus, the challenges facing marine organisms adapting to lower salinity levels can be amplified by Saprolegnia infections that reduce egg survival in interaction with other environmental factors. Our results support the hypothesis that suppressing egg infections is an important aspect of parental care that can select for filial cannibalism, a common but poorly understood behaviour, especially in fish with parental care.

  12. Organochlorine compounds and mercury in bald eagle eggs, Penobscot River, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Four bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) eggs from three nests on the Penobscot River, Maine, were analyzed for organochlorine contaminants and mercury. Eggs were...

  13. Contaminants in Interior Least Tern and Snowy Plover Eggs from Quivira National Wildlife Refuge in 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Four flooded or abandoned eggs of interior least terns (Sterna anti11arum) and four flooded or abandoned eggs of snowy plovers (Charadrium aiexandrinus) that nested...

  14. [Poultry husbandry and animal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, U

    2003-08-01

    Close interactions are existing between poultry husbandry and poultry health. The more housing systems and the environment of the animals can be controlled, the less the general risk of disorders in poultry flocks--especially of diseases which are caused by the introduction of microoganisms. Resulting deterimental effects will affect not only the animals themselves, but also pose a risk indirectly for humans via food originating from animals under production. Also, by keeping the risk of infections as low as possible, the use of therapeutics can be avoided. This will reduce the risk of residues in food of animal origin. In summary, with all probability open poultry husbandry systems, especially those including free range systems pose increased risks for poultry health and consequently for the quality of food originating from poultry production. At least, those systems require highest standards of biosecurity, defined as management, location, farm layout, cleaning and desinfection incl. pest control programs, immunization and specific veterinary monitoring concepts to prevent infections.

  15. Determination of chloramphenicol residues in commercial chicken eggs in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbodi, Felix E; Nguku, P; Okolocha, E; Kabir, J

    2014-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in poultry can result in residues in eggs. The joint FAO/WHO committee recommended banning the use of chloramphenicol (CAP) in food animals due to its public health hazards of aplastic anaemia, leukaemia, allergy, antibacterial resistance and carcinogenicity. This paper determines the prevalence of CAP residues in chicken eggs and assesses the usage and awareness of its ban amongst poultry farmers in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of registered poultry farmers in FCT was conducted using questionnaires to determine CAP administration in poultry and awareness of its ban. Pooled egg samples were collected from each poultry farm surveyed and from randomly sampled government-owned markets in FCT. Source of eggs by state were identified by the marketer at the time of collection. Samples were analysed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique for the presence of CAP, and prevalence was determined. Of 288 total pooled samples collected, 257 (89.2%) were from the markets and 31 (10.8%) were from poultry farms. A total of 20 (7%) pooled egg samples tested CAP-positive; market eggs originated from 15 (41%) states of the country. Of the market eggs, 16 (6.2%) pooled samples tested positive. Of eggs from poultry farms, four (12.9%) tested positive. Mean CAP concentrations in the positive samples ranged from 0.49 to 1.17 µg kg(-1) (parts per billion). CAP use amongst poultry farmers in FCT was 75.5%; awareness of the CAP ban was 26.3%. Though 66% of veterinarians were unaware of a CAP ban, they were more likely to be aware than other poultry farmers (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4). Farm managers who use CAP were more likely to be aware of CAP ban than the farm managers not using CAP (OR = 5.5; p = 0.04). Establishing a drug residue surveillance and control program and enforcement of CAP legislation/regulation is needful to educate and prohibit the widespread CAP use amongst Nigerian poultry farmers.

  16. Poultry Slaughtering and Processing Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Agriculture Production Poultry Slaughtering and Processing in the United States This dataset consists of facilities which engage in slaughtering, processing, and/or...

  17. 4,4'-Dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) concentrations in egg shells as a predictor of nicarbazin consumption and DNC dose in goose eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Randal S; VerCauteren, Kurt C; Kohler, Dennis; Johnston, John J

    2003-09-01

    Nicarbazin is being investigated as an infertility agent for the control of non-migratory Canada geese (Branta canadensis L) populations. Nicarbazin is presently registered for use as a coccidiostat for poultry. Geese fed sufficient quantities of nicarbazin will lay non-viable eggs. We established nicarbazin consumption by measuring the concentration of a component of the formulation, 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) in the egg contents (yolk, albumin) in non-viable eggs. To estimate the nicarbazin consumption of birds that laid viable eggs (eggs that hatched or contained an embryo), a high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to measure the concentration of DNC in egg shells. A statistically significant correlation was established using linear regression between the mean concentrations of DNC in the egg shell and in the egg contents in non-viable eggs. Viable eggs were estimated to contain lower levels of DNC than non-viable eggs. DNC concentrations in both the egg contents and the egg shell increased with increases in nicarbazin dose in feed. Our method allows for the estimation of nicarbazin consumption and DNC dose in eggs under field conditions, which is important in developing an effective infertility agent for over-abundant non-migratory goose populations.

  18. Effect of Egg Shape Index on Hatching Characteristics in Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Aşcı

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of egg shape index on hatching characteristics (fertility rate, embryo mortality, hatchability of fertile eggs and hatchability, egg weight loss, chick weight, sex ratio and quality of chicks were investigated. A total of 960 eggs of ATAK- S hybrid parents obtained from Ankara Poultry Research Station were divided into three different groups (SI≤71, 72≤SI≤76, SI≤77 based on shape index and were used. A significant relationship between fertility rate and late embryonic mortality was found in the shape index groups. On the other hand, no differences were found in the rate of weight loss at 18 day, early and middle embryonic mortality, malposition rate, hatchability, sex ratio and chick quality among the shape index groups. It was concluded that shape index affected the hatching results and also that eggs of abnormal shape index should not be used for hatching.

  19. Introduction--the Socially Sustainable Egg Production project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, J C; Mench, J A; Thompson, P B

    2011-01-01

    The social and political pressure to change egg production from conventional cage systems to alternative systems has been largely driven by the desire to provide more behavioral freedom for egg-laying hens. However, a change of this magnitude can affect other components of the production system and may result in unintended outcomes. To understand this issue, a Socially Sustainable Egg Production project was formed to 1) conduct a holistic and integrated systematic review of the current state of knowledge about various aspects of sustainable egg production, and 2) develop a coordinated grant proposal for future extramural funding based on the research priorities identified from the review. Expert study groups were formed to write evidence-based papers in 5 critical sustainability areas: hen health and welfare, economics, food safety and quality, public attitudes, and environmental impacts. These papers were presented as the PSA Emerging Issues Symposium on Social Sustainability of Egg Production at the 2010 Poultry Science Association meeting.

  20. Trichuris trichiura egg (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the classical appearance of the Trichuria (whipworm) egg. The eggs are highly infectious. After a person eats contaminated food, the worms hatch from the eggs and live in the intestine, causing vomiting and ...

  1. Species composition and abundance temporal-spatial distribution of fish egg, larvae and juveniles in Sansha Bay of Fujian%福建三沙湾鱼卵、仔稚鱼种类组成及其丰度时空分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈长春

    2011-01-01

    根据2008年春季(5月5日、5月17日)和秋季(11月14日、11月30日)分别在三沙湾进行4次鱼卵、仔稚鱼调查资料及历史相关资料,对三沙湾鱼卵、仔稚鱼种类组成、丰度分布的变化进行分析和讨论.结果表明:调查海区出现的鱼卵、仔稚鱼有35种(包括2种未定种类),比1990年和2007年分别增加了9种和12种;其中鱼卵数量中石首鱼科和舌鳎科的鱼卵占绝大多数,分别占总鱼卵数量的80.63%和14.18%,尚未见1990年的优势种带鱼(Trichiurus japonicus)出现,2007年的优势种隆头鱼科仅出现于秋季,数量也不多;鱼卵分布时间变化明显,5月上旬鱼卵丰度最高,占4个航次鱼卵总丰度的95.0%,5月中旬和11月数量很少.春、秋两季鱼卵平均丰度4.92 ind/m3较1990年和2007年同期高;在三都岛、青山岛的南部、官井洋、东冲口一带海域鱼卵数量较多,密集区较1990年和2007年密集区偏西偏南.春、秋两季仔稚鱼平均丰度0.18 ind/m3,高于1990年,低于2007年;仔稚鱼丰度最高为5月上旬,占4个航次仔稚鱼总丰度的78.6%;1990年、2007年及2008年仔稚鱼优势种同为虾虎鱼类,其主要繁殖区都在三沙湾东北部和东南部海域.%Based on the data from four investigations of fish egg, larvae and juveniles in Sansha bay of Fujian in Spring(5th and. 17th May) and Autumn ( 14th and 30th November) of 2008, combining with historical related data, the paper analyzed and discussed species composition and abundance temporal-spatial distribution of fish egg, larvae and juveniles. Results showed that: there were 35 kinds of fish egg, larvae and juveniles (including 2 undefined species) in survey sea area, which was 9 kinds more than 1990, and 12 kinds more than 2007. Fish egg numbers of Sciaenidae and Cynoglossidae was the majority, occupying 80. 63% and 14. 18% in total fish egg numbers, respectively. Fish egg of hairtail, dominant species in 1990, didn' t occur in this

  2. Diet shifts during egg laying: Implications for measuring contaminants in bird eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, Christy A. [Catchment Research Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX (United Kingdom); Elliott, John E. [Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, 5421 Robertson Road, Delta, British Columbia V4K 3N2 (Canada); Ormerod, Stephen J., E-mail: ormerod@cf.ac.u [Catchment Research Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    We combined stable isotope tracers of blood plasma, blood cells and egg contents with faecal analysis during pre-breeding and egg laying phases in two dipper species Cinclus cinclus and Cinclus mexicanus to determine the occurrence of dietary shifts during egg production and to assess consequences for egg contaminant loads. In both species, changes in delta{sup 13}C (C. cinclus) or delta{sup 15}N (C. mexicanus) in female plasma relative to red blood cells indicated a dietary shift during laying that was not observed in males. Eurasian dippers increased prey consumption as breeding approached, shifting from primarily trichopteran insect larvae to ephemeropterans and plecopterans. In American dippers, egg-laying females switched to feeding at a higher trophic level by consuming more fish. Eggs derived from higher trophic level diets contained more mercury (American dipper), polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorines, especially DDT metabolites. The results demonstrate how dietary changes during egg laying accompany the demands for egg production with consequences for contaminant deposition in avian eggs. - Changes in laying diet influences contaminant deposition in bird eggs.

  3. Synergistic interaction between the fungus Beauveria bassiana and desiccant dusts applied against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole Østerlund

    2014-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is a major pest in egg production, feeding on laying hens. Widely used non-chemical control methods include desiccant dusts, although their persistence under field conditions is often short. Entomopathogenic fungi may also hold potential for mite control...... weeks. Overall, combinations of desiccant dusts and fungus conidia seem to hold considerable promise for future non-chemical control of poultry red mites....

  4. 深圳市市售鱼类和禽蛋类食品中多溴联苯醚污染状况分析%Investigation on levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in retail fish and egg products in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 张立实; 张建渍; 蒋友胜; 周健; 黄海燕

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解深圳市市售鱼类和禽蛋类食品中多溴联苯醚(PBDEs)的污染水平及特征,并对该市居民源于鱼类和禽蛋类食品的PBDEs膳食摄入量进行初步评估.方法 2008年8-10月于深圳市大型超市和农贸市场采集鱼类、禽蛋类样品,共计27份,参照美国国家环保局USEPA1614方法,采用加速溶剂萃取法对上述样品中的PBDEs进行提取,经净化处理后,利用同位索稀释的高分辨气相色谱-高分辨质谱联用(HRGC-HRMS)技术,测定了样品中8种PBDEs单体的含量.结果 不计算十溴联苯醚(BDE-209)时,鱼类样品∑PBDEs含量中位数为914.7 pg/g湿重,其中,淡水鱼、海水鱼中∑PBDEs含量的中位数分别为328.2、1108.8 pg/g湿重,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),其PBDEs特征性污染物均为BDE-47,贡献率分别为61%和57%;禽蛋类食品中∑PBDEs含量中位数为99.8 pg/g湿重,其PBDEs特征性污染物为2,2',4,4'-四溴联苯醚(BDE-47)、2,2 ',4,4',5-五溴联苯醚(BDE-99),两者合计贡献率约为70%.BDE-209在淡水鱼样品中未检出,在海水鱼和禽蛋类样品中其含量的中位数分别为243.7、472.6 pg/g湿重,即在计算BDE-209时,禽蛋类样品中PBDEs特征性污染物为BDE-209.深圳居民源于鱼类及禽蛋类食品的PBDEs膳食摄入量中位数为102 ng/d.结论 深圳市市售鱼类以及禽蛋类食品中PBDEs含量较高;鱼类和禽蛋类食品具有不同的PBDEs污染特征;深圳市居民源于鱼类和禽蛋类食品的PBDEs人均膳食摄入量处于较高水平.%Objective To reveal the levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish and egg products at retail in Shenzhen,and to evaluate the local people's exposure to PBDEs from these food.Methods 27 fish and egg samples were collected from supermarket and farmer's market in Shenzhen during August and October in 2008.According to the guideline of USEPA1614 method,the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) technology was

  5. Local feed resources for poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.R.

    2013-01-01

    In poultry ‘no input’, ‘low input’ and commercial production can be distinguished. ‘No input’ implies scavenging poultry with some kitchen waste or crop residues as supplemental feed. Input is negligible and economic efficiency is high, provided there is any output. Commercial production is capital

  6. Influence of artificial lighting on the performance and egg quality of commercial layers: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMTD Jácome

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the egg production chain produces fresh eggs for the consumer market and for processing. Layers are housed in battery cage systems. Rearing and development farms are separate from egg-production farms. Considering the recent advance of Brazilian chicken egg production, scientific knowledge on management practices are required to disseminate and to consistently apply this knowledge to improve such practices. Artificial lighting is widely used in poultry reproduction, both in the production of hatchable eggs and of commercial eggs. Light is required for the release of hormones responsible for reproduction; however, the best lighting practices to stimulate laying poultry during the reproductive period still need to be determined, with the aim of saving electric energy, and therefore, to dilute production costs and comply with environmental sustainability requirements. This review showed that layers are indeed photostimulated with more than 12 hours of light, independently of the artificial lighting program applied. Results demonstrate that artificial lighting programs influence egg production, but not egg quality parameters. Intermittent lighting programs are good alternatives when layers are housed in open-sided houses, which are typically used in Brazil. Transcranial light reception is the most important route for the stimulation of reproduction in poultry.

  7. The use of green tea (Camellia sinensis) as a phytogenic substance in poultry diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sohail H

    2014-01-01

    This review examined the use of green tea (Camellia sinensis) in the diets of poultry. Research findings were obtained from various recent studies, where much attention was focused on the role of green tea in the promotion of both animal and human health. The review involved some of the currently available information about green tea, pertaining to its chemical composition, anticoccidial and antimicrobial effect, effect on broiler and layer performance and on blood and egg yolk constituents. To the author's knowledge this is the first review paper on this topic. It will be helpful for poultry nutritionists and the poultry industry, although more detailed studies are still needed to elucidate the effects of green tea in poultry nutrition under various circumstances.

  8. The use of green tea (Camellia sinensis as a phytogenic substance in poultry diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail H. Khan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This review examined the use of green tea (Camellia sinensis in the diets of poultry. Research findings were obtained from various recent studies, where much attention was focused on the role of green tea in the promotion of both animal and human health. The review involved some of the currently available information about green tea, pertaining to its chemical composition, anticoccidial and antimicrobial effect, effect on broiler and layer performance and on blood and egg yolk constituents. To the author’s knowledge this is the first review paper on this topic. It will be helpful for poultry nutritionists and the poultry industry, although more detailed studies are still needed to elucidate the effects of green tea in poultry nutrition under various circumstances.

  9. Gordon Memorial Lecture. Problems and crusades: a history of poultry disease research in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, L N

    1994-03-01

    1. Poultry disease research in the UK began recognisably in the 1920s, in consequence of the development of a national poultry industry of economic importance. 2. Increasing disease problems during the 1930s revealed the need for more research, resulting notably in the growth of the Poultry Department of the Central Veterinary Laboratory and the establishment of Houghton Poultry Research Station. 3. Continued growth of the egg industry and the introduction of the broiler industry in the 1950s stimulated increased disease research, much of it publicly funded, during the following two decades. 4. Changing government attitudes to agricultural research in the 1980s brought about far-reaching changes to the funding, organisation, nature and amount of disease research conducted. Arrangements for such research continue to evolve.

  10. Conservation of Poultry Germplasm Through Cryopreservation of Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Setioko

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has abundantly available genetic potential of local poultry that needs to be conserved for future use of poultry development. Live conservation of poultry, both in-situ and ex-situ, would be very expensive and has a risk of mortality due to diseases such as avian influenza. Cryopreservation of Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs, which are progenitor of eggs and spermatozoa, provides an alternative way to preserve both male and female genetic materials in poultry. PGCs in poultry can be specifically harvested from blatoderm or blood embryo, and preserved in a liquid nitrogen similar to sperm, ovum and embryo in large ruminant. Technique for producing germline chimeric chicken has been established by transferring PGCs into the circulated blood embryo where the original PGCs have been removed or inactivated. Mating of germline chimeras yields offsprings that are derived entirely from the donor stock. Conservation of genetic materials of Indonesian indigenous poultry through preservation of PGCs could be used for future poultry improvement.

  11. Environmental contaminants in two bald eagle eggs from New Hampshire

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On June 12, 2006 and June 2, 2009, non‐viable, addled bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) eggs were collected from nests at Pontook Reservoir on the Androscoggin...

  12. Contaminant concentrations in peregrine falcon eggs from Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the 1991 breeding season, three addled peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs were collected from two sites in Vermont (Figure 1). At one site (Deer Leap),...

  13. Inventory of sea turtle eggs for contaminant analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an inventory of the bags of sea turtle eggs/hatchlings collected on St. Vincent NWR in 1996 and transferred to the Panama City Field Office for contaminants...

  14. Impeding movement of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, James; Küster, Tatiana; George, David; Sparagano, Olivier; Tomley, Fiona

    2016-07-30

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is an economically important hematophagous parasite of commercial egg laying hens, also affecting domesticated birds and companion animals. Conventional control of D. gallinae through acaricidal spraying is often ineffective, creating an urgent need to identify alternative management strategies for commercial and domestic infestations. Whilst integrated pest management is being considered for D. gallinae, the potential of impeding mite 'migration' routes, to either prevent initial infestation or manage established populations, has not been researched. Here we demonstrate that barriers of insecticidal glue, double sided sticky tape and thyme oil can contain D. gallinae within a specified area of a petri dish (78-88% of total mite population) and this level of containment was significantly greater than for negative controls (p values <0.05). Further studies in poultry houses are recommended to investigate the efficacy of these barriers in real world application and identity potential for barriers as a strategy for mite control.

  15. Mercury Exposure as Measured Through Abandoned Common Loon Eggs in New Hampshire

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1998, the Loon Preservation Committee was tasked by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to sample inviable loon eggs statewide as part of the Northeast Loon Study...

  16. The Egg Joust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Wade A.; Wilkinson, John

    2008-01-01

    The use of eggs and mousetraps in physics is commonplace in most American high school physics classrooms. The egg drops, the egg walk, and the great Canadian egg race, as well as the mousetrap cars, have all been well-documented in this journal. These types of collaborative, competitive projects are a great way to motivate students. Students at…

  17. The Egg Joust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Wade A.; Wilkinson, John

    2008-01-01

    The use of eggs and mousetraps in physics is commonplace in most American high school physics classrooms. The egg drops, the egg walk, and the great Canadian egg race, as well as the mousetrap cars, have all been well-documented in this journal. These types of collaborative, competitive projects are a great way to motivate students. Students at…

  18. Chemical composition and microbial loads of chicken table eggs from retail markets in urban settings of Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewonetu Kebede Senbeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the determination of microbial load, chemical quality, pH and cholesterol level, a total of 400 table eggs were randomly collected from 10 retailers situated at major urban settings in Eastern Ethiopia and Haramaya University Poultry Farm, Ethiopia. The data were analyzed using SAS. High moisture and cholesterol levels and low pH and huge microbial load were detected in the eggs. Exposure of eggs to sunlight in the market and transportation of eggs from farm to the retail market might influence in lowering moisture and increasing pH. Huge microbial contamination of eggs from retailers at urban settings could be due to unhygienic handling of the eggs, lack of standard storage and transportation facilities. Storing of eggs in refrigeration condition and protection of direct sun light could be helpful in maintaining quality eggs. Introduction of refrigeration systems and construction of shades in markets are suggested to maintain and improve quality of eggs sold in markets.

  19. Thermal Inactivation of avian influenza virus in poultry litter as a method to decontaminate poultry houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Christopher B; Spackman, Erica

    2017-09-15

    Removal of contaminated material from a poultry house during recovery from an avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreak is costly and labor intensive. Because AIV is not environmentally stable, heating poultry houses may provide an alternative disinfection method. The objective was to determine the time necessary to inactivate AIV in poultry litter at temperatures achievable in a poultry house. Low pathogenic (LP) AIV inactivation was evaluated between 10.0°-48.9°C, at ∼5.5°C intervals and highly pathogenic (HP) AIV inactivation was evaluated between 10.0°-43.3°C, at ∼11°C intervals. Samples were collected at numerous time points for each temperature. Virus isolation in embryonating chicken eggs was conducted to determine if viable virus was present. Each sample was also tested by real-time RT-PCR. Low pathogenicity AIV was inactivated at 1day at 26.7°C or above. At 10.0, 15.6 and 21.1°C, inactivation times increased to 2-5days. Highly pathogenic AIV followed a similar trend; the virus was inactivated after 1day at 43.3°C and 32.2°C, and required 2 and 5days for inactivation at 21.1°C and 10.0°C respectively. While low pathogenicity AIV appeared to be inactivated at a lower temperature than high pathogenicity AIV, this was not due to any difference in the strains, but due to fewer temperature points being evaluated for high pathogenicity. Endpoints for detection by real-time RT-PCR were not found even weeks after the virus was inactivated. This provides a guideline for the time required, at specific temperatures to inactivate AIV in poultry litter and likely on surfaces within the house. Heat treatment will provide an added level of safety to personnel and against further spread by eliminating infectious virus prior to cleaning a house. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Environmental contaminants in piping plover eggs from Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge and Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the 2011 breeding season, 4‐egg clutches of piping plover (Charadrius melodus) eggs were collected from single nests located at Rachel Carson National...

