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Sample records for fish oil omega-3

  1. Fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease: do they really work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Yasuda, S.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Shimokawa, H.

    2012-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, which are found abundantly in fish oil, exert pleiotropic cardiometabolic effects with a diverse range of actions. The results of previous studies raised a lot of interest in the role of fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular

  2. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation and the prevention of clinical cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have assessed the effects of supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, commonly called fish oils) on the occurrence of clinical cardiovascular diseases. Although the effects of supplementati...

  3. Fish Oil Microencapsulation as Omega-3 Fatty Acids Fortification Material for Cream of Crab Soup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiara Putri Pramesti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids have important roles in improvement of intelligent and health of human. Microencapsulation of fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acids is an effort to maintain flavor, aroma, stability, and also to successfully transfer bioactive component from the fish oil as fortification material for foods or medicines. Improvement of instant crab cream soup enriched with fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acid has never been conducted before. The purpose of this research was to improve microencapsulation method for fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acids as fortification material for instant cream of crab soup. Microencapsulation methods in this research are homogenization and spray drying. The results showed that the best microcapsule was obtained from homogenization treatment for 10 minutes with efficiency of 90.41±0.64%. The shape of the obtained microcapsule was spherical with average size of 6.52 μm, with induction time up to 26.09±0.01 hours. The best cream of crab soup formula was at fish oil microcapsule concentration of 3.30%, with 8.19% daily value of omega-3, inclusion 11.32% of EPA and DHA at serving size of 17.56 gram.

  4. Effects of microencapsulation on bioavailability of fish oil omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Philip Carsten B; Yang, Mingshi; Mu, Huiling

    2016-01-01

    Increased research interest in the health benefits of fish oils and the wide publicity of these studies have led to the marketing and launch of a wide array of new and traditional food and beverage products enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. This chapter focuses on the impact of microencapsulation...

  5. Socializing the Addition of Jambal Siam (Pangasius hypophtalmus) Fish Stomach Oil and Kerapu (Cromileptes sp) Fish Oil in Baby Porridge for Satisfy Omega 3 and Omega 6 Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Mirna Ilza; Yusni Ikhwan Siregar

    2015-01-01

    The research aim on the socialization of the addition of jambal siam (Pangasius hypophtalmus)fish stomach oil and kerapu (Cromileptes sp) fish oil in baby porridge for satisfy omega 3 and omega6 standard was implemented around Pekanbaru and Bangkinang (Kampar district). The additionof fish oil is done based on the standard of the WHO weight which conform to the age of the baby.The baby’s weight is very less than WHO standard dose given 50 mg/day, less weight given 40 mg/day, and normal weight...

  6. DHA-Containing Oilseed: A Timely Solution for the Sustainability Issues Surrounding Fish Oil Sources of the Health-Benefitting Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitessa, Soressa M.; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Wijesundera, Chakra; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA. PMID:24858407

  7. DHA-Containing Oilseed: A Timely Solution for the Sustainability Issues Surrounding Fish Oil Sources of the Health-Benefitting Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soressa M. Kitessa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of long-chain (≥C20 omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3. However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

  8. DHA-containing oilseed: a timely solution for the sustainability issues surrounding fish oil sources of the health-benefitting long-chain omega-3 oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitessa, Soressa M; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Wijesundera, Chakra; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-05-22

    Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

  9. High potency fish oil supplement improves omega-3 fatty acid status in healthy adults: an open-label study using a web-based, virtual platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay K; Ritz, Barry W

    2013-08-08

    The health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids from fish are well known, and fish oil supplements are used widely in a preventive manner to compensate the low intake in the general population. The aim of this open-label study was to determine if consumption of a high potency fish oil supplement could improve blood levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and impact SF-12 mental and physical health scores in healthy adults. A novel virtual clinical research organization was used along with the HS-Omega-3 Index, a measure of EPA and DHA in red blood cell membranes expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids that has been shown to correlate with a reduction in cardiovascular and other risk factors. Briefly, adult subjects (mean age 44 years) were recruited from among U.S. health food store employees and supplemented with 1.1 g/d of omega-3 from fish oil (756 mg EPA, 228 mg DHA, Minami Nutrition MorEPA Platinum) for 120 days (n = 157). Omega-3 status and mental health scores increased with supplementation (p < 0.001), while physical health scores remained unchanged. The use of a virtual, web-based platform shows considerable potential for engaging in clinical research with normal, healthy subjects. A high potency fish oil supplement may further improve omega-3 status in a healthy population regularly consuming an omega-3 supplement.

  10. Socializing the Addition of Jambal Siam (Pangasius hypophtalmus Fish Stomach Oil and Kerapu (Cromileptes sp Fish Oil in Baby Porridge for Satisfy Omega 3 and Omega 6 Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Ilza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aim on the socialization of the addition of jambal siam (Pangasius hypophtalmus fish stomach oil and kerapu (Cromileptes sp fish oil in baby porridge for satisfy omega 3 and omega 6 standard was implemented around Pekanbaru and Bangkinang (Kampar district. The addition of fish oil is done based on the standard of the WHO weight which conform to the age of the baby. The baby’s weight is very less than WHO standard dose given 50 mg/day, less weight given 40 mg/ day, and normal weight is 30 mg/day. Weight gain weighed and also observed the development of psychomotor babies each week for 8 weeks. Based on initial weight babies at the age of 10–12 months without the addition of jambal siam (Pangasius hypophtalmus fish stomach oil and kerapu (Cromileptes sp fish oil in baby porridge, 70.7% had a normal body weight increase and 23.3% have added weight which is too late. After the addition of jambal siam (Pangasius hypophtalmus fish stomach oil and kerapu (Cromileptes sp fish oil in baby porridge obtained added weight and motor development towards a better i.e. were 93.4% had normal motor development of appropriate age and the remaining 6.6% still have weight and psychomotor development too late i.e. newborn weight was initially very less than the WHO standard.

  11. Socializing the Addition of Jambal Siam (Pangasius hypophtalmus Fish Stomach Oil and Kerapu (Cromileptes sp Fish Oil in Baby Porridge for Satisfy Omega 3 and Omega 6 Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Ilza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aim on the socialization of the addition of jambal siam (Pangasius hypophtalmusfish stomach oil and kerapu (Cromileptes sp fish oil in baby porridge for satisfy omega 3 and omega6 standard was implemented around Pekanbaru and Bangkinang (Kampar district. The additionof fish oil is done based on the standard of the WHO weight which conform to the age of the baby.The baby’s weight is very less than WHO standard dose given 50 mg/day, less weight given 40 mg/day, and normal weight is 30 mg/day. Weight gain weighed and also observed the developmentof psychomotor babies each week for 8 weeks. Based on initial weight babies at the age of 10–12months without the addition of jambal siam (Pangasius hypophtalmus fish stomach oil and kerapu(Cromileptes sp fish oil in baby porridge, 70.7% had a normal body weight increase and 23.3%have added weight which is too late. After the addition of jambal siam (Pangasius hypophtalmusfish stomach oil and kerapu (Cromileptes sp fish oil in baby porridge obtained added weight andmotor development towards a better i.e. were 93.4% had normal motor development of appropriateage and the remaining 6.6% still have weight and psychomotor development too late i.e. newbornweight was initially very less than the WHO standard.Keywords: Fish oil, baby, body weight, physichomotor

  12. HIDROLISIS ENZIMATIK MINYAK IKAN UNTUK PRODUKSI ASAM LEMAK OMEGA-3 MENGGUNAKAN LIPASE DARI Aspergillus niger [Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Fish Oil for Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Using Lipase Derived from Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapta Raharja*

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil is the source of important fatty-acid, especially polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA omega-3, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Lipase catalysis activity of Aspergillus niger is low when it is used in fish oil hydrolysis. The activity of the lipase can be increased by adding organic solvent such as hexane into the media. This research aimed to determine temperature, pH and amount of water which produce the highest degree of hydrolysis of fish oil in the presence of hexane. Correlation between the highest degree of hydrolysis and the amount of omega-3 fatty acid was also investigated. The variables used in this research were temperatures (25-65 oC, pH (5-9, and water addition (1-5 %v/v. The highest degree of enzymatic hydrolysis of fish oil in the media without hexane was 28.07 % that was reached at 45oC and pH 5. In the presence of hexane, the highest degree of hydrolysis was 75.12 % which was reached at 5% water addition, temperature 45oC, and pH 5. GC-MS analysis showed that omega-3 fatty acid content especially EPA and DHA increased along with increase in the degree of hydrolysis. Concentration of omega-3 fatty acid produced without hexane addition was 18.42 % with EPA amounted to 12,17% and DHA 0,86%. Meanwhile omega-3 fatty acid content in the presence of hexane reached 21.93 % with EPA amounted to 17.75 % and DHA 1.21 %.

  13. Omega 3 – Fatty Acid (Epa and Dha) Rich Salmon Fish Oil Enhance Anti- Psoriatic activity of Glucocorticoid (Betamethasone Dipropionate) in Nano Form

    OpenAIRE

    SARFARAZ AHMAD; NITESH KUMAR

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of nanoemulsion formulation for topical delivery of Betamethasone Dipropionate (BD) using Salmon fish oil (containing omega-3 fatty acids) as the oil phase. BD has antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory and antiproliferative activity. However, its clinical use is restricted to some extent due to its poor permeability across the skin. Salmon fish oil was used as the oil phase and was also exploited for its antiinflammatory effect along ...

  14. Field trial evaluation of the accumulation of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic Camelina sativa: Making fish oil substitutes in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Usher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global consumption of fish oils currently exceeds one million tonnes, with the natural de novo source of these important fatty acids forming the base of marine foodwebs. Here we describe the first field-based evaluation of a terrestrial source of these essential nutrients, synthesised in the seeds of transgenic Camelina sativa plants via the heterologous reconstitution of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Our data demonstrate the robust nature of this novel trait, and the feasibility of making fish oils in genetically modified crops. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the most complex example of plant genetic engineering to undergo environmental release and field evaluation. Keywords: Plant metabolic engineering, GM field trials, Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, Fish oils, Camelina, Oilseeds

  15. A multicenter study of the effect of dietary supplementation with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on carprofen dosage in dogs with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Dale A; Allen, Timothy A; Dodd, Chadwick E; Jewell, Dennis E; Sixby, Kristin A; Leventhal, Phillip S; Brejda, John; Hahn, Kevin A

    2010-03-01

    To determine the effects of feeding a diet supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on carprofen dosage in dogs with osteoarthritis. Randomized, controlled, multisite clinical trial. 131 client-owned dogs with stable chronic osteoarthritis examined at 33 privately owned veterinary hospitals in the United States. In all dogs, the dosage of carprofen was standardized over a 3-week period to approximately 4.4 mg/kg/d (2 mg/lb/d), PO. Dogs were then randomly assigned to receive a food supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids or a control food with low omega-3 fatty acid content, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks later, investigators made decisions regarding increasing or decreasing the carprofen dosage on the basis of investigator assessments of 5 clinical signs and owner assessments of 15 signs. Linear regression analysis indicated that over the 12-week study period, carprofen dosage decreased significantly faster among dogs fed the supplemented diet than among dogs fed the control diet. The distribution of changes in carprofen dosage for dogs in the control group was significantly different from the distribution of changes in carprofen dosage for dogs in the test group. Results suggested that in dogs with chronic osteoarthritis receiving carprofen because of signs of pain, feeding a diet supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids may allow for a reduction in carprofen dosage.

  16. Plasma and erythrocyte uptake of omega-3 fatty acids from an intravenous fish oil based lipid emulsion in patients with advanced oesophagogastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltweri, A M; Thomas, A L; Fisk, H L; Arshad, A; Calder, P C; Dennison, A R; Bowrey, D J

    2017-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that short term intravenous (IV) administration of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is more effective than oral supplementation at promoting incorporation of the bioactive omega-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) into plasma, blood cells and tissues. The effect of repeated short term IV infusion of omega-3 PUFAs was investigated in patients with advanced oesophagogastric cancer during palliative chemotherapy. Patients with advanced oesophagogastric cancer (n = 21) were recruited into a phase II pilot clinical trial. All patients were scheduled for an intravenous infusion of Omegaven ® (fish oil supplement containing EPA and DHA) at a rate of 2 ml/kg body weight for 4 h once a week for up to six months. Blood samples were collected to assess omega-3 PUFA uptake into plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) and into red blood cell (RBC) membranes. Fatty acid profiles were analysed by gas chromatography. Twenty patients received at least one Omegaven ® treatment and were included in the analysis. Each infusion of omega-3 PUFAs resulted in increased EPA and DHA in plasma NEFAs, but there was little effect on PUFAs within plasma PC during the infusions. However, with repeated weekly infusion of omega-3 PUFAs, the EPA content of plasma PC and of RBC membranes increased. Repeated weekly omega-3 PUFA infusion is effective in enriching plasma PC and RBC membranes in EPA in patients with advanced oesophagogastric cancer receiving palliative chemotherapy. Clinical Trials.Gov NCT01870791. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. Kriopreservasi Semen Domba Garut Menggunakan Tris Kuning Telur yang Disuplementasi Omega-3 Minyak Ikan Salmon (CRYOPRESERVATION GARUT SHEEP SEMEN USING TRIS EGG YOLK SUPPLEMENTED OMEGA-3 FISH OIL SALMON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcholis Nurcholis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The availability of superior seeds garut sheep relatively few and the unavailability of seed supply ofsuperior male garut sheep that is continuously high productive is also a problem. . The success ofcryopreservation is influenced by the diluent being used. This study aimed was to compare the Tris EggYolk containing omega-3 (TEYO and Tris used commercial egg yolk plus omega-3 fish oil salmon (TEYOSto the success of cryopreservation of garut sheep semen. Five garut ram aged 1,5 – 2,0 years were used inthis study. Semen was collected using an artificial vagina, then it was evaluated and divided into twotubes, each of them was diluted with TEYO and TEYOS (50x106 sel/straw, before they then packed intostraws, equilibrated (5°C, and frozen with liquid nitrogen vapour (-130oC for10 minutes and storedthem in the container (-196oC for further evaluation. The results showed that post thawing values of thesperm motility, viability and intact plasma membrane were 53,75±2,46; 60,75±2,17and 72,58±2,12%respectively, diluted with TEYOS were higher (P<0,05 than those diluted with TEYOS with the spermmotility, viability and intact plasma membrane only at 41,50±1,25; 50,50±1,04 and 57,58±1,03%respectively. This result demonstrated that the recovery rate of spermatozoa in TEYOS diluent washigher (P<0,05 than TEYO. Its concluded that fish salmon oil omega-3 supplemented in TEYOS better incryopreservation of garut ram semen compared to the TEYO diluent.

  18. Fish Oil and Microalga Omega-3 as Dietary Supplements: A Comparative Study on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Fat Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimeur, Adil; Mimouni, Virginie; Ulmann, Lionel; Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Messaouri, Hafida; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can have beneficial effects on a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared the effects of two n-3 PUFA rich food supplements (freeze-dried Odontella aurita and fish oil) on risk factors for CVD. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and fed with the following diets: control group (C) received a standard diet containing 7 % lipids; second group (HF high fat) was fed with a high-fat diet containing 40 % lipids; third group (HFFO high fat+fish oil) was fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 % fish oil; and fourth group (HFOA high fat+O. aurita) received the high-fat diet supplemented with 12 % of freeze-dried O. aurita. After 8 weeks rats fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with O. aurita displayed a significantly lower bodyweight than those in the other groups. Both the microalga and the fish oil significantly reduced insulinemia and serum lipid levels. O. aurita was more effective than the fish oil in reducing hepatic triacyglycerol levels and in preventing high-fat diet-induced steatosis. O. aurita and fish oil also reduced platelet aggregation and oxidative status induced by high fat intake. After an OA supplementation, the adipocytes in the HFOA group were smaller than those in the HF group. Freeze-dried O. aurita showed similar or even greater biological effects than the fish oil. This could be explained by a potential effect of the n-3 PUFA but also other bioactive compounds of the microalgae.

  19. The effect of plant sterols and different low doses of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil on lipoprotein subclasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, D.M.; Mihaleva, V.V.; Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Graaf, A.A. de; Vervoort, J.; Dorsten, F.A. van; Ras, R.T.; Demonty, I.; Trautwein, E.A.; Duynhoven, J. van

    2015-01-01

    Scope: Consumption of a low-fat spread enriched with plant sterols (PS) and different low doses (<2 g/day) of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish oil reduces serum triglycerides (TGs) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-Chol) and thus beneficially affects

  20. Fish oil extracted from fish-fillet by-products is weakly linked to the extraction temperatures but strongly linked to the omega-3 content of the raw material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honold, Philipp; Nouard, Marie-Louise; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is the mainspecies produced in Danish fresh water farming. Therefore, a large amount of fileting by-products like heads, bones, and tails (HBT) and intestines are available and can be used to produce high quality fish oil. The main aim in this study was to inve......Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is the mainspecies produced in Danish fresh water farming. Therefore, a large amount of fileting by-products like heads, bones, and tails (HBT) and intestines are available and can be used to produce high quality fish oil. The main aim in this study...... products, % free fatty acids as well as content of omega-3 PUFA. Furthermore, an experiment was carried out to elucidate the effect of extraction temperature on oil produced from raw materials with a different content of omega-3 fatty acids. For this purpose filleting by-products from conventional (low...

  1. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Content in Various Tissues of Different Persian Gulf Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Zibaee Nezhad

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fatty acids of omega-3 family have high nutritional value and can prevent coronary heart disease.These fatty acids are found in various fish and sea foods. To investigate the level of omega-3 fatty acids indifferent kind of fish head, muscle and liver from 30 species of fish collected from Persian Gulf.Material and Methods: In this experimental study, the fish were collected by hunting from Boushehr and Hormozgansea ports. Their head, muscle and liver fatty acids were determined on their methylated fatty acids dissolvedin N-hexin. Quantitative analysis of fatty acids was performed by gas chromatography (GC with methylmyristateused as the reference material in this analysis and the qualitative analysis of fatty acids was done bygas chromatography and mass spectrometer (GC- mass and cod liver oil which contained all of omega-3 fattyacids used as standard.Results: Our study showed that some fish were good sources of omega-3 fatty acids and Trout (Ghezel-ALA,Bartail flathead (Zaminkan-e-domnavari, Malabar blood snapper (Sorkhoo malabari had maximum levels ofomega-3 in all body tissues. Other types of fish were rich in omega 3 fatty acids in separate organs, such as liverin Bartail flathead (Zaminkan-e-domnavari, head in Sillago Sihama (Shoort and muscle in Trout (Ghezel-ALA. In contrast, lesser amount of omega 3 fatty acids is found in tissues of other species of fish such as Silverpomfret (Halva sefid, Longfin trevally (Gish-e-derazbale and Xiphophorus Hellerii (Dom-shamshiri.Conclusion: This research showed that the liver of fish had the highest level of omega-3 fatty acids and fish musclecontained more omega-3 fatty acids than the head. Thus for having maximum levels of omega-3 fatty acids inthe diet, all fish tissues can be served. As liver and head of fish are not usually consumed, it is recommended thatsuch organs be used for preparation of omega 3-containing cardio supportive supplements.

  2. Marine Lipids (Omega-3 Oil) - Stability of Oil and Enriched Products During Production and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2015-01-01

    The awareness of health benefits of marine lipids with a high content of omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids from fish and algae oil has led to an increased intake as oil and in products. However, these lipids are highly susceptible to lipid oxidation, which results in the formation of undesirable...... off-flavours and gives rise to unhealthy compounds such as free radicals and reactive aldehydes. Necessary prerequisites for successful development of omega-3 enriched products are that the oil used for enrichment is of a high quality and low in oxidation products and that oxidation of the lipids...

  3. A randomized trial of fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on arterial health, inflammation, and metabolic syndrome in a young healthy population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Long chain omega-3 fatty acids from fish oils (O3) are known to have beneficial effects on a number of vascular risk factors in at-risk populations. The effects of a highly bioavailable emulsified preparation on an overweight young adult population are less well known. Methods Young adults, age 18–30, with body mass indices (BMIs) greater than 23 (average = 28.1) were administered 1.7 g of O3 per day (N = 30) or safflower oil placebo (N = 27) in an emulsified preparation (Coromega, Inc.) for 4 weeks in a double-blind randomized design. Blood was drawn and anthropometric measurements taken before and after dosing. Hemodynamic measures (central pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, and aortic systolic blood pressure), inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α), red blood cell and plasma phospholipid fatty acid profiles, fasting serum lipids, glucose, and C-reactive protein were measured. Results Red cell and plasma phospholipid eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations increased over the four weeks of dosing in the O3 group. Dosing with O3 did not affect central pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, or aortic systolic blood pressure. None of the five American Heart Association metabolic syndrome components improved over the dosing period. None of the inflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein, or lipids (total or LDL cholesterol) improved over the dosing period. Conclusions No salutary effects of O3 were observed in hemodynamic, metabolic syndrome criteria or inflammatory markers as a result of this relatively short period of administration in this relatively overweight, but healthy young adult cohort. PMID:23565815

  4. Readily Available Sources of Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils: Is Farmed Australian Seafood a Better Source of the Good Oil than Wild-Caught Seafood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Nichols

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seafood consumption enhances intake of omega-3 long-chain (≥C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (termed LC omega-3 oils. Humans biosynthesize only small amounts of LC-omega-3, so they are considered semi-essential nutrients in our diet. Concern has been raised that farmed fish now contain lower LC omega-3 content than wild-harvested seafood due to the use of oil blending in diets fed to farmed fish. However, we observed that two major Australian farmed finfish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar and barramundi (Lates calcifer, have higher oil and LC omega-3 content than the same or other species from the wild, and remain an excellent means to achieve substantial intake of LC omega-3 oils. Notwithstanding, LC omega-3 oil content has decreased in these two farmed species, due largely to replacing dietary fish oil with poultry oil. For Atlantic salmon, LC omega-3 content decreased ~30%–50% between 2002 and 2013, and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio also decreased (>5:1 to <1:1. Australian consumers increasingly seek their LC omega-3 from supplements, therefore a range of supplement products were compared. The development and future application of oilseeds containing LC omega-3 oils and their incorporation in aquafeeds would allow these health-benefitting oils to be maximized in farmed Australian seafood. Such advances can assist with preventative health care, fisheries management, aquaculture nutrition, an innovative feed/food industry and ultimately towards improved consumer health.

  5. Production of omega-3 enriched tilapia through the dietary use of algae meal or fish oil: Improved nutrient value of fillet and offal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneham, Tyler R; Kuhn, David D; Taylor, Daniel P; Neilson, Andrew P; Smith, Stephen A; Gatlin, Delbert M; Chu, Hyun Sik S; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this project was to increase the nutrient value of fillets, by-product muscle, and offal of aquacultured tilapia. A diet that includes seafood with a high omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid content, more specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are known to have numerous health benefits for consumers. Improved nutrient value of the offal may also attract new market opportunities for the aquaculture industry. Tilapia were cultured on different experimental feeds that contained various levels of n-3 fatty acids from either fish oil (FO) or algae meal (AM) that were used to replace corn oil. The experimental diets included a control (corn oil 6.3%), FO1%, FO3%, FO5%, AM1.75%, AM5.26%, and AM8.77%. All diets were formulated to be isocaloric, isonitrogenous, and isolipid. Three hundred and fifty tilapia with an initial mean weight of 158±2 g were cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system (seven diets replicated at the tank level, 14 tanks, 25 fish per tank). For all of the production performance data, no differences (P>0.05) were observed between the experimental groups which included survival (overall mean ± standard error, 99.4±0.3%), growth per week (45.4±1.0 g/wk), food conversion ratio (1.32±0.03), fillet yield (44.4±0.2%), hepatosomatic index (1.61±0.02), viscerosomatic index (2.86±0.06), and mesenteric fat index (0.97±0.04). Fillet and rib meat tissues were collected at weeks four and eight, and liver and mesenteric fat tissues were collected at week eight. Fatty acids were extracted, methylated and identified with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All tissues had improved fatty acid profiles (higher n-3, lower n-6, n-6:n-3) with increasing levels of FO and AM in the diet. For example, the best diet for significantly (Pfillets at week eight was diet AM8.77%. In the fillet, total n-3 was increased (control versus AM8.77%) from 151.2±19.0 to 438.7±14.2 mg per 4 ounce (113 g) serving and n-6:n-3 ratio was

  6. Technological trends and market perspectives for production of microbial oils rich in omega-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finco, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Mamani, Luis Daniel Goyzueta; Carvalho, Júlio Cesar de; de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, foods that contain omega-3 lipids have emerged as important promoters of human health. These lipids are essential for the functional development of the brain and retina, and reduction of the risk of cardiovascular and Alzheimer's diseases. The global market for omega-3 production, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), saw a large expansion in the last decade due to the increasing use of this lipid as an important component of infant food formulae and supplements. The production of omega-3 lipids from fish and vegetable oil sources has some drawbacks, such as complex purification procedures, unwanted contamination by marine pollutants, reduction or even extinction of several species of fish, and aspects related to sustainability. A promising alternative system for the production of omega-3 lipids is from microbial metabolism of yeast, fungi, or microalgae. The aim of this review is to discuss the various omega-3 sources in the context of the global demand and market potential for these bioactive compounds. To summarize, it is clear that fish and vegetable oil sources will not be sufficient to meet the future needs of the world population. The biotechnological production of single-cell oil comes as a sustainable alternative capable of supplementing the global demand for omega-3, causing less environmental impact.

  7. Redox Status and Neuro Inflammation Indexes in Cerebellum and Motor Cortex of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Natural Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Astaxanthin: Fish Oil, Krill Oil, and Algal Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana G. Polotow

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Health authorities worldwide have consistently recommended the regular consumption of marine fishes and seafood to preserve memory, sustain cognitive functions, and prevent neurodegenerative processes in humans. Shrimp, crabs, lobster, and salmon are of particular interest in the human diet due to their substantial provision of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3/PUFAs and the antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (ASTA. However, the optimal ratio between these nutraceuticals in natural sources is apparently the key factor for maximum protection against most neuro-motor disorders. Therefore, we aimed here to investigate the effects of a long-term supplementation with (n-3/PUFAs-rich fish oil, ASTA-rich algal biomass, the combination of them, or krill oil (a natural combination of both nutrients on baseline redox balance and neuro-inflammation indexes in cerebellum and motor cortex of Wistar rats. Significant changes in redox metabolism were only observed upon ASTA supplementation, which reinforce its antioxidant properties with a putative mitochondrial-centered action in rat brain. Krill oil imposed mild astrocyte activation in motor cortex of Wistar rats, although no redox or inflammatory index was concomitantly altered. In summary, there is no experimental evidence that krill oil, fish oil, oralgal biomass (minor variation, drastically change the baseline oxidative conditions or the neuro-inflammatory scenario in neuromotor-associated rat brain regions.

  8. Redox Status and Neuro Inflammation Indexes in Cerebellum and Motor Cortex of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Natural Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Astaxanthin: Fish Oil, Krill Oil, and Algal Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polotow, Tatiana G; Poppe, Sandra C; Vardaris, Cristina V; Ganini, Douglas; Guariroba, Maísa; Mattei, Rita; Hatanaka, Elaine; Martins, Maria F; Bondan, Eduardo F; Barros, Marcelo P

    2015-09-28

    Health authorities worldwide have consistently recommended the regular consumption of marine fishes and seafood to preserve memory, sustain cognitive functions, and prevent neurodegenerative processes in humans. Shrimp, crabs, lobster, and salmon are of particular interest in the human diet due to their substantial provision of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3/PUFAs) and the antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (ASTA). However, the optimal ratio between these nutraceuticals in natural sources is apparently the key factor for maximum protection against most neuro-motor disorders. Therefore, we aimed here to investigate the effects of a long-term supplementation with (n-3)/PUFAs-rich fish oil, ASTA-rich algal biomass, the combination of them, or krill oil (a natural combination of both nutrients) on baseline redox balance and neuro-inflammation indexes in cerebellum and motor cortex of Wistar rats. Significant changes in redox metabolism were only observed upon ASTA supplementation, which reinforce its antioxidant properties with a putative mitochondrial-centered action in rat brain. Krill oil imposed mild astrocyte activation in motor cortex of Wistar rats, although no redox or inflammatory index was concomitantly altered. In summary, there is no experimental evidence that krill oil, fish oil, oralgal biomass (minor variation), drastically change the baseline oxidative conditions or the neuro-inflammatory scenario in neuromotor-associated rat brain regions.

  9. Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Blomhoff

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is convincing evidence that replacing dietary saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats (PUFA decreases risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, PUFA rich foods such as vegetable oils, fatty fish, and marine omega-3 supplements are recommended. However, PUFA are easily oxidizable and there is concern about possible negative health effects from intake of oxidized lipids. Little is known about the degree of lipid oxidation in such products. Objective : To assess the content of lipid oxidation products in a large selection of vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements available in Norway. Both fresh and heated vegetable oils were studied. Design : A large selection of commercially available vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements was purchased from grocery stores, pharmacies, and health food stores in Norway. The content of lipid oxidation products were measured as peroxide value and alkenal concentration. Twelve different vegetable oils were heated for a temperature (225°C and time (25 minutes resembling conditions typically used during cooking. Results : The peroxide values were in the range 1.04–10.38 meq/kg for omega-3 supplements and in the range 0.60–5.33 meq/kg for fresh vegetable oils. The concentration range of alkenals was 158.23–932.19 nmol/mL for omega-3 supplements and 33.24–119.04 nmol/mL for vegetable oils. After heating, a 2.9–11.2 fold increase in alkenal concentration was observed for vegetable oils. Conclusions : The contents of hydroperoxides and alkenals in omega-3 supplements are higher than in vegetable oils. After heating vegetable oils, a large increase in alkenal concentration was observed.

  10. Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Bente Lise; Blomhoff, Rune

    2011-01-01

    There is convincing evidence that replacing dietary saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) decreases risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, PUFA rich foods such as vegetable oils, fatty fish, and marine omega-3 supplements are recommended. However, PUFA are easily oxidizable and there is concern about possible negative health effects from intake of oxidized lipids. Little is known about the degree of lipid oxidation in such products. To assess the content of lipid oxidation products in a large selection of vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements available in Norway. Both fresh and heated vegetable oils were studied. A large selection of commercially available vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements was purchased from grocery stores, pharmacies, and health food stores in Norway. The content of lipid oxidation products were measured as peroxide value and alkenal concentration. Twelve different vegetable oils were heated for a temperature (225°C) and time (25 minutes) resembling conditions typically used during cooking. The peroxide values were in the range 1.04-10.38 meq/kg for omega-3 supplements and in the range 0.60-5.33 meq/kg for fresh vegetable oils. The concentration range of alkenals was 158.23-932.19 nmol/mL for omega-3 supplements and 33.24-119.04 nmol/mL for vegetable oils. After heating, a 2.9-11.2 fold increase in alkenal concentration was observed for vegetable oils. The contents of hydroperoxides and alkenals in omega-3 supplements are higher than in vegetable oils. After heating vegetable oils, a large increase in alkenal concentration was observed.

  11. KARAKTERISTIK MIKROKAPSUL MINYAK KAYA ASAM LEMAK OMEGA-3 DARI HASIL SAMPING PENEPUNGAN LEMURU [Characteristics of Microcapsule of omega-3 Fatty Acids Enriched Oil from Lemuru Meal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih 1

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids enriched fish oil from lemuru fishmeal processing met the quality standard of food grade fish oil, but it was susceptible to oxidation. Microencapsulation by spray drying was one method that could protect this oil against oxidation and the microcapsule could be applied more widely and easier to handle. The important factor that affected microencapsulation process by spray drying method was encapsulant to core ratio. The objective of research was to elucidate the effect of encapsulant to core ratio (2:1; 3:1; 4:1; 5:1; and 6:1 (w/w on characteristics of omega-3 fatty acids enriched fish oil microcapsule. The increase of microencapsulation efficiency and the decrease of surface oil proportion were related to better emulsion stability prior to spray drying and film forming ability around oil globule as the sodium caseinate proportion increased. Emulsification and heating during spray drying could induce hydrolysis of triglycerides in fish oil. Therefore, the quantity of free fatty acids relatively unchanged although the proportion of encapsulated oil decreased. The decrease of oxidation degree is caused by better protective effect of sodium caseinate during emulsification and spray drying due to better film forming ability as proportion of encapsulant increased. However, it was followed by the decrease of omega-3 fatty acids content that related to decreasing proportion of fish oil. This phenomenon was supported by unchanging omega-3 fatty acids retention that showed protective effect of sodium caseinate on oxidation during microencapsulation. Different encapsulant to core ratio did not change yield of microcapsule. Different proportion of surface oil did not affect microcapsule recovery.

  12. Reduction of omega-3 oil oxidation in stable emulsion of caseinate-omega-3 oil-oat beta-glucan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipid oxidation, particularly oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids such as omega-3 fatty acids, has posed a serious challenge to the food industry trying to incorporate heart-healthy oil products into their lines of healthful foods and beverages. In this study, heart healthy plant and marine based o...

  13. What Is the Most Effective Way of Increasing the Bioavailability of Dietary Long Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids—Daily vs. Weekly Administration of Fish Oil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Ghasemifard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The recommendations on the intake of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA vary from eating oily fish (“once to twice per week” to consuming specified daily amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (“250–500 mg per day”. It is not known if there is a difference in the uptake/bioavailability between regular daily consumption of supplementsvs. consuming fish once or twice per week. In this study, the bioavailability of a daily dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Constant treatment, representing supplements, vs. a large weekly dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Spike treatment, representing consuming once or twice per week, was assessed. Six-week old healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a Constant treatment, a Spike treatment or Control treatment (no n-3 LC-PUFA, for six weeks. The whole body, tissues and faeces were analysed for fatty acid content. The results showed that the major metabolic fate of the n-3 LC-PUFA (EPA+docosapentaenoic acid (DPA + DHA was towards catabolism (β-oxidation accounting for over 70% of total dietary intake, whereas deposition accounted less than 25% of total dietary intake. It was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were β-oxidised when originating from the Constant treatment (84% of dose, compared with the Spike treatment (75% of dose. Conversely, it was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were deposited when originating from the Spike treatment (23% of dose, than from the Constant treatment (15% of dose. These unexpected findings show that a large dose of n-3 LC-PUFA once per week is more effective in increasing whole body n-3 LC-PUFA content in rats compared with a smaller dose delivered daily.

  14. Preventing AVF thrombosis: the rationale and design of the Omega-3 fatty acids (Fish Oils and Aspirin in Vascular access OUtcomes in REnal Disease (FAVOURED study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosman Johan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemodialysis (HD is critically dependent on the availability of adequate access to the systemic circulation, ideally via a native arteriovenous fistula (AVF. The Primary failure rate of an AVF ranges between 20–54%, due to thrombosis or failure of maturation. There remains limited evidence for the use of anti-platelet agents and uncertainty as to choice of agent(s for the prevention of AVF thrombosis. We present the study protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial examining whether the use of the anti-platelet agents, aspirin and omega-3 fatty acids, either alone or in combination, will effectively reduce the risk of early thrombosis in de novo AVF. Methods/Design The study population is adult patients with stage IV or V chronic kidney disease (CKD currently on HD or where HD is planned to start within 6 months in whom a planned upper or lower arm AVF is to be the primary HD access. Using a factorial-design trial, patients will be randomised to aspirin or matching placebo, and also to omega-3 fatty acids or matching placebo, resulting in four treatment groups (aspirin placebo/omega-3 fatty acid placebo, aspirin/omega-3 fatty acid placebo, aspirin placebo/omega-3 fatty acid, aspirin/omega-3 fatty acid. Randomisation will be achieved using a dynamic balancing method over the two stratification factors of study site and upper versus lower arm AVF. The medication will be commenced pre-operatively and continued for 3 months post surgery. The primary outcome is patency of the AVF at three months after randomisation. Secondary outcome measures will include functional patency at six and twelve months, primary patency time, secondary (assisted patency time, and adverse events, particularly bleeding. Discussion This multicentre Australian and New Zealand study has been designed to determine whether the outcome of surgery to create de novo AVF can be improved by the use of aspirin and/or omega-3 fatty

  15. Preventing AVF thrombosis: the rationale and design of the Omega-3 fatty acids (Fish Oils) and Aspirin in Vascular access OUtcomes in REnal Disease (FAVOURED) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Ashley; Dogra, Gursharan; Mori, Trevor; Beller, Elaine; Heritier, Stephane; Hawley, Carmel; Kerr, Peter; Robertson, Amanda; Rosman, Johan; Paul-Brent, Peta-Anne; Starfield, Melissa; Polkinghorne, Kevan; Cass, Alan

    2009-01-21

    Haemodialysis (HD) is critically dependent on the availability of adequate access to the systemic circulation, ideally via a native arteriovenous fistula (AVF). The Primary failure rate of an AVF ranges between 20-54%, due to thrombosis or failure of maturation. There remains limited evidence for the use of anti-platelet agents and uncertainty as to choice of agent(s) for the prevention of AVF thrombosis. We present the study protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial examining whether the use of the anti-platelet agents, aspirin and omega-3 fatty acids, either alone or in combination, will effectively reduce the risk of early thrombosis in de novo AVF. The study population is adult patients with stage IV or V chronic kidney disease (CKD) currently on HD or where HD is planned to start within 6 months in whom a planned upper or lower arm AVF is to be the primary HD access. Using a factorial-design trial, patients will be randomised to aspirin or matching placebo, and also to omega-3 fatty acids or matching placebo, resulting in four treatment groups (aspirin placebo/omega-3 fatty acid placebo, aspirin/omega-3 fatty acid placebo, aspirin placebo/omega-3 fatty acid, aspirin/omega-3 fatty acid). Randomisation will be achieved using a dynamic balancing method over the two stratification factors of study site and upper versus lower arm AVF. The medication will be commenced pre-operatively and continued for 3 months post surgery. The primary outcome is patency of the AVF at three months after randomisation. Secondary outcome measures will include functional patency at six and twelve months, primary patency time, secondary (assisted) patency time, and adverse events, particularly bleeding. This multicentre Australian and New Zealand study has been designed to determine whether the outcome of surgery to create de novo AVF can be improved by the use of aspirin and/or omega-3 fatty acids. Recently a placebo-controlled trial has shown that

  16. Allergic disease in infants up to 2 yr of age in relation to plasma omega-3 fatty acids and maternal fish oil supplementation inpregnancy and lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Furuhjelm, Catrin; Warstedt, Kristina; Fagerås Böttcher, Malin; Fälth-Magnusson, Karin; Larsson, Johanna; Fredriksson, Mats; Duchén, Karel

    2011-01-01

    We have previously reported a protective effect of maternal omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (x-3 LCPUFA) supplementation in pregnancy and lactation on IgE-associated eczema and food allergy in the infant during the first year of life. Here we investigate whether the effects of the LCPUFA supplementation on IgE-associated diseases last up to 2 yr of age and assess the relationship between plasma proportions of x-3 PUFAs and the frequency and severity of infant allergic disease. ...

  17. Effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) rich fish oil on reproductive performance of the goat (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahla, Ajit Singh; Chaudhari, Ravjibhai K; Verma, Atul Kumar; Singh, Amit Kumar; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Singh, Gyanendra; Sarkar, Mihir; Dutta, Narayan; Kumar, Harendra; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan

    2017-09-01

    Dietary supplementation of n-3 PUFA decreases the luteolytic PGF 2α and improves the pregnancy rate in the dairy cow. However, its effect in the goat is not known. Accordingly, we studied the effect of supplementation of n-3 PUFA rich Fish oil (FO) on different reproductive events in the goat. Cycling goats (n = 30) were divided into two equal groups and fed an isocaloric and isonitrogenous diet supplemented with either FO (TRT; n = 15) or palm oil (PO) (CON; n = 15) @ 0.6 mL/kg body weight for 72 days during the breeding season. Estrus synchronization was done on day 25 and 36 of supplementation using two PG regimen and the goats in estrus were bred. Mean interval from PGF 2α administration to the onset of estrus was 12 h longer (P goats (P  0.05). Mean concentration of serum estradiol (E 2 ) was significantly (P goats was significantly (P  0.05). In conclusion, supplementation of n-3 PUFA rich FO significantly increased the number of POF and ovulation rate with numerical increase in the kidding rate. Further, it decreased the serum E 2 and PGFM during the critical window of pregnancy recognition in the doe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Encapsulation of vegetable oils as source of omega-3 fatty acids for enriched functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Ortiz Vazquez, Elizabeth De La Luz; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2017-05-03

    Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (PUFAs), a functional component present in vegetable oils, are generally recognized as being beneficial to health. Omega-3 PUFAs are rich in double bonds and unsaturated in nature; this attribute makes them highly susceptible to lipid oxidation and unfit for incorporation into long shelf life foods. The microencapsulation of oils in a polymeric matrix (mainly polysaccharides) offers the possibility of controlled release of the lipophilic functional ingredient and can be useful for the supplementation of foods with PUFAs. The present paper provides a literature review of different vegetable sources of omega-3 fatty acids, the functional effects of omega-3 fatty acids, different microencapsulation methods that can possibly be used for the encapsulation of oils, the properties of vegetable oil microcapsules, the effect of encapsulation on oxidation stability and fatty acid composition of vegetable oils, and the incorporation of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in foods.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil lower anxiety, improve cognitive functions and reduce spontaneous locomotor activity in a non-human primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Vinot

    Full Text Available Omega-3 (ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are major components of brain cells membranes. ω3 PUFA-deficient rodents exhibit severe cognitive impairments (learning, memory that have been linked to alteration of brain glucose utilization or to changes in neurotransmission processes. ω3 PUFA supplementation has been shown to lower anxiety and to improve several cognitive parameters in rodents, while very few data are available in primates. In humans, little is known about the association between anxiety and ω3 fatty acids supplementation and data are divergent about their impact on cognitive functions. Therefore, the development of nutritional studies in non-human primates is needed to disclose whether a long-term supplementation with long-chain ω3 PUFA has an impact on behavioural and cognitive parameters, differently or not from rodents. We address the hypothesis that ω3 PUFA supplementation could lower anxiety and improve cognitive performances of the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus, a nocturnal Malagasy prosimian primate. Adult male mouse lemurs were fed for 5 months on a control diet or on a diet supplemented with long-chain ω3 PUFA (n = 6 per group. Behavioural, cognitive and motor performances were measured using an open field test to evaluate anxiety, a circular platform test to evaluate reference spatial memory, a spontaneous locomotor activity monitoring and a sensory-motor test. ω3-supplemented animals exhibited lower anxiety level compared to control animals, what was accompanied by better performances in a reference spatial memory task (80% of successful trials vs 35% in controls, p<0.05, while the spontaneous locomotor activity was reduced by 31% in ω3-supplemented animals (p<0.001, a parameter that can be linked with lowered anxiety. The long-term dietary ω3 PUFA supplementation positively impacts on anxiety and cognitive performances in the adult mouse lemur. The supplementation of human food with ω3 fatty

  20. Combination of Sardine and Shark Oil High Content of Omega-3 and Squalene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Musbah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sardine oil contain high concentration of  EPA but low of  DHA while shark is reverse. Shark oil  high contain of DHA and squalene but low EPA. This research aim to fortify the quality of  fish oil withomega-3 and squalen and improve the quality of fish oil. The combination of fish oil (sardine:shark 1: 1, 1: 2, 1: 3, 1: 4, 2: 1, 3: 1 and 4:1 showed significant results on peroxide, anisidine, and total oxidation value, however free fatty acids analysis did not show the influence to the content value.  The best oxidation parameters value werefound (sardine: shark (1:4 with peroxide was 5.44±0.06 mEq/kg, anisidine was 8.3±0.72 mEq/kg and total oxidation was 19.27±0.7mEq/kg. Fatty acids profile between  sardines and shark oil containedvarious SFA, MUFA and PUFA. Sardine oil which was added more to combination ratio will increase omega-3. Sample 1:4 had 43.16% squalene.

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids and oxidative stability of ice cream supplemented with olein fraction of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ullah, Rahman; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Background Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) has been regarded as good source of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids with cardiac, hepatic, hypotensive, antiallergic and antidiabetic role. Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in chia oil can be enhanced by fractionation. Olein/low melting fraction of chia oil has higher concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Therefore, main objective of current investigation was determination of various concentration effect of olein fraction of chia oil on omega-3 fa...

  2. Determination expediency of the omega-3 unsaturated acids in fatty oils by NMR 1"H spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananikyan, H.S.

    2016-01-01

    1"H NMR spectra of fatty oils obtained from seeds of 55 plants were investigated 8 groups of signals were identified in all NMR spectra. Omega-3 fatty acids CH_3 groups signals were noticed in some of the spectra as a triplet in the area of 0.85-1.05 p.p.m. (oil CH_3 groups signals area). Integral intensities of omega-3 fatty acids CH_3 groups signals were calculated by using integral intensities of oils all CH_3 groups signals. Percents of omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids in each of the investigated oils were then calculated. Theoretical percents of omega-3 fatty acids in oils were calculated. For that it was assumed that the signals of 2 CH_2 groups corresponds to 4"H signal and the signals of 3CH_3 group corresponds to 9"H signal. The experimental and theoretical percents of omega-3 fatty acids calculations were compared, and the accuracy of omega-3 fatty acids percent in oil was determined

  3. Long-chain omega-3 from low-trophic-level fish provides value to farmed seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibus, Douglas M

    2015-03-01

    Low-trophic-level fish are a crucial source of long-chain (LC) omega-3 fatty acids for farmed fish and humans. Many farm-raised fish species have a clear need for these nutrients. Farmed fish deposit the LC omega-3s in their flesh and transfer them up the food chain. However, the content of LC omega-3s in farm-raised seafood continues to decline, while the content of shorter-chain plant-sourced omega-3s, and pro-inflammtory omega-6s continue to increase. This reduces its nutritional worth. The value of low-trophic-level fish is often viewed merely as its price at the dock. Some reports and metrics steer public attention towards the mass balance between quantities of low-trophic-level fish and farmed seafood. However, the the nutritional value of seafood is more important than its mere quantities. The role of low-trophic-level fish in human nutrition, health, and wellbeing is a fundamental component of its economic value to society.

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids in baked freshwater fish from south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, A D; Visentainer, J V; Matsushita, M; de Souza, N E

    1997-03-01

    Lipid and fatty acid levels in the edible flesh of 17 baked freshwater fish from Brazil's southern region were determined. Analyses of fatty acids methyl esters were performed by gas chromatography. Palmitic acid (C16:0) was the predominant saturated fatty acid, accouting for 50-70% of total saturated acids. Linoleic acid (C18:2 omega 6), linolenic acid (C18:3 omega 3), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega 3) were the predominant polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFA). The data revealed that species such as barbado, corvina, pintado, and truta were good sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that most freshwater fish examined were good sources of PUFA-omega 3.

  5. CONTENT OF LONG CHAIN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID COMPOSITION IN SOME IRANIAN CANNED FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Nazari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract    BACKGROUND: Ecological studies have found a negative correlation between the risk of developing heart disease and fish consumption because of their long chain omega-3 fatty acids. This study was undertaken to determine the amounts of the common fatty acid content of several commercial canned fish marketing in Iran, with particular attention to long chain omega-3 fatty acids.    METHODS: The most consumed available brands of canned fish were randomly selected seven times from products available in supermarkets. Total lipids were extracted by using the Folch method and prepared for fatty acid analysis. Individual fatty acids were quantified by gas chromatography (GC with 60 meter capillary column and flame ionization detector.    RESULTS: The most common saturated fatty acids (SFA in Iranian canned fish was palmitic acid (C16:0 followed by stearic acid (C18:0. The amount of all trans fatty acids (TFAs except elaidic acid (C18:1 9t was 0%. The highest amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs related to long chain omega-3 fatty acids include eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The most abundant monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs were oleic acid (C18:1 9c.     CONCLUSION: This study showed higher contents of EPA and DHA in Iranian commercially available canned fish compared to the canned fish in other countries.      Keywords: Iranian canned fish, fatty acids, long chain omega-3 fatty acids, gas chromatography.  

  6. Tissue Fatty Acid Profile is Differently Modulated from Olive Oil and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in ApcMin/+ Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutino, Valeria; Caruso, Maria G; De Leonardis, Giampiero; De Nunzio, Valentina; Notarnicola, Maria

    2017-11-16

    Fatty acid profile can be considered an appropriate biomarker for investigating the relations between the patterns of fatty acid metabolism and specific diseases, as cancer, cardiovascular and degenerative diseases. Aim of this study was to test the effects of diets enriched with olive oil and omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) on fatty acid profile in intestinal tissue of ApcMin/+ mice. Three groups of animals were considered: control group, receiving a standard diet; olive oilgroup, receiving a standard diet enriched with olive oil; omega-3 group, receiving a standard diet enriched with salmon fish. Tissue fatty acid profile was evaluated by gas chromatography method. Olive oil and omega-3 PUFAs in the diet differently affect the tissue fatty acid profile. Compared to control group, the levels of Saturated Fatty Acids (SFAs) were lower in olive oil group, while an increase of SFAs was found in omega-3 group. Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFAs) levels were enhanced after olive oil treatment, and in particular, a significant increase of oleic acid levels was detected; MUFAs levels were instead reduced in omega-3 group in line with the decrease of oleic acid levels. The total PUFAs levels were lower in olive oil respect to control group. Moreover, a significant induction of Saturation Index (SI) levels was observed after omega-3 PUFAs treatment, while its levels were reduced in mice fed with olive oil. Our data demonstrated a different effect of olive oil and omega-3 PUFAs on tissue lipid profile in APCMin/+ mice. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Challenges when developing omega-3 enriched foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    the influence of important factors such as oil quality, delivery systems for omega-3 fatty acids, processing conditions, composition of the food matrix on lipid oxidation in different omega-3 enriched foods (milk, yoghurt, mayonnaise and mayonnaise-based salads, dressing, energy bar and fish paté). Moreover...

  8. The structure of omega3 food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Loussert, C.; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt

    Fish oil is rich in polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) which are generally recognized as being beneficial to the health [1]. The addition of fish oil to food products is attractive to both the consumers and the food industry. Indeed, these components will improve nutritional value...... and add product value. Omega-3 PUFAs are rich in double bonds in their fatty acid chains and this attribute renders them highly susceptible to lipid oxidation. Omega-3 PUFAs can be added to food products as neat oil or as a delivery system such as oil-in-water emulsions. In this last configuration...... and the prooxidants. But this protective aspect is a really complex process and it is dependent on the food matrix to which the oil is added [2]. Oxidation is presumed to be initiated at the emulsifier layer, i.e. the interface layer between the oil and water where the oil is most likely to come into contact...

  9. Flaxseed oil, a fish oil challenger?

    OpenAIRE

    Maurette Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    The too low level of omega-3 intake in the modern diet is a fact which is worrying health professional and authorities. Among the “traditional” recommendation for a safe and equilibrated diet, recommending food containing omega-3, is there, out of the inescapable fish oil leading to some digestive discomforts, any alternative? Two human clinical trials conducted to verify the effective efficiency of this re equilibrated diet on various skin parameters (hydration, surface evaluation, inflammat...

  10. NUTRITIONAL AND PROTECTIVE VALUES OF FISH – WITH EMPHSIS ON OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bogut

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the importance of fish as a life necessity in view of proteins, vitamins, micro and macro elements and in comparison with high valued necessities of warm-blooded animals (meat, milk and eggs. Most literature information is related to the chemical components of meat, nutritional and biological values. Numerous papers have shown the components of fatty acids in fats of the most important freshwater and sea fish. According the contents of FPA (eicosapentaen fatty acids, 20:5 3 and DHA (docosaheksacn fatty acids, 22:6 3 the meat of the silver carp (Hypophthalmichtis molitrix can be compared to that of the highest quality sea fish. In the last 20 years many authors mentioned the protective role of omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of heart attack, stroke, artherosclerosis, high blood pressure, psoriasis, thrombosis and arthritis.

  11. Biodiscovery of new Australian thraustochytrids for production of biodiesel and long-chain omega-3 oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Chang, Kim Jye [CSIRO, Hobart, TAS (Australia). Energy Transformed National Research Flagship; CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia). School of Plant Science; Dunstan, Graeme A.; Blackburn, Susan I. [CSIRO, Hobart, TAS (Australia). Energy Transformed National Research Flagship; CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Abell, Guy C.J.; Clementson, Lesley A. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Nichols, Peter D. [CSIRO, Hobart, TAS (Australia). Food Futures National Research Flagship; CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Koutoulis, Anthony [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia). School of Plant Science

    2012-03-15

    Heterotrophic growth of thraustochytrids has potential in co-producing a feedstock for biodiesel and long-chain (LC, {>=}C{sub 20}) omega-3 oils. Biodiscovery of thraustochytrids from Tasmania (temperate) and Queensland (tropical), Australia, covered a biogeographic range of habitats including fresh, brackish, and marine waters. A total of 36 thraustochytrid strains were isolated and separated into eight chemotaxonomic groups (A-H) based on fatty acid (FA) and sterol composition which clustered closely with four different genera obtained by 18S rDNA molecular identification. Differences in the relative proportions (%FA) of long-chain C{sub 20}, C{sub 22}, omega-3, and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and saturated FA, as well as the presence of odd-chain PUFA (OC-PUFA) were the major factors influencing the separation of these groups. OC-PUFA were detected in temperate strains of groups A, B, and C (Schizochytrium and Thraustochytrium). Group D (Ulkenia) had high omega-3 LC-PUFA (53% total fatty acids (TFA)) and EPA up to 11.2% TFA. Strains from groups E and F (Aurantiochytrium) contained DHA levels of 50-61% TFA after 7 days of growth in basal medium at 20 C. Groups G and H (Aurantiochytrium) strains had high levels of 15:0 (20-30% TFA) and the sum of saturated FA was in the range of 32-51%. {beta},{beta}-Carotene, canthaxanthin, and astaxanthin were identified in selected strains. Phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic groupings demonstrated similar patterns for the majority of strains. Our results demonstrate the potential of these new Australian thraustochytrids for the production of biodiesel in addition to omega-3 LC-PUFA-rich oils. (orig.)

  12. Recent advances in the field of omega-3-lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    During the last 15-20 years the use of fish and algae oils for human applications has received increasing attention from academia, industry and consumers. This is due to the fact that a growing body of evidence supports that marine omega-3 lipids have a wide range of health beneficial effects......, and at the same time the intake of these healthy lipids is far below the recommendable level in many parts of the world. This presentation will provide a brief overview of recent advances in the body of knowledge about the health benefits of omega-3 lipids. For many years fish oil produced from wild fish has been...... the most important source of marine omega-3 fatty acids. However, the production of fish oil has been stable during the last decade. Therefore, to meet the increased demand for omega-3 lipids new sources are available. The presentation will discuss possible future sources of omega-3 lipids for human...

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant characteristics of chia oil supplemented margarine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Taj, Imran; Ajmal, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad

    2017-05-31

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is known as power house of omega fatty acids which has great health benefits. It contains up to 78% linolenic acid (ω-3) and 18% linoleic acid (ω-6), which could be a great source of omega-3 fatty acids for functional foods. Therefore, in this study, margarines were prepared with supplementation of different concentrations of chia oil to enhance omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidant characteristics and oxidative stability of the product. Margarines were formulated from non-hydrogenated palm oil, palm kernel and butter. Margarines were supplemented with 5, 10, 15 and 20% chia oil (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 ), respectively. Margarine without any addition of chia oil was kept as control. Margarine samples were stored at 5 °C for a period of 90 days. Physico-chemical (fat, moisture, refractive index, melting point, solid fat index, fatty acids profile, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, free fatty acids and peroxide value) and sensory characteristics were studied at the interval of 45 days. The melting point of T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 developed in current investigation were 34.2, 33.8, 33.1 and 32.5 °C, respectively. The solid fat index of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 were 47.21, 22.71, 20.33, 18.12 and 16.58%, respectively. The α-linolenic acid contents in T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 were found 2.92, 5.85, 9.22, 12.29%, respectively. The concentration of eicosanoic acid in T 2 , T 3 and T 4 was 1.82, 3.52, 6.43 and 9.81%, respectively. The content of docosahexanoic acid in T 2 , T 3 and T 4 was present 1.26, 2.64, 3.49 and 5.19%, respectively. The omega-3 fatty acids were not detected in the control sample. Total phenolic contents of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 samples were 0.27, 2.22, 4.15, 7.23 and 11.42 mg GAE/mL, respectively. DPPH free radical scavenging activity for control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 was noted 65.8, 5.37, 17.82, 24.95, 45.42 and 62.8%, respectively. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid

  14. gamma-linolenic acid does not augment long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; Hettema, Y; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    Augmentation of long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acid (LCPUFA omega 3) status can be reached by consumption of fish oil or by improvement of the conversion of a-linolenic acid (ALA) to LCPUFA omega 3. Since gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) might activate the rate-limiting Delta-6 desaturation, we

  15. PEMANFAATAN BAHAN TUMBUHAN SEBAGAI BIOKATALISATOR DALAM PRODUKSI MINYAK SAWIT KAYA ASAM LEMAK OMEGA-3 [Using of Plant Biocatalisator for Omega-3 PUFA -Rich Palm Oil Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Elisabeth1

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Incorporaton of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA into red palm oil was investigated by using acidolysis process. Rice bran and Carica papaya latex (CPL were used as biocatalyst. Acidolysis between red palm oil and n-3 PUFA concentrate in free fatty acid form was conducted without solvent, with weight ratio of n-3 PUFA concentrate to palm oil being 1:1. The n-3 PUFA concentrate was prepared from tuna oil by crystallization method. The study has demonstrated that rice bran lipase showed higher activity to incorporate n-3 PUFA into red palm oil than CPL. The extent of EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, C20:5 and DHA (docosahexaeboic acid, C22:6 incorporation were 3.4% and 12.7% with the rice bran lipase, and 1.7% and 3.2% with the CPL. Furthermore, rice bran from several varities of paddy (Mamberamo, IR-64, Merah Munte , and Cirata produced equal incorporation of EPA and DHA into red palm oil. Rice bran from germinated seed of paddy did not increase the n-3 PUFA incorporation into red palm oil. It means that rice bran in its natural form could be used and act as immobilized lipase. It is easier to remove the rice bran from reaction mixture and reuse the bran for 14 times without decreasing its enzyme activity

  16. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acids Through Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Ajmal, M.; Rehman, F.; Ayaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25 percentage, 12.5 percentage, 18.75 percentage and 25 percentage (T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/), butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2 degree C) for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g percentage). Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ were 4.17 percentage, 7.39 percentage, 12.55 percentage and 16.74 percentage. The extent of omega-6 fatty acids in T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ was 2.81 percentage, 2.94 percentage, 3.15 percentage and 3.32 percentage. Concentration of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids in butter oil can be increased by chia oil. (author)

  17. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acid Sthrough Chia (Salvia hispanica L. Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% (T1, T2, T3 and T4, butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2oC for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g.Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 4.17%, 7.39%, 12.55% and 16.74%. The extent of omega-6 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 2.81%, 2.94%, 3.15% and 3.32%.Concentration of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids in butter oil can be increased by chia oil.

