Dec 18, 2013 ... The chickens fed diets containing palm oil, soybean oil or fish oil as the ... polyunsaturated fatty acids; LDL, low density lipoprotein; HDL, .... content of muscles in broilers fed different dietary CLA levels. Javadi et al. (2007) ...
Li, Xiang Z; Gao, Qing S; Yan, Chang G; Choi, Seong H; Shin, Jong S; Song, Man K
We hypothesized that manipulating metabolism with fish oil and malate as a hydrogen acceptor would affect the biohydrogenation process of α-linolenic acid by rumen microbes. This study was to examine the effect of fish oil and/or malate on the production of conjugated fatty acids and methane (CH4 ) by rumen microbes when incubated with linseed oil. Linseed oil (LO), LO with fish oil (LO-FO), LO with malate (LO-MA), or LO with fish oil and malate (LO-FO-MA) was added to diluted rumen fluid, respectively. The LO-MA and LO-FO-MA increased pH and propionate concentration compared to the other treatments. LO-MA and LO-FO-MA reduced CH4 production compared to LO. LO-MA and LO-FO-MA increased the contents of c9,t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and c9,t11,c15-conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA) compared to LO. The content of malate was rapidly reduced while that of lactate was reduced in LO-MA and LO-FO-MA from 3 h incubation time. The fold change of the quantity of methanogen related to total bacteria was decreased at both 3 h and 6 h incubation times in all treatments compared to the control. Overall data indicate that supplementation of combined malate and/or fish oil when incubated with linseed oil, could depress methane generation and increase production of propionate, CLA and CLnA under the conditions of the current in vitro study. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Song, M K; Jin, G L; Ji, B J; Chang, S S; Jeong, J; Smith, S B; Choi, S H
We hypothesized that increasing ruminal pH would lead to enrichment of adipose tissue with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four Korean native (Hanwoo) steers were used to investigate the additive effects of monensin (30ppm, SO-BM) and/or fish oil (0.7%, SO-BMF) in the diets along with soybean oil (7%) and sodium bicarbonate (0.5%, SO-B) on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLAs in adipose tissue. The steers were assigned to randomly four groups of six animals each based on body weight. The control group (CON) was fed a commercial concentrate for the late fattening stage. Supplementation of oil and sodium bicarbonate reduced feed intake and daily gain, and fish oil further decreased feed intake (P<0.001) and daily gain (P<0.087) compared to steers fed other diets. Total CLA and CLA isomers in M.longissimus dorsi were not affected when steers were fed SO-B and SO-BM diets compared with those of steers fed CON and SO-BMF diets. However, total poly unsaturated fatty acids were higher (P=0.03) in steers fed SO than in CON steers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
The effects of diets containing standard soybean oil, soybean oil enhanced with conjugated linoleic acids, menhaden fish oil, or an algal docosahexaenoic acid supplement on juvenile channel catfish performance, hematology
Current commercial diets for Channel Catfish contain little or no marine fish oil to reduce diet cost and address environmental concerns. However, there is conflicting data on the effects of fish oil and other lipid sources in juvenile Channel Catfish, and some novel lipids have not been tested agai...
Rossing, Peter; Hansen, Birgitte V.; Nielsen, Flemming S.
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies in nondiabetic kidney diseases suggest that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish oil) may have beneficial effects on albuminuria, kidney function, arterial blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. Therefore, we evaluated the long-term effect of fish...... in the fish oil compared with the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Our study does not suggest that fish oil has beneficial effects on albuminuria, kidney function, blood pressure, and dyslipidemia in normotensive IDDM patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy....
The too low level of omega-3 intake in the modern diet is a fact which is worrying health professional and authorities. Among the “traditional” recommendation for a safe and equilibrated diet, recommending food containing omega-3, is there, out of the inescapable fish oil leading to some digestive discomforts, any alternative? Two human clinical trials conducted to verify the effective efficiency of this re equilibrated diet on various skin parameters (hydration, surface evaluation, inflammat...
Full Text Available The too low level of omega-3 intake in the modern diet is a fact which is worrying health professional and authorities. Among the “traditional” recommendation for a safe and equilibrated diet, recommending food containing omega-3, is there, out of the inescapable fish oil leading to some digestive discomforts, any alternative? Two human clinical trials conducted to verify the effective efficiency of this re equilibrated diet on various skin parameters (hydration, surface evaluation, inflammation are reviewed here. The results of the clinical trials on various skin parameters (hydration, trans epidermal water loss, roughness, scaling, superficial inflammation and blood flow were quite convincing about the interest of such a supplementation.
Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.
stability than fish-oil-enriched dressings, irrespective of the mode of fish oil addition. Yoghurt thus seemed to be a good delivery system of lipids containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Different effects of adding fish oil either as neat fish oil or as a fish-oil-in-water emulsion were observed...... of neat fish oil was a good option for preserving the final quality in yoghurt and dressings, but a pre-emulsion may still be considered for the fish oil enrichment of certain food products, for example, milk. Keywords: Fish oil; lipid oxidation; oil-in-water emulsion; n-3 PUFA; milk; yoghurt; salad......Abstract: This study compared the oxidative stabilities of fish-oil-enriched milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing and investigated the effects on oxidation of adding either neat fish oil or a fish-oil-in-water emulsion to these products. Milk emulsions had higher levels of a fishy off...
Kinami, Tomohisa; Horii, Naoto; Narayan, Bhaskar; Arato, Shingo; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo; Negishi, Hironori; Ikuina, Junichi; Noda, Ryuji; Shirasawa, Seiichi
A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method is described for the determination of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and conjugated linolenic acids (CLN). Methyl esters prepared from purified lipid fractions of soybean oil were analyzed using an HPLC system equipped with photodiode-array detector to detect peaks having maximum absorption around 233 and 275 nm. These peaks were concentrated by AgNO3-silicic acid column chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC. The structural analysis, o...
Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Haugsgjerd, Bjørn Ole; Griinari, Mikko
conditions using the Oxipres™ at 90°C. The results from analysis of PV, AV, TBARS, conjugated dienes and trienes, and the antioxidant content suggested that krill oil was more oxidatively stable than fish oil. However, the color or other constituents of the krill oil might affect the result......The aim of this research was to investigate the oxidation progress and pathways of krill and fish oil during 21 days of incubation at 40°C. The oxidative stability of the oils was investigated through: (i) classical methods such as peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV), thiobarbituric reactive...... substance (TBARS), conjugated dienes and trienes, and antioxidant content, and (ii) advanced methods such as determination of volatiles content by dynamic headspace (DHS)‐GC/MS, lipid classes, and pyrrole content. In addition, the oxidative stability of the oils was evaluated under accelerated oxidation...
Chandra, Ranjit Kumar
.... Based on epidemiologic data, it has been suggested that a fish-containing diet is beneficial in the prevention and management of a variety of disorders including coronary heart disease, hypertension, and psoriasis...
Secher, Niels Jørgen
A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together with a f......A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...... with a fast acting effect on fish oil....
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Hydrogenated fish oil. 186.1551 Section 186.1551... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1551 Hydrogenated fish oil. (a) Hydrogenated fish oil (CAS Reg. No. 91078-95-4) is a class of oils produced by partial hydrogenation of oils expressed...
La Ode Huli
Full Text Available The skin of swangi fish is a potential fish skin to be produced for fish oil. The objectives of this research were aimed to determine the yield and the best quality of fish oil and also to compare fatty acid profile of the fish according to different extraction methods. Fish oil extractions were used by wet rendering method with extraction temperatures of 60, 70, 80, 90, 100°C for 20, 30, and 40 minutes. Fish oil quality was determined by the chemical oil characteristics i.e. PV, FFA, AV, anisidin, and TOTOX. Fatty acid profile was analyzed using gas chromatography (Shimadzu. The results of the study showed that the highest fish oil yield in each treatment was obtained extraction temperature of 60°C for 30 minutes with percentage of 0.33, (70°C for 30 minutes 0.46, (80°C for 30 minutes 1.23, (90°C for 20 minutes 1.14 and (100°C for 20 minutes 0.84. These values were lower compare to Bligh & Dyer and Soxhlet methods. Then, the best fish oil quality was resulted on temperature extraction of 60°C for 30 minutes with PV, FFA, anisidin, AV, and TOTOX were 9.17 meq/kg, 6.92%, 13,77 mg KOH/g, 0.86 meq/kg and 19.19 meq/kg, respectively. FUFA fatty acid compositions of swangi skin fish oil especially EPA and DHA in wet rendering method were gained 0.73% and 2.53%, respectively. These results were lower than Bligh & Dyer method which was consisted of 3.66% (EPA, and 13.29% (DHA and also Soxhlet extraction method with value of EPA was 2.78% and DHA was 9.62%.Keywords: EPA, extraction temperature, DHA, fish oil quality, fish skin
The Deepwater Horizon blowout in the Gulf of Mexico was the world's largest oil spill in terms of duration and volume spilled. Clean-up operations, which involved the continuous and wide-spread use of oil dispersant at the surface and at the seabed discharge point at 1500 metres depth, gave rise to public concern about dispersant toxicity. Reports from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) claimed little difference in acute toxicity to marine fish and invertebrate species among commonly available dispersants and between dispersed and non-dispersed Louisiana Sweet Crude. Technically, the toxicity of waterborne hydrocarbons does not vary with chemical dispersion. However, the EPA omitted any consideration of loading, and misled the public about the risks of dispersant use in oil clean-up. This study examined the chronic toxicity of dispersed oil to fish embryos. The study revealed that toxicity expressed as oil loading increases by a factor of 10 to 1000 times with dispersion, largely because 10 to 1000 times more oil enters the water column. Since the action of dispersant is on the exposure component of the risk equation, not on the potency of the toxic components of oil, then the risk of oil toxicity to fish increases an equivalent amount.
In a study of the mechanism behind the inhibitory effect of fish oil on the growth of breast cancer cells, the authors reported that fish oil, or w-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), did the following: (1...
Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Østerdal, M L; Salvig, J D
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on duration of pregnancy, conditional on the woman's habitual fish intake. DESIGN: Multicentre 1:1 randomised clinical trial of effect of fish oil in a high-risk population of pregnant women in whom habitual fish intake was assessed...... at randomisation. SETTING: Nineteen university delivery wards in seven European countries. SUBJECTS: Pregnant women with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), or pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in a previous pregnancy (group 1, n=495); with twin pregnancies (group 2, n=367......); or with suspicion of IUGR or threatening preeclampsia in the current pregnancy (group 3, n=106). Women were stratified into low, middle, or high fish consumers. METHODS: The intervention group received fish oil capsules providing 2.7 g long-chain n-3 fatty acids per day (n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA...
Lofgren, R P; Wilt, T J; Nichol, K L; Crespin, L; Pluhar, R; Eckfeldt, J
We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study to determine the effects of fish oil supplementation on blood pressure in middle-aged men. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume either 20 g of fish oil or safflower oil for 12 weeks and then consume the other oil for an additional 12 weeks after a 4-week washout period. We found no significant changes from the pretreatment value in systolic or diastolic blood pressure with the use of fish oil supplements. In addition, there were no significant differences in the posttreatment blood pressures comparing the fish and safflower oil phases of the study. PMID:8427339
Lall, Rahul K; Proctor, Andrew; Jain, Vishal P; Lay, Jackson O
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich soy oil has been produced by soy oil linoleic acid (LA) photoisomerization, but CLA-rich oil triacylglycerol (TAG) characterization was not described. Therefore, the objectives were to identify and quantify new TAG fractions in CLA-rich oil by nonaqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (NARP-HPLC). Analytical NARP-HPLC with an acetonitrile/dichloromethane (ACN/DCM) gradient and an evaporating light scattering detector/ultraviolet (ELSD/UV) detector was used. New TAG peaks from LA-containing TAGs were observed. The LnLL, LLL, LLO, and LLP (Ln, linolenic; L, linoleic; O, oleic; and P, palmitic) peaks reduced after isomerization with an increase in adjacent peaks that coeluted with LnLnO, LnLO, LnOO, and LnPP. The newly formed peaks were wider than those of the original oil and absorbed at 233 nm, suggesting the possibility of various CLA containing TAGs. The HPLC profile showed five fractions of mixed TAGs, and fatty acid analysis showed that CLA isomers were found predominately in fractions 2 and 3, which originally contained most LA. The CLA isomers were 70-80% trans,trans and 20-30% cis,trans and trans,cis.
Full Text Available Ingestion of fish oil fatty acids (omega - 3 fatty acids inhibits the formation of arachidonic acid - derived cytokines and leads to production of compounds with diminished biological activity. Beneficial effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil in rheumatoid arthritis have been shown in many controlled trials."nMethods : 43 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis entered in a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to recieve either lOgr fish oil daily (treatment group or corn oil (placebo group. Baseline drugs and usual diet were continued without any changes. Disease variables were evaluated at baseline and after completion of study period."nThe changes in disease variables were compared by paired t-tesl in each group. Comparison of the two groups was done by t-test. Functional capacity was compared by Wilcoxon ranks test."nResults : 19 patients in treatment group and 20 patients in placebo group completed the study which lasted eight weeks . In the treatment group, joint pain index decreased from 30±11 at baseline, to 18±11 at the end of study period (P < 0.01. Joint swelling index decreased from 8 ± 4 to 2 ± 4, (P< 0.01, morning stiffness from 87 ± 41 to 24±16 minutes (P < 0.01. In the placebo group the above variable changes were from 19±14 to 25±14 ; 8±8 to 7±6 and 80±71 to 76±75 minutes respectively, which were not significant . The differences between the treatment and placebo groups were significant in joint swelling index (P < 0.05, morning stiffness (P<0.01 and functioal capacity (p< 0.005, the differences in joint pain index and grip strenght did not quite achieve statstical significance. During study period there were no adverese effects with fish oil consumption."nConclusion : Fish oil supplemention has anti-inflamatory effects in rheumatoid arthritis. Further studies are needed to recommend its long - term usage concomittant with other drugs in all patients
Parrott, J.; Colavecchia, M.; Hewitt, L.; Sherry, J.; Headley, J.; Turcotte, D.; Liber, K.
This paper described a collaborative project organized by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) Panel of Energy Research and Development (PERD) with researchers from Environment Canada and the University of Saskatchewan. The 4-year study was conducted to assess the toxicity of oil sands sediments and river waters, and reclamation ponds and sediments on laboratory-raised fish. Three sediments from rivers were evaluated for their potential to cause adverse impacts on fathead minnow eggs and larvae for a period of 18 days. The study monitored hatching, larval survival, development, and growth. Naphthenic acids (NA), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals were measured in the sediments to determine if the compounds can be correlated with observed toxicity. The study will also assess walleye eggs exposed to sediments, and in situ fish exposures. Toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) studies will be conducted to isolate the fractions that may affect fish development and growth.
Saga, Linda C.; Kristinova, Vera; Kirkhus, Bente
oat oil and camelina oil to protect fish oil in bulk and as fish oil-enriched skimmed milk emulsions was evaluated. Results of oxidative stability of bulk oils and blends assessed by the Schaal oven weight gain test and by the rancimat method showed significant increase in oxidative stability when oat...... oil was added to fish oil in only 5 and 10 %, whereas no protective effect of camelina oil was observed when evaluated by these methods. Moreover, fish oil blended with oat oil conferred the lowest PV and lower amounts of volatile compounds during the storage period of 14 days at 4 °C. Surprisingly......, skimmed milk supplemented with fish-oat oil blend gave the highest scores for off-flavors in the sensory evaluation, demonstrating that several methods, including sensory analysis, should be combined to illustrate the complete picture of lipid oxidation in emulsions....
Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Griinari, Mikko; Jacobsen, Charlotte
oxidative stability to the same extent as 2000 ppm mixed tocopherols in Oxipres. Overall, oxidative stability of fish oil or fish oil + vegetable oil blends was improved the most by addition of 5000 ppm rosemary extract and 500 ppm mixed tocopherols. A commercial oil blend with composition optimized based...... of fish oil by adding vegetable oils, mixed tocopherols and rosemary extract, and to formulate a commercial product according to the results obtained. The formulated product was evaluated against commercial fish oil products. An initial screening for antioxidative effect was performed by using Oxipres...... equipment. The effect of antioxidant and vegetable oil blends was examined in oils stored at 30 and 40°C by measuring peroxide value, volatile compounds with GC-MS and tocopherol content. Addition of vegetable oil and rosemary extract at high level (4000–6000 ppm) plus 600 ppm of mixed tocopherols increased...
Begtrup, Katrine Munk; Krag, Andreas Engel; Hvas, Anne-Mette
Abstract Introduction: Fish oil supplementation may inhibit platelet aggregation and can potentially increase the risk of bleeding. The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplements on haemostasis and bleeding risk, and to provide recommendations on whether...... of the included studies were randomised controlled trials or included a control group. Overall, fish oil supplements reduced platelet aggregation in healthy subjects. Fish oil exposure in surgical patients did not increase bleeding or blood transfusions either during or after surgery. Conclusion: Fish oil...... supplements reduced platelet aggregation in healthy subjects. This biochemical effect was not reflected in increased bleeding risk during or after surgery evaluated in randomised controlled trials. Consequently, this systematic review does not support the need for discontinuation of fish oil supplements prior...
Nielsen, Nina Skall; Debnath, D.; Jacobsen, Charlotte
The oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt as well as the antioxidative effect of citric acid ester, vitamin K and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were investigated by measuring peroxide value and volatile secondary oxidation products and by sensory analysis....... No oxidation was observed in yoghurt stored at 2 [degree sign]C for up to 19 days, with or without addition of citric acid ester. Fish oil enriched yoghurt was also very stable even when compared to yoghurt with added rapeseed oil or a mixture of rapeseed oil and fish oil stored for up to 29 days. The addition...
Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.
As a part of our ongoing experiments on optimization of the oxidative stability of fish oils in genuine food systems, this study investigated the oxidative deterioration of fish oil enriched milk emulsions during cold storage. The experimental data showed that addition of rapeseed oil to fish oil...... (1:1) prior to emulsification into milk significantly protected the emulsions against oxidative deterioration. Addition of propyl gallate and a citric acid ester to the fish oil prior to emulsification also protected the fish oil enriched milk during storage. Emulsions containing a rapeseed:fish oil...... mixture were oxidatively stable during 11 d at 2 øC. Thus, no additional inhibitory effect of the added antioxidants was observed. The peroxide value and concentrations of five selected volatiles derived from n- 3 PUFA degradation in rapeseed:fish oil mixture emulsions were not significantly different...
Pfister, Daniel P; Larock, Richard C
Novel "green composites" have been prepared using a conjugated soybean oil-based resin and corn stover as a natural fiber. Corn stover is the residue remaining after grain harvest and it is estimated that approximately 75 million tons are available annually in the United States. The effect of the amount of filler, the length of the fiber, and the amount of the crosslinker on the structure and thermal and mechanical properties of the composites has been determined using Soxhlet extraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis, and tensile testing. Increasing the amount of corn stover and decreasing the length of the fiber results in significant improvements in the mechanical properties of the composites. The Young's moduli and tensile strengths of the composites prepared range from 291 to 1398 MPa and 2.7 to 7.4 MPa, respectively. Water uptake data indicate that increasing the amount and fiber length of the corn stover results in significant increases in the absorption of water by the composites. The composites, containing 20 to 80 wt.% corn stover and a resin composed of 50 wt.% natural oil, contain 60 to 90 wt.% renewable materials and should find applications in the construction, automotive, and furniture industries. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Xiang Z; Long, Rui J; Yan, Chang G; Lee, Hong G; Kim, Young J; Song, Man K
Supplementation effect of fish oil and/or fumarate on production of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and methane by rumen microbes was examined when incubated with safflower oil. One hundred and twenty milligrams of safflower oil (SO), safflower oil with 24 mg fish oil (SOFO), safflower oil with 24 mmol/L fumarate (SOFA), or safflower oil with 24 mg fish oil and 24 mmol/L fumarate (SOFOFA) were added to the 90 mL culture solution. The culture solution was also made without any supplements (control). The SOFA and SOFOFA increased pH and propionate (C3) compared to other treatments from 3 h incubation time. An accumulated amount of total methane (CH(4) ) for 12 h incubation was decreased by all the supplements compared to control. The concentrations of c9,t11CLA for all the incubation times were increased in the treatments of SOFO, SOFA and SOFOFA compared to SO. The highest concentration of c9,t11CLA was observed from SOFOFA among all the treatments at all incubation times. Overall data indicate that supplementation of combined fumarate and/or fish oil when incubated with safflower oil could depress CH(4) generation and increase production of C(3) and CLA under the condition of current in vitro study. © 2011 The Authors; Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Borch-Jensen, Christina; Mollerup, Jørgen
Various natural and treated fish, shark liver and seal oils have been analyzed by supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) using a non-polar capillary column. The lipids are separated according to molecular mass. The lipid groups found included free fatty acids, cholesterol, squalene, vitamins, wax...... applications of SFC on fish, seal and shark liver oils are presented....
Lyu, Fei; Zhang, Jing; Wei, Qianqian; Gao, Fei; Ding, Yuting; Liu, Shulai
Effects of gamma radiation combined with cinnamon oil on quality of Northern Snakehead fish fillets were observed during storage at 4 °C. Fish fillets were treated with 1-5 kGy gamma radiation, 0.05-0.5% cinnamon oil or the combination of radiation and cinnamon oil. The antimicrobial activity increased with radiation dose and cinnamon oil concentration. During storage, the combination of 1 kGy radiation and 0.5% cinnamon oil displayed better inhibiting activities on aerobic plate counts, total volatile basic nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reaction substances than 1 kGy radiation or 0.5% cinnamon oil used alone. Moreover, the combination could arrive at the similar inhibiting activities of cinnamon oil with higher concentration of 0.5% or radiation with higher dose of 5 kGy. Thus, the combination could decrease the radiation dose and cinnamon oil concentration without decreasing the effect of them on maintaining fish quality.
Bruni Let, Mette
Purpose: The objective of the project is to determine how a number of selected fish oil enriched foods can be protected against oxidation by the right choice of antioxidants, emulsifiers and optimal process conditions. Furthermore the influence of antioxidant addition to the fish oil it...... have many other health benefiting properties such as preventing heart diseases. Addition of fish oils to foods is therefore of interest. The many double bonds in the fatty acids are however susceptible to oxidation. Collaboration partners: The project is a collaborative project between DFU-FF, Bio......-self on the effect of antioxidants added to the foods will also be investigated. Background: Fish oils are rich sources of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids EPA and DHA of which DHA is a vital component of the phospholipids of human cellular membranes, especially those in the brain and retina. Fish oils...