  1. PCR Based Detection of Shiga Toxin Producing E. coli in Commercial Poultry and Related Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homaira Anzum Himi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin (Stx-producing E. coli (STEC is the most important foodborne pathogen which is the causal agent of mild diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS in human. The present study was designed to determine the prevalence and identification of Shiga toxin (Stx-producing E. coli in poultry, detection of its source of infection in poultry and transmission pattern to human. For this purpose a total of 150 samples (cloacal swab-60, feed -15, water-15 and egg -60 were collected and analyzed in bacteriology laboratory by cultured in different bacteriological media followed by gram’s staining, biochemical tests and Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR. The PCR was performed by targeting 16s rRNA gene and shiga toxin producing gene in E. coli. Out of 150 collected samples, E. coli was found in 81 (54% samples. Presence of E. coli was 100% in both feed (n=15 and egg (n=60, whereas 10% in cloacal swab (n=6. Water samples were totally free of E. coli. The stx2 gene was detected in all samples whether all samples were negative for stx1 gene. The study revealed that, poultry feed acts as a source of E. coli infection in poultry, which may be transmitted to environment and human via meat or eggs. Antibiotic sensitivity test revealed that isolated bacteria were highly sensitive to Ciprofloxacin.

  2. Bio-ag reutilization of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a substrate for black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens, along with poultry by-product meal and soybean meal, as total replacement of fish meal in

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles (mean initial weight, 2.66 g) to examine total replacement of menhaden fish meal (FM) with distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which had been used as substrate for the production of black ...

  3. PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS ON THE DIEL DRIFTING BEHAVIOR OF FISH EGGS AND LARVAE IN DIFFERENT SECTIONS OF MAIN STREAM OF THE YANGTZE RIVER%长江干流不同江段鱼卵及仔鱼漂流特征昼夜变化的初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎明政; 段中华; 姜伟; 刘焕章

    2011-01-01

    根据2007~2009年在长江干流的泸州、珞璜、宜都、武穴4个江段分别采集的数据,对这些江段鱼卵及仔鱼漂流特征的昼夜变化规律进行初步分析。结果显示,长江上游泸州江段和珞璜江段鱼卵及仔鱼昼夜漂流密度有一定差异,但不显著;长江中游宜都江段,鱼卵漂流密度在昼夜时间上有显著性差异(n=38,p=0.00),表现为6∶00的平均漂流密度13.02ind./100m3明显大于18∶00的密度3.28ind./100m3,仔鱼夜间漂流密度明显大于白天,于22∶00达到高峰值;武穴江段仔鱼漂流密度在昼夜时间上有显著性差异%A preliminary analysis on the diel and distributional abundance patterns of fish eggs and larvae was carried based on ichthyoplankton samples collected at Luzhou,Luohuang,Yidu and Wuxue sections of main stream of the Yangtze River during 2007 and 2009 respectively.It turned out that there was no clear diel difference in drifting densities of fish eggs and larvae at Luzhou and Luohuang sections.However,there were distinct diel differences in the drifting densities of eggs and larvae at Yidu section.There were significant differences(n=38,p=0.00) between the drifting density of fish eggs in 06∶00(mean density was 13.02 ind./100m3) and in 18∶00(mean density was 3.28 ind./100m3),while the highest drifting density of larvae was found in 22∶00.And a significant diel difference was found in drifting densities of fish larvae at Wuxue section(n=62,p=0.00),the average density at 08∶00(86.21 ind./100m3) was clearly greater than at 18∶00(44.85 ind./100m3).In Yidu location,the drifting densities of different species showed species-specific difference.The eggs of Hemiculter bleekeri(Warpachowski),Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Xenocypris argentea were mainly collected in daytime,Aristichthys nobilis and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix were mainly collected in the night,while Parabotia fasciata and Parabramis pekinensis were

  4. How can we improve the environmental sustainability of poultry production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Ilkka; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2016-08-01

    The review presents results of recent life cycle assessment studies aiming to quantify and improve the environmental performance of UK poultry production systems, including broiler meat, egg and turkey meat production. Although poultry production has been found to be relatively environmentally friendly compared with the production of other livestock commodities, it still contributes to environmental impacts, such as global warming, eutrophication and acidification. Amongst different sub-processes, feed production and transport contributes about 70 % to the global warming potential of poultry systems, whereas manure management contributes about 40-60 % to their eutrophication potential and acidification potential, respectively. All these impacts can be reduced by improving the feed efficiency, either by changing the birds through genetic selection or by making the feed more digestible (e.g. by using additives such as enzymes). However, although genetic selection has the potential to reduce the resources needed for broiler production (including feed consumption), the changing need of certain feed ingredients, most notably protein sources as a result of changes in bird requirements may limit the benefits of this strategy. The use of alternative feed ingredients, such as locally grown protein crops and agricultural by-products, as a replacement of South American grown soya, can potentially also lead to improvements in several environmental impact categories, as long as such feeding strategies have no negative effect on bird performance. Other management options, such as improving poultry housing and new strategies for manure management have also the potential to further improve the environmental sustainability of the poultry industries in Europe.

  5. Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... regulations enacted in 2004 to protect consumers against Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, mechanically separated beef is considered inedible ... in raising the animals. [ Top of Page ] NO ANTIBIOTICS (red meat and poultry): The terms "no antibiotics ...

  6. Color of Meat and Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or freezer, color changes are normal for fresh meat and poultry. 2. Does a change in color indicate spoilage? Change in color alone does not mean the product is spoiled. Color changes are normal for fresh ...

  7. Epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W.

    1994-01-01

    Campylobacter , causing human infections with severe symptoms of diarrhoea, is mainly transmitted by food, especially poultry meat products.Several studies on Campylobacter colonization in breeders, laying hens, and broilers were carried out. Campylobacter isolates were serotyped, using a modificati

  8. 福建省主要海湾浮性鱼卵和仔稚鱼的种类组成与丰度分布%Composition of species and distribution of abundance of pelagic fish eggs, larvae and juveniles in main bays of Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张跃平

    2011-01-01

    根据2007年8月至2009年10月期间在福建省主要海湾的调查资料,对其浮性鱼卵和仔稚鱼的种类组成与数量分布特点进行初步研究和探讨.结果表明,本调查海域共出现鱼卵和仔稚鱼68种,隶属于29科,主要是近海中上层鱼类、浅海底层鱼类和港湾河口型鱼类3个生态类型.各站鱼卵总平均丰度是497.5粒/网,仔稚鱼总平均丰度50.8个/网.优势种明显,占总量比例大;不同季节和不同海湾的种类数相差不大;数量平面分布呈现不同季节不同海湾差别较大,规律性不强,偶然性大等特点.%Many coastal constructing projects in Fujian seriously impact fishery resources in sea bays. Distributions of species and abundances of fish eggs, larvae and juveniles, which are very sensitive to environmental change, are important parameters in assessment of fishery resources; however, there are scant data at present. According to the instructions of The Specification for Marine Monitoring, part 7: Ecological survey of offshore pollution and biological monitoring, 62 stations in the main bays of Fujian were included in the survey of pelagic fish eggs, larvae and juveniles from August 2007 to October 2009. A total of 30 844 fish eggs and 3 150 larvae and juveniles were obtained. Using the survey data, the distributions of species and abundances of pelagic fish eggs, larvae and juveniles are discussed in this paper. The results show 68 species, belonging to 29 families, which can be classified into three eco-types: epipelagic and mesopelagic fish, shallow-water benthic fish, and estuarine fish. The total mean abundance of fish eggs is 497.5 ind/net, and that of larvae and juveniles is 50.8 indt/net. Dominant species account for a large proportion of the total number of individuals. The number of species is similar for different seasons and bays. The abundance distribution differs for different seasons and bays, and is irregular and random. The data can be used to guide

  9. Urban Residents’ Food Safety Awareness and Purchasing Decisions about Name-brand Livestock and Poultry Products: A Case Study of Beijing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning; ZHU; Fu; QIN

    2015-01-01

    Through the data on Beijing urban residents’ purchasing decisions of the name-brand livestock and poultry products,the article analyzes consumers’ food safety awareness about the name-brand livestock and poultry products and the effects on the purchasing decisions of the name-brand livestock and poultry products. Research shows that urban residents obtain information on food safety through TV programs and newspaper and there are a great of problems in food. 55. 43% of the consumers consider that the name-brand livestock and poultry products are safer than ordinary livestock and poultry products. The result of the model shows that food safety awareness about the name-brand livestock and poultry products has dramatically affected urban residents’ purchasing decisions of livestock and poultry products. The biggest effect is on the brand of eggs and pork as the major daily consumer goods. Furthermore,income and prices are still the determining factors affecting the consumers’ purchasing decisions of the name-brand livestock and poultry products. And the features of livestock and poultry products( nutrition,taste) significantly affect the name-brand livestock and poultry products.

  10. Rheological changes in irradiated chicken eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Lucia F. S.; Del Mastro, Nelida L

    1998-06-01

    Pathogenic bacteria may cause foodborne illnesses. Humans may introduce pathogens into foods during production, processing, distribution and or preparation. Some of these microorganisms are able to survive conventional preservation treatments. Heat pasteurization, which is a well established and satisfactory means of decontamination/disinfection of liquid foods, cannot efficiently achieve a similar objective for solid foods. Extensive work carried out worldwide has shown that irradiation is efficient in eradicating foodborne pathogens like Salmonella spp. that can contaminate poultry products. In this work Co-60 gamma irradiation was applied to samples of industrial powder white, yolk and whole egg at doses between 0 and 25 kGy. Samples were rehydrated and the viscosity measured in a Brookfield viscosimeter, model DV III at 5, 15 and 25 degree sign C. The rheological behaviour among the various kinds of samples were markedly different. Irradiation with doses up to 5 kGy, known to reduced bacterial contamination to non-detectable levels, showed almost no variation of viscosity of irradiated egg white samples. On the other hand, whole or yolk egg samples showed some changes in rheological properties depending on the dose level, showing the predominance of whether polimerization or degradation as a result of the irradiation. Additionally, irradiation of yolk egg powder reduced yolk color as a function of the irradiation exposure implemented. The importance of these results are discussed in terms of possible industrial applications.

  11. Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of eggs, fish larvae and juveniles at Jianli cross-section in the middle reaches of the Yangtze river%长江中游监利江段鱼卵及仔稚鱼时空分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世健; 陈大庆; 刘绍平; 范振华; 任玉芹; 段辛斌

    2011-01-01

    Surveys for spatial and temporal distribution patterns of eggs ,fish larvae and juveniles were carried out at Jianli cross-section in the middle reaches of the Yangtze river from May to July in 2010,A total of 9494 eggs,328422 fish larvae and juveniles,belonging to 8 orders 15 families 43 genera 51 species. the results showed that the average density for eggs and fish larvae and juveniles were 13. 3 ind./100 m3 and 61.8 ind./100 m3 ,respectively. the density of eggs was higher on May,and the maximum was 87. 8 ind./100 m3 ;the maximum density of fish larvae and juveniles was 489. 0 ind./100 m3.It had significant difference that the density of roe between surface and middle cross-section in the horizontal distribution at two banks and middle area ( P < 0. 05 ); There were significant difference in the horizontal distribution at north bank and middle area( P <0. 01 ) ,and there were no significant difference at south bank and north bank (P > 0. 05 ). Yet it had no significant difference that the density of fish larvae and juveniles between surface and middle cross-section in vertical distribution at two banks and middle area ( P > 0. 05 ). Our results ind. icated that it had significant difference in density of eggs,fish larvae and juveniles between day and night (P < 0. 05 ) ,the density of eggs during the day was lower than at night.%2010年5-7月对长江中游监利江段鱼卵和仔稚鱼的时空分布进行调查,共采集到鱼卵样品9494粒,仔稚鱼样品328422尾,分属8目15科43属51种.结果显示:5-7月鱼卵的平均密度为13.3 ind./100m3,最大密度值87.8 ind./100 m3,主要集中在5月;5-7月仔稚鱼平均密度为61.8 ind./100m3,最大密度值489.0ind./100 m3,主要集中在6月下旬至7月上旬.经W符号秩次检验,在水平分布上,鱼卵密度在北岸、江心和南岸均存在显著性差异(P<0.05);仔稚鱼密度在北岸与南岸差异不显著(P>0.05),仔稚鱼密度在北岸与江心差异极显著(P<0.01).

  12. Lemongrass-Fried Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 500 grams grass carp, several stalks of lemongrass, 5 leaves of lettuce. Condiments: 10 grams sweet sauce (made from fermented flour, scallion powder and ginger root powder); yolk of one egg, cooking wine, salt, pepper and MSG (optional). Method: 1. Cut the fish into pieces. Mash

  13. Prevalence and antibiogram profile of Mycobacterium spp. in poultry and its environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rubayet Reza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an attempt was undertaken to know the prevalence and antibiogram profile of Mycobacterium spp. in poultry and its immediate environments. A total of 130 samples comprising of droppings (n=80, egg washing (n=18, drinking water (n=14, hand washing from farm workers (n=6 and litter (n=12 were collected from six poultry farms located in and around Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU. Samples were inoculated onto 7H10 Middlebrook agar and incubated aerobically at 37ºC for 7-14 days. Identification of Mycobacterium spp. was performed by colonial morphology, acid fast staining, and biochemical tests. Molecular identification of Mycobacterium spp. at genus level was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay targeting 65-kDa heat shock protein gene. Antibiogram profile of Mycobacterium spp. was performed against five antibiotics namely Rifampin, Azithromycin, Ciprofloxacin, Streptomycin and Doxycycline by disc diffusion method. Three Mycobacterium spp. were isolated from dropping samples of poultry. The overall prevalence of Mycobacterium spp. was 2.3% (n=3/130. All the isolates were resistant to Rifampin and sensitive to Azithromycin and Ciprofloxacin. Data of this study indicated that multidrug resistant Mycobacterium spp. are prevalent in the poultry farms of the study area which underscore the need of implementation of good biosecurity to poultry husbandry practice to ensure poultry and human health.

  14. Knowledge and Attitudes towards Handling Eggs in the Home: An Unexplored Food Safety Issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne illness is a global public health issue, with food handling in the home identified as an underestimated source. In Australia, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of salmonellosis with the majority of outbreaks linked to eggs. This study investigated Australian eggs consumer attitudes, behaviours and risk perceptions associated with the handling of raw eggs in the home. It was identified that 67% of participants chose free range eggs, 11% kept poultry, 7% did not have any preference, 7% cage eggs, 4% barn eggs, 2% organic eggs and 1% pasteurized eggs. The majority of participants (91% reported they stored eggs in the fridge. It was identified that there is an underestimation of “risky behaviour” associated with the consumption of raw eggs in the home, as 84% of participants indicated that they did not consume raw eggs, but subsequently 86% indicated that they had eaten mixture/batter containing raw eggs. Participants’ responses relating to food safety were also examined in relation to their profession and gender. Safer food handling practices were identified by Environmental Health Officers (EHO and Food handlers compared to all other professions (p < 0.05. However, the gender of participants did not significantly affect (p > 0.05 their responses.

  15. Knowledge and Attitudes towards Handling Eggs in the Home: An Unexplored Food Safety Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Clarke, Beverley; Ross, Kirstin

    2017-01-01

    Foodborne illness is a global public health issue, with food handling in the home identified as an underestimated source. In Australia, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of salmonellosis with the majority of outbreaks linked to eggs. This study investigated Australian eggs consumer attitudes, behaviours and risk perceptions associated with the handling of raw eggs in the home. It was identified that 67% of participants chose free range eggs, 11% kept poultry, 7% did not have any preference, 7% cage eggs, 4% barn eggs, 2% organic eggs and 1% pasteurized eggs. The majority of participants (91%) reported they stored eggs in the fridge. It was identified that there is an underestimation of “risky behaviour” associated with the consumption of raw eggs in the home, as 84% of participants indicated that they did not consume raw eggs, but subsequently 86% indicated that they had eaten mixture/batter containing raw eggs. Participants’ responses relating to food safety were also examined in relation to their profession and gender. Safer food handling practices were identified by Environmental Health Officers (EHO) and Food handlers compared to all other professions (p 0.05) their responses. PMID:28067811

  16. Knowledge and Attitudes towards Handling Eggs in the Home: An Unexplored Food Safety Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Clarke, Beverley; Ross, Kirstin

    2017-01-06

    Foodborne illness is a global public health issue, with food handling in the home identified as an underestimated source. In Australia, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of salmonellosis with the majority of outbreaks linked to eggs. This study investigated Australian eggs consumer attitudes, behaviours and risk perceptions associated with the handling of raw eggs in the home. It was identified that 67% of participants chose free range eggs, 11% kept poultry, 7% did not have any preference, 7% cage eggs, 4% barn eggs, 2% organic eggs and 1% pasteurized eggs. The majority of participants (91%) reported they stored eggs in the fridge. It was identified that there is an underestimation of "risky behaviour" associated with the consumption of raw eggs in the home, as 84% of participants indicated that they did not consume raw eggs, but subsequently 86% indicated that they had eaten mixture/batter containing raw eggs. Participants' responses relating to food safety were also examined in relation to their profession and gender. Safer food handling practices were identified by Environmental Health Officers (EHO) and Food handlers compared to all other professions (p 0.05) their responses.

  17. EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON POULTRY PRODUCTION IN ONDO STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.B. Adesiji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The study assesses the effects of climate change on poultry production in Ondo State, Nigeria. Eighty three (83 poultry farmers were interviewed to elicit relevant information in line with the objectives of the study. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tools were used for data analysis. Findings revealed that majority (93.3% of the respondents are aware of climate change, 78%, 98.8% and 86.7% of the respondents agreed that temperature fluctuation, increased in sunshine intensity and global warming has a negative effects on poultry production, 72.4% of the respondents agreed that prices of feed grains are usually high in hot and dry seasons which may affect cost of production and number of birds to raise for egg and meat production in the farm, 73.5% of the respondents agreed that climate change has effect on feed grain availability, this implies that high temperature and low rainfall are climatic factors that affect general grain harvest, their supply to the market and ultimately cost of poultry production. the findings further revealed that 94% of the respondents agreed that climate change affects egg and meat production pattern and 95.2% of the respondents agreed that moist climatic conditions encouraged the distribution and development of diseases. Infrential statistics shows that there is a significant relationship between respondents' socio-economic characteristics and perception of poultry farmers on effects of climate change on poultry production since p > 0.05 (r = 0.454, p= 0.001, the findings also shows that there is a significant relationship between socio-economic characteristics of respondents and their level of awareness of climate change since the p > 0.05 (r = 0.652, p = 0.001. it is recomended extension agents and other development agencies need to educate the poultry farmers more about the effects posed by climate change on poultry production and intensify awareness campaign to poultry farmers on how to reduce

  18. KANDUNGAN VITAMIN B6, B9, B12 DAN E BEBERAPA JENIS DAGING, TELUR, IKAN DAN UDANG LAUT DI BOGOR DAN SEKITARNYA (VITAMIN B6, B9, B12 AND E CONTENT OF SEVERAL TYPES OF MEATS, EGGS, FISHES AND MARINE SHRIMPS IN BOGOR AND SURROUNDING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Yuniati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Food Composition Table (DKBM in Indonesia has not mentioned all types of nutrients available in the food, particularly vitamin B6, B9 (folic acid, B12, and vitamin E. Therefore this study aimed to analyze the content of vitamin B6, B9 (folic acid, B12, and vitamin E in several types of meat, eggs, fish and marine shrimps consumed in Bogor and surrounding areas. Vitamin B6, B9, B12, and vitamin E from three kinds of meat (chicken, beef, lamb, two types of eggs (chicken, duck, and four species of fish (snapper, bloating, carp and tuna and crayfish are analyzed using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The samples used are raw and taken from three locations in Bogor and surrounding areas. Fishes, meats and eggs contain high levels of folic acid, however the amount of folic acid content in meat varies depending on which part of meat the samples are taken, types of organ, and the fat content of the meat. The folic acid content in chicken wings is different with those in thigh. In fatty mutton the folic acid is higher than in those lean meat, and in yolk is higher than those in egg white. Vitamin E content of snapper is the highest amongs other types of fishes (6.54 µg/100 g.Chicken eggs contain a higher amount of vitamin E than duck eggs, while the yolk contains ahigher amount of vitamin E than those egg white. Keywords: animal foods, vitamin B6, vitamin B9 (folic Acid, vitamin B12, vitamin E   ABSTRAK Daftar Komposisi Bahan Makanan (DKBM yang ada di Indonesia belum memuat semua jenis zat gizi dalam makanan, khususnya vitamin B6, B9 (asam folat, B12 dan vitamin E. Menganalisis kandungan vitamin B6, B9 (asam folat, B12, dan vitamin E dalam beberapa jenis daging, telur, ikan dan udang laut yang dikonsumsi masyarakat di Bogor dan sekitarnya. Kandungan vitamin B6, B9, B12 dan vitamin E dari tiga jenis daging (ayam, sapi, kambing, dua jenis telur (ayam, itik, serta empat jenis ikan (kakap, kembung, mas, tongkol dan udang laut

  19. 78 FR 19080 - Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ..., Imports, Livestock, Meat and meat products, Milk, Poultry and poultry products, Reporting and..., infectious allantoic fluid; (2) Any H5 or H7 virus that does not meet the criteria in paragraph (1) of...