  18. Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids and fish and risk of age-related hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Rochtchina, Elena; McMahon, Catherine M; Mitchell, Paul

    2010-08-01

    Identification of modifiable risk factors that could prevent or slow the development of age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) would be valuable. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake may be related to age-related hearing loss. We aimed to determine the association between dietary intakes of omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs and fish and the risk of presbycusis. The Blue Mountains Hearing Study is a population-based survey of age-related hearing loss (1997-1999 to 2002-2004). We collected dietary data by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire and calculated PUFA and fish intakes. In 2956 participants (aged > or =50 y), we measured presbycusis, which we defined as the pure-tone average of frequencies 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 kHz >25 decibels of hearing loss. There was an inverse association between total n-3 PUFA intake and prevalent hearing loss [odds ratio (OR) per SD increase in energy-adjusted n-3 PUFAs: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.99]. There was an inverse association between long-chain n-3 PUFAs and incident hearing loss (OR per SD increase in long-chain n-3 PUFAs: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.97). Participants who had > or =2 servings of fish/wk compared with participants who had consumption of > or =1 to consumption of fish and hearing loss. Dietary intervention with n-3 PUFAs could prevent or delay the development of age-related hearing loss.

  19. Fish consumption and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to depressive episodes: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Liisa Suominen-Taipale

    Full Text Available High fish consumption and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake are suggested to benefit mental well-being but the current evidence is conflicting. Our aim was to evaluate whether a higher level of fish consumption, a higher intake of omega-3 PUFAs, and a higher serum concentration of omega-3 PUFAs link to a lower 12-month prevalence of depressive episodes.We used data from the nationwide Health 2000 Survey (n = 5492 and the Fishermen Study on Finnish professional fishermen and their family members (n = 1265. Data were based on questionnaires, interviews, health examinations, and blood samples. Depressive episodes were assessed with the M-CIDI (the Munich version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and a self-report of two CIDI probe questions, respectively. Fish consumption was measured by a food frequency questionnaire (g/day and independent frequency questions (times/month. Dietary intake (g/day and serum concentrations (% from fatty acids of PUFAs were determined. Fish consumption was associated with prevalence of depressive episodes in men but not in women. The prevalence of depressive episodes decreased from 9% to 5% across the quartiles of fish consumption (g/day in men of the Health 2000 Survey (p for linear trend = 0.01, and from17% to 3% across the quartiles of fish consumption (times/month in men of the Fishermen Study (p for linear trend = 0.05. This association was modified by lifestyle; in the Health 2000 Survey a higher level of fish consumption was related to a lower prevalence of depressive episodes in men who consumed the most alcohol, were occasional or former smokers, or had intermediate physical activity. The associations between depressive episodes and the intake or serum concentrations of omega-3 PUFAs were not consistent.In men, fish consumption appears as a surrogate for underlying but unidentified lifestyle factors that protect against depression.

  20. Incorporated sarcolemmal fish oil fatty acids shorten pig ventricular action potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Arie O.; van Ginneken, Antoni C. G.; Berecki, Géza; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Schumacher, Cees A.; Veldkamp, Marieke W.; Baartscheer, Antonius; Casini, Simona; Opthof, Tobias; Hovenier, Robert; Fiolet, Jan W. T.; Zock, Peter L.; Coronel, Ruben

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega3-PUFAs) from fish oil reduce the risk of sudden death presumably by preventing life-threatening arrhythmias. Acutely administered omega3-PUFAs modulate the activity of several cardiac ion channels, but the chronic effects of a diet enriched with

  1. Motivational factors for consuming omega-3 PUFAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    foods. This paper presents the results of a qualitative pilot study that aimed to explore Danish consumers' motives for choosing omega-3/fish oil enriched products. The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) was applied as a theoretical framework to understand the process by which people choose healthy...... to the choice of omega-3/fish oil, whereas perception of omega-3 as an ingredient in selected foods does indeed influence consumers' choice of carrier-ingredient combinations.......Growing consumer awareness of functional foods and understanding of their positive nutritional effects have led to the need of specific studies and have captured more attention than ever before. In Europe, Danish consumers have been found to be relatively negative towards the concept of functional...

  2. Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of Nigella sativa crude oil and its blend with omega-3 fatty acid-rich oils in a modified hepatorenal syndrome model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the hepato and reno-protective effect of Nigella sativa crude oil and its binary blend with omega-3 fatty acid-rich oils (fish and flaxseed oils was studied in a modified hepatorenal syndrome model (MHRS in rats. MHRS was induced through feeding a high fructose diet followed by an intraperitoneal injection of galactosamine hydrochloride. Nigella oil and its different blends were given as a daily oral dose to MHRS rats. Two control groups of MHRS and normal healthy rats were run. Different biochemical and nutritional parameters were assessed. The induction of MHRS produced liver and kidney dysfunction, and elevated oxidative stress, an inflammatory biomarker, endothelin 1, and plasma cholesterol. Reduced plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol, albumin and Ca and elevated urinary N-acetyl-β-D-Glucosaminidase and liver fats were noticed. The administration of Nigella crude oil that originally had 0.2% total omega-3 fatty acids or its blend with fish oil (17.9% omega-3 or flaxseed oil (42.1% omega-3 significantly improved all biochemical parameters of MHRS. There was no significant difference in the biochemical parameters among the different oil treated groups regardless of the omega-3 fatty acid content. This may point out to the potential profound effect of the volatile oil fraction of Nigella crude oil which may compensates for its low omega-3 content.En el presente estudio, el efecto hepato- y reno-protector de aceites crudos de Nigella sativa y su mezcla binaria con aceites ricos en ácidos grasos omega-3 (pescado y aceites de linaza fue estudiado en un modelo modificado de síndrome hepatorenal (MHRS en ratas. MHRS fue inducido a través de la alimentación de una dieta alta en fructosa seguido de la inyección intraperitoneal de clorhidrato de galactosamina. Diferentes aceites fueron suministrados como dosis oral diaria a ratas con MHRS. Se realizaron dos grupos de control de MHRS y ratas sanas normales. Se

  3. Stability and Stabilization of Omega-3 Oils as such and in Selected Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    The application of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in foods has increased dramatically during the last decade due to the increasing awareness about the health beneficial effects of these fatty acids. Due to their polyunsaturated nature omega-3 PUFA are highly susceptible to lipid...... oxidation, which will lead to formation of undesirable fishy and rancid off-flavours. Such off-flavours can lead to consumer rejection of omega-3 enriched foods. Important issues to address in order to avoid lipid oxidation are 1) processing conditions and product composition, 2) omega-3 PUFA source...... and delivery system, and 3) addition of antioxidants. This presentation will summarize our current knowledge about these issues in a range of different omega-3 enriched foods....

  4. The intake of long chain omega 3 fatty acids through fish versus capsules results in greater increments of their plasma levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visioli Francesco

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Omega 3 fatty acids from fish appear to be more cardioprotective than equivalent amounts provided as capsules. We gave volunteers, for six weeks, either 100 g\\\\day of salmon, providing 383 mg of EPA and 544 mg of DHA or one or three capsules of fish oil\\\\day, providing 150 mg of EPA and 106 mg of DHA or 450 mg of EPA and 318 mg of DHA. We also re-evaluated data from a previous study carried out with the same design. Marked increments in plasma EPA and DHA concentrations (μg\\\\mg total lipid and percentages of total fatty acids were recorded at the end of either treatment. Such increments were linearly and significantly correlated with the dose after capsule administration. Notably, increments in plasma EPA and DHA concentration after salmon intake were significantly higher than after administration of capsules. In fact, the same increments would be obtained with at least two- and nine-fold higher doses of EPA and DHA, respectively, if administered with capsules rather than salmon. In turn, we provide experimental evidence that omega 3 fatty acids from fish are more effectively incorporated into plasma lipids than when administered as capsules and that increments in plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA given as capsules are linearly correlated with their intakes.

  5. Marine lipids and the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Müllertz, Anette

    2015-01-01

    of omega-3 fatty acids has been reported to be affected by several factors; among the important factors were the digestion and absorption processes of omega-3 containing lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. Both lipid structures and food structures can affect the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids....... In vitro studies provided a mechanistic understanding on the varied bioavailability caused by different lipid structures, the lower relative bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from FAEE formulation was closely related to the slower digestion rate of FAEE. Microencapsulated fish oil has often been used...... as a food additive because of its better chemical stability; studies showed that microencapsulation did not affect the bioavailability significantly. Even though food structures also affect the digestion and absorption of omega-3 containing lipids, several studies have shown that long-term intake of fish...

  6. Fish oil curtails the human action potential dome in a heterogeneous manner: Implication for arrhythmogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Arie O.; den Ruijter, Hester M.; de Jonge, Nicolaas; Coronel, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega3-PUFAs) from fish oil modulate various ion channels, including the L-type calcium current (I(Ca,L)). As a result, fish oil shortens the cardiac action potential and may cause a loss of the dome of the action potential (AP). Under conditions of increased

  7. Omega-3 fatty acids and oxidative stability of ice cream supplemented with olein fraction of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Rahman; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad

    2017-02-07

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) has been regarded as good source of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids with cardiac, hepatic, hypotensive, antiallergic and antidiabetic role. Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in chia oil can be enhanced by fractionation. Olein/low melting fraction of chia oil has higher concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Therefore, main objective of current investigation was determination of various concentration effect of olein fraction of chia oil on omega-3 fatty acids, oxidative stability and sensory characteristics of ice cream. Ice cream samples were prepared by partially replacing the milk fat with olein fraction of chia oil at 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentrations (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 ), respectively. Ice cream prepared from 100% milk fat was kept as control. Ice cream samples stored at -18 °C for 60 days were analysed at 0, 30 and 60 days of the storage period. Fatty acid profile, total phenolic contents, total flavonoids, free fatty acids, peroxide value, anisidine value and sensory characteristics of ice cream samples was studied. Concentration of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in T 4 was 13.24, 0.58, 0.42 and 0.31%, respectively. Total phenolic contents of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 were recorded 0.12, 1.65, 3.17, 5.19 and 7.48 mg GAE/mL, respectively. Total flavonoid content of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 were found 0.08, 0.64, 1.87, 3.16 and 4.29 mg Quercetin Equivalent/mL. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 was noted 5.61, 17.43, 36.84, 51.17 and 74.91%, respectively. After 60 days of storage period, the highest peroxide value of 1.84 (MeqO 2 /kg) was observed in T 4 , which was much less than allowable limit of 10 (MeqO 2 /kg). Flavour score was non-significant after 30 days of storage period. Supplementation of ice cream with olein fraction of chia oil enhanced the concentration of

  8. Development of new antioxidant systems for frying oil and omega-3 oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of natural antioxidant systems for frying oil will be discussed in this presentation. This study aimed to utilize vegetable oils such as soybean oil for frying, of which the United States is the world’s largest producer. To overcome the vulnerability of soybean oil to oxidation due t...

  9. Topical application of omega-3-, omega-6-, and omega-9-rich oil emulsions for cutaneous wound healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Wan Maznah Wan; Katas, Haliza; Yuen, Ng Pei; Abdullah, Maizaton Atmadini; Zulfakar, Mohd Hanif

    2018-04-17

    Wound healing is a physiological event that generates reconstitution and restoration of granulation tissue that ends with scar formation. As omega fatty acids are part of membrane phospholipids and participate in the inflammatory response, we investigated the effects of omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids in the form of oils on wound healing. Linseed (LO), evening primrose (EPO), and olive oils (OO) rich in omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids were formulated into emulsions and were topically applied on rats with excision wounds. All omega-3-, omega-6-, and omega-9-rich oil formulations were found to accelerate wound closure compared to untreated, with significant improvement (p < 0.05) being observed at day 14. EPO induced early deposition of collagen as evaluated by Masson trichrome staining that correlated well with the hydroxyproline content assay, with the highest level at days 3 and 7. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) showed greater amount of new microvasculature formed in the EPO-treated group, while moderate improvement occurs in the LO and OO groups. EPO increased both the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors in the early stage of healing and declined at the later stage of healing. LO modulates the proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine but did not affect the growth factors. In contrast, OO induced the expression of growth factors rather than proinflammatory cytokines. These data suggest that LO, EPO, and OO emulsions promote wound healing but they accomplish this by different mechanisms.

  10. Complex coacervation with whey protein isolate and gum arabic for the microencapsulation of omega-3 rich tuna oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eratte, Divya; Wang, Bo; Dowling, Kim; Barrow, Colin J; Adhikari, Benu P

    2014-11-01

    Tuna oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids was microencapsulated in whey protein isolate (WPI)-gum arabic (GA) complex coacervates, and subsequently dried using spray and freeze drying to produce solid microcapsules. The oxidative stability, oil microencapsulation efficiency, surface oil and morphology of these solid microcapsules were determined. The complex coacervation process between WPI and GA was optimised in terms of pH, and WPI-to-GA ratio, using zeta potential, turbidity, and morphology of the microcapsules. The optimum pH and WPI-to-GA ratio for complex coacervation was found to be 3.75 and 3 : 1, respectively. The spray dried solid microcapsules had better stability against oxidation, higher oil microencapsulation efficiency and lower surface oil content compared to the freeze dried microcapsules. The surface of the spray dried microcapsules did not show microscopic pores while the surface of the freeze dried microcapsules was more porous. This study suggests that solid microcapsules of omega-3 rich oils can be produced using WPI-GA complex coacervates followed by spray drying and these microcapsules can be quite stable against oxidation. These microcapsules can have many potential applications in the functional food and nutraceuticals industry.

  11. The protective effect of omega-3 oil against the hepatotoxicity of cadmium chloride in adult and weanling rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Treefa F.; Aziz, Falah M.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective role of omega-3 oil against the toxic effect of cadmium as cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on the liver of male, dams and weanling rats from the histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical points of view. Thirty adult male and thirty adult female rats (dams) were used in the present work, divided randomly into five groups, six rats for each group and ten weanling male rats were chosen from each dam group. First group was considered as control group and given only standard diet and drinking water, second group was given (40 mg/ L) of CdCl2 in drinking water. The third group was given (60 mg/ L) of CdCl2 in drinking water. The fourth group was given (40 mg/L) of CdCl2 in drinking water plus omega-3 oil (4 gm/ kg diet) and the fifth group was given (60 mg/L) of CdCl2 in drinking water plus omega-3 oil (4 gm/ kg diet). All the above groups were left for 30 days for males and 42 days for the females) i.e. at the 21th day of the weanling rats birth). Both doses of CdCl2 have caused a lot of histological and ultrastructural alterations in the liver including high degeneration of hepatocytes. Electron microscope images showed thickening of mitochondrial membrane, variation in the size and shape of the mitochondria of the above cells and deposition of Cd particles in the lining of blood sinusoids. The hepatocytes of the weanling rats showed more ultrastructural changes especially the accumulation of lipid droplets. The immunohistochemical images of the mother liver showed a positive P53 reaction in the cells of the liver of CdCl2 treated rats especially those around the portal area. These reactions disappeared in the omega-3 plus CdCl2 groups. The present results suggested a protective role of omega-3 against the cadmium induced hepatotoxicity.

  12. Flaxseed oil, a fish oil challenger?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurette Jean-Marc

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The too low level of omega-3 intake in the modern diet is a fact which is worrying health professional and authorities. Among the “traditional” recommendation for a safe and equilibrated diet, recommending food containing omega-3, is there, out of the inescapable fish oil leading to some digestive discomforts, any alternative? Two human clinical trials conducted to verify the effective efficiency of this re equilibrated diet on various skin parameters (hydration, surface evaluation, inflammation are reviewed here. The results of the clinical trials on various skin parameters (hydration, trans epidermal water loss, roughness, scaling, superficial inflammation and blood flow were quite convincing about the interest of such a supplementation.

  13. Mercury and omega-3 fatty acid profiles in freshwater fish of the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories: Informing risk benefit assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Matthew J; Henao, Juan J Aristizabal; Reyes, Ellen S; Stark, Ken D; Low, George; Swanson, Heidi K; Laird, Brian D

    2018-05-17

    Traditional foods have significant nutritional, sociocultural and economic value in subarctic First Nations communities of the Northwest Territories, and play a crucial role in promoting cultural continuity and sovereignty. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (N-3 PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), carry significant benefits for neurocognitive development and cardiovascular health. However, the health risks posed by methylmercury may serve to undermine the benefits of fish consumption in Northern Indigenous communities. The objective of this study was to characterize profiles for mercury (Hg) and fatty acids in fish species harvested across lakes of the Dehcho Region, in the Mackenzie Valley of the Northwest Territories, to better understand the risks and benefits associated with traditional foods. Hg levels increased with trophic position, with the highest levels found in Burbot, Lake Trout, Walleye, and Northern Pike. Lake Trout, along with planktivorous species including Lake Whitefish, Cisco, and Sucker, demonstrated higher N-3 PUFAs than other species. Negative associations were observed between Hg and N-3 PUFAs in Lake Trout, Northern Pike, Walleye and Burbot. Further stratifying these relationships revealed significant interactions by lake. Significant differences observed in fatty acid and Hg profiles across lakes underscore the importance of considering both species- and lake-specific findings. This growing dataset of freshwater fish of the Dehcho will inform future efforts to characterize human Hg exposure profiles using probabilistic dose reconstruction models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Time to Talk: Five Things to Know about Omega-3s for Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things To Know About Omega-3s for Heart Disease Share: Omega-3 fatty acids are a group ... shows omega-3s have a protective effect against heart disease. Experts agree that fish rich in omega-3 ...

  15. Association between fish consumption, long chain omega 3 fatty acids, and risk of cerebrovascular disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Chowdhury (Rajiv); S. Stevens (Sarah); D. Gorman (Donal); A. Pan (An); S. Warnakula (Samantha); S. Chowdhury (Susmita); H. Ward (Heather); L.A. Johnson (Laura); F. Crowe (Francesca); F.B. Hu (Frank); O.H. Franco (Oscar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To clarify associations of fish consumption and long chain omega 3 fatty acids with risk of cerebrovascular disease for primary and secondary prevention. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources: Studies published before September 2012 identified through

  16. Lipophilized phenolics as antioxidants in fish oil enriched food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Food products containing long chain omega-3 PUFA are highly susceptible to oxidation, which causes undesirable flavors and loss of health beneficial fatty acids. Many omega-3 enriched food products on the market are oil-in-water emulsions. According to the so called “polar paradox”, polar compounds...... hypothesis is that lipophilization of such polar phenolic compounds may improve their efficacy in fish oil enriched food systems. Our study aimed at evaluating rutin and dihydrocaffeic acid and their esters as antioxidants in o/w emulsion model system and milk enriched with fish oil. Moreover, the effect...

  17. Incorporated sarcolemmal fish oil fatty acids shorten pig ventricular action potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, A.O.; Ginneken, van A.C.G.; Berecki, G.; Ruijter, den H.M.; Schumacher, C.A.; Veldkamp, M.W.; Baartscheer, A.; Casini, S.; Opthof, T.; Hovenier, R.; Fiolet, J.W.T.; Zock, P.L.; Coronel, R.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (W-PUFAs) from fish oil reduce the risk of sudden death presumably by preventing life-threatening arrhythmias. Acutely administered omega 3-PUFAs modulate the activity of several cardiac ion channels, but the chronic effects of a diet enriched with

  18. Supercritical CO2 extraction of oil and omega-3 concentrate from Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L. from Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Triana-Maldonado

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L. seeds were employed for oil extraction with supercritical CO2 at laboratory scale. The supercritical extraction was carried out at a temperature of 60 °C, pressure range of 400–500 bars and CO2 flow of 40–80 g/min. The maximum recovery was 58% in 180 min, favored by increasing the residence time of CO2 in the extraction tank. Subsequently, the process was evaluated at pilot scale reaching a maximum recovery of 60% in 105 min, with a temperature of 60 °C, pressure of 450 bars and CO2 flow of 1270 g/min. The fatty acid composition of the oil was not affected for an extraction period of 30–120 min. The Sacha inchi oil was fractionated with supercritical CO2 to obtain an omega-3 concentrate oil without finding a considerable increase in the proportion of this compound, due to the narrow range in the carbon number of fatty acids present in the oil (16–18 carbons, making it difficult for selective separation.

  19. Supercritical CO2 extraction of oil and omega-3 concentrate from Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) from Antioquia, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torijano-Gutiérrez, S.A.; Triana-Maldonadoa, D.M.; Giraldo-Estradaa, C.

    2017-01-01

    Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) seeds were employed for oil extraction with supercritical CO2 at laboratory scale. The supercritical extraction was carried out at a temperature of 60 °C, pressure range of 400–500 bars and CO2 flow of 40–80 g/min. The maximum recovery was 58% in 180 min, favored by increasing the residence time of CO2 in the extraction tank. Subsequently, the process was evaluated at pilot scale reaching a maximum recovery of 60% in 105 min, with a temperature of 60 °C, pressure of 450 bars and CO2 flow of 1270 g/min. The fatty acid composition of the oil was not affected for an extraction period of 30–120 min. The Sacha inchi oil was fractionated with supercritical CO2 to obtain an omega-3 concentrate oil without finding a considerable increase in the proportion of this compound, due to the narrow range in the carbon number of fatty acids present in the oil (16–18 carbons), making it difficult for selective separation. [es

  20. Omega-3 index and prognosis in acute coronary chest pain patients with a low dietary intake of omega-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Ricardo León; Naesgaard, Patrycja Anna; Nilsen, Stein Tore; Woie, Leik; Aarsland, Torbjørn; Gundersen, Thomas; Nilsen, Dennis W T

    2013-04-01

    The omega-3 index (eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid) content in red blood cell membranes has been suggested as a novel risk marker for cardiac death. Objective. To assess the ability of the omega-3 index to predict all-cause mortality, cardiac death and sudden cardiac death following hospitalization with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and to include arachidonic acid (AA) in risk assessment. The omega-3 index was measured in 572 consecutive patients (median 63 years and 59% males) admitted with chest pain and suspected ACS in an inland Northern Argentinean city with a dietary habit that was essentially based on red meat and a low intake of fish. Clinical endpoints were collected during a 5-year follow-up period, median 3.6 years, range 1 day to 5.5 years. Stepwise Cox regression analysis was employed to compare the rate of new events in the quartiles of the omega-3 index measured at inclusion. Multivariable analysis was performed. No statistical significant differences in baseline characteristics were noted between quartiles of the omega-3 index. The median of the adjusted omega-3 index was 3.6%. During the follow-up period, 100 (17.5%) patients died. Event rates were similar in all quartiles of the omega-3 index, with no statistical significant differences. AA added no prognostic information. In a population with a low intake of fish and fish oils, the adjusted omega-3 index did not predict fatal events following hospitalization in patients with acute chest pain and suspected ACS.

  1. Comparison between fish and linseed oils administered orally for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of two sources of omega 3 and 6, fish oil (FO) and linseed oil (LO), orally administered, alone or in combination, for treating experimentally induced keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in rabbits. Twenty-eight New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Seven animals ...

  2. Characterization of lipids and antioxidant capacity of novel nutraceutical egg products developed with omega-3-rich oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, Nissan M; Gigliotti, Joseph C; Beamer, Sarah K; Tou, Janet C; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2012-01-15

    Cardiovascular disease has had an unquestioned status of the number one cause of death in the US since 1921. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) have cardio-protective benefits. However, egg is typically a poor source of ω-3 PUFAs and, in general, the American diet is low in these cardio-protective fatty acids. Novel, nutritionally enhanced egg products were developed by substituting yolk with ω-3 PUFA-rich flaxseed, menhaden, algae, or krill oil. Experimental egg products matched composition of hen egg (whole egg). The experimental egg products, mixed whole egg, and a liquid egg product (Egg Beaters) were microwave-cooked and compared. Although fat, protein, and moisture contents of experimental egg products matched (P > 0.05) mixed whole egg, experimental egg products had more (P egg. Triglycerides were the main lipid class in all experimental egg products except those developed with krill oil, which had even more phospholipids than mixed whole egg. Analysis of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances showed that lipid oxidation of experimental egg products was lower (P 0.05) to mixed whole egg, except for experimental egg products with krill oil. However, peroxide value showed that all egg samples had minimal oxidation. Experimental egg products developed with menhaden or flaxseed oil had the highest (P egg samples. However, experimental egg products with krill oil likely contained a natural antioxidant, astaxanthin. This study demonstrated an alternative approach to developing novel, nutraceutical egg products. Instead of dietary modification of chicken feed, yolk substitution with ω-3 PUFAs oils resulted in enhancement of ω-3 PUFAs beyond levels possible to achieve by modifying chicken feed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Uporabnost maščobnih kislin omega-3 pri obravnavi ran na koži: Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on skin wound healing:

    OpenAIRE

    Langerholc, Tomaž; Pajnkihar, Majda; Vrbnjak, Dominika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this article is to analyse the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on wound healing and to demonstrate their usefulness in the wound treatment. Methods: Databases PubMed, CINAHL, Medline and ScienceDirect were searched for the literature review and analysis. A search was performed with keywords in English: omega-3 fish oil, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), wound, wound healing, and Boolean operator AND. Experimental or randomized clinical studies published in English ...

  4. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan Moharana, Tushar; Byreddy, Avinesh R; Puri, Munish; Barrow, Colin; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2016-01-01

    Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1), which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL), as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids.

  5. Extraction and Production of Omega-3 from UniMAP Puyu (Jade Perch) and Mackarel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Izzati, I.; Zainab, H.; Nornadhiratulhusna, M.; Chee Hann, Y.; Khairunissa Syairah, A. S.; Amira Farzana, S.

    2018-03-01

    Extraction techniques to extract fish oil from various types of fish are numerous but not widely accepted because of the use of chemicals that may be harmful to health. In this study, fish oil is extracted using a technique of Microwave-Assisted Extraction, which uses only water. The optimum conditions required for the production of fish oil for extraction is carried out by examining three parameters such as microwave power (300-700W), extraction time (10-30 min) and amount of water used (70-190ml). Optimum conditions were determined after using design of experiments (DOE). The optimum condition obtained was 300 W for microwave power, 10 minutes extraction time and 190 milliliter amounts of water used. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze the functional groups of fish oil. Two types of fish such as Jade Perch or UniMAP Puyu and Indian Mackerel were used. A standard omega-3 oil sample (Blackmores) purchased from pharmacy was also determined to confirm the presence of omega-3 oil in these fishes. Similar compounds were present in Jade Perch and Indian Mackerel as compared to the standard. Therefore, there were presence of omega-3 fish oil in the two types of fish. From this study, omega-3 in UniMAP Puyu fish was higher compared to Indian Mackerel fish. However, based on the FTIR analysis, besides the presence of omega-3, the two fishes also contain other functional groups such as alkanes, alkenes, aldehyde, ketones and many others. The yield of fish oil for the Jade Perch was low compared to Indian Mackerel which was 9% while Indian Mackerel was 10 %.

  6. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Ranjan Moharana

    Full Text Available Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1, which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL, as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids.

  7. Omega-3s in food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the use of healthy long chain omega-3 oils in foods. Incorporation of omega-3 oils into foods decreases their oxidative stability and therefore precautions need to be taken to avoid lipid oxidation. This review summarises the major factors to take into considera...... into consideration when developing food emulsions enriched with omega-3 oils and examples on how oxidation can be reduced in products such as mayonnaise, spreads, milk, yoghurt are also given.......There is an increasing interest in the use of healthy long chain omega-3 oils in foods. Incorporation of omega-3 oils into foods decreases their oxidative stability and therefore precautions need to be taken to avoid lipid oxidation. This review summarises the major factors to take...

  8. In-vitro digestion of probiotic bacteria and omega-3 oil co-microencapsulated in whey protein isolate-gum Arabic complex coacervates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eratte, Divya; Dowling, Kim; Barrow, Colin J; Adhikari, Benu P

    2017-07-15

    Solid co-microcapsules of omega-3 rich tuna oil and probiotic bacteria L. casei were produced using whey protein isolate-gum Arabic complex coacervate as wall material. The in-vitro digestibility of the co-microcapsules and microcapsules was studied in terms of survival of L. casei and release of oil in sequential exposure to simulated salivary, gastric and intestinal fluids. Co-microencapsulation significantly increased the survival and surface hydrophobicity and the ability of L. casei to adhere to the intestinal wall. No significant difference in the assimilative reduction of cholesterol was observed between the microencapsulated and co-microencapsulated L. casei. The pattern of release of oil from the microcapsules and co-microcapsules was similar. However, the content of total chemically intact omega-3 fatty acids was higher in the oil released from co-microcapsules than the oil released from microcapsules. The co-microencapsulation can deliver bacterial cells and omega-3 oil to human intestinal system with less impact on functional properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical and metabolic response to flaxseed oil omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in patients with diabetic foot ulcer: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Zahra; Hashemdokht, Fatemeh; Bahmani, Fereshteh; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Memarzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Asemi, Zatollah

    2017-09-01

    Data on the effects of flaxseed oil omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on wound healing and metabolic status in subjects with diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) are scarce. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of flaxseed oil omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on wound healing and metabolic status in subjects with DFU. The current randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 60 subjects (aged 40-85years old) with grade 3 DFU. Subjects were randomly allocated into two groups (30 subjects each group) to receive either 1000mg omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed oil supplements or placebo twice a day for 12weeks. After the 12-week intervention, compared with the placebo, omega-3 fatty acids supplementation resulted in significant decreases in ulcer length (-2.0±2.3 vs. -1.0±1.1cm, P=0.03), width (-1.8±1.7 vs. -1.0±1.0cm, P=0.02) and depth (-0.8±0.6 vs. -0.5±0.5cm, P=0.01). Additionally, significant reductions in serum insulin concentrations (-4.4±5.5 vs. +1.4±8.3 μIU/mL, P=0.002), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (-2.1±3.0 vs. +1.0±5.0, P=0.005) and HbA1c (-0.9±1.5 vs. -0.1±0.4%, P=0.01), and a significant rise in the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+0.01±0.01 vs. -0.005±0.02, P=0.002) were seen following supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids compared with the placebo. In addition, omega-3 fatty acids supplementation significantly decreased serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (-25.5±31.5 vs. -8.2±18.9μg/mL, P=0.01), and significantly increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (+83.5±111.7 vs. -73.4±195.5mmol/L, Pfatty acids supplementation for 12weeks among subjects with DFU had beneficial effects on parameters of ulcer size, markers of insulin metabolism, serum hs-CRP, plasma TAC and GSH levels. In addition, flaxseed oil omega-3 fatty acids may have played an indirect role in wound healing due to its effects on improved metabolic profiles. Copyright

  10. Neuroprotective Properties of the Marine Carotenoid Astaxanthin and Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Perspectives for the Natural Combination of Both in Krill Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo P. Barros

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of marine fishes and general seafood has long been recommended by several medical authorities as a long-term nutritional intervention to preserve mental health, hinder neurodegenerative processes, and sustain cognitive capacities in humans. Most of the neurological benefits provided by frequent seafood consumption comes from adequate uptake of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-3/n-6 PUFAs, and antioxidants. Optimal n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratios allow efficient inflammatory responses that prevent the initiation and progression of many neurological disorders. Moreover, interesting in vivo and clinical studies with the marine antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (present in salmon, shrimp, and lobster have shown promising results against free radical-promoted neurodegenerative processes and cognition loss. This review presents the state-of-the-art applications of n-3/n-6 PUFAs and astaxanthin as nutraceuticals against neurodegenerative diseases associated with exacerbated oxidative stress in CNS. The fundamental “neurohormesis” principle is discussed throughout this paper. Finally, new perspectives for the application of a natural combination of the aforementioned anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents (found in krill oil are also presented herewith.

  11. Omega-3 phospholipids from fish suppress hepatic steatosis by integrated inhibition of biosynthetic pathways in dietary obese mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossmeisl, M.; Medrikova, D.; Schothorst, van E.M.; Pavlisova, J.; Kuda, O.; Hensler, M.; Bardova, K.; Flachs, P.; Stankova, B.; Vecka, M.; Tvrizicka, E.; Zak, A.; Keijer, J.; Kopecky, J.

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) accompanies obesity and insulin resistance. Recent meta-analysis suggested omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids DHA and EPA to decrease liver fat in NAFLD patients. Anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, and insulin-sensitizing effects of DHA/EPA depend on their

  12. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus123

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushik, Manas; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Spiegelman, Donna; Manson, JoAnn E; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2009-01-01

    Background: Diet is a key component of a healthy lifestyle in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The role of long-chain omega-3 (n–3) fatty acids (LCFAs) in the development of T2DM remains unresolved.

  13. Process optimization and oxidative stability of omega-3 ice cream fortified with flaxseed oil microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Avinash; Sharma, Vivek; Goyal, Ankit; Singh, A K; Arora, Sumit

    2018-05-01

    Microencapsulated flaxseed oil powder (MFOP) was supplemented for the fortification of α-linolenic acid (ALA, ω-3 fatty acid) in ice cream. Processing parameters were optimized in terms of the stage of homogenization of ice-cream mix, level of fortification (3, 4 and 5%) and flavors (vanilla, butter scotch and strawberry). Data revealed that free fatty acids increased significantly during first 15 days in all the samples and then remained constant. Peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid value first increased up to 30 and 45 days, respectively; and then decreased followed by a gradual increase up to 120 days. Fatty acids profile showed 18.74-21.38% decrease in ALA content in fortified ice creams after 120 days. A serving of 100 g of freshly prepared functional ice cream was able to meet ~ 45% of the RDA (1.4 g ALA/day), which reduced to 35.37-36.56% on the end of storage i.e. 120 days. Overall, it can be concluded that MFOP was oxidative stable in ice-cream throughout the storage, which could be fortified successfully at 4% (w/w) level.

  14. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acid Sthrough Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Nadeem; Muhammad Ajmal; Fazal Rahman; Muhammad Ayaz

    2015-01-01

    Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% (T1, T2, T3 and T4), butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2oC) for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g).Co...

  15. Characterization of Emulsions of Fish Oil and Water by Cryo Scanning Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Addition of fish oil to industrially prepared food products is attractive to the food industry because of the well-documented health effects of the omega 3 fatty acids in the fish oil [1]. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids including omega 3 fatty acids are highly susceptible to lipid oxidation due...... to the many double bonds. Emulsions of fish oil in water are potential candidates for a delivery system of fish oil to food products. It has been suggested that oxidation of oil-in-water emulsions is initiated at the interface between oil and water. It has also been proposed that oxidation is to some extent...... is to characterize fish oil in water emulsions with respect to oil droplet size, distribution, and ultimately to view the structure and thickness of the interface layer. A freeze-fractured surface viewed at low temperatures under the scanning electron microscope is a promising strategy to reveal variations...

  16. Cryo-FIB SEM for Characterization of the Structure of Fish Oil Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Addition of fish oil to food products to improve nutritional quality by the addition of omega-3 fatty acids is attractive both to the consumers and the food industry for reasons such as health benefits and added product value. The long chain omega-3 fatty acids contain a large number of double...... bonds which causes the fish oil to be susceptible to oxidation. The shelf lives of fish oil enriched products are thus limited by fast oxidation rates of the fish oil which causes development of off flavours as well as degeneration of the beneficial health effects of the fish oil. At the present moment...... this is a barrier for their access to the market and it is necessary to develop techniques to protect the oil against oxidation. Emulsification of the oil has been put forward as a strategy for protection against oxidation, but whether that is beneficial seems to depend on the food matrix to which the oil is added...

  17. Omega-3 Index of Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Kellie; Ratnayake, Walisundera M N

    2015-11-01

    Cardioprotective properties have been associated with two fatty acids-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The Omega-3 Index indicates the percentage of EPA+DHA in red blood cell fatty acids. Omega-3 Index levels of the Canadian population have not been directly measured. Data for respondents aged 20 to 79 from cycle 3 (2012/2013) of the Canadian Health Measures Survey were used to calculate means and the prevalence of Omega-3 Index coronary heart disease (CHD) risk cut-offs-high (4% or less), moderate (more than 4% to less than 8%), and low (8% or more)-by sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, including fish consumption and use of omega-3 supplements. Associations between the Omega-3 Index and CHD-related factors including biomarkers, risk factors, and previous CHD events, were examined in multivariate regression models. The mean Omega-3 Index level of Canadians aged 20 to 79 was 4.5%. Levels were higher for women, older adults, Asians and other non-white Canadians, omega-3 supplement users, and fish consumers; levels were lower for smokers and people who were obese. Fewer than 3% of adults had levels associated with low CHD risk; 43% had levels associated with high risk. No CHD-related factor was associated with the Omega-3 Index when control variables were taken into account. Omega-3 Index levels among Canadian adults were strongly related to age, race, supplement use, fish consumption, smoking status and obesity. Fewer than 3% of adults had Omega-3 Index levels associated with low risk for CHD.

  18. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for cardiovascular diseases: present, past and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Tatsuno, Ichiro

    2017-08-01

    Large-scale epidemiological studies on Greenlandic, Canadian and Alaskan Eskimos have examined the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids consumed as part of the diet, and found statistically significant relative reduction in cardiovascular risk in people consuming omega-3 fatty acids. Areas covered: This article reviews studies on omega-3 fatty acids during the last 50 years, and identifies issues relevant to future studies on cardiovascular (CV) risk. Expert commentary: Although a meta-analysis of large-scale prospective cohort studies and randomized studies reported that fish and fish oil consumption reduced coronary heart disease-related mortality and sudden cardiac death, omega-3 fatty acids have not yet been shown to be effective in secondary prevention trials on patients with multiple cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The ongoing long-term CV interventional outcome studies investigate high-dose, prescription-strength omega-3 fatty acids. The results are expected to clarify the potential role of omega-3 fatty acids in reducing CV risk. The anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids are also important. Future clinical trials should also focus on the role of these anti-inflammatory mediators in human arteriosclerotic diseases as well as inflammatory diseases.

  19. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat- ... in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  20. Effect of emulsifiers and physical structure on lipid oxidation in omega-3 emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    The body of evidence supporting health beneficial effects of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has increased over the last decades. Consequently, the interest in fish oil-enriched foods has also increased. However, addition of these highly unsaturated fatty acids to foods also adds...... the challenge of lipid oxidation. In order to limit lipid oxidation and the consecutive development of unpleasant off-flavours, the manner in which the fish oil is introduced to the food product should be carefully considered, e.g. an emulsion could be used as delivery system for the omega-3s. The aim...

  1. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Appears to Attenuate Particulate Air Pollution-induced Cardiac Effects and Lipid Changes in Healthy Middle-aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. A recent epidemiologic study reported that omega-3 fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation blunted the cardiac responses to air pollution exposure. Objective: To evaluate in a randomized contro...

  2. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Attenuates Cardiovascular Effects in Healthy Older Volunteers Exposed to Concentrated Ambient Fine and UltrafineParticulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. A recent epidemiology study reported that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation blunted the response of study participants to PM. Our study was des...

  3. Effect of dietary selenium and omega-3 fatty acids on muscle composition and quality in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetland Harald

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human health may be improved if dietary intakes of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are increased. Consumption of broiler meat is increasing, and the meat content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are affected by the composition of broiler feed. A two-way analyses of variance was used to study the effect of feed containing omega-3 rich plant oils and selenium enriched yeast on broiler meat composition, antioxidation- and sensory parameters. Four different wheat-based dietary treatments supplemented with 5% rapeseed oil or 4% rapeseed oil plus 1% linseed oil, and either 0.50 mg selenium or 0.84 mg selenium (organic form per kg diet was fed to newly hatched broilers for 22 days. Results The different dietary treatments gave distinct different concentrations of selenium and fatty acids in thigh muscle; one percent linseed oil in the diet increased the concentration of the omega-3 fatty acids 18:3, 20:5 and 22:5, and 0.84 mg selenium per kg diet gave muscle selenium concentration at the same level as is in fish muscle (0.39 mg/kg muscle. The high selenium intake also resulted in increased concentration of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA (20:5, DPA (22:5 and DHA (22:6, thus it may be speculated if high dietary selenium might have a role in increasing the concentration of EPA, DPA and DHA in tissues after intake of plant oils contning omega-3 fatty acids. Conclusion Moderate modifications of broiler feed may give a healthier broiler meat, having increased content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids. High intakes of selenium (organic form may increase the concentration of very long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in muscle.

  4. Utilization of tuna roe and using inulin as oil replacer for producing value added omega-3 mayonnaise product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanrawee Hunsakul

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fishery industry has been important for Thailand’s economy for more than 30 years. For example, Thailand isthe world’s largest canned tuna producer and exporter. However, onlyordinary meat or white meatis usedfor raw materialin canned tuna products. Whileroe, viscera, head and dark meataresold at cheap prices,with theseby-products being usedto feed plant or local human food,its nutritive values withfat,protein and minerals arestill high. It is well known that tuna is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA, including Eicosapentaenoicacid (EPA and Docosahexanoic acid (DHA.People around the world pay more attention to eatingsaladsconsisting of fruits and vegetables, in addition todressing. Generally, mayonnaise, a kind of salad dressing, consists of chicken egg yolk(12-15% and soybean oil (30-65%. Both of these ingredients contain very high saturated fatty acid contents. Therefore, because normal mayonnaise is high in fat content and low in polyunsaturated fatty acid, this product is not ideal for people on a diet or those who are trying to control their weight. Objective: To increase omega-3 through tuna roe substitution and to replace fat content using inulin gel. Methods: Tuna roe was prepared by soaking in galangalsolutionextracted with 95% ethanol for removal fishy/rancidity odor. Inulin powder 45 g was suspended in 55 ml of water before being brought to heat at temperature 80oC for 30min to form a gel and stored at 4oC. Treatment ofmakingomega-3 mayonnaise product was started using 100% tuna roe substitution for egg yolk. Thereafter, inulin gel was added to replace vegetable oil at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Basic mayonnaise containing egg yolk and 0% inulin gel (100% soy bean oil was used asthecontrol sample. Color and emulsion stability testswere monitored for physical quality. pH value, peroxide value (PV and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS were used for chemical qualityanalyses. Total viable

  5. Lipid oxidation in omega-3 emulsions prepared with milk proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Andersen, Ulf

    An increasing body of evidence supports the health beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Therefore, incorporation of marine oils into foods has also gained an increasing interest. However, the highly unsaturated lipids present in marine oils are prone to lipid oxidation......, and their addition to foods is therefore limited by the development of unpleasant off-flavors. Hence, efficient strategies are necessary to protect the lipids and thereby make fish oil-enriched food products successful in the marketplace. In an attempt to increase the oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched food...... stable product. Thus, a better understanding of factors influencing lipid oxidation in delivery emulsions themselves is therefore needed to understand the differences observed between food systems. In oil-in-water emulsions, lipid oxidation is expected to be initiated at the oil-water interface...

  6. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  7. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Effects of a Fish Oil Enriched Diet on Murine Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-14

    Terra VC, de Almeida AC, et al. (2010) Qualitative analysis of hippocampal plastic changes in rats with epilepsy supplemented with oral omega-3 fatty... vegetable oil or fish oil. Am J Clin Nutr 63: 116–122. 92. Endres S, Meydani SN, Ghorbani R, Schindler R, Dinarello CA (1993) Dietary supplementation with

  8. The use of artificial neural network modeling to represent the process of concentration by molecular distillation of omega-3 from squid oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi, P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of omega-3 compounds obtained for the esterification of squid oil by molecular distillation was carried out in two stages. This operation can process these thermolabile and high molecular weight components at very low temperatures. Given the mathematical complexity of the theoretical model, artificial neural networks (ANN have provided an alternative to a classical computing analysis. The objective of this study was to create a predictive model using artificial neural network techniques to represent the concentration process of omega-3 compounds obtained from squid oil using molecular distillation. Another objective of this study was to analyze the performance of two different alternatives of ANN modeling; one of them is a model that represents all variables in the process and the other is a global model that simulates only the input and output variables of the process. The alternative of the ANN global model showed the best fit to the experimental data.La concentración de compuestos omega-3, obtenidos de la esterificación de aceite de calamar, por destilación molecular fue llevada a cabo en dos etapas. Esta operación permite procesar componentes termolábiles y de alto peso molecular a muy bajas temperaturas. Dada la alta complejidad de los modelos teóricos, las redes neuronales artificiales (RNA conforman una alternativa al análisis computacional clásico. El objetivo de este estudio fue crear un modelo predictivo usando modelos de redes neuronales artificiales para representar el proceso de concentración de compuestos omega-3 obtenidos del aceite de calamar por destilación molecular. Otro objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el desenvolvimiento de dos alternativas de modelos RNA; uno de ellos es un modelo que representa todas las variables en el proceso y otro es un modelo global que simula solo las variables de entrada y de salida del proceso. La alternativa de un modelo RNA global mostró el mejor ajuste de los

  9. Saturated Branched Chain, Normal Odd-Carbon-Numbered, and n-3 (Omega-3) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Freshwater Fish in the Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong Hao; Jackson, James R; Twining, Cornelia; Rudstam, Lars G; Zollweg-Horan, Emily; Kraft, Clifford; Lawrence, Peter; Kothapalli, Kumar; Wang, Zhen; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-10-04

    The fatty acid profiles of wild freshwater fish are poorly characterized as a human food source for several classes of fatty acids, particularly for branched chain fatty acids (BCFA), a major bioactive dietary component known to enter the US food supply primarily via dairy and beef fat. We evaluated the fatty acid content of 27 freshwater fish species captured in the northeastern US with emphasis on the BCFA and bioactive polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) most associated with fish, specifically n-3 (omega-3) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Mean BCFA content across all species was 1.0 ± 0.5% (mean ± SD) of total fatty acids in edible muscle, with rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) and pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) the highest at >2% BCFA. In comparison, EPA + DHA constituted 28% ± 7% of total fatty acids. Across all fish species, the major BCFA were iso-15:0, anteiso-15:0, iso-16:0, iso-17:0 and anteiso-17:0. Fish skin had significantly higher BCFA content than muscle tissues, at 1.8% ± 0.7%, but lower EPA and DHA. Total BCFA in fish skins was positively related with that in muscle (r 2 = 0.6). The straight chain saturates n-15:0 and n-17:0 which have been identified previously as markers for dairy consumption were relatively high with means of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, and may be an underappreciated marker for seafood intake. Consuming a standardized portion, 70 g (2.5 oz), of wild freshwater fish contributes only small amounts of BCFA, 2.5-24.2 mg, to the American diet, while it adds surprisingly high amounts of EPA + DHA (107 mg to 558 mg).

  10. Oxidative stability of pullulan electrospun fibers containing fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Damberg, Cecilie; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of oil content and addition of natural antioxidants on the morphology and oxidative stability of pullulan ultra-thin fibers loaded with fish oil and obtained by electrospinning was investigated. Pullulan sub-micron fibers containing 10 and 30wt% fish oil were prepared and both presented...... into food matrices. These results show the feasibility to encapsulate fish oil in pullulan ultra-thin fibers and to improve their oxidative stability by adding natural antioxidants such as δ-tocopherol and rosemary extract. Therefore, this study might open up new opportunities for further technological...... development in the production of omega-3 nanodelivery systems, which have potential applications in different types of fortified foods. Encapsulation of fish oil in electrospun pullulan fibers stabilized by natural antioxidants....

  11. Evaluation of bread crumbs as a potential carbon source for the growth of thraustochytrid species for oil and omega-3 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagarajan, Tamilselvi; Puri, Munish; Vongsvivut, Jitraporn; Barrow, Colin J

    2014-05-23

    The utilization of food waste by microorganisms to produce omega-3 fatty acids or biofuel is a potentially low cost method with positive environmental benefits. In the present study, the marine microorganisms Thraustochytrium sp. AH-2 and Schizochytrium sp. SR21 were used to evaluate the potential of breadcrumbs as an alternate carbon source for the production of lipids under static fermentation conditions. For the Thraustochytrium sp. AH-2, submerged liquid fermentation with 3% glucose produced 4.3 g/L of biomass and 44.16 mg/g of saturated fatty acids after seven days. Static fermentation with 0.5% and 1% breadcrumbs resulted in 2.5 and 4.7 g/L of biomass, and 42.4 and 33.6 mg/g of saturated fatty acids, respectively. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies confirmed the growth of both strains on breadcrumbs. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy for both strains were consistent with the utilization of breadcrumbs for the production of unsaturated lipids, albeit at relatively low levels. The total lipid yield for static fermentation with bread crumbs was marginally lower than that of fermentation with glucose media, while the yield of unsaturated fatty acids was considerably lower, indicating that static fermentation may be more appropriate for the production of biodiesel than for the production of omega-3 rich oils in these strains.

  12. Evaluation of Bread Crumbs as a Potential Carbon Source for the Growth of Thraustochytrid Species for Oil and Omega-3 Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamilselvi Thyagarajan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of food waste by microorganisms to produce omega-3 fatty acids or biofuel is a potentially low cost method with positive environmental benefits. In the present study, the marine microorganisms Thraustochytrium sp. AH-2 and Schizochytrium sp. SR21 were used to evaluate the potential of breadcrumbs as an alternate carbon source for the production of lipids under static fermentation conditions. For the Thraustochytrium sp. AH-2, submerged liquid fermentation with 3% glucose produced 4.3 g/L of biomass and 44.16 mg/g of saturated fatty acids after seven days. Static fermentation with 0.5% and 1% breadcrumbs resulted in 2.5 and 4.7 g/L of biomass, and 42.4 and 33.6 mg/g of saturated fatty acids, respectively. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM studies confirmed the growth of both strains on breadcrumbs. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy for both strains were consistent with the utilization of breadcrumbs for the production of unsaturated lipids, albeit at relatively low levels. The total lipid yield for static fermentation with bread crumbs was marginally lower than that of fermentation with glucose media, while the yield of unsaturated fatty acids was considerably lower, indicating that static fermentation may be more appropriate for the production of biodiesel than for the production of omega-3 rich oils in these strains.

  13. Higher de novo synthesized fatty acids and lower omega 3-and omega 6-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in umbilical vessels of women with preeclampsia and high fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskes, Victor J. B.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Velzing-Aarts, Francien V.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; van der Meulen, Jan; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Umbilical veins (UV) and arteries (UA) of preeclamptic women in Curacao harbor lower long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). The present aim was to test these findings in Mwanza (Tanzania), whose inhabitants have high LCP omega 3 and LCP omega 6 intakes from Lake Victoria fish. Women with

  14. Bioengineered Plants Can Be a Useful Source of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Amjad Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids have proven to be very essential for human health due to their multiple health benefits. These essential fatty acids (EFAs need to be uptaken through diet because they are unable to be produced by the human body. These are important for skin and hair growth as well as for proper visual, neural, and reproductive functions of the body. These fatty acids are proven to be extremely vital for normal tissue development during pregnancy and infancy. Omega-3 fatty acids can be obtained mainly from two dietary sources: marine and plant oils. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5 n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3 are the primary marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids. Marine fishes are high in omega-3 fatty acids, yet high consumption of those fishes will cause a shortage of fish stocks existing naturally in the oceans. An alternative source to achieve the recommended daily intake of EFAs is the demand of today. In this review article, an attempt has, therefore, been made to discuss the importance of omega-3 fatty acids and the recent developments in order to produce these fatty acids by the genetic modifications of the plants.

  15. Omega-6/Omega-3 and PUFA/SFA in Colossoma macropomum Grown in Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alves Melho Filho

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study was evaluated the fatty acids composition of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum fillet, fish species cultivated in Roraima State, Brazil. For the extraction of tambaqui oil was used Sohxlet device and then it was methylated. The oil  was identified using a gas chromatograph and were identified 24 acids and these were divided into characteristic groups such as: saturated fatty acids (SFA, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and series fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3. The ratios obtained were PUFA/SFA and omega-6/omega-3. The results of chromatographic analysis were subjected to tests by variance ANOVA and multiple comparisons of Tukey at 5%. The ratios omega-6/omega-3 and PUFA/SFA showed values ​​of 8.58 and 0.75 respectively.

  16. Characterization of Oilseed Lipids from “DHA-Producing Camelina sativa”: A New Transformed Land Plant Containing Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged P. Mansour

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available New and sustainable sources of long-chain (LC, ≥C20 omega-3 oils containing DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6ω3 are required to meet increasing demands. The lipid content of the oilseed of a novel transgenic, DHA-producing land plant, Camelina sativa, containing microalgal genes able to produce LC omega-3 oils, contained 36% lipid by weight with triacylglycerols (TAG as the major lipid class in hexane extracts (96% of total lipid. Subsequent chloroform-methanol (CM extraction recovered further lipid (~50% polar lipid, comprising glycolipids and phospholipids and residual TAG. The main phospholipid species were phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. The % DHA was: 6.8% (of total fatty acids in the TAG-rich hexane extract and 4.2% in the polar lipid-rich CM extract. The relative level of ALA (α-linolenic acid, 18:3ω3 in DHA-camelina seed was higher than the control. Major sterols in both DHA- and control camelina seeds were: sitosterol, campesterol, cholesterol, brassicasterol and isofucosterol. C16–C22 fatty alcohols, including iso-branched and odd-chain alcohols were present, including high levels of iso-17:0, 17:0 and 19:0. Other alcohols present were: 16:0, iso-18:0, 18:0 and 18:1 and the proportions varied between the hexane and CM extracts. These iso-branched odd-chain fatty alcohols, to our knowledge, have not been previously reported. These components may be derived from wax esters, or free fatty alcohols.

  17. The application of autochthonous potential of probiotic lactobacillus plantarum 564 in fish oil fortified yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Zorica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the survival of autochthonous, potentially probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum 564, and the influence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 (omega-3 PUFA fish oil fortification on the sensory quality of yoghurt. Three variants of yoghurt were produced using starter cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (Chr. Hansen, Denmark, and the potentially probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 564 (Culture Collection of the Department for Industrial Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade as follows: (1 without omega-3 PUFA; (2 with 100 mg/l omega-3 PUFA; and (3 with 200mg/l omega-3 PUFA. The survival of potential probiotic Lb. plantarum 564, the changes of starter bacteria counts, changes of pH values, as well as sensory evaluation, were examined during 3 weeks of yoghurt storage. Cells of Lb. plantarum 564 were maintained at >108 cfug−1. Starter bacteria counts were >107 cfug−1 for streptococci and >106 cfug−1 for lactobacilli. The changes of pH were within normal pH of fermented milks. Sensory evaluation showed that all variants of yoghurt produced with Lb. plantarum 564 and 2 concentrations of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids had a high sensory quality (above 90% of maximal quality, and which did not change significantly throughout the examined storage period. Although the sensory quality of the control sample was evaluated as better, the experimental samples fortified with fish oil were also characterized with very acceptable sensory properties. Results of high viability of potential probiotic Lb. plantarum 564, as well as very acceptable yoghurt sensory properties, indicate that this strain can be successfully used in the production of yoghurt fortified with PUFA omega-3 fish oil as a new functional dairy product. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 046010 i br. 046009

  18. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (N-3) Fatty Acid: Effect on Humans during Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. These are some of the systems on which intakes of fish and n-3 fatty acids have positive effects. These effects are likely to occur through inhibition of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNFalpha) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-KB activation. We documented this effect in a 3D cell culture model, where NF-KB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have extended these studies and report here (a) NF-KB expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews on 2-wk missions, (b) the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog), and (c) the effects of fish intake in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo on the International Space Station. After Shuttle flights of 2 wk, NFKB p65 expression at landing was increased (P less than 0.001). After 60 d of bed rest, higher intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = -0.46, P less than 0.05). Together with our earlier findings, these data provide mechanistic cellular and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with spaceflight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  19. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids: Effect on Humans During Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Zwart, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. Bone and muscle are two systems that are positively affected by dietary intake of fish and n-3 fatty acids. The mechanism is likely to be related to inhibition by n-3 fatty acids of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-kB activation. We have documented this effect in a 3-dimensional cell culture model, where NF-kB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have also indentified that NF-kB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews. We found that after Shuttle flights of 2 wk, expression of the protein p65 (evidence of NF-kB activation) was increased at landing (P less than 0.001). When evaluating the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake on bone breakdown after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog). We found that after 60 d of bed rest, greater intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). We also evaluated the relationship of fish intake and bone loss in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo missions on the International Space Station. Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = 0.46, P less than 0.05). Together, these findings provide evidence of the cellular mechanism by which n-3 fatty acids can inhibit bone loss, and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with space flight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  1. Omega-3 fiskeolie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Anita; Sørensen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Rapport afgrænser sig til evidensbaserede helbredsmæssige gevinster ved et øget indtag af langkædede omega-3, som opnås ved en kost rig på fisk eller som et tilskud af fiskeolier. Der gennemføres en systematisk litteraturgennemgang, som baserer sig på et evidensniveau svarende til styrke A. Det...... betyder, at gennemgangen inkluderer metaanalyser/oversigtsartikler af enten eksperimentelle studier eller observationsstudier, endvidere indgår udvalgte større RCT, som er refereret i meta-analyserne. Sammenfattende findes på baggrund af litteraturgennemgang, at tilskud af omega-3 har effekt på...... hjertesygdom ved at nedsætte mortaliteten. Effekten er mest evident ved personer i særlig risiko for at udvikle hjerte-karsygdom, eller som sekundær/tertiær profylakse. Tilsvarende findes også ved tilskud af omega-3 en forebyggende effekt i forhold til iskæmisk apopleksi. Af mulige virkningsmekanismer viser...

  2. Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression in the Prostate: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    controls, Menendez et al demonstrated that addition of omega-3 fatty acids (-3 FA), docosahexanoic acid ( DHA ), alpha- linolenic acid , and -6 FA, γ...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0296 TITLE: Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid ...COVERED 1 March 2010 – 30 June 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression in the

  3. Theoretical and Kinetic Tools for Selecting Effective Antioxidants: Application to the Protection of Omega-3 Oils with Natural and Synthetic Phenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Guitard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Radical-scavenging antioxidants play crucial roles in the protection of unsaturated oils against autoxidation and, especially, edible oils rich in omega-3 because of their high sensitivity to oxygen. Two complementary tools are employed to select, among a large set of natural and synthetic phenols, the most promising antioxidants. On the one hand, density functional theory (DFT calculations provide bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs of 70 natural (i.e., tocopherols, hydroxybenzoic and cinnamic acids, flavonoids, stilbenes, lignans, and coumarins and synthetic (i.e., 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT, 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisol (BHA, and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ phenols. These BDEs are discussed on the basis of structure–activity relationships with regard to their potential antioxidant activities. On the other hand, the kinetic rate constants and number of hydrogen atoms released per phenol molecule are measured by monitoring the reaction of phenols with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• radical. The comparison of the results obtained with these two complementary methods allows highlighting the most promising antioxidants. Finally, the antioxidant effectiveness of the best candidates is assessed by following the absorption of oxygen by methyl esters of linseed oil containing 0.5 mmol L−1 of antioxidant and warmed at 90 °C under oxygen atmosphere. Under these conditions, some natural phenols namely epigallocatechin gallate, myricetin, rosmarinic and carnosic acids were found to be more effective antioxidants than α-tocopherol.