García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Özdemir, N.; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen
investigated. For that purpose, three different biopolymers namely pullulan, dextran and whey protein concentrate (WPC) were evaluated as encapsulating materials. First, the influence of biopolymer concentration on the physical properties (e.g. viscosity, conductivity and surface tension) of the biopolymer...... solutions and on the morphology of NMS was assayed. Secondly, the oxidative stability of the biopolymer solutions containing emulsified fish oil during storage (14 days at 40 °C) and of NMS loaded with fish oil (e.g. pullulan fibers and dextran and WPC capsules) was determined. Finally, to improve...... the oxidative status of the NMS, pullulan fibers, dextran capsules and WPC capsules were produced by adding neat fish oil instead of emulsified fish oil to the biopolymer solutions. These latter NMS presented a higher oxidative stability, which may be due to a better entrapment of the fish oil into biopolymer...
Lin, Cherng-Yuan; Li, Rong-Ji [Department of Marine Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean, University, Keelung 20224 (China)
The soapstock of a mixture of marine fish was used as the raw material to produce the biodiesel in this study. The soapstock was collected from discarded fish products. Crude fish oil was squeezed from the soapstock of the fish and refined by a series of processes. The refined fish oil was transesterified to produce biodiesel. The fuel properties of the biodiesel were analyzed. The experimental results showed that oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitic acid (C16:0) were the two major components of the marine fish-oil biodiesel. The biodiesel from the mixed marine fish oil contained a significantly greater amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids than did the biodiesel from waste cooking oil. In addition, the marine fish-oil biodiesel contained as high as 37.07 wt.% saturated fatty acids and 37.3 wt.% long chain fatty acids in the range between C20 and C22. Moreover, the marine fish-oil biodiesel appeared to have a larger acid number, a greater increase in the rate of peroxidization with the increase in the time that it was stored, greater kinematic viscosity, higher heating value, higher cetane index, more carbon residue, and a lower peroxide value, flash point, and distillation temperature than those of waste cooking-oil biodiesel. (author)
Rationale: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular health effects. Our clinical studies suggest that fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) supplementations attenuate the cardiovascular responses to inhaled concentrated ambient particles. This study was...
García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Damberg, Cecilie; Chronakis, Ioannis S.
The effect of oil content and addition of natural antioxidants on the morphology and oxidative stability of pullulan ultra-thin fibers loaded with fish oil and obtained by electrospinning was investigated. Pullulan sub-micron fibers containing 10 and 30wt% fish oil were prepared and both presented...... into food matrices. These results show the feasibility to encapsulate fish oil in pullulan ultra-thin fibers and to improve their oxidative stability by adding natural antioxidants such as δ-tocopherol and rosemary extract. Therefore, this study might open up new opportunities for further technological...... development in the production of omega-3 nanodelivery systems, which have potential applications in different types of fortified foods. Encapsulation of fish oil in electrospun pullulan fibers stabilized by natural antioxidants....
Veigas, Jyothi M.; Williams, Paul J.; Halade, Ganesh; Rahman, Mizanur M.; Yoneda, Toshiyuki; Fernandes, Gabriel
Fish oil has been used to alleviate pain associated with inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. The anti-inflammatory property of fish oil is attributed to the n-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Contrarily, vegetable oils such as safflower oil are rich in n-6 fatty acids which are considered to be mediators of inflammation. This study investigates the effect of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids rich oils as dietary supplements on the thermally induced pain sensitivity in healthy mice. C57Bl/6J mice were fed diet containing regular fish oil, concentrated fish oil formulation (CFO) and safflower oil (SO) for 6 months. Pain sensitivity was measured by plantar test and was correlated to the expression of acid sensing ion channels (ASICs), transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and c-fos in dorsal root ganglion cells. Significant delay in sensitivity to thermal nociception was observed in mice fed CFO compared to mice fed SO (p<0.05). A significant diminution in expression of ion channels such as ASIC1a (64%), ASIC13 (37%) and TRPV1 (56%) coupled with reduced expression of c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, was observed in the dorsal root ganglion cells of mice fed CFO compared to that fed SO. In conclusion, we describe here the potential of fish oil supplement in reducing sensitivity to thermal nociception in normal mice. PMID:21345372
Javahery, Susan; Nekoubin, Hamed; Moradlu, Abdolmajid Haji
Clove oil is an effective, local and natural anaesthetic. Many hatcheries and research studies use clove oil to immobilize fish for handling, sorting, tagging, artificial reproduction procedures and surgery and to suppress sensory systems during invasive procedures. Clove oil may be more appropriate for use in commercial aquaculture situations. Improper clove oil use can decrease fish viability, distort physiological data or result in mortalities. Because animals may be anaesthetized by unskilled labourers and released in natural water bodies, training in the proper use of clove oil may decrease variability in recovery and experimental results and increase fish survival. Here, we briefly describe many aspects of clove oil, including the legal uses of it, anaesthesia mechanism and what is currently known about the preparation and behavioural and pathologic effects of the anaesthetic. We outline methods and precautions for administration and changes in fish behaviour during progressively deeper anaesthesia and discuss the physiological effects of clove oil, its potential for compromising fish health and effectiveness of water quality parameters.
Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte
The oxidative stability during storage of fish pâté made from cod and enriched with 5% oil was investigated. Pâtés were produced with neat fish oil, pre-emulsified fish oil, microencapsulated fish oil, inert medium chain triacylglycerol (MCT) oil or a fish/rapeseed oil mixture. Addition of fish...... stored at 2 or 10C were equally stable. Mixing fish oil with rapeseed oil before emulsification slightly increased the stability of the fish pâtés. Addition of antimicrobial agents, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate increased oxidative stability. It is recommended to produce enriched fish pâté...... by adding pre-emulsified fish oil or microencapsulated fish oil and store at preferentially 2-10C. Practical Applications: The results from this study can directly be transferred to practical applications in the food industry. Thus, the study showed that fish oil-enriched fish pâté with an acceptable...
The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of two sources of omega 3 and 6, fish oil (FO) and linseed oil (LO), orally administered, alone or in combination, for treating experimentally induced keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in rabbits. Twenty-eight New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Seven animals ...
Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte
Food products containing long chain omega-3 PUFA are highly susceptible to oxidation, which causes undesirable flavors and loss of health beneficial fatty acids. Many omega-3 enriched food products on the market are oil-in-water emulsions. According to the so called “polar paradox”, polar compounds...... hypothesis is that lipophilization of such polar phenolic compounds may improve their efficacy in fish oil enriched food systems. Our study aimed at evaluating rutin and dihydrocaffeic acid and their esters as antioxidants in o/w emulsion model system and milk enriched with fish oil. Moreover, the effect...
Traditionally, oil pollution has been viewed as single event, large scale disasters such as the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that by products and anthropogenic contaminants resulting from oil exploration, extraction, recovery, refining, and the manufacture and use of oil and oil-based products are negatively impacting the environment. Potential problems of freshwater pollution by oil contaminants are increasing in many parts of the world from both active and abandoned oil production facilities. In the USA many ''Superfund'' sites have been designated for cleanup under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980; primarily because of waste discharged on to the sites by the oil industry. Pollution of surface and groundwater from these sites has already occurred and in some cases has led to deleterious effects on the complex aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems on and near these sites. The effect of oil and oil related products on aquatic organisms will be reviewed. Specifically, the discussion will focus on preneoplastic and neoplastic changes in fishes with a primary endpoint of cancer. Finally, a summary of current studies of feral fishes residing on and near an abandoned oil refinery in Oklahoma will be presented
Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Frankel, E.N.
The oxidative deterioration of milk emulsions supplemented with 1.5 wt-% fish oil was investigated by sensory evaluation and by determining the peroxide value and volatile oxidation products after cold storage. Two types of milk emulsions were produced, one with a highly unsaturated tuna oil (38 wt......-% of n-3 fatty acids) and one with cod liver oil (26 wt-% of n-3 fatty acids). The effect of added calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) on oxidation was also investigated. Emulsions based on cod liver oil with a slightly elevated peroxide value (1.5 meq/kg) oxidised significantly faster...... than the tuna oil emulsions, having a lower initial peroxide value (0.1 meq/kg). In the tuna oil emulsions the fishy off-flavour could not be detected throughout the storage period. Addition of 5-50 ppm EDTA significantly reduced the development of volatile oxidation products in the cod liver oil...
Hester M Den Ruijter
Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term 3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated 3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated 3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (3 or sunflower oil (9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered 3-PUFAs. Plasma of 3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of 3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, 3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than 9 myocytes. In the 9 myocytes, but not in the 3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated 3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered 3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac 3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term 3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.
An experiment was conducted on broiler chickens to study the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), fish oil, soybean oil or their mixtures (at 7% for single and 3.5% + 3.5% for mixtures) as well as up 12% dosage of palm oil, on the performance and carcass traits of broiler chickens. The chicks fed 7% fish oil or 7% CLA ...
Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) causes adverse effects on quality of eggs by modifying the fatty acid composition of the yolk. Supplementing oils prevent CLA-induced changes, but cause a decrease in the level of egg CLA. The objective of the study was to investigate the incorporation of CLA into the egg and its effect ...
Hedemann, Mette Skou; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Engberg, Ricarda M.
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets containing fat sources with different fatty acid composition (fish oil, coconut oil or lard, 10 g/100 g diet) on exocrine pancreatic secretion in piglets after weaning. A total of 16 barrows were weaned at 4 wk of age; 3 d later...... the coconut oil or lard diets. The output [U/(h. kg(0.75))] of lipase was higher in piglets fed fish oil than in piglets fed lard or coconut oil. The output of colipase was greater in piglets fed fish oil and coconut oil than in those fed lard. The dietary treatments did not affect the output of carboxylester...... hydrolase. The output of trypsin was significantly lower in piglets fed lard than in piglets fed fish oil or coconut oil diets and the output of carboxypeptidase B was greater in those fed the fish oil diet. Protein, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, elastase and amylase outputs did not differ among...
Damsbo-Svendsen, Signe; Rønsholdt, Mia Dybkjær; Lauritzen, Lotte
Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal-weight s......Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal...
Thorsdottir, I.; Tomasson, H.; Gunnarsdottir, I.; Gisladottir, E.; Kiely, M.; Parra, M.D.; Bandarra, N.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Martinez, J.A.
Objective: To investigate the effect of including seafood and fish oils, as part of an energy-restricted diet, on weight loss in young overweight adults. Design: Randomized controlled trial of energy-restricted diet varying in fish and fish oil content was followed for 8 weeks. Subjects were
Howard-Thompson, Amanda; Dutton, Anna; Hoover, Robert; Goodfred, Jennifer
A brand of fish oil capsules contains omega-3 fatty acids obtained from several fish sources. Although the manufacturer calls for caution in patients with fish hypersensitivity, insufficient data is available to make a definitive recommendation regarding its use in this population. A patient with documented seafood allergy presented to the emergency department 4 days after the initiation of prescription brand name fish oil capsules complaining of chest tightness, shortness of breath, tingling of upper extremities, flushing, and pruritus that was minimally relieved by excessive nonprescription diphenhydramine administration. During subsequent follow-up, the patient reported that all symptoms had resolved within 5 days of discontinuing the medication and 3 days of disposing of her pillbox and all medications that had come in contact with the fish oil capsules. Due to the patient's allergic history, timing of onset/offset of the reaction, laboratory evidence, and the use of the Naranjo probability scale, prescription fish oil capsules were deemed the probable cause of this patient's pruritus and flushing of the face and trunk. Practitioners and patients should always ensure they have an updated list of allergies within the patient's medical record that includes medications as well as foods and food additives.
Suominen, K; Hallikainen, A; Ruokojärvi, P; Airaksinen, R; Koponen, J; Rannikko, R; Kiviranta, H
We analysed polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F, dioxins), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in 13 fish meal, five fish oil, and seven fish feed samples. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), organotin compounds (OTC), and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) were analysed in ten fish meal, two fish oil, and two fish feed samples. All measured TEQ concentrations of PCDD/F and PCB were below the maximum levels set by Directive 2002/32/EC. There was no correlation between concentrations of WHOPCDD/F-TEQ and indicator PCB in our samples. The most common congeners among PBDEs were BDE-47 and BDE-100. BDE-209 was present in five fish meals of the ten analysed. Tributyltin (TBT) was the predominant congener in all samples except in three fish meals, where monobutyltin (MBT) was the major congener. Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) was the predominant congener in six fish meals of the ten analysed. There was large variation in concentrations and congener distributions of the studied compounds between our samples. Our results underline a need to pay special attention to the origin and purity of feed raw material of marine origin. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.
Throughout pregnancy, Lewis rats were fed standard rat chow supplemented with 15% (w/w) of either MaxEPA fish oil (FO) or arachis oil (AO); a third group was fed standard rat chow only (St) (n = 15, 15, and 16 rats, respectively). Compared to AO-rats, FO-rats had substantially higher levels of n-3...
Most vegetable oils and fish oils contain polyunsaturated fatty acids ranging from 18 carbons with two to three double bonds, to 22 or 24 carbons, and up to six double bonds. Nutritional research over the years has indicated that individual fatty acids from the diet play a complex role in nutrition ...
Duan, Qingyuan; Mai, Kangsen; Shentu, Jikang; Ai, Qinghui; Zhong, Huiying; Jiang, Yujian; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Chunxiao; Guo, Sitong
We investigated the effect of the replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils on the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea). The basal diet (FO) was formulated to contain 66.5% fish meal and 6.4% menhaden fish oil; whereas the other 3 experimental diets were formulated by replacing the fish oil with 50% soybean oil (SO50), 100% soybean oil (SO100) and 100% palm oil (PO100), respectively. The 4 diets were randomly assigned to 4 floating sea cages (3.0 m × 3.0 m × 3.0 m), and each was stocked with 250 fish individuals with an initial average weight of 245.29 g ± 7.45 g. The fish were fed to apparent satiation twice a day at 5:00 and 17:00, respectively, for 12 weeks. Experimental analysis showed that the specific growth rate of fish fed SO50 or PO100 were significantly higher than that of fish fed FO or SO100 ( P0.05). Compared to FO diet, SO50, SO100 and PO100 diets led to substantial decreases in the liquid loss and water loss from fresh fillets (1 d, 4°C) ( Preplacement of fish oil with vegetable oils. These findings indicated that the growth performance and selected flesh quality properties (liquid holding capacity and TBARS value) of large yellow croaker were substantially improved by replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oils.
Oshel, Reed E. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
In recent years, concern has risen over the use of fossil fuels due to their contribution to global warming, and to our dependence on imports of petroleum from nations that could pose a threat to national security. As a result, it has become increasingly important to develop technologies to replace fossil fuel based products with biorenewable alternatives. In this thesis nearly quantitative solubilization of lignocellulosic materials using phosphite esters has been realized, and is presented as a potential pretreatment for production of fermentable sugars for use in manufacturing commodity chemicals, specifically ethanol. Water solubilization of lignocellulosics using phosphite esters will enhance digestibility by disrupting the lignocellulose structure, changing cellulose morphology, and cleaving some glycosidic bonds. In a second project, soybean oil, which contains un-conjugated polyunsaturated fatty acid esters, is isomerized into oil containing conjugated polyunsaturates. The process is carried out under photochemical conditions using iodine as a catalyst in a hexanes solution to achieve 99% conjugation. The resulting conjugated soybean oil is demonstrated to have enhanced drying properties for use in alkyd resins.
Smit, EN; Oelen, EA; Seerat, E; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ
Aim-To investigate whether the low docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status of malnourished, mostly breast fed, Pakistani children can be improved by fish oil (FO) supplementation. Methods-Ten malnourished children (aged 8-30 months) received 500 mg FO daily for nine weeks. The supplement contained 62.8
Full Text Available Dietary supplementation with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs, specifically the fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 ω-3 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 ω-3, is known to have beneficial health effects including improvements in glucose and lipid homeostasis and modulation of inflammation. To evaluate the efficacy of two different sources of ω-3 PUFAs, we performed gene expression profiling in the liver of mice fed diets supplemented with either fish oil or krill oil. We found that ω-3 PUFA supplements derived from a phospholipid krill fraction (krill oil downregulated the activity of pathways involved in hepatic glucose production as well as lipid and cholesterol synthesis. The data also suggested that krill oil-supplementation increases the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Surprisingly, an equimolar dose of EPA and DHA derived from fish oil modulated fewer pathways than a krill oil-supplemented diet and did not modulate key metabolic pathways regulated by krill oil, including glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Moreover, fish oil upregulated the cholesterol synthesis pathway, which was the opposite effect of krill supplementation. Neither diet elicited changes in plasma levels of lipids, glucose or insulin, probably because the mice used in this study were young and were fed a low fat diet. Further studies of krill oil supplementation using animal models of metabolic disorders and/or diets with a higher level of fat may be required to observe these effects.
Rosenquist, Annemette; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed
The nutritional value of a micro-encapsulated fish oil product has been investigated. Three groups of 10 male Wistar rats each were fed dietscontaining 20% (w/w) of fat, and only the type and form of the fat added was different. In the test groups 5% (w/w) of fish oil either as such or in amicro......-encapsulated form was incorporated in the diets. The remaining fat was lard supplemented with corn oil to a dietary content of linoleic acid at10% (w/w). The control group received lard and corn oil only. A mixture similar to the dry matter in the micro-encapsulated product was alsoadded to the diets not containing...... this product. The uptake of marine (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from both types of fish oil supplementwas reflected in the fatty acid profiles of liver phosphatidyl cholines (PC), phosphatidyl ethanolamines (PE), triglycerides (TG) and cardiolipin (CL).A suppression of the elongation of linoleic...
Full Text Available Sardine fish meal by-product contain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA and it can be made as emulsion. The purpose of this study were to determine the best fish oil emulsion by mixingthe oil phase (lecithin 3% and oil and water phase (carboxymethyl cellulose/CMC 2% and fruit juice and then stored until creaming, and the emulsion is analyzed their viscosity, pH, percent of stability and longseparation. Sardine oil is separated from the emulsion and tested oxidation parameters. The best emulsion was fish oil emulsion after refined without citric acid (RTS with viscosity (2470.31 cP, pH (5.64, percent of stability (56.14% and long separation (14 days. Primary and secondary oxidation parameters of RTS were FFA (14.87%, PV (14.43 meq/kg, AV (32.57 meq KOH/g, AnV (17.3 meq/kg, and Totox (46.16 meq/kg.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil (PSO) on gas and methane (CH4) production, ruminal fermentation and microbial populations under in vitro conditions. Three treatments consisting of a control diet containing 10 mg tallow (CON); the control diet with 5 mg ...
Herbel, B K; McGuire, M K; McGuire, M A; Shultz, T D
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (LA) with conjugated double bonds. CLA has anticarcinogenic properties and has been identified in human tissues, dairy products, meats, and certain vegetable oils. A variety of animal products are good sources of CLA, but plant oils contain much less. However, plant oils are a rich source of LA, which may be isomerized to CLA by intestinal microorganisms in humans. To investigate the effect of triacylglycerol-esterified LA consumption on plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids, a dietary intervention (6 wk) was conducted with six men and six women. During the intervention period a salad dressing containing 21 g safflower oil providing 16 g LA/d was added to the subjects' daily diets. Three-day diet records and fasting blood were obtained initially and during dietary and postdietary intervention periods. Although LA intake increased significantly during the dietary intervention, plasma CLA concentrations were not affected. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower after addition of safflower oil to the diet. In summary, consumption of triacylglycerol-esterified LA in safflower oil did not increase plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids.
Olsen, S.F.; Sorensen, J.D.; Secher, N.J.
duration, birthweight, and birth length of a fish-oil supplement, a control olive-oil supplement, and no supplementation. 533 healthy Danish women in week 30 of pregnancy were randomly assigned in a ratio of 2/1/1 to fish oil (four 1 g Pikasol capsules [containing 2.7 g n-3 fatty acids] per day), olive oil...
Morgane Paul Magouana Anvo
Full Text Available Abstract The present study was performed to investigate the effect of fish oil (FO, palm oil (PO, and cashew kernel oil (CKO as the dietary lipid sources on the growth performance, tissues fatty acids composition and economical profitability in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Three isonitrogenous (49.32%, isolipidic (15.18%, and isoenergetic (21 kJ/g diets were formulated, differed only to the added lipid source and coded accordingly as D1 (fish oil, D2 (palm oil, and D3 (cashew kernel oil. Catfish fingerlings (initial body weight = 2.43 ± 0.04 g were stocked at 1 fish/L and fed to trial diets at 5.6%. At the end of 8 weeks, C. gariepinus fingerlings fed with D1 and D3 had significantly identical growth and feed utilization efficiency. Those fed with D2 exhibited significantly and numerically low growth performance compared, respectively, to D1 and D3. Contrary to whole-body composition of fish, the muscle lipids fatty acids composition was influenced by the fatty acids profile of the dietary lipid sources. High net profit value (NPV of 24.59$, high investment cost analysis (ICA of 10.14$ and low benefit: cost ratio (BCR of 2.42 were observed in fish fed with D1 while those fed with D3 allowed to have high NPV (23.15$, low ICA (7.86$ and high BCR (2.95. Like others vegetable oils, cashew kernel oil can replace expensive fish oil in C. gariepinus fingerlings diet without negatively affecting its growth performances.
Ansorena, D. (Diana); Guembe, A. (Ainhoa); Mendizabal, T. (Tatiana); Astiasarán, I. (Iciar)
The modifications on a lean fish (cod-Gadus morhua) and a fatty fish (farmed salmon-Salmo salar) after the application of pan-frying using 2 types of oil with different lipid profile (extra virgin olive oil and sunflower oil) was the aim of this study. Fat content and total energetic value increased significantly after the frying process only in the lean fish, without relevant changes in the fatty fish. Extra virgin olive oil led to a higher fat absorption rate than sunflower oil in both fish...