  20. 77 FR 5480 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Animal and Poultry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to request approval of an information collection associated with regulations for the importation of animal and poultry products (milk and eggs) into the United States.

  1. Prevalence and characterization of motile Salmonella in commercial layer poultry farms in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barua, Himel; Biswas, Paritosh K.; Olsen, Katharina E. P.;

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is a globally widespread food-borne pathogen having major impact on public health. All motile serovars of Salmonella enterica of poultry origin are zoonotic, and contaminated meat and raw eggs are an important source to human infections. Information on the prevalence of Salmonella...

  2. An alternative for antibiotic se in poultry: probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edens FW

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 50 years, there has been increasing amounts of antibiotics used prophylactically and as growth promoters. Today, there is a consumer and governmental outcry to eliminate that practice from poultry and livestock production. Evidence has been accumulated to show that there is a link between risk of zoonotic disease and growth promoting antibiotic usage in livestock and poultry. Therefore, alternatives to the use of growth promoting antibiotics must be found to promote growth or production at or near the genetic potential of the modern day broiler, turkey, and egg producer. The use of probiotics has many potential benefits and include modified host metabolism, immuno-stimulation, anti-inflammatory reactions, exclusion and killing of pathogens in the intestinal tract, reduced bacterial contamination on processed broiler carcasses, enhanced nutrient absorption and performance, and ultimately decreased human health risk. The development of these factors generally can be ascribed to the ability of most probiotic products to balance and maintain the intestinal microflora in poultry species.

  3. Chelated minerals for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic minerals have been subject of an increasing number of investigations recently. These compounds can be considered the most significant event regarding commercial forms of minerals targeting animal supplementation in the last decades. Minerals, especially metals, are usually supplemented in poultry feeds using cheap saline sources and have never required a lot of attention in terms of quality. On the other hand, definitions of organic minerals are very broad and frequently lead to confusion when decision-making becomes necessary. Organic minerals include any mineral bound to organic compounds, regardless of the type of existing bond between mineral and organic molecules. Proteins and carbohydrates are the most frequent candidates in organic mineral combinations. Organic fraction size and bond type are not limitations in organic mineral definition; however, essential metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn can form coordinated bonds, which are stable in intestinal lumen. Metals bound to organic ligands by coordinated bonds can dissociate within animal metabolism whereas real covalent bonds cannot. Chelated minerals are molecules that have a metal bound to an organic ligand through coordinated bonds; but many organic minerals are not chelates or are not even bound through coordinated bonds. Utilization of organic minerals is largely dependent on the ligand; therefore, amino acids and other small molecules with facilitated access to the enterocyte are supposed to be better utilized by animals. Organic minerals with ligands presenting long chains may require digestion prior to absorption. After absorption, organic minerals may present physiological effects, which improve specific metabolic responses, such as the immune response. Many studies have demonstrated the benefits of metal-amino acid chelates on animal metabolism, but the detection positive effects on live performance is less consistent.

  4. Chicken Egg Shell Membrane Associated Proteins and Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Sarbjeet; Liyanage, Rohana; Kannan, Lakshmi; Packialakshmi, Balamurugan; Lay, Jack O; Rath, Narayan C

    2015-11-11

    Egg shells are poultry industry byproducts with potential for use in various biological and agricultural applications. We have been interested in the membranes underlying the calcareous shell as a feed supplement, which showed potential to improve immunity and performance of post hatch poultry. Therefore, to determine their protein and peptide profiles, we extracted the egg shell membranes (ESM) from fresh unfertilized eggs with methanol and guanidine hydrochloride (GdHCl) to obtain soluble proteins for analysis by mass spectrometry. The methanol extract was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), electrospray ionization (ESI), high-performance reverse phase liquid chromatographic separation (HPLC), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to determine its peptide and protein profiles. The GdHCl extract was subjected to ESI-HPLC-MS/MS following trypsin digestion of reduced/alkylated proteins. Nine proteins from the methanol extract and >275 proteins from the GdHCl extract were tentatively identified. The results suggested the presence of several abundant proteins from egg whites, such as ovoalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme as well as many others associated with antimicrobial, biomechanical, cytoskeletal organizational, cell signaling, and enzyme activities. Collagens, keratin, agrin, and laminin were some of the structural proteins present in the ESM. The methanol-soluble fraction contained several clusterin peptides and defensins, particularly, two isoforms of gallin. The ratios of the two isoforms of gallin differed between the membranes obtained from brown and white eggs. The high abundance of several antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and other bioactive proteins in the ESM along with its potential to entrap various microbes and antigens may make it a suitable vehicle for oral immunization of post hatch poultry and improve their disease resistance.

  5. Collection methods of trematode eggs using experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokawa, Daigo; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Mikami, Fusako; Shibata, Katsumasa; Shibahara, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Koichi; Takamiya, Shinzaburo; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takeshi; Tsuji, Naotoshi

    2016-10-01

    Although observing the eggs of human parasitic helminth is essential for medical education in parasitology, opportunities for collection of the eggs are limited. Collection of the eggs using experimental animal models is needed for a sustainable supply. The metacercariae of three trematode species, Paragonimus westermani, Clonorchis sinensis and Metagonimus yokogawai, were collected from the second intermediate hosts: freshwater crabs and fishes, which were obtained using online shopping in Japan, and inoculated to experimental animal rat and dog. Consequently, eggs of the three trematode species were obtained abundantly from the feces of the animals. The eggs are being used for student training in several Japanese universities. In this article, we introduce the collection procedures for trematode eggs.

  6. Microbiological biodiversity in poultry and paddy straw wastes in composting systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Devi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Immense quantity of waste is generated in association with poultry meat egg and crop production. The potential risks due to disposal of these wastes are magnified as a result of dense refinement of poultry production and the decreasing amount of land available for waste disposal. The study aims at studying the microbiological biodiversity of poultry waste and paddy straw based co-composting system. The predominant microflora of the poultry manure were bacteria, fungi, enteric bacteria and spore forming bacteria whose population was high at the initiation of composting but decreased significantly as the compost approached maturity. The initial load of inherent enteric groups of bacteria in poultry waste, that also includes some pathogenic ones, is considerably reduced and some new vital groups contributed to compost quality as the microbiological biodiversity sets in the system and becomes stable. Major fraction of nitrogen of poultry waste was subjected to ammonia volatilization and a fraction of it conserved by co-composting it in conjunction with wastes having low nitrogen contents. In the treatment T1 and T5, where poultry manure and paddy straws alone were composted, 60 and 30 percent of organic carbon, respectively, was lost over a period of six months. Whereas in treatments T2,T3 and T4, poultry manure and paddy straw were co-composted in the ratio of 3:1, 2:2 and 1:3, respectively, 51.4,45.0 and 37.0 percent of carbon, respectively, was lost during decomposition. The C: N ratio in all the treatments decreased significantly to 18.3 for T1, 24.7 for T2, 27.0 for T3, 34.9 for T4 and 38.5 for T5 at the end of composting period.

  7. Characterization of backyard poultry production systems and disease risk in the central zone of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-West, C; Rojas, H; Pinto, J; Orozco, J; Hervé-Claude, L P; Urcelay, S

    2012-08-01

    Backyard poultry production systems (BPS) are an important and widespread form of poultry production. There is a common perception that biosecurity standards in BPS are generally poor and BPS are usually associated with animal diseases and zoonoses. In this study BPS were identified in the vicinity of six wetlands, having these a higher risk of presenting and introducing avian diseases such as HPAI and Newcastle disease, as defined by the national veterinary services, in to Chile's main poultry production area. BPS were characterized through a field questionnaire and the main areas covered by the survey were BPS structure, biosecurity and value chain. The BPS identified in this study share most characteristics on biosecurity, poultry management and product commercialization, but it was possible to identify a certain degree of variation within and among the study sites. BPS in Chile are similar to those in other regions, with a relatively small flock size (average 37 birds), a low level of biosecurity measures and lack of poultry disease management. Management findings include that most farmers used mixed/partial confinement, with low or no biosecurity and disease control measures in place. Eggs were the main output and were used mainly for home consumption or sale at local markets. Sick birds' treatment with drugs approved for other species or for human use could represent a risk to human health, owing to the possible presence of drug residues in poultry products. Despite the different structures of the poultry sector worldwide, BPS can play a major role in disease maintenance and spread because its management conditions characteristics and the lack of animal health services adapted to these production systems. This should be an alert message to the veterinary authorities to improve coverage of veterinary assistance and surveillance activities in backyard poultry production.

  8. Eggs in lbcldcm, Nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    humans. This study assessed the use of antibiotic in poultry production, determined the prevalence and ... important agricultural enterprise to the country, contributing significantly to ... toxic side effects such as potentially fatal aplastic anaemia ...

  9. Endemic Poultry Viral Diseases 2016 Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viral infections of the avian gastrointestinal tract negatively impact poultry production; however, determining the complex etiologies of the viral enteric diseases in poultry has been difficult. Project scientists are continuing to investigate the species specificity, molecular phylogenetics, and p...

  10. Ostrich eggs geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise quantification of the profile of egg can provide a powerful tool for the analysis of egg shape for various biological problems. A new approach to the geometry of a Ostrich’s egg profile is presented here using an analysing the egg’s digital photo by edge detection techniques. The obtained points on the eggshell counter are fitted by the Fourier series. The obtained equations describing an egg profile have been used to calculate radii of curvature. The radii of the curvature at the important point of the egg profile (sharp end, blunt end and maximum thickness are independent on the egg shape index. The exact values of the egg surface and the egg volume have been obtained. These quantities are also independent on the egg shape index. These quantities can be successively estimated on the basis of simplified equations which are expressed in terms of the egg length, L¸ and its width, B. The surface area of the eggshells also exhibits good correlation with the egg long circumference length. Some limitations of the most used procedures have been also shown.

  11. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all...

  12. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the Ontario meat and poultry sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Means by which the Ontario meat and poultry industries can reduce their consumption of energy, water and other resources, and reduce environmental discharges are discussed. In turn, improvements in resource and environmental efficiency by Ontario meat and poultry plants could help alleviate the load on Ontario's municipal infrastructure, reducing the need for new construction, as well as helping to minimize greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. By implementing the measures recommended in this guide the industry can also significantly reduce its operating cost at little or no capital expense. This revised edition improves the visual appearance and versatility of the Guide, in addition to including suggestions by the Canadian Meat Council, the Canadian Poultry and Egg Processors Council, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency , and the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, as amplification of the views of the authorities consulted in the preparation of the 1994 first edition. 22 refs., 26 tabs., 7 figs.

  13. Aflatoxin B1 Induced Systemic Toxicity in Poultry and Rescue Effects of Selenium and Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Muhammad Jameel; Peng, Xi; Kamboh, Asghar Ali; Zhou, Yi; Fang, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Among many challenges, exposure to aflatoxins, particularly aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), is one of the major concerns in poultry industry. AFB1 intoxication results in decreased meat/egg production, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, disturbance in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and reproduction, immune suppression, and increased disease susceptibility. Selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), in dietary supplementation, offer easy, cost-effective, and efficient ways to neutralize the toxic effect of AFB1. In the current review, we discussed the impact of AFB1 on poultry industry, its biotransformation, and organ-specific noxious effects, along with the action mechanism of AFB1-induced toxicity. Moreover, we explained the biological and detoxifying roles of Se and Zn in avian species as well as the protection mechanism of these two trace elements. Ultimately, we discussed the use of Se and Zn supplementation against AFB1-induced toxicity in poultry birds.

  14. Inert dusts and their effects on the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2009-06-01

    The haematophagous poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) is the most important pest of egg laying hens in many parts of the world. Control has often relied on chemical pesticides, but inert dusts, which are thought to kill target hosts primarily by desiccation, have become one of the most commonly applied alternative control methods for poultry red mite in Europe. This development has occurred despite a lack of knowledge of the efficacy of the different types of inert dusts and how this is affected by environmental parameters, e.g. the high relative humidity found in poultry houses. In this laboratory study the efficacy of different commercial inert dust products against D. gallinae is compared. All tested compounds killed mites, but there was a clear ranking of efficacy (measured as weight loss after 24 h and as time until 50% mortality), particularly at 75% relative humidity (RH). At 85% RH the efficacy was significantly lower for all tested compounds (P gallinae.

  15. The poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae): a potential vector of pathogenic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente Moro, Claire; De Luna, Carlos J; Tod, Alexander; Guy, Jonathan H; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Zenner, Lionel

    2009-06-01

    The poultry red mite, D. gallinae has been involved in the transmission of many pathogenic agents, responsible for serious diseases both in animals and humans. Nowadays, few effective methods are available to control the ectoparasite in poultry farms. Consequently, this is an emerging problem which must be taken into account to maintain good health in commercial egg production. This paper addresses the vector capacity of the ectoparasite with special emphasis on salmonellae, pathogenic agents responsible for many of the most important outbreaks of food-borne diseases worlwide. It has been experimentally shown that D. gallinae could act as a biological vector of S. enteritidis and natural carriage of these bacteria by the mite on poultry premises has also been reported. It was also found that D. gallinae carried other pathogens such as E. coli, Shigella sp., and Staphylococcus, thus increasing the list of pathogenic agents potentially transmitted by the mite.

  16. Resistência antimicrobiana de Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolados de pescado e de cortes e de miúdos de frango Antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from fish and poultry products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Araújo Maia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolados de peixes de água doce e de frangos foram submetidos ao teste de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos utilizando quatorze drogas, com o objetivo de determinar e confrontar os padrões de suscetibilidade deste microrganismo. As cepas oriundas de peixes pertenciam à coleção do Laboratório de Bacterioses/IV/UFRRJ. Para o isolamento das cepas, foram selecionados miúdos (fígado e cortes (coxa e sobrecoxa de frangos adquiridos em estabelecimentos comerciais no município do Rio de Janeiro. A metodologia de isolamento incluiu o enriquecimento em água peptonada, seguido de semeadura em Agar EMB e Agar GSP. Para as cepas oriundas de peixes, procedeu-se à reativação em água peptonada, seguida de reisolamento em Agar EMB. Colônias sugestivas foram transferidas para Agar TSI e LIA para avaliação das características metabólicas. A capacidade de produção de pigmento verde-azulado foi avaliada em Agar Mueller-Hinton e a da enzima citocromo-oxidase, em Agar Nutriente. O teste de suscetibilidade a antimicrobianos realizado nas 63 cepas revelou maiores percentuais de resistência para NAL e NIT (96,8%, TCY (93,6%, AMC (92,1%, CHL (90,5% e SXT (85,7%, destacando-se a multirresistência dos isolados. A totalidade das cepas oriundas de frangos apresentou sensibilidade a CAZ e IPM e nos isolados de peixes a ATM, CAZ, IPM e AMK.Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from fish and chicken products were analyzed using the Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test with 14 drugs to evaluate the susceptibility patterns of this microorganism. Strains isolated from two different sources were evaluated. The fish strains belonged to the collection of Bacterioses Laboratory/IV/UFRRJ, and those from chicken specimens were isolated from the liver and chicken carcasses traded in commercial establishments in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The isolation methodology included enrichment in Peptone Water and then spread on EMB Agar and GSP Agar

  17. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of poultry meat and other...: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.23 Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from... under the following conditions: (a) The poultry meat or other poultry products are derived from poultry...

  18. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry rolls. 381.159 Section 381.159 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  19. Effect of air velocity on laying hen performance and egg quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing convective cooling can improve performance and thermal comfort of commercial poultry when weather or system design limit cooling through other means such as evaporative cooling. Previous work in young hens showed increased egg production rate as feed intake is maintained under heat stres...

  20. Entomopathogenic fungi for control of arthropod pests in egg production facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole

    Beauveria bassiana and other species of entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for microbial control of major pests in egg layers, e.g. the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), the housefly (Musca domestica) and the darkling beetle (Alphitobius diaperinus). We have selected an isolate...

  1. 天津海域春夏季鱼卵、仔稚鱼的种类组成与数量分布%Species composition and abundance of fish eggs, larvae, and juveniles in Tianjin sea area during spring and summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷德贤; 宓慧菁; 刘茂利; 刘国山

    2012-01-01

    The species composition and abundance of fish eggs, larvae, and juveniles was surveyed monthly in Tianjin sea area during spring and summer from May to August in 2008. Total of 26 654 eggs and 20 534 larvae and juveniles were collected and identified to be 25 species, 12 families and 7 orders during the four cruises. The eggs had an average density of 1. 70 ind. /m and the larvae and the juveniles 1. 18 ind./m , with the maximal abun-dance in May, followed by in June and the minimal abundance in August. Compared with the previous data, the spawning peak was still observed in May, but the abundance and proportion of fish eggs, larvae, and juveniles were found to be decreased in May. There was no significant change in the south center spawning ground, but the North center spawning ground was found to be moved northwards. The findings revealed that the species number and a-bundance offish eggs, larvae, and juveniles were shown to be decreased, and the spawning ground shows degrada-tion in Tianjin sea area in recent years.%于2008年5-8月对天津海域的鱼卵、仔稚鱼进行了4个航次的调查,共采集到鱼卵26 654粒,仔稚鱼20 534尾,隶属于7目12科25种.鱼卵和仔稚鱼的平均密度分别为1.70、1.18ind./m3;5月份鱼卵和仔稚鱼最多,6月份次之,8月份最少;与历史资料比较,5月份仍是天津海域鱼类的产卵高峰期,但5月份鱼卵和仔稚鱼所占比例有所下降;南部中心产卵场位置变化不大,北部中心产卵场向北移动.本研究结果表明,近年来天津海域鱼卵、仔稚鱼的种类和数量呈减少趋势,产卵场出现退化现象.

  2. Egg production and egg quality in free-range laying hens housed at different outdoor stocking densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Lee, C; Hinch, G N; Roberts, J R

    2017-09-01

    Free-range laying hen systems are increasing in number within Australia. Variation in outdoor stocking densities has led to development of a national information standard on free-range egg labeling, including setting a maximum density of 10,000 hens per hectare. However, there are few data on the impacts of differing outdoor densities on production and egg quality. ISA Brown hens in small (150 hens) flocks were housed in identical indoor pens, each with access (from 21 weeks) to different sized ranges simulating one of three outdoor stocking densities (2 replicates each: 2,000 hens/hectare (ha), 10,000 hens/ha, 20,000 hens/ha). Hen-day production was tracked from 21 through 35 weeks with eggs visually graded daily for external deformities. All eggs laid on one day were weighed each week. Eggs were collected from each pen at 25, 30, and 36 weeks and analyzed for egg quality. There were no effects of outdoor stocking density on average hen-day percentage production (P = 0.67), egg weight (P = 0.09), percentages of deformed eggs (P = 0.30), shell reflectivity (P = 0.74), shell breaking strength (P = 0.07), shell deformation (P = 0.83), or shell thickness (P = 0.24). Eggs from hens in the highest density had the highest percentage shell weight (P = 0.004) and eggs from the lowest density had the highest yolk color score (P quality is warranted. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Essential elements in different types of eggs by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrogi, Jessica B.; Gomes, Bruna G.; Avegliano, Roseane P.; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: jessica.ambrogi@hotmail.com, E-mail: brunagabrielegomes@gmail.com, E-mail: avegliano@uol.com.br, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Eggs are excellent sources of protein and provide essential nutrients to human nutrition. Neither the color of the shell nor that of the yolk affects the egg nutritive value, even though this value can vary according to the eggs from different poultries, and as well as according to the feed given to them. The egg consumption of the Brazilian southeastern population is 9.9 g/day, which represents 0.61% of the daily food consumption per capita. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of the elements Br, Ca, Cr, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Se, Sc and Zn in three types of eggs (hen, free-range and quail eggs). The edible parts of the eggs (egg white and egg yolks) were analyzed Hard-boiled and Raw. The Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was applied to determine the element concentrations. The samples were irradiated for approximately eight hours in flux of 4.5-5.5 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, at nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, Brazil. There was variation in the elements concentrations among the types of eggs and between Hard-boiled and Raw eggs. (author)

  4. Refining the LPS-Antigen in Salmonella Antibody Elisa for Poultry Enhanced Specificity without Impairing Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøl; Lind, Peter; Klausen, Joan;

    2014-01-01

    In the Danish serological surveillance for Salmonella in poultry (serum and egg yolk) a mix-ELISA is used, based on S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis antigens (Feld et al., 2000). When we evaluated results of the test retrospectively, over the years an unacceptably large fraction of seropositive...... findings could not be confirmed by the subsequent confirmatory bacteriological sampling in the herd. Therefore we tried to enhance specificity of the ELISA, without losing sensitivity, by refining the antigens used....

  5. Investigations of sensitivity to antibiotics of salmonella strain species originating from poultry from different epizootiological areas

    OpenAIRE

    Stošić Zorica; Mitrić Milan; Kiškarolj Ferenc; Mišić Dušan; Ašanin Ružica

    2006-01-01

    A total of 1666 samples were examined, of which 512 samples of parenchymatous organs of dead or deliberately sacrtificed animals, 60 samples of non-hatched fertilized eggs, 202 samples of feces, 652 samples of cloacal smears, 221 samples of smears from walls of maintenance objects, incubator stations, and transport vehicles, 19 samples of beddings and shavings. The samples originated from poultry farms and which were taken to a laboratory immediately on sampling and sown the same day. A total...

  6. Energy efficiency in intensive livestock Estonia. Energy-saving measures on poultry farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annuk, A.; Nurste, H.; Damskier, S.S.