  4. The effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil on renal function and the course of early postoperative rejection episodes in cyclosporine-treated renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan van der Heide, J. J.; Bilo, H. J.; Donker, A. J.; Wilmink, J. M.; Sluiter, W. J.; Tegzess, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    In a randomized prospective coconut oil (daily 6g[63% C8:0 and 36% C10:0] [EPA-] [n = 48])-controlled trial, we investigated the effect of a one-month dietary supplementation with daily 6 g fish oil (30% C20:5 omega-3 and 20% C22:6 omega-3 as their methyl esthers [EPA+] [n = 40]) on the incidence

  5. Effect of Marine Omega 3 Fatty Acids on Methylmercury-Induced Toxicity in Fish and Mammalian Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Nøstbakken

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant which bioaccumulates in marine biota. Fish constitute an important part of a balanced human diet contributing with health beneficial nutrients but may also contain contaminants such as MeHg. Interactions between the marine n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA with MeHg-induced toxicity were investigated. Different toxic and metabolic responses were studied in Atlantic salmon kidney (ASK cell line and the mammalian kidney-derived HEK293 cell line. Both cell lines were preincubated with DHA or EPA prior to MeHg-exposure, and cell toxicity was assessed differently in the cell lines by MeHg-uptake in cells (ASK and HEK293, proliferation (HEK293 and ASK, apoptosis (ASK, oxidation of the red-ox probe roGFP (HEK293, and regulation of selected toxicological and metabolic transcriptional markers (ASK. DHA was observed to decrease the uptake of MeHg in HEK293, but not in ASK cells. DHA also increased, while EPA decreased, MeHg-induced apoptosis in ASK. MeHg exposure induced changes in selected metabolic and known MeHg biomarkers in ASK cells. Both DHA and MeHg, but not EPA, oxidized roGFP in HEK293 cells. In conclusion, marine n-3 fatty acids may ameliorate MeHg toxicity, either by decreasing apoptosis (EPA or by reducing MeHg uptake (DHA. However, DHA can also augment MeHg toxicity by increasing oxidative stress and apoptosis when combined with MeHg.

  6. Is Omega-3 Fatty Acids Enriched Nutrition Support Safe for Critical Ill Patients? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To systematically review the effects of omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (FA enriched nutrition support on the mortality of critically illness patients. Methods: Databases of Medline, ISI, Cochrane Library, and Chinese Biomedicine Database were searched and randomized controlled trials (RCTs were identified. We enrolled RCTs that compared fish oil enriched nutrition support and standard nutrition support. Major outcome is mortality. Methodological quality assessment was conducted based on Modified Jadad’s score scale. For control heterogeneity, we developed a method that integrated I2 test, nutritional support route subgroup analysis and clinical condition of severity. RevMan 5.0 software (The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark was used for meta-analysis. Results: Twelve trials involving 1208 patients that met all the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity existed between the trials. A random model was used, there was no significant effect on mortality RR, 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI (0.62, 1.09, p = 0.18. Knowing that the route of fish oil administration may affect heterogeneity, we categorized the trials into two sub-groups: parenteral administration (PN of omega-3 and enteral administration (EN of omega-3. Six trials administered omega-3 FA through PN. Pooled results indicated that omega-3 FA had no significant effect on mortality, RR 0.76, 95% CI (0.52, 1.10, p = 0.15. Six trials used omega-3 fatty acids enriched EN. After excluded one trial that was identified as source of heterogeneity, pooled data indicated omega-3 FA enriched EN significant reduce mortality, RR=0.69, 95% CI [0.53, 0.91] (p = 0.007. Conclusion: Omega-3 FA enriched nutrition support is safe. Due to the limited sample size of the included trials, further large-scale RCTs are needed.

  7. Degummed crude canola oil, sire breed and gender effects on intramuscular long-chain omega-3 fatty acid properties of raw and cooked lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flakemore, Aaron Ross; Malau-Aduli, Bunmi Sherifat; Nichols, Peter David; Malau-Aduli, Aduli Enoch Othniel

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 long-chain (≥C 20 ) polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) confer important attributes to health-conscious meat consumers due to the significant role they play in brain development, prevention of coronary heart disease, obesity and hypertension. In this study, the ω3 LC-PUFA content of raw and cooked Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle from genetically divergent Australian prime lambs supplemented with dietary degummed crude canola oil (DCCO) was evaluated. Samples of LTL muscle were sourced from 24 first cross ewe and wether lambs sired by Dorset, White Suffolk and Merino rams joined to Merino dams that were assigned to supplemental regimes of degummed crude canola oil (DCCO): a control diet at 0 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOC); 25 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOM) and 50 mL/kg DCCO (DCCOH). Lambs were individually housed and offered 1 kg/day/head for 42 days before being slaughtered. Samples for cooked analysis were prepared to a core temperature of 70 °C using conductive dry-heat. Within raw meats: DCCOH supplemented lambs had significantly ( P  culinary preparation method can be used as effective management tools to deliver nutritionally improved ω3 LC-PUFA lamb to meat consumers.

  8. The Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyuan Bu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the third commonest cause of death following cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In particular, in recent years, the morbidity and mortality of stroke keep remarkable growing. However, stroke still captures people attention far less than cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Past studies have shown that oxidative stress and inflammation play crucial roles in the progress of cerebral injury induced by stroke. Evidence is accumulating that the dietary supplementation of fish oil exhibits beneficial effects on several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, and cancer. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, the major component of fish oil, have been found against oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular diseases. And the potential of n-3 PUFAs in stroke treatment is attracting more and more attention. In this review, we will review the effects of n-3 PUFAs on stroke and mainly focus on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 PUFAs.

  9. Addition of Aspirin to a Fish Oil Rich Diet Decreases Inflammation and Atherosclerosis in ApoE-Null Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Alexander V.; Yang, Zhi-Hong; Vaisman, Boris L.; Thacker, Seth; Yu, Zu-Xi; Sampson, Maureen; Serhan, Charles N.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is known to alter the production of potent inflammatory lipid mediators, but whether it interacts with omega-3 fatty acids (FA) from fish oil to affect atherosclerosis has not been determined. The goal was to investigate the impact of a fish oil enriched diet alone and in combination with ASA on the production of lipid mediators and atherosclerosis. ApoE−/− female mice were fed for 13 weeks one of the four following diets: Omega-3 FA deficient (OD), Omega-3 FA Rich (OR) (1.8 g Omega-3 FAs/kg • diet per day), Omega-3 FA Rich plus ASA (ORA) (0.1 g ASA/kg • diet per day), or an Omega-3 FA deficient plus ASA (ODA) with supplement levels equivalent to human doses. Plasma lipids, atherosclerosis, markers of inflammation, hepatic gene expression and aortic lipid mediators were determined. Hepatic omega-3 FAs were markedly higher in OR (9.9-fold) and ORA (7-fold) groups. Mice in both OR and ORA groups had 40% less plasma cholesterol in VLDL and LDL fractions, but aortic plaque area formation was only significantly lower in the ORA group (5.5%) compared to the OD group (2.5%). Plasma PCSK9 protein levels were approximately 70% lower in the OR and ORA groups. Pro-inflammatory aortic lipid mediators were 50–70% lower in the ODA group than in the OD group and more than 50% lower in the ORA group. In summary, less aortic plaque lesions and aortic pro-inflammatory lipid mediators were observed in mice on the fish oil diet plus ASA versus just the fish oil diet. PMID:27394692

  10. Dietary Changes with Omega-3 Fatty Acids Improves the Blood Lipid Profile of Wistar Albino Rats with Hypercholesterolaemia

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    Shahida A Khan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lipid profile is a reasonably reliable parameter for the assessment of cardiovascular risk, besides the anthropometric measurements. Serum lipid dysfunctions in the HDL and LDL components are commonly observed in cardiac patients. Omega-3 fatty acids exhibit a hypolipidemic potential which could be exploited in preventing the onset of this alarmingly increasing problem globally. Aims: To evaluate and compare the effects of different sources of omega-3 fatty acids, on the lipid profile parameters in rats induced with hyperlipidaemia. Methods and material: In our present study, we supplemented omega-3 oils from the plant source as well as the fish source to hypocholesteraemia induced Wistar albino rats for a period of three months. Wistar albino rats were fed normal chow along with 1% cholesterol for a period of three months to induce hypocholesteraemia. To this 1% flax oil and 0.1% fish oil were mixed separately and fed to two groups of rats for another period of three months to check for hypolipidemic effects if any. Results and conclusions: A significant reduction in total cholesterol, LDL, and glucose levels with increases in HDL levels in the flax oil as well as fish oil groups is observed. Also, a noticeable change though not significant was observed in the plasma triglyceride concentrations after the supplementation period. This significant hypolipemic effect by omega-3 fatty acids from both the sources, demonstrates their possible therapeutic use in patients with cardiac risk.

  11. Development of food-grade nanoemulsions and emulsions for delivery of omega-3 fatty acids: opportunities and obstacles in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebecca; Decker, Eric A; McClements, David Julian

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of biologically active amounts of omega-3 fatty acids is linked to improved human health, which has partly been attributed to their important role in brain development and cardiovascular health. Western diets are relatively low in omega-3 fatty acids and many consumers turn to supplements or functional foods to increase their intake of these healthy lipids. Fish oil is one of the most widely used sources of omega-3 fatty acid for supplementation and has greater health benefits than plant sources because of its higher concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids into foods and beverages is often challenging due to their low water-solubility, poor oxidative stability, and variable bioavailability. Nanoemulsions offer a promising way to incorporate omega-3 fatty acids into liquid food systems like beverages, dressing, sauces, and dips. Nanoemulsions are colloidal dispersions that contain small oil droplets (rfoods and beverages with omega-3 fatty acids. The composition and fabrication of nanoemulsions can be optimized to increase the chemical and physical stability of oil droplets, as well as to increase the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids.

  12. Chemoprotective effect of omega-3 fatty acids on thioacetamide induced hepatic fibrosis in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef M. Al-Attar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to investigate the possible protective effect of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil on hepatic fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA in male rats. The experimental animals were divided into four groups. The first group was received saline solution and served as control. The second group was given 250 mg/kg body weight of TAA. The third group was treated with omega-3 fatty acids and TAA. The fourth group was given saline solution and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Treatment of rats with TAA for three and six weeks resulted in a significant decrease in body weight gain, while the value of liver/body weight ratio was statistically increased. Furthermore, the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase and total bilirubin were significantly increased. After three weeks of exposure to only TAA, liver sections showed an abnormal morphology characterized by noticeable fibrosis with the extracellular matrix collagen contents and damage of liver cells’ structure. Liver sections from rats treated with only TAA for six weeks revealed an obvious increase in extracellular matrix collagen content and bridging fibrosis. Treating TAA-intoxicated rats with omega-3 fatty acids significantly attenuated the severe physiological and histopathological changes. Finally, the present investigation suggests that omega-3 fatty acids could act against hepatic fibrosis induced by TAA due to its antioxidant properties, thus supporting its use in hepatic fibrosis therapy.

  13. THE COMPETITION BETWEEN METHYLMERCURY RISKS AND OMEGA-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID BENEFITS: A REVIEW OF CONFLICTING EVIDENCE ON FISH CONSUMPTION AND CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LIPFERT, F.W.; SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2006-10-31

    The health concerns of methylmercury (MeHg) contamination of seafood have recently been extended to include cardiovascular effects, especially premature mortality. Although the fatty acids (fish oils) found in most species are thought to confer a wide range of health benefits, especially to the cardiovascular system, some epidemiological studies have suggested that such benefits may be offset by adverse effects of MeHg. This comprehensive review is based on searches of the NIH MEDLINE database and compares and contrasts 145 published studies involving cardiovascular effects and exposures to mercury and other fish contaminants, intake of fatty acids including dietary supplements of fish oils, and rates of seafood consumption. Since few of these studies include adequate simultaneous measurements of all of these potential predictor variables, we summarized their effects separately, across the available studies of each, and then drew conclusions based on the aggregated findings. It is important to realize that studies of seafood consumption encompass the net effects of all of these predictor variables, but that seafood intake studies are rarely supported by human biomarker measurements that reflect the actual uptake of harmful as well as beneficial fish ingredients. As a result, exposure measurement error is an issue when comparing studies and predictor variables. It is also possible that the observed benefits of eating fish may relate more to the characteristics of the consumers than to those of the fish. We found the evidence for adverse cardiovascular effects of MeHg to be sparse and unconvincing. Studies of cardiovascular mortality show net benefits, and the findings of adverse effects are mainly limited to studies Finland at high mercury exposure levels. By contrast, a very consistent picture of beneficial effects is seen for fatty acids, after recognizing the effects of exposure uncertainties and the presence of threshold effects. Studies based on measured

  14. Omega 3 mastné kyseliny v diabetologii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, Suppl.B (2011), B60-B64 ISSN 1212-7299 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Omega-3 PUFA * sea fish * cardiovascular disease Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  15. Omega 3 fatty acids increase spontaneous release of cytosolic components from tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenski, L.J.; Sturdevant, L.K.; Ehringer, W.D.; Stillwell, W.

    1991-01-01

    Mice fed menhaden (fish) oil or coconut oil-rich diets were inoculated intraperitoneally with a rapidly growing leukemia, T27A. After one week, the tumor cells were harvested, and 51Cr was used to label intracellular molecules. Spontaneous release of 51Cr was used as a measure of plasma membrane permeability. Compared to cells from mice fed coconut oil (rich in saturated fatty acids), tumor cells from mice fed menhaden oil (rich in long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acids) showed an increased level of spontaneous 51Cr release, which was exacerbated by increased temperature and reduced by extracellular protein. At physiological salt concentrations, the released 51Cr was detected in particles of approximately 2700 daltons. Enhanced permeability correlated with the incorporation of dietary (fish oil) omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid into the tumor cells. The results demonstrate that omega 3 fatty acids are incorporated into cellular constituents of tumor cells and change properties associated with the plasma membrane. This result suggests that dietary manipulation may be used to enhance tumor cell permeability and contribute to tumor eradication

  16. Omega 3 fatty acid for the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Sydenham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from observational studies suggests that diets high in omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA may protect people from cognitive decline and dementia. The strength of this potential protective effect has recently been tested in randomized controlled trials. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of omega-3 PUFA supplementation for the prevention of dementia and cognitive decline in cognitively healthy older people. METHODS: Search: We searched ALOIS - the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's Specialized Register on - 6 April 2012 using the terms: "omega 3", PUFA, "fatty acids", "fatty acid", fish, linseed, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials of an omega-3 PUFA intervention which was provided for a minimum of six months to participants aged 60 years and over who were free from dementia or cognitive impairment at the beginning of the study. Two review authors independently assessed all trials. Data collection and analysis: The review authors sought and extracted data on incident dementia, cognitive function, safety and adherence, either from published reports or by contacting the investigators for original data. Data were extracted by two review authors. We calculated mean difference (MD or standardised mean differences (SMD and 95% confidence intervals (CI on an intention-to-treat basis, and summarized narratively information on safety and adherence. MAIN RESULTS: Information on cognitive function at the start of a study was available on 4080 participants randomised in three trials. Cognitive function data were available on 3536 participants at final follow-up. In two studies participants received gel capsules containing either omega-3 PUFA (the intervention or olive or sunflower oil (placebo for six or 24 months. In one study, participants received margarine spread for 40 months; the margarine for the intervention group contained omega-3 PUFA. Two studies

  17. Omega 3 fatty acid for the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Sydenham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from observational studies suggests that diets high in omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA may protect people from cognitive decline and dementia. The strength of this potential protective effect has recently been tested in randomized controlled trials. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of omega-3 PUFA supplementation for the prevention of dementia and cognitive decline in cognitively healthy older people. METHODS: Search: We searched ALOIS - the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's Specialized Register on - 6 April 2012 using the terms: "omega 3", PUFA, "fatty acids", "fatty acid", fish, linseed, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials of an omega-3 PUFA intervention which was provided for a minimum of six months to participants aged 60 years and over who were free from dementia or cognitive impairment at the beginning of the study. Two review authors independently assessed all trials. Data collection and analysis: The review authors sought and extracted data on incident dementia, cognitive function, safety and adherence, either from published reports or by contacting the investigators for original data. Data were extracted by two review authors. We calculated mean difference (MD or standardised mean differences (SMD and 95% confidence intervals (CI on an intention-to-treat basis, and summarized narratively information on safety and adherence. MAIN RESULTS: Information on cognitive function at the start of a study was available on 4080 participants randomised in three trials. Cognitive function data were available on 3536 participants at final follow-up. In two studies participants received gel capsules containing either omega-3 PUFA (the intervention or olive or sunflower oil (placebo for six or 24 months. In one study, participants received margarine spread for 40 months; the margarine for the intervention group contained omega-3 PUFA. Two studies

  18. Fish Oil in Diabetic Nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Peter; Hansen, Birgitte V.; Nielsen, Flemming S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent studies in nondiabetic kidney diseases suggest that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish oil) may have beneficial effects on albuminuria, kidney function, arterial blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. Therefore, we evaluated the long-term effect of fish...... in the fish oil compared with the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Our study does not suggest that fish oil has beneficial effects on albuminuria, kidney function, blood pressure, and dyslipidemia in normotensive IDDM patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy....

  19. Degummed crude canola oil, sire breed and gender effects on intramuscular long-chain omega-3 fatty acid properties of raw and cooked lamb meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Ross Flakemore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega-3 long-chain (≥C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA confer important attributes to health-conscious meat consumers due to the significant role they play in brain development, prevention of coronary heart disease, obesity and hypertension. In this study, the ω3 LC-PUFA content of raw and cooked Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL muscle from genetically divergent Australian prime lambs supplemented with dietary degummed crude canola oil (DCCO was evaluated. Methods Samples of LTL muscle were sourced from 24 first cross ewe and wether lambs sired by Dorset, White Suffolk and Merino rams joined to Merino dams that were assigned to supplemental regimes of degummed crude canola oil (DCCO: a control diet at 0 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOC; 25 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOM and 50 mL/kg DCCO (DCCOH. Lambs were individually housed and offered 1 kg/day/head for 42 days before being slaughtered. Samples for cooked analysis were prepared to a core temperature of 70 °C using conductive dry-heat. Results Within raw meats: DCCOH supplemented lambs had significantly (P < 0.05 higher concentrations of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5ω3 and EPA + docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6ω3 acids than those supplemented with DCCOM or DCCOC; Dorset sired lambs contained significantly (P < 0.05 more EPA and EPA + DHA than other sire breeds; diet and sire breed interactions were significant (P < 0.05 in affecting EPA and EPA + DHA concentrations. In cooked meat, ω3 LC-PUFA concentrations in DCCOM (32 mg/100 g, DCCOH (38 mg/100 g, Dorset (36 mg/100 g, White Suffolk (32 mg/100 g, ewes (32 mg/100 g and wethers (33 mg/100 g, all exceeded the minimum content of 30 mg/100 g of edible cooked portion of EPA + DHA for Australian defined ‘source’ level ω3 LC-PUFA classification. Conclusion These results present that combinations of dietary degummed crude canola oil, sheep genetics and culinary preparation method can be used as

  20. A fish a day, keeps the cardiologist away! - A review of the effect of omega-3 fatty acids in the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumia Peter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia and its consequences are emerging as epidemics with deleterious consequences on cardiovascular (CV health. The beneficial effects of omega-3-fatty acids on cardiac and extra cardiac organs have been extensively studied in the last two decades, and continue to show great promise in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. Omega-3-fatty acid supplementation has been proven to have beneficial action on lipid profile, cytokine cascade, oxidant-anti-oxidant balance, parasympathetic and sympathetic tone and nitric oxide synthesis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the basis of its cardiac and non-cardiac benefits, present results from clinical trials and the recommendations for its use in cardiac diseases and dyslipidemias.

  1. Promotion of colon cancer metastases in rat liver by fish oil diet is not due to reduced stroma formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klieverik, L.; Fehres, O.; Griffini, P.; van Noorden, C. J.; Frederiks, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induce 10-fold more metastases in number and 1000-fold in volume in an animal model of colon cancer metastasis in rat liver. It was observed that tumors of rats on a fish oil diet lacked peritumoral stroma unlike

  2. Ozone-Induced Vascular Contractility and Pulmonary Injury Are Differently Impacted by Coconut, Fish and Olive Oil-Rich diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids present in fish oil supplements are proposed to offer cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if these supplements can protect against the adverse health effects induced by exposure to air pollution. Ozone, an ubiquitous air p...

  3. Efficacy of Fish Oil in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Heidari

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of fish oil fatty acids (omega - 3 fatty acids inhibits the formation of arachidonic acid - derived cytokines and leads to production of compounds with diminished biological activity. Beneficial effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil in rheumatoid arthritis have been shown in many controlled trials."nMethods : 43 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis entered in a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to recieve either lOgr fish oil daily (treatment group or corn oil (placebo group. Baseline drugs and usual diet were continued without any changes. Disease variables were evaluated at baseline and after completion of study period."nThe changes in disease variables were compared by paired t-tesl in each group. Comparison of the two groups was done by t-test. Functional capacity was compared by Wilcoxon ranks test."nResults : 19 patients in treatment group and 20 patients in placebo group completed the study which lasted eight weeks . In the treatment group, joint pain index decreased from 30±11 at baseline, to 18±11 at the end of study period (P < 0.01. Joint swelling index decreased from 8 ± 4 to 2 ± 4, (P< 0.01, morning stiffness from 87 ± 41 to 24±16 minutes (P < 0.01. In the placebo group the above variable changes were from 19±14 to 25±14 ; 8±8 to 7±6 and 80±71 to 76±75 minutes respectively, which were not significant . The differences between the treatment and placebo groups were significant in joint swelling index (P < 0.05, morning stiffness (P<0.01 and functioal capacity (p< 0.005, the differences in joint pain index and grip strenght did not quite achieve statstical significance. During study period there were no adverese effects with fish oil consumption."nConclusion : Fish oil supplemention has anti-inflamatory effects in rheumatoid arthritis. Further studies are needed to recommend its long - term usage concomittant with other drugs in all patients

  4. Milk Chemical Composition of Dairy Cows Fed Rations Containing Protected Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Fermented Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudibya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to investigate the effect of ration containing protected omega-3 and fermented rice bran on chemical composition of dairy milk. The research employed 10 female PFH dairy cows of 2-4 years old with body weight 300-375 kg. The research was assigned in randomized complete block design. The treatment consisted of P0= control ration, P1= P0 + 20% fermented rice bran, P2= P1 + 4% soya bean oil, P3= P1 + 4% protected tuna fish oil and P4= P1 + 4% protected lemuru fish oil. The results showed that the effects of fish oil supplementation in the rations significantly (P<0.01 decreased feed consumption, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, lipids, and saturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, it increased milk production, content of high density lipoprotein, omega-3, omega-6 and unsaturated fatty acids in the dairy cows milk. It is concluded that the inclusion of 4% protected fish oil in the rations can produce healthy milk by decreasing milk cholesterol and increasing omega-3 fatty acids content.

  5. Effects of green tea extract and α-tocopherol on the lipid oxidation rate of omega-3 oils, incorporated into table spreads, prepared using multiple emulsion technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Sandra P O'; O'Beirne, David; Ní Eidhin, Deirdre; O'Kennedy, Brendan T

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of fat and water soluble antioxidants on the oxidative stability of omega (ω)-3 rich table spreads, produced using novel multiple emulsion technology. Table spreads were produced by dispersing an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion (500 g/kg 85 camelina/15 fish oil blend) in a hardstock/rapeseed oil blend, using sodium caseinate and polyglycerol polyricinoleate as emulsifiers. The O/W and oil-in-water-in-oil (O/W/O) emulsions contained either a water soluble antioxidant (green tea extract [GTE]), an oil soluble antioxidant (α-Tocopherol), or both. Spreads containing α-Tocopherol had the highest lipid hydroperoxide values, whereas spreads containing GTE had the lowest (P < 0.05), during storage at 5°C, while p-Anisidine values did not differ significantly. Particle size was generally unaffected by antioxidant type (P < 0.05). Double emulsion (O/W/O) structures were clearly seen in confocal images of the spreads. By the end of storage, none of the spreads had significantly different G' values. Firmness (Newtons) of all spreads generally increased during storage (P < 0.05). © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Flushing and pruritus secondary to prescription fish oil ingestion in a patient with allergy to fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Thompson, Amanda; Dutton, Anna; Hoover, Robert; Goodfred, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    A brand of fish oil capsules contains omega-3 fatty acids obtained from several fish sources. Although the manufacturer calls for caution in patients with fish hypersensitivity, insufficient data is available to make a definitive recommendation regarding its use in this population. A patient with documented seafood allergy presented to the emergency department 4 days after the initiation of prescription brand name fish oil capsules complaining of chest tightness, shortness of breath, tingling of upper extremities, flushing, and pruritus that was minimally relieved by excessive nonprescription diphenhydramine administration. During subsequent follow-up, the patient reported that all symptoms had resolved within 5 days of discontinuing the medication and 3 days of disposing of her pillbox and all medications that had come in contact with the fish oil capsules. Due to the patient's allergic history, timing of onset/offset of the reaction, laboratory evidence, and the use of the Naranjo probability scale, prescription fish oil capsules were deemed the probable cause of this patient's pruritus and flushing of the face and trunk. Practitioners and patients should always ensure they have an updated list of allergies within the patient's medical record that includes medications as well as foods and food additives.

  7. Phenolipids as antioxidants in omega-3 enriched food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Aleman, M.; Durand, E.

    Foods containing omega-3 PUFA are highly susceptible to oxidation. This causes formation of undesirable flavors and loss of health-beneficial fatty acids. To protect these food products, antioxidant addition may be a solution. Lately, extensive work has been performed on phenolipids...... and their efficacy in model emulsion systems. Since the polar paradox hypothesis was a simplified statement of the antioxidant efficacy in emulsions, a new term, “cut-off effect”, was introduced. The cut-off effect describes the efficacy of phenolipids in simple emulsions. However, most food products consist...... acid and its esters, caffeates, in two different fish-oil-enriched food products: mayonnaise and milk. Lipid oxidation was evaluated from 3 parameters measured over storage time: peroxide value, volatiles and tocopherol concentrations. The results demonstrate the influence of the complex emulsions...

  8. Lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched oil-in-water emulsions and cream cheese with pre-emulsified fish oil is affected differently by the emulsifier used

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Andersen, Ulf

    It is well-documented that a high intake of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has several health beneficial effects in humans. Consequently, the interest in food products enriched with marine oils has increased during recent years. However, addition of these highly unsaturated fatty...... will include results from studies on lipid oxidation in simple oil-in-water emulsions prepared with milk proteins alone or combinations of milk proteins and phospholipids. In addition, a study on fish oil enriched cream cheese will be presented. In this study, the cream cheese was enriched with either neat...... acids to foods invariably increases the risk of lipid oxidation. A possible strategy to avoid lipid oxidation and the consecutive development of unpleasant off-flavours is to protect the oil in a delivery emulsion in which the oil droplets are shielded from its possible pro-oxidative surroundings...

  9. Corn oil versus lard: Metabolic effects of omega-3 fatty acids in mice fed obesogenic diets with different fatty acid composition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlišová, Jana; Bardová, Kristina; Staňková, B.; Tvrzická, E.; Kopecký, Jan; Rossmeisl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 124, May (2016), s. 150-162 ISSN 0300-9084 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00871S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-09347S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Omega-3 fatty acids * hepatic steatosis * obesity * insulin resistance * Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.112, year: 2016

  10. Motivational factors for consuming omega-3 PUFAs: an exploratory study with Danish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G; Scholderer, Joachim; Hagemann, Kit Skov; Elgaard, Peter; Nielsen, Brian; Graverholt, Jens Peter

    2008-07-01

    Growing consumer awareness of functional foods and understanding of their positive nutritional effects have led to the need of specific studies and have captured more attention than ever before. In Europe, Danish consumers have been found to be relatively negative towards the concept of functional foods. This paper presents the results of a qualitative pilot study that aimed to explore Danish consumers' motives for choosing omega-3/fish oil enriched products. The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) was applied as a theoretical framework to understand the process by which people choose healthy foods. By conducting qualitative in-depth interviews the study mostly focused on the role of behavioural intention predictors such as risk perception, outcome expectations and self-efficacy. The results of the study suggest that consumers' understanding of healthy eating as such does not relate to the choice of omega-3/fish oil, whereas perception of omega-3 as an ingredient in selected foods does indeed influence consumers' choice of carrier-ingredient combinations.

  11. A Prospective, Postmarket, Compassionate Clinical Evaluation of a Novel Acellular Fish-skin Graft Which Contains Omega-3 Fatty Acids for the Closure of Hard-to-heal Lower Extremity Chronic Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun K; Polanco, Thais O; Lantis, John C

    2016-04-01

    A novel piscine acellular fish-skin graft product has 510k clearance on the US market. This product (Omega3, Kerecis, Isafjordur, Iceland) is to be used similarly to extracellular matrices (ECMs) on the market (eg, bovine and porcine) except that it contains fats, including omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that have been associated with anti-inflammatory properties in many studies. While many current ECMs are effective on open wounds, studies have largely excluded application to hard-to-heal ulcers. To test this product in a real-world environment, the authors chose to look specifically at hard-to-heal ulcers based on previously defined wound and patient factors. The primary objective was to assess the percentage of wound closure area from baseline after 5 weekly fish-skin graft applications in 18 patients with at least 1 "hard-to-heal" criteria. Patients underwent application of the fish skin for 5 sequential weeks, followed by 3 weeks of standard of care. Wound area, skin assessments, and pain were assessed weekly. A 40% decrease in wound surface area (P skin graft and secondary dressing (P < 0.05). Complete closure was seen in 3 of 18 patients by the end of the study phase. This fish-skin product appears to provide promise as an effective wound closing adjunctive ECM. This is true when used in this compassionate setting, where many other products fail. This study lacks a control arm and an aggressive application schedule, but the investigators believe it represents real-world practice.

  12. Supercritical CO2 extraction of oil and omega-3 concentrate from Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) from Antioquia, Colombia; Extracción con CO2 supercrítico de aceite y un concentrado de omega-3 a partir de Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) proveniente de Antioquia, Colombia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torijano-Gutiérrez, S.A.; Triana-Maldonadoa, D.M.; Giraldo-Estradaa, C.

    2017-07-01

    Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) seeds were employed for oil extraction with supercritical CO2 at laboratory scale. The supercritical extraction was carried out at a temperature of 60 °C, pressure range of 400–500 bars and CO2 flow of 40–80 g/min. The maximum recovery was 58% in 180 min, favored by increasing the residence time of CO2 in the extraction tank. Subsequently, the process was evaluated at pilot scale reaching a maximum recovery of 60% in 105 min, with a temperature of 60 °C, pressure of 450 bars and CO2 flow of 1270 g/min. The fatty acid composition of the oil was not affected for an extraction period of 30–120 min. The Sacha inchi oil was fractionated with supercritical CO2 to obtain an omega-3 concentrate oil without finding a considerable increase in the proportion of this compound, due to the narrow range in the carbon number of fatty acids present in the oil (16–18 carbons), making it difficult for selective separation. [Spanish] Semillas de Sacha inchi fueron empleadas para la extracción de su aceite con CO2 supercrítico a escala de laboratorio, a una temperatura de 60 °C, entre 400–500 bares de presión y un flujo de CO2 entre 40–80 g/min, obteniendose una recuperación máxima del 58% en 180 min favorecida por el aumento en el tiempo de residencia del CO2 en el tanque de extracción. Posteriormente, se evaluó el proceso a escala piloto, alcanzando una recuperación máxima del 60% en 105 min de extracción, a una temperatura de 60 °C, presión de 450 bares y flujo de CO2 de 1270 g/min, sin afectar la composición de los ácidos grasos del aceite durante un periodo de extracción entre 30–120 min. El aceite de Sacha inchi fue fraccionado con CO2 supercrítico para la obtención de un aceite concentrado de omega-3, sin encontrar aumento considerable en la proporción de este compuesto debido al estrecho rango en el número de carbonos (16–18 carbonos) de los ácidos grasos presentes en el aceite, lo que dificulta su

  13. Dietary intake of fish, omega-3, omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D and the prevalence of psychotic-like symptoms in a cohort of 33,000 women from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedelin, Maria; Löf, Marie; Olsson, Marita; Lewander, Tommy; Nilsson, Björn; Hultman, Christina M; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2010-05-26

    Low intake of fish, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to play a role in the development of schizophrenia. Our aim was to evaluate the association between the intake of different fish species, PUFA and vitamin D and the prevalence of psychotic-like symptoms in a population-based study among Swedish women. Dietary intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire among 33,623 women aged 30-49 years at enrollment (1991/92). Information on psychotic-like symptoms was derived from a follow-up questionnaire in the years 2002/03. Participants were classified into three predefined levels: low, middle and high frequency of symptoms. The association between diet and psychotic-like symptoms was summarized in terms of relative risks (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals and was evaluated by energy-adjusted multinomial logistic regression. 18,411 women were classified as having a low level of psychotic-like symptoms, 14 395 as middle and 817 as having a high level. The risk of high level symptoms was 53% (95% CI, 30-69%) lower among women who ate fish 3-4 times per week compared to women who never ate fish. The risk was also lower for women with a high intake of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA compared to women with a lower intake of these fatty acids. The effect was most pronounced for omega-6 PUFAs. The RR comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of omega-6 PUFAs intake was 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64-0.97). The associations were J-shaped with the strongest reduced risk for an intermediate intake of fish or PUFA. For fatty fish (herring/mackerel, salmon-type fish), the strongest inverse association was found for an intermediate intake (RR: 0.81, 95% CI, 0.66-0.98), whereas a high intake of fatty fish was associated with an increased risk of psychotic-like symptoms (RR: 1.90, 95% CI, 1.34-2.70). Women in the highest compared with the lowest quartile of vitamin D consumption experienced a 37% (95% CI, 22-50%) lower risk of

  14. Dietary intake of fish, omega-3, omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D and the prevalence of psychotic-like symptoms in a cohort of 33 000 women from the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewander Tommy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low intake of fish, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to play a role in the development of schizophrenia. Our aim was to evaluate the association between the intake of different fish species, PUFA and vitamin D and the prevalence of psychotic-like symptoms in a population-based study among Swedish women. Methods Dietary intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire among 33 623 women aged 30-49 years at enrolment (1991/92. Information on psychotic-like symptoms was derived from a follow-up questionnaire in the years 2002/03. Participants were classified into three predefined levels: low, middle and high frequency of symptoms. The association between diet and psychotic-like symptoms was summarized in terms of relative risks (RR and corresponding 95% confidence intervals and was evaluated by energy-adjusted multinomial logistic regression. Results 18 411 women were classified as having a low level of psychotic-like symptoms, 14 395 as middle and 817 as having a high level. The risk of high level symptoms was 53% (95% CI, 30-69% lower among women who ate fish 3-4 times per week compared to women who never ate fish. The risk was also lower for women with a high intake of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA compared to women with a lower intake of these fatty acids. The effect was most pronounced for omega-6 PUFAs. The RR comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of omega-6 PUFAs intake was 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64-0.97. The associations were J-shaped with the strongest reduced risk for an intermediate intake of fish or PUFA. For fatty fish (herring/mackerel, salmon-type fish, the strongest inverse association was found for an intermediate intake (RR: 0.81, 95% CI, 0.66-0.98, whereas a high intake of fatty fish was associated with an increased risk of psychotic-like symptoms (RR: 1.90, 95% CI, 1.34-2.70. Women in the highest compared with the lowest quartile of vitamin D consumption

  15. Oxidative stability of pullulan nanofibers loaded with fish oil: effect of oil content and antioxidants addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Damberg, C.; Stephansen, K.

    Electrospinning processing is a promising technique for the encapsulation of thermolabile bioactive compounds (e.g. fish oil) since it does not require the use of heat. Furthermore, the nano-microfibers (NMF) obtained present a reduced size, which makes them easier to disperse in food matrices...... compared to traditional encapsulates (e.g. microcapsules produced by spray-drying). Biopolymers such as proteins and polysaccharides are required for the production of food-grade NMF. In this sense, pullulan, which is a food-approved polysaccharide, is an interesting encapsulating material due to its high...... electrospinnability and low oxygen permeability. In light of the above, the aim of this work was to investigate the oxidative stability of omega-3 enriched pullulan NMF. First, the influence of fish oil content (10-20-30 %) on the properties of the electrospinning solutions (e.g. viscosity, conductivity and surface...

  16. Effect of mode of addition of flaxseed oil on the quality characteristics of chicken sausage containing vitamin E and omega 3 fatty acids at levels to support a health claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Zara; Brunton, Nigel P; Monahan, Frank J

    2017-10-18

    Vitamin E and omega-3 fatty acids can be incorporated into meat products at levels supporting health claims of "protecting against oxidative stress" and "maintaining normal blood cholesterol levels", respectively. Chicken sausages were formulated to contain vitamin E (12 mg per 100 g) and flaxseed oil (2 g per 100 g) using different oil incorporation methods. The formulations were: (1) control (no oil); (2) oil; (3) emulsified oil; (4) freeze-dried encapsulated oil; (5) freeze-dried encapsulated oil with cross-linker genipin; (6) spray-dried encapsulated oil. α-Linolenic acid and α-tocopherol were retained in all fortified formulations at levels to meet nutrient and health claims but emulsification or encapsulation had no additional benefit in retention following cooking or on product quality as measured by proximate composition, lipid oxidation, colour, microbial analysis, cook loss and texture profile analysis. While the addition of flaxseed oil had a negative effect on consumer acceptance of flavour (although not when emulsified), overall acceptance of the chicken sausages was only reduced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) when oil was encapsulated.

  17. Effects of replacing fish oil with microalgae biomass (Schizochytrium spp) as a source of n-3 LC-PUFA to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) on growth performance, fillet quality and fatty acid composition

    OpenAIRE

    Mizambwa, Hellen Edward

    2017-01-01

    Low levels of EFA in fish feed as a result of changes in diet composition brings a need of finding a novel ingredient that will supplement Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) in fish feed. Microalgae have ability of producing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and for that are predicted to be a reliable feed ingredients in replacing fish oil in the near future. Main objective of present study was to evaluate effects of replacing fish oil (FO) with microalgae biomass (Schizochytrium spp.) (AA)...

  18. Oxidation of Marine Omega-3 Supplements and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin B. Albert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine omega-3 rich oils are used by more than a third of American adults for a wide range of purported benefits including prevention of cardiovascular disease. These oils are highly prone to oxidation to lipid peroxides and other secondary oxidation products. Oxidized oils may have altered biological activity making them ineffective or harmful, though there is also evidence that some beneficial effects of marine oils could be mediated through lipid peroxides. To date, human clinical trials have not reported the oxidative status of the trial oil. This makes it impossible to understand the importance of oxidation to efficacy or harm. However, animal studies show that oxidized lipid products can cause harm. Oxidation of trial oils may be responsible for the conflicting omega-3 trial literature, including the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The oxidative state of an oil can be simply determined by the peroxide value and anisidine value assays. We recommend that all clinical trials investigating omega-3 harms or benefits report the results of these assays; this will enable better understanding of the benefits and harms of omega-3 and the clinical importance of oxidized supplements.

  19. Impact of Biological Feedback and Incentives on Blood Fatty Acid Concentrations, Including Omega-3 Index, in an Employer-Based Wellness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBurney, Michael I; Bird, Julia K

    2017-08-05

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) are important fatty acids for the retina and brain. More than 95% of Americans have suboptimal EPA + DHA blood concentrations. This cross-sectional employer-based study assessed whole blood fatty acid levels of volunteers participating in an onsite wellness biometric screening program and was designed to determine if an incentive, a $5 coupon for a 90-day supply of fish oil supplement typically costing $18-30, stimulated incremental dietary behavior change relative to nutritional status assessment alone to increase EPA + DHA concentrations. Volunteers completed a dietary survey and finger stick blood samples were collected to be analyzed for fatty acid composition. In addition, 636 individuals participated in the initial onsite biometric screening. Three months later, and without prior knowledge, all employees were invited to a second screening. At the second screening, 198 employees volunteered for the first time and 149 employees had a second test (17.9%). At baseline, the average age ( n = 834) was 45 year and omega-3 index was 5.0% with 41% female. EPA + DHA concentration, i.e., omega-3 index, was significantly lower in men (4.8%) than women (5.2%), as were DHA and linoleic acid (LA) concentrations ( p omega-3 index was positively and linearly associated with omega-3 intake. Only 4% of volunteers had an omega-3 index >8% on initial screening. Among the 149 individuals with two measurements, omega-3 intake from supplements, but not food, increased significantly from 258 to 445 mg/d ( p omega-3 index (+0.21, p omega-3 supplement.

  20. Impact of Biological Feedback and Incentives on Blood Fatty Acid Concentrations, Including Omega-3 Index, in an Employer-Based Wellness Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I. McBurney

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3 are important fatty acids for the retina and brain. More than 95% of Americans have suboptimal EPA + DHA blood concentrations. This cross-sectional employer-based study assessed whole blood fatty acid levels of volunteers participating in an onsite wellness biometric screening program and was designed to determine if an incentive, a $5 coupon for a 90-day supply of fish oil supplement typically costing $18–30, stimulated incremental dietary behavior change relative to nutritional status assessment alone to increase EPA + DHA concentrations. Volunteers completed a dietary survey and finger stick blood samples were collected to be analyzed for fatty acid composition. In addition, 636 individuals participated in the initial onsite biometric screening. Three months later, and without prior knowledge, all employees were invited to a second screening. At the second screening, 198 employees volunteered for the first time and 149 employees had a second test (17.9%. At baseline, the average age (n = 834 was 45 year and omega-3 index was 5.0% with 41% female. EPA + DHA concentration, i.e., omega-3 index, was significantly lower in men (4.8% than women (5.2%, as were DHA and linoleic acid (LA concentrations (p < 0.05. Baseline omega-3 index was positively and linearly associated with omega-3 intake. Only 4% of volunteers had an omega-3 index >8% on initial screening. Among the 149 individuals with two measurements, omega-3 intake from supplements, but not food, increased significantly from 258 to 445 mg/d (p < 0.01 at the second test as did the omega-3 index (+0.21, p < 0.02. In this employed population, only 1% redeemed a coupon for an omega-3 supplement.

  1. Oxidative stability during storage of fish oil from filleting by-products of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is largely independent of the processing and production temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honold, Philipp; Nouard, Marie-Louise; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is the main fish species produced in Danish fresh water farming. Large amounts of fileting by-products like heads, bones, tails (HBT), and intestines are produced when rainbow trout is processed to smoked rainbow trout filets. The filleting by-products can...... be used to produce high quality fish oil. In this study, the oxidative stability of fish oil produced from filleting by-products was evaluated. The oil was produced from conventional or organic fish (low and high omega-3 fatty acid content) at different temperatures (70 and 90°C). The oxidative stability...

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids and dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Greg M.; Ma, Qiu-Lan; Frautschy, Sally A.

    2014-01-01

    More than a dozen epidemiological studies have reported that reduced levels or intake of omega-3 fatty acids or fish consumption is associated with increased risk for age-related cognitive decline or dementia such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increased dietary consumption or blood levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) appear protective for AD and other dementia in multiple epidemiological studies; however, three studies suggest that the ApoE4 genotype limits protection. DHA is broadly neuroprotective via multiple mechanisms that include neuroprotective DHA metabolites, reduced arachidonic acid metabolites, and increased trophic factors or downstream trophic signal transduction. DHA is also protective against several risk factors for dementia including head trauma, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. DHA is specifically protective against AD via additional mechanisms: It limits the production and accumulation of the amyloid β peptide toxin that is widely believed to drive the disease; and it also suppresses several signal transduction pathways induced by Aβ, including two major kinases that phosphorylate the microtubule associated protein tau and promote neurofibrillary tangle pathology. Based on the epidemiological and basic research data, expert panels have recommended the need for clinical trials with omega-3 fatty acids, notably DHA, for the prevention or treatment of age-related cognitive decline—with a focus on the most prevalent cause, AD. Clinical trials are underway to prevent and treat AD. Results to-date suggest that DHA may be more effective if it is begun early or used in conjunction with antioxidants. PMID:19523795

  3. A randomized, controlled, crossover trial of fish oil treatment for impulsive aggression in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Angela J; Bor, William; Adam, Kareen; Bowling, Francis G; Bellgrove, Mark A

    2014-04-01

    Epidemiological research links aggression to low serum concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids, such as those found in fish oil. However, no studies have specifically examined whether fish oil supplementation can reduce the frequency and severity of impulsive aggression in children with disruptive behavior disorders. Children presenting with impulsive aggression and meeting research criteria for diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorders were randomized to receive either: 1) Fish oil capsules (4 g daily) for 6 weeks followed by placebo (identical-looking capsules) for 6 weeks; or 2) placebo for 6 weeks, followed by fish oil for 6 weeks, in a double-blind, crossover design. Primary outcomes were the Children's Aggression Scale and the Modified Overt Aggression Scale. Secondary outcomes included emotional and behavioral functioning (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire [SDQ]), hyperactivity symptoms (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder [ADHD] Rating Scale), family functioning (Family Assessment Device), and cognitive functioning (Stop Signal Task, Trail-Making Task, and Eriksen Flanker Task). Serum concentrations of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids were measured at baseline, and at 6 and 12 weeks. Twenty-one children participated (81% male; mean age 10.3±2.2 years; range 7-14). Fish oil treatment increased serum concentrations of eicosapentanoic acid (F=14.76, pConduct Subscale, F=4.34, p=0.06). Fish oil treatment was associated with an improvement in one rating of hyperactivity (SDQ Hyperactivity Subscale, F=2.22, pchildren with disruptive behavior disorders.

  4. Oral omega-3 fatty acids promote resolution in chemical peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Alexander C; Phillips, Brett E; Chacon, Miranda A; Brunke-Reese, Deborah; Kelleher, Shannon L; Soybel, David I

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that purified omega-3 fatty acids may attenuate acute inflammation and hasten the transition to healing. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pretreatment with omega-3-rich fish oil (FO) would promote resolution of peritoneal inflammation through production of specific lipid mediators. C57/BL6 mice were given a daily 200-μL oral gavage of saline (CTL) or FO (1.0-1.5 g/kg/d docosahexaenoic acid and 1.3-2.0 g/kg/d eicosapentaenoic acid) for 7 d before chemical peritonitis was induced with thioglycollate. Peritoneal lavage fluid was collected before induction and at days 2 and 4 after peritonitis onset. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), Resolvin D1 (RvD1), and the composition of immune cell populations were examined in peritoneal lavage exudates. Cells harvested from the peritoneum were assessed for macrophage differentiation markers, phagocytosis, and lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine secretion profiles (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-10, IL-1β, TNFα). The ratio of RvD1 to pro-inflammatory PGE2 and LTB4 was increased in the peritoneal cavity of FO-supplemented animals. FO induced a decrease in the number of monocytes in the lavage fluid, with no change in the number of macrophages, neutrophils, or lymphocytes. Macrophage phagocytosis and M1/M2 messenger RNA markers were unchanged by FO with the exception of decreased PPARγ expression. FO increased ex vivo TNFα secretion after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Our findings provide evidence that nutraceutically relevant doses of FO supplements given before and during chemical peritonitis shift the balance of lipid mediators towards a proresolution, anti-inflammatory state without drastically altering the number or phenotype of local innate immune cell populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Neurotransmitters Level in the Brain of Male Albino Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saada, H.N.; Said, U.Z.; Shedid, S.M.; Mahdy, E.M.E.; Elmezayen, H.E.

    2014-01-01

    The omega-3 fatty acids are essential dietary nutrients, and one of their important roles is providing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) for growth and function of nervous tissue. Reduced level of DHA in the brain induce dramatic changes in brain function including changes in size of neurons as well as changes in learning and memory. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of fish oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids on γ-radiation-induced physiological changes in the brain cerebral hemispheres. Omega-3 fatty acids was supplemented daily by gavages to rats at a dose of 400 mg/ kg body wt for 7 days pre- and 21 days post-exposure to whole body fractionated gamma rays at doses of 2 Gy/week up to a total dose of 8 Gy. The results demonstrated that whole body γ-irradiation induced oxidative stress, de - creased the main polyunsaturated fatty acids; DHA and EPA, and induced neurotransmitters alteration in brain tissues. Oxidative stress was manifested by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Oxidative stress was accompanied by alterations in the level of the neurotransmitters manifested by a significant increase of glutamic and aspartic and a significant decrease of serotonin (5-HT) levels in brain cerebral hemispheres. Rats receiving fish oil 7 days before and 21 days after exposure to γ-radiation showed significant improvement in the levels of EPA and DHA associated with significant amelioration of oxidative stress and neurotransmitters alteration. It is concluded that fish oil protect the brain from radiation-induced physiological changes by protecting brain cellular membranes through counteracting the decrease of omega-3 fatty acids and minimizing oxidative stress

  6. A Randomized Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial Investigating the Effect of Fish Oil Supplementation on Gene Expression Related to Insulin Action, Blood Lipids, and Inflammation in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus-Fish Oil Supplementation and Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Jamilian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a common complication of pregnancy, and it is mostly associated with postpartum diabetes, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Fish oil (omega-3 supplementation has been shown to reduce the risk of different chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancers, though the evidence of its impact on gestational diabetes is scarce. Our goal in this study was to determine the effect of fish oil administration on gene expression related to insulin action, blood lipids, and inflammation in women with GDM. Participants with GDM (n = 40, aged 18–40 years, were randomized to take either 1000 mg fish oil capsules, containing 180 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 120 mg docosahexaenoic acid (n = 20, or placebo (n = 20 twice a day for 6 weeks. Gene expression related to insulin, lipids, and inflammation was quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of GDM women using Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR method. Results of RT-PCR indicated that omega-3 supplementation upregulated gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ (P = 0.04 in PBMCs of patients with GDM, compared with the placebo. In addition, gene expression of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR (P < 0.001, interleukin-1 (IL-1 (P = 0.007, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α (P = 0.01 was downregulated in PBMCs of women with GDM, following omega-3 supplementation. No significant effect of omega-3 supplementation was indicated on gene expression of IL-8 in PBMCs of patients with GDM. Overall, fish oil supplementation for 6 weeks in women with GDM significantly improved gene expression of PPAR-γ, IL-1, and TNF-α, but not gene expression of IL-8.

  7. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester M Den Ruijter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term 3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated 3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated 3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (3 or sunflower oil (9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered 3-PUFAs. Plasma of 3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of 3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, 3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than 9 myocytes. In the 9 myocytes, but not in the 3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated 3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered 3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac 3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term 3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  8. The Protective Effect of Omega-3 Against Thioacetamide Induced Lipid and Renal Dysfunction in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Moghadamnia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Thioacetamide causes lipid and kidney dysfunction.Omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids prevent the progression of renal diseases. Objectives This study aimed to assess the protective effects of omega-3 fish oil supplement on thioacetamide induced lipid and kidney dysfunction in male rats. Methods In this experimental study, 42 male rats were divided into 6 groups of 7: control group sham group which received 0.4 mL olive oil as a solvent, Thioacetamide group receiving thioacetamide at a dose of 150 mg/kg once as intraperitoneal injection, Experimental groups of 1, 2 and 3 which received omega-3 fish oil supplement at the doses of 100, 200, 300 mg/kg orally for 3 months respectively and then they received thioacetamide at the dose of 150 mg/kg intraperitoneally for once. The levels of serum creatinine, BUN, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, FBS, triglyceride, sodium and potassium were measured. The pathological changes of tissue samples of the kidneys were studied after hematoxylin-eosin staining. The data were analyzed by SPSS-18 software and using one way ANOVA and Tukey as post hoc test. Significant level was considered to be P < 0.05. Results The mean serum levels of potassium in the second experimental group significantly decreased (5.26 ± 0.02 compared to the group receiving thioacetamide (6.50 ± 0. The mean serum sodium in all experimental groups decreased significantly compared to the group receiving thioacetamide. The mean serum levels of total cholesterol in experimental group 3 (66.80 ± 1.46 significantly decreased compared to the group receiving thioacetamide (84 ± 0.57. No significant changes were observed in the mean serum levels of FBS, BUN, HDL, LDL, triglycerides and creatinine in all experimental groups compared to the group receiving thioacetamide. All the experimental groups improved renal histological changes induced by thioacetamide and these protective effects were dose-dependent (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusions The results of

  9. Omega-3 dietary supplements and the risk of cardiovascular events: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marik, Paul E; Varon, Joseph

    2009-07-01

    Epidemiologic data suggest that omega-3 fatty acids derived from fish oil reduce cardiovascular disease. The clinical benefit of dietary fish oil supplementation in preventing cardiovascular events in both high and low risk patients is unclear. To assess whether dietary supplements of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) decrease cardiovascular events across a spectrum of patients. MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and citation review of relevant primary and review articles. Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials that evaluated clinical cardiovascular end points (cardiovascular death, sudden death, and nonfatal cardiovascular events) and all-cause mortality in patients randomized to EPA/DHA or placebo. We only included studies that used dietary supplements of EPA/DHA which were administered for at least 1 year. Data were abstracted on study design, study size, type and dose of omega-3 supplement, cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, and duration of follow-up. Studies were grouped according to the risk of cardiovascular events (high risk and moderate risk). Meta-analytic techniques were used to analyze the data. We identified 11 studies that included a total of 39 044 patients. The studies included patients after recent myocardial infarction, those with an implanted cardioverter defibrillator, and patients with heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, and hypercholesterolemia. The average dose of EPA/DHA was 1.8 +/- 1.2 g/day and the mean duration of follow-up was 2.2 +/- 1.2 years. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids significantly reduced the risk of cardiovascular deaths (odds ratio [OR]: 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79-0.95, p = 0.002), sudden cardiac death (OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.76-0.99, p = 0.04), all-cause mortality (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.85-0.99, p = 0.02), and nonfatal cardiovascular events (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.85-0.99, p = 0.02). The mortality benefit was

  10. Physiological and biochemical response to Omega-3 plus as a dietary supplement to growing goats under hot summer conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Edrees Ibrahim Teama

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation of Omega-3 plus on some the physiological and biochemical traits in growing Baladi goats under hot summer conditions. Thirty-four growing male goats (4-5 months old were randomly divided into two equal groups. Animals in group 1 were fed a concentrate feed mixture (CFM, which was the control group. Goats in group 2 (the experimental group were offered Omega-3 plus (1,000 mg/animal day-1 (30% fish oil, containing 18% eicosapentaenoic acid and 12% docosahexaenoic acid + 100 mg wheat germ oil (0.22% tocopherols daily in addition to the basal diet for four months (the experimental period during the hot summer season. Body weight (BW changes of both groups were recorded monthly during the experiment. Blood samples were collected monthly, and total protein, immunoglobulin G (IgG, total cholesterol, triglycerides, liver enzymes (AST and ALT, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4 were estimated. A significant increase in the live BW of growing goats was recorded as a result of dietary supplementation of Omega-3 plus. Total protein, IgG, and T3 levels were higher than those obtained with control. In contrast, total cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, ALT, and AST levels were significantly reduced. The serum concentration of creatinine and T4 levels was indistinguishable from those of control. Addition of Omega-3 plus as a dietary supplement to growing goats under hot summer conditions increases their daily weight gain and improves their general physiological and biochemical status by decreasing total cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, ALT, and AST. It is thus suggested that Omega-3 plus should be used as a supplement in the growth period of goats.

  11. Comparative study of fatty-acid composition of table eggs from the Jeddah food market and effect of value addition in omega-3 bio-fortified eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida Aziz Khan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Health consciousness has increased the desire of people around the world to consume functional foods. Omega-3 essential fatty acids are one among these beneficial and important health supplements without which a general predisposition to degenerative and stress related disorders can occur. Saudi Arabia has shown an alarming increase in obesity (Al-Nozha et al., 2005, diabetes (Alqurashi et al., 2011, and cardiovascular disease (Al-Nozha et al., 2004 in the last few decades mainly due to nutritional transitions and lifestyle alterations (Amuna and Zotor, 2008. Lack of nutrient dense foods and the prevailing food related disorder of obesity (Popkin, 2001; Prentice, 2014 especially render egg as a choice food to be value-added for attaining nutritional security in Saudi Arabia and in effect reverse the increasing incidences of lifestyle diseases. Nutritional intervention through a commonly consumed food product would be an important step in improving the health of the people, and reducing health care costs. As eggs are a frequently consumed food item in Saudi Arabia, enriching them with omega-3 fatty acids would be an excellent way to alleviate the existing problems. A significant deposition of omega-3 fatty acids in the eggs was observed when the diet of hens was supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids from either flaxseed or fish oil source. Inadequacy of omega-3 fatty acids could thus be rectified by producing omega-3 enriched eggs from hens supplemented with flaxseed or fish oil source, and thus contribute toward better health choice of the consumer.

  12. Cost and effectiveness of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in Chinese ICU patients receiving parenteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu GH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Guo Hao Wu,1 Jian Gao,2 Chun Yan Ji,2 Lorenzo Pradelli,3 Qiu Lei Xi,1 Qiu Lin Zhuang1 1Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Nutrition, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3AdRes Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Piazza Carlo Emanuele II, Torino, Italy Background and objectives: Clinical evidence supports the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA-enriched lipid emulsions in place of standard lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition (PN for intensive care unit (ICU patients, but uptake may be limited by higher costs. We compared clinical and economic outcomes for these two types of lipid emulsion in the Chinese ICU setting. Methods: We developed a pharmacoeconomic discrete event simulation model, based on efficacy data from an international meta-analysis and patient characteristics, resource consumption, and unit costs from a Chinese institutional setting. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess the effects of uncertainty around input parameters. Model predictive validity was assessed by comparing results with data observed in a patient subset not used in the modeling. Results: The model predicted that omega-3 PUFA-enriched emulsion (Omegaven® 10% fish oil emulsion would dominate standard lipid emulsions, with better clinical outcomes and lower overall health care costs (mean savings ~10,000 RMB, mainly as a result of faster recovery and shorter hospital stay (by ~6.5 days. The external validation process confirmed the reliability of the model predictions. Conclusion: Omega-3 PUFA-enriched lipid emulsions improved clinical outcome and decreased overall costs in Chinese ICU patients requiring PN. Keywords: omega-3 PUFA-enriched lipids, ICU patients, total costs, microsimulation, external validation, length of hospital stay

  13. Efectos y controversias de los ácidos grasos omega-3: effects and controversies Omega-3 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Manzur

    Full Text Available Gracias al descubrimieno del mecanismo de acción de los ácidos grasos omega-3 para disminuir las arritmias ventriculares, éstos han vuelto a cobrar importancia por su efecto cardio-protector. La ingestión de ácidos grasos omega-3 disminuye el riesgo de trombosis y accidentes cerebro-vasculares al disminuir los lípidos sanguíneos, mejorando en esta forma la función endotelial. Sin embargo, algunos estudios epidemiológicos no han encontrado una relación directa a este respecto y además hay controversia respecto a las dosis necesarias para lograr este efecto cardio-protector. Hay estudios que reportan que el contenido de metil-mercurio en peces afecta la disposición de los ácidos grasos omega-3. En el Caribe colombiano se ha encontrado contaminación de peces con metil-mercurio.Thanks to the discovery of omega-3 fatty acids’ mechanism of action, these have regained importance due to its cardio-protective effect. The ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids diminishes the risk of thrombosis and cerebro-vascular accidents by lowering serum lipids and improving endothelial function. Nevertheless, some epidemiological studies have not found a direct relationship with them and there is controversy with regard to the doses needed in order to achieve this cardio-protective effect. There are studies reporting that the methyl-mercury content in fish affects omega-3 fatty acids’ disposal. In the Colombian Caribbean region, fish contamination with methyl-mercury has been found.