Neschen, Susanne; Moore, Irene; Regittnig, Werner; Yu, Chun Li; Wang, Yanlin; Pypaert, Marc; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Shulman, Gerald I
To examine the mechanism by which fish oil protects against fat-induced insulin resistance, we studied the effects of control, fish oil, and safflower oil diets on peroxisomal content, fatty acyl-CoA, diacylglycerol, and ceramide content in rat liver and muscle. We found that, in contrast to control and safflower oil-fed rats, fish oil feeding induced a 150% increase in the abundance of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase in liver but lacked similar effects in muscle. This was paralleled by an almost twofold increase in hepatic peroxisome content (both P < 0.002 vs. control and safflower). These changes in the fish oil-fed rats were associated with a more than twofold lower hepatic triglyceride/diacylglycerol, as well as intramuscular triglyceride/fatty acyl-CoA, content. In conclusion, these data strongly support the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acids protect against fat-induced insulin resistance by serving as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha ligands and thereby induce hepatic, but not intramuscular, peroxisome proliferation. In turn, an increased hepatic beta-oxidative capacity results in lower hepatic triglyceride/diacylglycerol and intramyocellular triglyceride/fatty acyl-CoA content.
Dong, X F; Liu, S; Tong, J M
Two hundred and sixteen 28-wk-old Hy-line laying hens were randomly distributed to three dietary treatments and fed 1of 3 diets containing 8% soybean oil, fish oil, or coconut oil from 28 to 47 wk of age to investigate comparative effect of dietary soybean oil, fish oil, and coconut oil on the performance, egg quality and blood malondialdehyde (MDA), aspartate transaminase (AST) and uric acid (UA). Hens fed fish oil showed poor performance compared with soybean oil or coconut oil, and especially egg weight throughout the trial was significantly and consistently decreased (P oil. Unexpectedly, shell reflectivity throughout the majority of the trial was consistently and significantly higher (P oil than that when fed soybean oil or coconut oil. Dietary treatments affected (P oil treatment was higher (P oil group. Albumen height, Haugh unit and yolk color were influenced by dietary treatments only at 1 or 2 time points. However, average albumen height and Haugh unit in fish oil treatment were higher (P soybean oil or coconut oil treatments and average yolk color in coconut oil treatment was higher (P soybean oil group. Serum MDA, AST and UA concentrations were increased (P oil during the majority of the first 2 mo of the trial. These data suggested that the inclusion of fish oil into feed may reduce the performance of laying hens, especially the egg weight, decrease the intensity of egg brown color and increase blood MDA, AST and UA levels compared with soybean oil or coconut oil. As a result, hens fed fish oil may lay smaller, longer and lighter-brown eggs whereas those fed coconut oil produce blunter and darker-brown eggs relative to soybean oil.
Fahim Tamzeedul Karim
Full Text Available In order to improve the encapsulation process, a newly supercritical antisolvent process was developed to encapsulate fish oil using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose as a polymer. Three factors, namely, temperature, pressure, and feed emulsion rate were optimized using response surface methodology. The suitability of the model for predicting the optimum response value was evaluated at the conditions of temperature at 60°C, pressure at 150 bar, and feed rate at 1.36 mL/min. At the optimum conditions, particle size of 58.35 μm was obtained. The surface morphology of the micronized fish oil was also evaluated using field emission scanning electron microscopy where it showed that particles formed spherical structures with no internal voids. Moreover, in vitro release of oil showed that there are significant differences of release percentage of oil between the formulations and the results proved that there was a significant decrease in the in vitro release of oil from the powder when the polymer concentration was high.
Karim, Fahim Tamzeedul; Ghafoor, Kashif; Ferdosh, Sahena; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad; Ali, Eaqub; Yunus, Kamaruzzaman Bin; Hamed, Mir Hoseini; Islam, Ashraful; Asif, Mohammad; Sarker, Mohammed Zaidul Islam
In order to improve the encapsulation process, a newly supercritical antisolvent process was developed to encapsulate fish oil using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose as a polymer. Three factors, namely, temperature, pressure, and feed emulsion rate were optimized using response surface methodology. The suitability of the model for predicting the optimum response value was evaluated at the conditions of temperature at 60°C, pressure at 150 bar, and feed rate at 1.36 mL/min. At the optimum conditions, particle size of 58.35 μm was obtained. The surface morphology of the micronized fish oil was also evaluated using field emission scanning electron microscopy where it showed that particles formed spherical structures with no internal voids. Moreover, in vitro release of oil showed that there are significant differences of release percentage of oil between the formulations and the results proved that there was a significant decrease in the in vitro release of oil from the powder when the polymer concentration was high. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Zampolli, Antonella; Bysted, Anette; Leth, Torben
Objective: Increased fish oil intake is associated with protection against coronary heart disease and sudden death, while effects on atherosclerosis are controversial. We explored the effects of supplementing fish oil (rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, PUFA) or corn oil (rich in n-6 PUFA......) in two different models of atherosclerosis. Methods and Results: Sixty-three low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice and sixty-nine apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice were fed diets without supplementations or supplemented with either 1% fish oil or 1% corn oil. In apo......E(-/-) mice, neither fish oil nor corn oil had any major impact on plasma lipids or atherosclerosis. In LDLR-/- mice, conversely, the fish oil and the corn oil group had lower levels of LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides and had lesser atherosclerosis in the aortic root and in the entire aorta (P
Knudsen, V.K.; Hansen, Harald S.; Østerdal, M.L.
treatment. Setting: The Danish National Birth Cohort. Sample: A total of 3098 women allocated into six treatment groups and one control group. Methods: The six intervention groups were offered fish oil capsules in doses of 0.1, 0.3, 0.7, 1.4 and 2.8 g of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid per......Objectives: To test the earlier suggested hypothesis that intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids from fish oil may delay the timing of spontaneous delivery and to test if alpha-linolenic acid, provided as flax oil capsules, shows the same effect. Design: Randomised controlled trial including women...... reporting low dietary fish intake. The women were allocated in the proportions of 1:1:1:1:1:1:2 into six treatment groups and a control group, respectively, from week 17-27 of gestation. The treatment groups received fish oil, in various doses, or flax oil, and the control group did not receive any...
Yun, K L; Fann, J I; Sokoloff, M H; Fong, L G; Sarris, G E; Billingham, M E; Miller, D C
With the advent of cyclosporin A, accelerated coronary arteriosclerosis has become the major impediment to the long-term survival of heart transplant recipients. Due to epidemiologic reports suggesting a salutary effect of fish oil, the dose response of fish oil on graft coronary arteriosclerosis in a rabbit heterotopic cardiac allograft model was assessed using safflower oil as a caloric control. Seven groups of New Zealand White rabbits (n = 10/group) received heterotropic heart transplants from Dutch-Belted donors and were immunosuppressed with low-dose cyclosporin A (7.5 mg/kg/day). Group 1 animals were fed a normal diet and served as control. Group 2, 3, and 4 animals received a daily supplement of low- (0.25 mL/kg/day), medium- (0.75 mL/kg/day), and high- (1.5 mL/kg/day) dose fish oil (116 mg n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid/mL), respectively. Group 5, 6, and 7 animals were supplemented with equivalent dose of safflower oil (i.e., 0.25, 0.75, and 1.5 mL/kg/day). Oil-supplemented rabbits were pretreated for 3 weeks before transplantation and maintained on the same diet for 6 weeks after operation. The extent of graft coronary arteriosclerosis was quantified using computer-assisted, morphometric planimetry. When the animals were killed, cyclosporin A was associated with elevated plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the control group. While safflower oil prevented the increase in plasma lipids at all dosages, fish oil ameliorated the cyclosporin-induced increase in total cholesterol only with high doses. Compared to control animals, there was a trend for more graft vessel disease with increasing fish oil dose, as assessed by mean luminal occlusion and intimal thickness. A steeper trend was observed for increasing doses of safflower oil; compared to the high-dose safflower oil group, animals supplemented with low-dose safflower oil had less mean luminal occlusion (16.3% +/- 5.9% versus 41.4% +/- 7.6%, p less than 0.017) and intimal thickness (7
Wu, Y.P.; Huang, H.M.; Lin, Y.F.; Huang, W.D.; Huang, Y.J.
Marine fish such as mackerel are important for coastal fisheries in Taiwan. Nearly 60,000 tons of mackerel are produced in Suao, I-lan, Taiwan every year. In this study, oil from the discarded parts of mackerel fish contained in wastewater stream were used as the raw material to produce biodiesel through transesterification reaction. The major fuel properties of MB (mackerel biodiesel), including the iodine value, dynamic viscosity, flash point, and heat value, were determined and compared with sunflower seed oil methyl ester (SFM), JCB (Jatropha curcas biodiesel), and premium diesel (D). MB had a higher iodine value, dynamic viscosity, density, and flash point, but a lower heat value, than did D. MB was also used as fuel in a regular diesel engine to verify its emission characteristics. The MB fuel used for exhaust emission test included pure MB (MB100) and a 20% MB blend with premium diesel (MB20). The exhaust emission of MB was also compared with the exhaust emissions of D and JCB. The results showed that MB20 provided a significant reduction in NO, NO x , and SO 2 emissions under varied engine loads, and required no engine modification. - Highlights: • Biodiesel was produced from wastewater containing mackerel fish oil. • Mackerel biodiesel is compared with Jatropha biodiesel and sunflower seed biodiesel. • MBE (mackerel biodiesel) was found to contain higher amount of unsaturated fatty acids. • Mackerel biodiesel, diesel, and Jatropha biodiesel emissions are compared
Full Text Available Background: The potential role of omega – 3 (ω-3 and omega-6 (ω-6 fatty acids on blood biochemical factors are in interest and controversy. Some experiences showed that omega – 3 (ω-3 and omega-6 (ω-6 fatty acids have a potential effect on triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol levels in diabetes mellitus. Methods: Male rats were divided into four groups (one normal group and three diabetic groups. Induction of diabetes was done by streptozotocin [50mg/kg, s.c. (STZ]. In diabetic groups, one group was Control, received STZ alone, and the other diabetic groups were fed with fish oil or corn oil for 8 weeks after 4 weeks of induction of diabetes. Plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL- choleserol and HDL-cholesterol were measured at 4 and 8 weeks after intervention. Results: Fish oil and corn oil diets had an inhibitory effect on increased plasma glucose in diabetic rat by 46.8% and 40.7%, respectively. Diabetic rats in the control group demonstrated increased plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels, but plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly decreased and HDL-cholesterol level was increased by both diets in interventional groups. Conclusion: Corn oil and fish oil supplementation have a role on plasma glucose and lipid profile in diabetic rats. To understand the functional mechanisms of these diets, further studies remain to be accomplished.
Dullemeijer, Carla; Zock, Peter L.; Coronel, Ruben; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Katan, Martijn B.; Brummer, Robert-Jan M.; Kok, Frans J.; Beekman, Jet; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.
Very long-chain n-3 PUFA from fish are suggested to play a role in the development of the brain. Fish oil feeding results in higher proportions of n-3 PUFA in the brains of newborn piglets. However, the effect of fish oil on the fatty acid composition of specific cerebral brain lobes in juvenile
Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte
Addition of fish oil to industrially prepared food products is attractive to the food industry because of the well-documented health effects of the omega 3 fatty acids in the fish oil . Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids including omega 3 fatty acids are highly susceptible to lipid oxidation due...... to the many double bonds. Emulsions of fish oil in water are potential candidates for a delivery system of fish oil to food products. It has been suggested that oxidation of oil-in-water emulsions is initiated at the interface between oil and water. It has also been proposed that oxidation is to some extent...... is to characterize fish oil in water emulsions with respect to oil droplet size, distribution, and ultimately to view the structure and thickness of the interface layer. A freeze-fractured surface viewed at low temperatures under the scanning electron microscope is a promising strategy to reveal variations...
Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte
Addition of fish oil to food products to improve nutritional quality by the addition of omega-3 fatty acids is attractive both to the consumers and the food industry for reasons such as health benefits and added product value. The long chain omega-3 fatty acids contain a large number of double...... bonds which causes the fish oil to be susceptible to oxidation. The shelf lives of fish oil enriched products are thus limited by fast oxidation rates of the fish oil which causes development of off flavours as well as degeneration of the beneficial health effects of the fish oil. At the present moment...... this is a barrier for their access to the market and it is necessary to develop techniques to protect the oil against oxidation. Emulsification of the oil has been put forward as a strategy for protection against oxidation, but whether that is beneficial seems to depend on the food matrix to which the oil is added...
Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin; Xu, Xuebing
the desired properties. In this study, palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and fish oil (FO) are blended and modified by enzymatic interesterification. PS functioned as the hard stock, PKO as the soft oil and FO as a source for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/ docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The purpose...... cause the product to be susceptible to oxidation due to the presence of high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, FO could also influence the melting properties of the product. Therefore, in addition to determining the fatty acid position on the glycerol backbone, it is also pertinent...
Yang, Junsi; Ciftci, Ozan Nazim
Fish oil was encapsulated in hollow solid lipid micro- and nanoparticles formed from fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSO) using a novel green method based on atomization of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 )-expanded lipid. The highest fish oil loading efficiency (97.5%, w/w) was achieved at 50%, w/w, initial fish oil concentration. All particles were spherical and in the dry free-flowing form; however, less smooth surface with wrinkles was observed when the initial fish oil concentration was increased up to 50%. With increasing initial fish oil concentration, melting point of the fish oil-loaded particles shifted to lower onset melting temperatures, and major polymorphic form transformed from α to β and/or β'. Oxidative stability of the loaded fish oil was significantly increased compared to the free fish oil (p<0.05). This innovative method forms free-flowing powder products that are easy-to-use solid fish oil formulation, which makes the handling and storage feasible and convenient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Costa, J.F.; Almeida, M.F.; Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M.; Dias, J.M.
Highlights: • A process was established to produce biodiesel from fish canning industry wastes. • Biodiesel production was enabled by an acid esterification pre-treatment. • Optimization studies showed that the best catalyst concentration was 1 wt.% H 2 SO 4 . • There was no advantage when a two-step alkali transesterification was employed. • Waste oil from olive oil bagasse could be used to improve fuel quality. - Abstract: The present study evaluated biodiesel production using oil extracted from fish canning industry wastes, focusing on pre-treatment and reaction conditions. Experimental planning was conducted to evaluate the influence of acid catalyst concentration (1–3 wt.% H 2 SO 4 ) in the esterification pre-treatment and the amount of methanolic solution (60–90 vol.%) used at the beginning of the further two-step alkali transesterification reaction. The use of a raw-material mixture, including waste oil obtained from olive oil bagasse, was also studied. The results from experimental planning showed that catalyst concentration mostly influenced product yield and quality, the best conditions being 1 wt.% catalyst and 60 vol.% of methanolic solution, to obtain a product yield of 73.9 wt.% and a product purity of 75.5 wt.%. Results from a one-step reaction under the selected conditions showed no advantage of performing a two-step alkali process. Although under the best conditions several of the biodiesel quality parameters were in agreement with standard specifications, a great variation was found in the biodiesel acid value, and oxidation stability and methyl ester content did not comply with biodiesel quality standards. Aiming to improve fuel quality, a mixture containing 80% waste olive oil and 20% of waste fish oil was evaluated. Using such mixture, biodiesel purity increased around 15%, being close to the standard requirements (96.5 wt.%), and the oxidation stability was in agreement with the biodiesel quality standard values (⩾6 h), which
Bell, J A; Griinari, J M; Kennelly, J J
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a mixture of conjugated octadecadienoic acids of predominantly ruminant origin. The main isomer in bovine milk fat is the cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Interest in CLA increased after the discovery of its health-promoting properties, including potent anticarcinogenic activity. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dietary strategies aimed at increasing the concentration of CLA in bovine milk fat. Both experiments were organized as a randomized complete block design with a repeated measures treatment structure. In Experiment 1, 28 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 3 treatments for a period of 2 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis, fed as a total mixed ration (TMR). The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 24 ppm of monensin (MON), 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), or 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels in milk fat after 2 wk of feeding were 0.45, 0.52, 3.36, and 5.15% of total fatty acids for control, MON, SAFF, and SAFF/M, respectively. In Experiment 2, 62 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 5 treatment diets for a period of 9 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a DM basis, fed as a TMR. The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/E), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/ME), or 6% of DM flaxseed oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (FLAX/E). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels during the treatment period were 0.68, 4.12, 3.48, 4.55, 4.75, and 2.80% of total fatty acids for control, SAFF, SAFF/E, SAFF
Damsgaard, C.T.; Schack-Nielsen, L.; Michaelsen, K.F.
with an oscillometric device, and blood was sampled for analysis of erythrocyte fatty acid composition and the plasma lipid profile. This paper examines the effects of the fish oil supplement, with adjustment for the effects of the milk intervention when relevant. The fish oil intervention increased erythrocyte (n-3......Animal and epidemiologic studies indicate that early nutrition has lasting effects on metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk. In adults, (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils improve blood pressure, the lipid profile, and possibly cardiovascular disease mortality. This randomized trial...... is the first to investigate the effects of fish oil on blood pressure and the lipid profile in infancy. Healthy term 9-mo old infants In 83) were randomly assigned to 5 mL fish oil daily or no fish oil for 3 mo and to 2 different milk types. Before and after the intervention, blood pressure was measured...
Hao, Qin; Lillefosse, Haldis Haukås; Fjære, Even
Fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is known to attenuate diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue inflammation in rodents. Here we aimed to investigate whether different carbohydrate sources modulated the antiobesity effects of fish oil. By feeding C57BL/6J mice isocaloric high-fat d...... metabolic effects of fish oil by demonstrating that high-GI carbohydrates attenuate the antiobesity effects of fish oil.......Fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is known to attenuate diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue inflammation in rodents. Here we aimed to investigate whether different carbohydrate sources modulated the antiobesity effects of fish oil. By feeding C57BL/6J mice isocaloric high...
Jussila, Minna M.; Zhao, Ji; Suominen, Leena; Lindstroem, Kristina
Molecular profiling methods for horizontal transfer of aromatics-degrading plasmids were developed and applied during rhizoremediation in vivo and conjugations in vitro. pWW0 was conjugated from Pseudomonas to Rhizobium. The xylE gene was detected both in Rhizobium galegae bv. officinalis and bv. orientalis, but it was neither stably maintained in orientalis nor functional in officinalis. TOL plasmids were a major group of catabolic plasmids among the bacterial strains isolated from the oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis. A new finding was that some Pseudomonas migulae and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans strains harbored a TOL plasmid with both pWW0- and pDK1-type xylE gene. P. oryzihabitans 29 had received the archetypal TOL plasmid pWW0 from Pseudomonas putida PaW85. As an application for environmental biotechnology, the biodegradation potential of oil-polluted soil and the success of bioremediation could be estimated by monitoring changes not only in the type and amount but also in transfer of degradation plasmids. - Horizontal transfer of degradation plasmids in the oil-contaminated rhizosphere reveals the dynamic nature of the intrinsic biodegradation potential
Ottestad, Inger; Vogt, Gjermund; Retterstøl, Kjetil
markers of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and inflammation, and the level of plasma n-3 FA after intake of oxidised fish oil. In a double-blinded randomised controlled study, healthy subjects (aged 18–50 years, n 54) were assigned into one of three groups receiving capsules containing either 8 g...... difference was observed between the fish oil groups. No changes in a variety of in vivo markers of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation or inflammation were observed after daily intake of oxidised fish oil for 3 or 7 weeks, indicating that intake of oxidised fish oil may not have unfavourable short......-term effects in healthy human subjects....
Full Text Available The research aim on the socialization of the addition of jambal siam (Pangasius hypophtalmus fish stomach oil and kerapu (Cromileptes sp fish oil in baby porridge for satisfy omega 3 and omega 6 standard was implemented around Pekanbaru and Bangkinang (Kampar district. The addition of fish oil is done based on the standard of the WHO weight which conform to the age of the baby. The baby’s weight is very less than WHO standard dose given 50 mg/day, less weight given 40 mg/ day, and normal weight is 30 mg/day. Weight gain weighed and also observed the development of psychomotor babies each week for 8 weeks. Based on initial weight babies at the age of 10–12 months without the addition of jambal siam (Pangasius hypophtalmus fish stomach oil and kerapu (Cromileptes sp fish oil in baby porridge, 70.7% had a normal body weight increase and 23.3% have added weight which is too late. After the addition of jambal siam (Pangasius hypophtalmus fish stomach oil and kerapu (Cromileptes sp fish oil in baby porridge obtained added weight and motor development towards a better i.e. were 93.4% had normal motor development of appropriate age and the remaining 6.6% still have weight and psychomotor development too late i.e. newborn weight was initially very less than the WHO standard.
Venturini, Danielle; Simão, Andréa Name Colado; Urbano, Mariana Ragassi; Dichi, Isaias
The aim of this study was to verify if extra virgin olive oil and fish oil have a synergistic effect on lipid and oxidative stress parameters in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This intervention study included 102 patients (81 women and 21 men) with MetS (mean age 51.45 ± 8.27 y) from the ambulatory center of the University Hospital of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Patients were randomly assigned to one of four groups: Patients in the control group (CG) were instructed to maintain their usual diet; the second group (fish oil group [FO]) received 3 g/d of fish oil ω-3 fatty acids (10 capsules); the third group (extra virgin olive oil group [OO]) received 10 mL/d of extra virgin olive oil at lunch and dinner; and the fourth group (fish oil and extra virgin olive oil group [FOO]) received 3 g/d of fish oil ω-3 fatty acids and 10 mL/d of extra virgin olive oil. MetS related markers and oxidative stress were measured at baseline and after 90 d. Differences across treatment groups showed a statistically significant decrease (P virgin olive oil have beneficial synergistic effects on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in patients with MetS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hansen, Susanne; Strøm, Marin; Maslova, Ekaterina
randomly assigned to receive fish oil during the third trimester of pregnancy, olive oil, or no oil in the ratio 2:1:1. The offspring were followed in a mandatory national prescription register, with complete follow-up for prescriptions related to the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis as primary...... in the fish oil group compared with the olive oil group (hazard ratio, 0.54, 95% CI, 0.32-0.90; P = .02). The probability of having had allergic rhinitis medication prescribed was also reduced in the fish oil group compared with the olive oil group (hazard ratio, 0.70, 95% CI, 0.47-1.05; P = .09......), but the difference was not statistically significant. Self-reported information collected at age 18 to 19 years supported these findings. No associations were detected with respect to lung function outcomes or allergic sensitization at 18 to 19 years of age. CONCLUSION: Maternal supplementation with fish oil might...