    2004-07-01

    The overall purpose of this report on energy-saving measures is to provide the Estonian Ministry of Economics and Communication with an overview of the energy consumption on poultry farms at a national level. This report compromises detailed information on energy consumption per ton of broiler meat, egg and young laying hen produced in Estonia and Denmark, respectively, based on field investigations and Danish statistics. To collect information on electricity consumption within Estonian poultry farming on a national level, three pilot farms were analysed with regard to the use of energy consumption on each farm. Results from the three farms are presented in Appendix 1. In addition, a calculation of national energy consumption within chicken meet production, egg production and breeding of young laying hens is presented in this report. The calculation shows the difference between the Danish and Estonian energy consumption on poultry farms. This report presents a proposal for a ten-year development plan for the reduction of the energy consumption on Estonian poultry farms. (au)

  7. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Bagh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age. The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05 among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD production or henhoused egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05 in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white

  8. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagh, Jessy; Panigrahi, B.; Panda, N.; Pradhan, C. R.; Mallik, B. K.; Majhi, B.; Rout, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age). The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05) among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD) production or hen-housed egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white and gray in the

  9. Prevalence and multidrug-resistant pattern of Salmonella from the eggs and egg-storing trays of retail markets of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tareq Mahmud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Salmonellosis is one of the most common and widely distributed foodborne illnesses in human, and multidrugresistance of Salmonella spp. has increased in developing countries with the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in the poultry production system. A cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected retail markets of Chittagong City Corporation to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella isolated from commercial layer eggs, eggshell surface, and egg-storing trays. Materials and Methods: Chicken eggs, egg surface, and egg-storing trays samples from the retail markets were collected for isolating Salmonella spp. (bacteriological culture methods followed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing (disc diffusion method against Salmonella isolates during the period from July to December 2013. Results: Out of the 310 layer eggs, egg surface, and egg-storing trays samples, the highest prevalence of Salmonella spp. was found in eggs trays (57.15% and the lowest (13.33% in eggs and the prevalence differed significantly (p0.05. Isolated Salmonella was tested for resistance to eight different antimicrobial agents, using disc diffusion method. Among eight antimicrobial tested (n=111, 100% resistance were found to ampicillin and amoxicillin followed by erythromycin (60-100%, tetracycline (72-93%, ciprofloxacin (22-66%, colistin (27-66%, enrofloxacin (42-54%, and pefloxacin 23.07% across the study sites. Ciprofloxacin remained sensitive in 40.9% cases and, pefloxacin and colistin appeared to be almost sensitive (61-72% against Salmonella isolates at studied areas. Salmonella isolates showed multidrug-resistance pattern up to five of the eight antimicrobials tested. Conclusion: It can be said that the rational use of antibiotics needs to be adopted in commercial poultry farming system of Bangladesh to prevent the emergence of drug-resistance Salmonella to protect the public health consequences.

  10. Descriptive Study of an Outbreak of Avian Urolithiasis in a Large Commercial Egg Complex in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham SID

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian urolithiasis is one of the major causes of mortality in poultry. However, in Algeria this condition has never been described. An outbreak of avian urolithiasis was observed on a large commercial egg complex in the department of Chlef (West of Algeria. The clinical features of this condition are to be described. Mortality associated to urolithiasis started at the onset of egg production, estimated to 0.7 % per week. Urolithiasis induced an egg drop estimated to 12%. Dead and live layers were both necropsied and examined for kidney lesions. Most of the birds examined presented enlarged ureters, renal atrophy and visceral gout deposition.

  11. Incidence of egg drop syndrome – 1976 in Namakkal district, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh, P; K. Shoba; J. Johnson Rajeswar

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To know the magnitude of influence by Egg Drop Syndrome – 1976 (EDS –'76) virus infection in causing drop in egg production in and around Namakkal. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 cloacal swabs and 15 pouch shell glands (uteri) homogenates from 15 poultry farms in and around Namakkal area were used for virus isolation. Three numbers of 10 –day- old embryonated duck eggs were used for the inoculation of each suspected material for virus isolation. The isolate was iden...

  12. Diary of a poultry intern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garton, William

    2015-05-16

    In his post as poultry intern, William Garton is finding that CPD takes up a large proportion of his time. This, he says, can be quite enjoyable, particularly when events are sponsored by international pharmaceutical companies. This month, he has been on two training courses, one in Spain and the other in Belgium. British Veterinary Association.

  13. CalCOFI Fish Counts Positive Tows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Non-larval fish captured in MOCNESS tows as part of a few special studies. This table includes only tows where one or more eggs were captured for the species...

  14. Cuttlefish Egg Soup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The cuttlefish egg is in fact the eggs-binding gland of cuttlefish. It is elliptical and grows on the internal surface of ovary, with a layer of thin film coating the gland. Inside the gland are many small white "cuttlefish coins" which nestle closely to each other, To cook cuttlefish egg soup, prepare the cuttlefish coins by peeling each one carefully so they keep their original shape, then boil

  15. Odd-Boiled Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Kenneth; Scheman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    At a Shabbat lunch in Madrid not long ago, the conversation turned to the question of boiling eggs. One of the guests mentioned that a Dutch rabbi he knew had heard that in order to make it more likely that boiled eggs be kosher, you should add an egg to the pot if the number you began with was even. According to the laws of Kashruth, Jews may not…

  16. Replacing Corn and Wheat in Layer Diets with Hulless Oats Shows Effects on Sensory Properties and Yolk Quality of Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Louisa R; Hasenbeck, Aimee; Murphy, Kevin M; Hermes, James C

    2017-01-01

    US organic poultry producers are under pressure to find feed alternatives to corn and wheat. Hulless oats offer advantages such as wide geographic adaptation of the plant and high concentrations of protein and oil in the grain. They have shown considerable potential in experimental work as a feed grain for poultry, but more research is needed into their influence on the sensory and nutritional properties of eggs. In this study, hulless oats were substituted for corn or wheat at 200 g kg(-1) in diets fed to Hy-Line Brown hens and eggs were sampled for sensory evaluation after 8 weeks. Discrimination tests of blended and baked egg samples found evidence of difference between eggs from oat-based diets and those from the oat-free control (p cooking (p cooked eggs in a way that was perceptible to untrained consumers, probably by reducing the yolk proportion. This finding was not commercially relevant owing to small effect size, and results overall add to existing evidence that hulless oats can be fed to poultry at a moderate proportion of the diet with no negative effect on consumer acceptability of eggs. Regardless of the small effect size, however, findings are interesting from the food chemistry perspective because they provide novel evidence of how the thermal properties of eggs can be altered by a change in hen dietary carbohydrate source.

  17. Consumer acceptance of irradiated poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, I B; Resurreccion, A V; McWatters, K H

    1995-08-01

    A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either "somewhat necessary" or "very necessary" to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test.

  18. Eggs: good or bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes.

  19. The three eggs experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin Bülbül, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The three eggs experiment concerns 37 pre-service science teachers’ predictions about the impact shapes of three uncooked eggs dropped from different heights. This experiment looks at energy transformation from potential to kinetic energy, where the smaller parts of the egg shell spread far from the center of the impact. This experience encouraged the pre-service science teachers to use their familiar models, such as a fried egg, omelet, puddle, dropping or explosions, to explain their predictions. These models from everyday life presented can be used as a tool to explain unfamiliar phenomena.

  20. Nutritional modulation of health, egg quality and environmental pollution of the layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available World egg production and consumption have been increasing for the past decades. Traditional strategies in poultry nutrition have made vital contributions to this great growth in quantity. However, current global issues should be considered in modern egg production such as growing populations and food security, food safety and quality, limited resources and environmental problems. The development of knowledge of poultry nutrition and modern biotechnology provides novel nutritional approaches to closely fit the requirement of pullets and laying hens, which will consequently decrease the nutrition emissions and maintain the lower cost of feed. Nutrition has also been widely accepted as a strategy to influence health and diseases of laying hens. The maintenance of good health is an important prerequisite for improving productivity and egg quality. In addition, there are many measures and strategies for minimizing the incidence of egg defects and providing a choice of lifestyle to enhance human health. This paper reviews current research progress on developing innovative technologies and strategies to maximize animal health and performance, improve the quality of egg products and minimize pollution caused by poultry production.

  1. Poultry products enriched with nutricines have beneficial effects on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Gordana; Kralik, Zlata

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents nutritive value of broiler meat and table eggs, as these animal products are used for human nutrition on a daily basis. In the Republic of Croatia, average consumption of poultry meat amounts to 18.3 kg and to 160 eggs per capita.The most quality parts of broiler carcass are breasts and drumsticks with thighs. Breast muscles contain 21-23% protein, 1.90-1.97% fat, 75.28-76.01% water and 0.74-0.77% collagen. Thigh muscles contain 4.70-6.05% fat, 19.03-19.93% protein and 0.91-1.13% collagen. White meat contains more potassium and magnesium and less zinc and iron than dark meat. In 100 g of edible egg part there is 12.5-13.5 g protein, 10.7-11.6 g fat and 1.0-1.1 g minerals. Caloric valueof eggs is 167 Kcal. Eggs contain high amount of essential amino acids, especially leucine, isoleucine, lysine, arginine, valine and phenylalanine. Furthermore, eggs contain many vitamins, especially A, D, E, K and B-complex, as well as various macroelements and microelements. Eggs and meat enriched with one or more functional ingredients - nutricines (polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, selenium and lutein) meet the criteria of functional food because of their added value and benefits for human health.

  2. Investigation of dissemination of aspergillosis in poultry and possible control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapetanov Miloš C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi belonging to genus Aspegillus are ubiquitous saprophytic microorganisms which are, in certain circumstances, responsible for clinical infections of respiratory tract in all poultry, particularly in young birds. In case of a lung form, Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger and A. glaucus are the most frequently isolated fungi. In general, poultry is constantly exposed to these fungi in its environment. Predisposing factors, such as long exposition and highly contaminated environment and litter, high humidity in poultry houses, poor ventilation, malnutrition and stress, all contribute to clinical aspergillosis. Some geographic and seasonal regularities are observed in relation to the distribution of disease outbreaks. In this sense, cases of aspergillosis in our country were more frequently noted in wild areas located northern from the rivers Sava and Danube. Influence of some factors on the outbreak and spreading, as well as predominant clinical features of aspergillosis in poultry were investigated in this paper. Possible prophylactic and intervention measures were discussed. The occurrence of Aspergillus sp. in poultry was analyzed according to the clinical and laboratory investigations performed during the two selected years, 2000 and 2010. Widespread aspergillosis was noted in poultry flocks of different age, both in young and adult birds. During the years 2000 and 2010, acute aspergillosis was found in 12 and 16 commercial flocks of chickens and turkeys, respectively. Ocular infection with Aspergillus was determined in 10 day old broilers from two flocks. Aspergillus sp. was isolated from unhatched eggs (6.86%, litter (23.07%, environmental (36.17% and hatchery swabs (3.85%. Besides the appropriate antifungal therapy, enforcement of proper sanitary-hygiene measures on poultry farms and hatcheries, as well as microbiological control of feed are considered essential for an efficient control of infection and its spreading.

  3. 40 CFR 180.1019 - Sulfuric acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirement of a tolerance in cattle, meat; goat, meat; hog, meat; horse, meat; sheep, meat; poultry, fat; poultry, meat; poultry, meat, byproducts; egg; milk; fish, shellfish, and irrigated crops when it...

  4. Improving village poultry's survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto Delphin

    2012-01-01

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry...

  5. Optimization of Extraction Parameters for Enhanced Production of Ovotransferrin from Egg White for Antimicrobial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyad M. A. Alshammari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovotransferrin is the second most abundant protein (~12-13% of the total egg protein in egg white after ovalbumin. Ovotransferrin is a potent natural antimicrobial agent as it possesses antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties and is also the major metal binding protein found in egg, which makes it an industrially important protein. Ovotransferrin was extracted from egg white using its metal (iron binding properties. In the present study, eggs from two different sources were used (fresh local eggs from domestic household source and poultry eggs from shops to compare the results and Response Surface Methodology was used for the experiment design and data analysis. The following extraction conditions were optimized so as to maximize the yield of ovotransferrin from egg white: ethanol % (v/v and pH and volume (mL of 25 mM FeCl3/50 mL of egg white. A maximum yield of ~85 ± 2.5% was obtained near the optimum extraction conditions. The yield was calculated based on the theoretical value (934 mg of ovotransferrin in 100 mL of 1.5x diluted egg white solution. Our results suggest that efficient downstream processing may reduce the cost of overall production process of this promising enzyme, making it a natural and cost-effective alternative to the existing chemically synthesized antimicrobial agents.

  6. Antimicrobial residues in tissues and eggs of laying hens at Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariful Islam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Antimicrobial residue in animal food products is an important index of food safety. Antimicrobial residues could result from chemotherapeutic or chemoprophylactic use of drugs in food animals. This occurrence of residue in animal food products has received enormous worldwide attention from some local, international, and public health agencies. A crosssectional study was conducted from July to December 2009 to detect the antibiotic residues in tissues and eggs of laying hens at Chittagong of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: Microbial inhibition test (MIT and thin layer chromatography (TLC methods were used to detect antibacterial residues in poultry tissues (liver, kidney, breast, and thigh muscles and eggs. The bacteria and pH of the MIT method were as follows: Bacillus subtilis on test agar medium with a pH of 7.2, Bacillus cereus with a pH of 6.0, and Escherichia coli at pH with an 8.0. Results: The overall prevalence of antibiotic residues detected by MIT was 64% in liver, 63% in kidney, 56% in breast muscle, 50% in thigh muscle, and 60% in eggs. There was significant variation in results between MIT and TLC (p<0.05. Tetracycline residues were found in 48% in liver, 24% in kidneys, 20% in thigh muscles, 26% in breast muscles, and 36% in eggs. Ciprofloxacin residues were found 46% in liver, 42% in kidneys, 34% in thigh muscles, 30% in breast muscles, and 30% in eggs. Enrofloxacin residues were found 40% in livers, 36% in kidneys, 24% in thigh muscles, 20% in breast muscles, and 26% in eggs. Amoxicillin residues were found 48% in livers, 30% in kidneys, 26% in thigh muscles, 22% in breast muscles, and 24% in eggs. The most frequently detected antibiotic residues by both MIT and TLC were found in liver tissue, tetracycline (48%, ciprofloxacin (46%, enrofloxacin (40%, and amoxicillin (42% were found in liver. Breast muscle tissue was least likely to contain antibiotic residues (24%. Tetracycline (p=0.01 and amoxicillin (p=0.03 residues had

  7. 21 CFR 101.22 - Foods; labeling of spices, flavorings, colorings and chemical preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., leaf or similar plant material, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products..., Mace, Marjoram, Mustard flour, Nutmeg, Oregano, Paprika, Parsley, Pepper, black; Pepper, white; Pepper..., meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof, whose significant...

  8. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  9. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  10. Symbolism in "The Egg"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤艳娟

    2007-01-01

    Sherwood Anderson is one of the most prominent writers in American literary history. This paper deals with the abundant symbolic meanings in his famous short story "The Egg". Symbolism makes a literary work profound. The various depressing fates awaiting the eggs simultaneously come true on the father and the son, exposing the unreality of the American dream for the poor to be rich.

  11. THE EGG-THE WINNER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳睿

    2008-01-01

    In Sherwood Anderson's short fictions, one of the most successful is The Egg in which the author applied the means of symbolism.This paper aims to analyze the symbolic egg and interpret characters in The Egg.

  12. Radiation decontamination of poultry viscera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamdar, S.N. [Food Technology Division, FIPLY, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)], E-mail: snjam2@yahoo.com; Harikumar, P. [Food Technology Division, FIPLY, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2008-04-15

    Application of gamma radiation for decontamination of poultry viscera was examined. Exposure to a dose of 20 kGy rendered the viscera sterile (<1 CFU/10 g tissue), while 5 and 10 kGy reduced the total bacterial count by 4 and 6 log{sub 10} cycles, respectively, eliminating the coliforms to <1 CFU/g of tissue. Analysis of organoleptic and biochemical parameters [proximate composition, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), lipid peroxidation (TBARS value), and levels of TCA soluble peptides and proteolytic enzyme] showed that gamma irradiation (20 kGy) followed by storage at 4 deg. C for 62 days induced no significant change (except lipid peroxidation) in the acceptability of poultry viscera. However, storage at ambient temperature (26 {sup o}C) produced enhanced levels of TVBN and TCA soluble products accompanied by higher drip loss. Activities of proteolytic enzymes, except acid protease, did not show any significant change during post-irradiation storage at either temperature.

  13. Radiation decontamination of poultry viscera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamdar, S. N.; Harikumar, P.

    2008-04-01

    Application of gamma radiation for decontamination of poultry viscera was examined. Exposure to a dose of 20 kGy rendered the viscera sterile (TVBN), lipid peroxidation (TBARS value), and levels of TCA soluble peptides and proteolytic enzyme] showed that gamma irradiation (20 kGy) followed by storage at 4 °C for 62 days induced no significant change (except lipid peroxidation) in the acceptability of poultry viscera. However, storage at ambient temperature (26 °C) produced enhanced levels of TVBN and TCA soluble products accompanied by higher drip loss. Activities of proteolytic enzymes, except acid protease, did not show any significant change during post-irradiation storage at either temperature.

  14. AFSC/RACE/EcoFOCI: NPRB_1220:Mitochondrial DNA-based identification of eggs, larvae and dietary components of commercially and ecologically important fish species and selected invertebrates in the northeast Pacif

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Accurate identification of various life history stages and prey items of marine fishes and invertebrates is central for understanding distribution,abundance, trophic...

  15. Fish germ cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Fish, like many other animals, have two major cell lineages, namely the germline and soma. The germ-soma separation is one of the earliest events of embryonic development. Germ cells can be specifically labeled and isolated for culture and transplan-tation, providing tools for reproduction of endangered species in close relatives, such as surrogate production of trout in salmon. Haploid cell cultures, such as medaka haploid embryonic stem cells have recently been obtained, which are capable of mimicking sperm to produce fertile offspring, upon nuclear being directly transferred into normal eggs. Such fish originated from a mosaic oocyte that had a haploid meiotic nucleus and a transplanted haploid mitotic cell culture nucleus. The first semi-cloned fish is Holly. Here we review the current status and future directions of understanding and manipulating fish germ cells in basic research and reproductive technology.

  16. Selenium impacts on razorback sucker, Colorado River, Colorado: II. Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S.J.; Holley, K.M.; Buhl, K.J.; Bullard, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    Effects on hatching and development of fertilized eggs in adult razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) exposed to selenium in flooded bottomland sites near Grand Junction, Colorado, were determined. After 9 months exposure, fish were collected and induced to spawn and eggs collected for inorganic element analyses. A 9-day egg study was conducted with five spawns from Horsethief ponds, six spawns from Adobe Creek channel, and four spawns from North Pond using a reference water and site waters. Selenium concentrations in eggs were 6.5 ??g/g from Horsethief, 46 ??g/g from Adobe Creek, 38 ??g/g from North Pond, and 6.0 ??g/g from brood stock. Eggs from young adults had a smaller diameter and higher moisture content than brood stock. There were no differences among the four sources in viability, survival, hatch, hatchability, or mortality of deformed embryos or larvae. Adobe Creek larvae had more deformed embryos in eggs held in site water than held in reference water. There were significant negative correlations between selenium concentrations in adult muscle plugs and percent hatch, egg diameter, and deformities in embryos. Results from this study suggest that selenium contamination in parts of the upper basin of the Colorado River should be a major concern to recovery efforts for endangered fish.

  17. Selenium impacts on razorback sucker, Colorado River, Colorado II. Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Steven J; Holley, Kathy M; Buhl, Kevin J; Bullard, Fern A

    2005-05-01

    Effects on hatching and development of fertilized eggs in adult razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) exposed to selenium in flooded bottomland sites near Grand Junction, Colorado, were determined. After 9 months exposure, fish were collected and induced to spawn and eggs collected for inorganic element analyses. A 9-day egg study was conducted with five spawns from Horsethief ponds, six spawns from Adobe Creek channel, and four spawns from North Pond using a reference water and site waters. Selenium concentrations in eggs were 6.5 microg/g from Horsethief, 46 microg/g from Adobe Creek, 38 microg/g from North Pond, and 6.0 microg/g from brood stock. Eggs from young adults had a smaller diameter and higher moisture content than brood stock. There were no differences among the four sources in viability, survival, hatch, hatchability, or mortality of deformed embryos or larvae. Adobe Creek larvae had more deformed embryos in eggs held in site water than held in reference water. There were significant negative correlations between selenium concentrations in adult muscle plugs and percent hatch, egg diameter, and deformities in embryos. Results from this study suggest that selenium contamination in parts of the upper basin of the Colorado River should be a major concern to recovery efforts for endangered fish.

  18. Comparison of Microbiomes between Red Poultry Mite Populations (Dermanyssus gallinae): Predominance of Bartonella-like Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jan; Erban, Tomas; Kopecky, Jan; Sopko, Bruno; Nesvorna, Marta; Lichovnikova, Martina; Schicht, Sabine; Strube, Christina; Sparagano, Olivier

    2017-05-22

    Blood feeding red poultry mites (RPM) serve as vectors of pathogenic bacteria and viruses among vertebrate hosts including wild birds, poultry hens, mammals, and humans. The microbiome of RPM has not yet been studied by high-throughput sequencing. RPM eggs, larvae, and engorged adult/nymph samples obtained in four poultry houses in Czechia were used for microbiome analyses by Illumina amplicon sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene V4 region. A laboratory RPM population was used as positive control for transcriptome analysis by pyrosequencing with identification of sequences originating from bacteria. The samples of engorged adult/nymph stages had 100-fold more copies of 16S rRNA gene copies than the samples of eggs and larvae. The microbiome composition showed differences among the four poultry houses and among observed developmental stadia. In the adults' microbiome 10 OTUs comprised 90 to 99% of all sequences. Bartonella-like bacteria covered between 30 and 70% of sequences in RPM microbiome and 25% bacterial sequences in transcriptome. The phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed two distinct groups of Bartonella-like bacteria forming sister groups: (i) symbionts of ants; (ii) Bartonella genus. Cardinium, Wolbachia, and Rickettsiella sp. were found in the microbiomes of all tested stadia, while Spiroplasma eriocheiris and Wolbachia were identified in the laboratory RPM transcriptome. The microbiomes from eggs, larvae, and engorged adults/nymphs differed. Bartonella-like symbionts were found in all stadia and sampling sites. Bartonella-like bacteria was the most diversified group within the RPM microbiome. The presence of identified putative pathogenic bacteria is relevant with respect to human and animal health issues while the identification of symbiontic bacteria can lead to new control methods targeting them to destabilize the arthropod host.