  14. Dietary supplementation with lish oil modifies renal reserve filtration capacity in postoperative, cyclosporin A-treated renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, J. J. Homan; Bilo, H. J. G.; Donker, A. J. M.; Wilmink, J. M.; Sluiter, W. J.; Tegzess, Adam M.

    The effect of a daily supplementation of 6 g fish oil (30% C20:5 omega-3 = EPA and 20% C22:6 omega-3 = DHA) for 1 month on renal function variables was investigated in a placebo-controlled (6 g coconut oil), prospective, randomized, double-blind study in acute postoperative cyclosporin A

  15. A protocol for a randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of increasing Omega-3 index with krill oil supplementation on learning, cognition, behaviour and visual processing in typically developing adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wurff, I S M; von Schacky, C; Berge, K; Kirschner, P A; de Groot, R H M

    2016-07-08

    The influence of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) supplementation on brain functioning is debated. Some studies have found positive effects on cognition in children with learning difficulties, elderly people with cognitive impairment and depression scores in depressed individuals. Other studies have found null or negative effects. Observational studies in adolescents have found positive associations between fish consumption (containing n-3 LCPUFAs) and academic achievement. However, intervention studies in typically developing adolescents are missing. The goal of this study is to determine the influence of increasing Omega-3 Index on cognitive functioning, academic achievement and mental well-being of typically developing adolescents. Double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled intervention; 264 adolescents (age 13-15 years) attending lower general secondary education started daily supplementation of 400 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA) in cohort I (n=130) and 800 mg EPA+DHA in cohort II (n=134) or a placebo for 52 weeks. Recruitment took place according to a low Omega-3 Index (performed according to Good Clinical Practice. All data collected are linked to participant number only. The results will be disseminated on group level to participants and schools. The results will be presented at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. The study is approved by the Medical Ethical Committee of Atrium-Orbis-Zuyd Hospital and is registered at the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR4082). NTR4082 and NCT02240264; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. In ovo exposure to omega-3 fatty acids does not enhance omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakri, K; Carragher, J; Muhlhausler, B; Hughes, R; Gibson, R

    2017-10-01

    The content of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) in chicken meat can be boosted by feeding broilers a diet containing α-linolenic acid (ALA, from flaxseed oil), some of which is converted by hepatic enzymes to n-3 LCPUFA. However, most of the accumulated n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in meat tissues is still in the form of ALA. Despite this, the levels of chicken diets are being enhanced by the inclusion of vegetable and marine sources of omega-3 fats. This study investigated whether the capacity of chicken for n-3 LCPUFA accumulation could be enhanced or inhibited by exposure to an increased supply of ALA or n-3 LCPUFA in ovo. Breeder hens were fed either flaxseed oil (High-ALA), fish oil (high n-3 LCPUFA) or tallow- (low n-3 PUFA, Control) based diets. The newly hatched chicks in each group were fed either the High-ALA or the Control diets until harvest at 42 days' post-hatch. The n-3 PUFA content of egg yolk and day-old chick meat closely matched the n-3 PUFA composition of the maternal diet. In contrast, the n-3 PUFA composition of breast and leg meat tissues of the 42-day-old offspring closely matched the diet fed post-hatch, with no significant effect of maternal diet. Indeed, there was an inhibition of n-3 LCPUFA accumulation in meat of the broilers from the maternal Fish-Oil diet group when fed the post-hatch High-ALA diet. Therefore, this approach is not valid to elevate n-3 LCPUFA in chicken meat.

  17. Role of Fish Oil against Physiological Disturbances in Rats Brain Induced by Sodium Fluoride and/or Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, U.Z.; El-Tahawy, N.A.; Ibrahim, F.R.; Kamal, G.M.; EL-Sayed, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of environmental and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation and to long-term intake of high levels of fluoride have caused health problems and increasingly alarming in recent years. Fish oil omega-3 (polyunsaturated fatty acids essential fatty acids) is found in the highest concentrations in fish oil, claim a plethora of health benefits. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of fish oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids on sodium fluoride (NaF) and or gamma (γ) rays in inducing neurological and biochemical disturbances in rat’s brain cerebral hemispheres. The results revealed that whole body exposure to γ- radiation at 6 Gy applied as fractionated doses (1.5 Gy x 4 times) and/or chronic receipt of NaF solution (0.13 mg/Kg/day) for a period of 28 days, significantly increased brain fluoride and calcium content, decreased level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and induced brain oxidative stress which led to neurotransmitters dysfunction. Supplementation of treated rats with fish oil, via gavages, at a dose of 400 mg/kg body wt has significantly modulated oxidative stress and neurotransmitters alterations. It could be concluded that EPA and DHA, found in fish oil, could possibly protect brain from damaging free radicals and consequently minimize the severity of brain biochemical disturbances

  18. Omega-3 fatty acids upregulate adult neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Beltz, Barbara S.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Benton, Jeannie L.; Sandeman, David C.

    2007-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids play crucial roles in the development and function of the central nervous system. These components, which must be obtained from dietary sources, have been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, the presence of omega-6 fatty acids may interfere with omega-3 fatty acid metabolism. The present study investigated whether changes in dietary ratios of omega-3:omega-6 fatty acids influence neurogenesis in the lobster (Homarus america...

  19. Role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for the treatment of patients with major depression disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A rising number of studies have raised questions regarding the association of mental illness in a particular mood disorders such as depression with low intake of omega-3 fatty acids. Given all the side-effects that traditional antidepressants put patients at risk for, omega-3 is certainly a better alternative that might improve depressive symptoms and patient′s compliance to treatment by removing the stigma of psychiatric drugs. This study critically reviewed 12 relevant studies from PubMed published between 1992 - 2013 in order to determine whether omega-3 supplements or diet rich in fish were likely to show affectivity in reducing depressive symptoms. Most of the studies showed clear association between omega-3 and reduced depressive symptoms. Studies support the adjunctive role of omega-3 and high fish consumption in reducing depression. Omega-3 fatty acids have also shown to be safe when used during pregnancy to prevent postpartum depression. Although some studies showed mixed results of positive findings, the use of omega-3 supplements could not be an absolute substitute of antidepressants due to limitation in their studies. Minority of the studies reviewed did not correlate omega-3 with the improvement of depressive symptoms for many reasons such as the healthy life-style of subjects, etc. Given the fact that depression has various causes, this puts the testing of omega-3 in a lot of bias due to several variables such as dose, formula, period administered as well as the candidates′ state of health. Further research is definitely warranted on a larger sample size with close follow-up using proper assessment tools. Omega-3 has shown to have minimal or no side-effects at all, which makes it important for mental health professional to at least ensure that patients diagnosed with depression have adequate amounts of omega-3 fatty acids whether by supplementation or in their daily diet.

  20. Methods for reducing lipid oxidation in fish-oil-enriched energy bars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    P>Fish oil (FO) enrichment of foods is relevant owing to the beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on human health. However, the susceptibility of FO to oxidation necessitates careful control to avoid this oxidation. In this study, energy bars were successfully supplemented...... similar protection towards oxidation as packaging the energy bars in modified atmosphere. These protection methods were although not as efficient as addition of FO as micro-encapsulated powder. Addition of the metal chelator ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) (100-2000 ppm) to emulsified FO...

  1. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention of postoperative complications in colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie H

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hai Xie,1 Yan-na Chang2 1Department of Emergency, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Affiliated Hospital of Gansu University of Chinese Medicine, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China Objective: To evaluate systematically the clinical efficacy of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in the prevention of postoperative complications in colorectal cancer (CRC patients.Materials and methods: Published articles were identified by using search terms in online databases – PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library – up to March 2016. Only randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy of omega-3 PUFAs in CRC were selected and analyzed through a meta-analysis. Subgroup, sensitivity, and inverted funnel-plot analyses were also conducted. Results: Eleven articles with 694 CRC patients were finally included. Compared with control, omega-3 PUFA-enriched enteral or parenteral nutrition during the perioperative period reduced infectious complications (risk ratio [RR] 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47–0.86; P=0.004, tumor necrosis factor alpha (standard mean difference [SMD] -0.37, 95% CI -0.66 to -0.07; P=0.01, interleukin-6 (SMD -0.36, 95% CI -0.66 to -0.07; P=0.02, and hospital stay (MD -2.09, 95% CI -3.71 to -0.48; P=0.01. No significant difference was found in total complications, surgical site infection, or CD4+:CD8+ cell ratio. Conclusion: Short-term omega-3 PUFA administration was associated with reduced postoperative infectious complications, inflammatory cytokines, and hospital stay after CRC surgery. Due to heterogeneity and relatively small sample size, the optimal timing and route of administration deserve further study. Keywords: omega-3, fatty acids, fish oil, colorectal surgery, meta-analysis 

  2. Effect of omega-3 on auditory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Omega-3 fatty acid have structural and biological roles in the body 's various systems . Numerous studies have tried to research about it. Auditory system is affected a s well. The aim of this article was to review the researches about the effect of omega-3 on auditory system.Methods: We searched Medline , Google Scholar, PubMed, Cochrane Library and SID search engines with the "auditory" and "omega-3" keywords and read textbooks about this subject between 19 70 and 20 13.Conclusion: Both excess and deficient amounts of dietary omega-3 fatty acid can cause harmful effects on fetal and infant growth and development of brain and central nervous system esspesially auditory system. It is important to determine the adequate dosage of omega-3.

  3. Omega-3 deficiency impairs honey bee learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arien, Yael; Dag, Arnon; Zarchin, Shlomi; Masci, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Deficiency in essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly the long-chain form of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been linked to health problems in mammals, including many mental disorders and reduced cognitive performance. Insects have very low long-chain PUFA concentrations, and the effect of omega-3 deficiency on cognition in insects has not been studied. We show a low omega-6:3 ratio of pollen collected by honey bee colonies in heterogenous landscapes and in many hand-collected pollens that we analyzed. We identified Eucalyptus as an important bee-forage plant particularly poor in omega-3 and high in the omega-6:3 ratio. We tested the effect of dietary omega-3 deficiency on olfactory and tactile associative learning of the economically highly valued honey bee. Bees fed either of two omega-3–poor diets, or Eucalyptus pollen, showed greatly reduced learning abilities in conditioned proboscis-extension assays compared with those fed omega-3–rich diets, or omega-3–rich pollen mixture. The effect on performance was not due to reduced sucrose sensitivity. Omega-3 deficiency also led to smaller hypopharyngeal glands. Bee brains contained high omega-3 concentrations, which were only slightly affected by diet, suggesting additional peripheral effects on learning. The shift from a low to high omega-6:3 ratio in the Western human diet is deemed a primary cause of many diseases and reduced mental health. A similar shift seems to be occurring in bee forage, possibly an important factor in colony declines. Our study shows the detrimental effect on cognitive performance of omega-3 deficiency in a nonmammal. PMID:26644556

  4. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids aid in the modulation of inflammation and metabolic health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bruce German

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the role of omega-3 fatty acids as precursors for lipid signaling molecules known as oxylipins. Although omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in autoimmune disorders, inflammatory diseases and heart disease, they are generally underrepresented in the American diet. A literature review confirms that the consumption of omega-3 fatty acids - whether in food sources such as walnuts, flax seeds and fatty fish (including salmon and sardines, or in supplements - is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. This growing body of evidence, including the results of a recent study of patients with kidney disease, highlights the need to measure omega-3 fatty acids and their oxylipin products as markers of metabolic health and biomarkers of disease. In addition, there is substantial evidence of the need to increase the omega-3 fatty acid content of American diets to optimize metabolic health.

  5. Sustainable source of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid from metabolically engineered Yarrowia lipolytica: from fundamental research to commercial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dongming; Jackson, Ethel N; Zhu, Quinn

    2015-02-01

    The omega-3 fatty acids, cis-5, 8, 11, 14, and 17-eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5; EPA) and cis-4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 19-docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; DHA), have wide-ranging benefits in improving heart health, immune function, mental health, and infant cognitive development. Currently, the major source for EPA and DHA is from fish oil, and a minor source of DHA is from microalgae. With the increased demand for EPA and DHA, DuPont has developed a clean and sustainable source of the omega-3 fatty acid EPA through fermentation using metabolically engineered strains of Yarrowia lipolytica. In this mini-review, we will focus on DuPont's technology for EPA production. Specifically, EPA biosynthetic and supporting pathways have been introduced into the oleaginous yeast to synthesize and accumulate EPA under fermentation conditions. This Yarrowia platform can also produce tailored omega-3 (EPA, DHA) and/or omega-6 (ARA, GLA) fatty acid mixtures in the cellular lipid profiles. Fundamental research such as metabolic engineering for strain construction, high-throughput screening for strain selection, fermentation process development, and process scale-up were all needed to achieve the high levels of EPA titer, rate, and yield required for commercial application. Here, we summarize how we have combined the fundamental bioscience and the industrial engineering skills to achieve large-scale production of Yarrowia biomass containing high amounts of EPA, which led to two commercial products, New Harvest™ EPA oil and Verlasso® salmon.

  6. Hot topic: Enhancing omega-3 fatty acids in milk fat of dairy cows by using stearidonic acid-enriched soybean oil from genetically modified soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Santos, G; O'Donnell, A M; Vicini, J L; Hartnell, G F; Bauman, D E

    2010-01-01

    Very long chain n-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) are important in human cardiac health and the prevention of chronic diseases, but food sources are limited. Stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4n-3) is an n-3 fatty acid that humans are able to convert to EPA. In utilizing SDA-enhanced soybean oil (SBO) derived from genetically modified soybeans, our objectives were to examine the potential to increase the n-3 fatty acid content of milk fat and to determine the efficiency of SDA uptake from the digestive tract and transfer to milk fat. Three multiparous, rumen-fistulated Holstein cows were assigned randomly in a 3 x 3 Latin square design to the following treatments: 1) control (no oil infusion); 2) abomasal infusion of SDA-enhanced SBO (SDA-abo); and 3) ruminal infusion of SDA-enhanced SBO (SDA-rum). The SDA-enhanced SBO contained 27.1% SDA, 10.4% alpha-linolenic acid, and 7.2% gamma-linolenic acid. Oil infusions provided 57 g/d of SDA with equal amounts of oil infused into either the rumen or abomasum at 6-h intervals over a 7-d infusion period. Cow numbers were limited and no treatment differences were detected for DMI or milk production (22.9+/-0.5 kg/d and 32.3+/-0.9 kg/d, respectively; least squares means +/- SE), milk protein percentage and yield (3.24+/-0.04% and 1.03+/-0.02 kg/d), or lactose percentage and yield (4.88+/-0.05% and 1.55+/-0.05 kg/d). Treatment also had no effect on milk fat yield (1.36+/-0.03 kg/d), but milk fat percentage was lower for the SDA-rum treatment (4.04+/-0.04% vs. 4.30+/-0.04% for control and 4.41+/-0.05% for SDA-abo). The SDA-abo treatment increased n-3 fatty acids to 3.9% of total milk fatty acids, a value more than 5-fold greater than that for the control. Expressed as a percentage of total milk fatty acids, values (least squares means +/- SE) for the SDA-abo treatment were 1.55+/-0.03% for alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), 1.86+/-0.02 for SDA, 0.23 +/- soybeans combined with proper ruminal protection to achieve

  7. Optimization of diacylglycerol production by glycerolysis of fish oil catalyzed by Lipozyme TL IM with Tween 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte Blanco, S F M; Santos, J S; Feltes, M M C; Dors, G; Licodiedoff, S; Lerin, L A; de Oliveira, D; Ninow, J L; Furigo, A

    2015-12-01

    The diacylglycerols (DAG) are emulsifiers with high added value used as functional additives in food, medicine, and cosmetic industries. In glycerolysis of oils for the production of DAG, the immiscibility between the substrates (glycerol and oil phases) has to be overcome, for example, by the addition of a food grade surfactant like Tween 65. The main objective of this work was to optimize the process conditions for obtaining diacylglycerols rich in the omega-3 eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, through the enzymatic glycerolysis of fish oil, in systems with Tween 65 and without this surfactant, using Lipozyme TL(®) IM as biocatalyst. The experiments were performed according to predetermined conditions varying the temperature, enzyme load, the oil to glycerol molar ratio and, when added, the surfactant load. After 6 h of reaction, it was possible to produce up to 20.76 and 13.76% of diacylglycerols from fish oil in the reactions with and without Tween 65, respectively.

  8. Developing a strawberry yogurt fortified with marine fish oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and contribute to boost the intake of omega-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (2% w/v) ...

  9. Preparation of triacylglycerols rich in omega-3 fatty acids from sardine oil using a Rhizomucor miehei lipase: focus in the EPA/DHA ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Paulo; Batista, Irineu; Bernardino, Raul J; Bandarra, Narcisa Maria

    2014-02-01

    The increasing evidence on the differential biochemical effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) raises the need of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid concentrates with different amounts of these fatty acids. In the present work, physicochemical and enzymatic techniques were combined to obtain acylglycerols, mainly triacylglycerols (TAG), rich in n-3 fatty acids. Sardine oil was obtained by washing sardine (Sardina pilchardus) mince with a NaHCO3 solution, hydrolyzed in a KOH-ethanol solution, and concentrated with urea. The esterification reaction was performed in the stoichiometric proportion of substrates for re-esterification to TAG, with 10 % level of Rhizomucor miehei lipase based on the weight of substrates, without any solvent, during 48 h. This procedure led to approximately 88 % of acylglycerols, where more than 66 % were TAG and the concentration of n-3 fatty acids was higher than 60 %, the EPA and DHA ratio (EPA/DHA) was 4:1. The content of DHA in the unesterifed fraction (free fatty acids) increased from 20 to 54 %, while the EPA level in the same fraction decreased from 33 to 12.5 % (EPA/DHA ratio ≈1:4). Computational methods (density functional theory calculations) have been carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level to explain some of the experimental results.

  10. Corn oil versus lard: Metabolic effects of omega-3 fatty acids in mice fed obesogenic diets with different fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlisova, Jana; Bardova, Kristina; Stankova, Barbora; Tvrzicka, Eva; Kopecky, Jan; Rossmeisl, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Mixed results have been obtained regarding the level of insulin resistance induced by high-fat diets rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) when compared to those enriched by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and how metabolic effects of marine PUFA of n-3 series, i.e. docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), depend on dietary lipid background. Here we compared two high-fat diets, in which the major lipid constituent was based either on SFA in the form of pork lard (LHF diet) or PUFA of n-6 series (Omega-6) as corn oil (cHF diet). Both cHF and LHF parental diets were also supplemented with EPA+DHA (∼30 g/kg diet) to produce cHF+F and LHF+F diet, respectively. Male C57BL/6N mice were fed the experimental diets for 8 weeks. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in mice fed LHF and cHF diets, and then metabolic effects of cHF+F and LHF+F diets were assessed focusing on the liver and epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT). Both LHF and cHF induced comparable weight gain and the level of insulin resistance, however LHF-fed mice showed increased hepatic steatosis associated with elevated activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), and lower plasma triacylglycerol levels when compared to cHF. Despite lowering hepatic SCD1 activity, which was concomitant with reduced hepatic steatosis reaching the level observed in cHF+F mice, LHF+F did not decrease adiposity and the weight of eWAT, and rather further impaired insulin sensitivity relative to cHF+F, that tended to improve it. In conclusion, high-fat diets containing as much as ∼35 weight% as lipids induce similar weight gain and impairment of insulin sensitivity irrespective whether they are based on SFA or Omega-6. Although the SFA-rich diet containing EPA+DHA efficiently reduced hepatic steatosis, it did so without a corresponding improvement in insulin sensitivity and in the absence of effect on adiposity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Fran

  11. Omega-3 Index and Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittus, Janine; Huber, Marie Theres; Storck, Klaus; Köhler, Anton; Köhler, Jan M; von Arnim, Thomas; von Schacky, Clemens

    2017-10-15

    Erythrocyte levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (Omega-3 Index) were previously found to be associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) at very low levels (Omega-3 Index. These comorbidities can be improved by increasing intake of EPA and DHA, and thus the Omega-3 Index, preferably to its target range of 8% to 11%. Symptoms of OSA might improve by increasing the Omega-3 Index, but more research is needed. In our sleep laboratory, 357 participants with OSA were recruited, and data from 315 participants were evaluated. Three categories of OSA (none/ mild, moderate, severe) were defined based on apnea-hypopnea index. Anthropometrics and lifestyle characteristics (smoking, alcohol, fish intake, omega-3 supplementation) were recorded. Erythrocyte fatty acid compositions were assessed with the HS-Omega-3 Index methodology. The mean Omega-3 Index in all 3 categories of OSA was 5.7%, and no association with OSA was found. There were more male participants with severe OSA (79.7%, P = .042) than females, and participants with severe OSA had a significantly higher body mass index (32.11 ± 6.39 kg/m 2 , P = .009) than participants with mild or moderate OSA. Lifestyle characteristics were not significantly different. In contrast to our hypothesis, an Omega-3 Index of 5.7% was not associated with OSA severity. Previously, an Omega-3 Index Omega-3 Index > 5.7% in an intervention trial with EPA and DHA in OSA, comorbidities of OSA suggest a target range of 8% to 11%. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  12. Maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy: a 12 year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Suzanne; Dunstan, Janet A; Foster, Jonathan K; Simmer, Karen; Prescott, Susan L

    2015-03-20

    A number of trials have been undertaken to assess whether the intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) during pregnancy can influence the neurological development of the offspring, yet no consensus from these trials has been reached. We aimed to investigate the long-term effects (12 years) of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on neurodevelopment, including cognition, language and fine motor skills. In a follow up of a previously published randomised controlled trial of 98 pregnant women, their children were assessed at 12 years of age using a battery of neurodevelopmental assessments. Fifty participants were assessed at 12 years, with 25 participant's mothers receiving fish oil supplementation, and 25 receiving control capsules. There were no significant differences for any of the assessment measures completed. Our data indicate that fish oil supplementation during pregnancy does not influence the cognition, language or fine motor skills of children in late primary school (12 years of age).

  13. Transcriptomic analysis of the effects of a fish oil enriched diet on murine brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Hammamieh

    Full Text Available The health benefits of fish oil enriched with high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are widely documented. Fish oil as dietary supplements, however, show moderate clinical efficacy, highlighting an immediate scope of systematic in vitro feedback. Our transcriptomic study was designed to investigate the genomic shift of murine brains fed on fish oil enriched diets. A customized fish oil enriched diet (FD and standard lab diet (SD were separately administered to two randomly chosen populations of C57BL/6J mice from their weaning age until late adolescence. Statistical analysis mined 1,142 genes of interest (GOI differentially altered in the hemibrains collected from the FD- and SD-fed mice at the age of five months. The majority of identified GOI (∼ 40% encodes proteins located in the plasma membrane, suggesting that fish oil primarily facilitated the membrane-oriented biofunctions. FD potentially augmented the nervous system's development and functions by selectively stimulating the Src-mediated calcium-induced growth cascade and the downstream PI3K-AKT-PKC pathways. FD reduced the amyloidal burden, attenuated oxidative stress, and assisted in somatostatin activation-the signatures of attenuation of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and affective disorder. FD induced elevation of FKBP5 and suppression of BDNF, which are often linked with the improvement of anxiety disorder, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Hence we anticipate efficacy of FD in treating illnesses such as depression that are typically triggered by the hypoactivities of dopaminergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic networks. Contrastingly, FD's efficacy could be compromised in treating illnesses such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, which are triggered by hyperactivities of the same set of neuromodulators. A more comprehensive investigation is recommended to elucidate the implications of fish oil on disease pathomechanisms, and the

  14. Dietary fish oil replacement with palm or poultry oil increases fillet oxidative stability and decreases liver glutathione peroxidase activity in barramundi (Lates calcarifer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Ahmad, Wan A R; Stone, David A J; Schuller, Kathryn A

    2013-12-01

    Complete dietary fish oil replacement with palm or poultry oil in barramundi (Lates calcarifer) had no detrimental effects on growth or hepatosomatic index of juvenile fish up to an average size of ~50 g. However, it significantly decreased the omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the fish muscle (fillet) lipids. This was particularly true for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) which are recognised for their health beneficial effects in the human diet. As a result of their decreased EPA and DHA content, the peroxidation index of the muscle lipids was also decreased. This was associated with increased simulated retail storage shelf life as indicated by decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in muscle samples from fish fed the palm or poultry oil-based diets. Concomitantly, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, but not glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity or reduced glutathione concentration, was significantly reduced in the liver of barramundi fed the palm or poultry oil-based diets as compared with the fish fed the fish oil-based diet. Furthermore, GPx and GST activity were very low in muscle, much lower than in gastrointestinal tract, liver or swim bladder. Therefore, we propose that liver GPx activity may be a good predictor of fillet shelf life in barramundi and other fish species.

  15. Association between Blood Omega-3 Index and Cognition in Typically Developing Dutch Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge S. M. van der Wurff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs on cognition is heavily debated. In the current study, the possible association between omega-3 LCPUFAs in blood and cognitive performance of 266 typically developing adolescents aged 13–15 years is investigated. Baseline data from Food2Learn, a double-blind and randomized placebo controlled krill oil supplementation trial in typically developing adolescents, were used for the current study. The Omega-3 Index was determined with blood from a finger prick. At baseline, participants finished a neuropsychological test battery consisting of the Letter Digit Substitution Test (LDST, D2 test of attention, Digit Span Forward and Backward, Concept Shifting Test and Stroop test. Data were analyzed with multiple regression analyses with correction for covariates. The average Omega-3 Index was 3.83% (SD 0.60. Regression analyses between the Omega-3 Index and the outcome parameters revealed significant associations with scores on two of the nine parameters. The association between the Omega-3 Index and both scores on the LDST (β = 0.136 and p = 0.039, and the number of errors of omission on the D2 (β = −0.053 and p = 0.007. This is a possible indication for a higher information processing speed and less impulsivity in those with a higher Omega-3 Index.

  16. Omega-3 Index and Anti-Arrhythmic Potential of Omega-3 PUFAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribulova, Narcis; Szeiffova Bacova, Barbara; Egan Benova, Tamara; Knezl, Vladimir; Barancik, Miroslav; Slezak, Jan

    2017-10-30

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), namely eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are permanent subjects of interest in relation to the protection of cardiovascular health and the prevention of the incidence of both ventricular and atrial arrhythmias. The purpose of this updated review is to focus on the novel cellular and molecular effects of omega-3 PUFAs, in the context of the mechanisms and factors involved in the development of cardiac arrhythmias; to provide results of the most recent studies on the omega-3 PUFA anti-arrhythmic efficacy and to discuss the lack of the benefit in relation to omega-3 PUFA status. The evidence is in the favor of omega-3 PUFA acute and long-term treatment, perhaps with mitochondria-targeted antioxidants. However, for a more objective evaluation of the anti-arrhythmic potential of omega-3 PUFAs in clinical trials, it is necessary to monitor the basal pre-interventional omega-3 status of individuals, i.e., red blood cell content, omega-3 index and free plasma levels. In the view of evidence-based medicine, it seems to be crucial to aim to establish new approaches in the prevention of cardiac arrhythmias and associated morbidity and mortality that comes with these conditions.

  17. Lipid oxidation in milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing enriched with neat fish oil or pre-emulsified fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    stability than fish-oil-enriched dressings, irrespective of the mode of fish oil addition. Yoghurt thus seemed to be a good delivery system of lipids containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Different effects of adding fish oil either as neat fish oil or as a fish-oil-in-water emulsion were observed...... of neat fish oil was a good option for preserving the final quality in yoghurt and dressings, but a pre-emulsion may still be considered for the fish oil enrichment of certain food products, for example, milk. Keywords: Fish oil; lipid oxidation; oil-in-water emulsion; n-3 PUFA; milk; yoghurt; salad......Abstract: This study compared the oxidative stabilities of fish-oil-enriched milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing and investigated the effects on oxidation of adding either neat fish oil or a fish-oil-in-water emulsion to these products. Milk emulsions had higher levels of a fishy off...

  18. Meat-based functional foods for dietary equilibrium omega-6/omega-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reglero, Guillermo; Frial, Paloma; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Risco, Mónica R; Jaime, Laura; Marin, Francisco R; Palanca, Vicente; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Santoyo, Susana; Señoráns, Francisco J; Soler-Rivas, Cristina; Torres, Carlos; Ibañez, Elena

    2008-10-01

    Nutritionists encourage improving the diet by combining meat products with fish or other sea-related foods, in order to equilibrate the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. Strong scientific evidence supports the beneficial health effects of a balanced omega-6/omega-3 PUFA (poly unsaturated fatty acids) diets. In the present work, the scientific bases of new functional meat products with both a balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio and a synergic combination of antioxidants are discussed. The aim is to contribute to the dietary equilibrium omega-6/omega-3 and to increase the antioxidant intake. Conventional meat products supplemented with a specific fatty acids and antioxidants combination led to functional foods with healthier nutritional parameters.

  19. Microalgal biofactories: a promising approach towards sustainable omega-3 fatty acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarme-Vega T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA provide significant health benefits and this has led to an increased consumption as dietary supplements. Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are found in animals, transgenic plants, fungi and many microorganisms but are typically extracted from fatty fish, putting additional pressures on global fish stocks. As primary producers, many marine microalgae are rich in EPA (C20:5 and DHA (C22:6 and present a promising source of omega-3 fatty acids. Several heterotrophic microalgae have been used as biofactories for omega-3 fatty acids commercially, but a strong interest in autotrophic microalgae has emerged in recent years as microalgae are being developed as biofuel crops. This paper provides an overview of microalgal biotechnology and production platforms for the development of omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. It refers to implications in current biotechnological uses of microalgae as aquaculture feed and future biofuel crops and explores potential applications of metabolic engineering and selective breeding to accumulate large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in autotrophic microalgae.

  20. Effects of dietary oil sources on egg quality, fatty acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this study demonstrated that olive oil improved egg weight and egg shell quality compared to the other oils tested; fish and soyabean oil increased the omega-3 fatty acid level of egg yolk, and soyabean oil had positive effects on serum lipid concentrations. Incorporation of these oils into the diets of Japanese ...

  1. Health effects of fish and fish oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chandra, Ranjit Kumar

    1989-01-01

    .... Based on epidemiologic data, it has been suggested that a fish-containing diet is beneficial in the prevention and management of a variety of disorders including coronary heart disease, hypertension, and psoriasis...

  2. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together with a f......A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...... with a fast acting effect on fish oil....

  3. Performance, carcass traits, muscle fatty acid composition and meat sensory properties of male Mahabadi goat kids fed palm oil, soybean oil or fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, M H; Zeinoaldini, S; Ganjkhanlou, M; Mohammadi, H; Hopkins, D L; Ponnampalam, E N

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the effect of palm, soybean or fish oils on the performance, muscle fatty acid composition and meat quality of goat kids. Twenty-four male Mahabadi kids (BW=19.4±1.2 kg) were divided into three groups according to liveweight and randomly allocated to one of three diets. Animals were fed ad libitum for 84 days. Different dietary fat sources had no effect on performance and/or carcass quality attributes. The soybean oil diet decreased 16:0 and 18:0 concentrations and increased 18:2 and 18:3 and the ratio of PUFA/SFA in the muscle compared with other treatments. Fish oil feeding increased 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 concentrations and decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 in the muscle. The results demonstrate that the use of fish oil is a nutritional strategy to improve the health claimable long-chain omega-3 fatty acid content and n-6/n-3 ratio in goat meat without changing the sensory properties or colour of meat. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic Psychological Stress Was Not Ameliorated by Omega-3 Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Bradbury

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic psychological stress and mental health disorders are endemic in Western culture where population dietary insufficiencies of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FA from seafood have been observed.Objective: This study was designed to test for a causal relationship between one of the most active components of fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and chronic psychological stress.Method: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with parallel-assignment to two groups was designed (Trial Id: ACTRN12610000404022. The interventions were four EPA-rich fish oil capsules per day, delivering 2.2 g/d EPA (and 0.44 g/d DHA, or identical placebo (low-phenolic olive oil capsules with 5% fish oil to aid blinding. The primary outcome was the between-group difference on the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10 after 12 weeks supplementation. An a priori power analysis determined that group sizes of 43 would provide 80% power to detect a significant between-group difference of 12.5%, at α = 0.05. Ninety community members (64 females, 26 males reporting chronic work stress were recruited via public advertising in northern NSW, Australia.Results: At baseline the omega-3 index (EPA + DHA as % to total fatty acids in red blood cell membranes was 5.2% in both groups (SD = 1.6% control group; 1.8% active group. After supplementation this remained stable at 5.3% (SD = 1.6% for the control group but increased to 8.9% (SD = 1.5% for the active group, demonstrating successful incorporation of EPA into cells. Intention-to-treat (ITT analysis found no significant between-group differences in PSS outcome scores post-intervention (b = 1.21, p = 0.30 after adjusting for sex (b = 2.36, p = 0.079, baseline PSS (b = 0.42, p = 0.001 and baseline logEPA [b = 1.41, p = 0.185; F(3, 86 = 8.47, p < 0.01, n = 89, R-square = 0.243].Discussion: Treatment increased cell membrane EPA but, contrary to the hypothesis, there was no effect on perceived stress. Limitations

  5. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on canine atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R S; Fieseler, K V; Fettman, M J; Zabel, S; Rosychuk, R A W; Ogilvie, G K; Greenwalt, T L

    2004-06-01

    Twenty-nine dogs were included in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomised trial and were orally supplemented for 10 weeks with either flax oil (200 mg/kg/day), eicosapentaenoic acid (50 mg/kg/day) and docosahexaenoic acid (35 mg/kg/day) in a commercial preparation, or mineral oil as a placebo. For each dog, clinical scores were determined based on a scoring system developed prior to the trial. Total omega-6 and omega-3 intake and the ratio of omega-6:omega-3 (omega-6:3) were calculated before and after the trial. The dogs' clinical scores improved in those supplemented with flax oil and the commercial preparation, but not in the placebo group. No correlation was identified between total fatty acid intake or omega-6:3 ratio and clinical scores. Based on the results of this study, the total intake of fatty acids or the omega-6:3 ratio do not seem to be the main factors in determining the clinical response.

  6. 21 CFR 186.1551 - Hydrogenated fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Hydrogenated fish oil. 186.1551 Section 186.1551... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1551 Hydrogenated fish oil. (a) Hydrogenated fish oil (CAS Reg. No. 91078-95-4) is a class of oils produced by partial hydrogenation of oils expressed...

  7. Postnatal fish oil supplementation in high-risk infants to prevent allergy: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Vaz, N; Meldrum, S J; Dunstan, J A; Martino, D; McCarthy, S; Metcalfe, J; Tulic, M K; Mori, T A; Prescott, S L

    2012-10-01

    Relative deficiency of dietary omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been implicated in the rising allergy prevalence in Westernized countries. Fish oil supplementation may provide an intervention strategy for primary allergy prevention. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of fish oil n-3 PUFA supplementation from birth to 6 months of age on infant allergic disease. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, 420 infants at high atopic risk received a daily supplement of fish oil containing 280 mg docosahexaenoic acid and 110 mg eicosapentaenoic acid or a control (olive oil), from birth to age 6 months. PUFA levels were measured in 6-month-old infants' erythrocytes and plasma and their mothers' breast milk. Eczema, food allergy, asthma and sensitization were assessed in 323 infants for whom clinical follow-up was completed at 12 months of age. At 6 months of age, infant docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid levels were significantly higher (both P acid levels were lower (P = .003) in the fish oil group. Although n-3 PUFA levels at 6 months were associated with lower risk of eczema (P = .033) and recurrent wheeze (P = .027), the association with eczema was not significant after multiple comparisons and there was no effect of the intervention per se on the primary study outcomes. Specifically, between-group comparisons revealed no differences in the occurrence of allergic outcomes including sensitization, eczema, asthma, or food allergy. Postnatal fish oil supplementation improved infant n-3 status but did not prevent childhood allergic disease.

  8. Factors affecting the oxidative stability of omega-3 emulsions prepared with milk proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Omega-3 fatty acids are prone to lipid oxidation due to their unsaturated nature. In oil-in-water emulsions, lipid oxidation is expected to be initiated at the oil-water interface. The properties of the emulsifier used and the structure at the interface are therefore expected to be of great...

  9. Influence of selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid on serum mineral profile and nutrient utilization of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid on serum mineral profile and nutrient utilization of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: The present study was a 2×3 factorial arrangement of two levels of selenomethionine (0 and 0.3 ppm and three levels of omega-3 fatty acid (0, 0.5 and 1%. Day-old Vencobb broiler chicks (n=180, were randomly assigned in six treatment groups. The experiment lasted for 42 days. Treatment groups followed of: Group I was a control. Group II, III, IV, V and VI were supplemented with 0 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid, 0 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid and 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, respectively. Linseed oil was used as a source of omega-3 fatty acid while sel-plex is used for selenomethionine supplementation. Results: Significant (p<0.05 interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for serum zinc and iron concentration whereas, it was non-significant for serum calcium and copper. Significantly (p<0.05 increased concentration of selenium, zinc, iron and phosphorus was observed in birds fed 0.3 ppm selenomethionine whereas, significantly (p<0.05 increased zinc and iron was observed in birds fed 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was significant (p<0.05 interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for calcium and phosphorus retention percentage. The maximum retention of calcium and phosphorus was recorded in birds supplemented with 0.3 ppm selenomethionine in combination with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was marked interaction between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for hemoglobin (Hb, total erythrocytic count, total leukocytic count and platelets (p<0.05 however, it was non-significant for mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb, MCH concentration

  10. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Depression: Scientific Evidence and Biological Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Grosso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The changing of omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in the food supply of Western societies occurred over the last 150 years is thought to promote the pathogenesis of many inflammatory-related diseases, including depressive disorders. Several epidemiological studies reported a significant inverse correlation between intake of oily fish and depression or bipolar disorders. Studies conducted specifically on the association between omega-3 intake and depression reported contrasting results, suggesting that the preventive role of omega-3 PUFA may depend also on other factors, such as overall diet quality and the social environment. Accordingly, tertiary prevention with omega-3 PUFA supplement in depressed patients has reached greater effectiveness during the last recent years, although definitive statements on their use in depression therapy cannot be yet freely asserted. Among the biological properties of omega-3 PUFA, their anti-inflammatory effects and their important role on the structural changing of the brain should be taken into account to better understand the possible pathway through which they can be effective both in preventing or treating depression. However, the problem of how to correct the inadequate supply of omega-3 PUFA in the Westernized countries’ diet is a priority in order to set food and health policies and also dietary recommendations for individuals and population groups.

  11. Physical and oxidative stability of high fat fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with combinations of sodium caseinate and sodium alginate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yesiltas, Betül; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke

    2017-01-01

    .2 ratio NaCas:NaAlg by Box-Behnken's design, the formulae 70%-1.4%-1.2 was decided due to high fish oil content's decreasing effect on droplet size and peroxide value. Practical applications: Physically and oxidatively stable high fat (50-70%) omega-3 delivery fish oil-in-water emulsions are of high......A systematic study was carried out in order to evaluate the physical and oxidative stability of high fat omega-3 delivery fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with combinations of sodium caseinate (NaCas) and sodium alginate (NaAlg). The influence of 3 factors related to emulsion composition...... (fish oil content: 50, 60 and 70%; total amount of NaCas and NaAlg: 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8 %; and ratio NaCas:NaAlg: 0.4, 1.2 and 2) on physical (droplet size, viscosity and zeta potential) and oxidative (primary and secondary oxidation products) parameters was evaluated. It was possible to produce emulsions...

  12. Metabolic engineering of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway into transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-López, Noemi; Sayanova, Olga; Napier, Johnathan A; Haslam, Richard P

    2012-04-01

    Omega-3 (ω-3) very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 Δ5,8,11,14,17) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 Δ4,7,10,13,16,19) have been shown to have significant roles in human health. Currently the primary dietary source of these fatty acids are marine fish; however, the increasing demand for fish and fish oil (in particular the expansion of the aquaculture industry) is placing enormous pressure on diminishing marine stocks. Such overfishing and concerns related to pollution in the marine environment have directed research towards the development of a viable alternative sustainable source of VLC-PUFAs. As a result, the last decade has seen many genes encoding the primary VLC-PUFA biosynthetic activities identified and characterized. This has allowed the reconstitution of the VLC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway in oilseed crops, producing transgenic plants engineered to accumulate ω-3 VLC-PUFAs at levels approaching those found in native marine organisms. Moreover, as a result of these engineering activities, knowledge of the fundamental processes surrounding acyl exchange and lipid remodelling has progressed. The application of new technologies, for example lipidomics and next-generation sequencing, is providing a better understanding of seed oil biosynthesis and opportunities for increasing the production of unusual fatty acids. Certainly, it is now possible to modify the composition of plant oils successfully, and, in this review, the most recent developments in this field and the challenges of producing VLC-PUFAs in the seed oil of higher plants will be described.

  13. Bioavailability of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling

    2008-01-01

    Increasing recognition of the importance of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) has caused greater attention about dietary intake of these fatty acids. Fatty fish is the major dietary source of these fatty acids. Because of the low intake of fish at many places, foods...... enriched with omega-3 LCPUFA can be good alternatives to improve the intake of these fatty acids. Effects of lipid structures and food matrices on bioavailability of omega-3 LCPUFA have been investigated. Short term studies showed that both lipid structure and food matrix affect the bioavailability...... of these fatty acids, whereas diverse results have been reported from long-term studies. Therefore more studies are encouraged to clarify the long-term effects....

  14. An oil containing EPA and DHA from transgenic Camelina sativa to replace marine fish oil in feeds for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.: Effects on intestinal transcriptome, histology, tissue fatty acid profiles and plasma biochemistry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica B Betancor

    Full Text Available New de novo sources of omega 3 (n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA are required as alternatives to fish oil in aquafeeds in order to maintain adequate levels of the beneficial fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic (EPA and DHA, respectively. The present study investigated the use of an EPA+DHA oil derived from transgenic Camelina sativa in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar feeds containing low levels of fishmeal (35% and fish oil (10%, reflecting current commercial formulations, to determine the impacts on tissue fatty acid profile, intestinal transcriptome, and health of farmed salmon. Post-smolt Atlantic salmon were fed for 12-weeks with one of three experimental diets containing either a blend of fish oil/rapeseed oil (FO, wild-type camelina oil (WCO or transgenic camelina oil (DCO as added lipid source. The DCO diet did not affect any of the fish performance or health parameters studied. Analyses of the mid and hindgut transcriptomes showed only mild effects on metabolism. Flesh of fish fed the DCO diet accumulated almost double the amount of n-3 LC-PUFA than fish fed the FO or WCO diets, indicating that these oils from transgenic oilseeds offer the opportunity to increase the n-3 LC-PUFA in farmed fish to levels comparable to those found a decade ago.

  15. Is the world supply of omega-3 fatty acids adequate for optimal human nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Norman; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-03-01

    To delineate the available sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for human consumption and to determine if the available supply is capable of supplying the nutrient levels recommended by expert bodies. There are converging opinions among experts, professional organizations and health professionals that a recommendation for a daily individual consumption of 500 mg of EPA/DHA would provide health benefits, and this translates to an annual human consumption of 1.3 million metric tons. Current human consumption of EPA/DHA is estimated to be only a small fraction of this amount and many people may suffer from suboptimal health as a result of low intake. EPA and DHA originate in the phytoplankton and are made available in the human food chain mainly through fish and other seafood. The fish catch is not elastic and in fact has long since reached a plateau. Aquaculture has grown rapidly, but most of the fish oil produced is currently being used to support aquaculture feed and so this would appear to limit aquaculture growth - or at least the growth in availability of fish sources of EPA/DHA. Vegetable oil-derived alpha-linolenic acid, though relatively plentiful, is converted only at a trace level in humans to DHA and not very efficiently to EPA, and so cannot fill this gap. Microbial EPA/DHA production can in the future be increased, although this oil is likely to remain more expensive than fish oil. Plant sources of EPA and DHA have now been produced in the laboratory via transgenic means and will eventually clear regulatory hurdles for commercialization, but societal acceptance remains in question. The purpose of this review is to discuss the various sources of omega-3 fatty acids within the context of the potential world demand for these nutrients. In summary, it is concluded that fish and vegetable oil sources will not be adequate to meet future needs, but that algal oil and terrestrial plants modified genetically to produce EPA and DHA

  16. DNA Methylation Pattern in Overweight Women under an Energy-Restricted Diet Supplemented with Fish Oil

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    Cátia Lira do Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded.

  17. Fish oil quality of by-product (fish skin from swangi fish

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    La Ode Huli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The skin of swangi fish is a potential fish skin to be produced for fish oil. The objectives of this research were aimed to determine the yield and the best quality of fish oil and also to compare fatty acid profile of the fish according to different extraction methods. Fish oil extractions were used by wet rendering method with extraction temperatures of 60, 70, 80, 90, 100°C for 20, 30, and 40 minutes. Fish oil quality was determined by the chemical oil characteristics i.e. PV, FFA, AV, anisidin, and TOTOX. Fatty acid profile was analyzed using gas chromatography (Shimadzu. The results of the study showed that the highest fish oil yield in each treatment was obtained extraction temperature of 60°C for 30 minutes with percentage of 0.33, (70°C for 30 minutes 0.46, (80°C for 30 minutes 1.23, (90°C for 20 minutes 1.14 and (100°C for 20 minutes 0.84. These values were lower compare to Bligh & Dyer and Soxhlet methods. Then, the best fish oil quality was resulted on temperature extraction of 60°C for 30 minutes with PV, FFA, anisidin, AV, and TOTOX were 9.17 meq/kg, 6.92%, 13,77 mg KOH/g, 0.86 meq/kg and 19.19 meq/kg, respectively. FUFA fatty acid compositions of swangi skin fish oil especially EPA and DHA in wet rendering method were gained 0.73% and 2.53%, respectively. These results were lower than Bligh & Dyer method which was consisted of 3.66% (EPA, and 13.29% (DHA and also Soxhlet extraction method with value of EPA was 2.78% and DHA was 9.62%.Keywords: EPA, extraction temperature, DHA, fish oil quality, fish skin

  18. No Protection against DSS-induced Colitis by Short-term Pretreatment with Seal or Fish Oils in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülen Arslan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have modulating effects in several chronic inflammatory conditions. The aim of the present study was to test whether prior short-term dietary supplementation with n-3 (fish or seal oil or n-6 (soy oil PUFA rich oils would protect the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis in rats.Methods: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups: no intervention, sham, DSS, seal oil + DSS, fi sh oil +DSS and soy oil + DSS. Following 7 days of acclimatisation, 1 mL oil (seal, fish or soy or distilled water (sham was administered by gavage day 8 to 14. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in drinking water from day 15 to 21. Rats were sacrificed on day 23. Histological colitis (crypt and inflammation scores, faecal granulocyte marker protein (GMP and quantitative fatty acid composition in red blood cells were measured.Results: Pretreatment with fish or seal oils did not significantly influence DSS induced inflammation. In fact, all the oils tended to exacerbate the inflammation. Soy oil increased the mean crypt score (P < 0.04, but not the inflammation score or GMP. The ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (FAs was 11 to 1 and 10 to 1 in standard diet and in red blood cells of control rats, respectively. Following administration of DSS, the ratio fell in all treatment groups (P < 0.001. The lowest ratios were seen in the groups receiving DSS + fi sh or seal oils (around 6 to 1.Conclusion: Short-term pretreatment with fish or seal oils did not protect against subsequent induction of colitis by DSS in this rat model. Whether the high ratio of n-6 to n-3 FAs in the standard diet concealed effects of n-3 FA supplementation should be further investigated.

  19. Do oil dispersants make spilled oil more toxic to fish?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, P.

    2010-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon blowout in the Gulf of Mexico was the world's largest oil spill in terms of duration and volume spilled. Clean-up operations, which involved the continuous and wide-spread use of oil dispersant at the surface and at the seabed discharge point at 1500 metres depth, gave rise to public concern about dispersant toxicity. Reports from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) claimed little difference in acute toxicity to marine fish and invertebrate species among commonly available dispersants and between dispersed and non-dispersed Louisiana Sweet Crude. Technically, the toxicity of waterborne hydrocarbons does not vary with chemical dispersion. However, the EPA omitted any consideration of loading, and misled the public about the risks of dispersant use in oil clean-up. This study examined the chronic toxicity of dispersed oil to fish embryos. The study revealed that toxicity expressed as oil loading increases by a factor of 10 to 1000 times with dispersion, largely because 10 to 1000 times more oil enters the water column. Since the action of dispersant is on the exposure component of the risk equation, not on the potency of the toxic components of oil, then the risk of oil toxicity to fish increases an equivalent amount.

  20. Effects of Fish Oil Supplementation during the Suckling Period on Auditory Neural Conduction in n-3 Fatty Acid-Deficient Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vida rahimi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Omega 3 fatty acid especially in the form of fish oil, has structural and biological role in the body's various systems especially nervous system. Numerous studies have tried to research about it. Auditory is one of the affected systems. Omega 3 deficiency can have devastating effects on the nervous system and auditory. This study aimed to evaluate neural conduction in n-3 fatty acid-deficient rat pups following the supplementation of fish oil consumption during the suckling period Materials and Methods: In this interventional and experimental study, one sources of omega3 fatty acid (fish oil were fed to rat pups of n-3 PUFA-deficient dams to compare changes in their auditory neural conduction with that of control and n-3 PUFA-deficient groups, using Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR. The parameters of interest were P1, P3, P4 absolute latency, P1-P3, P1-P4 and P3-P4 IPL , P4/P1 amplitude ratio . The rat pups were given oral fish oil, 5 Ml /g weight for 17 days, between the age of 5 and 21 days. Results There were no significant group differences in P1 and P3 absolute latency (p > 0.05. but the result in P4 was significant(P ≤ 0.05 . The n-3 PUFA deficient +vehicle had the most prolonged (the worst P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL compared with control and n-3 PUFA deficient + FO groups. There was no significant difference in P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL between n-3 PUFA deficient + FO and control groups (p > 0.05.There was a significant effect of diet on P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL between groups (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The results of present study showed the effect of omega3 deficiency on auditory neural structure during pregnancy and lactation period. Additionally, we observed the reduced devastating effects on neural conduction in n-3 fatty acid-deficient rat pups following the supplementation of fish oil during the suckling period

  1. Pathway markers for pro-resolving lipid mediators in maternal and umbilical cord blood: A Secondary analysis of the Mothers, Omega-3, & Mental Health Study

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    Ellen L Mozurkewich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA are precursors to immune regulatory and specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM of inflammation termed resolvins, maresins, and protections. Evidence for lipid mediator formation in vivo can be gained through evaluation of their 5-lipoxygenase (LOX and 15-LOX metabolic pathway precursors and downstream metabolites: We performed a secondary blood sample analysis from 60 participants in the Mothers, Omega-3, and Mental Health study to determine whether SPM and SPM precursors are augmented by dietary EPA- and DHA-rich fish oil supplementation compared to soy oil placebo. We also aimed to study whether SPM and their precursors differ in early and late pregnancy or between maternal and umbilical cord blood. We found that compared to placebo supplementation, EPA- and DHA- rich fish oil supplementation increased SPM precursor 17-HDHA concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood (P=0.02 We found that the D-series resolvin pathway marker 17-HDHA increased significantly between enrollment and late pregnancy (P=0.049. Levels of both 14-HDHA, a maresin pathway marker, and 17-HDHA were significantly greater in umbilical cord blood than in maternal blood (P<0.001, both.

  2. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose Intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health.

  3. [Low-dose omega-3 fatty acids as lipid lowering agents in the practice. A field study of ambulatory patients in general practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, B; Bertsch, S

    1992-04-10

    BASICS: Clinical trials have shown that omega-3 fatty acids are also effective at smaller doses than those so far recommended for lowering lipid concentrations. Testing this finding in a large number of unselected outpatients. Open multicentric trial involving 197 patients with dyslipoproteinemia. Treatment comprised omega-3 fatty acids, 1.1 to 1.4 g per day administered for a period of 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of treatment, serum triglycerides decreased on average by about 23%, total cholesterol by about 10%, and LDL cholesterol by about 5%. HDL cholesterol rose by an average of 16%. The fish oil preparation (Eicosapen, Nycomed, Munich) was well tolerated; a fishy taste and mild gastrointestinal complaints led to discontinuation of treatment in only four cases. It was also found that the effect of omega-3 fatty acids was appreciably greater in hypertensives than in patients with normal blood pressure--not only on systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but also on serum triglycerides and HDL.

  4. Needs in omega 3 and ocular pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bretillon Lionel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Life expectancy at birth has regularly increased decade after decade, especially since the beginning of the 20th century: 15 years have been gained over the past 50 years. Changes in living and dietary habits during this time period have been associated with the development of various pathologies which represent a growing socioeconomic burden. Among age-related disorders, ocular diseases are the second most prevalent ones after 65 years. Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of visual impairment after the age of 50 years. Age is the prominent risk factor for AMD and is accompanied with both endogenous (including genetics and environmental factors, such as smoking habits and dietary factors (diet rich in cholesterol and saturated fatty acids. AMD is characterized by the loss of cells at the most central area of the retina, called macula. The neural retina is a highly structured neurosensory tissue that is responsible for the transduction pathway. The transduction pathway is initiated in photoreceptors where the light stimulus is coded into an electrical signal. This signal is transmitted to neighboured neurons and transferred to the brain via the optic nerve. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is the cellular and metabolic interface between the neural retina and choriocapillaris through Bruch’s membrane. The close association between RPE and photoreceptors is one of the factors that promote the efficacy of RPE to, in the one hand, provide nutrients and oxygen to photoreceptors and, in the other hand, eliminate the metabolic debris originating from shedding of the outer segments. Epidemiological data suggest that dietary habits privileging the consumption of omega- 3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids participate to prevent from the development of AMD (Sangiovanni et al., 2009. The mechanisms underlying the effects of omega-3 fatty acids remain unclear until now. The purpose of the present paper is to give a review on

  5. Omega-3 supplementation on inflammatory markers in patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy: a randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Paula Simplício da; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Silva, Gilberto Marcelo Sperandio da; Brito, Patricia Dias de; Cardoso, Claudia Santos de Aguiar; Almeida, Cristiane Fonseca de; Sangenis, Luiz Henrique Conde; Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Hasslocher-Moreno, Alejandro Marcel; Brasil, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano do; Sousa, Andrea Silvestre de

    2017-06-09

    Several studies have been focusing on the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on modulation of inflammatory markers in several cardiopathies. Although immunoregulatory dysfunction has been associated to the chronic cardiac involvement in Chagas disease, there is no study examining the effects of omega-3 supplementation in these patients. We investigated the effects of omega-3 PUFAs on markers of inflammation and lipid profile in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy patients. The present study was a single-center double-blind clinical trial including patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy. Patients were randomly assigned to receive omega-3 PUFAs capsules (1.8g EPA and 1.2g DHA) or placebo (corn oil) during an 8-week period. Cytokines, fasting glucose, lipid, and anthropometric profiles were evaluated. Forty-two patients (23 women and 19 men) were included in the study and there were only two losses to follow-up during the 8-week period. Most of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were similar between the groups at baseline, except for the cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17α, and IFNγ. The omega-3 PUFAs group demonstrated greater improvements in serum triglycerides (-21.1 vs. -4.1; p = 0.05) and IL-10 levels (-10.6 vs. -35.7; p = 0.01) in comparison to controls after 8 weeks of intervention. No further differences were observed between groups. Omega-3 PUFAs supplementation may favorably affect lipid and inflammatory profile in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy patients, demonstrated by a decrease in triglycerides and improvements on IL-10 concentration. Further studies examining the clinical effects of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy are necessary. NCT01863576.

  6. Omega-3 supplementation effects on polycystic ovary syndrome symptoms and metabolic syndrome

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    Behnaz Khani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common female endocrine disorder with unknown etiology and with different complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of omega-3 supplementation on PCOS symptoms and metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: This double-blind clinical trial was performed in 2015 in Alzahra and Shahid Beheshti Hospitals, Isfahan, Iran, on 88 patients with PCOS. Intervention group took omega-3 supplements with dose of 2 g/day for 6 months (two capsules, but control group received two olive oil capsules. Finally, ultrasound and laboratory findings and the recovery rate of menstrual disorders in both groups were compared. Results: After 6 months' intervention, waist circumference (WC was significantly lower in omega-3 as compared to control (81.18 ± 2.87 vs. 84.22 ± 2.61 cm, respectively,P< 0.0001. High-density lipoprotein was increased (47.2 ± 1.37 vs. 41.56 ± 1.34 mg/dl, respectively,P< 0.0001 while low-density lipoprotein (107.79 ± 1.68 vs. 117.4 ± 1.57 mg/dl, respectively, triglyceride (116.02 ± 3.13 vs. 125.06 ± 2.91 mg/dl, respectively, and cholesterol (180.34 ± 6.34 vs. 189.56 ± 5.93 mg/dl, respectively in omega-3 were significantly lower than control (P < 0.0001. The interval between periods in omega-3 was significantly shorter than control (29.83 ± 4.68 vs. 47.11 ± 8.72 days, respectively,P< 0.001. Conclusion: Omega-3 decrease lipid profiles, WC, and interval between periods while weight, hip circumference, fasting blood sugar, number of ovarian follicle, size of ovary, bleeding volume, menstrual bleeding, and hirsutism score did not change by administration of omega-3.

  7. Dietary Fish Oil in Reducing Bone Metastasis of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini

    2006-01-01

    In a study of the mechanism behind the inhibitory effect of fish oil on the growth of breast cancer cells, the authors reported that fish oil, or w-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), did the following: (1...