Full Text Available The research aim on the socialization of the addition of jambal siam (Pangasius hypophtalmusfish stomach oil and kerapu (Cromileptes sp fish oil in baby porridge for satisfy omega 3 and omega6 standard was implemented around Pekanbaru and Bangkinang (Kampar district. The additionof fish oil is done based on the standard of the WHO weight which conform to the age of the baby.The baby’s weight is very less than WHO standard dose given 50 mg/day, less weight given 40 mg/day, and normal weight is 30 mg/day. Weight gain weighed and also observed the developmentof psychomotor babies each week for 8 weeks. Based on initial weight babies at the age of 10–12months without the addition of jambal siam (Pangasius hypophtalmus fish stomach oil and kerapu(Cromileptes sp fish oil in baby porridge, 70.7% had a normal body weight increase and 23.3%have added weight which is too late. After the addition of jambal siam (Pangasius hypophtalmusfish stomach oil and kerapu (Cromileptes sp fish oil in baby porridge obtained added weight andmotor development towards a better i.e. were 93.4% had normal motor development of appropriateage and the remaining 6.6% still have weight and psychomotor development too late i.e. newbornweight was initially very less than the WHO standard.Keywords: Fish oil, baby, body weight, physichomotor
Cedola, Annamaria; Cardinali, Angela; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Conte, Amalia
Oil industry produces large volume of waste, which represents a disposal and a potential environmental pollution problem. Nevertheless, they are also promising sources of compounds that can be recovered and used as valuable substances. The aim of this work is to exploit solid olive by-products, in particular dry olive paste flour (DOPF) coming from Coratina cultivar, to enrich fish burger and enhance the quality characteristics. In particular, the addition of olive by-products leads to an increase of the phenolic content and the antioxidant activity; however, it also provokes a deterioration of sensory quality. Therefore, to balance quality and sensory characteristics of fish burgers, three subsequent phases have been carried out: first, the quality of DOPF in terms of phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity has been assessed; afterward, DOPF has been properly added to fish burgers and, finally, the formulation of the enriched fish burgers has been optimized in order to improve the sensory quality. Results suggested that the enriched burgers with 10% DOPF showed considerable amounts of polyphenols and antioxidant activity, even though they are not very acceptable from the sensory point of view. Pre-treating DOPF by hydration/extraction with milk, significantly improved the burger sensory quality by reducing the concentration of bitter components.
Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Andersen, Ulf
It is well-documented that a high intake of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has several health beneficial effects in humans. Consequently, the interest in food products enriched with marine oils has increased during recent years. However, addition of these highly unsaturated fatty...... will include results from studies on lipid oxidation in simple oil-in-water emulsions prepared with milk proteins alone or combinations of milk proteins and phospholipids. In addition, a study on fish oil enriched cream cheese will be presented. In this study, the cream cheese was enriched with either neat...... acids to foods invariably increases the risk of lipid oxidation. A possible strategy to avoid lipid oxidation and the consecutive development of unpleasant off-flavours is to protect the oil in a delivery emulsion in which the oil droplets are shielded from its possible pro-oxidative surroundings...
Mirna Ilza; Yusni Ikhwan Siregar
The research aim on the socialization of the addition of jambal siam (Pangasius hypophtalmus)fish stomach oil and kerapu (Cromileptes sp) fish oil in baby porridge for satisfy omega 3 and omega6 standard was implemented around Pekanbaru and Bangkinang (Kampar district). The additionof fish oil is done based on the standard of the WHO weight which conform to the age of the baby.The baby’s weight is very less than WHO standard dose given 50 mg/day, less weight given 40 mg/day, and normal weight...
Hagi, Akifumi; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Miura, Yutaka; Yagasaki, Kazumi
Total parenteral nutrition containing a lipid emulsion is often employed after surgical tumor resection. This study investigated the effects of a fish oil-based infusion on rat hepatoma cell invasion. Rat ascites hepatoma cell line AH109A was precultured with a fish oil-based or safflower oil-based emulsion for 48 h. Changes in membranous fatty acid composition were evaluated by gas chromatography. The invasiveness of hepatoma cells was assessed by coculturing with mesentery-derived mesothelial cells. To examine ex vivo effects of the fish oil-based infusion on hepatoma invasion, sera were prepared from rats infused with fish oil- or safflower oil-based emulsion and the effects of these sera were assessed. To clarify the mechanism of inhibition of invasion by the fish oil-based emulsion, the effects of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) and PGE(3) on invasion were examined. Pretreatment with the fish oil-based emulsion reduced invasiveness without affecting growth compared with the safflower oil-based emulsion. Pretreatment with the sera from rats infused with the fish oil-based emulsion also reduced invasiveness compared with the sera from rats infused with the safflower oil-based emulsion. The addition of PGE(2) eliminated the inhibitory effect of the fish oil-based emulsion, and the addition of PGE(3) reduced the invasiveness of hepatoma cells pretreated with the safflower oil-based emulsion. These results suggest that the fish oil-based emulsion may have anti-invasive effects. Changes in the membranous fatty acid composition and consequent changes in the prostaglandins produced may be involved in this inhibitory effect.
Zhuang, Yuwei; Ren, Zhiyong; Jiang, Lei; Zhang, Jiaxiang; Wang, Huafen; Zhang, Guobao
Tung oil (TO) was used as a model compound to study two hydroxylated tung oils (HTO), prepared from TO by either aminolysis (HTO-am) or alcoholysis (HTO-al). Main bands in Raman and FTIR spectra were initially assigned based on the detailed analysis of the compound spectra before and after exposure to elevated temperature (200 °C). The effect of heat treatment in air on spectral bands, and especially on the changes associated with double bonds, were then investigated. In the present work, changes in spectral bands due to heat treatment were compared with those revealed in the previous work of others. The results show that the conjugated triene structure of TO has been retained during alcoholysis and aminolysis, to yield the HTOs studied; yet the change of the triene structure caused by heating is different among the three samples; the H-bonding strength between OH and Cdbnd O in HTO-am is higher than that in HTO-al; the changes in HTO vOH and vCdbnd O bands in FTIR caused by the present heat treatment were significant; for TO, there is a big difference between changes in spectra as caused by thermal exposure, compared to those caused by ageing under UV light or exposure to a catalyst. The present work has laid additional groundwork for further study of the reactions of such triply conjugated double bond structures under different ageing conditions.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in the oxidative stability during storage of fish oil enriched cream cheeses when fish oil was added either as neat oil or pre-emulsified oil with sodium caseinate, whey protein isolate, or a combination of milk proteins and phospholipids as emulsifier. Results showed that the addition of fish oil decreased the oxidative stability of cream cheeses regardless of the addition method, especially when the cheese was stored longer than five weeks. The oxidative stability of fish oil enriched cream cheeses was highest when fish oil was added as neat oil or in a delivery emulsion prepared with a combination of milk proteins and phospholipids. Adding the fish oil in a delivery emulsion prepared with whey protein or caseinate resulted in a less oxidative stable product. It was furthermore shown that the microstructure of the cream cheeses was affected by fish oil addition, and it was suggested that the change in microstructure was partly responsible for the oxidative stability of the cream cheeses.
García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Damberg, C.; Stephansen, K.
Electrospinning processing is a promising technique for the encapsulation of thermolabile bioactive compounds (e.g. fish oil) since it does not require the use of heat. Furthermore, the nano-microfibers (NMF) obtained present a reduced size, which makes them easier to disperse in food matrices...... compared to traditional encapsulates (e.g. microcapsules produced by spray-drying). Biopolymers such as proteins and polysaccharides are required for the production of food-grade NMF. In this sense, pullulan, which is a food-approved polysaccharide, is an interesting encapsulating material due to its high...... electrospinnability and low oxygen permeability. In light of the above, the aim of this work was to investigate the oxidative stability of omega-3 enriched pullulan NMF. First, the influence of fish oil content (10-20-30 %) on the properties of the electrospinning solutions (e.g. viscosity, conductivity and surface...
Full Text Available Two different phenolic synthetic antioxidants were used to improve the oxidation stability of fish oil biodiesel blends with vegetable oil biodiesel and petroleum diesel. Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT most effective for improvement of the oxidation stability of petro diesel, whereas tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ showed good performance in fish oil biodiesel. Fish oil/Rapeseed oil biodiesel mixed showed some acceptable results in higher concentration ofantioxidants. TBHQ showed better oxidation stability than BHT in B100 composition. In fish oil biodiesel/diesel mixed fuel, BHT was more effective antioxidant than TBHQ to increase oxidationstability because BHT is more soluble than TBHQ. The stability behavior of biodiesel/diesel blends with the employment of the modified Rancimat method (EN 15751. The performance ofantioxidants was evaluated for treating fish oil biodiesel/Rapeseed oil biodiesel for B100, and blends with two type diesel fuel (deep sulfurization diesel and automotive ultra-low sulfur or zero sulfur diesels. The examined blends were in proportions of 5, 10, 15, and 20% by volume of fish oilbiodiesel.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate fish oil as n-3 fatty acids source on some performance, carcass and serum parameters in broilers. One-day old Ross strain male broiler chickens (n = 120) were randomly arranged in four dietary treatments (0, 1.5, 3 and 4.5 percent fish oil), with three replicates for each treatment.
Kromhout, D.; Yasuda, S.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Shimokawa, H.
Omega-3 fatty acids, which are found abundantly in fish oil, exert pleiotropic cardiometabolic effects with a diverse range of actions. The results of previous studies raised a lot of interest in the role of fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular
Hau, M.-F.; Smelt, A.H.M.; Bindels, A.J.G.H.; Sijbrands, E.J.G.; Laarse, A. van der; Onkenhout, W.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Princen, H.M.G.
In hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) patients the addition of fish oil to the diet causes a marked reduction in the concentration of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the serum. To investigate the effects of fish oil on the oxidation resistance of VLDL and LDL in HTG patients, nine male patients received 1
Rørbæk, Karen; Jensen, Benny
Headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC), based on adsorption to Tenax GR(R), thermal desorption and GC, has been used for analysis of volatiles in fish oil. To optimize sam sampling conditions, the effect of heating the fish oil at various temperatures and times was evaluated from anisidine values (AV...
Albert, Benjamin B; Vickers, Mark H; Gray, Clint; Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Derraik, José G B; Lewandowski, Paul A; Garg, Manohar L; Cameron-Smith, David; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S
Fish oil is commonly taken by pregnant women, and supplements sold at retail are often oxidized. Using a rat model, we aimed to assess the effects of supplementation with oxidized fish oil during pregnancy in mothers and offspring, focusing on newborn viability and maternal insulin sensitivity. Female rats were allocated to a control or high-fat diet and then mated. These rats were subsequently randomized to receive a daily gavage treatment of 1 ml of unoxidized fish oil, a highly oxidized fish oil, or control (water) throughout pregnancy. At birth, the gavage treatment was stopped, but the same maternal diets were fed ad libitum throughout lactation. Supplementation with oxidized fish oil during pregnancy had a marked adverse effect on newborn survival at day 2, leading to much greater odds of mortality than in the control (odds ratio 8.26) and unoxidized fish oil (odds ratio 13.70) groups. In addition, maternal intake of oxidized fish oil during pregnancy led to increased insulin resistance at the time of weaning (3 wks after exposure) compared with control dams (HOMA-IR 2.64 vs. 1.42; P = 0.044). These data show that the consumption of oxidized fish oil is harmful in rat pregnancy, with deleterious effects in both mothers and offspring. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
Peskin, B S
The medical community suffered three significant fish oil failures/setbacks in 2013. Claims that fish oil's EPA/DHA would stop the progression of heart disease were crushed when The Risk and Prevention Study Collaborative Group (Italy) released a conclusive negative finding regarding fish oil for those patients with high risk factors but no previous myocardial infarction. Fish oil failed in all measures of CVD prevention-both primary and secondary. Another major 2013 setback occurred when fish oil's DHA was shown to significantly increase prostate cancer in men, in particular, high-grade prostate cancer, in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) analysis by Brasky et al. Another monumental failure occurred in 2013 whereby fish oil's EPA/DHA failed to improve macular degeneration. In 2010, fish oil's EPA/DHA failed to help Alzheimer's victims, even those with low DHA levels. These are by no means isolated failures. The promise of fish oil and its so-called active ingredients EPA / DHA fails time and time again in clinical trials. This lipids-based physiologic review will explain precisely why there should have never been expectation for success. This review will focus on underpublicized lipid science with a focus on physiology.
Keogh, M.K.; O'Kennedy, B.T.; Kelly, J.
Microencapsulation of fish oil was achieved by spray-drying homogenized emulsions of fish oil using 3 different types of casein as emulsifier and lactose as filler. As the degree of aggregation of the casein emulsifier increased, the vacuole volume of the microencapsulated powders decreased...
Verkerk, Arie O.; den Ruijter, Hester M.; de Jonge, Nicolaas; Coronel, Ruben
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega3-PUFAs) from fish oil modulate various ion channels, including the L-type calcium current (I(Ca,L)). As a result, fish oil shortens the cardiac action potential and may cause a loss of the dome of the action potential (AP). Under conditions of increased
Uchida, Raina; Chiba, Hiroshige; Ishimi, Yoshiko; Uehara, Mariko; Suzuki, Kazuharu; Kim, Hyounju; Matsumoto, Akiyo
Both soy isoflavone and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to reduce the levels of bone-resorbing cytokines; however, the synergistic effects of these food ingredients have not been examined yet. This study was performed to elucidate the effect of concomitant intake of soy isoflavone and fish oil on bone mass in ovariectomized mice. Eight-week-old ddY female mice were subjected to ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery, and then fed an AIN-93G with safflower oil (So) as a control lipid source, isoflavone-supplemented safflower oil (So + I), fish oil instead of safflower oil (Fo) or isoflavone-supplemented fish oil (Fo + I) for 4 weeks. Femoral bone mineral density was significantly decreased by OVX; however, this decrease was inhibited by the intake of isoflavone and/or fish oil. Histomorphometric analyses showed that bone volume and trabecular thickness in the distal femoral trabecular bone were significantly lower in the So group than in the sham group, but those were restored in the Fo + I groups. The number of osteoclasts was significantly decreased by isoflavone intake. The increased rate of bone resorption after OVX was inhibited by isoflavone and/or fish oil. The serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha was increased after OVX, but was significantly lower with the combination of isoflavone with fish oil than isoflavone or fish oil alone. The results of this study indicated that the intakes of soy isoflavone and/or fish oil might have ameliorating effects on bone loss due to OVX. Further, the concomitant intake of soy isoflavone and fish oil at a low dose showed better effects on cytokines related with bone resorption.
Reid, Anna-Jean M; Budge, Suzanne M
Heightened awareness of the health benefits of fish oil consumption has led to a great increase in the number of fish oil supplements available to the consumer. Therefore manufacturers are continually looking for ways to distinguish their products from those of competitors. Minimally refined or virgin fish oils provide a unique feature; however, petroleum hydrocarbon contamination from oil spills is a reality in the world's oceans. The question arises whether oil produced from fish species caught in these polluted areas is free of petroleum hydrocarbons, with particular interest in unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs). This study investigates the presence of UCMs in commercially available fish oil supplements advertised as being virgin, as well as refined. Weathered petroleum hydrocarbons in the form of a UCM were found at 523 µg g(-1) in a virgin Alaskan salmon oil supplement. Supplements that were refined were free of this contamination. Fish used in the production of fish oil supplements appear to have accumulated petrogenic hydrocarbons in their tissues which were not removed by minimal oil refining. Further study is required to determine if there are any health implications associated with long-term consumption of these contaminated supplements. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Heinzelmann, K.; Franke, K.; Jensen, Benny
(N-3)-Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. Cold sea water plankton and plankton- consuming fish are known sources of (n-3)-PUFAs. Enriching normal food components with fish oil is a tool for increasing the intake of (n-3)-PUFAs. Due to the high sensitivity...... different freezing techniques and subsequently freeze-dried. Several parameters regarding formulation and process (addition of antioxidants to the fish oil, use of carbohydrates, homogenisation and freezing conditions, initial freeze-drying temperature, grinding) were varied to evaluate their influence...... on the oxidative stability of dried microencapsulated fish oil. The shelf life of the produced samples was determined by measuring the development of volatile oxidation products vs. storage time. It could be shown that the addition of antioxidants to fish oil was necessary to produce dried microencapsulated fish...
Nielsen, Nina Skall; Klein, Anna; Jacobsen, Charlotte
, pectin, citric acid or gluconodelta- lactone did not affect the oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched yoghurt emulsions. Furthermore, the fruit preparation and added sugar did not lead to increased antioxidative activity. It is concluded that yoghurt as the dairy component in the fish oil......The oxidative stabilities of fish oil-enriched milk and fish oil-enriched drinking yoghurt were compared by following the development of lipid oxidation in plain milk, plain yoghurt and yoghurt to which ingredients present in drinking yoghurt were added one by one. All samples were enriched with 1...... wt-% fish oil. After 3 weeks of storage, development of peroxide values, volatile secondary oxidation products and fishy offflavors were much more pronounced in the milk compared to any of the yoghurt samples, irrespective of any added ingredients used to prepare flavored drinking yoghurt. Thus...
Yang, Zhiyong; Glasius, Marianne; Xu, Xuebing
formation of feruloyl fish oil products as well when appropriate amount of glycerol was present in the reaction. Therefore, the addition of equivalent molar amount of glycerol to EF was decided for the practical optimization of the system. The mutual effects of temperature (40 to 70 oC), reaction time (1......The enzymatic transesterification of ethyl ferulate (EF) with cod liver fish oil was investigated with Novozym 435 as catalyst under solvent-free conditions. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the synthesis system for production of feruloyl fish oil in industry. The modified HPLC method...... to 5 days), enzyme load (2 to 20 %) and substrate amount ratio of fish oil/EF (1 to 5) were thus studied with assistance of response surface methodology (RSM) for the purpose of maximizing the formation towards feruloyl fish oil. The models were well fitted and verified. The optimized conditions were...
Miyashita, Kazuo; Uemura, Mariko; Hosokawa, Masashi
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), both abundant in fish oil, are known to have significant biochemical and physiological effects primarily linked to the improvement of human health, especially cardiovascular and brain health. However, the incorporation of fish oil into foods and beverages is often challenging, as fish oil is very easily oxidized and can cause undesirable flavors. This review discusses this rapid formation of the fishy and metallic off-flavors, focusing especially on an early stage of fish oil oxidation. Although oxidative stability and quality of commercialized fish oil have improved over the past few years, there is a still a problem with its application: Flavor deterioration can be found even at very low oxidation levels. This review also notes the effective way to inhibit the formation of the volatile compounds responsible for the flavor deterioration.
Anh Van Nguyen; Victor Deineka; Lumila Deineka; Anh Vu Thi Ngoc
Relative retention analysis and increment approach were applied for the comparison of triglycerides (TGs) retention of a broad set of plant seed oils with isomeric conjugated octadecatrienoic acids (CLnA) by reversed-phase HPLC for “propanol-2-acetonitrile” mobile phases and Kromasil 100-5C18 stationary phase with diode array detection (DAD) and mass spectrometric (MS) detection. The subjects of investigation were TGs of seed oils: Calendula officinalis, Catalpa ovata, Jacaranda mimosifolia, ...
Full Text Available Diacylglycerols (DAG rich in n-3 residues were successfully produced by Novozym 435-catalysed glycerolysis of n-3 PUFA rich fish oil. Orbital and magnetic agitations were evaluated in order to minimize mass transfer limitations and thus assure the homogeneity of the reactant mixture. Different temperatures (65, 70, 75, 80, 85 and 90 °C and speeds (300, 500, 700 and 900 rpm were tested. Optimal conditions to obtain the highest amount of DAG were: 65 °C, with a substrate molar ratio of 3:1 (oil:glycerol, 500 rpm and 15% enzyme load after 2.5 h, with a yield of 60%.Diacilglicéridos (DAG ricos en n-3 fueron producidos en la glicerolisis de aceite de pescado rico en n-3 PUFA catalizada por Novozym 435. Las agitaciones orbital y magnética fueron evaluadas con el propósito de minimizar las limitaciones de transferencia de masa y garantizar la homogeneidad de la mezcla de reactivos. Diferentes temperaturas (65, 70, 75, 80, 85 y 90 °C y velocidades de agitación (300, 500, 700 y 900 rpm fueron empleadas. Las condiciones óptimas para alcanzar la mayor cantidad de DAG fueron: 65 °C, una relación molar de sustratos 3:1 (aceite:glicerol, 500 rpm y 15% de enzima, después de 2.5 h, con un rendimiento de 60%.
Full Text Available AbstractThe catfish viscera fat, is cathfish processing by-products, has potential to be used as a source of rawmaterial for production of fish oil. This study aimed to analyze the value of proximate, heavy metal contentand fatty acid profile of catfish viscera fat (Pangasius hypopthalmus and characterized fish oil extracted bydry rendering in various temperature and time than compared it to fish oil extracted by stove heating toobtain the best treatment. Proximate, heavy metal residue, and the fatty acid profile analysis were conductedfor characterizing catfish viscera fat. Fish oil extraction was conducted by dry rendering in varioustemperatures of 50, 60, 70, 80 °C for 1, 2, and 3 hours. Fish oil quality was determined by the chemicalcharacteristics i.e. PV, FFA, anisidin and TOTOX. The results of the study showed that fat content of catfishfat viscera was 88.19 %, the heavy metals content was below SNI standart to be consumed, and fatty acidprofile composition was SFA>MUFA>PUFA. The highest fatty acid content was oleic acid. The best fish oilquality was resulted on temperature extraction of 50°C for 2 hours with yield value, PV, FFA, anisidin, andTOTOX were 45.17 %, 2.77 meq/kg, 0.83 %, 2.86 meq/kg, 8.39 meq/kg respectively. This result was notsignificantly different with fish oil extracted by the stove heating expect for yield and PV were 80.11% and6.52 meq/kg, respectively.
Mirna Rahmah Lubis
Full Text Available Research of oil leaching from Tuna Fish Liver has been carried out by extracting of tuna fish liver in soxhlet by using methyl-ethyl ketone as solvent. Liver of fresh tuna fish is blended, put into soxhlet, and extracted at temperatures of 60oC, 65oC, 70oC, 75oC, and 80oC. After obtaining the oil, separation between solvent and oil is carried out by distillation. Oil obtained is analyzed by testing the yield, acid number, Iodine value, viscosity, and its impurities content. Yield obtained is influenced by temperature and time of leaching. Both variables indicates that the higher the variables, the more fish liver oil obtained. Maximum yield obtained is 25.552% at operating condition of leaching temperature 80oC, and leaching duration of 5 hours.