  19. Minimization of Salmonella contamination on raw poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N A; Cason, J A; Richardson, L J

    2011-01-01

    Many reviews have discussed Salmonella in poultry and suggested best practices to minimize this organism on raw poultry meat. Despite years of research and conscientious control efforts by industry and regulatory agencies, human salmonellosis rates have declined only modestly and Salmonella is still found on raw poultry. Expert committees have repeatedly emphasized the importance of controlling risk, but information about Salmonella in poultry is often limited to prevalence, with inadequate information about testing methods or strains of Salmonella that are detected by these methods and no information about any impact on the degree of risk. This review examines some assumptions behind the discussion of Salmonella in poultry: the relationships between sampling and cultural methodology, prevalence and numbers of cells, and the implications of serotype and subtype issues. Minimizing Salmonella contamination of poultry is not likely to reduce human salmonellosis acquired from exposure to contaminated chicken until these issues are confronted more systematically.

  20. 氧化鱼油对蛋鸡生产性能、蛋品质及血清抗氧化指标的影响%Effects of Oxidized Fish Oil on Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Antioxidant Indexes of Laying Hens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建川; 赵丽红; 黄薇; 冯光德; 计成; 马秋刚

    2012-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮添加氧化鱼油对蛋鸡生产性能、蛋品质及血清抗氧化指标的影响.选择720只体重相近的38周龄海兰灰蛋鸡,随机分为4个组,每组6个重复,每个重复30只鸡.将新鲜鱼油和过氧化物值(POV)为1 200.10 meq O2/kg的氧化鱼油按不同比例分别加入基础饲粮中,组成新鲜鱼油组(FFO组)、0.25%氧化鱼油组(OFO1组)、0.50%氧化鱼油组(OFO2组)和1.00%氧化鱼油组(OFO3组).试验期4周.结果表明,试验期内各氧化鱼油组显著降低了蛋鸡的平均蛋重(P<0.05),与FFO组相比,OFO1、OFO2和OFO3组平均蛋重分别降低了0.9%、0.9%和1.7%(P<0.05);氧化鱼油组显著降低了鸡蛋蛋黄颜色和哈氏单位(P<0.05),对蛋壳颜色影响差异不显著(P>0.05);与FFO组相比,OFO3组显著降低了蛋鸡血清谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶活性(P<0.05),显著提高了血清丙二醛含量(P<0.05).由此可见,蛋鸡饲粮中鱼油被氧化在一定程度上影响了蛋鸡生产性能、蛋品质和血清抗氧化指标.%This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of oxidized fish oil on performance, egg quality and serum antioxidant indexes of laying hens. Seven hundred and twenty 38-week-old healthy Hy-line gray laying hens were randomly divided into 4 groups with 6 replicates per group and 30 layers in each replicate. Laying hens in the control group were fed a corn-soybean based diet with 2% fresh fish oil (FFO group) and the others in three experiment groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0. 25% (OFO1 group) , 0.50% ( OFO2 group) and 1. 00% ( OFO3 group) oxidized fish oil (peroxide value, POV = 1 200.10 meq O2/kg) , respectively. The experiment lasted for 4 weeks. The results showed that oxidized fish oil supplementation significantly decreased the average egg weight of laying hens (P <0. 05). Compared with the FFO group, average egg weight in OFO1, OFO2 and OFO3 groups were decreased by 0. 9% , 0. 9% and 1

  1. Photonic Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography for Quality Monitoring in the Poultry Industry: a Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sabuncu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTA photonic imaging method that gives the possibility to measure egg quality was applied. Since the method is non-contact and non-destructive we believe that this photonic imaging method may be successfully integrated in the automated inspection systems in the poultry industry. The method involves scanning an invisible infrared light beam over the eggshell, allowing to detect possible cracks and reveal information about the structure of the eggshell. The high resolution, high quality measurements obtained through optical coherence tomography (OCT make it feasible to be utilized as part of an automated inspection system. In this paper we present an OCT scan image of the egg tip and reconstructed volumetric images of the eggshell surface. The method enables the detection of small cracks on eggs and reveals the detailed inner structures of the cracks.

  2. Case study the poultry industry in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    "As developing countries open their economies further to trade, their food industries are striving to raise safety and quality standards in order to compete in new markets. Such is the case with the Colombian poultry industry... Critical questions face the Colombian poultry industry: Is it ready to compete with foreign poultry producers on price, quality, and safety? Can industry efforts to produce better quality products assure an increased share of domestic and regional markets? This brief ...

  3. Current situation of fish farming in Togo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    practiced in ponds and water reservoirs and the semi intensive system (12.09%) implemented in tanks and ponds. ... The extensive fish farming system deserves to be improved and ..... yeast of beer, droppings of poultry, kitchen rests, maggots, blood meal, shell of oyster .... socio-economic welfare reasons made early.

  4. Assessment of Aflatoxin Contamination of Maize, Peanut Meal and Poultry Feed Mixtures from Different Agroecological Zones in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Jean Raphaël; Gnonlonfin, Benoit Gbemenou Joselin; Harvey, Jagger; Wainaina, James; Wanjuki, Immaculate; Skilton, Robert A.; Teguia, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins affect poultry production by being present in the feed and directly causing a negative impact on bird performance. Carry-over rates of mycotoxins in animal products are, in general, small (except for aflatoxins in milk and eggs) therefore representing a small source of mycotoxins for humans. Mycotoxins present directly in human food represent a much higher risk. The contamination of poultry feed by aflatoxins was determined as a first assessment of this risk in Cameroon. A total of 201 samples of maize, peanut meal, broiler and layer feeds were collected directly at poultry farms, poultry production sites and poultry feed dealers in three agroecological zones (AEZs) of Cameroon and analyzed for moisture content and aflatoxin levels. The results indicate that the mean of the moisture content of maize (14.1%) was significantly (P aflatoxin, with concentrations overall ranging from aflatoxin content of layer feed did not vary by AEZ, while the highest (16.8 µg/kg) and the lowest (8.2 µg/kg) aflatoxin content of broiler feed were respectively recorded in Western High Plateau and in Rainforest agroecological zones. These results suggest that peanut meal is likely to be a high risk feed, and further investigation is needed to guide promotion of safe feeds for poultry in Cameroon. PMID:23628785

  5. First evidence of egg deposition by walleye (Sander vitreus) in the Detroit River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manny, B.A.; Kennedy, G.W.; Allen, J.D.; French, J. R. P.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of fish spawning habitat in channels connecting the Great Lakes to fishery productivity in those lakes is poorly understood and has not been adequately documented. The Detroit River is a reputed spawning and nursery area for many fish, including walleye (Sander vitreus) that migrate between adjacent Lakes Erie and St. Clair. During April–May 2004, near the head of the Detroit River, we collected 136 fish eggs from the bottom of the river on egg mats. We incubated the eggs at the Great Lakes Science Center until they hatched. All eleven larvae that hatched from the eggs were identified as walleye. These eggs and larvae are the first credible scientific evidence that walleye spawn in the Detroit River. Their origin might be a stock of river-spawning walleye. Such a stock of walleye could potentially add resilience to production by walleye stocks that spawn and are harvested in adjacent waters.

  6. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  7. Replacing Corn and Wheat in Layer Diets with Hulless Oats Shows Effects on Sensory Properties and Yolk Quality of Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa R. Winkler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available US organic poultry producers are under pressure to find feed alternatives to corn and wheat. Hulless oats offer advantages such as wide geographic adaptation of the plant and high concentrations of protein and oil in the grain. They have shown considerable potential in experimental work as a feed grain for poultry, but more research is needed into their influence on the sensory and nutritional properties of eggs. In this study, hulless oats were substituted for corn or wheat at 200 g kg−1 in diets fed to Hy-Line Brown hens and eggs were sampled for sensory evaluation after 8 weeks. Discrimination tests of blended and baked egg samples found evidence of difference between eggs from oat-based diets and those from the oat-free control (p < 0.05 for eggs from an oat-corn diet, p < 0.01 for eggs from an oat-wheat diet. Acceptance tests of similar samples showed that eggs from the oat-wheat diet were significantly less liked than control eggs for their texture (p < 0.01 and response to cooking (p < 0.01, while eggs from the oat-corn diet were somewhat less liked. Yolk weight was greater (p < 0.05 in control eggs (34.1 g than eggs from oat-corn (31.6 g or oat-wheat (31.2 g diets, leading to smaller yolk proportion in the oat-fed eggs. Fatty acid profile differences across treatments were not of nutritional significance, and no evidence was found that the feeding of hulless oats improved storage properties of eggs. In this study, modifying the carbohydrate source in layer diets was shown to change textural properties of cooked eggs in a way that was perceptible to untrained consumers, probably by reducing the yolk proportion. This finding was not commercially relevant owing to small effect size, and results overall add to existing evidence that hulless oats can be fed to poultry at a moderate proportion of the diet with no negative effect on consumer acceptability of eggs. Regardless of the small effect size, however

  8. Decision enhancement for poultry farmers in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumwebaze, Rebecca Pearl

    2016-01-01

    Increased attention to economic viability towards agriculture has seen commercial poultry farms in East Africa evolve from the previously common small holder/backyard poultry production operations. These poultry farms have however been faced with numerous challenges including high disease

  9. Phylogenetic structure of European Salmonella Enteritidis outbreak correlates with national and international egg distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inns, Thomas; Jombart, Thibaut; Ashton, Philip; Loman, Nicolas; Chatt, Carol; Messelhaeusser, Ute; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Simon, Sandra; Nikisins, Sergejs; Bernard, Helen; le Hello, Simon; Jourdan da-Silva, Nathalie; Kornschober, Christian; Mossong, Joel; Hawkey, Peter; de Pinna, Elizabeth; Grant, Kathie; Cleary, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of Salmonella Enteritidis have long been associated with contaminated poultry and eggs. In the summer of 2014 a large multi-national outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b occurred with over 350 cases reported in the United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, France and Luxembourg. Egg supply network investigation and microbiological sampling identified the source to be a Bavarian egg producer. As part of the international investigation into the outbreak, over 400 isolates were sequenced including isolates from cases, implicated UK premises and eggs from the suspected source producer. We were able to show a clear statistical correlation between the topology of the UK egg distribution network and the phylogenetic network of outbreak isolates. This correlation can most plausibly be explained by different parts of the egg distribution network being supplied by eggs solely from independent premises of the Bavarian egg producer (Company X). Microbiological sampling from the source premises, traceback information and information on the interventions carried out at the egg production premises all supported this conclusion. The level of insight into the outbreak epidemiology provided by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) would not have been possible using traditional microbial typing methods.

  10. [Biological value of protein from raw fish and canned fish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganoviak, Z M; Lipka, E M

    1983-01-01

    The authors evaluated the nutritive value of protein from 4 kinds of raw fish (herring, cod, mackerel, sprat) and its preserves. Experiments were made on rats fed the diets containing fish protein (8-10% of the total diet). Experiments included the determination of apparent and genuine digestibility, net protein utilization, and net dietary protein caloric value. Evidence was obtained that protein from fish and its preserves is characterized by high digestibility coefficient as compared with casein and egg powder. The highest net protein utilization was noted in animal groups fed the diet containing protein from raw fish. Protein assimilability from fish preserves was on the average 15% lower than that from raw fish.

  11. Environmental contaminants in an osprey egg from the Upper Richardson Lake, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On July 19, 2003 a non-viable, addled osprey (Pandion haliaetus) egg was collected from a nest at the northern end of Upper Richardson Lake in Richardsontown...

  12. Contaminants in Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Eggs and Prey Items, Arizona, 1998-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study documented concentrations and potential effects of organochlorine compounds and metals in addled eggs and potential prey of the endangered southwestern...

  13. Organchlorine pesticide and heavy metal contamination of American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) eggs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Four eggs collected from two nests of the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus), an endangered species occurring in southern Florida, were analyzed for...

  14. Environmental contaminants in two composite samples of piping plover eggs from Delaware

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During June of 2009, eleven non‐viable piping plover (Charadrius melodus) egg were collected from nests located at the northern end of Cape Henlopen State Park in...

  15. Physical characteristics of bald eagle eggs from Maine, 2000 to 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Between 2000 and 2012, 91 abandoned or non‐viable bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) eggs were collected from55 nest territories in inland and coastal habitats in...

  16. Environmental Contaminants in New Jersey Coast Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) Eggs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During nest monitoring in 1990, addled piping plover (Charadrius melodus) eggs were collected by staff of the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection's...

  17. Environmental contaminants in tern eggs from Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge and Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the 2005 breeding season, six non-viable common tern (Sterna hirundo) and three roseate tern (Sterna dougallii) eggs were collected from Monomoy National...

  18. Contaminants in Interior Least Tern Eggs from Quivira National Wildlife Refuge, Kansas, in 1990 and 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Flooded or abandoned eggs of interior least terns (Sterna antillarum) nesting at Quivira National Wildlife Refuge in central Kansas were collected in 1990 and 1991....

  19. Dioxins and furans in wood duck eggs from the Lower Roanoke River, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the springs of 1992 and 1993 ten clutches of wood duck eggs were collected from the lower Roanoke River below a kraft process pulp paper mill that had...

  20. Mosquito, egg raft (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that float in still or stagnant water. The mosquito lays the eggs one at a time sticking ... feed on micro-organisms before developing into flying mosquitoes. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control ...

  1. Dinosaur Eggs and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth; Hirsch, Karl F.; Horner, John R.

    1996-01-01

    In the last couple of decades the study of dinosaur eggs and babies has proved to be one of the most exciting and profitable areas of dinosaur research. This is the first book solely devoted to this topic and reviews, in scientific detail, our present state of knowledge about this exciting area of palaeontology. Chapters in the book discuss all aspects of the science including the occurrence of eggs, nests and baby skeletons, descriptive osteology of juvenile skeletons, comparative histology of juvenile bone, analyses of eggs and egg shells, palaeoenvironments of nesting sites, nesting behaviour and developmental growth of baby dinosaurs. The volume will be an invaluable addition to the book collections of vertebrate palaeontologists and their graduate students.

  2. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  3. Salmonella challenges: prevalence in swine and poultry and potential pathogenicity of such isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, S L; Lynne, A M; Nayak, R

    2008-04-01

    Salmonellosis is the second leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the United States, and the great majority of these infections are associated with the consumption of products such as meat, poultry, eggs, milk, seafood, and fresh produce contaminated with Salmonella. The per capita consumption of meat and poultry in United States has increased significantly over the past century. This increase is especially evident with poultry products, where there has been a nearly 6-fold increase in chicken consumption and 17-fold increase in turkey consumption since 1909. The per capita consumption of pork has also increased over this time from 18.7 to 21.7 kg/yr. With this increase in meat and poultry consumption, the dynamics of animal production and consumer exposure have changed leading to new challenges in limiting salmonellosis. To meet the demands of consumers, more intensive agricultural practices have been adopted, which has likely changed the population characteristics of Salmonella present among poultry flocks and swine populations. In Salmonella isolated from swine in the United States, S. Typhimurium has replaced S. Choleraesuis as the predominant serovar in recent years. Among isolates from turkeys collected in 2004, serovars S. Senftenberg and S. Hadar were most common overall; however, S. Heidelberg was most common from clinical diagnostic sources, potentially indicating increased virulence. Salmonella Heidelberg was also the most commonly detected serovar among chicken isolates from clinically ill birds and Salmonella surveillance samples. Overall among the 10 serovars most commonly associated with human infections, 6 are also found in the top serovars of swine and poultry. These include S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, S. Montevideo, S. Saintpaul, and S. I 4,[5],12:i:-.

  4. Proteomics analysis of egg white proteins from different egg varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiapei; Liang, Yue; Omana, Dileep A; Kav, Nat N V; Wu, Jianping

    2012-01-11

    The market of specialty eggs, such as omega-3-enriched eggs, organic eggs, and free-range eggs, is continuously growing. The nutritional composition of egg yolk can be manipulated by feed diet; however, it is not known if there is any difference in the composition of egg white proteins among different egg varieties. The purpose of the study was to compare the egg white proteins among six different egg varieties using proteomics analysis. Egg white proteins were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and 89 protein spots were subjected to LC-MS/MS. A total of 23 proteins, belonging to Gallus gallus , were identified from 72 detected protein spots. A quiescence-specific protein precursor in egg white was identified for the first time in this study. Significant differences in the abundant levels of 19 proteins (from 65 protein spots) were observed among six egg varieties. Four proteins, ovalbumin-related protein Y, cystatin, avidin, and albumin precursor, were not different among these six egg varieties. These findings suggest that the abundance, but not the composition, of egg white proteins varied among the egg varieties.

  5. Dynamic egg color mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Daniel; Šulc, Michal; Brennan, Patricia L R; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Honza, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the function of eggshell phenotypes, from solar protection through mimicry, have implicitly assumed that eggshell appearance remains static throughout the laying and incubation periods. However, recent research demonstrates that egg coloration changes over relatively short, biologically relevant timescales. Here, we provide the first evidence that such changes impact brood parasite-host eggshell color mimicry during the incubation stage. First, we use long-term data to establish how rapidly the Acrocephalus arundinaceus Linnaeus (great reed warbler) responded to natural parasitic eggs laid by the Cuculus canorus Linnaeus (common cuckoo). Most hosts rejected parasitic eggs just prior to clutch completion, but the host response period extended well into incubation (~10 days after clutch completion). Using reflectance spectrometry and visual modeling, we demonstrate that eggshell coloration in the great reed warbler and its brood parasite, the common cuckoo, changes rapidly, and the extent of eggshell color mimicry shifts dynamically over the host response period. Specifically, 4 days after being laid, the host should notice achromatic color changes to both cuckoo and warbler eggs, while chromatic color changes would be noticeable after 8 days. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the perceived match between host and cuckoo eggshell color worsened over the incubation period. These findings have important implications for parasite-host coevolution dynamics, because host egg discrimination may be aided by disparate temporal color changes in host and parasite eggs.

  6. FUNCTION FEED ADDITIVE OF CAROTE-NOID VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS FOR POULTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshchayev A. G.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the use of functional feed additives from pumpkin fruits and alfalfa juice for the poultry industry. In the study of laying hen it has been found that the use of a feed additive in-creased pumpkin paste content in serum and egg yolk carotenoids is more than two times, and the concentration of vitamin A in these tissues increased slightly, not exceeding 20%. Livability and productivity of poultry increased and average expendable fodder per head per day decreased. Economic calculation showed that the use of pumpkin paste reduces the cost of production of eggs. The use of alfalfa juice coagulates in diets for broiler chickens resulted in an increase in the concentration of carotene in the liver by 22,7-46,8% relative to control. The juice addition also increased the content of vitamin A in the liver by 27.9%, increase the safety and efficiency of the bird. The authors draw certain conclusions from experiment results that the use of functional additives in poultry from the fruit of pumpkin and alfalfa juice is an alternative to synthetic vitamin preparations and produce a more environmentally friendly products

  7. 50 CFR 16.14 - Importation of live amphibians or their eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... eggs. 16.14 Section 16.14 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Director of Customs at the port of entry as required under § 14.61, all species of live amphibians or their... eggs thereof may be released into the wild except by the State wildlife conservation agency...

  8. FACTORS INFLUENCING COMPOSTING POULTRY WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kopeć

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic recycling of waste, taking into account sanitary safety, should be a fundamental method for recovering the nutrients present in the waste for plants and organic matter. It also refers to by-products of animal origin, which are not intended for consumption by humans. In the present research , composting of hydrated poultry slaughterhouse waste with maize straw was carried out. A combination with fodder yeast and post-cellulose lime was also introduced, which modified chemical and physico-chemical properties of the mixtures. The experiment was carried out by recording the biomass temperature for 110 days in 1.2×1.0×0.8 m reactors with perforated bottoms enabling active aeration. The following parameters were taken into consideration in the composted material: carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, respiratory activity, microorganisms, fractions of compost obtained after washing on sieves. Small amounts of fodder yeast favoured the development of microorganisms and caused a sanitary risk in the final product. At the initial stage, the temperature of raw compost in that object was several degrees lower than in the case of the composted mass without yeast addition. The addition of post-cellulose lime at ratios 6.5:1:6.5 (maize straw: poultry slaughterhouse waste: post-cellulose lime caused a change in the time of microbiological activity, and led to its inhibition in the final process. In comparison to objects with poultry waste, the highest degree of hygienization was found in the compost with post-cellulose lime (with pH close to neutral. By adjusting the ratios of substrates we can influence the microbiological activity, but the amounts of individual substrates should be determined taking into account the quality of the obtained compost.

  9. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat lean (not much fat) meat, fish, and poultry; green, leafy vegetables; and iron-fortified cereals. Calcium — ... sources of protein are fish, lean meats and poultry, eggs, dairy, nuts, soy, and peanut butter. Carb ...

  10. Meat and Poultry Processing. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains instructional materials for a program that provides students with job skills in meat and poultry processing. The curriculum consists of 10 units that cover the following material: orientation to meat and poultry processing; maintaining plant facilities; equipment and equipment maintenance; purchasing livestock for…

  11. 7 CFR 701.56 - Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry. 701.56 Section 701.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION PROGRAM EMERGENCY CONSERVATION PROGRAM AND CERTAIN RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.56 Poultry. (a)...