  8. A review of omega-3 ethyl esters for cardiovascular prevention and treatment of increased blood triglyceride levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens von Schacky

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Clemens von SchackyMedizinische Klinik and Poliklinik Innenstadt, University of Munich, Munich, GermanyAbstract: The two marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, prevalent in fish and fish oils, have been investigated as a strategy towards prophylaxis of atherosclerosis. While the results with fish and fish oils have been not as clear cut, the data generated with the purified ethyl ester forms of these two fatty acids are consistent. Although slight differences in biological activity exist between EPA and DHA, both exert a number of positive actions against atherosclerosis and its complications. EPA and DHA as ethyl esters inhibit platelet aggregability, and reduce serum triglycerides, while leaving other serum lipids essentially unaltered. Glucose metabolism has been studied extensively, and no adverse effects were seen. Pro-atherogenic cytokines are reduced, as are markers of endothelial activation. Endothelial function is improved, vascular occlusion is reduced, and the course of coronary atherosclerosis is mitigated. Heart rate is reduced, and heart rate variability is increased by EPA and DHA. An antiarrhythmic effect can be demonstrated on the supraventricular and the ventricular level. More importantly, two large studies showed reductions in clinical endpoints like sudden cardiac death or major adverse cardiac events. As a consequence, relevant cardiac societies recommend using 1 g/day of EPA and DHA for cardiovascular prevention, after a myocardial infarction and for prevention of sudden cardiac death.Keywords: sudden cardiac death, major adverse cardiac events, cardiovascular prevention, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid

  9. Fish Oil Supplementation Increases Event-Related Posterior Cingulate Activation in Older Adults with Subjective Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boespflug, E L; McNamara, R K; Eliassen, J C; Schidler, M D; Krikorian, R

    2016-02-01

    To determine the effects of long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids found in fish oil, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on cortical blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity during a working memory task in older adults with subjective memory impairment. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Academic medical center. Healthy older adults (62-80 years) with subjective memory impairment, but not meeting criteria for mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Fish oil (EPA+DHA: 2.4 g/d, n=11) or placebo (corn oil, n=10) for 24 weeks. Cortical BOLD response patterns during performance of a sequential letter n-back working memory task were determined at baseline and week 24 by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). At 24 weeks erythrocyte membrane EPA+DHA composition increased significantly from baseline in participants receiving fish oil (+31%, p ≤ 0.0001) but not placebo (-17%, p=0.06). Multivariate modeling of fMRI data identified a significant interaction among treatment, visit, and memory loading in the right cingulate (BA 23/24), and in the right sensorimotor area (BA 3/4). In the fish oil group, BOLD increases at 24 weeks were observed in the right posterior cingulate and left superior frontal regions during memory loading. A region-of-interest analysis indicated that the baseline to endpoint change in posterior cingulate cortex BOLD activity signal was significantly greater in the fish oil group compared with the placebo group during the 1-back (p=0.0003) and 2-back (p=0.0005) conditions. Among all participants, the change in erythrocyte EPA+DHA during the intervention was associated with performance in the 2-back working memory task (p = 0.01), and with cingulate BOLD signal during the 1-back (p = 0.005) with a trend during the 2-back (p = 0.09). Further, cingulate BOLD activity was related to performance in the 2-back condition. Dietary fish oil supplementation increases red blood cell omega-3 content

  10. Metabolic engineering Camelina sativa with fish oil-like levels of DHA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Petrie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Omega-3 long-chain (≥C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are critical for human health and development [corrected].. Numerous studies have indicated that deficiencies in these fatty acids can increase the risk or severity of cardiovascular, inflammatory and other diseases or disorders. EPA and DHA are predominantly sourced from marine fish although the primary producers are microalgae. Much work has been done to engineer a sustainable land-based source of EPA and DHA to reduce pressure on fish stocks in meeting future demand, with previous studies describing the production of fish oil-like levels of DHA in the model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we describe the production of fish oil-like levels (>12% of DHA in the oilseed crop species Camelina sativa achieving a high ω3/ω6 ratio. The construct previously transformed in Arabidopsis as well as two modified construct versions designed to increase DHA production were used. DHA was found to be stable to at least the T5 generation and the EPA and DHA were found to be predominantly at the sn-1,3 positions of triacylglycerols. Transgenic and parental lines did not have different germination or seedling establishment rates. CONCLUSIONS: DHA can be produced at fish oil-like levels in industrially-relevant oilseed crop species using multi-gene construct designs which are stable over multiple generations. This study has implications for the future of sustainable EPA and DHA production from land-based sources.

  11. Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: a randomised clinical trial with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Østerdal, M L; Salvig, J D

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on duration of pregnancy, conditional on the woman's habitual fish intake. DESIGN: Multicentre 1:1 randomised clinical trial of effect of fish oil in a high-risk population of pregnant women in whom habitual fish intake was assessed...... at randomisation. SETTING: Nineteen university delivery wards in seven European countries. SUBJECTS: Pregnant women with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), or pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in a previous pregnancy (group 1, n=495); with twin pregnancies (group 2, n=367......); or with suspicion of IUGR or threatening preeclampsia in the current pregnancy (group 3, n=106). Women were stratified into low, middle, or high fish consumers. METHODS: The intervention group received fish oil capsules providing 2.7 g long-chain n-3 fatty acids per day (n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA...

  12. Food supplementation for workers: flour enriched with omega -3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Nery de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was preparing a product (omega-3 flour to increase the nutritional value of the food for workers concerning the content of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA. The omega-3 flour was prepared using waste (head sardines and leaves of carrot, flaxseed flour, manioc flour and spices. The fatty acids (FA concentration was analyzed by gas chromatography. A total of 28 FA were identified in the omega-3 flour. The concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were 329.23mg EPA 100 g-1 omega-3 flour and 545.35 mg DHA 100 g-1 omega-3 flour. To meet the minimum requirements of omega -3, it is necessary the intake 2.5 to 3 tablespoons (soup of omega-3 flour day-1.There were analyzed two meals (A and B generally consumed by workers without and with the addition of the omega-3 flour (1 and 2 tablespoons to verify if there was an increase of n-3 FA. It was concluded that there was a significant increase of these FA in both meals. It was found that the omega-3 flour is constituted of a good nutritional value, especially the n-3 FA, so the product can be used as a supplement in the feeding of the workers as well as in other segments.

  13. Brain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate microglia cell number and morphology in response to intracerebroventricular amyloid-β 1-40 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopperton, Kathryn E; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Giuliano, Vanessa; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-09-29

    Neuroinflammation is a proposed mechanism by which Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology potentiates neuronal death and cognitive decline. Consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of AD in human observational studies and exerts protective effects on cognition and pathology in animal models. These fatty acids and molecules derived from them are known to have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties, presenting a potential mechanism for these protective effects. Here, we explore this mechanism using fat-1 transgenic mice and their wild type littermates weaned onto either a fish oil diet (high in n-3 PUFA) or a safflower oil diet (negligible n-3 PUFA). The fat-1 mouse carries a transgene that enables it to convert omega-6 to omega-3 PUFA. At 12 weeks of age, mice underwent intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of amyloid-β 1-40. Brains were collected between 1 and 28 days post-icv, and hippocampal microglia, astrocytes, and degenerating neurons were quantified by immunohistochemistry with epifluorescence microscopy, while microglia morphology was assessed with confocal microscopy and skeleton analysis. Fat-1 mice fed with the safflower oil diet and wild type mice fed with the fish oil diet had higher brain DHA in comparison with the wild type mice fed with the safflower oil diet. Relative to the wild type mice fed with the safflower oil diet, fat-1 mice exhibited a lower peak in the number of labelled microglia, wild type mice fed with fish oil had fewer degenerating neurons, and both exhibited alterations in microglia morphology at 10 days post-surgery. There were no differences in astrocyte number at any time point and no differences in the time course of microglia or astrocyte activation following infusion of amyloid-β 1-40. Increasing brain DHA, through either dietary or transgenic means, decreases some elements of the inflammatory response to amyloid-β in a mouse model of AD. This supports the

  14. Improving the lipid profile of ready-to-cook meat products by addition of omega-3 microcapsules: effect on oxidation and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Ruiz-Carrascal, Jorge; Jiménez-Martín, Estefanía; Solomando, Juan Carlos; Antequera, Teresa

    2018-04-15

    The omega-3 enrichment of ready-to-cook meat products by microencapsulated fish oil (MFO) addition was analyzed. Accordingly, three batches of chicken nuggets were prepared: (i) control (C); (ii) enriched in bulk fish oil (BFO); and (iii) with added MFO. Sensory features, acceptability, oxidative stability and volatile compounds were analyzed. MFO nuggets did not differ from C ones with respect to any sensory trait. BFO showed increased juiciness and saltiness but decreased meat flavor. Acceptability was not affected by enrichment. Consumers were not able to differentiate between C and MFO in a triangle test, although they could clearly identify BFO nuggets. Higher levels of lipid and protein oxidation indicators and of volatile compounds from fatty acid oxidation were found in BFO nuggets compared to C and MFO nuggets. Enrichment of ready-to-cook meat products in omega-3 fatty acids with MFO provides both lipid and protein oxidative protection without changes in sensory quality. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. The effect of fish oil supplements on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, R P; Wilt, T J; Nichol, K L; Crespin, L; Pluhar, R; Eckfeldt, J

    1993-01-01

    We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study to determine the effects of fish oil supplementation on blood pressure in middle-aged men. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume either 20 g of fish oil or safflower oil for 12 weeks and then consume the other oil for an additional 12 weeks after a 4-week washout period. We found no significant changes from the pretreatment value in systolic or diastolic blood pressure with the use of fish oil supplements. In addition, there were no significant differences in the posttreatment blood pressures comparing the fish and safflower oil phases of the study. PMID:8427339

  16. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump, Donald B.; Depner, Christopher M.; Tripathy, Sasmita

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on Greenland Inuits in the 1970s and subsequent human studies have established an inverse relationship between the ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids [C20–22 ω 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)], blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA, and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). C20–22 ω 3 PUFA have pleiotropic effects on cell function and regulate multiple pathways controlling blood lipids, inflammatory factors, and cellular events in cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. The hypolipemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic properties of these fatty acids confer cardioprotection. Accordingly, national heart associations and government agencies have recommended increased consumption of fatty fish or ω 3 PUFA supplements to prevent CVD. In addition to fatty fish, sources of ω 3 PUFA are available from plants, algae, and yeast. A key question examined in this review is whether nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA are as effective as fatty fish-derived C20–22 ω 3 PUFA at managing risk factors linked to CVD. We focused on ω 3 PUFA metabolism and the capacity of ω 3 PUFA supplements to regulate key cellular events linked to CVD. The outcome of our analysis reveals that nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA vary in their capacity to regulate blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA and CVD risk factors. PMID:22904344

  17. Perinatal omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supply modifies brain zinc homeostasis during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasooriya, Anura P; Ackland, M Leigh; Mathai, Michael L; Sinclair, Andrew J; Weisinger, Harrison S; Weisinger, Richard S; Halver, John E; Kitajka, Klára; Puskás, László G

    2005-05-17

    Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) influences the expression of a number of genes in the brain. Zinc transporter (ZnT) 3 has been identified as a putative transporter of zinc into synaptic vesicles of neurons and is found in brain areas such as hippocampus and cortex. Neuronal zinc is involved in the formation of amyloid plaques, a major characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. The present study evaluated the influence of dietary omega-3 PUFA on the expression of the ZnT3 gene in the brains of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were raised and/or maintained on a control (CON) diet that contained omega-3 PUFA or a diet deficient (DEF) in omega-3 PUFA. ZnT3 gene expression was analyzed by using real-time PCR, free zinc in brain tissue was determined by zinquin staining, and total zinc concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Compared with CON-raised animals, DEF-raised animals had increased expression of ZnT3 in the brain that was associated with an increased level of free zinc in the hippocampus. In addition, compared with CON-raised animals, DEF-raised animals had decreased plasma zinc level. No difference in cerebrospinal fluid zinc level was observed. The results suggest that overexpression of ZnT3 due to a perinatal omega-3 PUFA deficiency caused abnormal zinc metabolism in the brain. Conceivably, the influence of dietary omega-3 PUFA on brain zinc metabolism could explain the observation made in population studies that the consumption of fish is associated with a reduced risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Omega-3 fatty acids for depression in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Katherine M; Sallis, Hannah M; Perry, Rachel; Ness, Andrew R; Churchill, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly debilitating, difficult to treat, has a high rate of recurrence, and negatively impacts the individual and society as a whole. One emerging potential treatment for MDD is n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs), also known as omega-3 oils, naturally found in fatty fish, some other seafood, and some nuts and seeds. Various lines of evidence suggest a role for n-3PUFAs in MDD, but the evidence is far from conclusive. Reviews and meta-analyses clearly demonstrate heterogeneity between studies. Investigations of heterogeneity suggest differential effects of n-3PUFAs, depending on severity of depressive symptoms, where no effects of n-3PUFAs are found in studies of individuals with mild depressive symptomology, but possible benefit may be suggested in studies of individuals with more severe depressive symptomology. Objectives To assess the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (also known as omega-3 fatty acids) versus a comparator (e.g. placebo, anti-depressant treatment, standard care, no treatment, wait-list control) for major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group’s Specialised Registers (CCDANCTR) and International Trial Registries over all years to May 2015. We searched the database CINAHL over all years of records to September 2013. Selection criteria We included studies in the review if they: were a randomised controlled trial; provided n-3PUFAs as an intervention; used a comparator; measured depressive symptomology as an outcome; and were conducted in adults with MDD. Primary outcomes were depressive symptomology (continuous data collected using a validated rating scale) and adverse events. Secondary outcomes were depressive symptomology (dichotomous data on remission and response), quality of life, and failure to complete studies. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures as expected by

  19. Impact of sustainable feeds on omega-3 long-chain fatty acid levels in farmed Atlantic salmon, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, M; Dick, J R; Tocher, D R

    2016-02-22

    As the global population and its demand for seafood increases more of our fish will come from aquaculture. Farmed Atlantic salmon are a global commodity and, as an oily fish, contain a rich source of the health promoting long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Replacing the traditional finite marine ingredients, fishmeal and fish oil, in farmed salmon diets with sustainable alternatives of terrestrial origin, devoid of EPA and DHA, presents a significant challenge for the aquaculture industry. By comparing the fatty acid composition of over 3,000 Scottish Atlantic salmon farmed between 2006 and 2015, we find that terrestrial fatty acids have significantly increased alongside a decrease in EPA and DHA levels. Consequently, the nutritional value of the final product is compromised requiring double portion sizes, as compared to 2006, in order to satisfy recommended EPA + DHA intake levels endorsed by health advisory organisations. Nevertheless, farmed Scottish salmon still delivers more EPA + DHA than most other fish species and all terrestrial livestock. Our findings highlight the global shortfall of EPA and DHA and the implications this has for the human consumer and examines the potential of microalgae and genetically modified crops as future sources of these important fatty acids.

  20. Predictors of Australian consumers' intentions to consume conventional and novel sources of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, D N; Evans, G; Lease, H J

    2008-01-01

    To elicit predictors of variation in likelihood to purchase foods rich in long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Responses from a community sample (n = 220) were elicited using a computer-administered questionnaire based on an adaptation of Protection Motivation Theory including measures of perceived risk and vulnerability to coronary heart disease (CHD). Other measures included health status, body mass index (BMI), perceived risk/benefits of novel technologies and sociodemographics. Descriptions of model products were presented, including farmed fish fed fishmeal (FFFF); farmed fish fed genetically modified (GM) oilseed (FFFGM); bread, milk and supplements containing fish oil (SFO) or GM oilseed. It was hypothesised that perceived vulnerability to CHD would enhance acceptance of GM products (H1). Furthermore, information describing the benefits of LCO3FA, limitations to fish supply and potential alternatives was given to a treatment group (50%) and hypothesised to have a positive effect on the acceptance of GM products (H2). No evidence was found to support H1 or H2. FFFF was most likely to be purchased (P consume) was the most important predictor of likelihood to purchase all products.

  1. Effects of oil sands sediments on fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, J.; Colavecchia, M.; Hewitt, L.; Sherry, J.; Headley, J.; Turcotte, D.; Liber, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper described a collaborative project organized by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) Panel of Energy Research and Development (PERD) with researchers from Environment Canada and the University of Saskatchewan. The 4-year study was conducted to assess the toxicity of oil sands sediments and river waters, and reclamation ponds and sediments on laboratory-raised fish. Three sediments from rivers were evaluated for their potential to cause adverse impacts on fathead minnow eggs and larvae for a period of 18 days. The study monitored hatching, larval survival, development, and growth. Naphthenic acids (NA), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals were measured in the sediments to determine if the compounds can be correlated with observed toxicity. The study will also assess walleye eggs exposed to sediments, and in situ fish exposures. Toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) studies will be conducted to isolate the fractions that may affect fish development and growth.

  2. PENGARUH PENGOLAHAN DAN PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP STABILITAS ASAM LEMAK OMEGA-3 PADA TELUR DAN IKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelis Imanningsih

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Processing and Storage on the Stability of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Egg and Fish.Long chain omega-3 fatty acids such as Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, were very important for brain development, immunity, retina and growth of child. One of natural source of these fatty acids is fish which has been processed into variety food such as abon. The other source is modifying hen egg which potentially to be added into many kind of food after processed as egg flour. This research examine the effect of processing and storage of abon and eggs flour. The methode of this research was one-group pre post test (minimal control and the data was prepared in tabulation. Processing in to aboon ikan make EPA lost for 10.63% and DHA 7.63%. This product was acceptable, but the stability of the fatty acids were low, EPA lost 43.8% and DHA lost by 52.4% for 4 months. The eggs prepared by our lab contained 2.5% omega-3 fatty acid. To make egg yolk flour was used Spray Drying process. This process make EPA lost 43.94% and DHA 6.20%. After storing for 4 months, egg yolk flour was very stable. Because of these reason, these products can be used to supplement fatty acids in daily diet. Eggs flour can be used in any food product to supply omega-3 fatty acid for the risk group.Keywords: omega-3 fatty acid, food processing, food storage, egg flour

  3. Female Leuciscus lepidus May Be a New Alternative for Fish Oil Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Cakmak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximate composition of male and female Leuciscus lepidus in Beyşehir Lake was investigated. The fatty acid profiles of total lipid, phospholipid, and triacylglycerol in muscle and liver of male and female L. lepidus were evaluated by gas chromatography. Proximate analyses showed that meat of male and female L. lepidus had 15.13 ± 0.04 and 18.75 ± 0.11% fat, 20.42 ± 0.45 and 22.21 ± 0.56% protein, 65.47 ± 1.37 and 61.28 ± 1.03% moisture, and 1.51 ± 0.05 and 1.50 ± 0.03% ash, respectively. The percentage of total saturated fatty acids was higher in liver than in muscle, whereas the total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA content was the lowest in all fatty acid profiles. The phospholipids contained more PUFAs than triacylglycerol. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences (P<0.05 between male (47.51% and female (49.98% muscle PUFAs in total lipid. The proportion of omega 3 (ω3 to omega 6 (ω6 fatty acids of total lipid was 3.15 in male and 3.68 in female. The ratio is an important indicator for comparing the value of fish oil. Therefore, it was concluded that L. lepidus was considered to be a high quality product for healthy food choice. Additionally, female L. lepidus may especially be used to produce fish oil supplements from freshwater fish combined with vegetable oils.

  4. Lipid profile and levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids especially omega-3 is projected to be way below the recommended intake in Kenya. Thus, there is need to find other sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). This study screened for the lipid profile and levels of omega-3 PUFAs in jackfruit and explored the variation in lipid ...

  5. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: The Way Forward in Times of Mixed Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weylandt, Karsten H.; Serini, Simona; Chen, Yong Q.; Su, Hui-Min; Lim, Kyu; Calviello, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Almost forty years ago, it was first hypothesized that an increased dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from fish fat could exert protective effects against several pathologies. Decades of intense preclinical investigation have supported this hypothesis in a variety of model systems. Several clinical cardiovascular studies demonstrated the beneficial health effects of omega-3 PUFA, leading medical institutions worldwide to publish recommendations for their increased intake. However, particularly in recent years, contradictory results have been obtained in human studies focusing on cardiovascular disease and the clinical evidence in other diseases, particularly chronic inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, was never established to a degree that led to clear approval of treatment with omega-3 PUFA. Recent data not in line with the previous findings have sparked a debate on the health efficacy of omega-3 PUFA and the usefulness of increasing their intake for the prevention of a number of pathologies. In this review, we aim to examine the controversies on the possible use of these fatty acids as preventive/curative tools against the development of cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammatory diseases, as well as several kinds of cancer. PMID:26301240

  6. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Diets with Improved Omega-3 Fatty Acid Profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla R V Coelho

    Full Text Available A high incidence of cardiovascular disease is observed worldwide, and dietary habits are one of the risk factors for these diseases. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet help to prevent cardiovascular disease. We used life cycle assessment to analyse the potential of two strategies to improve the nutritional and environmental characteristics of French diets: 1 modifying diets by changing the quantities and proportions of foods and 2 increasing the omega-3 contents in diets by replacing mainly animal foods with equivalent animal foods having higher omega-3 contents. We also investigated other possibilities for reducing environmental impacts. Our results showed that a diet compliant with nutritional recommendations for macronutrients had fewer environmental impacts than the current average French diet. Moving from an omnivorous to a vegetarian diet further reduced environmental impacts. Increasing the omega-3 contents in animal rations increased Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA in animal food products. Providing these enriched animal foods in human diets increased their EPA and DHA contents without affecting their environmental impacts. However, in diets that did not contain fish, EPA and DHA contents were well below the levels recommended by health authorities, despite the inclusion of animal products enriched in EPA and DHA. Reducing meat consumption and avoidable waste at home are two main avenues for reducing environmental impacts of diets.

  7. Characterization of Oxidative Stability of Fish Oil- and Plant Oil-Enriched Skimmed Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saga, Linda C.; Kristinova, Vera; Kirkhus, Bente

    2013-01-01

    oat oil and camelina oil to protect fish oil in bulk and as fish oil-enriched skimmed milk emulsions was evaluated. Results of oxidative stability of bulk oils and blends assessed by the Schaal oven weight gain test and by the rancimat method showed significant increase in oxidative stability when oat...... oil was added to fish oil in only 5 and 10 %, whereas no protective effect of camelina oil was observed when evaluated by these methods. Moreover, fish oil blended with oat oil conferred the lowest PV and lower amounts of volatile compounds during the storage period of 14 days at 4 °C. Surprisingly......, skimmed milk supplemented with fish-oat oil blend gave the highest scores for off-flavors in the sensory evaluation, demonstrating that several methods, including sensory analysis, should be combined to illustrate the complete picture of lipid oxidation in emulsions....

  8. Improving oxidative stability of liquid fish oil supplements for pets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Griinari, Mikko; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    oxidative stability to the same extent as 2000 ppm mixed tocopherols in Oxipres. Overall, oxidative stability of fish oil or fish oil + vegetable oil blends was improved the most by addition of 5000 ppm rosemary extract and 500 ppm mixed tocopherols. A commercial oil blend with composition optimized based...... of fish oil by adding vegetable oils, mixed tocopherols and rosemary extract, and to formulate a commercial product according to the results obtained. The formulated product was evaluated against commercial fish oil products. An initial screening for antioxidative effect was performed by using Oxipres...... equipment. The effect of antioxidant and vegetable oil blends was examined in oils stored at 30 and 40°C by measuring peroxide value, volatile compounds with GC-MS and tocopherol content. Addition of vegetable oil and rosemary extract at high level (4000–6000 ppm) plus 600 ppm of mixed tocopherols increased...

  9. Maternal Fish Oil Supplementation in Pregnancy: A 12 Year Follow-Up of a Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Meldrum

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of trials have been undertaken to assess whether the intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA during pregnancy can influence the neurological development of the offspring, yet no consensus from these trials has been reached. We aimed to investigate the long-term effects (12 years of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on neurodevelopment, including cognition, language and fine motor skills. In a follow up of a previously published randomised controlled trial of 98 pregnant women, their children were assessed at 12 years of age using a battery of neurodevelopmental assessments. Fifty participants were assessed at 12 years, with 25 participant’s mothers receiving fish oil supplementation, and 25 receiving control capsules. There were no significant differences for any of the assessment measures completed. Our data indicate that fish oil supplementation during pregnancy does not influence the cognition, language or fine motor skills of children in late primary school (12 years of age.

  10. No impact of fish oil supplements on bleeding risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begtrup, Katrine Munk; Krag, Andreas Engel; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Fish oil supplementation may inhibit platelet aggregation and can potentially increase the risk of bleeding. The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplements on haemostasis and bleeding risk, and to provide recommendations on whether...... of the included studies were randomised controlled trials or included a control group. Overall, fish oil supplements reduced platelet aggregation in healthy subjects. Fish oil exposure in surgical patients did not increase bleeding or blood transfusions either during or after surgery. Conclusion: Fish oil...... supplements reduced platelet aggregation in healthy subjects. This biochemical effect was not reflected in increased bleeding risk during or after surgery evaluated in randomised controlled trials. Consequently, this systematic review does not support the need for discontinuation of fish oil supplements prior...

  11. Influence of omega-3 fatty acids from the flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) on the brain development of newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi Almeida, K C; Teles Boaventura, G; Guzmán Silva, M A

    2011-01-01

    The importance of essential fatty acids, in particular the omega-3 family, in the central nervous system development of newborns is well documented. The flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) is considered one of the best vegetable sources of omega-3 fatty acids. The influence of omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed on the brain development of newborn rats was evaluated. Pups of the F1 generation were obtained from 18 female Wistar rats divided in 3 groups (n=6), FG: fed with diet based on Flaxseed added with casein, CG: Casein, and MCG: Modified Casein supplemented with fibers and soybean oil. Newborn pups were weighted and submitted to euthanasia; brains were collected for evaluation of weight and lipid profile through gaseous chromatography. Significant increase in brain weight (39%) and relative brain weight (37%) was verified in pups from mothers fed with flaxseed diet. The omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids from the flaxseed were found in abundance in the diet made with this oleaginous and also significant increase in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (38%), as well as in total of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (62%). Maternal diet of flaxseed during pregnancy influences the incorporation of omega-3 fatty acid in the composition of brain tissue, assuring a good development of this organ in newborn rats.

  12. Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation Accelerates Nerve Regeneration and Prevents Neuropathic Pain Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela V. Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil (FO is the main source of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs, which display relevant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Peripheral nerve injury is driven by degeneration, neuroinflammation, and neuronal plasticity which results in neuropathic pain (NP symptoms such as allodynia and hyperalgesia. We tested the preventive effect of an EPA/DHA-concentrate fish oil (CFO on NP development and regenerative features. Swiss mice received daily oral treatment with CFO 4.6 or 2.3 g/kg for 10 days after NP was induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hypernociception were assessed 5 days after injury. CFO 2.3 g/kg significantly prevented mechanical and thermal sensitization, reduced TNF levels in the spinal cord, sciatic MPO activity, and ATF-3 expression on DRG cells. CFO improved Sciatic Functional Index (SFI as well as electrophysiological recordings, corroborating the increased GAP43 expression and total number of myelinated fibers observed in sciatic nerve. No locomotor activity impairment was observed in CFO treated groups. These results point to the regenerative and possibly protective properties of a combined EPA and DHA oral administration after peripheral nerve injury, as well as its anti-neuroinflammatory activity, evidencing ω-3 PUFAs promising therapeutic outcomes for NP treatment.

  13. What health professionals should know about omega-3 fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the aim of this article is to equip health .... of EPA and DHA into the red blood cell membrane fatty acids (a 160% increase ... non-significant changes between plasma EPA and DHA for fish oil. (864 mg .... displayed higher CD levels than the vegetable oils.30 ... analysis, on the n-3 fatty acid content of supplements.

  14. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid, fish oil and soybean oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dear User!

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... The chickens fed diets containing palm oil, soybean oil or fish oil as the ... polyunsaturated fatty acids; LDL, low density lipoprotein; HDL, .... content of muscles in broilers fed different dietary CLA levels. Javadi et al. (2007) ...

  15. Kajian Peningkatan Asam Lemak Omega-3 Epa dan Dha pada Minyak Ikan Lele yang Diberi Pakan Minyak Kacang Kedelai

    OpenAIRE

    Salasah, Rosmawati

    2016-01-01

    The experiment purpose to find out fatty acid profil in catfish oil were used soybean oil with different level and to detect soybean oil concentrate in dietary hight produce catfish oil contens omega-3 fatty acid EPA and DHA. This research uses experimental methods and experimental design used completely randomized design (CRD) with five treatments , the percentage giving linolenic acid in the feed catfish at A = 0 % , B = 5 % , C = 10 % , D = 15 % , and E 20 % with each of the three replicat...

  16. Not Simply a Matter of Fish Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Carlos; Figueiredo, Valeria N; Moura, Filipe A; Sposito, Andrei C

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings have highlighted enhanced fish consumption as a potential measure to increase intake of healthy fatty acids, particularly omega-3. The generalizability of this recommendation, however, may fall short of differences in fish species and cooking techniques. Hence, we investigated how these 2 variables affect the lipid content in fish flesh. Nine species of freshwater, deep sea or shore fish were grilled, steamed or fried with or without the addition of soybean oil, olive oil or butter. The lipid composition was analysed and a significant difference was observed in cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids contents between species (pfish species and cooking techniques.

  17. Omega-3 fatty acid oxidation products prevent vascular endothelial cell activation by coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majkova, Zuzana; Layne, Joseph; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J.; Toborek, Michal; Hennig, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may facilitate development of atherosclerosis by stimulating pro-inflammatory pathways in the vascular endothelium. Nutrition, including fish oil-derived long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω-3), can reduce inflammation and thus the risk of atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that cyclopentenone metabolites produced by oxidation of DHA can protect against PCB-induced endothelial cell dysfunction. Oxidized DHA (oxDHA) was prepared by incubation of the fatty acid with the free radical generator 2,2-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Cellular pretreatment with oxDHA prevented production of superoxide induced by PCB77, and subsequent activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). A 4 /J 4 -neuroprostanes (NPs) were identified and quantitated using HPLC ESI tandem mass spectrometry. Levels of these NPs were markedly increased after DHA oxidation with AAPH. The protective actions of oxDHA were reversed by treatment with sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ), which concurrently abrogated A 4 /J 4 -NP formation. Up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by PCB77 was markedly reduced by oxDHA, but not by un-oxidized DHA. These protective effects were proportional to the abundance of A 4 /J 4 NPs in the oxidized DHA sample. Treatment of cells with oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5ω-3) also reduced MCP-1 expression, but less than oxDHA. Treatment with DHA-derived cyclopentenones also increased DNA binding of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and downstream expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), similarly to the Nrf-2 activator sulforaphane. Furthermore, sulforaphane prevented PCB77-induced MCP-1 expression, suggesting that activation of Nrf-2 mediates the observed protection against PCB77 toxicity. Our data implicate A 4 /J 4 -NPs as mediators of omega-3 fatty acid-mediated protection against the endothelial toxicity of coplanar PCBs.

  18. Prevalence and seasonality of parasites of fish in Agulu Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    2014-01-15

    Jan 15, 2014 ... belonging to four families (Cichlidae, Bagridae, Hepsetidae and Channidae), seven genera and nine species were collected from the lake ... Fish oil contains omega-3-essential fatty acids necessary for the proper ... 7°01' and 7°03'E. The climate of the area shows two distinct seasons namely, rainy season ...

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: from molecules to man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Philip C

    2017-10-15

    Inappropriate, excessive or uncontrolled inflammation contributes to a range of human diseases. Inflammation involves a multitude of cell types, chemical mediators and interactions. The present article will describe nutritional and metabolic aspects of omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and explain the roles of bioactive members of those fatty acid families in inflammatory processes. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are n-3 fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements. These fatty acids are capable of partly inhibiting many aspects of inflammation including leucocyte chemotaxis, adhesion molecule expression and leucocyte-endothelial adhesive interactions, production of eicosanoids like prostaglandins and leukotrienes from the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, EPA gives rise to eicosanoids that often have lower biological potency than those produced from arachidonic acid, and EPA and DHA give rise to anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving mediators called resolvins, protectins and maresins. Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of EPA and DHA include altered cell membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition, disruption of lipid rafts, inhibition of activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor κB so reducing expression of inflammatory genes and activation of the anti-inflammatory transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Animal experiments demonstrate benefit from EPA and DHA in a range of models of inflammatory conditions. Human trials demonstrate benefit of oral n-3 fatty acids in rheumatoid arthritis and in stabilizing advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Intravenous n-3 fatty acids may have benefits in critically ill patients through reduced inflammation. The anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving actions of EPA, DHA and their derivatives are of clinical relevance. © 2017 The Author

  20. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Heart Rate Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeppe Hagstrup Christensen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA may modulate autonomic control of the heart because omega-3 PUFA is abundant in the brain and other nervous tissue as well as in cardiac tissue. This might partly explain why omega-3 PUFA offer some protection against sudden cardiac death (SCD. The autonomic nervous system is involved in the pathogenesis of SCD. Heart rate variability (HRV can be used as a non-invasive marker of cardiac autonomic control and a low HRV is a predictor for SCD and arrhythmic events. Studies on HRV and omega-3 PUFA have been performed in several populations such as patients with ischemic heart disease, patients with diabetes mellitus, patients with chronic renal failure, and in healthy subjects as well as in children.. The studies have demonstrated a positive association between cellular content of omega-3 PUFA and HRV and supplementation with omega-3 PUFA seems to increase HRV which could be a possible explanation for decreased risk of arrhythmic events and SCD sometimes observed after omega-3 PUFA supplementation. However, the results are not consistent and further research is needed

  1. The omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio: health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simopoulos Artemis P.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, Western diets are characterized by a higher omega-6 and a lower omega-3 fatty acid intake, whereas during the Paleolithic period when human’s genetic profile was established, there was a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Their balance is an important determinant for brain development and in decreasing the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD, hypertension, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and other autoimmune and possibly neurodegenerative diseases. Both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids influence gene expression. Because of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in their metabolic pathways, blood levels of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are determined by both endogenous metabolism and dietary intake making the need of balanced dietary intake essential for health and disease prevention. Whether an omega-6/omega-3 ratio of 3:1 to 4:1 could prevent the pathogenesis of many diseases induced by today’s Western diets (AFSSA, 2010, a target of 1:1 to 2:1 appears to be consistent with studies on evolutionary aspects of diet, neurodevelopment, and genetics. A target of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio of 1:1 to 2:1 appears to be consistent with studies on evolutionary aspects of diet, neurodevelopment and genetics. A balanced ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is important for health and in the prevention of CHD and possibly other chronic diseases.

  2. EFEK SUPLEMENTASI OMEGA-3 PADA PENDERITA ARTRITIS REUMATOID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviana Christiani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Omega-3 Supplementation on Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis.A study on omega-3 supplementation was conducted to women of 55-90 years old with active rheumatoid arthritis who stay at home for elderly (in six nursing home in Bogor. The objective of this study is to see the effects of omega-3 supplementation on patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Sixty subjects (respondents were devided into two groups. The first group, 30 respondents, were given an omega-3 capsuls (180 mg EPA and 120 mg DHA every day for two months; the second group, also 30 respondents, were given placebo capsules (equal. Data collected including identity of respondents, anthropometric, clinical status, radiology (rontgen, and blood sample analysis (LED and ARF. The results of this study showed that omega-3 supplementation proportionally decreased the quantity of patients with morning stiffness significantly, decreased the quantity of patients with joint swelling (not significant, failed inreducing the quantity of patients with joint pain, and failed in changing the value of RF (from + to - of patients. The omega-3 supplementation on patients with active rheumatoid arthritis also failed in decreasing the average of LED of the patients, and failed in changing the result of rontgen.Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, EPA & DHA omega-3, supplementtaion, elderly.

  3. Oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Debnath, D.; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    The oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt as well as the antioxidative effect of citric acid ester, vitamin K and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were investigated by measuring peroxide value and volatile secondary oxidation products and by sensory analysis....... No oxidation was observed in yoghurt stored at 2 [degree sign]C for up to 19 days, with or without addition of citric acid ester. Fish oil enriched yoghurt was also very stable even when compared to yoghurt with added rapeseed oil or a mixture of rapeseed oil and fish oil stored for up to 29 days. The addition...

  4. Effects of fish oil type, lipid antioxidants and presence of rapeseed oil on oxidative flavour stability of fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.

    2004-01-01

    As a part of our ongoing experiments on optimization of the oxidative stability of fish oils in genuine food systems, this study investigated the oxidative deterioration of fish oil enriched milk emulsions during cold storage. The experimental data showed that addition of rapeseed oil to fish oil...... (1:1) prior to emulsification into milk significantly protected the emulsions against oxidative deterioration. Addition of propyl gallate and a citric acid ester to the fish oil prior to emulsification also protected the fish oil enriched milk during storage. Emulsions containing a rapeseed:fish oil...... mixture were oxidatively stable during 11 d at 2 øC. Thus, no additional inhibitory effect of the added antioxidants was observed. The peroxide value and concentrations of five selected volatiles derived from n- 3 PUFA degradation in rapeseed:fish oil mixture emulsions were not significantly different...

  5. Omega-3 PUFA concentration by a novel PVDF nano-composite membrane filled with nano-porous silica particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemian, Samaneh; Sahari, Mohammad Ali; Barzegar, Mohsen; Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hasan

    2017-09-01

    In this study, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and nano-porous silica particle were used to fabricate an asymmetric nano-composite membrane. Silica particles enhanced the thermal stability of PVDF/SiO 2 membranes; increasing the decomposition temperature from 371°C to 408°C. Cross sectional morphology showed that silica particles were dispersed in polymer matrix uniformly. However, particle agglomeration was found at higher loading of silica (i.e., 20 by weight%). The separation performance of nano-composite membranes was also evaluated using the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentration at a temperature and pressure of 30°C and 4bar, respectively. Silica particle increased the omega-3PUFA concentration from 34.8 by weight% in neat PVDF to 53.9 by weight% in PVDF with 15 by weight% of silica. Moreover, PVDF/SiO 2 nano-composite membranes exhibited enhanced anti-fouling property compared to neat PVDF membrane. Fouling mechanism analysis revealed that complete pore blocking was the predominant mechanism occurring in oil filtration. The concentration of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important in the oil industries. While the current methods demand high energy consumptions in concentrating the omega-3, membrane separation technology offers noticeable advantages in producing pure omega-3 PUFA. Moreover, concentrating omega-3 via membrane separation produces products in the triacylglycerol form which possess better oxidative stability. In this work, the detailed mechanisms of fouling which limits the performance of membrane separation were investigated. Incorporating silica particles to polymeric membrane resulted in the formation of mixed matrix membrane with improved anti-fouling behaviour compared to the neat polymeric membrane. Hence, the industrial potential of membrane processing to concentrate omega-3 fatty acids is enhanced. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. [The effects of Omega-3 fatty acids in clinical medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Martin F; Stivala, Simona; Camici, Giovanni G; Beer, Jürg H

    2014-03-12

    Effects of Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) in particular on the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are of major interest. Many experimental studies reported their anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and anti-atherosclerotic properties and suggested favourable effects on the prevention of CVD. While the majority of former studies showed a benefit of n-3 FA acid intake, recent clinical trials using n-3 supplements on top of established medication and prudent nutrition did not confirm these findings. The conflicting data may be due to several factors such as the selection of study population with different sizes or characteristics as well as choosing different doses or types of n-3 FA. The most recent meta-analyses observed clear benefits of fish consumption, but not of n-3 capsules intake. Furthermore, a nutrition rich in plant-derived n-3 FA alpha-linolenic acid has been found to have beneficial effects on the development of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases.

  7. Effects of a high fat or a balanced omega 3/omega 6 diet on cytokines levels and DNA damage in experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira de Barros, Karina; Gomes de Abreu, Gilclay; Xavier, Roberta Araujo Navarro; Real Martinez, Carlos Augusto; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Gambero, Alessandra; de Oliveira Carvalho, Patrícia; Silveira, Vera Lúcia Flor

    2011-02-01

    High-fat diets have been shown to be a risk factor for ulcerative colitis (UC). Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids are considered to increase lipid peroxidation, while the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid exerts a chemopreventative effect. We evaluated the effect of high-fat diets (20%) enriched with fish or soybean oil on colonic inflammation and DNA damage in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. Male Wistar rats (28-30 days) were fed an American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93 diet for 47 days and divided into five groups: control normal fat non-colitic (C) or control colitis (CC), high soybean fat group (HS) colitis, high fish fat group colitis, or high-fat soybean plus fish oil colitis. UC was induced from day 35 until day 41 by 3% dextran sulfate sodium. On day 47, the rats were anesthetized; blood samples collected for corticosterone determination, and the distal colon was excised to quantify interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10, and interferon-gamma levels, myeloperoxidase activity, histological analyses, and DNA damage. The disease activity index was recorded daily. The disease activity index, histological analysis, myeloperoxidase activity, IL-4, interferon-gamma, and corticosterone levels did not differ among the colitic groups. IL-10 was significantly increased by the high fish fat group diet in relation to HS, but only the high soybean-fish fat diet increased the IL-10/IL-4 ratio (anti-inflammatory/pro-inflammatory) to levels closer to the C group and reduced DNA damage compared to the HS group (Pdiets did not exacerbate UC and suggest that the soybean and fish oil mixture, more than the fish oil alone, could be a complementary therapy to achieve a cytokine balance in UC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Their Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Fereidoon; Ambigaipalan, Priyatharini

    2018-03-25

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) include α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 ω-3), stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4 ω-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 ω-3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5 ω-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 ω-3). In the past few decades, many epidemiological studies have been conducted on the myriad health benefits of omega-3 PUFAs. In this review, we summarized the structural features, properties, dietary sources, metabolism, and bioavailability of omega-3 PUFAs and their effects on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, dementia, depression, visual and neurological development, and maternal and child health. Even though many health benefits of omega-3 PUFAs have been reported in the literature, there are also some controversies about their efficacy and certain benefits to human health.

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses the potential role of omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders, from the biochemical rationale for their use to the growing body of data supporting their clinical efficacy.

  10. Supercritical fluid chromatography of fish, shark and seal oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch-Jensen, Christina; Mollerup, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    Various natural and treated fish, shark liver and seal oils have been analyzed by supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) using a non-polar capillary column. The lipids are separated according to molecular mass. The lipid groups found included free fatty acids, cholesterol, squalene, vitamins, wax...... applications of SFC on fish, seal and shark liver oils are presented....

  11. Mapping QTL for Omega-3 Content in Hybrid Saline Tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace; Wang, Le; Ngoh, Si Te; Ji, Lianghui; Orbán, Laszlo; Yue, Gen Hua

    2018-02-01

    Tilapia is one of most important foodfish species. The low omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acid ratio in freshwater tilapia meat is disadvantageous for human health. Increasing omega-3 content is an important task in breeding to increase the nutritional value of tilapia. However, conventional breeding to increase omega-3 content is difficult and slow. To accelerate the increase of omega-3 through marker-assisted selection (MAS), we conducted QTL mapping for fatty acid contents and profiles in a F 2 family of saline tilapia generated by crossing red tilapia and Mozambique tilapia. The total omega-3 content in F 2 hybrid tilapia was 2.5 ± 1.0 mg/g, higher than that (2.00 mg/g) in freshwater tilapia. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) technology was used to discover and genotype SNP markers, and microsatellites were also genotyped. We constructed a linkage map with 784 markers (151 microsatellites and 633 SNPs). The linkage map was 2076.7 cM long and consisted of 22 linkage groups. Significant and suggestive QTL for total lipid content were mapped on six linkage groups (LG3, -4, -6, -8, -13, and -15) and explained 5.8-8.3% of the phenotypic variance. QTL for omega-3 fatty acids were located on four LGs (LG11, -18, -19, and -20) and explained 5.0 to 7.5% of the phenotypic variance. Our data suggest that the total lipid and omega-3 fatty acid content were determined by multiple genes in tilapia. The markers flanking the QTL for omega-3 fatty acids can be used in MAS to accelerate the genetic improvements of these traits in salt-tolerant tilapia.

  12. Gamma radiation combined with cinnamon oil to maintain fish quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Fei; Zhang, Jing; Wei, Qianqian; Gao, Fei; Ding, Yuting; Liu, Shulai

    2017-12-01

    Effects of gamma radiation combined with cinnamon oil on quality of Northern Snakehead fish fillets were observed during storage at 4 °C. Fish fillets were treated with 1-5 kGy gamma radiation, 0.05-0.5% cinnamon oil or the combination of radiation and cinnamon oil. The antimicrobial activity increased with radiation dose and cinnamon oil concentration. During storage, the combination of 1 kGy radiation and 0.5% cinnamon oil displayed better inhibiting activities on aerobic plate counts, total volatile basic nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reaction substances than 1 kGy radiation or 0.5% cinnamon oil used alone. Moreover, the combination could arrive at the similar inhibiting activities of cinnamon oil with higher concentration of 0.5% or radiation with higher dose of 5 kGy. Thus, the combination could decrease the radiation dose and cinnamon oil concentration without decreasing the effect of them on maintaining fish quality.

  13. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Jeromson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle.

  14. Production of oxidatively stable fish oil enriched food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette

    Purpose: The objective of the project is to determine how a number of selected fish oil enriched foods can be protected against oxidation by the right choice of antioxidants, emulsifiers and optimal process conditions. Furthermore the influence of antioxidant addition to the fish oil it...... have many other health benefiting properties such as preventing heart diseases. Addition of fish oils to foods is therefore of interest. The many double bonds in the fatty acids are however susceptible to oxidation. Collaboration partners: The project is a collaborative project between DFU-FF, Bio......-self on the effect of antioxidants added to the foods will also be investigated. Background: Fish oils are rich sources of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids EPA and DHA of which DHA is a vital component of the phospholipids of human cellular membranes, especially those in the brain and retina. Fish oils...

  15. Oxidative Stability of Nano-Microstructures containing fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Özdemir, N.; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen

    investigated. For that purpose, three different biopolymers namely pullulan, dextran and whey protein concentrate (WPC) were evaluated as encapsulating materials. First, the influence of biopolymer concentration on the physical properties (e.g. viscosity, conductivity and surface tension) of the biopolymer...... solutions and on the morphology of NMS was assayed. Secondly, the oxidative stability of the biopolymer solutions containing emulsified fish oil during storage (14 days at 40 °C) and of NMS loaded with fish oil (e.g. pullulan fibers and dextran and WPC capsules) was determined. Finally, to improve...... the oxidative status of the NMS, pullulan fibers, dextran capsules and WPC capsules were produced by adding neat fish oil instead of emulsified fish oil to the biopolymer solutions. These latter NMS presented a higher oxidative stability, which may be due to a better entrapment of the fish oil into biopolymer...

  16. Combining Exergame Training with Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Study assessing the Effect on Neuronal Structure/Function in the Elderly Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Schättin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A common problem in the older population is the risk of falling that might lead to injury, immobility, and reduced survival. Age-related neuronal changes, e.g. decline in grey- and white-matter, affect neuronal, cognitive, and motor functioning. The improvement of these factors might decrease fall events in elderly. Studies showed that the sole administration of video game-based physical exercise, a so-called exergame, or omega-3 fatty acid (FA may improve motor and/or cognitive functioning through neuronal changes in the brain of older adults. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of a combination of exergame training with omega-3 FA supplementation on the elderly brain. We hypothesize that an intervention using a combination approach differently effects on the neuronal structure and function of the elderly’s brain as compared to the sole administration of exergame training. The study is a parallel, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial lasting 26 weeks. Sixty autonomous living, non-smoking, and right-handed healthy older (>65 years adults who live independently or in a senior residency are included, randomized, and allocated to one of two study groups. The experimental group receives a daily amount of 13.5ml fish oil (including 2.9g of omega-3 FA, whereas the control group receives a daily amount of 13.5ml olive oil for 26 weeks. After 16 weeks, both groups start with an exergame training program three times per week. Measurements are performed on three time-points by treatment blinded investigators: pre-intervention measurement, blood sample after 16 week, and post-intervention measurements. The main outcomes are motor evoked potentials of the right M. tibialis anterior (transcranial magnetic stimulation and response-related potentials (electroencephalography during a cognitive test. For secondary outcomes, reaction times during cognitive tests and spatio-temporal parameters during gait performance are measured. Statistics

  17. Effects of flavonoid glycosides obtained from a Ginkgo biloba extract fraction on the physical and oxidative stabilities of oil-in-water emulsions prepared from a stripped structured lipid with a low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Gan, Lu-Jing; Zhang, Hua; Shin, Jung-Ah; Lee, Ki-Teak; Hong, Soon-Taek

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we have produced a structured lipid with a low ω6/ω3 ratio by lipase-catalysed interesterification with perilla and grape seed oils (1:3, wt/wt). A Ginkgo biloba leaf extract was fractionated in a column packed with HP-20 resin, producing a flavonoid glycoside fraction (FA) and a biflavone fraction (FB). FA exhibited higher antioxidant capacity than FB, showing 58.4 mmol gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g-of-total-phenol-content, 58.8 mg quercetin equivalent (QUE)/g-of-total-flavonoid-content, 4.5 mmol trolox/g-of-trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity, 0.14 mg extract/mL-of-free-radical-scavenging-activity (DPPH assay, IC50), and 2.3 mmol Fe2SO4 · 7H2O/g-of-ferric-reducing-antioxidant-power. The oil-in-water emulsion containing the stripped structured lipid as an oil phase with FA exhibited the highest stability and the lowest oil globule diameters (d43 and d32), where the aggregation was unnoticeable by Turbiscan and particle size analyses during 30 days of storage. Furthermore, FA was effective in retarding the oxidation of the emulsions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fuel properties of biodiesel produced from the crude fish oil from the soapstock of marine fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Cherng-Yuan; Li, Rong-Ji [Department of Marine Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean, University, Keelung 20224 (China)

    2009-01-15

    The soapstock of a mixture of marine fish was used as the raw material to produce the biodiesel in this study. The soapstock was collected from discarded fish products. Crude fish oil was squeezed from the soapstock of the fish and refined by a series of processes. The refined fish oil was transesterified to produce biodiesel. The fuel properties of the biodiesel were analyzed. The experimental results showed that oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitic acid (C16:0) were the two major components of the marine fish-oil biodiesel. The biodiesel from the mixed marine fish oil contained a significantly greater amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids than did the biodiesel from waste cooking oil. In addition, the marine fish-oil biodiesel contained as high as 37.07 wt.% saturated fatty acids and 37.3 wt.% long chain fatty acids in the range between C20 and C22. Moreover, the marine fish-oil biodiesel appeared to have a larger acid number, a greater increase in the rate of peroxidization with the increase in the time that it was stored, greater kinematic viscosity, higher heating value, higher cetane index, more carbon residue, and a lower peroxide value, flash point, and distillation temperature than those of waste cooking-oil biodiesel. (author)

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: summary of the 2016 agency of healthcare research and quality evidence review

    Science.gov (United States)

    We summarize the 2016 update of the 2004 Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality's evidence review of omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The overall findings for the effects of marine oil supplements on intermediate CVD outcomes remain largely unchanged. There is high strength o...

  20. Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard-Mercier, Annie; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208) participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA). Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187) and ACOX1 (rs17583163) genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation. PMID:24647074

  1. Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Bouchard-Mercier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208 participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA. Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187 and ACOX1 (rs17583163 genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation.

  2. Ultrasonic-assisted incorporation of nano-encapsulated omega-3 fatty acids to enhance the fatty acid profile of pork meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, K Shikha; Perussello, Camila A; García, Carlos Álvarez; Kerry, Joseph P; Pando, Daniel; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2017-10-01

    In this study, ultrasound was employed to enhance the diffusion of microencapsulated fatty acids into pork meat. Nanovesicles of fish oil composed of 42% EPA (eicosapentanoic acid) and 16% DHA (docosahexanoic acid) were prepared using two different commercial Pronanosome preparations (Lipo-N and Lipo-CAT; which yield cationic and non-cationic nanovesicles, respectively). The thin film hydration (TFH) methodology was employed for encapsulation. Pork meat (Musculus semitendinosus) was submerged in the nanovesicles suspension and subjected to ultrasound (US) treatment at 25kHz for either 30 or 60min. Samples were analysed for fatty acid composition using gas chromatography-flame ionisation (GC-FID). The content of long-chain PUFAs, especially omega-3, was found to increase following the US treatment which was higher for Lipo-CAT compared to Lipo-N nanovesicles. Samples subjected to Lipo-N had higher atherogenic and thrombogenic indices, indicating higher levels of saturated fatty acids compared to the Lipo-CAT. The omega-6/omega-3 ratio in pork meat was significantly reduced following the US treatment, thus indicating an improved fatty acid profile of pork. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Boron deprivation alters rat behaviour and brain mineral composition differently when fish oil instead of safflower oil is the diet fat source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Forrest H; Penland, James G

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether boron deprivation affects rat behaviour and whether behavioural responses to boron deprivation are modified by differing amounts of dietary long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were fed diets containing 0.1 mg (9 micromol)/kg boron in a factorial arrangement with dietary variables of supplemental boron at 0 and 3mg (278 micromol)/kg and fat sources of 75 g/kg safflower oil or 65 g/kg fish (menhaden) oil plus 10 g/kg linoleic acid. After 6 weeks, six females per treatment were bred. Dams and pups continued on their respective diets through gestation, lactation and after weaning. Between ages 6 and 20 weeks, behavioural tests were performed on 13-15 male offspring from three dams in each dietary treatment. The rats were euthanized at age 21 weeks for the collection of tissues and blood. At ages 6 and 19 weeks, auditory startle was evaluated with an acoustic startle system and avoidance behaviour was evaluated by using an elevated plus maze. At ages 7 and 20 weeks, spontaneous behaviour activity was evaluated with a photobeam activity system. A brightness discrimination test was performed on the rats between age 15 and 16 weeks. Brain mineral composition was determined by coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Plasma total glutathione was determined by HPLC and total cholesterol and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2alpha) were determined by using commercially available kits. Boron-deficient rats were less active than boron-adequate rats when fed safflower oil based on reduced number, distance and time of horizontal movements, front entries, margin distance and vertical breaks and jumps in the spontaneous activity evaluation. Feeding fish oil instead of safflower oil attenuated the activity response to boron deprivation. In the plus maze evaluation, the behavioural reactivity of the boron-deficient rats fed fish oil was noticeably different than the other three treatments. They made more entries into both open and closed

  4. Polymorphisms in FFAR4 (GPR120 Gene Modulate Insulin Levels and Sensitivity after Fish Oil Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien Vallée Marcotte

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to test whether FFAR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are associated with glycemic control-related traits in humans following fish oil supplementation. A total of 210 participants were given 3 g/day of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids (FA (1.9–2.2 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and 1.1 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA during six weeks. Biochemical parameters were taken before and after the supplementation. Using the HapMap database and the tagger procedure in Haploview, 12 tagging SNPs in FFAR4 were selected and then genotyped using TaqMan technology. Transcript expression levels were measured for 30 participants in peripheral mononuclear blood cells. DNA methylation levels were measured for 35 participants in leukocytes. In silico analyses were also performed. Four gene–diet interactions on fasting insulin levels and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index values were found. rs17108973 explained a significant proportion of the variance of insulin levels (3.0% and HOMA-IR (2.03% index values. Splice site prediction was different depending on the allele for rs11187527. rs17108973 and rs17484310 had different affinity for transcription factors depending on the allele. n-3 FAs effectively improve insulin-related traits for major allele homozygotes of four FFAR4 SNPs as opposed to carriers of the minor alleles.

  5. Dietary supplement enriched in antioxidants and omega-3 protects from progressive light-induced retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchani-Ben Othman, Khaoula; Cercy, Christine; Amri, Mohamed; Doly, Michel; Ranchon-Cole, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have evaluated one of the dietary supplements enriched with antioxidants and fish oil used in clinical care for patient with age-related macular degeneration. Rats were orally fed by a gastric canula daily with 0.2 ml of water or dietary supplement until they were sacrificed. After one week of treatment, animals were either sacrificed for lipid analysis in plasma and retina, or used for evaluation of rod-response recovery by electroretinography (ERG) followed by their sacrifice to measure rhodopsin content, or used for progressive light-induced retinal degeneration (PLIRD). For PLIRD, animals were transferred to bright cyclic light for one week. Retinal damage was quantified by ERG, histology and detection of apoptotic nuclei. Animals kept in dim-cyclic-light were processed in parallel. PLIRD induced a thinning of the outer nuclear layer and a reduction of the b-wave amplitude of the ERG in the water group. Retinal structure and function were preserved in supplemented animals. Supplement induced a significant increase in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma by 168% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 142% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and 19% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and a decrease in the omega-6 fatty acids, DPA by 28%. In the retina, supplement induced significant reduction of linolenic acid by 67% and an increase in EPA and DPA by 80% and 72%, respectively, associated with significant decrease in omega-6 DPA by 42%. Supplement did not affect rhodopsin content or rod-response recovery. The present data indicate that supplement rapidly modified the fatty acid content and induced an accumulation of EPA in the retina without affecting rhodopsin content or recovery. In addition, it protected the retina from oxidative stress induced by light. Therefore, this supplement might be beneficial to slow down progression of certain retinal degeneration.

  6. Dietary supplement enriched in antioxidants and omega-3 protects from progressive light-induced retinal degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaoula Ramchani-Ben Othman

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have evaluated one of the dietary supplements enriched with antioxidants and fish oil used in clinical care for patient with age-related macular degeneration. Rats were orally fed by a gastric canula daily with 0.2 ml of water or dietary supplement until they were sacrificed. After one week of treatment, animals were either sacrificed for lipid analysis in plasma and retina, or used for evaluation of rod-response recovery by electroretinography (ERG followed by their sacrifice to measure rhodopsin content, or used for progressive light-induced retinal degeneration (PLIRD. For PLIRD, animals were transferred to bright cyclic light for one week. Retinal damage was quantified by ERG, histology and detection of apoptotic nuclei. Animals kept in dim-cyclic-light were processed in parallel. PLIRD induced a thinning of the outer nuclear layer and a reduction of the b-wave amplitude of the ERG in the water group. Retinal structure and function were preserved in supplemented animals. Supplement induced a significant increase in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma by 168% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 142% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA and 19% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and a decrease in the omega-6 fatty acids, DPA by 28%. In the retina, supplement induced significant reduction of linolenic acid by 67% and an increase in EPA and DPA by 80% and 72%, respectively, associated with significant decrease in omega-6 DPA by 42%. Supplement did not affect rhodopsin content or rod-response recovery. The present data indicate that supplement rapidly modified the fatty acid content and induced an accumulation of EPA in the retina without affecting rhodopsin content or recovery. In addition, it protected the retina from oxidative stress induced by light. Therefore, this supplement might be beneficial to slow down progression of certain retinal degeneration.

  7. Probiotics Supplemented with Omega-3 Fatty Acids are More Effective for Hepatic Steatosis Reduction in an Animal Model of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobyliak, Nazarii; Falalyeyeva, Tetyana; Bodnar, Petro; Beregova, Tetyana

    2017-06-01

    Today probiotics have been suggested as a treatment for the prevention of NAFLD. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may have beneficial effects in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, adipose tissue function and inflammation. The present study was designed to determine whether probiotics plus omega-3 are superior to probiotics alone on the monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced NAFLD model in rats. We included 60 rats divided into four groups, 15 animals in each. Rats of group I were intact. Newborn rats of groups II-IV were injected with MSG. The III (Symbiter) group received 2.5 ml/kg of multiprobiotic "Symbiter" containing concentrated biomass of 14 probiotic bacteria genera. The IV (Symbiter-Omega) groups received "Symbiter-Omega" combination of probiotic biomass supplemented with flax and wheat germ oil (250 mg of each, concentration of omega-3 fatty acids 1-5 %). In both interventional groups reduction in total NAS score was observed. Supplementation of alive probiotic mixture with omega-3 fatty acids lead to 20 % higher decrease in steatosis score (0.73 ± 0.11 vs 0.93 ± 0.22, p = 0.848) and reduction by 16.6 % of triglycerides content in liver as compared to probiotic alone. Our study demonstrated more pronounced reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic lipid accumulation after treatment with combination of alive probiotics and omega-3 as compared to probiotics alone.