MU, Jenny; PM, Adria
The objective of the experiment was to study the fish weight development after being fed with irradiated palm oil waste pellet. Irradiated Palm oil waste pellet was produced from palm oil waste (sludge) with some additional materials, i.e. rice bran, fish powder, soybean powder, tapioca powder. The mixture was then irradiated with a dose of 4 kGy to decontaminate pathogen microbe and other contaminant microbes, the experiment have been carried out in 4 treatments. Treatment A was male fish which was being fed with irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized feed (2:1), treatment C was female with the same feed as A, treatment B was male fish feed with commercial pelletized, treatment D was female fish with the same feed as B. Each treatment was placed in a pond. The feed with the amount of 3% of total body weight was given to the fishes 2 times per day. The result of this experiment showed that the male fish weight receiving treatment A and B were 195.37 g and 175.12 g. The female fish weight at treatments C and D were 170.28 g and 160.15 g, respectively. Data obtained from this experiment showed that the treatment of irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized (2:1) were more efficient as fish feeding compared to commercial pellets
Snow, Samantha J; Cheng, Wan-Yun; Henriquez, Andres; Hodge, Myles; Bass, Virgina; Nelson, Gail M; Carswell, Gleta; Richards, Judy E; Schladweiler, Mette C; Ledbetter, Allen D; Chorley, Brian; Gowdy, Kymberly M; Tong, Haiyan; Kodavanti, Urmila P
Fish, olive, and coconut oil dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if they protect against air pollution-induced adverse effects. We hypothesized that these dietary supplements would attenuate ozone-induced systemic and pulmonary effects. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were fed either a normal diet, or a diet supplemented with fish, olive, or coconut oil for 8 weeks. Animals were then exposed to air or ozone (0.8 ppm), 4 h/day for 2 days. Ozone exposure increased phenylephrine-induced aortic vasocontraction, which was completely abolished in rats fed the fish oil diet. Despite this cardioprotective effect, the fish oil diet increased baseline levels of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) markers of lung injury and inflammation. Ozone-induced pulmonary injury/inflammation were comparable in rats on normal, coconut oil, and olive oil diets with altered expression of markers in animals fed the fish oil diet. Fish oil, regardless of exposure, led to enlarged, foamy macrophages in the BALF that coincided with decreased pulmonary mRNA expression of cholesterol transporters, cholesterol receptors, and nuclear receptors. Serum microRNA profile was assessed and demonstrated marked depletion of a variety of microRNAs in animals fed the fish oil diet, several of which were of splenic origin. No ozone-specific changes were noted. Collectively, these data indicate that although fish oil offered vascular protection from ozone exposure, it increased pulmonary injury/inflammation and impaired lipid transport mechanisms resulting in foamy macrophage accumulation, demonstrating the need to be cognizant of potential off-target pulmonary effects that might offset the overall benefit of this vasoprotective supplement.
Yılmaz, Emin; Öǧütcü, Mustafa; Arifoglu, Nazan
In this study, strawberry and lemon flavored fish oil organogels (FOO) were prepared with beeswax as the organogelator. The physical, thermal and textural characteristics as well as the consumer preferences of the flavored organogels were determined in comparison with fish oil and FOO containing no flavor. Furthermore, the stability of the organogels was evaluated during 90 day storage at 4°C. The results revealed that, structurally stable fish oil organogels as spreadable products might be formed and that flavoring of the gels enhances consumer preference. Thus, flavoring of fish oil organogels could be a challenge in increasing the consumption of fish oil.
López-Duarte, Paola C; Fodrie, F Joel; Jensen, Olaf P; Whitehead, Andrew; Galvez, Fernando; Dubansky, Benjamin; Able, Kenneth W
Genomic and physiological responses in Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) in the northern Gulf of Mexico have confirmed oil exposure of resident marsh fish following the Macondo blowout in 2010. Using these same fish, we evaluated otolith microchemistry as a method for assessing oil exposure history. Laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry was used to analyze the chemical composition of sagittal otoliths to assess whether a trace metal signature could be detected in the otoliths of F. grandis collected from a Macondo-oil impacted site in 2010, post-spill relative to pre-spill, as well as versus fish from areas not impacted by the spill. We found no evidence of increased concentrations of two elements associated with oil contamination (nickel and vanadium) in F. grandis otoliths regardless of Macondo oil exposure history. One potential explanation for this is that Macondo oil is relatively depleted of those metals compared to other crude oils globally. During and after the spill, however, elevated levels of barium, lead, and to a lesser degree, copper were detected in killifish otoliths at the oil-impacted collection site in coastal Louisiana. This may reflect oil contact or other environmental perturbations that occurred concomitant with oiling. For example, increases in barium in otoliths from oil-exposed fish followed (temporally) freshwater diversions in Louisiana in 2010. This implicates (but does not conclusively demonstrate) freshwater diversions from the Mississippi River (with previously recorded higher concentrations of lead and copper), designed to halt the ingress of oil, as a mechanism for elevated elemental uptake in otoliths of Louisiana marsh fishes. These results highlight the potentially complex and indirect effects of the Macondo oil spill and human responses to it on Gulf of Mexico ecosystems, and emphasize the need to consider the multiple stressors acting simultaneously on inshore fish communities.
An experiment was conducted on broiler chickens to study the effects of dietary ... in the serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations (P ... the 7% CLA diet increased serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) level (P < 0.05).
Ventura, M A; Woollett, L A; Spady, D K
These studies were undertaken to examine the effect of fish oil, safflower oil, and hydrogenated coconut oil on the major processes that determine the concentration of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in plasma, i.e., the rate of LDL production and the rates of receptor-dependent and receptor-independent LDL uptake in the various organs of the body. When fed at the 20% level, fish oil reduced plasma LDL-cholesterol levels by 38% primarily by increasing LDL receptor activity in the liver. Dietary safflower oil also increased hepatic LDL receptor activity; however, since the rate of LDL production also increased, plasma LDL-cholesterol levels remained essentially unchanged. Hydrogenated coconut oil had no effect on LDL receptor activity but increased the rate of LDL-cholesterol production causing plasma LDL-cholesterol levels to increase 46%. Dietary fish oil had no effect on the receptor-dependent transport of asialofetuin by the liver, suggesting that the effect of fish oil on hepatic LDL receptor activity was specific and not due to a generalized alteration in the physical properties of hepatic membranes. Finally, dietary fish oil increased hepatic cholesteryl ester levels and suppressed hepatic cholesterol synthesis rates, suggesting that the up-regulation of hepatic LDL receptor activity in these animals was not simply a response to diminished cholesterol availability in the liver. PMID:2760200
Koo, Byungjin; Swager, Timothy M
Commercial dyes are extensively utilized to stain specific phases for the visualization applications in emulsions and bioimaging. In general, dyes emit only one specific fluorescence signal and thus, in order to stain various phases and/or interfaces, one needs to incorporate multiple dyes and carefully consider their compatibility to avoid undesirable interactions with each other and with the components in the system. Herein, surfactant-type, perylene-endcapped fluorescent conjugated polymers that exhibit two different emissions are reported, which are cyan in water and red at oil-water interfaces. The interfacially distinct red emission results from enhanced exciton migration from the higher-bandgap polymer backbone to the lower-bandgap perylene endgroup. The confocal microscopy images exhibit the localized red emission exclusively from the circumference of oil droplets. This exciton migration and dual fluorescence of the polymers in different physical environments can provide a new concept of visualization methods in many amphiphilic colloidal systems and bioimaging. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Crude oil from fields in the Persian Gulf and in the Sinai plus a chemical oil dispersant were tested, using static bioassay procedures, for toxicity to adults or juveniles of ten marine species: Heteroxenia fuscescens, a soft coral; Nerita forskali and Drupa granulata, gastropod molluscs; Mytilus variabilis, a mussel; Acanthopleura haddoni, a chiton (mollusc); Echinometra mathaei, sea urchin; Calcinus latens, a hermit crab; Palaemon pacificus, a shrimp; Parupeneus barberinus, goatfish; and Siganus rivulatus, rabbitfish. Concentrations fatal to 50 percent of individual test species in 168 hours, LC-50 (168 h), ranged from 0.74 to more than 30.0 ml/liter for Persian Gulf crude, from 14.5 to more than 30.0 ml/liter for Sinai crude, and from 0.006 to 0.064 ml/liter for the dispersant. In general, fishes and crustaceans were the most sensitive groups assayed and molluscs the most resistant. LC-50 (168 h) values for oil-dispersant mixtures of 10 parts oil to 1 part dispersant (v/v) for selected species ranged from 0.047 to 0.152 ml/liter which appears to reflect the biocidal properties of the dispersant. Some individuals that survived immersion in high concentrations of the test compounds for 168 h were adversely affected during treatment and afterwards.
Full Text Available To estimate the effect of microencapsulated fish oil on blood metabolites, rumen and blood plasma fatty acids concentrations twelve Sannan dairy goats with 30 ± 5 days in milk (DIM were allocated to 3 treatments in a 3×2 change over design with 2 periods of 30 days. Treatments were: 1 the control (without fish oil, 2 microencapsulated fish oil (2% fish oil capsulated in 6% treated whey protein concentrate, 3 fish oil (2% fish oil and 6% whey protein concentrate. Concentration of C18:0 in the rumen for microencapsulated fish oil decreased significantly in comparison with the control. The same manner was observed in goat’s blood plasma for microencapsulated fish oil. Microencapsulated fish oil led to a significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids concentration, hence concentration of C18:3, C20:5 EPA, C22:5 DPA and C22:6 DHA as a source of ω3 fatty acids increased 10, 20, 10 and 13 folds in comparison with the control and 10, 20, 2 and 2.5 folds in comparison with the fish oil treatment, respectively. HDL concentration in protected fish oil was significantly higher than that for the control and unprotected fish oil treatments. It seems that fish oil supplementation caused significant changes in blood fatty acids composition of ruminants as well as ω3 fatty acids in their products. Significant increase of ω3 fatty acids in blood plasma of microencapsulated fish oil treatment showed the protective effect of capsulation against rumen microbial biohydrogenation.
Alaa A Almasud
Full Text Available This study aimed to assess whether feeding a diet containing fish oil was efficacious in reducing tumor- and subsequent chemotherapy-associated myosteatosis, and improving tumor response to treatment.Female Fischer 344 rats were fed either a control diet for the entire study (control, or switched to a diet containing fish oil (2.0 g /100 g of diet one week prior to tumor implantation (long term fish oil or at the start of chemotherapy (adjuvant fish oil. Chemotherapy (irinotecan plus 5-fluorouracil was initiated 2 weeks after tumor implantation (cycle-1 and 1 week thereafter (cycle-2. Reference animals received no tumor or treatment and only consumed the control diet. All skeletal muscle measures were conducted in the gastrocnemius. To assess myosteatosis, lipids were assessed histologically by Oil Red O staining and total triglyceride content was quantified by gas chromatography. Expression of adipogenic transcription factors were assessed at the mRNA level by real-time RT-PCR.Feeding a diet containing fish oil significantly reduced tumor- and subsequent chemotherapy-associated increases in skeletal muscle neutral lipid (p<0.001 and total triglyceride content (p<0.03, and expression of adipogenic transcription factors (p<0.01 compared with control diet fed animals. The adjuvant fish oil diet was as effective as the long term fish oil diet in mitigating chemotherapy-associated skeletal muscle fat content, and in reducing tumor volume during chemotherapy compared with control fed animals (p<0.01.Long term and adjuvant fish oil diets are equally efficacious in reducing chemotherapy-associated myosteatosis that may be occurring by reducing expression of transcription factors involved in adipogenesis/lipogenesis, and improving tumor-response to chemotherapy in a neoplastic model.
Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; León, Ileana R.; Kulej, Katarzyna
- high fat diet that is thought to contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome - a condition that is strongly associated with diabetes, obesity and heart failure. Fish oil and TTA are known to have beneficial effects for the fatty acid metabolism and have been shown to alleviate some...... expression in a long-term study (50weeks) in male Wistar rats fed 5 different diets. The diets were as follows: low fat diet; high fat diet; and three diets that combined high fat diet with fish oil, TTA or combination of those two as food supplements. We used two different proteomics techniques: a protein...... antioxidant properties of TTA. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study for the first time explores the effect of fish oil and TTA - tetradecyl-thioacetic acid and the combination of those two as diet supplements on mitochondria metabolism in a comprehensive and systematic manner. We show that fish oil and TTA...
Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have assessed the effects of supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, commonly called fish oils) on the occurrence of clinical cardiovascular diseases. Although the effects of supplementati...
Lund, Jens; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup; Lauritzen, Lotte
Numerous studies have shown that feeding rodents n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuates adiposity. Moreover, meta-analyses of human dietary intervention studies indicate that fish oil (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) supplementation might reduce waist circumference. A recent line...
Midtbø, Lisa Kolden
Background: Due to a growing global aquaculture production, fish oil (FO) and fish meal (FM) are partly replaced with vegetable ingredients in aqua feed for Atlantic salmon. These replacements in the feed lead to an altered fatty acid composition in the salmon fillet. We aimed to investigate how...... these changes affects obesity development and insulin sensitivity in mice eating the salmon. In addition, we wanted to investigate how the background diet affects the antiobesity effect of FO. Results: Western diets (WDs) were produced containing salmon fed either FO (WD-FO), or with partly replacement (80......%) of FO with different vegetable oils (VOs); rape seed oil (WDRO), olive oil (WD-OO) or soybean oil (WD-SO). These diets were given to C57BL/6J mice, and mice had higher hepatic lipid accumulation and lower insulin sensitivity when given WD-SO compared with WD-FO. Mice given WD-SO had higher hepatic...
Frias-Torres, Sarrah; Bostater, Charles R., Jr.
Biogeographical analyses provide insights on how the Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted large pelagic fishes. We georeferenced historical ichthyoplankton surveys and published literature to map the spawning and larval areas of bluefin tuna, swordfish, blue marlin and whale shark sightings in the Gulf of Mexico with daily satellite-derived images detecting surface oil. The oil spill covered critical areas used by large pelagic fishes. Surface oil was detected in 100% of the northernmost whale shark sightings, in 32.8 % of the bluefin tuna spawning area and 38 % of the blue marlin larval area. No surface oil was detected in the swordfish spawning and larval area. Our study likely underestimates the extend of the oil spill due to satellite sensors detecting only the upper euphotic zone and the use of dispersants altering crude oil density, but provides a previously unknown spatio-temporal analysis.
controls, Menendez et al demonstrated that addition of omega-3 fatty acids (-3 FA), docosahexanoic acid ( DHA ), alpha- linolenic acid , and -6 FA, γ...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0296 TITLE: Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid ...COVERED 1 March 2010 – 30 June 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression in the
Yamazaki, Tomomi; Nakamori, Akiko; Sasaki, Eriko; Wada, Satoshi; Ezaki, Osamu
Diets high in sucrose/fructose or fat can result in hepatic steatosis (fatty liver). We analyzed the effects of dietary fish oil on fatty liver induced by sucrose, safflower oil, and butter in ddY mice. In experiment I, mice were fed a high-starch diet [70 energy% (en%) starch] plus 20% (wt/wt) sucrose in the drinking water or fed a high-safflower oil diet (60 en%) for 11 weeks. As a control, mice were fed a high-starch diet with drinking water. Fish oil (10 en%) was either supplemented or not. Mice supplemented with sucrose or fed safflower oil showed a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold increased liver triglyceride content, respectively, compared with that of control mice. Fish oil completely prevented sucrose-induced fatty liver, whereas it exacerbated safflower oil-induced fatty liver. Sucrose increased SREBP-1c and target gene messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and fish oil completely inhibited these increases. In experiment II, mice were fed a high-safflower oil or a high-butter diet, with or without fish oil supplementation. Fish oil exacerbated safflower oil-induced fatty liver but did not affect butter-induced fatty liver. Fish oil increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and target CD36 mRNA in safflower oil-fed mice. These increases were not observed in sucrose-supplemented or butter-fed mice. The effects of dietary fish oil on fatty liver differ according to the cause of fatty liver; fish oil prevents sucrose-induced fatty liver but exacerbates safflower oil-induced fatty liver. The exacerbation of fatty liver may be due, at least in part, to increased expression of liver PPARgamma.
Pedersen, Maiken Højgaard; Mølgaard, C.; Hellgren, Lars
-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid/day) or vegetable oil (control) for 16 weeks. The oils were included in bread. RESULTS: After the intervention, the red blood cell (RBC) content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were 1.2% +/- 0.5% and 6.7% +/- 1.6%, respectively, in the those receiving fish......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether fish oil affects cardiovascular risk factors during the adolescent growth spurt. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 78 boys age 13-15 years with a mean body fat percentage of 30% +/- 9% were randomly assigned to consume fish oil (providing 1.5 g of n-3 long...... oil (FO group), compared with 0.6% +/- 0.3% and 4.1% +/- 0.9% in the control group. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 3.8 +/- 1.4 mm Hg lower (P
Jiang, Feng Ling; Ikeda, Ikuo; Ogawa, Yuichi; Endo, Yasushi
A rapid method for determining the saponification value (SV) and polymer content of vegetable and fish oils using the terahertz (THz) spectroscopy was developed. When the THz absorption spectra for vegetable and fish oils were measured in the range of 20 to 400 cm⁻¹, two peaks were seen at 77 and 328 cm⁻¹. The level of absorbance at 77 cm⁻¹ correlated well with the SV. When the THz absorption spectra of thermally treated high-oleic safflower oils were measured, the absorbance increased with heating time. The polymer content in thermally treated oil correlated with the absorbance at 77 cm⁻¹. These results demonstrate that the THz spectrometry is a suitable non-destructive technique for the rapid determination of the SV and polymer content of vegetable and fish oils.
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate oxidation of dried microencapsulated fish oils (DMFO during storage at ambient temperature, and to examine the influence of oils distribution (free vs. encapsulated oil in these complex lipidic systems. DMF0 were prepared by freeze-drying emulsions containing sodium caseinate, lactose and fish oil, with and without adding the antioxidant mixture ALT (ascorbic acid, lecithin and tocopherol. Samples were stored at 25 or 30ÂºC either in the dark or light with limited, accesible air or under vacuum. The progress of oxidation was followed through quantitation of triglyceride polymers, and oxidation levels of free and encapsulated oil fractions were differentiated. Results showed that oxidation was very rapid both in free and encapsulated oil fractions in all DMFOs exposed to light. In the dark, oxidation was triggered first in the free oil fraction of samples not protected with ALT but, in contrast, samples with ALT showed significantly higher oxidation levels in encapsulated than in free oil fractions, regardless of the limited or free availability of air. These results indicated that addition of the antioxidant system ALT was more effective in the free oil fraction, thus reflecting the great influence of partitioning and/or orientation of antioxidants on their efficacy in complex lipid systems.El objetivo de este trabajo es la evaluación de la oxidación de aceites de pescado microencapsulados en matriz seca (DMFO durante su almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente, y examinar la influencia de la distribución del aceite (aceite libre frente a aceite encapsulado en estos sistemas lipídicos complejos. Las muestras se prepararon mediante liofilización de emulsiones constituidas por caseinato sódico, lactosa y aceite de pescado, con o sin la mezcla antioxidante ALT (ácido ascórbico, lecitina y tocoferol; y se almacenaron a 25 o 30ÂºC a la luz o a la oscuridad, con aire limitado, accesible o al vac
Full Text Available Roberta Araujo Navarro-Xavier,1 Karina Vieira de Barros,1 Iracema Senna de Andrade,1 Zaira Palomino,2 Dulce Elena Casarini,2 Vera Lucia Flor Silveira3 1Departamento de Fisiologia, 2Departamento de Medicina, 3Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The increased prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in westernized societies has been associated with increased intake of diets rich in n-6 fatty acids (FAs and poor in n-3 FAs. This study aimed to analyze the prophylactic effects of treatment with a soybean oil-rich diet (rich in n-6 or fish oil (rich in n-3 in an allergic airway inflammation model on lung inflammation score, leukocyte migration, T-helper cell (Th-2 (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5 and Th1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α cytokines, lipoxin A4, nitric oxide, bradykinin, and corticosterone levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL or lungs. Methods: Male Wistar rats fed with soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diet or standard rat chow were sensitized twice with ovalbumin–alumen and challenged twice with ovalbumin aerosol. The BAL and lungs were examined 24 hours later. Results: Both diets, rich in n-6 or n-3 FAs, impaired the allergic lung inflammation and reduced leukocyte migration, eosinophil and neutrophil percentages, and IL-4/IL-5/bradykinin levels in BAL and/or lungs, as well as increased the nitric oxide levels in BAL. The soybean oil-rich diet additionally increased the levels of lipoxin A4 and corticosterone in the lungs. Conclusion: Data presented demonstrated that the n-6 FA-rich diet had protective effect upon allergic airway inflammation and was as anti-inflammatory as the n-3 FA-rich diet, although through different mechanisms, suggesting that both diets could be considered as complementary therapy or a prophylactic alternative for allergic airway inflammation. Keywords: asthma, nitric oxide, n-6 fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, cytokines
Lourenço, Ana L; Booij-Vrieling, Henriette E; Vossebeld, Carmen B; Neves, António; Viegas, Carlos; Corbee, Ronald J
The aim of this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate if downregulation of the inflammatory response due to ingestion of high levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can slow down gingivitis development, and thus delay the progression of periodontal disease (PD) in dogs. To this aim, 44 client-owned adult dogs (>1 and 0.63) and C reactive protein (p = 0.28) then the ones consuming corn oil. There were no differences between fish oil and corn oil diet supplementation on plaque (18.2 vs. 17.8, p = 0.78), calculus (10.1 vs. 11.5, p = 0.18) or gingivitis (19.3 vs. 19.0, p = 0.77) indexes. The authors conclude that supplementation with EPA + DHA does not slow down progression of PD in dogs. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Damsgaard, C.T.; Lauritzen, L.; Kjaer, T.M.R.