  12. Meat and Poultry Processing. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains instructional materials for a program that provides students with job skills in meat and poultry processing. The curriculum consists of 10 units that cover the following material: orientation to meat and poultry processing; maintaining plant facilities; equipment and equipment maintenance; purchasing livestock for…

  13. Competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Bondt, N.

    2013-01-01

    EU poultry meat producers have to comply with legislation on environmental protection, animal welfare and food safety. This legislation has increased the production costs of poultry meat. At the same time the EU is negotiating with other countries or groups of countries to liberalise trade in agricu

  14. Salmonellosis: the role of poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, P; Mourão, J; Campos, J; Peixe, L

    2016-02-01

    Salmonellosis remains one of the most frequent food-borne zoonoses, constituting a worldwide major public health concern. Currently, at a global level, the main sources of infection for humans include meat products, including the consumption of contaminated poultry meat, in spite of the success of Salmonella control measures implemented in food-animal production of industrialized countries. In recent years, a shift in Salmonella serotypes related to poultry and poultry production has been reported in diverse geographical regions, being particularly associated with the spread of certain well-adapted clones. Moreover, antimicrobial resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonella is considered one of the major public health threats related with food-animal production, including the poultry production chain and poultry meat, which is an additional concern in the management of salmonellosis. The circulation of the same multidrug-resistant Salmonella clones and/or identical mobile genetic elements encoding antibiotic resistance genes from poultry to humans highlights this scenario. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the role of poultry meat on salmonellosis at a global scale and the main problems that could hinder the success of Salmonella control measures at animal production level. With the increasing globalization of foodstuffs like poultry meat, new problems and challenges might arise regarding salmonellosis control, making new integrated intervention strategies necessary along the food chain.

  15. Genetic characterization of egg weight, egg production and age at first egg in quails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Martins, E.N.; Santos, A.L.; Quadros, T.C.O.; Ton, A.P.S.; Teixeira, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for the traits egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg in three laying quails and one meat line of quails. Data was analyzed by Bayesian procedures using Gibbs sampling. The heritability estimates for egg weight,

  16. Genetic characterization of egg weight, egg production and age at first egg in quails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Martins, E.N.; Santos, A.L.; Quadros, T.C.O.; Ton, A.P.S.; Teixeira, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for the traits egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg in three laying quails and one meat line of quails. Data was analyzed by Bayesian procedures using Gibbs sampling. The heritability estimates for egg weight, e

  17. Nutrient transporter gene expression in poultry, livestock and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absorption of nutrients such as amino acids, peptides, monosaccharides and minerals by cells and tissues is mediated by a series of membrane bound transporters that are members of the solute carrier (SLC) gene family. These transporters regulate the influx and efflux of nutrients in a wide vari...

  18. Surface disinfection tests with Salmonella and a putative indicator bacterium, mimicking worst-case scenarios in poultry houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Sayers, A.R.; Davies, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    degreesC). Then, traditional recovery procedures (using 10-fold dilutions until 10(-4), i.e., a most probable number method) were applied. For the 2 Salmonella isolates, the efficacy of the solutions was (in decreasing order): formaldehyde > glutaraldehyde/benzalkonium chloride > peroxygen compound > WHO......Surface disinfection studies mimicking worst-case scenarios in badly cleaned poultry houses were made with 3 bacterial isolates (Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella senftenberg, and Enterococcus faecalis), and 3 1% disinfectant solutions, formaldehyde (F; 24.5% vol/vol), glutaraldehyde/benzalkonium...... chloride (G; Bio Komplet Plus), and a peroxygen compound (P; Virkon S), with World Health Organization (WHO) standard hard water as a control. Materials (concrete paving stones, steel feed chain links, wooden dowels, and jute egg belts) and organic matter found commonly in poultry houses (feed, fats, egg...

  19. Turmeric (Curcuma Longa Linn. Supplementation as an Alternative to Antibiotics in Poultry Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanung Danar Dono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics have been used in non-therapeutic fashion as growth promoter for about 50 years in many parts of the world. It has been proven that supplementation of antibiotics in the diets reduces morbidity and mortality, as well as improve feed efficiency and overall growth performance of broiler chickens. However, the routine use of these antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs is being curtailed in view of threat to public health occurring through microflora that are developing resistance to antibiotics. This risk has driven European Union and other countries to withdraw authorization of in-feed antibiotics since 1997. Removal of AGPs resulted in substantial increase infections in poultry. As a consequence, the poultry industry needs to find alternatives to antibiotics in order to stem the effects of infection. One comparable alternative is natural sources of herbs and medicinal plants, which later known as phytobiotics. For the last 15 years, these alternatives have been increasingly claimed to increase enteric health, stimulate digestive system, and enhance growth performance. It was reported that turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn. belongs to such class of medicinal plant and may be an alternative to antibiotics in poultry production. In this review, the responses of poultry to diets supplemented with turmeric on growth performance, egg production, health status, and carcass characteristic were briefly discussed.

  20. Environmental contaminants in fish and wildlife of Havasu National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment, vegetation, clams, fish, waterbirds and waterbird eggs were collected at Havasu National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) during April-August 1993 for organochlorine...

  1. FECUNDITY AND EGG SIZE VARIATION IN TILAPIA ZILLII ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative Fecundity (RF), were made by standardizing fish to common weight. ANOVA result ... advanced as a possible reason for its higher population than T. mariae in the lagoon. A maximum ... these characters and implication for the species ... Sampling and Laboratory Procedure: ... Egg size measurement was carried.

  2. Estimating mercury exposure of piscivorous birds and sport fish using prey fish monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Davis, Jay; Ichikawa, Gary; Bonnema, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Methylmercury is a global pollutant of aquatic ecosystems, and monitoring programs need tools to predict mercury exposure of wildlife. We developed equations to estimate methylmercury exposure of piscivorous birds and sport fish using mercury concentrations in prey fish. We collected original data on western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) and Clark’s grebes (Aechmophorus clarkii) and summarized the published literature to generate predictive equations specific to grebes and a general equation for piscivorous birds. We measured mercury concentrations in 354 grebes (blood averaged 1.06 ± 0.08 μg/g ww), 101 grebe eggs, 230 sport fish (predominantly largemouth bass and rainbow trout), and 505 prey fish (14 species) at 25 lakes throughout California. Mercury concentrations in grebe blood, grebe eggs, and sport fish were strongly related to mercury concentrations in prey fish among lakes. Each 1.0 μg/g dw (∼0.24 μg/g ww) increase in prey fish resulted in an increase in mercury concentrations of 103% in grebe blood, 92% in grebe eggs, and 116% in sport fish. We also found strong correlations between mercury concentrations in grebes and sport fish among lakes. Our results indicate that prey fish monitoring can be used to estimate mercury exposure of piscivorous birds and sport fish when wildlife cannot be directly sampled.

  3. Estimating Mercury Exposure of Piscivorous Birds and Sport Fish Using Prey Fish Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Hartman, C Alex; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Davis, Jay; Ichikawa, Gary; Bonnema, Autumn

    2015-11-17

    Methylmercury is a global pollutant of aquatic ecosystems, and monitoring programs need tools to predict mercury exposure of wildlife. We developed equations to estimate methylmercury exposure of piscivorous birds and sport fish using mercury concentrations in prey fish. We collected original data on western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) and Clark's grebes (Aechmophorus clarkii) and summarized the published literature to generate predictive equations specific to grebes and a general equation for piscivorous birds. We measured mercury concentrations in 354 grebes (blood averaged 1.06 ± 0.08 μg/g ww), 101 grebe eggs, 230 sport fish (predominantly largemouth bass and rainbow trout), and 505 prey fish (14 species) at 25 lakes throughout California. Mercury concentrations in grebe blood, grebe eggs, and sport fish were strongly related to mercury concentrations in prey fish among lakes. Each 1.0 μg/g dw (∼0.24 μg/g ww) increase in prey fish resulted in an increase in mercury concentrations of 103% in grebe blood, 92% in grebe eggs, and 116% in sport fish. We also found strong correlations between mercury concentrations in grebes and sport fish among lakes. Our results indicate that prey fish monitoring can be used to estimate mercury exposure of piscivorous birds and sport fish when wildlife cannot be directly sampled.

  4. Starch digestion capacity of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svihus, B

    2014-09-01

    Starch is quantitatively the most important nutrient in poultry diets and will to a large extent be present as intact starch granules due to very limited extent of gelatinization during pelleting. Although native starch is difficult to digest due to a semi-crystalline structure, even fast-growing broiler chickens appears to be able to digest this starch more or less completely during passage through the jejunum. However, reduced starch digestibility has been observed, particularly in pelleted diets containing large quantities of wheat. Although properties of the starch granule such as size and components on the granule surface may affect digestibility, the entrapment of starch granules in cell walls and a protein matrix may be even more important factors impeding starch digestion. In that case, this and the fact that amylase secretion is normally very high in poultry may explain the lack of convincing effects of exogenous α-amylase added to the diet. However, few well-designed experiments assessing mechanisms of starch digestion and the effect of α-amylase supplementation have been carried out, and thus more research is needed in this important area.

  5. Monitoring of Dermanyssus gallinae in free-range poultry farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenner, L; Bon, G; Chauve, C; Nemoz, C; Lubac, S

    2009-06-01

    Various methods for monitoring Dermanyssus gallinae infestations within free-range egg production units were compared. The study was carried out in five egg-producing free-range poultry buildings infested with D. gallinae. Each farm was divided into six zones (each zone including nest boxes, perches and duckboard) for placing two types of traps (corrugated cardboard and thick card traps) or examining dried droppings for presence of mites. Traps were removed 24 h later, placed into bags and mites were counted at the laboratory using binocular magnification. Droppings were also inspected by eye and mite numbers were estimated. All the methods used allowed us to detect mites although their efficacy differed. The number of mites collected was independent of the type of trap used. Examination of the droppings did not differentiate between buildings with differing mite populations. Placing traps in the nest boxes is a less reliable indicator than placing them on the perches. It appears that the most coherent method for evaluating the D. gallinae population within a free-range flock is to place thick card traps throughout the building, on perches favoured by birds.

  6. Egg yolk as a source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, A P; Salem, N

    1992-02-01

    In this paper we compare the fatty acid content of egg yolks from hens fed four different feeds as a source of docosahexaenoic acid to supplement infant formula. Greek eggs contain more docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 omega 3) and less linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 omega 6) and alpha-linolenic acid (LNA, 18:3 omega 3) than do fish-meal or flax eggs. Two to three grams of Greek egg yolk may provide an adequate amount of DHA and arachidonic acid for a preterm neonate. Mean intake of breast milk at age 1 mo provides 250 mg long-chain omega 3 fatty acids. This amount can be obtained from less than 1 yolk of a Greek egg (0.94), greater than 1 yolk of flax eggs (1.6) and fish-meal eggs (1.4), or 8.3 yolks of supermarket eggs. With proper manipulation of the hens' diets, eggs could be produced with fatty acid composition similar to that of Greek eggs.

  7. Sperm-egg interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Janice P

    2012-01-01

    A crucial step of fertilization is the sperm-egg interaction that allows the two gametes to fuse and create the zygote. In the mouse, CD9 on the egg and IZUMO1 on the sperm stand out as critical players, as Cd9(-/-) and Izumo1(-/-) mice are healthy but infertile or severely subfertile due to defective sperm-egg interaction. Moreover, work on several nonmammalian organisms has identified some of the most intriguing candidates implicated in sperm-egg interaction. Understanding of gamete membrane interactions is advancing through characterization of in vivo and in vitro fertilization phenotypes, including insights from less robust phenotypes that highlight potential supporting (albeit not absolutely essential) players. An emerging theme is that there are varied roles for gamete molecules that participate in sperm-egg interactions. Such roles include not only functioning as fusogens, or as adhesion molecules for the opposite gamete, but also functioning through interactions in cis with other proteins to regulate membrane order and functionality.

  8. Studies on egg disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, H E; DaMassa, A J; Scott, W F

    1979-07-01

    Various concentrations of alkyldimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride (QAC), Na2CO3, and ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) were tested for antimicrobial activity singly and in combination against Escherichia coli, Arizona hinshawii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bactericidal activity of the reagents were evaluated in embryonating eggs, trypticase soy broth, and a medium containing lecithin. Toxicity of the chemicals was assayed in embryonating eggs. An appraisal was made of an egg-washing solution composed of 250 ppm QAC, 100 ppm Na2CO3, and 10 and 100 ppm EDTA. The mixture was effective and nontoxic for this purpose. All egg treatments had an adverse effect on fertility and hatchability. Using the temperature differential procedure in egg dipping, the disinfectant mixture was relatively nontoxic if 10 ppm EDTA was used with 3000 ppm tylosin tartrate. One hundred parts per million of the chelator in the dip solution caused excessive embryo mortality due to synergistic toxicity with the antibiotic. The germicidal action of the QAC solution was markedly increased with Na2CO3. Ten parts per million EDTA did not improve the biocidal effect of QAC solutions in distilled water but increased bactericidal activity in tap water that contained 16 ppm Ca and 22 ppm Mg.

  9. Mechanical vibration: what is the importance of this physical quantity in the poultry transport?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Donofre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical vibrations are inherent to any system of transportation. In poultry production, the higher or lower intensity of this agent during the loading of eggs, chicks and chickens, can increase the production losses and decrease the efficiency of the system as a whole. However, despite its importance this factor is still unknown and little considered in the planning of the transport processes involved in the poultry industry. Therefore, the aim of raising the largest amount of data obtained so far to clarify the effects of mechanical vibrations already found in the transport of fertilized eggs, day-old chicks and broilers. A survey of international and national papers, from 1969 to 2014, which showed that the transport of fertilized eggs, the mechanical vibrations may be responsible for the incidence of cracks, in addition to promoting the agitation of internal constituents (yolk and albumen, which could potentially compromise the quality of birth and hatchlings. The transport of day-old chicks and broilers, the vibrations are related to situations of stress, discomfort and depreciation of the welfare of the birds, which still causes drops in the levels of glucose and corticosteroids and thus affect other parameters as the quality of the meat.

  10. Prolactin as a Candidate Gene Controlling Molting and Egg Production of Duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triana Susanti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of molting is a crucial problem in the local ducks that need to be handled from many aspects including genetic aspect. Handling of molting genetically can be done quickly and accurately when the control genes have been found. The search for marker genes of molting can be conducted in poultry through broodiness naturally, because its physiological processes are related to the continuity of egg production. This paper describes the mechanism of molting, the relationship of molting with prolactin hormone and the association of prolactin gene polymorphism with molting and egg production. Molting and egg production were influenced by the prolactin hormone, that may be controlled by the prolactin gene. High concentration of prolactin hormone will inhibit the function of pituitary gland, decreasing production of gonadotrophin hormone (follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone hence ovulation ceased. This will stop egg production and at the same time molting proccess occurred.

  11. Correlations between thermal environment and egg quality of two layer commercial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DF Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress limits the productivity of laying hens, as reflected by egg production and egg quality. The present study aimed at showing the correlations between egg quality parameters and environmental variables recorded on the day eggs were laid and on the previous days. Birds were housed in battery cages in a commercial poultry house. Main component analyses were used to verify associations between environmental and production variables, and Pearson's linear correlation tests were used to further investigate those associations. Analyses were carried out separately for to layer strains, Dekalb® White and Hy-Line® w36, and the variables egg weight (g, eggshell weight (g, specific gravity (g/cm³ and eggshell percentage (% were compared with the environmental variables of the same day of the production, and one, two, three, and four days before egg production. Sound intensity measured inside the houses was positively associated with the quality parameters of eggs produced on the next day. Thermal environmental variables affected the egg quality differently in each strain, particularly air temperature, internal roof tile temperature, relative humidity, and air velocity. Ammonia concentration measured inside the houses was lower than 1ppm, and did not affect production performance.

  12. Inert dusts and their effects on the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2009-01-01

    The haematophagous poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) is the most important pest of egg laying hens in many parts of the world. Control has often relied on chemical pesticides, but inert dusts, which are thought to kill target hosts primarily by desiccation, have become one of the most....... In this laboratory study the efficacy of different commercial inert dust products against D. gallinae is compared. All tested compounds killed mites, but there was a clear ranking of efficacy (measured as weight loss after 24 h and as time until 50% mortality), particularly at 75% relative humidity (RH). At 85% RH...... that 24 h exposure to surfaces treated with doses much lower than those recommended by the producers is sufficient to kill mites as fast as when they were dusted with massive doses. These data emphasise the need for thorough treatment of all surfaces in a poultry house in order to combat D. gallinae....

  13. Understanding the biology and control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, James; Kuster, Tatiana; Sparagano, Olivier; Tomley, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae, the poultry red mite (PRM), is a blood-feeding ectoparasite capable of causing pathology in birds, amongst other animals. It is an increasingly important pathogen in egg layers and is responsible for substantial economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Even though PRM poses a serious problem, very little is known about the basic biology of the mite. Here we review the current body of literature describing red mite biology and discuss how this has been, or could be, used to develop methods to control PRM infestations. We focus primarily on the PRM digestive system, salivary glands, nervous system and exoskeleton and also explore areas of PRM biology which have to date received little or no study but have the potential to offer new control targets.

  14. PROBIOTICS, PREBIOTICS AND SNYBIOTICS IN POULTRY MODE OF ACTION, LIMITATION, AND ACHIEVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata DANKOWIAKOWSKA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The withdrawal of antibiotic growth promoters from poultry industry have forced farmers to seek alternatives for the posing a risk factors of cross-resistance acquisition by harmful bacteria. A particular nuisance became salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis forcing to the elimination of whole poultry flocks as well as causing dangerous zoonotic diseases in humans. An excellent replacement for antibiotics have become the pro-, pre-and synbiotic substances which have a beneficial effect on the host organism through the development intensification of healthy intestinal microbial strains and the elimination of pathogenic strains. Such preparations may be administered both in the water spray as well as in feed. Excellent and promising method appears to be their injection directly into the egg air chamber in the 12th day of incubation. However, further studies are required to determine the appropriate doses as well as combinations of bioactive substances and to determine the optimal way for their delivery.

  15. Current and emerging technologies for rapid detection and characterization of Salmonella in poultry and poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Si Hong; Aydin, Muhsin; Khatiwara, Anita; Dolan, Maureen C; Gilmore, David F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Ahn, Soohyoun; Ricke, Steven C

    2014-04-01

    Salmonella is the leading cause of foodborne illnesses in the United States, and one of the main contributors to salmonellosis is the consumption of contaminated poultry and poultry products. Since deleterious effects of Salmonella on public health and the economy continue to occur, there is an ongoing need to develop more advanced detection methods that can identify Salmonella accurately and rapidly in foods before they reach consumers. Rapid detection and identification methods for Salmonella are considered to be an important component of strategies designed to prevent poultry and poultry product-associated illnesses. In the past three decades, there have been increasing efforts towards developing and improving rapid pathogen detection and characterization methodologies for application to poultry and poultry products. In this review, we discuss molecular methods for detection, identification and genetic characterization of Salmonella associated with poultry and poultry products. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the established and emerging rapid detection and characterization methods are addressed for Salmonella in poultry and poultry products. The methods with potential application to the industry are highlighted in this review.

  16. 40 CFR 180.1021 - Copper; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in cattle, meat; goat, meat; hog, meat; horse, meat; sheep, meat; milk, poultry, fat; poultry, meat; poultry, meat byproducts; egg, fish, shellfish, and irrigated... meat, fat and meat by-products of cattle, sheep, hogs, goats, horses and poultry, milk and eggs...

  17. Campylobacter in Poultry: Ecology and Potential Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Orhan; Kassem, Issmat I; Shen, Zhangqi; Lin, Jun; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Zhang, Qijing

    2015-06-01

    Avian hosts constitute a natural reservoir for thermophilic Campylobacter species, primarily Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, and poultry flocks are frequently colonized in the intestinal tract with high numbers of the organisms. Prevalence rates in poultry, especially in slaughter-age broiler flocks, could reach as high as 100% on some farms. Despite the extensive colonization, Campylobacter is essentially a commensal in birds, although limited evidence has implicated the organism as a poultry pathogen. Although Campylobacter is insignificant for poultry health, it is a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, and contaminated poultry meat is recognized as the main source for human exposure. Therefore, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the development of interventions to diminish Campylobacter contamination in poultry, with the intention to reduce the burden of food-borne illnesses. During the past decade, significant advance has been made in understanding Campylobacter in poultry. This review summarizes the current knowledge with an emphasis on ecology, antibiotic resistance, and potential pre- and postharvest interventions.

  18. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  19. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  20. Determination of Arsenic Species in Poultry Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B. P.; Bertsch, P. M.

    2001-05-01

    Two benzenearsenic compounds, p-arsanilic acid (p-ASA) and roxarsone (ROX), are commonly used feed additives in the poultry industry for disease prevention and increased weight gain. Because these compounds are not readily adsorbed by poultry, As in poultry litter can reach concentrations >41 mg/kg, which, for comparison, is the maximum allowable concentration for land application of sewage sludge according to USEPA 503 regulations. In contrast to land application of sewage sludge or industrial by-products such as fly ash, the potential for As loading of soil from poultry litter application has received little attention, despite the more prevalent use of poultry litter as a soil amendment. Furthermore, little is known concerning the biogeochemistry of these organo-arsenic compounds in soils. In incubation studies, we found that soil solution As concentrations were higher for poultry litter amendments when compared with fly ash amendments despite much higher As loading rates for the fly ashes. Further work has shown that >90% of total As can be solubilized from poultry litter through simple water extractions. In order to identify the two benzenearsenic feed additives we have developed ion chromatography methodology to separate As(III), As(V), MMA, DMA, p-ASA and ROX with element specific detection by ICP-MS. All species are well separated and detection limits are <50 ng/L for all species. Analysis of a water extraction of a poultry litter sample showed that the majority of soluble As was present as ROX but trace concentrations of As(V) and DMA were also identified along with an number of unknown As compounds. This methodology will prove useful in future studies of the fate and transport of p-ASA and ROX, and in identifying these compounds in watersheds where poultry litter has been extensively applied.