  8. Fish oil and olive oil-rich diets modify ozone-induced cardiovascular effect in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular health effects. Our clinical studies suggest that fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) supplementations attenuate the cardiovascular responses to inhaled concentrated ambient particles. This study was...

  9. Tracking of Drug Release and Material Fate for Naturally Derived Omega-3 Fatty Acid Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Keith M; Artzi, Natalie; Beck, Moshe; Beckerman, Rita; Moodie, Geoff; Albergo, Theresa; Conroy, Suzanne; Dale, Alicia; Corbeil, Scott; Martakos, Paul; Edelman, Elazer R

    2016-03-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted on omega-3 fatty acid-derived biomaterials to determine their utility as an implantable material for adhesion prevention following soft tissue hernia repair and as a means to allow for the local delivery of antimicrobial or antibiofilm agents. Naturally derived biomaterials offer several advantages over synthetic materials in the field of medical device development. These advantages include enhanced biocompatibility, elimination of risks posed by the presence of toxic catalysts and chemical crosslinking agents, and derivation from renewable resources. Omega-3 fatty acids are readily available from fish and plant sources and can be used to create implantable biomaterials either as a stand-alone device or as a device coating that can be utilized in local drug delivery applications. In-depth characterization of material erosion degradation over time using non-destructive imaging and chemical characterization techniques provided mechanistic insight into material structure: function relationship. This in turn guided rational tailoring of the material based on varying fatty acid composition to control material residence time and hence drug release. These studies demonstrate the utility of omega-3 fatty acid derived biomaterials as an absorbable material for soft tissue hernia repair and drug delivery applications.

  10. MERCURY-CONTAMINATED FISH AND ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cropotova Janna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption is an important part of human diet due to essential omega-3 fatty acids found naturally in this product. Many researchers from all over the world found that high mercury concentrations in the body reduced the heart-protective effects of the fatty acids in fish oils. People shouldn't be constrained by choosing between the health hazards related to toxins caused by industrial pollution and the nutritional benefits provided by consummation of essential fatty acids contained in oily fish. It is very important to find an alternative natural source of essential omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA to restore an optimal ratio between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the human diet.

  11. [Fish intake and risk of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybkowska, Ewa; Świderski, Franciszek; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bożena

    2014-10-17

    The aim of the study was to present the current state of knowledge concerning the relationship between the consumption of fish as materials rich in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA) omega-3, and the risk of prostate cancer. Many scientific reports confirm the health benefits from the consumption of fish and protective properties of LC PUFA omega-3 in relation to prostate cancer. However, there are reports that indicate a relationship of the high consumption of PUFA with the risk of prostate cancer. The way of processing and preservation of the fish, and other factors not included in previous studies, could have some importance in the etiology of this disease. High susceptibility of PUFA to oxidation changes and the technological fish processing (smoking, high-temperature cooking methods) contribute to the formation of many compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines - which may influence the formation of cancers - including prostate cancer. It is necessary to ensure an adequate amount of LC PUFA omega-3 in the diet through the consumption of proper quality fish and fish oils. Particular attention should be paid to the high susceptibility of PUFA to the oxidative processes, and the method of processing, preservation and storage of fish. Also pollution from the environment can significantly reduce the impact of health benefits of PUFA and fish, and even be the cause of cancers, including prostate cancer. Further research in this area should be more targeted to assess the impact of nutritional factors for the development of such tumors.

  12. Fish oil concentrate delays sensitivity to thermal nociception in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veigas, Jyothi M.; Williams, Paul J.; Halade, Ganesh; Rahman, Mizanur M.; Yoneda, Toshiyuki; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Fish oil has been used to alleviate pain associated with inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. The anti-inflammatory property of fish oil is attributed to the n-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Contrarily, vegetable oils such as safflower oil are rich in n-6 fatty acids which are considered to be mediators of inflammation. This study investigates the effect of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids rich oils as dietary supplements on the thermally induced pain sensitivity in healthy mice. C57Bl/6J mice were fed diet containing regular fish oil, concentrated fish oil formulation (CFO) and safflower oil (SO) for 6 months. Pain sensitivity was measured by plantar test and was correlated to the expression of acid sensing ion channels (ASICs), transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and c-fos in dorsal root ganglion cells. Significant delay in sensitivity to thermal nociception was observed in mice fed CFO compared to mice fed SO (p<0.05). A significant diminution in expression of ion channels such as ASIC1a (64%), ASIC13 (37%) and TRPV1 (56%) coupled with reduced expression of c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, was observed in the dorsal root ganglion cells of mice fed CFO compared to that fed SO. In conclusion, we describe here the potential of fish oil supplement in reducing sensitivity to thermal nociception in normal mice. PMID:21345372

  13. Blood docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in vegans: Associations with age and gender and effects of an algal-derived omega-3 fatty acid supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarter, Barbara; Kelsey, Kristine S; Schwartz, Todd A; Harris, William S

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that vegetarians and vegans have much lower plasma concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids (i.e., docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids) when compared to those who eat fish. The purposes of this study were 1) to define the age and/or sex-specific docosahexaenoic plus eicosapentaenoic acids levels in red blood cell membranes (expressed as a percent of total fatty acids; hereafter the omega-3 index) in long-term vegans, and 2) to determine the effects of a vegetarian omega-3 supplement (254 mg docosahexaenoic plus eicosapentaenoic acids/day for 4 months) on the omega-3 index. A sample (n = 165) of vegans was recruited, and their omega-3 index was determined using a dried blood spot methodology. A subset of 46 subjects with a baseline omega-3 index of vegan cohort, the index was significantly higher in females than males (3.9 ± 1.0% vs. 3.5 ± 1.0%; p = 0.026) and was directly related to age (p for trend = 0.009). The omega-3 index increased from 3.1 ± 0.6% to 4.8 ± 0.8% (p = 0.009) in the supplementation study. We conclude that vegans have low baseline omega-3 levels, but not lower than omnivores who also consume very little docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The vegans responded robustly to a relatively low dose of a vegetarian omega-3 supplement. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Canned bluefin tuna, an in vitro cardioprotective functional food potentially safer than commercial fish oil based pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Calabrese, Giorgio; Ritieni, Alberto; Campiglia, Pietro; Giannetti, Daniela; Novellino, Ettore

    2014-09-01

    Commercial canned fish species typical in the Italian market were evaluated for their lipid profile. Bluefin tuna samples showed the highest content in omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) among the canned fish samples analyzed. Tests on H9C2 cardiomyocytes revealed that bluefin tuna n-3 PUFA may responsible for a significant cell protection against both physiological and doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress. Analogous tests performed by incubating cardiac cells with n-3 PUFA ethyl esters, of which most of fish oil pharmaceutical formulations (FOPF) are based, showed cytotoxicity at high doses. Our results highlighted that n-3 PUFA contents in a 50 g canned bluefin tuna portion would be almost equivalent to and potentially safer than those of 1 FOPF capsule (1000 mg)/die usually suggested for hyperlipidaemic subjects. Thus, Italian commercial canned bluefin tuna could be indicated as a functional food with potential health benefits for the prevention and care of cardiovascular disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biochemical Studies on the Effect of Monosodium Glutamate and Omega 3 Fatty Acids in Gamma-Irradiated Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedid, S. M.E. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-07-01

    The consumption of foods and beverages containing additives has intensely increased over the past decades. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is one of the main flavor enhancer that can be consumed in high concentrations. Also, human exposure to ionizing radiation (RAD) has become inevitable with its vast application in diagnosis and industry. Although the use of additives and exposure to RAD in therapeutic treatments are believed to be relatively safe their combined effect remain unclear. The objective of this work was to evaluate the role of fish oil (FO); rich in the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA), on some biochemical alterations induced by exposure to MSG, RAD and MSG+RAD. Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups and treated in parallel: 1-Control, 2-FO: received FO (400 mg/Kg/day), 3-MSG: received MSG (450 mg/Kg/day), 4- FO+MSG: received FO with MSG, 5-RAD: whole body irradiated with 2Gy/week up to 8Gy, 6-FO+RAD: received FO daily during RAD exposure, 7- MSG+RAD: received MSG daily during RAD exposure. 8- FO+MSG+RAD: received FO daily during MSG+RAD exposure. Exposure to RAD and/or MSG induced oxidative stress evidenced by increased malondialdehyde (marker of lipid peroxidation), and protein carbonyl (marker of protein oxidation) associated to decreased superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities and glutathione content (antioxidant biomarkers). Alteration in neurotransmitters was noted by a decrease in the level of serotonin (inhibitory neurotransmitter) and increased aspartic and glutamic acids (excitatory amino acids) though this increase was not recorded after exposure to MSG alone. The level of omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA was decreased. Furthermore, exposure to RAD and/or MSG elevate serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol though this decrease was not observed after MSG exposure alone

  16. Biochemical Studies on the Effect of Monosodium Glutamate and Omega 3 Fatty Acids in Gamma-Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedid, S.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of foods and beverages containing additives has intensely increased over the past decades. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is one of the main flavor enhancer that can be consumed in high concentrations. Also, human exposure to ionizing radiation (RAD) has become inevitable with its vast application in diagnosis and industry. Although the use of additives and exposure to RAD in therapeutic treatments are believed to be relatively safe their combined effect remain unclear. The objective of this work was to evaluate the role of fish oil (FO); rich in the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA), on some biochemical alterations induced by exposure to MSG, RAD and MSG+RAD. Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups and treated in parallel: 1-Control, 2-FO: received FO (400 mg/Kg/day), 3-MSG: received MSG (450 mg/Kg/day), 4- FO+MSG: received FO with MSG, 5-RAD: whole body irradiated with 2Gy/week up to 8Gy, 6-FO+RAD: received FO daily during RAD exposure, 7- MSG+RAD: received MSG daily during RAD exposure. 8- FO+MSG+RAD: received FO daily during MSG+RAD exposure. Exposure to RAD and/or MSG induced oxidative stress evidenced by increased malondialdehyde (marker of lipid peroxidation), and protein carbonyl (marker of protein oxidation) associated to decreased superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities and glutathione content (antioxidant biomarkers). Alteration in neurotransmitters was noted by a decrease in the level of serotonin (inhibitory neurotransmitter) and increased aspartic and glutamic acids (excitatory amino acids) though this increase was not recorded after exposure to MSG alone. The level of omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA was decreased. Furthermore, exposure to RAD and/or MSG elevate serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol though this decrease was not observed after MSG exposure alone

  17. Enrichment of Cinta Senese burgers with omega-3 fatty acids. Effect of type of addition and storage conditions on quality characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Aquilani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The most beneficial omega-3 PUFAs to human health, EPA and DHA fatty acids, are typically present in fish products, but extraneous to meat. Therefore, Cinta Senese pork burgers were added with microencapsulated (M and bulk fish oil (F and subjected to three storage conditions: no storage (T0, chilled (T5 and frozen storage (T30. The physico-chemical and sensory attributes of raw and cooked burgers were investigated. After storage and cooking, EPA and DHA were better preserved in M burgers than in F samples, which showed the highest TBAR values at T0 and T5, while M samples presented scores similar to the control. Panelists observed differences mainly in greasy appearance, odor intensity and cooked meat odor and flavor. The M group showed the best scores at T5 with respect to the control and F burgers. So, fish oil microencapsulation was an effective method to prevent EPA and DHA oxidation while respecting burger quality characteristics.

  18. Neuroprotective Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in a Rat Model of Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Tassos; Wen, Yao-Tseng; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Kolovos, Panagiotis; Kalogerou, Maria; Prokopiou, Ekatherine; Neokleous, Anastasia; Huang, Chin-Te; Tsai, Rong-Kung

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA) administration in a rat model of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION). The level of blood arachidonic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid (AA/EPA) was measured to determine the suggested dosage. The rAION-induced rats were administered fish oil (1 g/day EPA) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) by daily gavage for 10 consecutive days to evaluate the neuroprotective effects. Blood fatty acid analysis showed that the AA/EPA ratio was reduced from 17.6 to ≤1.5 after 10 days of fish oil treatment. The retinal ganglion cell (RGC) densities and the P1-N2 amplitude of flash visual-evoked potentials (FVEP) were significantly higher in the ω-3 PUFA-treated group, compared with the PBS-treated group (P optic nerve (ON) by 3.17-fold in the rAION model. The M2 macrophage markers, which decrease inflammation, were induced in the ω-3 PUFA-treated group in contrast to the PBS-treated group. In addition, the mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and inducible nitric oxide synthase were significantly reduced in the ω-3 PUFA-treated group. The administration of ω-3 PUFAs has neuroprotective effects in rAION, possibly through dual actions of the antiapoptosis of RGCs and anti-inflammation via decreasing inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as the regulation of macrophage polarization to decrease the cytokine-induced injury of the ON.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids protect the brain against ischemic injury by activating Nrf2 and upregulating heme oxygenase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meijuan; Wang, Suping; Mao, Leilei; Leak, Rehana K; Shi, Yejie; Zhang, Wenting; Hu, Xiaoming; Sun, Baoliang; Cao, Guodong; Gao, Yanqin; Xu, Yun; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2014-01-29

    Ischemic stroke is a debilitating clinical disorder that affects millions of people, yet lacks effective neuroprotective treatments. Fish oil is known to exert beneficial effects against cerebral ischemia. However, the underlying protective mechanisms are not fully understood. The present study tests the hypothesis that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) attenuate ischemic neuronal injury by activating nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and upregulating heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in both in vitro and in vivo models. We observed that pretreatment of rat primary neurons with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) significantly reduced neuronal death following oxygen-glucose deprivation. This protection was associated with increased Nrf2 activation and HO-1 upregulation. Inhibition of HO-1 activity with tin protoporphyrin IX attenuated the protective effects of DHA. Further studies showed that 4-hydroxy-2E-hexenal (4-HHE), an end-product of peroxidation of n-3 PUFAs, was a more potent Nrf2 inducer than 4-hydroxy-2E-nonenal derived from n-6 PUFAs. In an in vivo setting, transgenic mice overexpressing fatty acid metabolism-1, an enzyme that converts n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs, were remarkably resistant to focal cerebral ischemia compared with their wild-type littermates. Regular mice fed with a fish oil-enhanced diet also demonstrated significant resistance to ischemia compared with mice fed with a regular diet. As expected, the protection was associated with HO-1 upregulation, Nrf2 activation, and 4-HHE generation. Together, our data demonstrate that n-3 PUFAs are highly effective in protecting the brain, and that the protective mechanisms involve Nrf2 activation and HO-1 upregulation by 4-HHE. Further investigation of n-3 PUFA neuroprotective mechanisms may accelerate the development of stroke therapies.

  20. DHA- RICH FISH OIL IMPROVES COMPLEX REACTION TIME IN FEMALE ELITE SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Guzmán

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 has shown to improve neuromotor function. This study examined the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA on complex reaction time, precision and efficiency, in female elite soccer players. 24 players from two Spanish female soccer Super League teams were randomly selected and assigned to two experimental groups, then administered, in a double-blind manner, 3.5 g·day-1 of either DHA-rich fish oil (FO =12 or olive oil (OO = 12 over 4 weeks of training. Two measurements (pre- and post-treatment of complex reaction time and precision were taken. Participants had to press different buttons and pedals with left and right hands and feet, or stop responding, according to visual and auditory stimuli. Multivariate analysis of variance displayed an interaction between supplement administration (pre/post and experimental group (FO/OO on complex reaction time (FO pre = 0.713 ± 0.142 ms, FO post = 0.623 ± 0.109 ms, OO pre = 0.682 ± 1.132 ms, OO post = 0.715 ± 0.159 ms; p = 0.004 and efficiency (FO pre = 40.88 ± 17.41, FO post = 57.12 ± 11.05, OO pre = 49.52 ± 14.63, OO post = 49. 50 ± 11.01; p = 0.003. It was concluded that after 4 weeks of supplementation with FO, there was a significant improvement in the neuromotor function of female elite soccer players

  1. Effect of anaesthesia with clove oil in fish (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javahery, Susan; Nekoubin, Hamed; Moradlu, Abdolmajid Haji

    2012-12-01

    Clove oil is an effective, local and natural anaesthetic. Many hatcheries and research studies use clove oil to immobilize fish for handling, sorting, tagging, artificial reproduction procedures and surgery and to suppress sensory systems during invasive procedures. Clove oil may be more appropriate for use in commercial aquaculture situations. Improper clove oil use can decrease fish viability, distort physiological data or result in mortalities. Because animals may be anaesthetized by unskilled labourers and released in natural water bodies, training in the proper use of clove oil may decrease variability in recovery and experimental results and increase fish survival. Here, we briefly describe many aspects of clove oil, including the legal uses of it, anaesthesia mechanism and what is currently known about the preparation and behavioural and pathologic effects of the anaesthetic. We outline methods and precautions for administration and changes in fish behaviour during progressively deeper anaesthesia and discuss the physiological effects of clove oil, its potential for compromising fish health and effectiveness of water quality parameters.

  2. Retardation Of Lipid Oxidation In Fish Oil-Enriched Fish Pâté- Combination Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The oxidative stability during storage of fish pâté made from cod and enriched with 5% oil was investigated. Pâtés were produced with neat fish oil, pre-emulsified fish oil, microencapsulated fish oil, inert medium chain triacylglycerol (MCT) oil or a fish/rapeseed oil mixture. Addition of fish...... stored at 2 or 10C were equally stable. Mixing fish oil with rapeseed oil before emulsification slightly increased the stability of the fish pâtés. Addition of antimicrobial agents, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate increased oxidative stability. It is recommended to produce enriched fish pâté...... by adding pre-emulsified fish oil or microencapsulated fish oil and store at preferentially 2-10C. Practical Applications: The results from this study can directly be transferred to practical applications in the food industry. Thus, the study showed that fish oil-enriched fish pâté with an acceptable...

  3. Identification and functional characterisation of genes encoding the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway from the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayanova, Olga; Haslam, Richard P; Calerón, Monica Venegas; López, Noemi Ruiz; Worthy, Charlotte; Rooks, Paul; Allen, Michael J; Napier, Johnathan A

    2011-05-01

    The Prymnesiophyceae coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is one of the most abundant alga in our oceans and therefore plays a central role in marine foodwebs. E. huxleyi is notable for the synthesis and accumulation of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6Δ(4,7,10,13,16,19), n-3) which is accumulated in fish oils and known to have health-beneficial properties to humans, preventing cardiovascular disease and related pathologies. Here we describe the identification and functional characterisation of the five E. huxleyi genes which direct the synthesis of docosahexaenoic acid in this alga. Surprisingly, E. huxleyi does not use the conventional Δ6-pathway, instead using the alternative Δ8-desaturation route which has previously only been observed in a few unrelated microorganisms. Given that E. huxleyi accumulates significant levels of the Δ6-desaturated fatty acid stearidonic acid (18:4Δ(6,9,12,15), n-3), we infer that the biosynthesis of DHA is likely to be metabolically compartmentalised from the synthesis of stearidonic acid. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exercise and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation for the Treatment of Hepatic Steatosis in Hyperphagic OLETF Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Borengasser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. This study examined if exercise and omega-3 fatty acid (n3PUFA supplementation is an effective treatment for hepatic steatosis in obese, hyperphagic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF rats. Methods. Male OLETF rats were divided into 4 groups (n=8/group: (1 remained sedentary (SED, (2 access to running wheels; (EX (3 a diet supplemented with 3% of energy from fish oil (n3PUFA-SED; and (4 n3PUFA supplementation plus EX (n3PUFA+EX. The 8 week treatments began at 13 weeks, when hepatic steatosis is present in OLETF-SED rats. Results. EX alone lowered hepatic triglyceride (TAG while, in contrast, n3PUFAs failed to lower hepatic TAG and blunted the ability of EX to decrease hepatic TAG levels in n3PUFAs+EX. Insulin sensitivity was improved in EX animals, to a lesser extent in n3PUFA+EX rats, and did not differ between n3PUFA-SED and SED rats. Only the EX group displayed higher complete hepatic fatty acid oxidation (FAO to CO2 and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 activity. EX also lowered hepatic fatty acid synthase protein while both EX and n3PUFA+EX decreased stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 protein. Conclusions. Exercise lowers hepatic steatosis through increased complete hepatic FAO, insulin sensitivity, and reduced expression of de novo fatty acid synthesis proteins while n3PUFAs had no effect.

  5. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements for Chronic Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid (FA) supplements (lg EPA and 0.7g DHA daily) were used in the treatment of 58 patients with refractory epilepsy, in a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted by researchers at the UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK.

  6. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements for Chronic Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acid (FA supplements (lg EPA and 0.7g DHA daily were used in the treatment of 58 patients with refractory epilepsy, in a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted by researchers at the UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK.

  7. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Treatment on Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogoş Tiberius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Insulin resistance (IR is a common pathogenic factor of several diseases: diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, etc. There are many therapeutic factors involved in decreasing IR. Among them we mention metformin, pioglitazone, physical activity, weight loss, diet, etc. In the last decade, there are more observations of the influence of polyunsaturated fatty acids on IR. The most powerful seem to be omega-3 fatty acids. In our study, we wanted to asses if the administration of omega-3 fatty acids is involved in modifying IR. Materials and methods: We evaluated 126 diabetic patients with IR from January 2011 until July 2014. The study was open-label and non-randomized. For the determination of IR we used the HOMA-IR method. Results: For both males and females there was a regression of HOMA-IR during the 4 weeks of treatment with omega-3 and also after 2 weeks after stopping the administration of these fatty acids. The decrease of HOMA-IR was statistically significant (p<0.05. The statistic result observed in the next 2 weeks after stopping administration of omega-3 was also significant (p<0.05.

  8. New natural antioxidants for protecting omega-3 rich products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    The long-chain (LC) highly unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6) are vital for a wide range of biological functions and are implicated in the prevention of numerous diseases. However, these fatty acids are highly susceptible...

  9. Dietary supplementation with fish oil prevents high fat diet-induced enhancement of sensitivity to the locomotor stimulating effects of cocaine in adolescent female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafine, Katherine M; Labay, Caitlin; France, Charles P

    2016-08-01

    Eating a diet high in fat can lead to obesity, chronic metabolic disease, and increased inflammation in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Dietary supplements that are high in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can reduce or prevent these negative health consequences in rats. Eating high fat chow also increases the sensitivity of rats to behavioral effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems (e.g., cocaine), and this effect is greatest in adolescent females. The present experiment tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with fish oil prevents high fat chow induced increases in sensitivity to cocaine in adolescent female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (post-natal day 25-27) ate standard laboratory chow (5.7% fat), high fat chow (34.4% fat), or high fat chow supplemented with fish oil (20% w/w). Cocaine dose dependently (1-17.8mg/kg) increased locomotion and induced sensitization across 6 weeks of once-weekly testing in all rats; however, these effects were greatest in rats eating high fat chow. Dietary supplementation with fish oil prevented enhanced locomotion and sensitization in rats eating high fat chow. There were no differences in inflammatory markers in plasma or the hypothalamus among dietary conditions. These results demonstrate that dietary supplementation with fish oil can prevent high fat diet-induced sensitization to cocaine, but they fail to support the view that these effects are due to changes in proinflammatory cytokines. These data add to a growing literature on the relationship between diet and drug abuse and extend the potential health benefits of fish oil to stimulant drug abuse prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Perna canaliculus Lipid Complex PCSO-524™ Demonstrated Pain Relief for Osteoarthritis Patients Benchmarked against Fish Oil, a Randomized Trial, without Placebo Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Szechinski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA typically generates pain, reduced mobility and reduced quality of life. Most conventional treatments for osteoarthritis, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and simple analgesics, have side effects. PCSO-524™, a non polar lipid extract from the New Zealand Green Lipped Mussel, is rich in omega-3 fatty acids and has been shown to reduce inflammation in both animal studies and patient trials. This OA trial examined pain relief changes in relation to quality of life and safety of use for OA patients who took PCSO-524™ compared with patients who took fish oil (containing an industry standard EPA-18% and DHA-12% blend. PCSO-524™ patients showed a statistically significant improvement compared with patients who took fish oil. There was an 89% decrease in their pain symptoms and 91% reported an improved quality of life. Patients treated with fish oil showed significantly less improvement and a greater level of physical discomfort during the study. These results suggest that PCSO-524™ might offer a potential alternative complementary therapy with no side effects for OA patients.

  11. Enzymatic Modification of Antioxidants Towards Omega-3 Oil Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong

    of octanol and DHCA as model, effects of different reaction parameters (temperature, reaction time, enzyme load, substrate molar ratio) were evaluated according to the experimental designs generated by response surface methodology (RSM). Optimal reaction conditions were predicted by the model and conversion...... ratio between tOMA•TFA and octanol, temperature, water removal techniques (molecular sieves or vacuum), and concentration of DHCA were studied. Conversion of DHCA increased slightly with increasing volume ratio of IL/octanol. There was a 10 to 20% higher conversion when the reaction was conducted at 80......, the initial reaction rate increased as the concentration of DHCA was increased. Compared to the reactions conducted in parallel experiments where tOMA•TFA was not added, system composed of IL/octanol increased both solubility of DHCA and productivity of lipophilic phenolic esters significantly. This binary...

  12. Intake of total omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and risk of coronary heart disease in the Spanish EPIC cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiano, P; Machón, M; Dorronsoro, M; Chirlaque, M Dolores; Barricarte, A; Sánchez, M-J; Navarro, C; Huerta, J M; Molina-Montes, E; Sánchez-Cantalejo, E; Urtizberea, M; Arriola, L; Larrañaga, N; Ardanaz, E; Quirós, J R; Moreno-Iribas, C; González, C A

    2014-03-01

    The evidence about the benefits of omega-3 fatty acid intake on coronary heart disease (CHD) is not consistent. We thus aimed to assess the relation between dietary intake of total omega-3 fatty acids (from plant and marine foods) and marine polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on the risk of CHD in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The analysis included 41,091 men and women aged 20-69 years, recruited from 1992 to 1996 and followed-up until December 2004. Omega-3 fatty acid intake was estimated from a validated dietary questionnaire. Only participants with definite incident CHD event were considered as cases. Cox regression models were used to assess the association between the intake of total omega-3 fatty acids, EPA or DHA and CHD. A total of 609 participants (79% men) had a definite CHD event. Mean intakes of total omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA were very similar in the cases and in the cohort, both in men and women. In the multivariate adjusted model, omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA were not related to incident CHD in either men or women. The hazard ratios (HR) for omega-3 were 1.23 in men (95% CI 0.94-15.9, p = 0.20); and 0.77 in women (95% CI 0.46-1.30, p = 0.76). In the Spanish EPIC cohort, with a relatively high intake of fish, no association was found between EPA, DHA and total omega-3 fatty acid intake and risk of CHD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Current Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios A. Christou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main dietary source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA is fish, which contains eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. In the present manuscript, we aimed to review the current evidence regarding the clinical role of n-3 PUFA in the prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF and the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods: A literature search based on PubMed listings was performed using “Omega-3 fatty acids” and “atrial fibrilation” as key search terms. Results: n-3 PUFA have been shown to attenuate structural atrial remodeling, prolong atrial effective refractory period through the prevention of reentry and suppress ectopic firing from pulmonary veins. Dietary fish intake has been found to have no effect on the incidence of AF in the majority of studies. Circulating DHA has been consistently reported to be inversely associated with AF risk, whereas EPA has no such effect. The majority of studies investigating the impact of n-3 PUFA supplementation on the incidence of AF following cardiac surgery reported no benefit, though most of them did not use n-3 PUFA pretreatment for adequate duration. Studies using adequate four-week pretreatment with n-3 PUFA before cardioversion of AF showed a reduction of the AF incidence. Conclusions: Although n-3 PUFA have antiarrhythmogenic properties, their clinical efficacy on the prevention of AF is not consistently supported. Further well-designed studies are needed to overcome the limitations of the existing studies and provide robust conclusions.

  14. The Current Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Georgios A; Christou, Konstantinos A; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Rizos, Evangelos C; Nikas, Dimitrios N; Goudevenos, John A

    2015-09-22

    The main dietary source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is fish, which contains eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In the present manuscript, we aimed to review the current evidence regarding the clinical role of n-3 PUFA in the prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF) and the possible underlying mechanisms. A literature search based on PubMed listings was performed using "Omega-3 fatty acids" and "atrial fibrilation" as key search terms. n-3 PUFA have been shown to attenuate structural atrial remodeling, prolong atrial effective refractory period through the prevention of reentry and suppress ectopic firing from pulmonary veins. Dietary fish intake has been found to have no effect on the incidence of AF in the majority of studies. Circulating DHA has been consistently reported to be inversely associated with AF risk, whereas EPA has no such effect. The majority of studies investigating the impact of n-3 PUFA supplementation on the incidence of AF following cardiac surgery reported no benefit, though most of them did not use n-3 PUFA pretreatment for adequate duration. Studies using adequate four-week pretreatment with n-3 PUFA before cardioversion of AF showed a reduction of the AF incidence. Although n-3 PUFA have antiarrhythmogenic properties, their clinical efficacy on the prevention of AF is not consistently supported. Further well-designed studies are needed to overcome the limitations of the existing studies and provide robust conclusions.

  15. Prevention of postcoronary angioplasty restenosis by omega-3 fatty acids: main results of the Esapent for Prevention of Restenosis ITalian Study (ESPRIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresta, Aleardo; Balduccelli, Marco; Varani, Elisabetta; Marzilli, Mario; Galli, Claudio; Heiman, Franca; Lavezzari, Maurizio; Stragliotto, Eduardo; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2002-06-01

    Previous trials of omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FA) for restenosis prevention after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) have yielded conflicting results. We tested the hypothesis that long-term administration of omega-3 FA before PTCA may have significant effects on restenosis. We randomized 339 patients in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of omega-3 FA (as an ethyl ester preparation given as 6 1-g capsules providing 3 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 2.1 g docosahexaenoic acid/d started 1 month before PTCA and given for 1 month thereafter, then continued at half-dose for 6 months) versus an olive oil placebo. Of these, 257 patients (125 on omega-3 FA, 132 on placebo) well matched for risk factors underwent successful balloon-only PTCA (280 total lesions) and were evaluable at 6 months with repeat angiography. Restenosis was defined at quantitative angiography as a recurrence of >50% diameter stenosis in the dilated vessel (Definition I) and as >50% loss of the short-term gain immediately after PTCA (Definition II). Restenosis rates per vessel were 29.4% and 31.6% in the omega-3 FA group, and 39.6% and 35.4% in the placebo group according to Definitions I (P =.04) and II (P = not significant), respectively. Restenosis rates per patient were 31.2% and 33.6% in the omega-3 FA group, and 40.9% and 37.1% in the placebo group according to Definitions I (P =.05) and II (P = not significant), respectively. With a long treatment before PTCA, omega-3 FA produced a small but significant decrease in the restenosis rate compared with placebo.

  16. Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Have Developmental Effects on the Crop Pest, the Cabbage White Butterfly Pieris rapae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie M Hixson

    Full Text Available Nutritional enhancement of crops using genetic engineering can potentially affect herbivorous pests. Recently, oilseed crops have been genetically engineered to produce the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA at levels similar to that found in fish oil; to provide a more sustainable source of these compounds than is currently available from wild fish capture. We examined some of the growth and development impacts of adding EPA and DHA to an artificial diet of Pieris rapae, a common pest of Brassicaceae plants. We replaced 1% canola oil with EPA: DHA (11:7 ratio in larval diets, and examined morphological traits and growth of larvae and ensuing adults across 5 dietary treatments. Diets containing increasing amounts of EPA and DHA did not affect developmental phenology, larval or pupal weight, food consumption, nor larval mortality. However, the addition of EPA and DHA in larval diets resulted in progressively heavier adults (F 4, 108 = 6.78; p = 0.011, with smaller wings (p < 0.05 and a higher frequency of wing deformities (R = 0.988; p = 0.001. We conclude that the presence of EPA and DHA in diets of larval P. rapae may alter adult mass and wing morphology; therefore, further research on the environmental impacts of EPA and DHA production on terrestrial biota is advisable.

  17. Neoplastic changes in freshwater fishes: Correlation with oil refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrander, G.K.

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally, oil pollution has been viewed as single event, large scale disasters such as the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that by products and anthropogenic contaminants resulting from oil exploration, extraction, recovery, refining, and the manufacture and use of oil and oil-based products are negatively impacting the environment. Potential problems of freshwater pollution by oil contaminants are increasing in many parts of the world from both active and abandoned oil production facilities. In the USA many ''Superfund'' sites have been designated for cleanup under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980; primarily because of waste discharged on to the sites by the oil industry. Pollution of surface and groundwater from these sites has already occurred and in some cases has led to deleterious effects on the complex aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems on and near these sites. The effect of oil and oil related products on aquatic organisms will be reviewed. Specifically, the discussion will focus on preneoplastic and neoplastic changes in fishes with a primary endpoint of cancer. Finally, a summary of current studies of feral fishes residing on and near an abandoned oil refinery in Oklahoma will be presented

  18. The effects of the oral administration of fish oil concentrate on the release and the metabolism of [14C]arachidonic acid and [14C]eicosapentaenoic acid by human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, A.; Terano, T.; Hamazaki, T.

    1982-01-01

    It has been suggested by several investigators that eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 omega 3, EPA) might have anti-thrombotic effects. In this experiment, the effect of the oral administration of EPA rich fish oil concentrate on platelet aggregation and the release and the metabolism of [ 1 - 14 C]arachidonic acid and [(U)- 14 C]eicosapentaenoic acid by human platelets was studied. Eight healthy male subjects ingested 18 capsules of fish oil concentrate (EPA 1.4 g) per day for 4 weeks. Plasma and platelet concentrations of EPA markedly increased, while those of arachidonic acid (C20:4 omega 6, AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega 3, DHA) did not change. Platelet aggregation induced by collagen and ADP was reduced. Collagen induced [ 14 C]thromboxane B2 (TXB2) formation from [ 14 C]AA prelabeled platelets decreased. There was no detectable formation of [ 14 C]TXB3 from [ 14 C]EPA prelabeled platelets, and the conversion of exogenous [ 14 C]EPA to [ 14 C]TXB3 was lower than that of [ 14 C]AA to [ 14 C]TXB2. The release of [ 14 C]AA from [ 14 C]AA prelabeled platelets by collagen was significantly decreased. These observations raise the possibility that the release of arachidonic acid from platelet lipids might be affected by the alteration of EPA content in platelets

  19. Oxidative flavour deterioration of fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Frankel, E.N.

    2003-01-01

    The oxidative deterioration of milk emulsions supplemented with 1.5 wt-% fish oil was investigated by sensory evaluation and by determining the peroxide value and volatile oxidation products after cold storage. Two types of milk emulsions were produced, one with a highly unsaturated tuna oil (38 wt......-% of n-3 fatty acids) and one with cod liver oil (26 wt-% of n-3 fatty acids). The effect of added calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) on oxidation was also investigated. Emulsions based on cod liver oil with a slightly elevated peroxide value (1.5 meq/kg) oxidised significantly faster...... than the tuna oil emulsions, having a lower initial peroxide value (0.1 meq/kg). In the tuna oil emulsions the fishy off-flavour could not be detected throughout the storage period. Addition of 5-50 ppm EDTA significantly reduced the development of volatile oxidation products in the cod liver oil...

  20. Physical and oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with beta-lactoglobulin and pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuda, Marly S; McClements, D J; Miglioranza, Lucia H S; Decker, Eric A

    2008-07-23

    The oxidation of fatty acids can be inhibited by engineering the surface of oil-in-water emulsion droplets to decrease interactions between aqueous phase prooxidants and lipids. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether emulsions stabilized by a multilayer emulsifier systems consisting of beta-lactoglobulin and citrus or sugar beet pectin could produce fish oil-in-water emulsions that had good physical and oxidative stability. Sugar beet pectin was compared to citrus pectin because the sugar beet pectin contains the known antioxidant, ferulic acid. A primary Menhaden oil-in-water emulsion was prepared with beta-lactoglobulin upon which the pectins were electrostatically deposited at pH 3.5. Emulsions prepared with 1% oil, 0.05% beta-lactoglobulin, and 0.06% pectins were physically stable for up to 16 days. As determined by monitoring lipid hydroperoxide and headspace propanal formation, emulsions prepared with the multilayer system of beta-lactoglobulin and citrus pectin were more stable than emulsions stabilized with beta-lactoglobulin alone. Emulsions prepared with the multilayer system of beta-lactoglobulin and sugar beet pectin were less stable than emulsions stabilized with beta-lactoglobulin alone despite the presence of ferulic acid in the sugar beet pectin. The lower oxidative stability of the emulsions with the sugar beet pectin could be due to its higher iron and copper concentrations which would produce oxidative stress that would overcome the antioxidant capacity of ferulic acid. These data suggest that the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions containing omega-3 fatty acids could be improved by the use of multilayer emulsion systems containing pectins with low metal concentrations.

  1. Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Etiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Depression: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades a body of translational evidence has implicated dietary deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids, including eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the pathophysiology and etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Cross-national and cross-sectional data suggest that greater habitual intake of preformed EPA+DHA is associated with reduced risk for developing depressive symptoms and syndromal MDD. Erythrocyte EPA and DHA composition is highly correlated with habitual fish or fish oil intake, and case-control studies have consistently observed lower erythrocyte EPA and/or DHA levels in patients with MDD. Low erythrocyte EPA+DHA composition may also be associated with increased risk for suicide and cardiovascular disease, two primary causes of excess premature mortality in MDD. While controversial, dietary EPA+DHA supplementation may have antidepressant properties and may augment the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant medications. Neuroimaging and rodent neurodevelopmental studies further suggest that low LCn-3 fatty acid intake or biostatus can recapitulate central pathophysiological features associated with MDD. Prospective findings suggest that low LCn-3 fatty acid biostatus increases risk for depressive symptoms in part by augmenting pro-inflammatory responsivity. When taken collectively, these translational findings provide a strong empirical foundation in support of dietary LCn-3 fatty acid deficiency as a modifiable risk factor for MDD. This review provides an overview of this translational evidence and then discusses future directions including strategies to translate this evidence into routine clinical screening and treatment algorithms. PMID:27766299

  2. Effects of fish oil on lipid profile and other metabolic outcomes in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Julicristie M; Rondó, Patrícia H C; Yudkin, John S; Souza, José M P; Pereira, Tatiane N; Catalani, Andrea W; Picone, Camila M; Segurado, Aluisio A C

    2014-02-01

    Although antiretroviral therapy has revolutionized the care of HIV-infected patients, it has been associated with metabolic abnormalities. Hence, this study was planned to investigate the effects of fish oil on lipid profile, insulin resistance, and body fat distribution in HIV-infected Brazilian patients on antiretroviral therapy, considering that marine omega-3 fatty acids seem to improve features of the metabolic syndrome. We conducted a randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled trial that assessed the effects of 3 g fish oil/day (540 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid plus 360 mg of docosahexaenoic acid) or 3 g soy oil/day (placebo) on 83 HIV-infected Brazilian men and non-pregnant women on antiretroviral therapy. No statistically significant relationships between fish oil supplementation and longitudinal changes in triglyceride (p = 0.335), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.078), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.383), total cholesterol (p = 0.072), apolipoprotein B (p = 0.522), apolipoprotein A1 (p = 0.420), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/apolipoprotein B ratio (p = 0.107), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index (p = 0.387), body mass index (p = 0.068), waist circumference (p = 0.128), and waist/hip ratio (p = 0.359) were observed. A low dose of fish oil did not alter lipid profile, insulin resistance, and body fat distribution in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy.

  3. Fish-oil supplementation enhances the effects of strength training in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodacki, Cintia L N; Rodacki, André L F; Pereira, Gleber; Naliwaiko, Katya; Coelho, Isabela; Pequito, Daniele; Fernandes, Luiz Cléudio

    2012-02-01

    Muscle force and functional capacity generally decrease with aging in the older population, although this effect can be reversed, attenuated, or both through strength training. Fish oil (FO), which is rich in n-3 (omega-3) PUFAs, has been shown to play a role in the plasma membrane and cell function of muscles, which may enhance the benefits of training. The effect of strength training and FO supplementation on the neuromuscular system of the elderly has not been investigated. The objective was to investigate the chronic effect of FO supplementation and strength training on the neuromuscular system (muscle strength and functional capacity) of older women. Forty-five women (aged 64 ± 1.4 y) were randomly assigned to 3 groups. One group performed strength training only (ST group) for 90 d, whereas the others performed the same strength-training program and received FO supplementation (2 g/d) for 90 d (ST90 group) or for 150 d (ST150 group; supplemented 60 d before training). Muscle strength and functional capacity were assessed before and after the training period. No differences in the pretraining period were found between groups for any of the variables. The peak torque and rate of torque development for all muscles (knee flexor and extensor, plantar and dorsiflexor) increased from pre- to posttraining in all groups. However, the effect was greater in the ST90 and ST150 groups than in the ST group. The activation level and electromechanical delay of the muscles changed from pre- to posttraining only for the ST90 and ST150 groups. Chair-rising performance in the FO groups was higher than in the ST group. Strength training increased muscle strength in elderly women. The inclusion of FO supplementation caused greater improvements in muscle strength and functional capacity.

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids for breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Carol J; Kimler, Bruce F; Hursting, Stephen D

    2015-05-04

    Women with evidence of high intake ratios of the marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) relative to the omega-6 arachidonic acid have been found to have a reduced risk of breast cancer compared with those with low ratios in some but not all case-control and cohort studies. If increasing EPA and DHA relative to arachidonic acid is effective in reducing breast cancer risk, likely mechanisms include reduction in proinflammatory lipid derivatives, inhibition of nuclear factor-κB-induced cytokine production, and decreased growth factor receptor signaling as a result of alteration in membrane lipid rafts. Primary prevention trials with either risk biomarkers or cancer incidence as endpoints are underway but final results of these trials are currently unavailable. EPA and DHA supplementation is also being explored in an effort to help prevent or alleviate common problems after a breast cancer diagnosis, including cardiac and cognitive dysfunction and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. The insulin-sensitizing and anabolic properties of EPA and DHA also suggest supplementation studies to determine whether these omega-3 fatty acids might reduce chemotherapy-associated loss of muscle mass and weight gain. We will briefly review relevant omega-3 fatty acid metabolism, and early investigations in breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

  5. The relationship between omega-3 and smoking habit: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Scaglia, N?ris; Chatkin, Jos?; Chapman, Kenneth R.; Ferreira, Ivone; Wagner, Mario; Selby, Peter; Allard, Johane; Zamel, Noe

    2016-01-01

    Background Omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to several diseases, including smoking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between omega-3 intake and tobacco smoking, taking into account the qualitative differences in dietary intake between smokers and non-smokers, the amount of the ingested PUFA and their red blood (RBC) contents. We also looked for an association between omega-3 RBC content and smoking, and also between omega3 intake and the level of ni...

  6. Exocrine pancreatic secretion is stimulated in piglets fed Fish oil compared with those fed Coconut Oil or Lard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Engberg, Ricarda M.

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets containing fat sources with different fatty acid composition (fish oil, coconut oil or lard, 10 g/100 g diet) on exocrine pancreatic secretion in piglets after weaning. A total of 16 barrows were weaned at 4 wk of age; 3 d later...... the coconut oil or lard diets. The output [U/(h. kg(0.75))] of lipase was higher in piglets fed fish oil than in piglets fed lard or coconut oil. The output of colipase was greater in piglets fed fish oil and coconut oil than in those fed lard. The dietary treatments did not affect the output of carboxylester...... hydrolase. The output of trypsin was significantly lower in piglets fed lard than in piglets fed fish oil or coconut oil diets and the output of carboxypeptidase B was greater in those fed the fish oil diet. Protein, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, elastase and amylase outputs did not differ among...

  7. Fish oil-supplementation increases appetite in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsbo-Svendsen, Signe; Rønsholdt, Mia Dybkjær; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal-weight s......Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal...

  8. Randomized trial of weight-loss-diets for young adults varying in fish and fish oil content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorsdottir, I.; Tomasson, H.; Gunnarsdottir, I.; Gisladottir, E.; Kiely, M.; Parra, M.D.; Bandarra, N.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Martinez, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of including seafood and fish oils, as part of an energy-restricted diet, on weight loss in young overweight adults. Design: Randomized controlled trial of energy-restricted diet varying in fish and fish oil content was followed for 8 weeks. Subjects were

  9. Balancing omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenna, J Thomas; Akomo, Peter; Bahwere, Paluku

    2015-01-01

    with altered PUFA content and looked at the effects on circulating omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status as a measure of overall omega-3 status. Supplemental oral administration of omega-3 DHA or reduction of RUTF omega-6 linoleic acid using high oleic peanuts improved DHA status, whereas increasing omega...

  10. Teores de ácidos graxos em ovos comerciais convencionais e modificados com ômega-3 Fatty acids levels in conventional and designer omega-3 commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaiz Marinho Magalhães Cedro

    2010-08-01

    eggs, they were fed, from the 22nd week of age, rations with 1.5% of marine algae substrate and 1.8% fish oil. A total of 180 eggs was randomly collected from each group of the laying hens (totalizing 360 eggs, which were distributed in a randomized block design, considering each egg a replicate. Designer omega-3 eggs showed the lowest yolk index, but they did not differ from the conventional eggs regarded to the other parameters of quality. Means of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids were higher for designer eggs. The relationships between polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids and among omega-6 and omega-3 in designer eggs were close to the ideal estimated for human consumption. Means of the polyunsaturated fatty acids from the omega-6 series and of saturated fatty acids were significantly higher than omega-3 designer eggs.

  11. The pleiotropic effects of omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid on the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkouch, Mounir; Hachem, Mayssa; Elgot, Abdeljalil; Lo Van, Amanda; Picq, Madeleine; Guichardant, Michel; Lagarde, Michel; Bernoud-Hubac, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    Among omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) is important for adequate brain development and cognition. DHA is highly concentrated in the brain and plays an essential role in brain functioning. DHA, one of the major constituents in fish fats, readily crosses the blood-brain barrier from blood to the brain. Its critical role was further supported by its reduced levels in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. This agrees with a potential role of DHA in memory, learning and cognitive processes. Since there is yet no cure for dementia such as AD, there is growing interest in the role of DHA-supplemented diet in the prevention of AD pathogenesis. Accordingly, animal, epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies indicated that DHA has neuroprotective effects in a number of neurodegenerative conditions including AD. The beneficial effects of this key omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may depend on the stage of disease progression, other dietary mediators and the apolipoprotein ApoE genotype. Herein, our review investigates, from animal and cell culture studies, the molecular mechanisms involved in the neuroprotective potential of DHA with emphasis on AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Microencapsulated foods as a functional delivery vehicle for omega-3 fatty acids: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Robert M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is well established that the ingestion of the omega-3 (N3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA positively benefit a variety of health indices. Despite these benefits the actual intake of fish derived N3 is relatively small in the United States. The primary aim of our study was to examine a technology capable of delivering omega-3 fatty acids in common foods via microencapsulation (MicroN3 in young, healthy, active participants who are at low risk for cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, we randomized 20 participants (25.4 ± 6.2 y; 73.4 ± 5.1 kg to receive the double blind delivery of a placebo-matched breakfast meal (~2093 kJ containing MicroN3 (450–550 mg EPA/DHA during a 2-week pilot trial. Overall, we observed no differences in overall dietary macronutrient intake other than the N3 delivery during our treatment regimen. Post-test ANOVA analysis showed a significant elevation in mean (SE plasma DHA (91.18 ± 9.3 vs. 125.58 ± 11.3 umol/L; P

  13. Occurrence of PCDD/F, PCB, PBDE, PFAS, and organotin compounds in fish meal, fish oil and fish feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, K; Hallikainen, A; Ruokojärvi, P; Airaksinen, R; Koponen, J; Rannikko, R; Kiviranta, H

    2011-10-01

    We analysed polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F, dioxins), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in 13 fish meal, five fish oil, and seven fish feed samples. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), organotin compounds (OTC), and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) were analysed in ten fish meal, two fish oil, and two fish feed samples. All measured TEQ concentrations of PCDD/F and PCB were below the maximum levels set by Directive 2002/32/EC. There was no correlation between concentrations of WHOPCDD/F-TEQ and indicator PCB in our samples. The most common congeners among PBDEs were BDE-47 and BDE-100. BDE-209 was present in five fish meals of the ten analysed. Tributyltin (TBT) was the predominant congener in all samples except in three fish meals, where monobutyltin (MBT) was the major congener. Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) was the predominant congener in six fish meals of the ten analysed. There was large variation in concentrations and congener distributions of the studied compounds between our samples. Our results underline a need to pay special attention to the origin and purity of feed raw material of marine origin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fish oil versus arachis oil food supplementation in relation to pregnancy duration in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1990-01-01

    Throughout pregnancy, Lewis rats were fed standard rat chow supplemented with 15% (w/w) of either MaxEPA fish oil (FO) or arachis oil (AO); a third group was fed standard rat chow only (St) (n = 15, 15, and 16 rats, respectively). Compared to AO-rats, FO-rats had substantially higher levels of n-3...

  15. New antioxidants and antioxidant systems for improvement of the stability of vegetable oils and fish oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most vegetable oils and fish oils contain polyunsaturated fatty acids ranging from 18 carbons with two to three double bonds, to 22 or 24 carbons, and up to six double bonds. Nutritional research over the years has indicated that individual fatty acids from the diet play a complex role in nutrition ...

  16. Replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils improves the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qingyuan; Mai, Kangsen; Shentu, Jikang; Ai, Qinghui; Zhong, Huiying; Jiang, Yujian; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Chunxiao; Guo, Sitong

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of the replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils on the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea). The basal diet (FO) was formulated to contain 66.5% fish meal and 6.4% menhaden fish oil; whereas the other 3 experimental diets were formulated by replacing the fish oil with 50% soybean oil (SO50), 100% soybean oil (SO100) and 100% palm oil (PO100), respectively. The 4 diets were randomly assigned to 4 floating sea cages (3.0 m × 3.0 m × 3.0 m), and each was stocked with 250 fish individuals with an initial average weight of 245.29 g ± 7.45 g. The fish were fed to apparent satiation twice a day at 5:00 and 17:00, respectively, for 12 weeks. Experimental analysis showed that the specific growth rate of fish fed SO50 or PO100 were significantly higher than that of fish fed FO or SO100 ( P0.05). Compared to FO diet, SO50, SO100 and PO100 diets led to substantial decreases in the liquid loss and water loss from fresh fillets (1 d, 4°C) ( Preplacement of fish oil with vegetable oils. These findings indicated that the growth performance and selected flesh quality properties (liquid holding capacity and TBARS value) of large yellow croaker were substantially improved by replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oils.

  17. Fish oil supplementation improves docosahexaenoic acid status of malnourished infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Oelen, EA; Seerat, E; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    Aim-To investigate whether the low docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status of malnourished, mostly breast fed, Pakistani children can be improved by fish oil (FO) supplementation. Methods-Ten malnourished children (aged 8-30 months) received 500 mg FO daily for nine weeks. The supplement contained 62.8

  18. The Infant Fish Oil Supplementation Study (IFOS): design and research protocol of a double-blind, randomised controlled n--3 LCPUFA intervention trial in term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, S J; D'Vaz, N; Dunstan, J; Mori, T A; Prescott, S L

    2011-09-01

    The Infant Fish Oil Supplementation Study is a double-blind randomised controlled trial investigating whether the incidence of allergic disease can be reduced and developmental outcomes enhanced through supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. Infants at high risk of developing allergic disease will be randomised to receive either fish oil or olive oil supplements until 6 months of age and followed up at six postnatal clinic visits to assess allergy outcomes and infant neurodevelopment. Study groups to consist of a treatment group allocated to receive 650 mg of fish oil daily (250-280 mg docosahexaenoic acid and at least 60 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and a placebo group (olive oil) from birth to 6 months of age. Allergy outcomes will be assessed by clinical history, clinical assessments and allergen skin prick tests at the 12, 30 and 60 month visits. Neurodevelopmental assessments to be conducted at 18 months, and language questionnaires at 12, 18 and 30 months. Samples will be collected from mothers antenatally, from infants at birth, and at clinic visits from 6 months onwards for immunological assessments. Fatty acid composition to be measured in erythrocytes and plasma (at birth and after the supplementation period) to assess the effect of the intervention on fatty acid status. Information on medical history, diet and other lifestyle factors at an antenatal clinic visit and postnatal clinic visits will also be collected. This study is designed to examine clinically relevant effects of a novel, non-invasive and potentially low cost approach to reduce the incidence of allergic disease and facilitate neurodevelopment during early childhood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enriched Chevon (Goat Meat Lowers Plasma Cholesterol Levels and Alters Gene Expressions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, control chevon (goat meat and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10 in each group for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P<0.05 in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression.

  20. Omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon (goat meat) lowers plasma cholesterol levels and alters gene expressions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Meng, Goh Yong; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza

    2014-01-01

    In this study, control chevon (goat meat) and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA) in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon) that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10 in each group) for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P < 0.05) in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression.

  1. Differential effects of krill oil and fish oil on the hepatic transcriptome in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena eBurri

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs, specifically the fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 ω-3 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 ω-3, is known to have beneficial health effects including improvements in glucose and lipid homeostasis and modulation of inflammation. To evaluate the efficacy of two different sources of ω-3 PUFAs, we performed gene expression profiling in the liver of mice fed diets supplemented with either fish oil or krill oil. We found that ω-3 PUFA supplements derived from a phospholipid krill fraction (krill oil downregulated the activity of pathways involved in hepatic glucose production as well as lipid and cholesterol synthesis. The data also suggested that krill oil-supplementation increases the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Surprisingly, an equimolar dose of EPA and DHA derived from fish oil modulated fewer pathways than a krill oil-supplemented diet and did not modulate key metabolic pathways regulated by krill oil, including glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Moreover, fish oil upregulated the cholesterol synthesis pathway, which was the opposite effect of krill supplementation. Neither diet elicited changes in plasma levels of lipids, glucose or insulin, probably because the mice used in this study were young and were fed a low fat diet. Further studies of krill oil supplementation using animal models of metabolic disorders and/or diets with a higher level of fat may be required to observe these effects.

  2. Insight into the contribution of isoprostanoids to the health effects of omega 3 PUFAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joumard-Cubizolles, Laurie; Lee, Jetty Chung-Yung; Vigor, Claire; Leung, Ho Hang; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Galano, Jean-Marie; Mazur, André; Durand, Thierry; Gladine, Cecile

    2017-11-01

    Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been reported to confer beneficial health effects notably in the field of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. The current knowledge suggests a significant portion of the effects of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are mediated by their oxygenated metabolites. This review attempts to cover the current literature about the contribution of specific omega 3 oxygenated metabolites, namely omega 3 isoprostanoids, which are produced through free-radical mediated oxidation. A special emphasis has been given to the most biologically relevant omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids namely the α-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. The review includes a comprehensive description of the biosynthetic pathways, a summary of studies related to the biological significance of omega 3 isoprostanoids as well as a critical description of analytical development in the field of omega 3 isoprostanoids profiling in biological samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutritional value of micro-encapsulated fish oils in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Annemette; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    1996-01-01

    The nutritional value of a micro-encapsulated fish oil product has been investigated. Three groups of 10 male Wistar rats each were fed dietscontaining 20% (w/w) of fat, and only the type and form of the fat added was different. In the test groups 5% (w/w) of fish oil either as such or in amicro......-encapsulated form was incorporated in the diets. The remaining fat was lard supplemented with corn oil to a dietary content of linoleic acid at10% (w/w). The control group received lard and corn oil only. A mixture similar to the dry matter in the micro-encapsulated product was alsoadded to the diets not containing...... this product. The uptake of marine (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from both types of fish oil supplementwas reflected in the fatty acid profiles of liver phosphatidyl cholines (PC), phosphatidyl ethanolamines (PE), triglycerides (TG) and cardiolipin (CL).A suppression of the elongation of linoleic...

  4. Sardine Fish Oil By Sentrifugation and Adsorbent for Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Haryati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sardine fish meal by-product contain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA and it can be made as emulsion. The purpose of this study were to determine the best fish oil emulsion by mixingthe oil phase (lecithin 3% and oil and water phase (carboxymethyl cellulose/CMC 2% and fruit juice and then stored until creaming, and the emulsion is analyzed their viscosity, pH, percent of stability and longseparation. Sardine oil is separated from the emulsion and tested oxidation parameters. The best emulsion was fish oil emulsion after refined without citric acid (RTS with viscosity (2470.31 cP, pH (5.64, percent of stability (56.14% and long separation (14 days. Primary and secondary oxidation parameters of RTS  were FFA (14.87%, PV (14.43 meq/kg, AV (32.57 meq KOH/g, AnV (17.3 meq/kg, and Totox (46.16 meq/kg.

  5. Effect of omega-3 supplementation on neuropathy in type 1 diabetes: A 12-month pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Evan J H; Perkins, Bruce A; Lovblom, Leif E; Bazinet, Richard P; Wolever, Thomas M S; Bril, Vera

    2017-06-13

    To test the hypothesis that 12 months of seal oil omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) supplementation will stop the known progression of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP) in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Individuals with T1DM and evidence of DSP as determined by a Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score ≥1 were recruited to participate in a single-arm, open-label trial of seal oil ω-3 PUFA supplementation (10 mL·d -1 ; 750 mg eicosapentaenoic acid, 560 mg docosapentaenoic acid, and 1,020 mg docosahexaenoic acid) for 1 year. The primary outcome was the 1-year change in corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL) measured by in vivo corneal confocal microscopy, with sensory and nerve conduction measures as secondary outcomes. Forty participants (53% female), aged 48 ± 14 years, body mass index 28.1 ± 5.8 with diabetes duration of 27 ± 18 years, were enrolled. At baseline, 23 participants had clinical DSP and 17 did not. Baseline CNFL was 8.3 ± 2.9 mm/mm 2 and increased 29% to 10.1 ± 3.7 mm/mm 2 ( p = 0.002) after 12 months of supplementation. There was no change in nerve conduction or sensory function. Twelve months of ω-3 supplementation was associated with increase in CNFL in T1DM. NCT02034266. This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with T1DM and evidence of DSP, 12 months of seal oil omega-3 supplementation increases CNFL. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  6. Fate in digestion in vitro of several food components, including some toxic compounds coming from omega-3 and omega-6 lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goicoechea, E.; Brandon, E.F.A.; Blokland, M.H.; Guillén, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this study it was proved the formation of oxygenated alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes (OaßUAs) of 6, 7, 9 and 10 carbon atoms during the thermal treatment (190 °C with aeration) of a commercial vegetable oil rich in omega-3 and omega-6 acyl groups, which also contained small amounts of added

  7. Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Omega-3 Fatty Acids for the Treatment of Dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;4:CD009002.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cordeiro Sousa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish and plant sources is commonly prescribed as a nonfarmacological alternative to improve brain functions and slow down the progression of dementia. This use is mostly based on findings of preclinical studies which established the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the development and integrity of the brain, as well as epidemiological research that found evidence of malnutrition in patients with dementia. This Cochrane systematic review included three randomized, placebo-controlled trials at low risk of bias, in which omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were administered to people with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease in the form of supplements. Of the main results of this systematic review we highlight the lack of convincing evidence for the efficacy of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation in the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease, as well as the low frequency of reported adverse events, with a comparable overall frequency between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the placebo groups. The effects on other populations with dementia remain unclear. This paper aims to summarize and discuss the main results and conclusions of this systematic review, as well as its implications for the daily clinical practice.