Danish infants, who received cow's milk or infant formula alone or with fish oil (FO) (3.4 +/- 1.1 mL/d) from 9 to 12 mo of age. Before and after the intervention, fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes, plasma IgE, C-reactive protein, and soluble IL-2 receptor concentrations were measured. TNF......-alpha, INF-gamma, and IL-10 concentrations in whole-blood cultures, stimulated for 22 h with LPS+phytohema-glutinin (PHA) or Lactobacillus paracasei, were also determined. IgA was measured in feces when infants were 10 mo of age. FO supplementation effectively raised erythrocyte (n-3) PUFA (P ....02). Feeding milk rather than formula did not affect cytokine production, but plasma soluble IL-2 receptor concentration was greater in the formula group than in the cow's milk group (P = 0.03). Since the capacity to produce INF-gamma has been proposed as a maturation marker for the immune system in early life...
Lempert, K D; Rogers, J S; Albrink, M J
The effects of a daily fish oil supplement rich in eicosapentaenoic acid were studied in 11 stable continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. Serum lipids, platelet aggregation studies, and template bleeding times were determined before and after 4 weeks of fish oil treatment. The lipid studies were repeated approximately 20 weeks after stopping fish oil supplement. At the end of the treatment period, serum triglycerides (mean +/- SEM) decreased from 297 +/- 42 to 211 +/- 29 mg/dL (P less than .01), high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol fell from 45 +/- 3 to 41 +/- 3 mg/dL (P less than .05), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol increased from 172 +/- 16 to 208 +/- 19 mg/dL (P less than .05). After discontinuing the fish oil supplement, the triglycerides increased to 278 +/- 39 mg/dL, which was no different than the value before fish oil treatment. No significant changes occurred in template bleeding time (TBT), platelet count, hematocrit, or platelet aggregation response. Clinically important uremic bleeding was not apparent. We conclude that in CAPD patients a fish oil supplement favorably effects hypertriglyceridemia and can be ingested without promoting uremic bleeding. The likely beneficial impact on atherogenesis resulting from the lowering of the triglycerides may, however, be counteracted by concomitant changes in HDL- and LDL-cholesterol.
Zhong, Jinfeng; Yang, Rong; Cao, Xiaoyi; Liu, Xiong; Qin, Xiaoli
Fish oil has several dietary benefits, but its application in food formulations is limited because of its poor water-solubility, easy oxidation and strong odor. The purposes of this study were to produce a fish oil/γ-oryzanol nanoemulsion and to evaluate the effect of adding this nanoemulsion on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yogurts. Adding fish oil/γ-oryzanol nanoemulsion resulted in a significant reduction in the acidity and syneresis of yogurt. Yogurt with the nanoemulsion had significantly lower peroxide value (0.28 mmol/L after 21 days) and higher retention of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents (decreased to 95% and 94% of its initial value, respectively) than yogurt with fish oil/γ-oryzanol (peroxide value = 0.65 mmol/L; eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents decreased to 72% and 53% of its initial value, respectively). Fish oil/γ-oryzanol nanoemulsion incorporated into yogurt had closer sensory attributes scores to plain yogurt. This study may have important implications for the application of fish oil/γ-oryzanol nanoemulsion in yogurt.
Full Text Available This research aimed to establish innovation on street food (instant porridge and cookiesfrom Patin Fish Protein Concentrate fortified by blending red palm oil and encaptulated patinfish’s oil. The Encaptulation was conducted by blending of red palm oil and patin fish’s oil usingspray dryer. The blending was consisted of three combinations namely 50 : 50 (A1, 40 : 60 (A2and 60 : 40 (A3 for ratio between red palm oil and patin fish’s oil. The best combination’s resultswas fortified into street food (instant porridge and cookies. The blending was tested by measureyield, fat and fatty acid profile. Moreover, organoleptics and proximate tests were carrie out for thebest treatment of blending in instant porridge and cookies. The results show that encaptulatedyield reached 55 % that rise from A1 treatment as the best treatment with fat content of 17.26%.Profile of unsaturated fatty acid especially fatty acid omega 9 from blending fish oil and palm oilwas 59.29%. The number of fatty acid omega 9 was higher than saturated fatty acid which was18.56%. Furthermore, based on organoleptic tests of instant porridge and cookies using under fiveyear children respondents, it was proven that 93% of children was like the products. Proximate analysis of instant porridge revealed that protein content was 11.04 %, water content was 5.03%,fat content was 1.92 % and ash was 0.64 %. However, proximate analysis showed that cookiesowned protein of 9.11%, fat of 17.03% , water content was 3.93% and ash of 1.38%.Keywords : Encaptulated fish, street food, patin fish protein concentrate, palm oil
B. S. Peskin
Full Text Available The medical community suffered three significant fish oil failures/setbacks in 2013. Claims that fish oil’s EPA/DHA would stop the progression of heart disease were crushed when The Risk and Prevention Study Collaborative Group (Italy released a conclusive negative finding regarding fish oil for those patients with high risk factors but no previous myocardial infarction. Fish oil failed in all measures of CVD prevention—both primary and secondary. Another major 2013 setback occurred when fish oil’s DHA was shown to significantly increase prostate cancer in men, in particular, high-grade prostate cancer, in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT analysis by Brasky et al. Another monumental failure occurred in 2013 whereby fish oil’s EPA/DHA failed to improve macular degeneration. In 2010, fish oil’s EPA/DHA failed to help Alzheimer’s victims, even those with low DHA levels. These are by no means isolated failures. The promise of fish oil and its so-called active ingredients EPA / DHA fails time and time again in clinical trials. This lipids-based physiologic review will explain precisely why there should have never been expectation for success. This review will focus on underpublicized lipid science with a focus on physiology.
García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; van derKruijs, Jules
The encapsulation of fish oil in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers by emulsion electrospinning was investigated. Independently of the emulsifier used, whey protein isolate (WPI) or fish protein hydrolysate (FPH), PVA concentration had a high influence on fiber morphology. Fibers without bead d...
Gerbi, A; Maixent, J M; Ansaldi, J L; Pierlovisi, M; Coste, T; Pelissier, J F; Vague, P; Raccah, D
Diabetic neuropathy has been associated with a decrease in nerve conduction velocity, Na,K-ATPase activity and characteristic histological damage of the sciatic nerve. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effect of a dietary supplementation with fish oil [(n-3) fatty acids] on the sciatic nerve of diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intravenous streptozotocin injection. Diabetic animals (n = 20) were fed a nonpurified diet supplemented with either olive oil (DO) or fish oil (DM), and control animals (n = 10) were fed a nonpurified diet supplemented with olive oil at a daily dose of 0.5 g/kg by gavage for 8 wk. Nerves were characterized by their conduction velocity, morphometric analysis and membrane Na, K-ATPase activity. Nerve conduction velocity, as well as Na,K-ATPase activity, was improved by fish oil treatment. A correlation was found between these two variables (R = 0.999, P < 0.05). Moreover, a preventive effect of fish oil was observed on nerve histological damage [endoneurial edema, axonal degeneration (by 10-15%) with demyelination]. Moreover, the normal bimodal distribution of the internal diameter of myelinated fibers was absent in the DO group and was restored in the DM group. These data suggest that fish oil therapy may be effective in the prevention of diabetic neuropathy.
Mohammad Hashemi; Saber Barkhori-Mehni; Saeed Khanzadi; Mohammad Azizzadeh
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil (EO) against six fish spoilage bacteria for evaluation of its potential utilization in the preservation of minimally processed fish products. Methods: Firstly, GC-MS analysis of the EO was performed to determine its chemical composition. Then, antibacterial effect of the EO in a range of 0.031 to 4 mg/ml was tested against different fish spoilage bacteria such as Aeromonas h...
Bisgaard, Hans; Stokholm, Jakob; Chawes, Bo L.
in their offspring. Methods: We randomly assigned 736 pregnant women at 24 weeks of gestation to receive 2.4 g of n-3 LCPUFA (fish oil) or placebo (olive oil) per day. Their children formed the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2010 (COPSAC2010) cohort and were followed prospectively...
Pulmonary health effects of ozone (O3) exposure are well known; however, the cardiovascular and metabolic consequences are still under investigation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if thes...
Terra VC, de Almeida AC, et al. (2010) Qualitative analysis of hippocampal plastic changes in rats with epilepsy supplemented with oral omega-3 fatty... vegetable oil or fish oil. Am J Clin Nutr 63: 116–122. 92. Endres S, Meydani SN, Ghorbani R, Schindler R, Dinarello CA (1993) Dietary supplementation with
Full Text Available Clove oil (active substance eugenol is an anaesthetic used in aquaculture for stress prevention and prevention of mechanical damage during veterinary procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of clove oil in two aquarium fish species - zebrafish (Danio rerio and guppy (Poecilia reticulata, which are considered the most commonly used model organisms in toxicity testing. The semi-static method according to OECD no. 203 (Fish, Acute toxicity test was used for testing the toxicity of clove oil for juvenile fish. A series of 5 acute toxicity tests was performed, with 10 fish of both species used for each concentration and for the control. The results obtained (number of dead individuals at particular test concentrations were subjected to a probit analysis using the EKO-TOX 5.2 program in order to determine 96hLC50 clove oil values. The significance of the difference between 96hLC50 values in D. rerio and P. reticulata was tested using the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test. The 96hLC50 mean value for clove oil was 18.2 ± 5.52 mg·l–1 in juvenile D. rerio and 21.7 ± 0.8 mg·l–1 in P. reticulata. In spite of variability in clove oil composition, acute toxicity values of clove oil for juvenile stages of both fish species were comparable. The results did not show different sensitivities to clove oil in tested fish species. This is the first similar study in these fish species.
Thirunavukarasu, K.; Purushothaman, S.; Gowthaman, M. K.; Nakajima-Kambe, T.; Rose, C.; Kamini, N. R.
Fish meal has been used as an additional nitrogen source and fish oil as inducer for the growth and production of lipase from Cryptococcus sp. MTCC 5455. A response surface design illustrated that the optimum factors influencing lipase production were fish meal, 1.5 %, w/v, Na2HPO4, 0.2 %, w/v, yeast extract, 0.25 %, w/v and sardine oil, 2.0 %, w/v with an activity of 71.23 U/mL at 96 h and 25 °C, which was 48.39 % higher than the conventional one-factor-at-a-time method. The crude concentrat...
Giam, Xingli; Hadiaty, Renny K; Tan, Heok Hui; Parenti, Lynne R; Wowor, Daisy; Sauri, Sopian; Chong, Kwek Yan; Yeo, Darren C J; Wilcove, David S
Anthropogenic land-cover change is driving biodiversity loss worldwide. At the epicenter of this crisis lies Southeast Asia, where biodiversity-rich forests are being converted to oil-palm monocultures. As demand for palm oil increases, there is an urgent need to find strategies that maintain biodiversity in plantations. Previous studies found that retaining forest patches within plantations benefited some terrestrial taxa but not others. However, no study has focused on aquatic taxa such as fishes, despite their importance to human well-being. We assessed the efficacy of forested riparian reserves in conserving freshwater fish biodiversity in oil-palm monoculture by sampling stream fish communities in an oil-palm plantation in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Forested riparian reserves maintained preconversion local fish species richness and functional diversity. In contrast, local and total species richness, biomass, and functional diversity declined markedly in streams without riparian reserves. Mechanistically, riparian reserves appeared to increase local species richness by increasing leaf litter cover and maintaining coarse substrate. The loss of fishes specializing in leaf litter and coarse substrate decreased functional diversity and altered community composition in oil-palm plantation streams that lacked riparian reserves. Thus, a land-sharing strategy that incorporates the retention of forested riparian reserves may maintain the ecological integrity of fish communities in oil-palm plantations. We urge policy makers and growers to make retention of riparian reserves in oil-palm plantations standard practice, and we encourage palm-oil purchasers to source only palm oil from plantations that employ this practice. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.
Nielsen, Nina Skall; Gøttsche, Jesper; Holm, Jørgen
containing DAG. A feeding experiment where groups of rainbow trout were fed six diets containing different types of oils for 61 days was performed. The lipid fraction of the six diets was as follows: 1) Fish oil and rapeseed oil (FO diet), 2) Specific structured lipid and rapeseed oil (SL diet), 3......) Randomised structured lipids and rapeseed oil (RL diet), 4) Medium chain triglyceride and fish oil (MCT diet), 5) Diacylglycerol and fish oil (DAG diet), 6) Fish oil (FOmax diet). Five of the diets (1-5) contained mixed oils blended to contain the same amount of EPA and DHA. Three of these diets (2,3 and 4......The aim of the study was to investigate whether it was possible a) to increase the relative incorporation of n - 3 very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFA) in a low VLCPUFA diet by feeding trout structured triacylglycerols and b) to reduce fat accumulation by feeding trout a diet...
Børsting, Christian Friis; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben
Fatty acid digestion was studied in three dairy cows cannulated in the rumen, duodenum and ileum. Cows were fed encapsulated fat sources (vegetable oil, saturated fat and fish oil). A preperiod diet was fed with no added fat. In a graeco-latin design nine diets comprising three levels of each...... of the three fat sources were fed. The preperiod diet contained 230 g fatty acids (FA), whereas the three other fats were fed at about 550, 850 and 1150 g FA/day. The feed-ileùm true digestibility of total FA was 95, 47 and 86% for vegetable, saturated and fish fat, respectively. The true digestibility of FA...
Jain, Vishal P; Proctor, Andrew
Photoirradiation of soy oil with UV/visible light has been shown to produce significant amounts of trans,trans conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers through conversion of various synthesized intermediate cis,trans isomers. The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics of CLA isomers synthesis to better understand the production of various isomers. Soy oil was irradiated with UV/visible light for 144 h in the presence of an iodine catalyst and CLA isomers analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). Arrhenius plots were developed for the conversion of soy oil linoleic acid (A) to form cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA (B), conversion of cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA to form trans,trans-CLA (C) with respect to B, and formation of trans,trans-CLA isomers with respect to C. The kinetics of consumption of linoleic acid (LA) to form cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA was found to be of second-order with a rate constant of 9.01 x 10-7 L/mol s. The rate of formation of cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA isomers depends on the rate of formation from LA and its rate of consumption to form trans,trans-CLA isomers. The conversion of cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA isomers to trans,trans-CLA isomers was found to be of first-order with a rate constant of 2.75 x 10-6 s-1. However, the formation of thermodynamically stable trans,trans-CLA isomers (C) with respect to C was found to be a zero-order reaction with a rate constant of 10.66 x 10-7 mol/L s. The consumption of LA was found to be the rate-determining step in the CLA isomers formation reaction mechanism. The findings provide a better understanding of the mechanism of CLA isomers synthesis by photoirradiation and the factors controlling the ratio of various isomers.
Sachan, Dileep S; Yatim, Ayub M; Daily, James W
This study was launched to determine comparative effects of corn oil (CO), safflower oil (SO), fish oil (FO) and palm oil (PO) on carnitine status and ethanol metabolism in rats. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats (300 g bw) were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6) and fed a semisynthetic diets containing fat as oils listed above. Blood and 24 hour urine samples were collected before and after dietary treatment and acute ethanol administration. Samples were analyzed for blood-ethanol concentration (BEC) and carnitine species. The diets containing FO and PO retarded ethanol metabolism compared to the diets containing CO and SO. The effect of these dietary fats on carnitine species in plasma and urine was varied before and after dietary treatment and following a single oral ethanol dose. The liver carnitine content was higher in the PO group after dietary and ethanol treatment. It is concluded that attenuation of ethanol clearance was related to unique fatty acid makeup of the oils that in part may be attributed to the composite ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in the oils.
Itokawa, Misa; Nagahama, Hiroki; Ohtsu, Teiji; Furutani, Naoki; Kamagata, Mayo; Yang, Zhi-Hong; Hirasawa, Akira; Tahara, Yu; Shibata, Shigenobu
The circadian peripheral clock is entrained by restricted feeding (RF) at a fixed time of day, and insulin secretion regulates RF-induced entrainment of the peripheral clock in mice. Thus, carbohydrate-rich food may be ideal for facilitating RF-induced entrainment, although the role of dietary oils in insulin secretion and RF-induced entrainment has not been described. The soybean oil component of standard mouse chow was substituted with fish or soybean oil containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Tuna oil (high DHA/EPA), menhaden oil (standard), and DHA/EPA dissolved in soybean oil increased insulin secretion and facilitated RF-induced phase shifts of the liver clock as represented by the bioluminescence rhythms of PER2::LUCIFERASE knock-in mice. In this model, insulin depletion blocked the effect of tuna oil and fish oil had no effect on mice deficient for GPR120, a polyunsaturated fatty acid receptor. These results suggest food containing fish oil or DHA/EPA is ideal for adjusting the peripheral clock. PMID:26161796
Yanwong, S.; Threepopnatkul, P.
Fish skin gelatin films incorporated with peppermint and citronella essential oils at difference concentrations (10, 20 and 30% w/w) were prepared by solution casting. Addition of peppermint oil contributed to a significant decrease of tensile strength and Young's modulus, while the percent elongation at break showed an obvious increase except at 30% w/w. On the other hand, addition of citronella oils promoted a great increase of tensile strength and young's modulus, but an intense decrease of the percent elongation at break. At the predetermined content, the film incorporated with citronella oils outperformed the one with peppermint oils in term of water vapor transmission and solubility in water. Thermal properties of gelatin films with citronella oils exhibited an enhancement in heat stability, while the one with peppermint oils showed slight decrease in heat stability. The additions with both of essential oils exhibited excellent antibacterial properties against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
Full Text Available The health benefits of fish oil enriched with high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are widely documented. Fish oil as dietary supplements, however, show moderate clinical efficacy, highlighting an immediate scope of systematic in vitro feedback. Our transcriptomic study was designed to investigate the genomic shift of murine brains fed on fish oil enriched diets. A customized fish oil enriched diet (FD and standard lab diet (SD were separately administered to two randomly chosen populations of C57BL/6J mice from their weaning age until late adolescence. Statistical analysis mined 1,142 genes of interest (GOI differentially altered in the hemibrains collected from the FD- and SD-fed mice at the age of five months. The majority of identified GOI (∼ 40% encodes proteins located in the plasma membrane, suggesting that fish oil primarily facilitated the membrane-oriented biofunctions. FD potentially augmented the nervous system's development and functions by selectively stimulating the Src-mediated calcium-induced growth cascade and the downstream PI3K-AKT-PKC pathways. FD reduced the amyloidal burden, attenuated oxidative stress, and assisted in somatostatin activation-the signatures of attenuation of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and affective disorder. FD induced elevation of FKBP5 and suppression of BDNF, which are often linked with the improvement of anxiety disorder, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Hence we anticipate efficacy of FD in treating illnesses such as depression that are typically triggered by the hypoactivities of dopaminergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic networks. Contrastingly, FD's efficacy could be compromised in treating illnesses such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, which are triggered by hyperactivities of the same set of neuromodulators. A more comprehensive investigation is recommended to elucidate the implications of fish oil on disease pathomechanisms, and the
Hlais, Sani; El-Bistami, Dunia; El Rahi, Berna; Mattar, Mélanie A; Obeid, Omar A
Both n-3 and n-9 fatty acids share a common metabolic pathway and can potentially and individually improve cardiovascular disease risk factors. Dietary n-6 is known to weaken the efficacy of n-3 fatty acids due to competition for the same enzymes. Still unclear is whether a similar competition exists between n-3 and n-9 fatty acids. Thus, a 12-week intervention study was conducted to investigate the effect of different combinations of fish oil and high-oleic sunflower oil (OSO) on healthy subjects. Included were five groups (98 subjects): three groups received a fixed amount of n-9 (8 g/day) with varying amounts of n-3 (1, 2 or 4 g/day), one group was given n-3 fatty acids only (2 g/day) and another was given n-9 only (8 g/day). We found that fish oil supplement (2 g/day) was able to decrease TAG by about 13 %, this effect was diminished with the co-ingestion of n-9 (OSO). Intake of OSO (8 g/day) reduced both total and LDL cholesterol by about 10 %, this effect was reduced by the addition of fish oil. Both fish oil and OSO failed to have any significant effect on both glycemic and blood pressure parameters. In conclusion; the impact of oleic acid (n-9) on total and LDL cholesterol was altered by the addition fish oil (n-3). These effects may have been the result of enzymatic competition between the two types of fatty acids.
Tetrault, G.R.; Environment Canada, Burlington, ON; McMaster, M.E.; Dixon, D.G.; Parrott, J.L.
A study was conducted to determine the influence of naturally occurring oil sands related compounds on the reproductive function and hepatic responses of fish. Wild fish, both exposed and unexposed to the compounds in question, were collected along with sediments for laboratory testing. The study showed that in vitro gonadal incubation levels of steroid production were lower at the tributary sites within the oil sands deposits. One indicator of exposure to oil sands related compounds (hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity) was shown to be 5 times higher at the same sites. In addition, slimy sculpin were exposed to sediment samples from the Steepbank River site for 4 to 8 days to evaluate the absorption of the indicator. The indicator in exposed fish was found to be comparable to that measured in fish native to the oil sands area. The study was not capable of predicting an altered ability of gonadal tissue of exposed fish to produce steroid hormones in vitro. It was concluded that future development could compromise the reproductive health of fish in the area
Santiara Putri Pramesti
Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids have important roles in improvement of intelligent and health of human. Microencapsulation of fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acids is an effort to maintain flavor, aroma, stability, and also to successfully transfer bioactive component from the fish oil as fortification material for foods or medicines. Improvement of instant crab cream soup enriched with fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acid has never been conducted before. The purpose of this research was to improve microencapsulation method for fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acids as fortification material for instant cream of crab soup. Microencapsulation methods in this research are homogenization and spray drying. The results showed that the best microcapsule was obtained from homogenization treatment for 10 minutes with efficiency of 90.41±0.64%. The shape of the obtained microcapsule was spherical with average size of 6.52 μm, with induction time up to 26.09±0.01 hours. The best cream of crab soup formula was at fish oil microcapsule concentration of 3.30%, with 8.19% daily value of omega-3, inclusion 11.32% of EPA and DHA at serving size of 17.56 gram.