  1. Poultry Diseases Expert System using Dempster-Shafer Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Maseleno, Andino

    2012-01-01

    Based on World Health Organization (WHO) fact sheet in the 2011, outbreaks of poultry diseases especially Avian Influenza in poultry may raise global public health concerns due to their effect on poultry populations, their potential to cause serious disease in people, and their pandemic potential. In this research, we built a Poultry Diseases Expert System using Dempster-Shafer Theory. In this Poultry Diseases Expert System We describe five symptoms which include depression, combs, wattle, bluish face region, swollen face region, narrowness of eyes, and balance disorders. The result of the research is that Poultry Diseases Expert System has been successfully identifying poultry diseases.

  2. APPLICATION OF "SUPER ANK ANOLYTE" FOR BIOCIDAL TREATMENT OF EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanner N. E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Under the field conditions breeding the young poultry takes place in the eggs out of maternal body. For successful breeding the progeny keeping all the demands to safety and quality of hatching eggs has the important significance. Safety demands are presented in the appropriate Technical Standards (TS. The microbial standards are to be very significant. Moreover, it is necessary to control both the microorganisms note in TS and other species as dangerous factors on during the process of production. The methods and means used presently for disinfection of hatching eggs have some disadvantages, e.g. the method of gazation with using the preparations on a base of formaldehyde, formalin, potassium permanganate; ozone has the toxical, corrosive and inflammable properties and its using must be controlled; chlorine-containing disinfectants have a property to react with cuticle of eggshell and fall their activity. The results of a study on applicating Super ANK Anolyte for biocidal treatment of the eggs are presented in the article

  3. Can museum egg specimens be used for proteomic analyses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portugal Steven J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometry and proteomic analyses have become powerful tools for the analysis of proteins and peptides. Investigation of proteins contained in the various layers of the avian eggshell has focused entirely on domesticated species. It has been widely assumed that this existing research can inform the study of wild bird species despite the fact that the vast majority of the diversity in avian species (~95% exists outside the Orders to which domestic and poultry species belong. Museum collections offer a potentially valuable source of material for studying composition of wild avian eggshell matrix proteins. We used museum and fresh eggshells of common quails Coturnix coturnix to compare the protein composition of their organic matrices. Four eggs of domestic chickens were analysed simultaneously as a control for comparison to the fresh and museum quail eggs. The determination of the proteins was carried out using enzymatic cleavage followed by high-performance mass spectrometry. Results We found that some of the expected key eggshell proteins (3 out of 11 were not present in the samples of museum quail egg. These proteins were either entirely absent from the museum eggs or the technique was unable to detect them. There was no pattern in the absent proteins in the sense of protein function or where they are located within the eggshell. Conclusion We conclude it is likely that such studies on museum specimens using a proteomic approach will be limited in coverage of proteins and may, therefore, be misleading.

  4. Hepatitis Virus Infections in Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugo, Danielle M; Hauck, Ruediger; Shivaprasad, H L; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Viral hepatitis in poultry is a complex disease syndrome caused by several viruses belonging to different families including avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV-1, -2, -3), duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3, fowl adenoviruses (FAdV), and turkey hepatitis virus (THV). While these hepatitis viruses share the same target organ, the liver, they each possess unique clinical and biological features. In this article, we aim to review the common and unique features of major poultry hepatitis viruses in an effort to identify the knowledge gaps and aid the prevention and control of poultry viral hepatitis. Avian HEV is an Orthohepevirus B in the family Hepeviridae that naturally infects chickens and consists of three distinct genotypes worldwide. Avian HEV is associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome or big liver and spleen disease in chickens, although the majority of the infected birds are subclinical. Avihepadnaviruses in the family of Hepadnaviridae have been isolated from ducks, snow geese, white storks, grey herons, cranes, and parrots. DHBV evolved with the host as a noncytopathic form without clinical signs and rarely progressed to chronicity. The outcome for DHBV infection varies by the host's ability to elicit an immune response and is dose and age dependent in ducks, thus mimicking the pathogenesis of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and providing an excellent animal model for human HBV. DHAV is a picornavirus that causes a highly contagious virus infection in ducks with up to 100% flock mortality in ducklings under 6 wk of age, while older birds remain unaffected. The high morbidity and mortality has an economic impact on intensive duck production farming. Duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3 are astroviruses in the family of Astroviridae with similarity phylogenetically to turkey astroviruses, implicating the potential for cross-species infections between strains. Duck astrovirus (DAstV) causes

  5. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  6. 76 FR 42595 - Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... requirements. 9 CFR Part 94 Animal diseases, Imports, Livestock, Meat and meat products, Milk, Poultry and... 1:10 dilution of a bacteria-free, infectious allantoic fluid; (2) Any H5 or H7 virus that does...

  7. Elisa evaluation of the levels of antibodies against Infectious Bronchitis Virus in laying hens using egg yolk as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RH Rauber

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to compare Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV antibody titers in serum and egg yolk samples from laying hens. Sixty paired blood and egg samples were collected from laying hens of two farms. Serum samples were frozen, while egg yolk samples were diluted (1:500 before freezing. Serum and yolk samples were tested for the presence of IBV antibodies by indirect ELISA (commercial kit and titers were compared by a correlation test (alpha=0.05. There was a high correlation (r=0.62 between the two kinds of samples, which means that titers of IBV antibodies in the egg yolk and in serum samples are quite the same. Considering that blood collection causes deep stress that leads to economic losses, and since eggs are collected daily on the farm, results reported here are of importance to poultry production.

  8. 21 CFR 579.40 - Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. 579.40 Section 579.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... § 579.40 Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients....

  9. Effect of digestible methionine + cystine concentration on performance, egg quality and blood metabolites in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari Moghaddam Kakhki, R; Golian, A; Zarghi, H

    2016-06-01

    The estimation of sulphur amino acid requirement is a vital key to providing appropriate nutrition in poultry. The estimation of amino acid requirement depends on what production parameter is taken into consideration for optimisation. A complete randomised block design was performed with 5 treatments and 6 replicates of 8 Hy-line layers (W-36) each from 32 to 44 weeks of age. The blocks were made to have a replicate of each treatment. The dietary treatments were consisted of 5 concentrations of digestible sulphur amino acid (DSAA) at 5.1, 5.6, 6.1, 6.6 and 7.1 (g/kg). Egg production, egg mass, egg weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly affected by an increase in DSAA intake. However, feed intake, egg component yield, Haugh unit, specific gravity, eggshell thickness, egg protein and dry matter (DM) were not altered by DSAA intake. A significant increment in plasma high-density lipoprotein was concomitant with a reduction in low-density lipoprotein when DSAA intake was increased. However, triglyceride, cholesterol, uric acid and total protein in plasma were not affected by DSAA intake. The DSAA requirements estimated by the linear broken-line model to optimise egg production, egg mass, egg weight and FCR were 678, 673, 641 and 656 mg/bird.d in the whole experimental period, respectively. The DSAA requirement estimated by the quadratic broken-line model to optimise egg production, egg mass, egg weight and FCR were 4.71%, 7.87%, 8.73% and 7.62% higher than those estimated by linear broken-line fit model in the whole experimental period, respectively.

  10. CalCOFI Egg Stages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Egg morphological developmental stage for eggs of selected species captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets. Sequential developmental stages are described by Moser...

  11. "Ant-egg" cataract revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Kåre; Enghild, Jan J; Ivarsen, Anders;

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Hereditary congenital cataract varies immensely concerning location and form of the lens opacities. A specific and very rare phenotype is called "ant-egg" cataract first described in 1900. "Ant-eggs" have previously been examined using light microscopy, backscattered electron imaging and X......-ray scans and electron microscopy. The purpose of this study was to further characterize "ant-egg" cataract using modern technology and display the history of the "ant-eggs" after cataract extraction. METHODS: "Ant-eggs" were examined using Heidelberg SPECTRALIS Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT......-egg" structures in "ant-egg" cataract. Eighteen of these proteins are not natively found in the human lens. Moreover, "ant-eggs" do not vary over time, after cataract extraction, regarding size and location....

  12. Implications of mechanical deformation and formaldehyde preservation for the identification of stage-specific characteristics of Baltic cod eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldmacher, A.; Wieland, Kai

    1999-01-01

    The identification of developmental stages in fish eggs from plankton samples is often complicated by deformation of the embryos due to mechanical stress during the sampling procedure and by dehydration during formaldehyde fixation. The effects of formaldehyde fixation and mechanical stress...... on Baltic cod eggs (Gadus morhua callarias L.) were examined separately by visually comparing the morphological features of treated vs. live eggs of identical ontogenetic age. Microphotographs were made concurrently for documentation. In stage IA eggs, mechanical treatment resulted in scattered blastodiscs...... mechanically deformed during handling were clearly distinguishable from those that died prior to catching; however, staging was generally less accurate for formaldehyde- preserved eggs when compared with living specimens....

  13. My life with eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, M.P.

    2005-01-01

    In an autobiographical account, which was presented as a special presentation because of his retirement, Michael Walters summarizes the unusual circumstances which resulted in him becoming curator of the world’s largest bird egg collection at Tring. It also highlights the special curatorial problems

  14. The phylotypic egg timer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenbarg, S.

    2000-01-01

    Von Baer and Haeckel provided the basis of what came to be known as the phylotypic egg timer: during their development vertebrate embryos pass through a period in which they show the archetype of the vertebrate body plan. During this period vertebrate embryos are similar, in both form and

  15. The Egg model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.; Van Essen, G.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The "Egg Model" is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four producers. It has been used in numerous publications to demonstrate

  16. The Egg model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.; Van Essen, G.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The "Egg Model" is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four producers. It has been used in numerous publications to demonstrate

  17. Farinhas de peixe, carne e ossos, vísceras e crisálida como atractantes em dietas para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Fish, meat and bone, poultry by-products and silkworm meals as attractive in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rogério Boscolo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de comparar a utilização de 5% de inclusão das farinhas de peixe (FP, vísceras (FV, carne e ossos (FO, crisálida (FC e controle (farelo de soja e milho como atractantes sobre o consumo de ração e desempenho de alevinos tilápia do Nilo. Foram utilizados 168 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (linhagem tailandesa revertidos sexualmente, com peso inicial médio de 0,72 ± 0,18g, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições, sendo a unidade experimental constituída por um aquário de 50 L com sete animais. As rações foram formuladas com 32% de proteína bruta e 3000 kcal de energia digestível/kg, sendo as mesmas isoprotéicas, isocalóricas, isofíbricas e isoaminoacídicas para lisina e metionina + cistina. Os valores médios de ganho de peso observados nos tratamentos controle ou com FV e FP como atractantes foram superiores aos dos tratamentos FC ou FO. A conversão alimentar dos animais alimentados com ração contendo FV foi melhor que os tratamentos FC ou FO, porém não diferiu significativamente dos tratamentos controle e FP. O comprimento final médio dos animais do tratamento controle foi superior, quando comparados ao tratamento FC, não diferindo dos demais. O consumo alimentar e a taxa de sobrevivência não diferiram entre os tratamentos. Concluiu-se que não seria necessária a utilização dos alimentos testados, a 5% de inclusão, para estimular o consumo alimentar ou promover o crescimento de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo.The experiment aimed to compare the use of 5% of inclusion of fish meal (FP, poultry by-products meal (FV, meat and bones meal (FO and silkworm meal (FC and a control (soybean meal and corn as atractants on feed intake and performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings. One hundred and sixty eight Nile tilapia fingerlings (Thai strain sexually reversed, with average initial weight of 0.72 ± 0.18 g were

  18. Fish Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  19. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a clear and consistent manner, so that consumers with food allergies and their caregivers can be informed as ... the menu, cross-contact with fish is possible. Ethnic ... fish. Avoid foods like fish sticks and anchovies. Some individuals with ...

  20. Cestrum diurnum leaf as a source of 1,25(OH)2 Vitamin D3 improves egg shell thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennaiah, S; Qadri, S S Y H; Rao, S V Rama; Shyamsunder, G; Raghuramulu, N

    2004-05-01

    A continuing concern of the poultry industry is the high incidence (12%) of egg losses in the laying house due to poor egg shell quality. Calcium (Ca) homeostasis is a key factor in egg shell formation. The economy of Ca utilisation is under the control of Vitamin D(3), particularly its active metabolite 1,25-dihydroxy cholecalciferol [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)]. Supplementation of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) has been shown to increase specific gravity, shell thickness and shell weight of the egg. However, commercially available synthetic 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) is very expensive. Earlier studies from our Institute [Phytochemistry 37 (1994) 677] have identified a cheap, natural and rich source of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in the leaves of Cestrum diurnum (CD), a member of the Solanaceae family. In this study, CD leaves were explored as a source of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in the feed of layer birds to improve the egg shell thickness. Fifteen-week-old white leghorn layers were divided into four treatments of 60 birds each and as follows: (I) normal diet with Vitamin D(3), (II) normal diet with Vitamin D(3) + CD, (III) normal diet without Vitamin D(3) and, (IV) normal diet without Vitamin D(3) + CD powder. CD leaf powder was incorporated in to the feed at 0.3% level. The experimental feeding was continued up to 72 weeks of age of the birds. Weekly food intake and daily egg production were noted throughout the experimental period and the specific gravity of the eggs, feed consumed to lay one egg and egg shell thickness were determined. Incorporation of CD leaves in the feed had the maximal effect on all the parameters studied. The feed consumed to lay one egg was 20 g less than the control group. The specific gravity of the egg was higher by 0.005, than the control egg, indicating a 5% decrease in the breakage of eggs in CD fed chicks. Also there was a significant increase (P < 0.001) in egg shell thickness. The data suggest that incorporation of CD leaf powder in the feed of poultry layers increased the egg shell

  1. Backyard poultry: legislation, zoonoses and disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, M L; Roberts, V

    2014-10-01

    In law, backyard poultry are "food-producing animals" and "farmed animals" and are subject to regulations regarding welfare, prescribing, banned procedures, disposal of carcases, feeding bans, notifiable diseases and disease surveillance in addition to those applying to most other pets. Many owners and some veterinary surgeons are unclear about the requirements of these regulations. Backyard poultry are also associated with some different zoonotic disease risks to mammalian pets. Because a high proportion of poultry morbidity and mortality relates to infectious diseases, the health of backyard poultry is amenable to improvement through basic husbandry, biosecurity, hygiene and preventive medicine measures that can be incorporated into a simple "flock-health plan". This article reviews these topics.

  2. Detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Abdul; Kashif, Natasha; Kifayat, Nasira; Ahmad, Shabeer

    2016-09-01

    The antibiotic residues in poultry meat can pose certain hazards to human health among them are sensitivity to antibiotics, allergic reactions, mutation in cells, imbalance of intestinal micro biota and bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The purpose of the present paper was to detect antibiotic residue in poultry meat. During the present study a total of 80 poultry kidney and liver samples were collected and tested for detection of different antibiotic residues at different pH levels Eschericha coli at pH 6, 7 and Staphyloccocus aureus at pH 8 & 9. Out of 80 samples only 4 samples were positive for antibiotic residues. The highest concentrations of antibiotic residue found in these tissues were tetracycline (8%) followed by ampicilin (4%), streptomycine (2%) and aminoglycosides (1%) as compared to other antibiotics like sulfonamides, neomycine and gentamycine. It was concluded that these microorganism at these pH levels could be effectively used for detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat.

  3. Additives In Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Additives in Meat and Poultry Products People have been using food additives for thousands ... may be used in canned hams or jellied meat products. HUMECTANT - substance added to foods to help retain ...

  4. POULTRY WASTE MANAGEMENT IN BOTSWANA: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Moreki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A literature review was conducted to identify methods that are used to dispose of poultry waste in Botswana. It appears that the predominant methods of poultry waste disposal in Botswana are direct disposal at the landfills, application as a fertilizer in gardens or farms, burning and compositing. The use of poultry manure and/or litter to raise fertility status of the soil appears to be appropriate given that soils in Botswana are generally poor in plant nutrients, especially phosphorus. Given the high feed costs in Botswana it is suggested that the use of poultry manure and/or litter as livestock feed should be considered in areas where foot and mouth disease (FMD is endemic such as Chobe and North West Districts, as meat from these districts does not enter the European Union market.

  5. Aspects of epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria, which in humans cause infections with severe symptoms of diarrhoea, are mainly transmitted by food, especially poultry meat products. Several studies on Campylobacter colonization in breeders, laying hens, and broilers were carried out. Isolates were serotyped, using a

  6. Genetic progress in the poultry industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    different and changing demands of poultry producers around the world. .... is an increased appetite and increased fat deposition (Sorensen,. 1980). It would not ... fat content and increasing lean tissue gain simultaneously, would be to select.

  7. Sustainable development perspectives of poultry production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Steenfeldt, Sanna; Horsted, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The concept of ‘sustainability’ or ‘sustainable development’ is multi-dimensional, encompassing economic, environmental, social, and institutional governance aspects. The theoretical framework for this article on sustainability in poultry production is built on this multi-dimensional understanding...... or more of the four aspects, e.g., pollution and antibiotic use, biodiversity (environmental aspects), conditions for farm workers and animal welfare (social aspects), governance of the food chain (institutional aspects), and the development of poultry from a valuable food to a cheap staple food...... throughout major parts of the world (economic aspects). There are numerous potential pathways for sustainable development of poultry production. Poultry are living, sentient animals that can be well integrated into many different types of urban and rural farming systems, where they benefit from...

  8. Thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs from the upper Great Lakes are related to maternal diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, S.C.; Rinchard, J.; Ebener, M.P.; Tillitt, D.E.; Munkittrick, K.R.; Parrott, J.L.; Allen, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Thiamine deficiency is responsible for reproductive impairment in several species of salmonines in the Great lakes, and is thought to be caused by the consumption of prey containing thiaminase, a thiamine-degrading enzyme. Because thiaminase levels are extremely high in dreissenid mussels, fish that prey on them may be susceptible to thiamine deficiency. We determined thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis eggs from the upper Laurentian Great Lakes to assess the potential for thiamine deficiency and to determine if thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were related to maternal diet. Mean thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were highest in Lake Huron, intermediate in Lake Superior, and lowest in Lake Michigan. Some fish had thiamine concentrations below putative thresholds for lethal and sublethal effects in salmonines, suggesting that some larval lake whitefish may currently be at risk of at least sublethal effects of low thiamine concentrations, although thiamine thresholds are unknown for lake whitefish. Egg thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were statistically significantly related to isotopic carbon signatures, suggesting that egg thiamine levels were related to maternal diet, but low egg thiamine concentrations did not appear to be associated with a diet of dreissenids. Egg thiamine concentrations were not statistically significantly related to multifunction oxidase induction, suggesting that lower egg thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish were not related to contaminant exposure.

  9. GROWTH OF POULTRY CHICKS FED ON FORMULATED FEED CONTAINING SILK WORM PUPAE MEAL AS PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT AND COMMERCIAL DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. DUTTA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Waste silkworm pupae (SWP generate vast resources of nutrients for livestock and poultry. In the present investigation, three days old chicks of RIR strain were allocated to five dietary treatments of silk worm pupae meal. The energy budget was prepared from calculated proximate analysis and growth performance of broiler chicks fed with different percentages of silk worm pupae. The result showed that the silkworm powder meal (SWPM is the cheapest and has potential to replace the costly and contaminated fish meal, as the protein source, used in poultry industry.

  10. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of H7N3 avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry in Pakistan 1995-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddique Naila

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza virus (AIV infections have caused heavy economic losses to the poultry industry in Pakistan as well as numerous other regions worldwide. The first introduction of H7N3 AIV to Pakistan occurred during 1995, since then H7N3, H9N2 and H5N1 AIVs have each been sporadically isolated. This report evaluates the genetic origin of the H7N3 viruses from Pakistan collected 1995-2004 and how they disseminated within the country. To accomplish this we produced whole genome sequences for 6 H7N3 viruses and data for the HA and NA genes of an additional 7 isolates. All available sequence from H7N3 AIV from Pakistan was included in the analysis. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed that there were two introductions of H7 into Pakistan and one N3 introduction. Only one of the H7 introductions appears to have become established in poultry in Pakistan, while the other was isolated from two separate outbreaks 6 years apart. The data also shows that reassortment has occurred between H7N3 and H9N2 viruses in the field, likely during co-infection of poultry. Also, with the exception of these few reassortant isolates, all 8 genes in the predominant H7N3 virus lineage have evolved to be phylogenetically distinct. Conclusions Although rigorous control measures have been implemented in commercial poultry in Pakistan, AIV is sporadically transmitted to poultry and among the different poultry industry compartments (broilers, broiler breeders, table egg layers. Since there is one primary H7 lineage which persists and that has reassorted with the H9N2 AIV in poultry, it suggests that there is a reservoir with some link commercial poultry. On a general level, this offers insight into the molecular ecology of AIV in poultry where the virus has persisted despite vaccination and biosecurity. This data also illustrates the importance of sustained surveillance for AIVs in poultry.