  8. Randomised controlled trial of effect of fish-oil supplementation on pregnancy duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Sorensen, J.D.; Secher, N.J.

    1992-01-01

    duration, birthweight, and birth length of a fish-oil supplement, a control olive-oil supplement, and no supplementation. 533 healthy Danish women in week 30 of pregnancy were randomly assigned in a ratio of 2/1/1 to fish oil (four 1 g Pikasol capsules [containing 2.7 g n-3 fatty acids] per day), olive oil...

  9. Chemometrics applied to the incorporation of omega-3 in tilapia fillet feed flaxseed flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Fernandes Nishiyama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of adding flaxseed flour to the diet of Nile tilapia on the fatty acid composition of fillets using chemometrics. A traditional and an experimental diet containing flaxseed flour were used to feed the fish for 60 days. An increase of 18:3 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 and a decrease of 18:2 n-6 were observed in the tilapia fillets fed the experimental diet. There was a reduction in the n-6:n-3 ratio. A period of 45 days of incorporation caused a significant change in tilapia chemical composition. Principal Component Analysis showed that the time periods of 45 and 60 days positively contributed to the total content of n-3, LNA, and DHA, highlighting the effect of omega-3 incorporation in the treatment containing flaxseed flour.

  10. Preliminary use of cashew kernel oil in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings diet: comparison with fish oil and palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane Paul Magouana Anvo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study was performed to investigate the effect of fish oil (FO, palm oil (PO, and cashew kernel oil (CKO as the dietary lipid sources on the growth performance, tissues fatty acids composition and economical profitability in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Three isonitrogenous (49.32%, isolipidic (15.18%, and isoenergetic (21 kJ/g diets were formulated, differed only to the added lipid source and coded accordingly as D1 (fish oil, D2 (palm oil, and D3 (cashew kernel oil. Catfish fingerlings (initial body weight = 2.43 ± 0.04 g were stocked at 1 fish/L and fed to trial diets at 5.6%. At the end of 8 weeks, C. gariepinus fingerlings fed with D1 and D3 had significantly identical growth and feed utilization efficiency. Those fed with D2 exhibited significantly and numerically low growth performance compared, respectively, to D1 and D3. Contrary to whole-body composition of fish, the muscle lipids fatty acids composition was influenced by the fatty acids profile of the dietary lipid sources. High net profit value (NPV of 24.59$, high investment cost analysis (ICA of 10.14$ and low benefit: cost ratio (BCR of 2.42 were observed in fish fed with D1 while those fed with D3 allowed to have high NPV (23.15$, low ICA (7.86$ and high BCR (2.95. Like others vegetable oils, cashew kernel oil can replace expensive fish oil in C. gariepinus fingerlings diet without negatively affecting its growth performances.

  11. Omega-3 fatty acid levels and general performance of commercial broilers fed practical levels of redfish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulan, H W; Ackman, R G; Ratnayake, W M; Proudfoot, F G

    1989-01-01

    A total of 1,200 day-old Arbor Acre broiler chickens was randomly assigned to 12 pens (50 males and 50 females/pen) and divided into three blocks of four pens each. Each of four different diets was fed ad libitum to one pen of birds within each block to determine the effect of feeding practical levels of redfish meal (RFM) on performance and omega-3 fatty acid content of edible meat and skin lipids of broiler chickens. The four diets included (control) 0%, 4.0%, 8.0%, and 12.0% RFM. Feeding diets containing RFM had no effect on overall mortality or feed efficiency but resulted in decreased incidence of sudden death syndrome and lower body weight (P less than .01) and feed consumption (P less than .05). Additions of RFM to the diets resulted in a substantial dietary enrichment of omega-3 fatty acids (especially eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA or 20:5n-3, and docosahexaenoic acid, DHA or 22:6n-3). Analyses (wt/wt%) revealed that breast meat (less skin) was lower (P less than .001) in lipid and triglyceride but higher in free cholesterol (P less than .001) and phospholipid (P less than .001) than thigh meat (less skin). Dietary treatment had no effect on carcass lipid content or composition. Breast meat lipid contained more (P less than .001) omega-3 fatty acids (especially EPA and DHA), more docosapentaenoic acid, (DPA or 22:5n-3) and more total omega-3 polyunsaturated acids (n-3 PUFA) than thigh meat lipids. Feeding additional RFM resulted in an increased (P less than .001) accumulation of EPA, DPA, DHA, and total n-3 PUFA primarily at the expense of two omega-6 fatty acids, linoleic (18:2n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). It can be calculated from the data presented that the consumption of 100 g of chicken that has been fed 12.0% RFM would contribute approximately 197 mg of omega-3 fatty acids (EPA + DPA + DHA) in contrast with the 138 mg of omega-3 fatty acids which would be realized from the consumption of 100 g of white fish such as cod.

  12. Effect of fish and oil nature on frying process and nutritional product quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ansorena, D. (Diana); Guembe, A. (Ainhoa); Mendizabal, T. (Tatiana); Astiasarán, I. (Iciar)

    2010-01-01

    The modifications on a lean fish (cod-Gadus morhua) and a fatty fish (farmed salmon-Salmo salar) after the application of pan-frying using 2 types of oil with different lipid profile (extra virgin olive oil and sunflower oil) was the aim of this study. Fat content and total energetic value increased significantly after the frying process only in the lean fish, without relevant changes in the fatty fish. Extra virgin olive oil led to a higher fat absorption rate than sunflower oil in both fish...

  13. Perinatal supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improves sevoflurane-induced neurodegeneration and memory impairment in neonatal rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Lei

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate if perinatal Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs supplementation can improve sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment in neonatal rats. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 each group were treated with or without an n-3 PUFAs (fish oil enriched diet from the second day of pregnancy to 14 days after parturition. The offspring rats (P7 were treated with six hours sevoflurane administration (one group without sevoflurane/prenatal n-3 PUFAs supplement as control. The 5-bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu was injected intraperitoneally during and after sevoflurane anesthesia to assess dentate gyrus (DG progenitor proliferation. Brain tissues were harvested and subjected to Western blot and immunohistochemistry respectively. Morris water maze spatial reference memory, fear conditioning, and Morris water maze memory consolidation were tested at P35, P63 and P70 (n = 9, respectively. RESULTS: Six hours 3% sevoflurane administration increased the cleaved caspase-3 in the thalamus, parietal cortex but not hippocampus of neonatal rat brain. Sevoflurane anesthesia also decreased the neuronal precursor proliferation of DG in rat hippocampus. However, perinatal n-3 PUFAs supplement could decrease the cleaved caspase-3 in the cerebral cortex of neonatal rats, and mitigate the decrease in neuronal proliferation in their hippocampus. In neurobehavioral studies, compared with control and n-3 PUFAs supplement groups, we did not find significant spatial cognitive deficit and early long-term memory impairment in sevoflurane anesthetized neonatal rats at their adulthood. However, sevoflurane could impair the immediate fear response and working memory and short-term memory. And n-3 PUFAs could improve neurocognitive function in later life after neonatal sevoflurane exposure. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that neonatal exposure to prolonged sevoflurane could impair the immediate fear response, working

  14. Novel Omega-3 Fatty Acid Epoxygenase Metabolite Reduces Kidney Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit; Khan, Md. Abdul Hye; Levick, Scott P.; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Hammock, Bruce D.; Imig, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases epoxidize the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid into novel epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs) that have multiple biological actions. The present study determined the ability of the most abundant EDP regioisomer, 19,20-EDP to reduce kidney injury in an experimental unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) renal fibrosis mouse model. Mice with UUO developed kidney tubular injury and interstitial fibrosis. UUO mice had elevated kidney hydroxyproline content and five-times greater collagen positive fibrotic area than sham control mice. 19,20-EDP treatment to UUO mice for 10 days reduced renal fibrosis with a 40%–50% reduction in collagen positive area and hydroxyproline content. There was a six-fold increase in kidney α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) positive area in UUO mice compared to sham control mice, and 19,20-EDP treatment to UUO mice decreased α-SMA immunopositive area by 60%. UUO mice demonstrated renal epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) with reduced expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and elevated expression of multiple mesenchymal markers (FSP-1, α-SMA, and desmin). Interestingly, 19,20-EDP treatment reduced renal EMT in UUO by decreasing mesenchymal and increasing epithelial marker expression. Overall, we demonstrate that a novel omega-3 fatty acid metabolite 19,20-EDP, prevents UUO-induced renal fibrosis in mice by reducing renal EMT. PMID:27213332

  15. Omega-3 fatty acids and schizophrenia: evidences and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, G; Traversi, G; Nannarelli, C; Mazza, S; Mazza, M

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a brain disease that represents a not rare condition, in fact the lifetime risk of developing schizophrenia is widely accepted to be around 1 in 100. Schizophrenia clinically manifests with acute episodes which are associated with hallucinations, delirium, behavioral disorders and a variable range of chronic persistent symptoms, which can be debilitating. The causes of schizophrenia are not clearly understood. It seems that genetic factors may produce a vulnerability to schizophrenia, along with environmental factors that contribute in a different way from individual to individual. In this context schizophrenia constitutes the outcome of a complex interaction between multiple genes and environmental risk factors, none of which on its own causes the disorder itself. Antipsychotic medications represent the first line of psychiatric treatment for schizophrenia. But there is a growing body of evidence that omega-3 fatty acids can prevent the disease or at least mitigate the course and symptoms. Probably, an appropriate dietary supplementation can play a partially therapeutic effect, even in more severe patients, improving some behavioral aspects and, mainly, reducing the cognitive deterioration. In this context the role of omega-3 fatty acids as a treatment for schizophrenia will strengthen the thrust of researchers and clinicians to the integrated approach to the prevention and cure of a disease that for more than a century challenging researchers.

  16. Heterologous Reconstitution of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hee Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstitution of nonnative, very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLC-PUFA biosynthetic pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana was undertaken. The introduction of three primary biosynthetic activities to cells requires the stable coexpression of multiple proteins within the same cell. Herein, we report that C22 VLC-PUFAs were synthesized from C18 precursors by reactions catalyzed by Δ6-desaturase, an ELOVL5-like enzyme involved in VLC-PUFA elongation, and Δ5-desaturase. Coexpression of the corresponding genes (McD6DES, AsELOVL5, and PtD5DES under the control of the seed-specific vicilin promoter resulted in production of docosapentaenoic acid (22:5 n-3 and docosatetraenoic acid (22:4 n-6 as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3 and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6 in Arabidopsis seeds. The contributions of the transgenic enzymes and endogenous fatty acid metabolism were determined. Specifically, the reasonable synthesis of omega-3 stearidonic acid (18:4 n-3 could be a useful tool to obtain a sustainable system for the production of omega-3 fatty acids in seeds of a transgenic T3 line 63-1. The results indicated that coexpression of the three proteins was stable. Therefore, this study suggests that metabolic engineering of oilseed crops to produce VLC-PUFAs is feasible.

  17. Contrasting effects of fish oil and safflower oil on hepatic peroxisomal and tissue lipid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neschen, Susanne; Moore, Irene; Regittnig, Werner; Yu, Chun Li; Wang, Yanlin; Pypaert, Marc; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Shulman, Gerald I

    2002-02-01

    To examine the mechanism by which fish oil protects against fat-induced insulin resistance, we studied the effects of control, fish oil, and safflower oil diets on peroxisomal content, fatty acyl-CoA, diacylglycerol, and ceramide content in rat liver and muscle. We found that, in contrast to control and safflower oil-fed rats, fish oil feeding induced a 150% increase in the abundance of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase in liver but lacked similar effects in muscle. This was paralleled by an almost twofold increase in hepatic peroxisome content (both P < 0.002 vs. control and safflower). These changes in the fish oil-fed rats were associated with a more than twofold lower hepatic triglyceride/diacylglycerol, as well as intramuscular triglyceride/fatty acyl-CoA, content. In conclusion, these data strongly support the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acids protect against fat-induced insulin resistance by serving as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha ligands and thereby induce hepatic, but not intramuscular, peroxisome proliferation. In turn, an increased hepatic beta-oxidative capacity results in lower hepatic triglyceride/diacylglycerol and intramyocellular triglyceride/fatty acyl-CoA content.

  18. Glicerólise de óleo de peixe catalisada por lipase comercial de Rhizomucor miehei em meio com surfactante de grau alimentício Glycerolysis of fish oil catalyzed by a commercial lipase from Rhizomucor miehei in reaction media containing food grade surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Silva Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 enriched partial acylglycerols are beneficial for human health. The aim of this study was to obtain monoacylglycerols (MAG and diacylglycerols (DAG by means of glycerolysis of fish oil catalyzed by a lipase from Rhizomucor miehei in the presence of food grade surfactants (Tween 65, 80 or 85. Glycerolysis was successful in the reaction media for all the tested surfactants, showing their potential for use as additives in such a system. The best results, however, were obtained for the reaction medium in the absence of surfactant whose peroxide value was the lowest after glycerolysis.

  19. Assessment of essential fatty acid and omega 3-fatty acid status by measurement of erythrocyte 20 : 3 omega 9 (Mead acid), 22 : 5 omega 6/20 : 4 omega 6 and 22 : 5 omega 6/22 : 6 omega 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Martini, IA; Woltil, HA; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2002-01-01

    Background. Early suspicion of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) or omega3-deficiency may rather focus on polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or long-chain PUFA (LCP) analyses than clinical symptoms. We determined cut-off values for biochemical EFAD, omega3-and omega3/22:6omega3 [docosahexaenoic

  20. Assessment of essential fatty acid and omega 3-fatty acid status by measurement of erythrocyte 20 : 3 omega 9 (Mead acid), 22 : 5 omega 6/20 : 4 omega 6 and 22 : 5 omega 6/22 : 6 omega 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Martini, IA; Woltil, HA; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    Background. Early suspicion of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) or omega3-deficiency may rather focus on polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or long-chain PUFA (LCP) analyses than clinical symptoms. We determined cut-off values for biochemical EFAD, omega3-and omega3/22:6omega3 [docosahexaenoic

  1. Comparative Effect of Dietary Soybean Oil, Fish Oil, and Coconut Oil on Performance, Egg Quality and Some Blood Parameters in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X F; Liu, S; Tong, J M

    2018-04-14

    Two hundred and sixteen 28-wk-old Hy-line laying hens were randomly distributed to three dietary treatments and fed 1of 3 diets containing 8% soybean oil, fish oil, or coconut oil from 28 to 47 wk of age to investigate comparative effect of dietary soybean oil, fish oil, and coconut oil on the performance, egg quality and blood malondialdehyde (MDA), aspartate transaminase (AST) and uric acid (UA). Hens fed fish oil showed poor performance compared with soybean oil or coconut oil, and especially egg weight throughout the trial was significantly and consistently decreased (P oil. Unexpectedly, shell reflectivity throughout the majority of the trial was consistently and significantly higher (P oil than that when fed soybean oil or coconut oil. Dietary treatments affected (P oil treatment was higher (P oil group. Albumen height, Haugh unit and yolk color were influenced by dietary treatments only at 1 or 2 time points. However, average albumen height and Haugh unit in fish oil treatment were higher (P soybean oil or coconut oil treatments and average yolk color in coconut oil treatment was higher (P soybean oil group. Serum MDA, AST and UA concentrations were increased (P oil during the majority of the first 2 mo of the trial. These data suggested that the inclusion of fish oil into feed may reduce the performance of laying hens, especially the egg weight, decrease the intensity of egg brown color and increase blood MDA, AST and UA levels compared with soybean oil or coconut oil. As a result, hens fed fish oil may lay smaller, longer and lighter-brown eggs whereas those fed coconut oil produce blunter and darker-brown eggs relative to soybean oil.

  2. Positional Distribution of Fatty Acids in Triacylglycerols and Phospholipids from Fillets of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Fed Vegetable and Fish Oil Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Stubhaug, Ingunn; Ipharraguerre, Ignacio; Rimbach, Gerald; Menoyo, David

    2015-07-10

    The nutritional and functional characteristics of dietary fat are related to the fatty acid (FA) composition and its positional distribution in the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction. Atlantic salmon is an important source of healthy long chain omega 3 FA (particularly, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docoxahexaenoic (DHA) acids). However, the impact of lipid sources in salmon feeds on the regiospecificity of FA in the fish TAG remains to be explored. The present study determines the effect of feeding salmon with blends of palm, rapeseed, and fish oil, providing two different EPA + DHA concentrations (high: H-ED 10.3% and low: L-ED 4.6%) on the fillet lipid class composition and the positional distribution of FA in TAG and phospholipids. The regiospecific analysis of fillet TAG showed that around 50% of the EPA and around 80% of DHA was located in the sn-2 position. The positional distribution of FA in phosphatidylcholine (PC), showed that around 80% of the EPA and around 90% of DHA were located in the sn-2. Fish fed the vegetable-rich diets showed higher EPA in the sn-2 position in PC (77% vs. 83% in the H-ED and L-ED diets, respectively) but similar DHA concentrations. It is concluded that feeding salmon with different EPA + DHA concentrations does not affect their positional distribution in the fillet TAG.

  3. Positional Distribution of Fatty Acids in Triacylglycerols and Phospholipids from Fillets of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar Fed Vegetable and Fish Oil Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Ruiz-Lopez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional and functional characteristics of dietary fat are related to the fatty acid (FA composition and its positional distribution in the triacylglycerol (TAG fraction. Atlantic salmon is an important source of healthy long chain omega 3 FA (particularly, eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docoxahexaenoic (DHA acids. However, the impact of lipid sources in salmon feeds on the regiospecificity of FA in the fish TAG remains to be explored. The present study determines the effect of feeding salmon with blends of palm, rapeseed, and fish oil, providing two different EPA + DHA concentrations (high: H-ED 10.3% and low: L-ED 4.6% on the fillet lipid class composition and the positional distribution of FA in TAG and phospholipids. The regiospecific analysis of fillet TAG showed that around 50% of the EPA and around 80% of DHA was located in the sn-2 position. The positional distribution of FA in phosphatidylcholine (PC, showed that around 80% of the EPA and around 90% of DHA were located in the sn-2. Fish fed the vegetable-rich diets showed higher EPA in the sn-2 position in PC (77% vs. 83% in the H-ED and L-ED diets, respectively but similar DHA concentrations. It is concluded that feeding salmon with different EPA + DHA concentrations does not affect their positional distribution in the fillet TAG.

  4. Microencapsulation of fish oil using supercritical antisolvent process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahim Tamzeedul Karim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the encapsulation process, a newly supercritical antisolvent process was developed to encapsulate fish oil using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose as a polymer. Three factors, namely, temperature, pressure, and feed emulsion rate were optimized using response surface methodology. The suitability of the model for predicting the optimum response value was evaluated at the conditions of temperature at 60°C, pressure at 150 bar, and feed rate at 1.36 mL/min. At the optimum conditions, particle size of 58.35 μm was obtained. The surface morphology of the micronized fish oil was also evaluated using field emission scanning electron microscopy where it showed that particles formed spherical structures with no internal voids. Moreover, in vitro release of oil showed that there are significant differences of release percentage of oil between the formulations and the results proved that there was a significant decrease in the in vitro release of oil from the powder when the polymer concentration was high.

  5. Microencapsulation of fish oil using supercritical antisolvent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Fahim Tamzeedul; Ghafoor, Kashif; Ferdosh, Sahena; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad; Ali, Eaqub; Yunus, Kamaruzzaman Bin; Hamed, Mir Hoseini; Islam, Ashraful; Asif, Mohammad; Sarker, Mohammed Zaidul Islam

    2017-07-01

    In order to improve the encapsulation process, a newly supercritical antisolvent process was developed to encapsulate fish oil using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose as a polymer. Three factors, namely, temperature, pressure, and feed emulsion rate were optimized using response surface methodology. The suitability of the model for predicting the optimum response value was evaluated at the conditions of temperature at 60°C, pressure at 150 bar, and feed rate at 1.36 mL/min. At the optimum conditions, particle size of 58.35 μm was obtained. The surface morphology of the micronized fish oil was also evaluated using field emission scanning electron microscopy where it showed that particles formed spherical structures with no internal voids. Moreover, in vitro release of oil showed that there are significant differences of release percentage of oil between the formulations and the results proved that there was a significant decrease in the in vitro release of oil from the powder when the polymer concentration was high. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Contrasting effect of fish oil supplementation on the development of atherosclerosis in murine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zampolli, Antonella; Bysted, Anette; Leth, Torben

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Increased fish oil intake is associated with protection against coronary heart disease and sudden death, while effects on atherosclerosis are controversial. We explored the effects of supplementing fish oil (rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, PUFA) or corn oil (rich in n-6 PUFA......) in two different models of atherosclerosis. Methods and Results: Sixty-three low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice and sixty-nine apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice were fed diets without supplementations or supplemented with either 1% fish oil or 1% corn oil. In apo......E(-/-) mice, neither fish oil nor corn oil had any major impact on plasma lipids or atherosclerosis. In LDLR-/- mice, conversely, the fish oil and the corn oil group had lower levels of LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides and had lesser atherosclerosis in the aortic root and in the entire aorta (P

  7. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astorg Pierre

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis of a role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in the pathophysiology of depression has emerged from the observation that depressed patients had decreased levels of n-3 long-chain PUFA (especially eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid, DHA in plasma, erythrocytes, or adipose tissue, as compared to healthy controls, a decrease which was not observed with n-6 PUFA. Suicide attempters have much lower levels of EPA and DHA in red blood cells than hospital controls. Recently, a decreased level of DHA has also been observed in the post-mortem brain cortex of patients with major depression. The fact that these changes were specific of the n-3 family suggests that a low n-3 PUFA status or intake predisposes to depression. International ecological studies show a strong negative correlation between apparent fish consumption and the prevalence of depression or of bipolar disorder, as well as between DHA content of maternal milk and the prevalence of postpartum depression. In cross-sectional studies in several countries, a higher risk of depression or of depressive symptoms has been found in subjects with a lower fish consumption. In a French cohort of adults, habitual fatty fish consumption or a higher n-3 PUFA intake were associated with a lower risk of depression, especially of recurrent depression. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials have been conducted to test the effects of long-chain n-3 PUFA in depressive or bipolar patients. EPA as an adjunct to a standard treatment appears to improve depressive patients or bipolar patients in depressive phase when given at the dose of 1-2 g/day, and fish oil prevents depressive recurrences in bipolar patients. Recently, a mixture of EPA plus DHA has proven efficiency in untreated depressive children. In summary, many epidemiological and clinical works in the last ten years have abundantly documented the existence of an association between a low n-3 PUFA intake or status and a

  8. Fish oil in various doses or flax oil in pregnancy and timing of spontaneous delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, V.K.; Hansen, Harald S.; Østerdal, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    treatment. Setting: The Danish National Birth Cohort. Sample: A total of 3098 women allocated into six treatment groups and one control group. Methods: The six intervention groups were offered fish oil capsules in doses of 0.1, 0.3, 0.7, 1.4 and 2.8 g of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid per......Objectives: To test the earlier suggested hypothesis that intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids from fish oil may delay the timing of spontaneous delivery and to test if alpha-linolenic acid, provided as flax oil capsules, shows the same effect. Design: Randomised controlled trial including women...... reporting low dietary fish intake. The women were allocated in the proportions of 1:1:1:1:1:1:2 into six treatment groups and a control group, respectively, from week 17-27 of gestation. The treatment groups received fish oil, in various doses, or flax oil, and the control group did not receive any...

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acid and Nutrient Deficits in Adverse Neurodevelopment and Childhood Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbeln, Joseph. R.; Gow, Rachel V.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Nutritional insufficiencies of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) may have adverse effects on brain development and neurodevelopmental outcomes. A recent meta-analysis of ten randomized controlled trials of omega-3 HUFAs reported a small to modest effect size for the efficacy of omega-3 for treating symptoms of ADHD in youth. Several controlled trials of omega-3 HUFAs combined with micronutrients (vitamins, minerals) show sizeable reductions in aggressive, antisocial, and violent behavior in youth and in young adult prisoners. Meta-analyses report efficacy for depressive symptoms in adults, and preliminary findings suggest anti-suicidal properties in adults, but studies in youth are insufficient to draw any conclusions regarding mood. Dietary adjustments to increase omega-3 and reduce omega-6 HUFA consumption are sensible recommendations for youth and adults based on general health considerations, while the evidence base for omega-3 HUFAs as potential psychiatric treatments develops. PMID:24975625

  10. Bioavailability of Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Added to a Variety of Sausages in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Anton; Heinrich, Johanna; von Schacky, Clemens

    2017-06-19

    A low Omega-3 Index (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in erythrocytes) is associated with cardiac, cerebral, and other health issues. Intake of EPA and DHA, but not of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), increases the Omega-3 Index. We investigated bioavailability, safety, palatability and tolerability of EPA and DHA in a novel source: a variety of sausages. We screened 96 healthy volunteers, and recruited 44 with an Omega-3 Index Omega-3 Index increased from 4.18 ± 0.54 to 5.72 ± 0.66% ( p Omega-3 Index per intake of EPA and DHA we observed was higher than for other sources previously studied, indicating superior bioavailability. As increasing production of EPA and DHA is difficult, improvements of bioavailability can facilitate reaching the target range for the Omega-3 Index (8-11%).

  11. The Effectiveness Test of Oil Phase Ointment Containing Snakehead Fish (Channa striata Extract on Open Stage II Acute Wounded Wistar Strain Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransisca Daisa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The snakehead (Channa striata contained fatty acids omega-3 and omega-6 are useful as nutrients in accelerating the wound healing process. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the oil phase extract ointment snakehead in the healing of acute wounds open stage II. Testing the effectiveness of wound healing using 6 groups: normal, gel bioplacenton (positive control, ointment base (negative control, ointments snakehead extract oil phase concentration of 10; 20 and 40% of the 4 rats with acute wounds open stage II and observation until day 16 injury. The area of the wound was measured with the image J program Macbiophotonic, calculated% healing power, and AUC values. A statistical test to the total AUC values per rat with SPSS for Windows 22.0 program using One Way ANOVA and Post-hoc LSD test. The results showed a significant difference in the negative group with ointment concentration of 20% (p <0.05. The treatment group phase ointment fish oil extract is effective for wound healing is best to have a concentration of 20% for percentage of wound healing power of 97.157% and the average AUC value of 865.683% of the day.

  12. Dose response of fish oil versus safflower oil on graft arteriosclerosis in rabbit heterotopic cardiac allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, K L; Fann, J I; Sokoloff, M H; Fong, L G; Sarris, G E; Billingham, M E; Miller, D C

    1991-01-01

    With the advent of cyclosporin A, accelerated coronary arteriosclerosis has become the major impediment to the long-term survival of heart transplant recipients. Due to epidemiologic reports suggesting a salutary effect of fish oil, the dose response of fish oil on graft coronary arteriosclerosis in a rabbit heterotopic cardiac allograft model was assessed using safflower oil as a caloric control. Seven groups of New Zealand White rabbits (n = 10/group) received heterotropic heart transplants from Dutch-Belted donors and were immunosuppressed with low-dose cyclosporin A (7.5 mg/kg/day). Group 1 animals were fed a normal diet and served as control. Group 2, 3, and 4 animals received a daily supplement of low- (0.25 mL/kg/day), medium- (0.75 mL/kg/day), and high- (1.5 mL/kg/day) dose fish oil (116 mg n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid/mL), respectively. Group 5, 6, and 7 animals were supplemented with equivalent dose of safflower oil (i.e., 0.25, 0.75, and 1.5 mL/kg/day). Oil-supplemented rabbits were pretreated for 3 weeks before transplantation and maintained on the same diet for 6 weeks after operation. The extent of graft coronary arteriosclerosis was quantified using computer-assisted, morphometric planimetry. When the animals were killed, cyclosporin A was associated with elevated plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the control group. While safflower oil prevented the increase in plasma lipids at all dosages, fish oil ameliorated the cyclosporin-induced increase in total cholesterol only with high doses. Compared to control animals, there was a trend for more graft vessel disease with increasing fish oil dose, as assessed by mean luminal occlusion and intimal thickness. A steeper trend was observed for increasing doses of safflower oil; compared to the high-dose safflower oil group, animals supplemented with low-dose safflower oil had less mean luminal occlusion (16.3% +/- 5.9% versus 41.4% +/- 7.6%, p less than 0.017) and intimal thickness (7

  13. OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS AND AGE-RELATED DISEASES: REALITIES AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Drapkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiology is so high that in many countries omega-3 fatty acids are included into the treatment protocols for patients with cardiovascular diseases. This therapeutic class slows down oxidative stress and chronic inflammation processes, thereby providing a significant contribution to the complex treatment of hypertension. Besides, omega-3 fatty acids slow down the aging process and prevent the development of age-related diseases affecting the rate of telomere shortening.

  14. Mackerel biodiesel production from the wastewater containing fish oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.P.; Huang, H.M.; Lin, Y.F.; Huang, W.D.; Huang, Y.J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine fish such as mackerel are important for coastal fisheries in Taiwan. Nearly 60,000 tons of mackerel are produced in Suao, I-lan, Taiwan every year. In this study, oil from the discarded parts of mackerel fish contained in wastewater stream were used as the raw material to produce biodiesel through transesterification reaction. The major fuel properties of MB (mackerel biodiesel), including the iodine value, dynamic viscosity, flash point, and heat value, were determined and compared with sunflower seed oil methyl ester (SFM), JCB (Jatropha curcas biodiesel), and premium diesel (D). MB had a higher iodine value, dynamic viscosity, density, and flash point, but a lower heat value, than did D. MB was also used as fuel in a regular diesel engine to verify its emission characteristics. The MB fuel used for exhaust emission test included pure MB (MB100) and a 20% MB blend with premium diesel (MB20). The exhaust emission of MB was also compared with the exhaust emissions of D and JCB. The results showed that MB20 provided a significant reduction in NO, NO x , and SO 2 emissions under varied engine loads, and required no engine modification. - Highlights: • Biodiesel was produced from wastewater containing mackerel fish oil. • Mackerel biodiesel is compared with Jatropha biodiesel and sunflower seed biodiesel. • MBE (mackerel biodiesel) was found to contain higher amount of unsaturated fatty acids. • Mackerel biodiesel, diesel, and Jatropha biodiesel emissions are compared

  15. Effect of dietary fish oil and corn oil on blood biochemical factors in diabetic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shariati

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The potential role of omega – 3 (ω-3 and omega-6 (ω-6 fatty acids on blood biochemical factors are in interest and controversy. Some experiences showed that omega – 3 (ω-3 and omega-6 (ω-6 fatty acids have a potential effect on triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol levels in diabetes mellitus. Methods: Male rats were divided into four groups (one normal group and three diabetic groups. Induction of diabetes was done by streptozotocin [50mg/kg, s.c. (STZ]. In diabetic groups, one group was Control, received STZ alone, and the other diabetic groups were fed with fish oil or corn oil for 8 weeks after 4 weeks of induction of diabetes. Plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL- choleserol and HDL-cholesterol were measured at 4 and 8 weeks after intervention. Results: Fish oil and corn oil diets had an inhibitory effect on increased plasma glucose in diabetic rat by 46.8% and 40.7%, respectively. Diabetic rats in the control group demonstrated increased plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels, but plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly decreased and HDL-cholesterol level was increased by both diets in interventional groups. Conclusion: Corn oil and fish oil supplementation have a role on plasma glucose and lipid profile in diabetic rats. To understand the functional mechanisms of these diets, further studies remain to be accomplished.

  16. Effects of an omega-3 fatty acid-enriched lipid emulsion on eicosanoid synthesis in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chacon Pilar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of lipid emulsions has been associated with changes in lung function and gas exchange which may be mediated by biologically active metabolites derived from arachidonic acid. The type and quantity of the lipid emulsions used could modulate this response, which is mediated by the eicosanoids. This study investigates the use of omega-3 fatty acid-enriched lipid emulsions in ARDS patients and their effects on eicosanoid values. Methods Prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study carried out at the Intensive Medicine Department of Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona-Spain. We studied 16 consecutive patients with ARDS and intolerance to enteral nutrition (14 men; age: 58 ± 13 years; APACHE II score 17.8 ± 2.3; Lung Injury Score: 3.1 ± 0.5; baseline PaO2/FiO2 ratio: 149 ± 40. Patients were randomized into two groups: Group A (n = 8 received the study emulsion Lipoplus® 20%, B. Braun Medical (50% MCT, 40% LCT, 10% fish oil (FO; Group B (n = 8 received the control emulsion Intralipid® Fresenius Kabi (100% LCT. Lipid emulsions were administered for 12 h at a dose of 0.12 g/kg/h. We measured LTB4, TXB2, and 6-keto prostaglandin F1α values at baseline [immediately before the administration of the lipid emulsions (T-0], at the end of the administration (T-12 and 24 hours after the beginning of the infusion (T 24 in arterial and mixed venous blood samples. Results In group A (FO LTB4, TXB2, 6-keto prostaglandin F1α levels fell during omega-3 administration (T12. After discontinuation (T24, levels of inflammatory markers (both systemic and pulmonary behaved erratically. In group B (LCT all systemic and pulmonary mediators increased during lipid administration and returned to baseline levels after discontinuation, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. There was a clear interaction between the treatment in group A (fish oil and changes in LTB4 over time. Conclusions Infusion of

  17. Differences in fatty acid composition between cerebral brain lobes in juvenile pigs after fish oil feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullemeijer, Carla; Zock, Peter L.; Coronel, Ruben; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Katan, Martijn B.; Brummer, Robert-Jan M.; Kok, Frans J.; Beekman, Jet; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.

    2008-01-01

    Very long-chain n-3 PUFA from fish are suggested to play a role in the development of the brain. Fish oil feeding results in higher proportions of n-3 PUFA in the brains of newborn piglets. However, the effect of fish oil on the fatty acid composition of specific cerebral brain lobes in juvenile

  18. Short-term consumption of oral omega-3 and dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangari, Haleh; Eftekhari, Mohammad Hossein; Sardari, Sara; Hashemi, Hassan; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Ghassemi-Broumand, Mohammad; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2013-11-01

    To assess the effect of oral omega-3 fatty acids on tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer's score, and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) through a double-blind clinical trial. Randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Sixty-four patients with dry eye symptoms between the ages of 45 and 90 years were randomized into 2 groups: 33 persons in the treatment group and 31 persons in the placebo group. The treatment group received 2 capsules of omega-3 (each containing 180 mg eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and 120 mg docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) daily for 30 days, and the placebo group received 2 medium-chain triglyceride oil capsules daily for 1 month. The outcomes were measured 1 month after the intervention. The primary outcome measure was an increase from baseline in TBUT at day 30. Secondary outcome measures were a decrease from baseline in the OSDI score and an increase in the Schirmer's score at day 30. In the placebo group, before the intervention, the mean TBUT, OSDI, and Schirmer's scores were 4.5 ± 2.1 seconds, 36.4 ± 13.8, and 6.0 ± 2.6 mm, respectively, and 1 month later were 4.7 ± 2.6 seconds, 37.6 ± 13.5, and 6.2 ± 2.5 mm, respectively. In the treatment group, these values were 3.9 ± 1.7 seconds, 38.7 ± 16.5, and 5.8 ± 2.5 mm before the intervention and 5.67 ± 2.6 seconds, 29.3 ± 15.9, and 6.8 ± 2.8 mm after the intervention, respectively. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that improvements in TBUT, OSDI, and Schirmer's scores were significantly better in the treatment group than in the placebo group. The changes in the treatment and placebo groups were 71% and 3.3% for TBUT (P dry eye symptoms, and 22.3% and 5.1% for Schirmer's score (P=0.033), respectively. This study demonstrated that oral consumption of omega-3 fatty acids (180 mg EPA and 120 mg DHA twice daily for 30 days) is associated with a decrease in the rate of tear evaporation, an improvement in dry eye symptoms, and an increase in tear secretion. Copyright © 2013 American

  19. HUBUNGAN ASUPAN DAN KADAR OMEGA-3 PLASMA DENGAN KEJADIAN HIPERTENSI PADA ETNIK MINANGKABAU DI KOTA PADANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmi Sulastri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHipertensi merupakan masalah kesehatan utama di Indonesia maupun di dunia Hampir 95% kasus hipertensi tidak diketahui penyebabnya atau disebut hipertensi esensial (HET. Pola konsumsi yang baik dan seimbang merupakan salah satu upaya pengendalikan tekanan darah. Omega-3 adalah salah satu zat gizi yang dapat menurunkan tekanan darah. Omega-3, terbukti berperan dalam mencegah beberapa penyakit kronis termasuk hipertensi.Telah dilakukan penelitian dengan desain cross sectional study untuk melihat hubungan omega-3 plasma dengan kejadian hipertensi. Penelitian dilakukan pada 130 orang yang terdiridari subjek hipertensi dan normotensi. Pengambilan sampel dengan cara sistematik random sampling dengan memperhatikan kriteria inklusi dan ekslusi. Asupan omega-3 dihitung menggunakan FFQ dan kadar omega-3 plasma diukur dengan teknik methylasi.Hasil penelitian ini adalah asupan omega-3 adalah 0,66±0,61 gram/hari, EPA 0,29 ± 0,23 gram/hari, DHA (22:6 0,85± 0,65 gram/hari dan kelompok normotensi ALA 0,64± 0,55 gram/hari, EPA 0,27±0,15 gram/hari, DHA 21,34 ± 174,14 gram/hari. Tidak terdapat perbedaan bermakna asupan omega-3 dengan kadar omega-3 plasma antara kelompok hipertensi dengan kelompok normotensi dan tidak terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara asupan omega-3 dan kadar omega-3 plasma dengan kejadian hipertensi.Hasil penelitian ini tidak mendukung hubungan antara omega-3 dengan kejadian hipertensiKata kunci : hipertensi, omega-3, EPA, ALA, DHAAbstractHypertension is the leading health problem in the community in Indonesia and even in certain countries all over the world. Almost 95% of hypertension cases are from unknown cause which is also known as essential hypertension (HET. Planned and balanced consumption pole is one of the efforts to control blood pressure. Omega-3 is one of the nutrients that reduce blood pressure. Omega-3 is proven to involve in preventing certain chronic disease including hypertension.A cross-sectional study carried

  20. Factors Influencing the Effect of Milkbased Emulsifiers on Lipid Oxidation in Omega-3 Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt

    and thereby protect the fatty acids in an emulsion before they are added to the food product. However, the use of these so-called delivery emulsions in different food products has shown contradictory results. On this background, the overall goal of the present PhD work was to increase our knowledge about...... for preparing the delivery emulsions. Independent of the introduction method of fish oil to cream cheese (neat oil vs a 70% delivery emulsion), the fish oil enriched cream cheese oxidized during a 20 weeks storage period to a degree where the sensory quality of the product was significantly impacted. However......, the aim was to utilize this knowledge for designing delivery emulsions for the addition of fish oil to foods, and thereby achieve oxidatively stable fish oil enriched products. In simple emulsions, sodium caseinate, whey protein isolate, soy lecithin and combinations of milk proteins and milk...

  1. A Mixed Flavonoid-Fish Oil Supplement Induces Immune-Enhancing and Anti-Inflammatory Transcriptomic Changes in Adult Obese and Overweight Women—A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Cialdella-Kam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids and fish oils have anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating influences. The purpose of this study was to determine if a mixed flavonoid-fish oil supplement (Q-Mix; 1000 mg quercetin, 400 mg isoquercetin, 120 mg epigallocatechin (EGCG from green tea extract, 400 mg n3-PUFAs (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (220 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and 180 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA from fish oil, 1000 mg vitamin C, 40 mg niacinamide, and 800 µg folic acid would reduce complications associated with obesity; that is, reduce inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and alter genomic profiles in overweight women. Overweight and obese women (n = 48; age = 40–70 years were assigned to Q-Mix or placebo groups using randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled procedures. Overnight fasted blood samples were collected at 0 and 10 weeks and analyzed for cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP, F2-isoprostanes, and whole-blood-derived mRNA, which was assessed using Affymetrix HuGene-1_1 ST arrays. Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA models for blood analytes and gene expression and pathway and network enrichment methods for gene expression. Plasma levels increased with Q-Mix supplementation by 388% for quercetin, 95% for EPA, 18% for DHA, and 20% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA. Q-Mix did not alter plasma levels for CRP (p = 0.268, F2-isoprostanes (p = 0.273, and cytokines (p > 0.05. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed upregulation of pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo related to interferon-induced antiviral mechanism (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.001. Overrepresentation analysis further disclosed an inhibition of phagocytosis-related inflammatory pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo. Thus, a 10-week Q-Mix supplementation elicited a significant rise in plasma quercetin, EPA, DHA, and DPA, as well as stimulated an antiviral and inflammation whole-blood transcriptomic response in overweight women.

  2. Enzymatic interesterification of vegetable oil/ fish oil blend for margarine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin; Xu, Xuebing

    the desired properties. In this study, palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and fish oil (FO) are blended and modified by enzymatic interesterification. PS functioned as the hard stock, PKO as the soft oil and FO as a source for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/ docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The purpose...... cause the product to be susceptible to oxidation due to the presence of high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, FO could also influence the melting properties of the product. Therefore, in addition to determining the fatty acid position on the glycerol backbone, it is also pertinent...

  3. Fish intake and risk of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Dybkowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to present the current state of knowledge concerning the relationship between the consumption of fish as materials rich in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA omega-3, and the risk of prostate cancer. Many scientific reports confirm the health benefits from the consumption of fish and protective properties of LC PUFA omega-3 in relation to prostate cancer. However, there are reports that indicate a relationship of the high consumption of PUFA with the risk of prostate cancer. The way of processing and preservation of the fish, and other factors not included in previous studies, could have some importance in the etiology of this disease. High susceptibility of PUFA to oxidation changes and the technological fish processing (smoking, high-temperature cooking methods contribute to the formation of many compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines – which may influence the formation of cancers – including prostate cancer. It is necessary to ensure an adequate amount of LC PUFA omega-3 in the diet through the consumption of proper quality fish and fish oils. Particular attention should be paid to the high susceptibility of PUFA to the oxidative processes, and the method of processing, preservation and storage of fish. Also pollution from the environment can significantly reduce the impact of health benefits of PUFA and fish, and even be the cause of cancers, including prostate cancer. Further research in this area should be more targeted to assess the impact of nutritional factors for the development of such tumors.

  4. Discrepancy between Knowledge and Perceptions of Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake Compared with the Omega-3 Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmyanarayanan V. Thuppal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationship between perceptions of nutrient adequacy and biomarkers of nutrition status. This cross-sectional study of U.S. and German adults (n = 200; 18–80 years compared dietary practices, knowledge, and beliefs of omega-3 fatty acids (O3-FA with the omega-3 index (O3-I, an erythrocyte-based biomarker associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. More than half of adults believed that O3-FAs are beneficial for heart and brain health and could correctly identify the food sources of O3-FA. However, the mean O3-I in the U.S. (4.3% and Germany (5.5% puts the majority of adults sampled (99% in intermediate or high CVD-risk categories. More Americans were considered at high CVD-risk (40% when compared with Germans (10%. In the U.S., but not Germany, women had a significantly higher O3-I than men (4.8% vs. 3.8%, p < 0.001. In the intermediate CVD-risk group, about one-third of adults in both countries (30% in the U.S. and 27% in Germany believed their diet was adequate in O3-FA. Notably, mean O3-I concentrations did not significantly differ with dietary perceptions of adequacy. More adults in Germany (26% than in the U.S. (10% believed that dietary supplements are needed to achieve a balanced diet. In spite of adequate knowledge about food sources and a consistent belief that O3-FA are important for health, very few participants had O3-I concentrations in the range for CVD protection.

  5. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation for 12 Weeks Increases Resting and Exercise Metabolic Rate in Healthy Community-Dwelling Older Females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L Logan

    Full Text Available Critical among the changes that occur with aging are decreases in muscle mass and metabolic rate and an increase in fat mass. These changes may predispose older adults to chronic disease and functional impairment; ultimately resulting in a decrease in the quality of life. Research has suggested that long chain omega-3 fatty acids, found predominantly in fatty fish, may assist in reducing these changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fish oil (FO supplementation in a cohort of healthy, community-dwelling older females on 1 metabolic rate and substrate oxidation at rest and during exercise; 2 resting blood pressure and resting and exercise heart rates; 3 body composition; 4 strength and physical function, and; 5 blood measures of insulin, glucose, c-reactive protein, and triglycerides. Twenty-four females (66 ± 1 yr were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either 3g/d of EPA and DHA or a placebo (PL, olive oil for 12 wk. Exercise measurements were taken before and after 12 wk of supplementation and resting metabolic measures were made before and at 6 and 12 wk of supplementation. The results demonstrated that FO supplementation significantly increased resting metabolic rate by 14%, energy expenditure during exercise by 10%, and the rate of fat oxidation during rest by 19% and during exercise by 27%. In addition, FO consumption lowered triglyceride levels by 29% and increased lean mass by 4% and functional capacity by 7%, while no changes occurred in the PL group. In conclusion, FO may be a strategy to improve age-related physical and metabolic changes in healthy older females. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01734538.

  6. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids promote amyloid-β clearance from the brain through mediating the function of the glymphatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huixia; Luo, Chuanming; Feng, Yanqing; Yao, Xiaoli; Shi, Zhe; Liang, Fengyin; Kang, Jing X; Wan, Jian-Bo; Pei, Zhong; Su, Huanxing

    2017-01-01

    Impairment of amyloid-β (Aβ) clearance leads to Aβ accumulation in the brain during the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Strategies that can restore or improve the clearance function hold great promise in delaying or preventing the onset of AD. Here, we show that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), by use of fat-1 transgenic mice and oral administration of fish oil, significantly promote interstitial Aβ clearance from the brain and resist Aβ injury. Such beneficial effects were abolished in Aqp4-knockout mice, suggesting that the AQP4-dependent glymphatic system is actively involved in the promoting the effects of n-3 PUFAs on the clearance of extracellular Aβ. Imaging on clarified brain tissues clearly displayed that n-3 PUFAs markedly inhibit the activation of astrocytes and protect the AQP4 polarization in the affected brain region after Aβ injection. The results of the present study prove a novel mechanism by which n-3 PUFAs exert protective roles in reducing Aβ accumulation via mediating the glymphatic system function.-Ren, H., Luo, C., Feng, Y., Yao, X., Shi, Z., Liang, F., Kang, J. X., Wan, J.-B., Pei, Z., Su, H. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids promote amyloid-β clearance from the brain through mediating the function of the glymphatic system. © FASEB.

  7. Encapsulation of fish oil into hollow solid lipid micro- and nanoparticles using carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junsi; Ciftci, Ozan Nazim

    2017-09-15

    Fish oil was encapsulated in hollow solid lipid micro- and nanoparticles formed from fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSO) using a novel green method based on atomization of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 )-expanded lipid. The highest fish oil loading efficiency (97.5%, w/w) was achieved at 50%, w/w, initial fish oil concentration. All particles were spherical and in the dry free-flowing form; however, less smooth surface with wrinkles was observed when the initial fish oil concentration was increased up to 50%. With increasing initial fish oil concentration, melting point of the fish oil-loaded particles shifted to lower onset melting temperatures, and major polymorphic form transformed from α to β and/or β'. Oxidative stability of the loaded fish oil was significantly increased compared to the free fish oil (p<0.05). This innovative method forms free-flowing powder products that are easy-to-use solid fish oil formulation, which makes the handling and storage feasible and convenient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biodiesel production using oil from fish canning industry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, J.F.; Almeida, M.F.; Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M.; Dias, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A process was established to produce biodiesel from fish canning industry wastes. • Biodiesel production was enabled by an acid esterification pre-treatment. • Optimization studies showed that the best catalyst concentration was 1 wt.% H 2 SO 4 . • There was no advantage when a two-step alkali transesterification was employed. • Waste oil from olive oil bagasse could be used to improve fuel quality. - Abstract: The present study evaluated biodiesel production using oil extracted from fish canning industry wastes, focusing on pre-treatment and reaction conditions. Experimental planning was conducted to evaluate the influence of acid catalyst concentration (1–3 wt.% H 2 SO 4 ) in the esterification pre-treatment and the amount of methanolic solution (60–90 vol.%) used at the beginning of the further two-step alkali transesterification reaction. The use of a raw-material mixture, including waste oil obtained from olive oil bagasse, was also studied. The results from experimental planning showed that catalyst concentration mostly influenced product yield and quality, the best conditions being 1 wt.% catalyst and 60 vol.% of methanolic solution, to obtain a product yield of 73.9 wt.% and a product purity of 75.5 wt.%. Results from a one-step reaction under the selected conditions showed no advantage of performing a two-step alkali process. Although under the best conditions several of the biodiesel quality parameters were in agreement with standard specifications, a great variation was found in the biodiesel acid value, and oxidation stability and methyl ester content did not comply with biodiesel quality standards. Aiming to improve fuel quality, a mixture containing 80% waste olive oil and 20% of waste fish oil was evaluated. Using such mixture, biodiesel purity increased around 15%, being close to the standard requirements (96.5 wt.%), and the oxidation stability was in agreement with the biodiesel quality standard values (⩾6 h), which

  9. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Enriched Hen Eggs Consumption Enhances Microvascular Reactivity in Young Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupin, Ana; Rasic, Lidija; Matic, Anita; Stupin, Marko; Kralik, Zlata; Kralik, Gordana; Grcevic, Manuela; Drenjancevic, Ines

    2018-04-10

    Whilst the beneficial effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) supplementation on cardiovascular (CV) system is well supported in CV patients, the effect of consumption of omega-3 PUFAs enriched functional food in healthy individuals is still not fully elucidated. This study aimed to determine the effect of consumption of omega-3 PUFAs enriched hen eggs on microvascular reactivity (primary outcome), blood pressure (BP) and serum lipid profile in young healthy individuals. Control group (N=16) ate three ordinary hen eggs (277 mg omega-3 PUFAs/day), and OMEGA-3 group (N=20) ate three omega-3 PUFAs enriched eggs containing 259 mg of omega-3 PUFAs/egg daily (ALA 167 mg/egg, EPA 7 mg/egg, DHA 84 mg/egg) for 3 weeks (777 mg omega-3 PUFAs/day). Post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) in skin microcirculation assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry, serum lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and arterial BP were measured in all subjects before and after the protocol. PORH was significantly enhanced, and triglycerides, hsCRP and BP were significantly decreased in OMEGA-3 group compared to baseline measurement, while there was no significant difference in Control group after the protocol compared to baseline. This is the first study to demonstrate that consumption of a mixture of omega-3 PUFAs (ALA+EPA+DHA), provided via enriched hen eggs, elicits changes in microvascular reactivity, BP and triglycerides level in healthy subjects that are associated with CV benefits, thus suggesting that daily consumption of omega-3 PUFAs enriched eggs in healthy individuals may potentially contribute to CV risk factors attenuation and disease prevention.

  10. Influence of omega-3 fatty acid status on the way rats adapt to chronic restraint stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hennebelle

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids are important for several neuronal and cognitive functions. Altered omega-3 fatty acid status has been implicated in reduced resistance to stress and mood disorders. We therefore evaluated the effects of repeated restraint stress (6 h/day for 21 days on adult rats fed omega-3 deficient, control or omega-3 enriched diets from conception. We measured body weight, plasma corticosterone and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptors and correlated these data with emotional and depression-like behaviour assessed by their open-field (OF activity, anxiety in the elevated-plus maze (EPM, the sucrose preference test and the startle response. We also determined their plasma and brain membrane lipid profiles by gas chromatography. Repeated restraint stress caused rats fed a control diet to lose weight. Their plasma corticosterone increased and they showed moderate behavioural changes, with increases only in grooming (OF test and entries into the open arms (EPM. Rats fed the omega-3 enriched diet had a lower stress-induced weight loss and plasma corticosterone peak, and reduced grooming. Rats chronically lacking omega-3 fatty acid exhibited an increased startle response, a stress-induced decrease in locomotor activity and exaggerated grooming. The brain omega-3 fatty acids increased as the dietary omega-3 fatty acids increased; diets containing preformed long-chain omega-3 fatty acid were better than diets containing the precursor alpha-linolenic acid. However, the restraint stress reduced the amounts of omega-3 incorporated. These data showed that the response to chronic restraint stress was modulated by the omega-3 fatty acid supply, a dietary deficiency was deleterious while enrichment protecting against stress.

  11. Fish oil affects blood pressure and the plasma lipid profile in healthy Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Schack-Nielsen, L.; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2006-01-01

    with an oscillometric device, and blood was sampled for analysis of erythrocyte fatty acid composition and the plasma lipid profile. This paper examines the effects of the fish oil supplement, with adjustment for the effects of the milk intervention when relevant. The fish oil intervention increased erythrocyte (n-3......Animal and epidemiologic studies indicate that early nutrition has lasting effects on metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk. In adults, (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils improve blood pressure, the lipid profile, and possibly cardiovascular disease mortality. This randomized trial...... is the first to investigate the effects of fish oil on blood pressure and the lipid profile in infancy. Healthy term 9-mo old infants In 83) were randomly assigned to 5 mL fish oil daily or no fish oil for 3 mo and to 2 different milk types. Before and after the intervention, blood pressure was measured...

  12. High-glycemic index carbohydrates abrogate the antiobesity effect of fish oil in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Qin; Lillefosse, Haldis Haukås; Fjære, Even

    2012-01-01

    Fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is known to attenuate diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue inflammation in rodents. Here we aimed to investigate whether different carbohydrate sources modulated the antiobesity effects of fish oil. By feeding C57BL/6J mice isocaloric high-fat d...... metabolic effects of fish oil by demonstrating that high-GI carbohydrates attenuate the antiobesity effects of fish oil.......Fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is known to attenuate diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue inflammation in rodents. Here we aimed to investigate whether different carbohydrate sources modulated the antiobesity effects of fish oil. By feeding C57BL/6J mice isocaloric high...

  13. Korzystny wpływ kwasów omega-3 na rozwój dziecka = The beneficial effect of omega-3 acids on child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pluta

    2016-07-01

    Zakład Pielęgniarstwa Społecznego Collegium Medicum w Bydgoszczy Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu         Keywords: child development, omega-3acids, supplementation. Słowa kluczowe: rozwój dziecka,  kwasy omega-3, suplementacja.     Abstract   Fatty acids are one of the determinants of normal development of the child. A special role is attributed to omega-3 acids. Representative of this group of acids include alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. The paper presents the biological activity of omega-3 with a particular focus on their impact on child development.       Streszczenie   Kwasy tłuszczowe są jednym z determinantów prawidłowego rozwoju dziecka. Szczególną rolę przypisuje się kwasom omega-3. Przedstawicielami tej grupy kwasów są kwas alfa-linolenowy, dokozaheksaenowy oraz eikozapentaenowy. W pracy przedstawiono aktywność biologiczną kwasów omega-3 ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem ich wpływu na rozwój dziecka.

  14. Interferência dos ácidos graxos ômega-3 nos lipídeos sangüíneos de ratos submetidos ao exercício de natação Omega-3 fatty acids interference on the blood lipids of rats subjected to swimming exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Moritz

    2008-12-01

    as concentrações de lipídeos sangüíneos.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation at doses of 0.5 and 1.0g/kg/day on the blood lipids of rats submitted or not to swimming exercise. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: control, control+swimming, omega-3 fatty acids and omega-3 fatty acids+swimming. The omega-3 fatty acids and omega-3 fatty acids+swimming groups received supplements by gavage, while the remaining animals received water by the same method. The control+swimming and omega-3 fatty acids +swimming groups were submitted to exercise. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL were determined before and after the experimental procedures. RESULTS: The concentrations of total cholesterol in the 0.5g/kg/day groups reduced proportionally more in the omega-3 fatty acids+swimming group, even though total cholesterol of the control+swimming and omega-3 fatty acids groups also decreased. Total cholesterol decreased in both groups receiving 1.0g/kg/day supplementation, but the decrease was higher in the omega-3 fatty acids+swimming group than in the omega-3 fatty acids group. Triglycerides also decreased in all experimental groups. The greatest decrease was seen in the omega-3 fatty acids+swimming group receiving 0.5g/kg/day supplementation. In the 1.0g/kg/day protocol, the decrease was significant in both groups: the omega-3 fatty acids and omega-3 fatty acids+swimming groups. HDL increased among the non-supplemented animals and decreased among the animals receiving a supplementation of 1.0g/kg/day. CONCLUSION: Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation at doses of 0.5 or 1.0g/kg/day associated with swimming exercise reduced plasma concentrations of total cholesterol and triglycerides, yet additional studies, including varying doses, are necessary to better understand the relationship between ingestion of fish oil and blood lipid concentrations.

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Hendren, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to determine the safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database using the terms autism or autistic and omega-3 fatty acids. The search identified 143 potential articles and six satisfied all…

  16. Omega-3 free fatty acids for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastelein, John J P; Maki, Kevin C; Susekov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms.......Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms....

  17. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity. PMID:26950145

  18. An Improvement of Cardiovascular Risk Factors by Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hidekatsu; Masui, Yoshinori; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Adachi, Hiroki; Kawaguchi, Akiko; Hakoshima, Mariko; Waragai, Yoko; Harigae, Tadanao; Sako, Akahito

    2018-04-01

    An epidemiological survey in the Northwest Greenland reported that the Greenlanders have a lower frequency of acute myocardial infarction and diabetes mellitus. The very low incidence of ischemic heart disease in the Greenlanders was explained by consumption of a diet rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Possible anti-atherothrombotic effects of omega-3 PUFA include an improvement of lipid metabolism such as a reduction of triglyceride and an increase of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and glucose metabolism, anti-platelet activity, anti-inflammatory effects, an improvement of endothelial function and stabilization of atherosclerotic plaque. The present study reviews an improvement of cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia and diabetes due to consumption of omega-3 PUFA. A sufficient number of studies suggest that omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduces serum triglyceride and increases HDL-cholesterol. The mechanisms for omega-3 PUFA-mediated improvements of lipid metabolism have been partially elucidated. The studies using experimental animals, part of trials in humans, have shown the beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. The meta-analysis showed that omega-3 PUFA might prevent development of diabetes in part of population. Further studies should be performed to elucidate the association of omega-3 PUFA supplementation with diabetes, in the future.