Soares de Oliveira Carvalho, Anna Paula; Kimi Uehara, Sofia; Nogueria Netto, José Firmino; Rosa, Glorimar
The metabolic syndrome is related to the increase in cardiovascular diseases. Polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil help in reducing cardiovascular risk factors and are natural bindings of PPAR2. To evaluate the impact of hypocaloric diet associated with microencapsulated fish oil supplementation in women with metabolic syndrome. We conducted a randomized, single-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial with adult women who presented metabolic syndrome (n = 30) for 90 days. The volunteers were divided into two groups: placebo group (n = 15) and microencapsulated fish oil group (n = 15) (3 g/day of microencapsulated fish oil containing 0.41 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid and decosahexaneoic acid). Anthropometric, body composition, clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed before and after the intervention. Paired t-test was used for comparisons within groups and Student's t-test for comparison between groups. We considered p hypocaloric diet associated with the consumption of microencapsulated fish oil was effective in reducing blood glucose, insulinemia and insulin resistance in women with MS. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine fish species in South Florida. Vector polygons in this data set represent fish...
Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan; Leth, Torben
The partition coefficients (Kow) of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in systems of fish oil (sand eel)–water, fish oil–buffer solution, rape oil–water and olive oil–water were experimentally determined in a temperature range from 5 to 43 °C and pH from 4.5 to 6.5 °C. The dimerization of benzoic acid...... in fish oil–water system was observed at 25 °C. Two modifications have been made to the Nordic Food Analysis Standard for the determination of sorbic acid by HPLC. The experimental results show that the Kow of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in fish oil–buffer system is ca. 100 times lower than that in fish...... oil–water system. The Kow values of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in fish oil and water system decrease with increasing system pH values. The partition coefficients of plant origin and fish origin oils are in the same order of magnitude even though their molecular structures are very different....
Kasimov, R.YU; Akhundov, M.M; Vagabova, G.R; Mekhtiev, A.A; Palatnikov, G.M
Full text: The problem of impact of oil and oil products on water organisms has been studying for a long time.However, the main and more profound studies were begun in the middle of seventies of 20th century due to increase of the tanker-mediated oil transportation and exploitation of the oil and gas deposits in the shelf area.Such kind of works was begun for the first time in the Caspian Sea in the N eftyaniye Kamni d eposits.Owing to the fact that the Caspian Sea is very rich with the sturgeon fishes and nearly 70% of the world sturgeon harvests are provided here, that time the wide-scale studies of impact of oil and oil products on water organisms were initiated. However, in these studies the authors' conclusions about oil impact on water organisms were equivocal. Analysis of these and other studies shows that authors mostly studied the values of fish survival and development under exposition to oil impact for a short time. So long-termexperiments with application of more sensitive values weren't accomplished. Beginning since 1965 in Azerbaijan in academy of Sciences and in Fish Industry Institute the comprehensive studies had been conducted on the oil impact on the most important physiological and biochemical values and further on reproductive functions of fishes.The main attention was given to chronic minimal oil concentrations that were present in a number of the Caspian Sea areas. In our investigations changes of defensive, orientation and food-seeking reflexes, changes of quantities of biogenic amines in the fish brains, dynamic of blood values changes, changes of amplitude and duration of evoked potentials of different brain areas,changes of reproduction activities and terms of sexual maturation and rates of gametogenesis in fishes were determined under the impact of oil pollution. The experiments were conducted on sturgeon juveniles and model aqurium fishes guppy. The results showed that crude oil from the Neftyaniye Kamni deposits in concentrations above
Full Text Available Pioglitazone, a thiazolidinedione (TZD, is widely used as an insulin sensitizer in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, body weight gain is frequently observed in TZD-treated patients. Fish oil improves lipid metabolism dysfunction and obesity. In this study, we demonstrated suppression of body weight gain in response to pioglitazone administration by combination therapy of pioglitazone and fish oil in type 2 diabetic KK mice. Male KK mice were fed experimental diets for 8 weeks. In safflower oil (SO, safflower oil/low-dose pioglitazone (S/PL, and safflower oil/high-dose pioglitazone (S/PH diets, 20% of calories were provided by safflower oil containing 0%, 0.006%, or 0.012% (wt/wt pioglitazone, respectively. In fish oil (FO, fish oil/low-dose pioglitazone (F/PL, and fish oil/high-dose pioglitazone (F/PH diets, 20% of calories were provided by a mixture of fish oil and safflower oil. Increased body weight and subcutaneous fat mass were observed in the S/PL and S/PH groups; however, diets containing fish oil were found to ameliorate these changes. Hepatic mRNA levels of lipogenic enzymes were significantly decreased in fish oil-fed groups. These findings demonstrate that the combination of pioglitazone and fish oil decreases subcutaneous fat accumulation, ameliorating pioglitazone-induced body weight gain, through fish oil-mediated inhibition of hepatic de novo lipogenesis. Keywords: Fish oil, Pioglitazone, Adverse effect
Full Text Available This research aimed to establish innovation on street food (instant porridge and cookies from Patin Fish Protein Concentrate fortified by blending red palm oil and encaptulated patin fish’s oil. The Encaptulation was conducted by blending of red palm oil and patin fish’s oil using spray dryer. The blending was consisted of three combinations namely 50 : 50 (A1, 40 : 60 (A2 and 60 : 40 (A3 for ratio between red palm oil and patin fish’s oil. The best combination’s results was fortified into street food (instant porridge and cookies. The blending was tested by measure yield, fat and fatty acid profile. Moreover, organoleptics and proximate tests were carrie out for the best treatment of blending in instant porridge and cookies. The results show that encaptulated yield reached 55 % that rise from A1 treatment as the best treatment with fat content of 17.26%. Profile of unsaturated fatty acid especially fatty acid omega 9 from blending fish oil and palm oil was 59.29%. The number of fatty acid omega 9 was higher than saturated fatty acid which was 18.56%. Furthermore, based on organoleptic tests of instant porridge and cookies using under five year children respondents, it was proven that 93% of children was like the products. Proximateanalysis of instant porridge revealed that protein content was 11.04 %, water content was 5.03%, fat content was 1.92 % and ash was 0.64 %. However, proximate analysis showed that cookies owned protein of 9.11%, fat of 17.03% , water content was 3.93% and ash of 1.38%.
Feltes, M. M. C.; Oliveira de Pilot, L.; Gomes Correira, F.; Grimaldi, R.; Mara Block, J.; Ninow, J. L.
Structured triglycerides (STs) containing both medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the same molecule offer nutritional and therapeutic benefits. The aim of this work was to establish the incorporation of MCFA into fish oil triglycerides (TAGs), while maintaining substantial levels of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The effects of different acyl donors (capric acid methyl ester/MeC10 or medium chain triglyceride/TCM) and of the catalyst (chemical or enzymatic) on the fatty acid composition of the reaction product were studied. The fatty acid composition of the fish oil TAG was modified after inter esterification to contain MCFA, and it depended on the catalyst and on the substrates. Thermo grams obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) showed that inter esterification promoted noteworthy changes in the melting profile of the samples. STs of clinical nutrition interest containing both EPA and DHA obtained from fish oil along with MCFA were successfully produced. (Author) 70 refs.
Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Guardiola, Francesc; Durand, Erwann; Villeneuve, Pierre; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke
The antioxidative effect of lipophilized caffeic acid was assessed in two different fish oil enriched food products: mayonnaise and milk. In both emulsion systems, caffeic acid esterified with fatty alcohols of different chain lengths (C1-C20) were better antioxidants than the original phenolic compound. The optimal chain length with respect to protection against oxidation was, however, different for the two food systems. Fish oil enriched mayonnaise with caffeates of medium alkyl chain length (butyl, octyl and dodecyl) added resulted in a better oxidative stability than caffeates with shorter (methyl) or longer (octadecyl) alkyl chains. Whereas in fish oil enriched milk emulsions the most effective caffeates were those with shorter alkyl chains (methyl and butyl) rather than the ones with medium and long chains (octyl, dodecyl, hexadecyl and eicosyl). These results demonstrate that there might be an optimum alkyl chain length for each phenolipid in each type of emulsion systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lansing, Marihan; Sauvé, Yves; Dimopoulos, Ioannis; Field, Catherine J; Suh, Miyoung; Wizzard, Pamela; Goruk, Susan; Lim, David; Muto, Mitsuru; Wales, Paul; Turner, Justine
A dietary supply of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) is critical for neonatal retinal development. Both are absent/minimal in parenteral nutrition (PN) using soy-oil emulsions ([SO] Intralipid®) traditionally used for neonatal intestinal failure. In contrast, fish-oil emulsions ([FO] Omegaven®) are enriched in DHA/AA. The aim of this study was to compare retinal function and fatty acid content in neonatal piglets fed PN with SO or FO. Two-5-day-old piglets were randomly allocated to SO (n = 4) or FO (n = 4), provided at equivalent doses (5g/kg/d). After 14 days of PN, retinal function was assessed by electroretinography and retinas were harvested for fatty acid content analysis. Sow-fed piglets served as a reference (REF). Light flash-elicited stoppage of cone and rod dark-currents (a-waves) and the ensuing postsynaptic activation of cone and rod ON bipolar cells (b-waves) were comparable between SO and REF. Responses recorded from FO were subnormal (P DHA content was similar in both groups (FO, 14.59% vs SO, 12.22%; P = 0.32); while AA was lower in FO (FO, 6.01% vs SO, 8.21%; P = .001). Paradoxically, FO containing more DHA and AA did not preserve retinal function when compared with the same low dose of SO. This may be due to the reduced AA enrichment in the retina with FO treatment. Further investigation into the ideal amounts of DHA and AA for optimal neonatal retinal function is required. © 2018 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial effect of Carum copticum essential oil (Ajowan EO against Listeria monocytogenes in fish model system. Ajowan EO chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectral analysis and the highest concentration of Carum copticum essential oil without any significant changes on sensory properties of kutum fish (Rutilus frisii kutum was assigned. Then the inhibitory effect of Ajowan EO at different concentrations in presence of salt and smoke component was tested on L. monocytogenes growth in fish peptone broth (FPB, kutum broth and cold smoked kutum broth at 4 ºC for 12 days. Ajowan EO completely decreased the number of L. monocytogenes in FPB after 12 days of storage, however, antimicrobial effect of EO significantly reduced in kutum and cold smoked kutum broth. Addition of 4% NaCl and smoke component improved the anti-listerial activity of Ajowan EO in all fish model broths.
Toral, P G; Shingfield, K J; Hervás, G; Toivonen, V; Frutos, P
Studies in ruminants have shown that supplementing the diet with a mixture of fish oil (FO) and sunflower oil (SO) enhances the concentration of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), 20:5 n-3, and 22:6 n-3 in milk because of alterations in ruminal biohydrogenation, but the intermediates formed under these conditions are not well characterized. Five ewes fitted with rumen cannula and fed a high concentrate diet were used to examine the effect of a mixture (30 g/kg of DM) of FO and SO (1:2, wt/wt) on temporal changes in rumen fermentation characteristics and the relative abundance of biohydrogenation intermediates in ruminal digesta collected after 0, 3, and 10 d on diet. Appearance and identification of biohydrogenation intermediates was determined based on complementary gas-liquid chromatography and Ag+-HPLC analysis of fatty acid methyl esters and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of corresponding 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. Inclusion of FO and SO in the diet had no effect on rumen pH, volatile fatty acid concentrations, or nutrient digestion, but altered the fatty acid composition of ruminal digesta, changes that were characterized by time-dependent decreases in 18:0 and 18:2 n-6 and the accumulation of trans 16:1, trans 18:1, 10-O-18:0, and trans 18:2. Lipid supplements enhanced the proportion of 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 in digesta and resulted in numerical increases in cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid concentrations, but decreased the relative abundance of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid. Furthermore, detailed analysis revealed the appearance of several unique 20:1, 20:2, 22:1, 22:3, and 22:4 products in ruminal digesta that accumulated over time, providing the first indications of 20 and 22 carbon fatty acid intermediates formed during the biohydrogenation of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids in sheep. In conclusion, FO and SO in a high concentrate diet caused a time-dependent inhibition of the complete
Full Text Available The enzymatic transesterification of ethyl ferulate (EF with fish oil from cod liver was investigated with Novozym® 435 as catalyst under solvent-free conditions. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the synthesis system for the production of feruloyl fish oil in industry. The modified HPLC method was first set up to characterise the reaction products together with liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS. The influence of the addition of glycerol to the system on the feruloyl acylglycerol profile was investigated in terms of transesterification performance. The bioconversion rate of EF can be significantly increased with the increased formation of feruloyl fish oil products when appropriate amount of glycerol is present in the reaction. Therefore, an equivalent molar amount of glycerol was added to EF for the practical optimization of the system. The mutual effects of temperature (40 to 70 °C, reaction time (1 to 5 days, enzyme load (2 to 20 % and molar ratio of fish oil and EF in the substrate (1 to 5 were thus studied with the assistance of response surface methodology (RSM for the purpose of maximizing the formation of feruloyl fish oil. The models were well fitted and verified. The optimized conditions were found to be: temperature 70 °C, enzyme load 4.3 %, substrate ratio 4.7, and reaction time 5 days. Under these conditions, the maximum conversion of EF reached 92.4 %, and the formation of feruloyl fish oil reached 80.4 %, but the formation of by-product was minimized to 11.4 % only.
Alizadeh, Hamid; Bazgir, Behzad; Daryanoosh, Farhad; Koushki, Maryam; Sobhani, Vahid
Background: Exercise has positive and negative effects on immune system. Herein, we would like to investigate the effects of incremental aerobic training and fish oil supplementation on the plasma levels of CRP, CPK and IL-17 in trained mice. One of the major roles of immune system is to produce soluble or cellular components that provide the immunity against inflammatory agent. The purpose of this study is to investigate distinct and combine effects of incremental aerobic training and fish o...
Nilsuwan, Krisana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon
Properties of fish skin gelatin film incorporated with palm oil at 50 and 75 % (w/w) as affected by glycerol at 0-30 % (w/w) were investigated. Increases in water vapour permeability and elongation at break along with decrease in tensile strength were noticed when levels of glycerol were increased (p fish skin gelatin films without drastic alteration of mechanical properties.
Theary, Chan; Panagides, Dora; Laillou, Arnaud; Vonthanak, Saphoon; Kanarath, Chheng; Chhorvann, Chhea; Sambath, Pol; Sowath, Sol; Moench-Pfanner, Regina
The prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in Cambodia is among the highest in Southeast Asia. Fortification of staple foods and condiments is considered to be one of the most cost-effective strategies for addressing micronutrient deficiencies at the population level. The Government of Cambodia has recognized the importance of food fortification as one strategy for improving the nutrition security of its population. This paper describes efforts under way in Cambodia for the fortification of fish sauce, soy sauce, and vegetable oil. Data were compiled from a stability test of Cambodian fish sauces fortified with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA); analysis of fortified vegetable oils in the Cambodian market; a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) study of fortified products; and food fortification program monitoring documents. At different levels of fortification of fish sauce with NaFeEDTA, sedimentation and precipitation were observed. This was taken into consideration in the government-issued standards for the fortification of fish sauce. All major brands of vegetable oil found in markets at the village and provincial levels are imported, and most are nonfortified. Fish sauce, soy sauce, and vegetable oil are widely consumed throughout Cambodia and are readily available in provincial and village markets. Together with an effective regulatory monitoring system, the government can guarantee that these commodities, whether locally produced or imported, are adequately fortified. A communications campaign would be worthwhile, once fortified commodities are available, as the KAP study found that Cambodians had a positive perception of fortified sauces.
Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte
The oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched mayonnaise-based salads and the influence of different vegetables in shrimp and tuna salads were evaluated. Moreover, the lipid oxidation in the presence of 1% oregano, rosemary, or thyme in fish oil-enriched tuna salad was assessed. The results obtain......-oxidative effect of shrimp. The effect of ingredients in tuna salads was inconclusive, possibly due to a high content of volatiles in the vegetables themselves. However, the addition of spices increased the oxidative stability of tuna salad (oregano>rosemary>thyme)....
Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte
The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effect of five different emulsifiers on iron‐mediated lipid oxidation in 70% fish oil‐in‐water emulsions. The emulsifiers were either based on protein (whey protein isolate and sodium caseinate) or based on phospholipid (soy lecithin...... and two milk phospholipids with different phospholipid contents, MPL20 and MPL75). Lipid oxidation was studied at pH 4.5 and 7.0, and results were compared to lipid oxidation in neat fish oil. Results showed that all emulsions oxidised more than neat oil. Furthermore, emulsions prepared with proteins...
D'Vaz, N; Meldrum, S J; Dunstan, J A; Lee-Pullen, T F; Metcalfe, J; Holt, B J; Serralha, M; Tulic, M K; Mori, T A; Prescott, S L
Maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy has been associated with altered infant immune responses and a reduced risk of infant sensitization and eczema. To examine the effect of early postnatal fish oil supplementation on infant cellular immune function at 6 months of age in the context of allergic disease. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial (ACTRN12606000281594), 420 infants of high atopic risk received fish oil [containing 280 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and 110 mg eicosapentanoic acid (EPA)] or control oil daily from birth to 6 months. One hundred and twenty infants had blood collected at 6 months of age. Fatty acid levels, induced cytokine responses, T cell subsets and monocyte HLA-DR expression were assessed at 6 months of age. Infant allergies were assessed at 6 and 12 months of age. DHA and EPA levels were significantly higher in the fish oil group and erythrocyte arachidonic acid (AA) levels were lower (all P acid (PUFA) levels and associated with lowered allergen-specific Th2 responses and elevated polyclonal Th1 responses. Our results add to existing evidence of n-3 PUFA having immunomodulatory properties that are potentially allergy-protective. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available Fish skin gelatin films incorporated with various concentrations of cinnamon essential oil (CEO were prepared and characterized. The results showed that tensile strength (TS, elongation at break (EAB, and water content (WC of the gelatin based film decreased with the increasing concentrations of CEO, but water vapor permeability (WVP increased. Addition of CEO improved light barrier property of the film. The Scanning electron microscope (SEM showed that the heterogeneous surface and porous formation appeared in gelatin-CEO films. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses (FTIR-ATR spectra indicated the interactions existed between gelatin and CEO. The gelatin-CEO films exhibited good inhibitory effects against the tested microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, and Paecilomyces varioti and their antifungal activity seemed to be more effective than the resistance to bacterial growth. In vitro release studies showed an initial burst effect of CEO release and that subsequently slowed down at 40 °C, but the initial burst release was not obvious at 4 °C. The obtained results suggested that incorporation of CEO as a natural antimicrobial agent into gelatin film has potential for developing as active food packaging.
van der Heide, J. J.; Bilo, H. J.; Donker, J. M.; Wilmink, J. M.; Tegzess, A. M.
Dietary fish oil exerts effects on renal hemodynamics and the immune response that may benefit renal-transplant recipients treated with cyclosporine. To evaluate this possibility, we studied the effect of fish oil on renal function, blood pressure, and the incidence of acute rejection episodes in
Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon
Properties of protein-based film from fish skin gelatin incorporated with different citrus essential oils, including bergamot, kaffir lime, lemon and lime (50% based on protein) in the presence of 20% and 30% glycerol were investigated. Films containing 20% glycerol had higher tensile strength (TS) but lower elongation at break (EAB), compared with those prepared with 30% glycerol, regardless of essential oils incorporated (pfish skin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sele, Veronika; Amlund, Heidi; Berntssen, Marc H. G.
The present study describes the use of a simple solid-phase extraction procedure for the extraction of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons from fish oil followed by analysis using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The procedure permitted the anal......The present study describes the use of a simple solid-phase extraction procedure for the extraction of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons from fish oil followed by analysis using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The procedure permitted...... the analysis of a small sample amount, and the method was applied on a range of different commercial fish oils, including oils of anchovy (Engraulis ringens), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), sand eel (Ammodytes marinus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and a commercial mixed fish oil (mix of oils...... of Atlantic herring, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and saithe (Pollachius virens)). Total arsenic concentrations in the fish oils and in the extracts of the fish oils were determined by microwave-assisted acid digestion and ICPMS. The arsenic concentrations in the fish oils ranged from 5.9 to 8.7 mg kg-1. Three...
Gómez-Estaca, J; López de Lacey, A; López-Caballero, M E; Gómez-Guillén, M C; Montero, P
Essential oils of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), herb-of-the-cross (Verbena officinalis L.), pine (Pinus sylvestris) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) were tested for their antimicrobial activity on 18 genera of bacteria, which included some important food pathogen and spoilage bacteria. Clove essential oil showed the highest inhibitory effect, followed by rosemary and lavender. In an attempt to evaluate the usefulness of these essential oils as food preservatives, they were also tested on an extract made of fish, where clove and thyme essential oils were the most effective. Then, gelatin-chitosan-based edible films incorporated with clove essential oil were elaborated and their antimicrobial activity tested against six selected microorganisms: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Photobacterium phosphoreum, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The clove-containing films inhibited all these microorganisms irrespectively of the film matrix or type of microorganism. In a further experiment, when the complex gelatin-chitosan film incorporating clove essential oil was applied to fish during chilled storage, the growth of microorganisms was drastically reduced in gram-negative bacteria, especially enterobacteria, while lactic acid bacteria remained practically constant for much of the storage period. The effect on the microorganisms during this period was in accordance with biochemical indexes of quality, indicating the viability of these films for fish preservation. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Damsbo-Svendsen, Signe; Rønsholdt, Mia Dybkjær; Lauritzen, Lotte
Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal-weight subjects (50% females) were given ten 0.5-mL capsules/day of fish oil or soybean oil for 3 weeks separated by 1-week wash-out. In the end of each period, appetite was assessed by 10-cm visual analog scales immediately before and after a standardized breakfast. Results were analyzed in accordance with the paired design considering oil sequence and gender. All subjects completed both periods with a compliance of 96% and oil sequence did not affect the results. There was no difference between the two supplements in any pre-breakfast appetite scores, but the post-prandial sensation of being full was 1.21 cm (0.20; 2.22) lower after the fish oil-period. Furthermore, there was a supplement × gender-interaction on "desire to eat more" due to a score increase of 1.09 cm (0.28; 1.90) in women only. These results suggest that marine n-3 fatty acid may increase appetite. This finding would be potentially beneficial for patients with compromised nutritional status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Despite the growing awareness of the necessity of a sustainable development, the global economy continues to depend largely on the consumption of non-renewable energy resources. One such energy resource is fossil oil extracted from the seabed at offshore oil platforms. This type of oil production causes continuous environmental pollution from drilling waste, discharge of large amounts of produced water, and accidental spills.Samples from natural populations of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua in two North Sea areas with extensive oil production were investigated. Exposure to and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were demonstrated, and biomarker analyses revealed adverse biological effects, including induction of biotransformation enzymes, oxidative stress, altered fatty acid composition, and genotoxicity. Genotoxicity was reflected by a hepatic DNA adduct pattern typical for exposure to a mixture of PAHs. Control material was collected from a North Sea area without oil production and from remote Icelandic waters. The difference between the two control areas indicates significant background pollution in the North Sea.It is most remarkable to obtain biomarker responses in natural fish populations in the open sea that are similar to the biomarker responses in fish from highly polluted areas close to a point source. Risk assessment of various threats to the marine fish populations in the North Sea, such as overfishing, global warming, and eutrophication, should also take into account the ecologically relevant impact of offshore oil production.