  11. Field efficacy of phoxim 50% (ByeMite) against the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae in battery cages stocked with laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Kühling, Borris; Pfister, Kurt; Müller-Lindloff, Jürgen; Heine, Josef

    2007-07-20

    Infestations with the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae represent a major ectoparasite problem in poultry and can affect egg layers worldwide. There is presently a lack of an ectoparasiticide in Europe for poultry which can assure a 0-day withholding period for eggs. In this study, ByeMite (phoxim 50%, Bayer HealthCare, Animal Health Division) was administered to treat a D. gallinae infestation in a poultry house stocked with egg-laying hens kept in a cage system. A layer house was sprayed twice within a 7-day interval using a solution containing 2000 ppm phoxim and a similar layer house was used as an untreated control unit. Specially developed D. gallinae traps made of cardboard were used to assess the mite density in both layer houses during a 49-day period after the treatment. In order to collect mites, the traps were placed on days--1, 2, 6, 9, 13, 20, 34 and 48 and always removed after 24 h. The collected mites were counted and differentiated according to their developmental stage (mite eggs, larvae, nymphs, adults). Three days after the first spray treatment, the efficacy against all mite stages (larvae, nymphs, adults) was 96.1%, and from day 7 post-treatment until the end of the trial (day 49) the efficacy exceeded 99%. In contrast, in the untreated layer house (negative control group) the mite population showed a 400% increase. No treatment-related side effects in chickens were detectable. It is concluded that two administrations of ByeMite within a 7-day interval are highly effective against D. gallinae infestations in a stocked poultry house.

  12. Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Massimiliano Petracci; Claudio Cavani

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growin...

  13. Microbiological status of mechanically separated poultry meat

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović, Jelena; Borović, Branka; Velebit, Branko; Lakićević, Brankica; Baltić, Tatjana; Mitrović, Radmila; Milijašević, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Mechanically separated meat is often contaminated with microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbiological status of mechanically separated poultry meat samples from June 2011 to December 2012. Microbiological testing included Salmonella species, Escherichia coli and the number of aerobic bacteria. In 5.26% of the samples the presence of Salmonella species was revealed, whereas 22.95% and 4.92% of the mechanically separated poultry meat samples were incompliant in reg...

  14. Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Massimiliano Petracci; Claudio Cavani

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growin...

  15. Mycotoxins and their impact on poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Goran R.Ž.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Only two years after the great expansion of "AGROŽIV" company, it was evident that mycotoxins have great impact on all segments of poultry production. During that year we were for the first time faced up with problems in poultry fattening. It was not possible to explain the present problems only by bacterial and viral infections, so we assumed that there is another reason for the observed clinical picture. From that time we started to pay more attention on contamination of poultry feed with mycotoxins. In the four years' period, from 1988 to 2002, 57 samples were analyzed for the presence of mycotoxins. Mycotoxicological investigations revealed the presence of T-2 toxin in 19 samples at concentrations less than 0.3 mg/kg, in 18 samples at concentration of 0.5 mg/kg, and in 3 samples 1.0 mg/kg. Beside this, type A trichotecene DAS was found in 6 of tested samples, and ochratoxin A and in 1 sample. Clinical picture and damages varied depending on mycotoxins' concentrations and poultry age. To exceede this problem in animal production we tried to use the organic and anorganic mycotoxin adsorbents as additives of poultry feed, but the results were not satisfactory enough. So, we resumed that if we really want to resolve problem of mycotoxins we have to start from the field production of poultry feed components.

  16. Sustainable smallholder poultry interventions to promote food security and social, agricultural, and ecological resilience in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Sarah E; Lungu, Luke; Mulambya, Nathan; Daka, Whiteson; McDonald, Erin; Steubing, Emily; Lewis, Tamika; Backel, Katherine; Jange, Jarra; Lucio-Martinez, Benjamin; Lewis, Dale; Travis, Alexander J

    2016-06-01

    In Zambia's Luangwa Valley, highly variable rainfall and lack of education, agricultural inputs, and market access constrain agricultural productivity, trapping smallholder farmers in chronic poverty and food insecurity. Human and animal disease (e.g. HIV and Newcastle Disease, respectively), further threaten the resilience of poor families. To cope with various shocks and stressors, many farmers employ short-term coping strategies that threaten ecosystem resilience. Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO) utilizes an agribusiness model to alleviate poverty and food insecurity through conservation farming, market development and value-added food production. COMACO promotes household, agricultural and ecological resilience along two strategic lines: improving recovery from shocks (mitigation) and reducing the risk of shock occurrence. Here we focus on two of COMACO's poultry interventions and present data showing that addressing health and management constraints within the existing village poultry system resulted in significantly improved productivity and profitability. However, once reliable productivity was achieved, farmers preferred to sell chickens rather than eat either the birds or their eggs. Sales of live birds were largely outside the community to avoid price suppression; in contrast, the sale of eggs from community-operated, semi-intensive egg production facilities was invariably within the communities. These facilities resulted in significant increases in both producer income and community consumption of eggs. This intervention therefore has the potential to improve not only producers' economic resilience, but also resilience tied to the food security and physical health of the entire community.

  17. Gonadal development in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Toshiya; Tanaka, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrate reproduction depends on the function of 2 distinct gametes, sperm and eggs, which develop in 2 different organs, the testis and the ovary. Testes and ovaries are composed of germ cells, supporting cells and interstitial cells. In this review, we describe the origin and the fate of these cell lineages and how they interact with each other to form sexually dimorphic reproductive organs in medaka. We delineate how the temporally different association and establishment of these lineages contribute to a variety of seemingly different sex differentiation processes among teleost fish. Thus, teleosts represent an intriguing group in which to study the fundamental processes of gonadal development through comparing conserved and unique mechanisms.

  18. Sero-survey of Avian Influenza in backyard poultry and wild bird species in Iran-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah Mehrabadi, M H; Bahonar, A R; Vasfi Marandi, M; Sadrzadeh, A; Tehrani, F; Salman, M D

    2016-06-01

    In almost all villages in Iran backyard birds, especially chickens, are kept for egg and meat production. AI H9N2 subtype is endemic in Iran. Therefore, estimation of AI prevalence among these birds is important to determine the risk of transmission of infection to commercial farms. The aim of this study was to estimate subclinical infections or previous exposure to H5, H7, and H9 subtypes and to identify potentially important determinants of prevalence of this infectious at premises level in backyard poultry, bird gardens, zoos, and wild bird markets in Iran. A survey was conducted using a cross-sectional design throughout the entire country. A total of 329 villages, seven bird gardens, three zoos and five wild bird markets were included. In each village four families that kept birds were included in the collection of biological samples and background information. The Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used as the screening test and all ELISA-positive samples were examined with the HI test to differentiate H5, H7, and H9. Among the bird gardens, eight of 15 premises (53.3%) were positive in both the ELISA test and HI for H9N2. Testing of samples collected in the villages revealed that 296 out of 329 villages (90%) had positive ELISA tests and also HI tests for H9. The HI-H9 mean titers in positive units were significantly higher than negative units (Pbird gardens in the case of H9 (P>.05). The results of this study showed that among the risk variables, mountainous area was a protective factor and lack of hygienic disposal of dead birds was a risk factor for AI; this was also observed in rural poultry. The high sero-prevalence of influenza H9N2 in rural domestic poultry indicates that the disease is endemic. It is necessary to include backyard poultry in any surveillance system and control strategy due to the existence of AIV in backyard poultry and the possibility of transmission of infection to commercial poultry farms. Implementation of an AI

  19. Slow fertilization of stickleback eggs: the result of sexual conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Theo C M; Zbinden, Marc; Frommen, Joachim G; Weiss, Alexander; Largiadèr, Carlo R

    2006-05-19

    The fertilization success in sperm competition in externally fertilizing fish depends on number and quality of sperm. The time delay between sequential ejaculations may further influence the outcome of sperm competition. Such a time interval can load the raffle over fertilization if fertilization takes place very fast. Short fertilization times are generally assumed for externally fertilizing fish such as the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). In this pair-spawning fish, territorial males often try to steal fertilizations in nests of neighbouring males. This sneaking behaviour causes sperm competition. Sneakers will only get a share of paternity when eggs are not fertilized immediately after sperm release. Contrary to males, females may be interested in multiple paternity of their clutch of eggs. There thus may be a sexual conflict over the speed of fertilization. In this study we used two different in vitro fertilization experiments to assess how fast eggs are fertilized in sticklebacks. We show that complete fertilization takes more than 5 min which is atypically long for externally fertilizing fishes. This result suggests that the time difference does not imply high costs to the second stickleback male to ejaculate. Slow fertilization (and concomitant prolonged longevity of sperm) may be the result of sexual conflict in which females aimed at complete fertilization and/or multiple paternity.

  20. Slow fertilization of stickleback eggs: the result of sexual conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frommen Joachim G

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fertilization success in sperm competition in externally fertilizing fish depends on number and quality of sperm. The time delay between sequential ejaculations may further influence the outcome of sperm competition. Such a time interval can load the raffle over fertilization if fertilization takes place very fast. Short fertilization times are generally assumed for externally fertilizing fish such as the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus. In this pair-spawning fish, territorial males often try to steal fertilizations in nests of neighbouring males. This sneaking behaviour causes sperm competition. Sneakers will only get a share of paternity when eggs are not fertilized immediately after sperm release. Contrary to males, females may be interested in multiple paternity of their clutch of eggs. There thus may be a sexual conflict over the speed of fertilization. Results In this study we used two different in vitro fertilization experiments to assess how fast eggs are fertilized in sticklebacks. We show that complete fertilization takes more than 5 min which is atypically long for externally fertilizing fishes. Conclusion This result suggests that the time difference does not imply high costs to the second stickleback male to ejaculate. Slow fertilization (and concomitant prolonged longevity of sperm may be the result of sexual conflict in which females aimed at complete fertilization and/or multiple paternity.

  1. Methodologies for modelling energy and amino acid responses in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mervyn Gous

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present some of the issues faced by those whose interest is to predict responses in poultry, concentrating mainly on those related to the prediction of voluntary food intake, as this should be the basis of models designed to optimise both performance and feeding programmes. The value of models designed to predict growth or reproductive performance has been improved inestimably by making food intake an output from, as opposed to an input to, such models. Predicting voluntary food intake requires the potential of the bird to be known, be this the growth of body protein or lipid, the growth of feather protein, or the rate at which yolk and albumen may be deposited daily in the form of an egg, and some of the issues relating to the description of potentials are discussed. This potential defines the nutrients that would be required by the bird on the day, which can be converted to a desired food intake by dividing each requirement by the content of that nutrient in the feed. There will be occasions when the bird will be unable to consume what is required, and predicting the magnitude of these constraints on intake and performance provides the greatest challenge for modellers. This paper concentrates on some issues raised in defining the nutrient requirements of an individual, on constraints such as high temperatures and the social and infectious environment on voluntary food intake, on some recent differences in the response to dietary protein that have been observed between the major broiler strains, and on the methodologies used to deal with populations of birds, and finally with broiler breeder hens, whose food intake is constrained by management, not by the environment. These issues suggest that there are still challenges that lie ahead for those wishing to predict responses to nutrients in poultry. It is imperative, however, that the methods used to measure the numbers that make theories work, and that the

  2. Sampling efficiency of the Moore egg collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Thomas A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Mueller, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative studies focusing on the collection of semibuoyant fish eggs, which are associated with a pelagic broadcast-spawning reproductive strategy, are often conducted to evaluate reproductive success. Many of the fishes in this reproductive guild have suffered significant reductions in range and abundance. However, the efficiency of the sampling gear used to evaluate reproduction is often unknown and renders interpretation of the data from these studies difficult. Our objective was to assess the efficiency of a modified Moore egg collector (MEC) using field and laboratory trials. Gear efficiency was assessed by releasing a known quantity of gellan beads with a specific gravity similar to that of eggs from representatives of this reproductive guild (e.g., the Arkansas River Shiner Notropis girardi) into an outdoor flume and recording recaptures. We also used field trials to determine how discharge and release location influenced gear efficiency given current methodological approaches. The flume trials indicated that gear efficiency ranged between 0.0% and 9.5% (n = 57) in a simple 1.83-m-wide channel and was positively related to discharge. Efficiency in the field trials was lower, ranging between 0.0% and 3.6%, and was negatively related to bead release distance from the MEC and discharge. The flume trials indicated that the gellan beads were not distributed uniformly across the channel, although aggregation was reduced at higher discharges. This clustering of passively drifting particles should be considered when selecting placement sites for an MEC; further, the use of multiple devices may be warranted in channels with multiple areas of concentrated flow.

  3. How resource poor households value and access poultry: Village poultry keeping in Tigray, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aklilu, H.A.; Udo, H.M.J.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the role of poultry in the livelihoods of rural households and the ownership of poultry and related technology in three locations with different market access in Tigray, Ethiopia. The study employed multiple methods such as individual and group open interviews, a cross-sectional

  4. Persistence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky from poultry and poultry sources in Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raufu, Ibrahim A.; Fashae, Kayode; Ameh, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance and clonality of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky in poultry and poultry sources in Nigeria, and compared the isolates with the clone of S. Kentucky STI98-X1 CIPR using (PFGE) and (MIC). Methodology: Fecal samples from chicke...

  5. How resource poor households value and access poultry: Village poultry keeping in Tigray, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aklilu, H.A.; Udo, H.M.J.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the role of poultry in the livelihoods of rural households and the ownership of poultry and related technology in three locations with different market access in Tigray, Ethiopia. The study employed multiple methods such as individual and group open interviews, a cross-sectional

  6. Prevalence and key figures for the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae infections in poultry farm systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparagano, O.; Pavlicevic, A.; Murano, T.; Camarda, A.; Sahibi, H.; Kilpinen, O.; Mul, M.F.; Emous, van R.A.; Bouquin, Le S.; Hoel, K.; Cafiero, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent surveys and sample collection have conWrmed the endemicity of Dermanyssus gallinae in poultry farming worldwide. The reduction in number and eYcacy of many acaricide products has accentuated the prevalence rates of this poultry ectoparasite observed more often in non intensive systems such as

  7. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... sanitation requirements. (a) No person shall sell, transport, offer for sale or transportation, or...

  8. Approaches to improve poultry vaccination using novel poultry adjuvants against coccidiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this review, various new approaches to improve poultry adaptive immunity against coccidiosis through vaccination will be addressed using the recently published data. To improve poultry production and to meet the demands for the ever-increasing world human population, we need to develop new stra...

  9. Thermal inactivation of avian influenza virus in poultry litter as a method to decontaminate poultry houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Removal of contaminated material from a poultry house during recovery from an avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreak is very costly and labor intensive. Because AIV is not environmentally stable heating poultry houses may provide a way to efficiently disinfect houses. The objective of this work was ...

  10. Concentrations of elements in eggs of least terns and piping plovers from the Missouri River, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Selenium concentrations were slightly elevated in unsuccessful eggs of interior least terns and piping plovers from nesting areas along the Missouri River in North...

  11. Contaminant Case Report: Spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri) eggs and feathers from the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We collected spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri) eggs and shed breast contour feathers from nests on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, in 1992 to evaluate...

  12. An Attempt at the Northward Extension of the Breeding Range of the Atlantic Loggerhead Turtle by Egg Transplants

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The study will consist of two main activities, 1) the transplanting of eggs from Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge and 2)...

  13. Organochlorine contaminants in eggs of tern species and the western snowy plover nesting in San Diego Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Previous studies have raised concerns about the organochlorine pesticide concentrations in the eggs of tern species in Southern California including the California...

  14. Metal and organic residues in addled eggs of least terns and piping plovers in the Platte Valley of Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The concentration of most residues detected in eggs of least terns and piping plovers nesting in the Platte River valley are not a cause for alarm. However, selenium...

  15. Effects of salinity and sea salt type on egg activation, fertilization, buoyancy and early embryology of European eel, Anguilla anguilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Butts, Ian; Munk, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    sizes, while the remaining four salt types resulted in smaller eggs. All salt types except NaCl treatments led to high fertilization rates and had no effect on fertilization success as well as egg neutral buoyancies at 7 h post-fertilization. The study points to the importance of considering ionic...... composition of the media when rearing fish eggs and further studies are encouraged...

  16. Maternal characteristics versus egg size and energy density: do stocked lake trout in Lake Ontario experience premature reproductive senescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantry, B.F.; O'Gorman, R.; Machut, L.S.

    2008-01-01

    Observations from September 1994 and 1997 collections of hatchery-origin, mature female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario indicated that egg mass decreased with age, fueling the notion that stocked fish experienced premature reproductive senescence. Supplemental collections during September 2002 and November 2002-2004 were combined with the 1994 and 1997 samples to examine whether sample date or maternal age, body mass, condition (K), egg count, or strain were related to egg mass or energy content (percentage dry mass [%DM]). Body mass was correlated with egg mass for age ≥ 8 lake trout sampled in September, and egg count was correlated with egg mass for September age-6 lake trout only. Within each month, egg mass was not related to K or egg %DM, however, egg %DM was 1.52% greater (P ≤ 0.0247) in November than in September which is equivalent to a 110 cal/g difference. Samples were grouped for the three most abundant strains (Seneca, Superior, and Ontario) after finding no strain or year effects from our 1994 and 1997 samples and based on life history data from the literature and our assessment sampling. Further analysis indicated that September egg masses were greater for fish ages ≤ 6 than for fish ages ≥ 8. The age effect disappeared in November when mean egg mass across all ages (0.078 g) was greater than September means (P < 0.0005) for ages -5 (0.054 g), -6 (0.057 g) and ≥ 8 (0.041 g). Our results indicate that the decrease in egg mass with female age in September was not due to senescence, but to oogenesis being closer to completion in young age-5 and -6 fish than in older individuals.

  17. Antibiotic resistant coliform bacilli, isolated from freshly slaughtered poultry and from chilled poultry at retail outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensink, J C; Botham, F P

    1983-03-01

    Antibiotic resistance in coliforms isolated from poultry was investigated. Poultry carcases were examined immediately after slaughter or at retail outlets; the carcases were from the same processing plant and 100 were examined from each source. Approximately 85% of the total of 13,858 isolates examined were found to be resistant to at least one antibiotic. Highly significant differences were found in the levels of antibiotic resistance from the 2 sources; ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and sulphonamide resistance was found more frequently in isolates from poultry at retail, while resistance against streptomycin and neomycin occurred more frequently in isolates from poultry examined at slaughter. The data were insufficient to explain these changes. Transfer of resistance occurred less frequently in isolates from poultry at retail; in particular the transfer of resistance from coliforms other than Escherichia coli was found to be greatly reduced.

  18. Detection of quinolones in commercial eggs obtained from farms in the Espaíllat Province in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso, S; de los Santos, F Solís; Andino, A G; Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra; Hanning, I

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we reported the use of quinolones in broiler chickens resulted in residues in retail poultry meat obtained from nine districts in the Santiago Province of the Dominican Republic. Residues in poultry products are a concern due to consumer allergies and the potential to develop antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Given the use of quinolones in poultry production and our previous findings in poultry meat, the objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of quinolone residues in eggs. Samples were collected from 48 different farms located in three of the four municipalities (Moca, Cayetano Germosén, and Jamao) of the Espaíllat Province. Each farm was sampled three times between July and September for a total of 144 samples. Samples were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively for quinolone residues using the Equinox test. Operation systems (cage or floor), seasonality, and location were considered along with egg-producer sizes that were defined as small scale, 60,000 eggs per day. From small-, medium-, and large-scale producers, 69, 50, and 40% of samples were positive for quinolone residues, respectively. A greater number of samples were positive (61%) in floor-laying hen producers compared with those using cages (40%). In the Jamao municipality, 67% of the samples were positive compared with Moca and Cayetano Germosén, where 56 and 25% of samples were positive, respectively. Sampling time had an effect on percent positives: samples collected in July, August, and September were 71, 19, and 63% positive, respectively. Overall, 51% of the samples obtained from eggs produced in the province of Espaíllat were positive for quinolone residues at levels higher than the maximum limits for edible tissue established by the regulatory agencies, including the European Union and U.S. Department of Agriculture. The results obtained from this research confirmed the presence of quinolone residue in eggs, which may present a health risk to some consumers.

  19. Bacterial Contaminants of Poultry Meat: Sources, Species, and Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouger, Amélie; Tresse, Odile; Zagorec, Monique

    2017-08-25

    With the constant increase in poultry meat consumption worldwide and the large variety of poultry meat products and consumer demand, ensuring the microbial safety of poultry carcasses and cuts is essential. In the present review, we address the bacterial contamination of poultry meat from the slaughtering steps to the use-by-date of the products. The different contamination sources are identified. The contaminants occurring in poultry meat cuts and their behavior toward sanitizing treatments or various storage conditions are discussed. A list of the main pathogenic bacteria of concern for the consumer and those responsible for spoilage and waste of poultry meat is established.

  20. Genetically modified feeds in poultry diet: safety, performance, and product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufarelli, V; Selvaggi, M; Dario, C; Laudadio, V

    2015-01-01

    Concerns have been expressed regarding the safety of using biotechnology derived feeds in diets of livestock animals and in regard to human consumption of products from species fed transgenic crops. As a consequence, a large number of poultry nutrition studies have been conducted to evaluate the wholesomeness of transgenic crops by examining performances of animals during growth or egg laying. Studies also evaluated whether foreign DNA and proteins could be detected in meat, egg, and tissue samples from broiler chickens and laying hens fed diets containing transgenic feeds. In all studies, the conclusions were in agreement that the transgenic crops provided comparable performance, carcass and egg yields, and meat and egg composition, when compared with conventional grains. Moreover, it was demonstrated that transgenic proteins and DNA present in livestock feeds are not detectable in food products derived from these animals, using the most sensitive detection methods available, confirming that they are rapidly degraded by normal digestive processes. The lack of significant differences were a result of the similarity in nutrient composition of the genetically modified feeds and lack of differences in intake and digestibility, while there were no evidences that the differences reported for performance response variables and carcass measurements between treatment groups were attributable to the presence of the transgenic gene and protein in the biotechnology derived plants. Results demonstrated that genetically modified feeds are substantially equivalent and they result as safe as existing conventional feeds.