  19. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity.

  20. Positive association between blood Omega-3 index and cognition in healthy Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wurff, Inge; Von Schacky, Clemens; Berge, Kjetil; Zeegers, Maurice P; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate

    2016-01-01

    The impact of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) on cognition is heavily debated. In the current study, the possible association between omega-3 LCPUFAs in blood and cognitive performance of 266 typically developing adolescents aged 13–15 years is investigated. Baseline data

  1. Association between Blood Omega-3 Index and Cognition in Typically Developing Dutch Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wurff, Inge; Von Schacke, Clemens; Berge, Kjetil; Zeegers, Maurice; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate

    2017-01-01

    The impact of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) on cognition is heavily debated. In the current study, the possible association between omega-3 LCPUFAs in blood and cognitive performance of 266 typically developing adolescents aged 13–15 years is investigated. Baseline data

  2. Oxidised fish oil does not influence established markers of oxidative stress in healthy human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottestad, Inger; Vogt, Gjermund; Retterstøl, Kjetil

    2012-01-01

    markers of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and inflammation, and the level of plasma n-3 FA after intake of oxidised fish oil. In a double-blinded randomised controlled study, healthy subjects (aged 18–50 years, n 54) were assigned into one of three groups receiving capsules containing either 8 g...... difference was observed between the fish oil groups. No changes in a variety of in vivo markers of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation or inflammation were observed after daily intake of oxidised fish oil for 3 or 7 weeks, indicating that intake of oxidised fish oil may not have unfavourable short......-term effects in healthy human subjects....

  3. Effects of extra virgin olive oil and fish oil on lipid profile and oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Danielle; Simão, Andréa Name Colado; Urbano, Mariana Ragassi; Dichi, Isaias

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if extra virgin olive oil and fish oil have a synergistic effect on lipid and oxidative stress parameters in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This intervention study included 102 patients (81 women and 21 men) with MetS (mean age 51.45 ± 8.27 y) from the ambulatory center of the University Hospital of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Patients were randomly assigned to one of four groups: Patients in the control group (CG) were instructed to maintain their usual diet; the second group (fish oil group [FO]) received 3 g/d of fish oil ω-3 fatty acids (10 capsules); the third group (extra virgin olive oil group [OO]) received 10 mL/d of extra virgin olive oil at lunch and dinner; and the fourth group (fish oil and extra virgin olive oil group [FOO]) received 3 g/d of fish oil ω-3 fatty acids and 10 mL/d of extra virgin olive oil. MetS related markers and oxidative stress were measured at baseline and after 90 d. Differences across treatment groups showed a statistically significant decrease (P virgin olive oil have beneficial synergistic effects on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in patients with MetS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy and allergic respiratory disease in the adult offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne; Strøm, Marin; Maslova, Ekaterina

    2017-01-01

    randomly assigned to receive fish oil during the third trimester of pregnancy, olive oil, or no oil in the ratio 2:1:1. The offspring were followed in a mandatory national prescription register, with complete follow-up for prescriptions related to the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis as primary...... in the fish oil group compared with the olive oil group (hazard ratio, 0.54, 95% CI, 0.32-0.90; P = .02). The probability of having had allergic rhinitis medication prescribed was also reduced in the fish oil group compared with the olive oil group (hazard ratio, 0.70, 95% CI, 0.47-1.05; P = .09......), but the difference was not statistically significant. Self-reported information collected at age 18 to 19 years supported these findings. No associations were detected with respect to lung function outcomes or allergic sensitization at 18 to 19 years of age. CONCLUSION: Maternal supplementation with fish oil might...

  5. Fish burger enriched by olive oil industrial by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedola, Annamaria; Cardinali, Angela; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Conte, Amalia

    2017-07-01

    Oil industry produces large volume of waste, which represents a disposal and a potential environmental pollution problem. Nevertheless, they are also promising sources of compounds that can be recovered and used as valuable substances. The aim of this work is to exploit solid olive by-products, in particular dry olive paste flour (DOPF) coming from Coratina cultivar, to enrich fish burger and enhance the quality characteristics. In particular, the addition of olive by-products leads to an increase of the phenolic content and the antioxidant activity; however, it also provokes a deterioration of sensory quality. Therefore, to balance quality and sensory characteristics of fish burgers, three subsequent phases have been carried out: first, the quality of DOPF in terms of phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity has been assessed; afterward, DOPF has been properly added to fish burgers and, finally, the formulation of the enriched fish burgers has been optimized in order to improve the sensory quality. Results suggested that the enriched burgers with 10% DOPF showed considerable amounts of polyphenols and antioxidant activity, even though they are not very acceptable from the sensory point of view. Pre-treating DOPF by hydration/extraction with milk, significantly improved the burger sensory quality by reducing the concentration of bitter components.

  6. Reprint of: Marine OMEGA-3 fatty acids in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Trevor A

    2018-04-12

    Omega-6 (ω6) and omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids are two classes of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3ω3), respectively. Enzymatic metabolism of linoleic and α-linolenic acids generates arachidonic acid (20:4ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3; EPA), respectively, both of which are substrates for enzymes that yield eicosanoids with multiple and varying physiological functions. Further elongation and desaturation of EPA yields the 22-carbon fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3; DHA). The main dietary source of EPA and DHA for human consumption is fish, especially oily fish. There is considerable evidence that EPA and DHA are protective against cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke), particularly in individuals with pre-existing disease. ω3 Fatty acids benefit multiple risk factors including blood pressure, blood vessel function, heart function and blood lipids, and they have antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative actions. ω3 Fatty acids do not adversely interact with medications. Supplementation with ω3 fatty acids is recommended in individuals with elevated blood triglyceride levels and patients with coronary heart disease. A practical recommendation for the general population is to increase ω3 fatty acid intake by incorporating fish as part of a healthy diet that includes increased fruits and vegetables, and moderation of salt intake. Health authorities recommend the general population should consume at least two oily fish meals per week. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Marine OMEGA-3 fatty acids in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Trevor A

    2017-11-01

    Omega-6 (ω6) and omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids are two classes of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3ω3), respectively. Enzymatic metabolism of linoleic and α-linolenic acids generates arachidonic acid (20:4ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3; EPA), respectively, both of which are substrates for enzymes that yield eicosanoids with multiple and varying physiological functions. Further elongation and desaturation of EPA yields the 22-carbon fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3; DHA). The main dietary source of EPA and DHA for human consumption is fish, especially oily fish. There is considerable evidence that EPA and DHA are protective against cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke), particularly in individuals with pre-existing disease. ω3 Fatty acids benefit multiple risk factors including blood pressure, blood vessel function, heart function and blood lipids, and they have antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative actions. ω3 Fatty acids do not adversely interact with medications. Supplementation with ω3 fatty acids is recommended in individuals with elevated blood triglyceride levels and patients with coronary heart disease. A practical recommendation for the general population is to increase ω3 fatty acid intake by incorporating fish as part of a healthy diet that includes increased fruits and vegetables, and moderation of salt intake. Health authorities recommend the general population should consume at least two oily fish meals per week. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Enrichment of foods with omega-3 fatty acids: A multidisciplinary challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Enrichment of foods with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) poses a multidisciplinary challenge to food industry and academia. Although our knowledge about possible health effects of omega-3 PUFA has increased tremendously during the last 30 years, there is still a lot to be learned...... about these healthy fatty acids. Moreover, consumer acceptance and lipid oxidation of omega-3 PUFA-enriched food are other major challenges that the food industry meet when developing omega-3-enriched foods. Two examples on multidisciplinary research projects to overcome some of these challenges...... are given in this article together with cases studies illustrating how lipid oxidation can be prevented in a range of different omega-3-enriched foods....

  9. Does Supplementation with Omega-3 PUFAs Add to the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, Evangelos C; Elisaf, Moses S

    2017-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are increasingly used for the protection of cardiovascular disease. The main but not the sole mechanism of action is the reduction of triglyceride levels. In this review, we summarize the effect of omega-3 supplements on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke from the relevant randomized controlled trials. Twenty-one randomized controlled trials assessed omega-3 supplementation on mortality and cardiovascular-related outcomes. From these studies, as well as from the relevant meta-analyses, we found that omega-3 supplements do not exert a consistent benefit for cardiovascular protection. There is uncertainty of a clear profit from omega-3 supplementation in cardiovascular disease.

  10. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Isabelle; Potier, Brigitte; Heberden, Christine; Vancassel, Sylvie

    2015-03-01

    The literature on the influence of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA) on brain aging has grown exponentially during the last decade. Many avenues have been explored but no global picture or clear evidence has emerged. Experimental studies have shown that ω-3 PUFA is involved in many neurobiological processes that are involved in neurotransmission and neuroprotection, indicating that these PUFAs may prevent age-related brain damage. Human studies have revealed only a weak link between ω-3 PUFA status and cognitive aging, whereas interventional studies have yet to confirm it. The purpose of this review is to analyze the developments in the area during the last 2 years. Human brain MRI studies have confirmed previous findings that ω-3 PUFA can protect the brain during aging; two intervention studies obtained clear evidence. We also analyzed the experimental data clarifying the involvement of ω-3 PUFA in neurotransmission, neuroprotection (including prevention of peroxidation, inflammation, and excitotoxicity), and neurogenesis, thereby helping the brain cope with aging. These recent human and experimental studies provide support for and clarification of how ω-3 PUFA protect against brain aging and highlight the main lines for future research.

  11. The impact of fish oil and wheat germ oil combination on mineral-bone and inflammatory markers in maintenance hemodialysis patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Hadeer; Mostafa, Tarek M; El-Azab, Gamal A; Abd El Wahab, Ahmed M; Elshahawy, Heba; Sayed-Ahmed, Nagy Ah

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the impact of combined supplementation of fish oil (FO) with antioxidants like wheat germ oil (WGO) on mineral-bone and inflammatory markers in maintenance HD patients. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involved 46 HD patients who were randomly assigned into two groups to receive daily 3000 mg of FO [1053 mg omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs)] plus 300 mg of WGO [0.765 mg vitamin E] or placebo for 4 months. Blood concentrations of hemoglobin (Hgb), white blood cells, mineral-bone parameters including serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus, calcium-phosphorus product, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, and osteoprotegerin and serum concentrations of inflammatory markers including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, ferritin, and uric acid were measured before and after the intervention. Eighty-seven percentage of patients in each group completed the study. The mean serum Ca levels increased significantly in the supplemented group at the end of study (p = 0.0016), and this increment was also significant as compared to placebo group (p = 0.0418). No significant alterations were observed in the other measured parameters within each group during the study (as p values were >0.05). FO plus WGO supplementation showed beneficial effect on serum Ca levels of HD patients without any statistically significant effect on other mineral-bone and inflammatory markers. Further investigations are required to confirm it.

  12. Effect of omega-3 and vitamin E supplementation on dry mouth in patients with Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Medha; Stark, Paul C; Palmer, Carole A; Gilbard, Jeffrey P; Papas, Athena S

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether omega-3 (n-3) increases saliva production in patients with Sjögren's syndrome, 61 patients with Sjögren's received either wheat germ oil (n = 23) or n-3 supplement (TheraTears Nutrition®) (n = 38) in a prospective, randomized, double-masked trial. The outcomes assessed were salivary secretion and markers for oral inflammation. The differences between the n-3 group and wheat germ oil group were not statistically significant for either unstimulated (US) or stimulated (SS) salivary secretion (p= 0.38 and p= 0.346, respectively) nor for the number of sites with probing depth (PD) ≥ 4 mm (p= 0.834). In this pilot study, supplementation with n-3 was not found to be significantly better than wheat germ oil in stimulating saliva production in patients with Sjögren's syndrome. ©2010 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Effects of a fish oil-based emulsion on rat hepatoma cell invasion in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagi, Akifumi; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Miura, Yutaka; Yagasaki, Kazumi

    2007-01-01

    Total parenteral nutrition containing a lipid emulsion is often employed after surgical tumor resection. This study investigated the effects of a fish oil-based infusion on rat hepatoma cell invasion. Rat ascites hepatoma cell line AH109A was precultured with a fish oil-based or safflower oil-based emulsion for 48 h. Changes in membranous fatty acid composition were evaluated by gas chromatography. The invasiveness of hepatoma cells was assessed by coculturing with mesentery-derived mesothelial cells. To examine ex vivo effects of the fish oil-based infusion on hepatoma invasion, sera were prepared from rats infused with fish oil- or safflower oil-based emulsion and the effects of these sera were assessed. To clarify the mechanism of inhibition of invasion by the fish oil-based emulsion, the effects of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) and PGE(3) on invasion were examined. Pretreatment with the fish oil-based emulsion reduced invasiveness without affecting growth compared with the safflower oil-based emulsion. Pretreatment with the sera from rats infused with the fish oil-based emulsion also reduced invasiveness compared with the sera from rats infused with the safflower oil-based emulsion. The addition of PGE(2) eliminated the inhibitory effect of the fish oil-based emulsion, and the addition of PGE(3) reduced the invasiveness of hepatoma cells pretreated with the safflower oil-based emulsion. These results suggest that the fish oil-based emulsion may have anti-invasive effects. Changes in the membranous fatty acid composition and consequent changes in the prostaglandins produced may be involved in this inhibitory effect.

  14. Dietary Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids promote colon carcinoma metastasis in rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffini, P.; Fehres, O.; Klieverik, L.; Vogels, I. M.; Tigchelaar, W.; Smorenburg, S. M.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of Ohm-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and Ohm-6 PUFAs on the development of experimentally induced colon carcinoma metastasis in rat liver were investigated quantitatively in vivo. Rats mere kept on either a lon-fat diet or on a fish oil (Ohm-3 PUFAs) or safflower oil (Ohm-6

  15. Combined effects of aerobic exercise and omega-3 fatty acids in hyperlipidemic persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, J G; Ullrich, I H; Albrink, M J; Yeater, R A

    1989-10-01

    Because both aerobic exercise and fish oil ingestion have been shown to decrease plasma lipids, we examined the effects of combining these modalities in hyperlipidemic subjects. Thirty-four subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups as follows: fish oil and exercise (FE), N = 7, 50 ml of oil daily and 3 d.wk-1 of aerobic exercise; fish oil (F), N = 7, 50 ml of oil daily; corn oil (CN), N = 10, 50 ml of oil daily; and control (C), N = 10. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and at the end of 4, 8, and 12 wk. The FE and F groups showed significantly lower triglycerides with respect to treatment as compared to the CN and C groups. The FE, F, and CN groups exhibited lower total cholesterol values than the control group but were not different from each other. HDL cholesterol was significantly increased after treatment in the FE and F groups as compared to the CN and C groups. Serum apo-B, LDL cholesterol, and LDL protein decreased significantly in the FE group but not the F group from baseline to 12 wk. VO2max increased and percent fat decreased only in the FE group. In conclusion, aerobic exercise improved the effects of fish oil on LDL cholesterol and apo-B and improved fitness and body composition in hyperlipidemic subjects.

  16. Transcriptome-based identification of antioxidative gene expression after fish oil supplementation in normo- and dyslipidemic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Simone

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, especially in dyslipidemic subjects with a high risk of cardiovascular disease, are widely described in the literature. A lot of effects of n-3 PUFAs and their oxidized metabolites are triggered by regulating the expression of genes. Currently, it is uncertain if the administration of n-3 PUFAs results in different expression changes of genes related to antioxidative mechanisms in normo- and dyslipidemic subjects, which may partly explain their cardioprotective effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on expression changes of genes involved in oxidative processes. Methods Ten normo- and ten dyslipidemic men were supplemented for twelve weeks with fish oil capsules, providing 1.14 g docosahexaenoic acid and 1.56 g eicosapentaenoic acid. Gene expression levels were determined by whole genome microarray analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Results Using microarrays, we discovered an increased expression of antioxidative enzymes and a decreased expression of pro-oxidative and tissue enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 enzymes and matrix metalloproteinases, in both normo- and dyslipidemic men. An up-regulation of catalase and heme oxigenase 2 in both normo- and dyslipidemic subjects and an up-regulation of cytochrome P450 enzyme 1A2 only in dyslipidemic subjects could be observed by qRT-PCR analysis. Conclusions Supplementation of normo- and dyslipidemic subjects with n-3 PUFAs changed the expression of genes related to oxidative processes, which may suggest antioxidative and potential cardioprotective effects of n-3 PUFAs. Further studies combining genetic and metabolic endpoints are needed to verify the regulative effects of n-3 PUFAs in antioxidative gene expression to better understand their beneficial effects in health and disease prevention. Trial registration Clinical

  17. Addition of Fish Oil to Cream Cheese Affects Lipid Oxidation, Sensory Stability and Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Horsewell

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in the oxidative stability during storage of fish oil enriched cream cheeses when fish oil was added either as neat oil or pre-emulsified oil with sodium caseinate, whey protein isolate, or a combination of milk proteins and phospholipids as emulsifier. Results showed that the addition of fish oil decreased the oxidative stability of cream cheeses regardless of the addition method, especially when the cheese was stored longer than five weeks. The oxidative stability of fish oil enriched cream cheeses was highest when fish oil was added as neat oil or in a delivery emulsion prepared with a combination of milk proteins and phospholipids. Adding the fish oil in a delivery emulsion prepared with whey protein or caseinate resulted in a less oxidative stable product. It was furthermore shown that the microstructure of the cream cheeses was affected by fish oil addition, and it was suggested that the change in microstructure was partly responsible for the oxidative stability of the cream cheeses.

  18. Antioxidant Effect on Oxidation Stability of Blend Fish Oil Biodiesel with Vegetable Oil Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hossain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two different phenolic synthetic antioxidants were used to improve the oxidation stability of fish oil biodiesel blends with vegetable oil biodiesel and petroleum diesel. Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT most effective for improvement of the oxidation stability of petro diesel, whereas  tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ showed good performance in fish oil biodiesel. Fish oil/Rapeseed oil biodiesel mixed showed some acceptable results in higher concentration ofantioxidants. TBHQ showed better oxidation stability than BHT in B100 composition. In fish oil biodiesel/diesel mixed fuel, BHT was more effective antioxidant than TBHQ to increase oxidationstability because BHT is more soluble than TBHQ. The stability behavior of biodiesel/diesel blends with the employment of the modified Rancimat method (EN 15751. The performance ofantioxidants was evaluated for treating fish oil biodiesel/Rapeseed oil biodiesel for B100, and blends with two type diesel fuel (deep sulfurization diesel and automotive ultra-low sulfur or zero sulfur diesels. The examined blends were in proportions of 5, 10, 15, and 20% by volume of fish oilbiodiesel.

  19. Handmade cloned transgenic sheep rich in omega-3 Fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    Full Text Available Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n-6 into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n  =925 of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n-3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n-6/n-3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01 and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05. To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation.

  20. Curcumin and long-chain Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for Prevention of type 2 Diabetes (COP-D): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thota, Rohith N; Acharya, Shamasunder H; Abbott, Kylie A; Garg, Manohar L

    2016-11-29

    Lifestyle interventions, including increase in physical activity and dietary counselling, have shown the ability to prevent type 2 diabetes (T2D) in high-risk state individuals, but the prevalence is still skyrocketing in Australia, in line with global prevalence. Currently, no medicines are approved by the Therapeutic Goods Administration in Australia for the management of prediabetes. Therefore, there is a need of developing a safer, biologically efficacious and cost-effective alternative for delaying the transition of individual health state from prediabetes into T2D. In the current trial we propose to evaluate the effects of curcumin and/or long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on improving glycosylated haemoglobin as a primary outcome, along with secondary outcomes of glycaemic indices, lipid profile and inflammatory parameters. Eighty individuals diagnosed with prediabetes, aged between 30 and 70 years, will be randomly assigned to double placebo, curcumin alone, fish oil alone or double active groups according to a computer-generated randomisation sequence for 12 weeks. At baseline and post-intervention visits participants will be asked to provide blood samples and undergo body composition measurements. A blood sample is used for estimating glycaemic profiles, lipid profiles and inflammatory parameters (C-reactive protein, whole blood cell count, adiponectin, leptin, interleukin-6). The interim visit includes review on compliance with supplements based on capsule log and capsule count, adverse events and anthropometric measurements. In addition to these procedures, participants provide self-reported questionnaires on dietary intake (using a 3-day food record), a physical activity questionnaire and medical history. This trial aims to determine whether curcumin and/or long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect surrogate markers of glycaemic control which is relevant to delaying T2D. To date 38 participants completed the trial. No changes

  1. The Role for Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Molfino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimal nutrition is one of the most important determinants of healthier ageing, reducing the risk of disability, maintaining mental and physical functions, and thus preserving and ensuring a better quality of life. Dietary intake and nutrient absorption decline with age, thus increasing the risk of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality. Specific nutrients, particularly long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, might have the potential of preventing and reducing co-morbidities in older adults. Omega-3 PUFAs are able to modulate inflammation, hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, and hypertension. Different mechanisms contribute to these effects, including conditioning cell membrane function and composition, eicosanoid production, and gene expression. The present review analyzes the influence of omega-3 PUFAs status and intake on brain function, cardiovascular system, immune function, muscle performance and bone health in older adults. Omega-3 FAs may have substantial benefits in reducing the risk of cognitive decline in older people. The available data encourage higher intakes of omega-3 PUFAs in the diet or via specific supplements. More studies are needed to confirm the role of omega-3 FAs in maintaining bone health and preventing the loss of muscle mass and function associated with ageing. In summary, omega-3 PUFAs are now identified as potential key nutrients, safe and effective in the treatment and prevention of several negative consequences of ageing.

  2. The role for dietary omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfino, Alessio; Gioia, Gianfranco; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2014-10-03

    Optimal nutrition is one of the most important determinants of healthier ageing, reducing the risk of disability, maintaining mental and physical functions, and thus preserving and ensuring a better quality of life. Dietary intake and nutrient absorption decline with age, thus increasing the risk of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality. Specific nutrients, particularly long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), might have the potential of preventing and reducing co-morbidities in older adults. Omega-3 PUFAs are able to modulate inflammation, hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, and hypertension. Different mechanisms contribute to these effects, including conditioning cell membrane function and composition, eicosanoid production, and gene expression. The present review analyzes the influence of omega-3 PUFAs status and intake on brain function, cardiovascular system, immune function, muscle performance and bone health in older adults. Omega-3 FAs may have substantial benefits in reducing the risk of cognitive decline in older people. The available data encourage higher intakes of omega-3 PUFAs in the diet or via specific supplements. More studies are needed to confirm the role of omega-3 FAs in maintaining bone health and preventing the loss of muscle mass and function associated with ageing. In summary, omega-3 PUFAs are now identified as potential key nutrients, safe and effective in the treatment and prevention of several negative consequences of ageing.

  3. Omega-3 versus isoflavones in the control of vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, S; Lilue, M; Mejia, A; Menendez, C

    2017-12-01

    Determine the efficacy and tolerability of omega-3 fatty acids versus soybean isoflavones in reducing the vasomotor symptoms (VMSs) frequency in postmenopausal women. A randomized, prospective, two-arm study was performed in healthy postmenopausal women aged 45-65. The two arms were: two capsules/day of omega-3 (425 mg of omega-3/capsule) administered orally (n = 38) and two tablets/day of soybean isoflavones (54.4 mg of isoflavones/tablet) (n = 30), over 16 weeks. The mean baseline frequency of moderate and severe VMSs per week in the omega-3 group was 24.56 and 23.90, respectively, and 19.65 and 19.51 in the isoflavone group. After 4 months, the reduction in moderate and severe hot flashes with omega-3 was significant (p Omega-3 did not demonstrate significant efficacy differences versus isoflavones over time. The use of omega-3 has a beneficial effect on hot flash reduction after 4 months of treatment. This is comparable to the benefits found with soybean isoflavones after 3-4 weeks and after 4 months in severe hot flash women, but higher than those found with soybean isoflavones in moderate symptom women.

  4. Using Caenorhabditis elegans to Uncover Conserved Functions of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model organism to study functions of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The ability to alter fatty acid composition with genetic manipulation and dietary supplementation permits the dissection of the roles of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in many biological process including reproduction, aging and neurobiology. Studies in C. elegans to date have mostly identified overlapping functions of 20-carbon omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in reproduction and in neurons, however, specific roles for either omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids are beginning to emerge. Recent findings with importance to human health include the identification of a conserved Cox-independent prostaglandin synthesis pathway, critical functions for cytochrome P450 derivatives of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the requirements for omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in sensory neurons, and the importance of fatty acid desaturation for long lifespan. Furthermore, the ability of C. elegans to interconvert omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids using the FAT-1 omega-3 desaturase has been exploited in mammalian studies and biotechnology approaches to generate mammals capable of exogenous generation of omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:26848697

  5. What health professionals should know about omega-3 fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western diets are often deficient in n-3 fatty acids because of an insufficient intake of cold water oily fish. The main n-3 fatty acids in fatty fish are ... To date, no formally accepted dietary reference intakes for EPA and DHA exist, while international intake recommendations differ widely. Supplementation is an easy and ...

  6. Role of Omega 3 Fatty Acids Against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma-Induced Hepatic and Brain Dysfunctions in Gamma Irradiated Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gharib, M.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a deadly disease that has touched the lives of many people in the world today. Omega 3 essential fatty acids (ω-3 FAs); found in high concentrations in fish oil, claim a plethora of health benefits. The present study aimed to evaluate the role of ω-3 FAs supplementation either alone or combined with fractionated γ-radiation exposure against Ehrlich solid tumor-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, biochemical alterations and histopathological changes in the liver, brain and tumor tissues of Albino mice. ω-3 FAs were orally administered via gavages to mice for a period of 30 consecutive days at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight. On the 7th day of experiment, mice were subcutaneously transplanted in the neck region with 0.2 ml of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells for solid tumor induction and on the 17th and 25th days, mice were exposed to a fractionated whole body γ-radiation (0.5 Gy/week for two weeks). The results of the present work showed that Ehrlich carcinoma (EC) and/or γ-irradiation led to systemic inflammation (elevated TNF-α, TLC and CRP levels), hepatic oxidative stress (elevated TBARs level, decreased GSH, GSH-Px, CAT and SOD levels) and biochemical alterations in liver (elevated AST, ALT, ALP and LDH activities) and brain (dopamine, EP,NE and serotonin levels) tissues. On the other hand, ω-3 FAs supplementation to the experimentally irradiated EC-bearing mice, significantly reduced tumor size, depressed the concentrations of inflammatory markers, reduced oxidative stress and also ameliorated the biochemical alterations in liver and brain tissues. Histopathological examinations showed that treatment with ω-3 FAs recorded great destruction of tumor tissue, great disappearance of metastatic EC cells from the liver tissue and normal appearance in cerebrum and cerebellum of brain tissue layers in EC-bearing mice. Combined treatment of EC-bearing mice with ω-3 FAs and γ-irradiation showed necrotic cells and remnant tumor cells in tumor

  7. Influence of different levels of n-3 supplemented (fish oil) diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate fish oil as n-3 fatty acids source on some performance, carcass and serum parameters in broilers. One-day old Ross strain male broiler chickens (n = 120) were randomly arranged in four dietary treatments (0, 1.5, 3 and 4.5 percent fish oil), with three replicates for each treatment.

  8. Effects of fish oil on oxidation resistance of VLDL in hypertriglyceridemic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hau, M.-F.; Smelt, A.H.M.; Bindels, A.J.G.H.; Sijbrands, E.J.G.; Laarse, A. van der; Onkenhout, W.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Princen, H.M.G.

    1996-01-01

    In hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) patients the addition of fish oil to the diet causes a marked reduction in the concentration of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the serum. To investigate the effects of fish oil on the oxidation resistance of VLDL and LDL in HTG patients, nine male patients received 1

  9. Optimizing headspace sampling temperature and time for analysis of volatile oxidation products in fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbæk, Karen; Jensen, Benny

    1997-01-01

    Headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC), based on adsorption to Tenax GR(R), thermal desorption and GC, has been used for analysis of volatiles in fish oil. To optimize sam sampling conditions, the effect of heating the fish oil at various temperatures and times was evaluated from anisidine values (AV...

  10. Oxidized fish oil in rat pregnancy causes high newborn mortality and increases maternal insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Benjamin B; Vickers, Mark H; Gray, Clint; Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Derraik, José G B; Lewandowski, Paul A; Garg, Manohar L; Cameron-Smith, David; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2016-09-01

    Fish oil is commonly taken by pregnant women, and supplements sold at retail are often oxidized. Using a rat model, we aimed to assess the effects of supplementation with oxidized fish oil during pregnancy in mothers and offspring, focusing on newborn viability and maternal insulin sensitivity. Female rats were allocated to a control or high-fat diet and then mated. These rats were subsequently randomized to receive a daily gavage treatment of 1 ml of unoxidized fish oil, a highly oxidized fish oil, or control (water) throughout pregnancy. At birth, the gavage treatment was stopped, but the same maternal diets were fed ad libitum throughout lactation. Supplementation with oxidized fish oil during pregnancy had a marked adverse effect on newborn survival at day 2, leading to much greater odds of mortality than in the control (odds ratio 8.26) and unoxidized fish oil (odds ratio 13.70) groups. In addition, maternal intake of oxidized fish oil during pregnancy led to increased insulin resistance at the time of weaning (3 wks after exposure) compared with control dams (HOMA-IR 2.64 vs. 1.42; P = 0.044). These data show that the consumption of oxidized fish oil is harmful in rat pregnancy, with deleterious effects in both mothers and offspring. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Why fish oil fails: a comprehensive 21st century lipids-based physiologic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskin, B S

    2014-01-01

    The medical community suffered three significant fish oil failures/setbacks in 2013. Claims that fish oil's EPA/DHA would stop the progression of heart disease were crushed when The Risk and Prevention Study Collaborative Group (Italy) released a conclusive negative finding regarding fish oil for those patients with high risk factors but no previous myocardial infarction. Fish oil failed in all measures of CVD prevention-both primary and secondary. Another major 2013 setback occurred when fish oil's DHA was shown to significantly increase prostate cancer in men, in particular, high-grade prostate cancer, in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) analysis by Brasky et al. Another monumental failure occurred in 2013 whereby fish oil's EPA/DHA failed to improve macular degeneration. In 2010, fish oil's EPA/DHA failed to help Alzheimer's victims, even those with low DHA levels. These are by no means isolated failures. The promise of fish oil and its so-called active ingredients EPA / DHA fails time and time again in clinical trials. This lipids-based physiologic review will explain precisely why there should have never been expectation for success. This review will focus on underpublicized lipid science with a focus on physiology.

  12. Stability to oxidation of spray-dried fish oil powder microencapsulated using milk ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keogh, M.K.; O'Kennedy, B.T.; Kelly, J.

    2001-01-01

    Microencapsulation of fish oil was achieved by spray-drying homogenized emulsions of fish oil using 3 different types of casein as emulsifier and lactose as filler. As the degree of aggregation of the casein emulsifier increased, the vacuole volume of the microencapsulated powders decreased...

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids have antidepressant activity in forced swimming test in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhwani, Lalit; Tongia, Sudheer K; Pal, Veerendra S; Agrawal, Rajendra P; Nyati, Prem; Phadnis, Pradeep

    2007-01-01

    Forced swimming test is used to induce a characteristic behavior of immobility in rats, which resembles depression in humans to some extent. We evaluated the effect of omega-3 fatty acids alone as well as compared it with the standard antidepressant therapy with fluoxetine in both acute and chronic studies. In both the studies, rats were divided into 4 groups and subjected to the following drug interventions - Group 1- control: Group 2- fluoxetine in dose of 10 mg/kg subcutaneously 23.5, 5 and 1 h before the test: Group 3- omega-3 fatty acids in dose of 500 mg/kg orally; Group 4- fluoxetine plus omega-3 fatty acids both. In acute study, omega-3 fatty acids were given in single dose 2 h prior to the test while in chronic study omega-3 fatty acids were given daily for a period of 28 days. All animals were subjected to a 15-min pretest followed 24 h later by a 5-min test. A time sampling method was used to score the behavioral activity in each group. The results revealed that in acute study, omega-3 fatty acids do not have any significant effect in forced swimming test. However, in chronic study, omega-3 fatty acids affect the immobility and swimming behavior significantly when compared with control (p fluoxetine is significantly more than that of fluoxetine alone in changing the behavioral activity of rats in forced swimming test. It leads to the conclusion that omega-3 fatty acids have antidepressant activity per se, and the combination of fluoxetine and omega-3 fatty acids has more antidepressant efficacy than fluoxetine alone in forced swimming test in Wistar rats.

  14. Renal-protective and ameliorating impacts of omega-3 fatty acids against aspartame damaged MDCK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Veerappan, Muthuviveganandavel; Mistry, Bhupendra; Patel, Rahul; Moon, So Hyun; Nagajyothi, Patnamsetty Chidanandha; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2017-11-01

    Aspartame is widely used artificial sweeteners as food additives. Several researchers have pointed that the controversial report on the use of aspartame over more than decades. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential and unsaturated fatty acids, and it plays a remarkable role in vision, intelligence, neural development, and metabolism of neurotransmitters. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on aspartame treated renal cells. Experimental groups were divided into three such as sham control, aspartame treated, and aspartame with omega-3 fatty acids. Cell viability was determined by sulforhodamine-b assay and flow cytometric analysis. The experimental results showed that the aspartame induced altered cell viability were reduced following treatment of aspartame with omega-3 fatty acids. Altered cell morphology was recovered by omega-3 fatty acids. DNA damage appeared in the highest concentration of aspartame used in this study. DNA damage characteristics such as comet tail and tiny head sections did not appear in the omega-3 fatty acids treated cells. Several microvilli and vesicular structures were found in aspartame treated cells. Altered morphology such as rounding, microvilli, and formation of dome-like structures did not appear in the omega-3 fatty acids with aspartame treated cells. Caspase-3 mRNA and protein expression were increased in aspartame treated cells, and these levels were reduced following omega-3 fatty acids treatment. Taking all these data together, it is suggested that the omega-3 fatty acids may be a therapeutic agent to reduce the aspartame induced biochemical and morphological alterations in normal renal cells. © 2017 BioFactors, 43(6):847-857, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  15. Combined effects of soy isoflavone and fish oil on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Raina; Chiba, Hiroshige; Ishimi, Yoshiko; Uehara, Mariko; Suzuki, Kazuharu; Kim, Hyounju; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2011-07-01

    Both soy isoflavone and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to reduce the levels of bone-resorbing cytokines; however, the synergistic effects of these food ingredients have not been examined yet. This study was performed to elucidate the effect of concomitant intake of soy isoflavone and fish oil on bone mass in ovariectomized mice. Eight-week-old ddY female mice were subjected to ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery, and then fed an AIN-93G with safflower oil (So) as a control lipid source, isoflavone-supplemented safflower oil (So + I), fish oil instead of safflower oil (Fo) or isoflavone-supplemented fish oil (Fo + I) for 4 weeks. Femoral bone mineral density was significantly decreased by OVX; however, this decrease was inhibited by the intake of isoflavone and/or fish oil. Histomorphometric analyses showed that bone volume and trabecular thickness in the distal femoral trabecular bone were significantly lower in the So group than in the sham group, but those were restored in the Fo + I groups. The number of osteoclasts was significantly decreased by isoflavone intake. The increased rate of bone resorption after OVX was inhibited by isoflavone and/or fish oil. The serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha was increased after OVX, but was significantly lower with the combination of isoflavone with fish oil than isoflavone or fish oil alone. The results of this study indicated that the intakes of soy isoflavone and/or fish oil might have ameliorating effects on bone loss due to OVX. Further, the concomitant intake of soy isoflavone and fish oil at a low dose showed better effects on cytokines related with bone resorption.

  16. Identification of unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs) of hydrocarbons in commercial fish oil supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Anna-Jean M; Budge, Suzanne M

    2015-01-01

    Heightened awareness of the health benefits of fish oil consumption has led to a great increase in the number of fish oil supplements available to the consumer. Therefore manufacturers are continually looking for ways to distinguish their products from those of competitors. Minimally refined or virgin fish oils provide a unique feature; however, petroleum hydrocarbon contamination from oil spills is a reality in the world's oceans. The question arises whether oil produced from fish species caught in these polluted areas is free of petroleum hydrocarbons, with particular interest in unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs). This study investigates the presence of UCMs in commercially available fish oil supplements advertised as being virgin, as well as refined. Weathered petroleum hydrocarbons in the form of a UCM were found at 523 µg g(-1) in a virgin Alaskan salmon oil supplement. Supplements that were refined were free of this contamination. Fish used in the production of fish oil supplements appear to have accumulated petrogenic hydrocarbons in their tissues which were not removed by minimal oil refining. Further study is required to determine if there are any health implications associated with long-term consumption of these contaminated supplements. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Baseline omega-3 index correlates with aggressive and attention deficit disorder behaviours in adult prisoners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J Meyer

    Full Text Available There is emerging evidence that the supplementation of omega-3 contributes to a decrease in aggressive behaviour in prison populations. A challenge of such research is achieving statistical power against effect sizes which may be affected by the baseline omega-3 index. There are no published data on the blood omega-3 index with studies of this kind to assess the variability of the blood omega-3 index in conjunction with aggression and attention deficit assessments.To determine if the variance of the omega-3 index is correlated with aggressive and attention deficit behaviour in a prison population.136 adult male prisoners were recruited from South Coast Correctional Centre (SCCC, NSW Australia. A 7 point categorisation was used to quantify levels of aggressive behaviour (4 weeks from individual SCCC case notes, whereby higher scores correspond to increasingly aggressive behaviour. Study participants completed the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ and the Brown's Attention Deficit Disorder Scales (BADDS, provided a blood sample for erythrocyte fatty acid analysis using gas chromatography and the omega-3 index was calculated.The baseline omega-3 index ranged from 2.3% to 10.3%, indicating that some participants already had substantial omega-3 intake, however a median of 4.7% indicated a lower overall omega-3 intake than the general Australian population. Assessment of aggressive and attention deficit behaviour shows that there were negative correlations between baseline omega-3 index and baseline aggression categorisation scores (r = -0.21, P = 0.016; total AQ score (r = -0.234, P = 0.011; Anger (r = -0.222 p = 0.016; Hostility AQ (r = -0.239, P = 0.009; indirect aggression (r = -0.188 p = 0.042; total BADDS (r = -0.263, p = 0.005; Activation (r = -0.224, p = 0.016; Attention (r = -0.192, p = 0.043; Effort (r = -0.253, p = 0.007; Affect (r = -0.330, p = 0.000 and Memory (r = -0.240, p = 0.010.There is a high variability in omega-3 status of a NSW prison

  18. Protection of fish oil from oxidation by microencapsulation using freeze-drying techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinzelmann, K.; Franke, K.; Jensen, Benny

    2000-01-01

    (N-3)-Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. Cold sea water plankton and plankton- consuming fish are known sources of (n-3)-PUFAs. Enriching normal food components with fish oil is a tool for increasing the intake of (n-3)-PUFAs. Due to the high sensitivity...... different freezing techniques and subsequently freeze-dried. Several parameters regarding formulation and process (addition of antioxidants to the fish oil, use of carbohydrates, homogenisation and freezing conditions, initial freeze-drying temperature, grinding) were varied to evaluate their influence...... on the oxidative stability of dried microencapsulated fish oil. The shelf life of the produced samples was determined by measuring the development of volatile oxidation products vs. storage time. It could be shown that the addition of antioxidants to fish oil was necessary to produce dried microencapsulated fish...

  19. Effect of ingredients on oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched drinking yoghurt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Klein, Anna; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    , pectin, citric acid or gluconodelta- lactone did not affect the oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched yoghurt emulsions. Furthermore, the fruit preparation and added sugar did not lead to increased antioxidative activity. It is concluded that yoghurt as the dairy component in the fish oil......The oxidative stabilities of fish oil-enriched milk and fish oil-enriched drinking yoghurt were compared by following the development of lipid oxidation in plain milk, plain yoghurt and yoghurt to which ingredients present in drinking yoghurt were added one by one. All samples were enriched with 1...... wt-% fish oil. After 3 weeks of storage, development of peroxide values, volatile secondary oxidation products and fishy offflavors were much more pronounced in the milk compared to any of the yoghurt samples, irrespective of any added ingredients used to prepare flavored drinking yoghurt. Thus...

  20. Enzymatic Transesterification of Ethyl Ferulate with Fish Oil and Its Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Glasius, Marianne; Xu, Xuebing

    2012-01-01

    formation of feruloyl fish oil products as well when appropriate amount of glycerol was present in the reaction. Therefore, the addition of equivalent molar amount of glycerol to EF was decided for the practical optimization of the system. The mutual effects of temperature (40 to 70 oC), reaction time (1......The enzymatic transesterification of ethyl ferulate (EF) with cod liver fish oil was investigated with Novozym 435 as catalyst under solvent-free conditions. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the synthesis system for production of feruloyl fish oil in industry. The modified HPLC method...... to 5 days), enzyme load (2 to 20 %) and substrate amount ratio of fish oil/EF (1 to 5) were thus studied with assistance of response surface methodology (RSM) for the purpose of maximizing the formation towards feruloyl fish oil. The models were well fitted and verified. The optimized conditions were...

  1. Effective Prevention of Oxidative Deterioration of Fish Oil: Focus on Flavor Deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Kazuo; Uemura, Mariko; Hosokawa, Masashi

    2018-03-25

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), both abundant in fish oil, are known to have significant biochemical and physiological effects primarily linked to the improvement of human health, especially cardiovascular and brain health. However, the incorporation of fish oil into foods and beverages is often challenging, as fish oil is very easily oxidized and can cause undesirable flavors. This review discusses this rapid formation of the fishy and metallic off-flavors, focusing especially on an early stage of fish oil oxidation. Although oxidative stability and quality of commercialized fish oil have improved over the past few years, there is a still a problem with its application: Flavor deterioration can be found even at very low oxidation levels. This review also notes the effective way to inhibit the formation of the volatile compounds responsible for the flavor deterioration.

  2. A review of lipid extraction from fish processing by-product for use as a biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeoti, Ibraheem A.; Hawboldt, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Fish processing facilities generate a significant amount of fish by-products that could be an important source of energy, food, or industrial feedstock. While fish oil is a natural source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (mostly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) used in nutritional supplements, the ability to extract, refine, and get to market of these oils may be challenging at processing facilities where there is limited infrastructure and plants are remotely located. Under these conditions, extraction of oil from fish by-product for use as an in-house or regional fuel may be both economically and environmentally be a more sustainable approach. Processes to extract and refine fish oil for fuel are less energy intensive than the processes for nutritional quality oils and do not require the stringent product specifications and approval process as in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Unlike food crops, extraction of oil from fish residue does not negatively impact food production. This paper presents an overview of developments made in fish oil extraction methodologies including physical, chemical and biological processes. - Highlights: • We have reviewed various lipid extraction methods from fish residue. • Low grade fish oils for fuel applications can be beneficial to facility and region. • The environmental impacts and safety issues can be reduced using SFE method

  3. A protective lipidomic biosignature associated with a balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio in fat-1 transgenic mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astarita, G.; McKenzie, J.H.; Wang, B.; Strassburg, K.; Doneanu, A.; Johnson, J.; Baker, A.; Hankemeier, T.; Murphy, J.; Vreeken, R.J.; Langridge, J.; Kang, J.X.

    2014-01-01

    A balanced omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio has been linked to health benefits and the prevention of many chronic diseases. Current dietary intervention studies with different sources of omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3) lack appropriate control diets and carry many other

  4. Oral omega-3 fatty acid treatment for dry eye in contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Rahul; Kumar, Prachi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acid (O3FA) supplementation on dry eye symptoms, tear film tests, and conjunctival impression cytology in patients with contact lens wear-associated dry eye. In this randomized, double-blind, multicentric trial, contact lens wearers (n = 496) were randomized to receive either O3FAs or placebo capsules (corn oil) twice daily for 6 months. Subjects underwent examinations at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. At each visit, a questionnaire of dry eye symptoms and lens wear comfort was administered. Subjects further underwent measurement of tear film break-up time (TBUT) and a Schirmer test. Conjunctival impression cytology was performed by the transfer method. Improvement in symptoms and lens wear comfort were primary outcome measures. Changes from baseline in TBUT, Schirmer, and Nelson grade at 6 months were secondary outcome measures. The mean improvement in symptom score in the O3FA group was 4.7 ± 2 (2.0) as compared with 0.5 ± 2 (0.9) in the placebo group (P dry eye symptoms, improving lens wear comfort, and cytological changes in contact lens wearers.

  5. Oral omega-3 fatty acids treatment in computer vision syndrome related dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Rahul; Kumar, Prachi; Phogat, Hemant; Kaur, Avinash; Kumar, Manjushri

    2015-06-01

    To assess the efficacy of dietary consumption of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FAs) on dry eye symptoms, Schirmer test, tear film break up time (TBUT) and conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) in patients with computer vision syndrome. Interventional, randomized, double blind, multi-centric study. Four hundred and seventy eight symptomatic patients using computers for more than 3h per day for minimum 1 year were randomized into two groups: 220 patients received two capsules of omega-3 fatty acids each containing 180mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 120mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) daily (O3FA group) and 236 patients received two capsules of a placebo containing olive oil daily for 3 months (placebo group). The primary outcome measure was improvement in dry eye symptoms and secondary outcome measures were improvement in Nelson grade and an increase in Schirmer and TBUT scores at 3 months. In the placebo group, before dietary intervention, the mean symptom score, Schirmer, TBUT and CIC scores were 7.5±2, 19.9±4.7mm, 11.5±2s and 1±0.9 respectively, and 3 months later were 6.8±2.2, 20.5±4.7mm, 12±2.2s and 0.9±0.9 respectively. In the O3FA group, these values were 8.0±2.6, 20.1±4.2mm, 11.7±1.6s and 1.2±0.8 before dietary intervention and 3.9±2.2, 21.4±4mm, 15±1.7s, 0.5±0.6 after 3 months of intervention, respectively. This study demonstrates the beneficial effect of orally administered O3FAs in alleviating dry eye symptoms, decreasing tear evaporation rate and improving Nelson grade in patients suffering from computer vision syndrome related dry eye. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of omega-3 carboxylic acids on apolipoprotein CIII-containing lipoproteins in severe hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Allyson M; Furtado, Jeremy D; Lee, Jane; Amerine, William; Davidson, Michael H; Sacks, Frank M

    Lipoprotein subspecies containing apoCIII adversely affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk; for example, low density lipoprotein (LDL) with apoCIII is a stronger CVD predictor than LDL without apoCIII. The Epanova for Lowering Very High Triglycerides (EVOLVE) trial showed that Epanova (omega-3 carboxylic acids [OM3-CA]) significantly lowered TG and apoCIII but raised LDL-C. However, it is unknown what subspecies of LDL were affected by treatment. To determine how lipoprotein subspecies are affected by omega-3 fatty acid treatment, we studied the effect of OM3-CA on apoCIII concentrations in high density lipoprotein (HDL), LDL, and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and on the concentrations of subspecies of HDL, LDL, and VLDL that contain or do not contain apoCIII. We analyzed plasma from a subset of subjects from the EVOLVE trial, a 12-week double-blind study of 399 subjects with fasting TG of 500 to 2000 mg/dL who were randomized to OM3-CA 2, 3, or 4 g/d or olive oil (placebo). OM3-CA significantly reduced plasma apoCIII relative to placebo, as well as apoCIII in HDL, and apoCIII in LDL. Treatment did not significantly affect the concentration of LDL with apoCIII, a subspecies highly associated with CVD risk. OM3-CA increased selectively the concentration of LDL that does not contain apoCIII, a subspecies with a weak relation to coronary heart disease. The reduction in apoCIII was associated with plasma increases in eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid and decreases in linoleic, palmitic, and oleic acids. Reduction in apoCIII may be a mechanism for the TG-lowering effects of OM3-CA. The increase in LDL-C seen in the EVOLVE trial may not be associated with increased risk of CVD. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Short-term supplementation of low-dose gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), or GLA plus ALA does not augment LCP omega 3 status of Dutch vegans to an appreciable extent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Brouwer, D A; Hasperhoven, M B; Martini, I A; Muskiet, F A

    Vegans do not consume meat and fish and have therefore low intakes of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). They may consequently have little negative feedback inhibition from dietary LCP on conversion of alpha -linolenic acid (ALA) to the LCP omega 3 eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and

  8. Effects of Standard and/or Glutamine Dipeptide and/or Omega-3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Supplemented Parenteral Nutrition on Neutrophil Functions, Interleukin-8 Level and Length of ... Standard TPN and glutamine and lipid emulsion with omega 3 fatty acids were given to colorectal cancer patients and the effects of these to neutrophil ...

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieswerda Lee E

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determine whether omega-3 PUFA are likely to be efficacious in these disorders. Results Most trials involved a small number of participants but were largely well designed. Omega-3 PUFA were well tolerated by both children and adults with mild gastrointestinal effects being the only consistently reported adverse event. For schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder we found little evidence of a robust clinically relevant effect. In the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and related disorders, most trials showed at most small benefits over placebo. A limited meta-analysis of these trials suggested that benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplementation may be greater in a classroom setting than at home. Some evidence indicates that omega-3 PUFA may reduce symptoms of anxiety although the data is preliminary and inconclusive. The most convincing evidence for beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA is to be found in mood disorders. A meta-analysis of trials involving patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder provided evidence that omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduces symptoms of depression. Furthermore, meta-regression analysis suggests that supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid may be more beneficial in mood disorders than with docosahexaenoic acid, although several confounding factors prevented a definitive conclusion being made regarding which species of omega-3 PUFA is most beneficial. The mechanisms underlying the apparent efficacy of

  10. Omega-3 fatty acids' supplementation in Alzheimer's disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canhada, Scheine; Castro, Kamila; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Luft, Vivian Cristine

    2017-05-03

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegeneration disorder characterized by progressive impairments of memory, language, reasoning, and other cognitive functions. Evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may act as a possible protection factor in AD. To evaluate the results available in the literature involving omega-3 fatty acids supplementation and its effect on cognitive function in AD patients. A systematic review of MEDLINE (from PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database, and Cochrane Library databases was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Inclusion criteria consisted in original intervention studies, controlled by placebo, that assessed the impact of supplementation or dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive function, in humans with AD, without limitation for prime date of publication. Initial search resulted in 361 articles. Seven studies fully met the inclusion criteria. Most studies did not find statistically significant results for the omega-3 fatty acids supplementation compared to placebo, and those who show some benefit do it only in a few cognitive assessment scales. However, the effects of omega-3 fatty acids appear to be most effectively demonstrated in patients with very mild AD. The effects of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in mild AD corroborate epidemiological observational studies showing that omega-3 fatty acids may be beneficial in disease onset, when there is slight impairment of brain function. Although some studies have shown changes in scales of cognitive function in more severe cases, they are not enough to support omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in the treatment of AD.

  11. Efficacies of vitamin D and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on experimental endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Alpaslan; Şimşek, Memet; İlhan, Raşit; Can, Behzat; Baspinar, Melike; Akyol, Hadice; Gül, H Fatih; Gürsu, Ferit; Kavak, Burçin; Akın, Mustafa

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3 (vitamin D) and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA) on experimentally induced endometriosis in a rat model. A prospective, single-blind, randomized, controlled experimental study was performed on 30 Wistar female rats. Endometriosis was surgically induced by implanting endometrial tissue on the abdominal peritoneum. Four weeks later, a second laparotomy was performed to assess pre-treatment implant volumes and cytokine levels. The rats were randomized into three groups: vitamin D group (42 μg/kg/day), omega-3 PUFA group (450 mg/kg/day), and control group (saline 0.1 mL/rat/day). These treatments were administered for 4 weeks. At the end of treatment, a third laparotomy was performed for the assessment of cytokine levels, implant volumes (post-treatment) and implants were totally excised for histopathologic examination. Pre- and post-treatment volumes, cytokine levels within the groups, as well as stromal and glandular tissues between the groups were compared. The mean post-treatment volume was statistically significantly reduced in the omega-3 PUFA group (p=0.02) and the level of the interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the peritoneal fluid were significantly decreased at the end of treatment in the omega-3 PUFA group (p=0.02, p=0.03, and p=0.03, respectively). In the vitamin D group, only IL-6 levels were significantly decreased. In the histopathologic examination, the glandular tissue and stromal tissue scores of the implants were significant lower in the omega-3 PUFA group (p=0.03 and p=0.02). Omega-3 PUFA caused significant regression of endometriotic implants. Vitamin D has not been as effective as omega-3 PUFA on endometriosis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Comparison of Omega-2 and Omega-3 calibration explosions basing on regional seismic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlova, N.N.; Sokolova, I.N.

    2001-01-01

    Comparison of different parameters of seismic records of Omega-2 and Omega-3 calibration explosions was performed. It was shown that despite the equal charge the level of seismic oscillations was lower during the Omega-3 explosion than during Omega-2. Spectral composition, polarization of oscillations, wave picture is identical at a given station for both explosions. Assumptions were made on the reason of such difference in seismic effect. (author)

  13. Effect of the preparation of canned "crumbled anchovy" (Engraulis ringens) on polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Ordoñez, Lenny R.; Hernánde, Eloisa M.

    2015-01-01

    The anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) is a major fishery resources exploited in Peru. It is rich source of proteins of high biological value and polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The objective was to determine the effect of the process of preparing the canned "crumbled anchovy" with emphasis on polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids and true content of them in canning. It was developed following the standardized technology by the Institu...

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids and the genetic risk of early onset acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung Yinko, S S L; Thanassoulis, G; Stark, K D; Avgil Tsadok, M; Engert, J C; Pilote, L

    2014-11-01

    Recent gene-environment interaction studies suggest that diet may influence an individual's genetic predisposition to cardiovascular risk. We evaluated whether omega-3 fatty acid intake may influence the risk for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) conferred by genetic polymorphisms among patients with early onset ACS. Our population consisted of 705 patients of white European descent enrolled in GENESIS-PRAXY, a multicenter cohort study of patients aged 18-55 years and hospitalized with ACS. We used a case-only design to investigate interactions between the omega-3 index (a validated biomarker of omega-3 fatty acid intake) and 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated with ACS. We used logistic regression to assess the interaction between each SNP and the omega-3 index. Interaction was also assessed between the omega-3 index and a genetic risk score generated from the 30 SNPs. All models were adjusted for age and sex. An interaction for increased ACS risk was found between carriers of the chromosome 9p21 variant rs4977574 and low omega-3 index (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.07-2.32, p = 0.02), but this was not significant after correction for multiple testing. Similar results were obtained in the adjusted model (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.05-2.29, p = 0.03). We did not observe any interaction between the genetic risk score or any of the other SNPs and the omega-3 index. Our results suggest that omega-3 fatty acid intake may modify the genetic risk conferred by chromosome 9p21 variation in the development of early onset ACS and requires independent replication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolites derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are important for cardioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kim; Malick, Mandy; Madingou, Ness; Touchette, Charles; Bourque-Riel, Valérie; Tomaro, Leandro; Rousseau, Guy

    2015-12-15

    Although controversial, some data suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are beneficial to cardiovascular diseases, and could reduce infarct size. In parallel, we have reported that the administration of Resolvin D1 (RvD1), a metabolite of docosahexaenoic acid, an omega-3 PUFA, can reduce infarct size. The present study was designed to determine if the inhibition of two important enzymes involved in the formation of RvD1 from omega-3 PUFA could reduce the cardioprotective effect of omega-3 PUFA. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a diet rich in omega-3 PUFA during 10 days before myocardial infarction (MI). Two days before MI, rats received a daily dose of Meloxicam, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, PD146176, an inhibitor of 15-lipoxygenase, both inhibitors or vehicle. MI was induced by the occlusion of the left coronary artery for 40min followed by reperfusion. Infarct size and neutrophil accumulation were evaluated after 24h of reperfusion while caspase-3, -8 and Akt activities were assessed at 30min of reperfusion. Rats receiving inhibitors, alone or in combination, showed a larger infarct size than those receiving omega-3 PUFA alone. Caspase-3 and -8 activities are higher in ischemic areas with inhibitors while Akt activity is diminished in groups treated with inhibitors. Moreover, the study showed that RvD1 restores cardioprotection when added to the inhibitors. Results from this study indicate that the inhibition of the metabolism of Omega-3 PUFA attenuate their cardioprotective properties. Then, resolvins seem to be an important mediator in the cardioprotection conferred by omega-3 PUFA in our experimental model of MI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Parenteral Fish-Oil Lipid Emulsions in the Prevention of Severe Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayalthrikkovil, Sakeer; Bashir, Rani A; Rabi, Yacov; Amin, Harish; Spence, Jill-Marie; Robertson, Helen Lee; Lodha, Abhay

    2017-06-01

    Objective  Omega-3 fatty acids are vital for brain and retinal maturation. It is not clear if early use of ω-3 fatty acids in the form of fish-oil lipid emulsions (FLEs) prevents retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in preterm infants. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate whether early administration of parenteral FLEs reduces ROP requiring laser therapy or severe ROP ≥stage 3 in preterm infants. Methods  A literature search was performed to identify studies comparing parenteral FLEs with soybean-based lipid emulsions (SLEs) in preventing ROP. The main outcome was incidence of severe ROP or ROP requiring laser therapy. Results  Studies met the inclusion criteria (four RCTs and two observational studies). The pooled relative risk of ROP requiring laser therapy or severe ROP ≥ stage 3 in FLEs group was 0.47 [95% CI: 0.24-0.90] and 0.40 [95% CI: 0.22-0.76] in RCTs and observational studies, respectively. FLEs also reduced cholestasis; however, other secondary outcomes of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), sepsis, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and mortality were similar. Conclusion  The use of FLEs may reduce the incidence of severe ROP or need for laser therapy in preterm infants. A large multicenter RCT is required to confirm this. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Depression in Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Shinto

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic disabling disease in the central nervous system in young to middle aged adults. Depression is common in multiple sclerosis (MS affecting between 50–60% of patients. Pilot studies in unipolar depression report an improvement in depression when omega-3 fatty acids are given with antidepressants. The objective of this study was to investigate whether omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, as an augmentation therapy, improves treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD in people with MS. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of omega-3 fatty acids at six grams per day over three months. The primary outcome was a 50% or greater improvement on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS. Thirty-nine participants were randomized and thirty-one completed the 3-month intervention. Improvement on MADRS between groups was not significantly different at the 3-month end point with 47.4% in the omega-3 fatty acid group and 45.5% in the placebo group showing 50% or greater improvement (p = 0.30. Omega-3 fatty acids as an augmentation therapy for treatment-resistant depression in MS was not significantly different than placebo in this pilot trial. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation at the dose given was well-tolerated over 3 months.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00122954.

  18. Omega-3 chicken egg detection system using a mobile-based image processing segmentation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, Oky Dwi; Kurniawan Teguh, M.; Cintya Amalia, P.

    2017-02-01

    An Omega-3 chicken egg is a chicken egg produced through food engineerin