Spadari-Bratfisch Regina C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental stress plays an important role in the development of glucose intolerance influencing lipid and glucose metabolism through sympathetic nervous system, cytokines and hormones such as glucocorticoids, catecholamines and glucagon. Otherwise, fish oil prevents glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Although the mechanisms involved are not fully understood, it is known that sympathetic and HPA responses are blunted and catecholamines and glucocorticoids concentrations can be modulated by fish consumption. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether fish oil, on a normal lipidic diet: 1 could prevent the effect of footshock-stress on the development of glucose intolerance; 2 modified adiponectin receptor and serum concentration; and 3 also modified TNF-α, IL-6 and interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels in adipose tissue and liver. The study was performed in thirty day-old male Wistar randomly assigned into four groups: no stressed (C and stressed (CS rats fed with control diet, and no stressed (F and stressed (FS rats fed with a fish oil rich diet. The stress was performed as a three daily footshock stress sessions. Results Body weight, carcass fat and protein content were not different among groups. FS presented a reduction on the relative weight of RET. Basal serum glucose levels were higher in CS and FS but 15 min after glucose load just CS remained with higher levels than other groups. Serum corticosterone concentration was increased in CS, this effect was inhibited in FS. However, 15 min after footshock-stress, corticosterone levels were similar among groups. IL-6 was increased in EPI of CS but fish oil consumption prevented IL-6 increase in FS. Similar levels of TNF-α and IL-10 in RET, EPI, and liver were observed among groups. Adipo R1 protein concentration was not different among groups. Footshock-stress did not modify AdipoR2 concentration, but fish oil diet increases AdipoR2 protein concentration
Farsad-Naeimi, Alireza; Imani, Saeid; Arefhosseini, Seyed R; Alizadeh, Mohammad
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a special fatty acid in dairy products with unique antioxidant and anti-cancerous effects. Kefir, a milk product, comprises normalized homogenized cow's milk, the fructose and lactulose syrup as well as a symbiotic starter which has improved probiotic characteristics. The study was aimed to discuss patents and to examine the effect of different safflower oil concentrations on CLA content of the kefir drink prepared by low-fat milk. Safflower oil was added at 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% (V/V) to low-fat cow's milk and six formulations of kefir samples were prepared. The CLA content of the kefir products was measured at pH=6.0 and pH=6.8 by gas chromatography. Acid and bile tolerance of bacterial microenvironment in the products were also determined. Substitution of natural fat content of milk with safflower oil resulted in proportional increase in the CLA contents of kefir in a dose dependent manner. The highest concentration of CLA was found under 0.5% (V/V) of safflower oil at pH 6.0 and temperature of 37 °C. Adding the Safflower oil into milk used for kefir production, increased CLA content from 0.123 (g/100 g) in pure safflower free samples to 0.322 (g/100 g) in samples with 0.5% (V/V) of safflower oil. The current study revealed that substitution of safflower oil with natural fat of cow's milk may help the production of kefir samples with remarkable increase in CLA content of final product.
D'Vaz, N; Meldrum, S J; Dunstan, J A; Martino, D; McCarthy, S; Metcalfe, J; Tulic, M K; Mori, T A; Prescott, S L
Relative deficiency of dietary omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been implicated in the rising allergy prevalence in Westernized countries. Fish oil supplementation may provide an intervention strategy for primary allergy prevention. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of fish oil n-3 PUFA supplementation from birth to 6 months of age on infant allergic disease. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, 420 infants at high atopic risk received a daily supplement of fish oil containing 280 mg docosahexaenoic acid and 110 mg eicosapentaenoic acid or a control (olive oil), from birth to age 6 months. PUFA levels were measured in 6-month-old infants' erythrocytes and plasma and their mothers' breast milk. Eczema, food allergy, asthma and sensitization were assessed in 323 infants for whom clinical follow-up was completed at 12 months of age. At 6 months of age, infant docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid levels were significantly higher (both P acid levels were lower (P = .003) in the fish oil group. Although n-3 PUFA levels at 6 months were associated with lower risk of eczema (P = .033) and recurrent wheeze (P = .027), the association with eczema was not significant after multiple comparisons and there was no effect of the intervention per se on the primary study outcomes. Specifically, between-group comparisons revealed no differences in the occurrence of allergic outcomes including sensitization, eczema, asthma, or food allergy. Postnatal fish oil supplementation improved infant n-3 status but did not prevent childhood allergic disease.
Lauritzen, Lotte; Kjær, T. M. R.; Porsgaard, Trine
Dietary levels of n-3 PUFA are believed to influence the immune system. The importance of the source of n-3 PUFA is debated. This study addressed how the content and source of n-3 PUFA in the maternal diet influenced tissue FA composition and the immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) in mice pups....... From the day of conception and throughout lactation, dams were fed diets containing 4% fat from linseed oil (LSO), fish oil (FO) or a n-3 PUFA-deficient diet (DEF). Pups were injected with OVA within 24 h of birth and sacrificed at weaning (day 21). Overall, the content of n-3 PUFA in milk, liver...
Nielsen, Nina Skall; Xu, Xuebing; Timm Heinrich, Maike
Structured lipids produced by enzymatic or chemical methods for different applications have been receiving considerable attention. The oxidative stability of a randomized structured lipid (RFO), produced by chemical interesterification from fish oil (FO) and tricaprylin, and a specific structured...... lipid (SFO), produced by enzymatic interesterification from the same oil and caprylic acid, was compared with the stability of FO. Oils were stored at 2degreesC for 11 wk followed by storage at 20degreesC for 6 wk. In addition, the antioxidative effect of adding the metal chelators EDTA or citric acid...
Dussauze, Matthieu; Pichavant-Rafini, Karine; Belhomme, Marc; Buzzacott, Peter; Privat, Killian; Le Floch, Stéphane; Lemaire, Philippe; Theron, Michaël
Data on the biological impact of oil dispersion in deep-sea environment are scarce. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential interest of a pressure challenge as a new experimental approach for the assessment of consequences of chemically dispersed oil, followed by a high hydrostatic pressure challenge. This work was conducted on a model fish: juvenile Dicentrarchus labrax. Seabass were exposed for 48 h to dispersant alone (nominal concentration (NC) = 4 mg L -1 ), mechanically dispersed oil (NC = 80 mg L -1 ), two chemically dispersed types of oil (NC = 50 and 80 mg L -1 with a dispersant/oil ratio of 1/20), or kept in clean seawater. Fish were then exposed for 30 min at a simulated depth of 1350 m, corresponding to pressure of 136 absolute atmospheres (ATA). The probability of fish exhibiting normal activity after the pressure challenge significantly increased from 0.40 to 0.55 when they were exposed to the dispersant but decreased to 0.26 and 0.11 in the case of chemical dispersion of oil (at 50 and 80 mg L -1 , respectively). The chemical dispersion at 80 mg L -1 also induced an increase in probability of death after the pressure challenge (from 0.08 to 0.26). This study clearly demonstrates the ability of a pressure challenge test to give evidence of the effects of a contaminant on the capacity of fish to face hydrostatic pressure. It opens new perspectives on the analysis of the biological impact of chemical dispersion of oil at depth, especially on marine species performing vertical migrations.
Oostenbrug, G. S.; Mensink, R. P.; Hardeman, M. R.; de Vries, T.; Brouns, F.; Hornstra, G.
Previous studies have indicated that fish oil supplementation increases red blood cell (RBC) deformability, which may improve exercise performance. Exercise alone, or in combination with an increase in fatty acid unsaturation, however, may enhance lipid peroxidation. Effects of a bicycle time trial
Verkerk, Arie O.; van Ginneken, Antoni C. G.; Berecki, Géza; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Schumacher, Cees A.; Veldkamp, Marieke W.; Baartscheer, Antonius; Casini, Simona; Opthof, Tobias; Hovenier, Robert; Fiolet, Jan W. T.; Zock, Peter L.; Coronel, Ruben
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega3-PUFAs) from fish oil reduce the risk of sudden death presumably by preventing life-threatening arrhythmias. Acutely administered omega3-PUFAs modulate the activity of several cardiac ion channels, but the chronic effects of a diet enriched with
Alizadeh, Hamid; Bazgir, Behzad; Daryanoosh, Farhad; Koushki, Maryam; Sobhani, Vahid
Exercise has positive and negative effects on immune system. Herein, we would like to investigate the effects of incremental aerobic training and fish oil supplementation on the plasma levels of CRP, CPK and IL-17 in trained mice. One of the major roles of immune system is to produce soluble or cellular components that provide the immunity against inflammatory agent. The purpose of this study is to investigate distinct and combine effects of incremental aerobic training and fish oil supplement on plasma levels of IL-17, CPK and CRP in trained male mice. Totally, 54 healthy male mice (2 months old, weight= 34±1 grams) were selected. At first 10 mice were killed to determine base line values, the rest of them were randomly divided into four groups, control group (C, n=11), supplement group (S, n=11), training group (T, n=11) and supplement-training group (ST, n=11).The supplement and supplement-training groups were fed with 0.2cc/day fish oil for 8 weeks. Training and supplement-training groups underwent exercise for 5 sessions per week for a period of 8 weeks on animal treadmill. SPSS 16.0 software and multivariate analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis of data Exercise and fish oil supplement lead to a decrease in CRP levels and subsequently causing a reduction in plasma levels of IL-17 and CK in mice (poil can reduce regulate inflammatory response caused by incremental exercise.
Christophersen, Philip Carsten B; Yang, Mingshi; Mu, Huiling
Increased research interest in the health benefits of fish oils and the wide publicity of these studies have led to the marketing and launch of a wide array of new and traditional food and beverage products enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. This chapter focuses on the impact of microencapsulation...
Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard
of this study was therefore to compare lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared by two different kinds of high pressure homogenizers i.e. a microfluidizer and a two valve high pressure homogenizer. Emulsions were made with equal droplet sizes, and with either 1% sodium caseinate or 1% whey...
Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard
of this study was to compare lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared by two different kinds of high pressure homogenizers i.e. a microfluidizer and a two valve high pressure homogenizer. Emulsions were made with equal droplet sizes, and with either 1% sodium caseinate or 1% whey protein...
Verkerk, A.O.; Ginneken, van A.C.G.; Berecki, G.; Ruijter, den H.M.; Schumacher, C.A.; Veldkamp, M.W.; Baartscheer, A.; Casini, S.; Opthof, T.; Hovenier, R.; Fiolet, J.W.T.; Zock, P.L.; Coronel, R.
Background: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (W-PUFAs) from fish oil reduce the risk of sudden death presumably by preventing life-threatening arrhythmias. Acutely administered omega 3-PUFAs modulate the activity of several cardiac ion channels, but the chronic effects of a diet enriched with
Jeansen, Stephanie; Witkamp, Renger F.; Garthoff, Jossie A.; Helvoort, van Ardy; Calder, Philip C.
Background & aims: The increased consumption of fish oil enriched-products exposes a wide diversity of people, including elderly and those with impaired health to relatively high amounts of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs). There is an ongoing debate around the
Mellouk, Namya; Ramé, Christelle; Delaveau, Joël; Rat, Christophe; Marchand, Maxime; Mercerand, Frédéric; Travel, Angélique; Brionne, Aurélien; Chartrin, Pascal; Ma, Linlin; Froment, Pascal; Dupont, Joëlle
Overfed hens selected for their rapid growth become fatter and develop reproductive disorders. Herein, we aimed to demonstrate that food restriction leading to a weight reduction and/or a supplementation with fish oil may be effective in preventing reproductive disorders through the regulation of adipokine expression in broiler hens. This study included four groups of food restricted (Rt) or ad libitum hens (Ad, feeding at a rate 1.7 times greater than Rt hens) supplemented or unsupplemented with fish oil (1%). The Rt diet significantly increased plasma chemerin (RARRES2) levels during the laying period, delayed sexual maturity by one week and improved egg quality and fertility. These effects were associated with higher progesterone production in response to IGF1 (or LH) in cultured granulosa cells and in vivo egg yolk, as compared with Ad hens. Fish oil supplementation had similar effects to the Rt diet on progesterone ( P food restriction but not fish oil supplementation improved fertility, and this was associated with variations in RARRES2 plasma and ovarian expression in hens. © 2018 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.
Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Guardiola, Francesc
The antioxidative effect of lipophilized caffeic acid was assessed in two different fish oil enriched food products: mayonnaise and milk. In both emulsion systems, caffeic acid esterified with fatty alcohols of different chain lengths (C1–C20) were better antioxidants than the original phenolic c...
Appel, M.J.; Woutersen, R.A.
In the present study the putative chemopreventive effect of dietary fish oil (MaxEPA) on azaserine-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in rats was investigated. Groups of rats were maintained on a semipurified low-fat (LF; 5 wt%) diet or on semipurified high-fat (HF; 25 wt%) diets containing 5 wt%
Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Olsen, S.F.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the brain during the 1st and 2nd years of life. The objective of this study was to see if an increased content of DHA in breast-milk via maternal fish oil (FO)-supplementation affects mental development in term infants. one hundred twenty-two Danish mothe...
SMIT, MJ; VERKADE, HJ; HAVINGA, R; VONK, RJ; SCHERPHOF, GL; TVELD, GI; KUIPERS, F
Recently we demonstrated that dietary fish oil (FO) causes changes in intrahepatic cholesterol transport and hyper secretion of cholesterol into bile in rats V. Clin. Invest. 88: 943-951, 1991). We have now investigated in more detail the relationship between cholesterol and bile acid secretion in
Lu, Y.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Wopereis, S.; Muller, M.R.; Kersten, A.H.
Elevated circulating triglycerides, which are considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, can be targeted by treatment with fenofibrate or fish oil. To gain insight into underlying mechanisms, we carried out a comparative transcriptomics and metabolomics analysis of the effect of 2 wk
Lu Yingchang (Kevin), Y.; Boekschoten, Mark; Wopereis, Suzan; Muller, Michael; Kersten, Sander
Elevated circulating triglycerides, which are considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, can be targeted by treatment with fenofibrate or fish oil. To gain insight into underlying mechanisms, we carried out a comparative transcriptomics and metabolomics analysis of the effect of 2 week
Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Lauritzen, Lotte; Kjær, Tanja
/day) or no fish oil and cow’s milk or infant formula from 9 to 12 month of age in 64 healthy Danish infants. Before and after the intervention we measured the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte (RBC) membranes, plasma IgE levels, C-reactive protein and soluble IL-2 receptors (sIL-2R) as well as cytokine...
The potential protective role of α-tocopherol and fish oil against oxidative damage induced by paraquat were investigated. Forty male albino rats with average body weight of 100-120 gm were housed in 8 groups of 5 rats each. The first group served as control and injected with saline, group 2 was injected with a single dose ...
Lee, L.E.J.; Willfang, S.; Lamb, M.P.; Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G.
The processing of Athabasca Deposit oil sands results in large amounts of liquid wastes associated with oil sand tailings. In addition to containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), these waste waters are high in salinity and naphthenic acids which may be toxic to aquatic biota and their effects must be clarified. This study presents a suite of tests for in-depth and quick analysis of tailings water toxicity and contributes to the assessment of environmental risk. Yellow perch, fathead minnows, and rainbow trout were exposed to reclamation ponds where both in vivo and in vitro evaluation of crude and individual naphthenic acids and salts were conducted to examine their effect on fish gills which are very susceptible to contaminants. The fish exposed to the reclamation ponds showed higher incidence of gill pathological changes than control fish in Mildred Lake, a reservoir lake whose waters are diverted for use in oil sands extraction. Notable gill histopathological changes were observed when fish were exposed in vivo to sulfate/chloride salts and to abietic acid. Changes in membrane integrity, lysosomal activity and general morphology were observed when fished were exposed in vitro to salts, commercial napthenic acids or crude naphthenic extracts from the reclamation ponds
Thirunavukarasu, K; Purushothaman, S; Gowthaman, M K; Nakajima-Kambe, T; Rose, C; Kamini, N R
Fish meal has been used as an additional nitrogen source and fish oil as inducer for the growth and production of lipase from Cryptococcus sp. MTCC 5455. A response surface design illustrated that the optimum factors influencing lipase production were fish meal, 1.5 %, w/v, Na2HPO4, 0.2 %, w/v, yeast extract, 0.25 %, w/v and sardine oil, 2.0 %, w/v with an activity of 71.23 U/mL at 96 h and 25 °C, which was 48.39 % higher than the conventional one-factor-at-a-time method. The crude concentrated enzyme hydrolyzed polyurethane (PUR) efficiently and hydrolysis was 94 % at 30 °C and 96 h. The products, diethylene glycol and adipic acid were quantified by HPLC and scanning electron microscopic studies of the degraded polymer showed significant increase in size of the holes from 24 to 72 h of incubation. Hydrolysis of PUR within 96 h makes the lipase novel for disposal of PUR and provides an innovative solution to the problems created by plastic wastes.
Bartelt, Stine; Timm, Michael; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab
a randomised 2 £ 2-factorial design in which subjects were randomly assigned to 8-week supplementation with capsules containing fish oil (about 29 g n-3 LCPUFA/d) or olive oil (control). Subjects were also randomly assigned to household use of oils and fat spreads with a high or a low 18 : 2n-6 content...... by the fish oil-supplementation (P,0001, compared to the olive oil groups). No effect of the intervention was observed on neutrophil count, but one measure of the zymosan-induced oxidative burst was higher in the fish oil groups (P¼003) compared to the olive oil groups. The fat intervention did not in itself...
Rasmy, G. E.; Khalil, W. K. B.; Moharib, S. A.; Kawab, A. A.; Jwanny, E. W.
This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of fish oil supplementation in male wistar rat colon carcinogenesis. In order to induce colon cancer, the rats were given a weekly subcutaneous injection of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w. for five weeks. Afterwards, some of the rats ingested fish oil for either 4 weeks (DMH-FO4 group), or 17 weeks (DMH-FO17 group). The remaining rats continued without any supplementation for the same 4 weeks (DMH4 group), or 17 weeks (DMH17 group). Another two groups of rats did not receive the DMH and were given fish oil (FO17 group) or a normal diet only and considered as the control group (CN group). At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed; and were subsequently subjected to biochemical and molecular biological analyses as well as histopathological examinations. The results showed increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in the DMH rats compared to the control. The liver and colonic changes that were induced by DMH were significantly improved through fish oil supplementation in the DMH-FO17 group. The molecular analysis revealed that DMH treatment induced the expression alterations of genes p53, p27 and p21 and increased DNA band patterns related to cancer, while both FO17 and DMH-FO17 groups showed much better results. A histopathological examination of the DMH17 group revealed colon adenocarcinoma and several lesions in rat liver tissues. An improvement in the histopathological picture was seen in the livers and colons of groups DMHFO17. In conclusion, the present results demonstrated the anti-carciongenic effect of herring fish oil against DMH induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. The inhibitory effect of FO was due to the modulation of elevated biochemical parameters, DNA damage, gene expression and histopathological lesions caused by DMH. (Author) 70 refs.
Full Text Available In the present study we determined the effect of chronic diet supplementation with n-3 PUFA on renal function of healthy and cachectic subjects by providing fish oil (1 g/kg body weight to female rats throughout pregnancy and lactation and then to their offspring post-weaning and examined its effect on renal function parameters during their adulthood. The animals were divided into four groups of 5-10 rats in each group: control, control supplemented with fish oil (P, cachectic Walker 256 tumor-bearing (W, and W supplemented with fish oil (WP. Food intake was significantly lower in the W group compared to control (12.66 ± 4.24 vs 25.30 ± 1.07 g/day. Treatment with fish oil significantly reversed this reduction (22.70 ± 2.94 g/day. Tumor growth rate was markedly reduced in the P group (16.41 ± 2.09 for WP vs 24.06 ± 2.64 g for W. WP group showed a significant increase in mean glomerular filtration rate compared to P and control (1.520 ± 0.214 ml min-1 kg body weight-1; P < 0.05. Tumor-bearing groups had low urine osmolality compared to control rats. The fractional sodium excretion decreased in the W group compared to control (0.43 ± 0.16 vs 2.99 ± 0.87%; P < 0.05, and partially recovered in the WP group (0.90 ± 0.20%. In summary, the chronic supplementation with fish oil used in this study increased the amount of fat in the diet by only 0.1%, but caused remarkable changes in tumor growth rate and cachexia, also showing a renoprotective function.
Strøm, Marin; Maslova, E.; Hansen, S.
. Objective: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on offspring risk of attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression. Methods: We used data from 397 and 654 singleton offspring of mothers who were randomized to fish oil (providing 1 g/day of DHA) or olive oil during...... pregnancy as participants in: the RCT90, a single center trial enrolling normal pregnancies in 1990, and FOTIP, a multicenter trial enrolling high-risk pregnancies during 1990–1996. We used definitions of ADHD and depression based on ICD-10 codes and drug dispensary data, using information on first...... prescription/hospital contact as a proxy for ADHD and depression, respectively. We performed intention-to-treat analysis and report odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI comparing the two intervention groups. Results: There were 17 and 35 cases of ADHD among offspring to participants in RCT90 and FOTIP, respectively...
Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Hyldig, Grethe
Marine phospholipids (PL) are potential ingredients for food fortification due to its numerous advantages. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether a fermented milk product fortified with a mixture of marine PL and fish oil had better oxidative stability than a fermented milk...... product fortified with fish oil alone. Fortification of a fermented milk product with marine PL was performed by incorporating 1 % w/w lipids, either in the form of neat oil or in the form of a pre-emulsion. Lipid oxidation was investigated in the neat emulsions and fortified products by the measurements...... of primary, secondary volatile oxidation products and tocopherol content upon 32 days storage at 2 °C and 28 days storage at 5 °C, respectively. Analyses of particle size distribution, viscosity and microbial growth were also performed. In addition, sensory attributes such as sour, fishy and rancid flavor...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and anadromous fish species in Central California. Vector polygons in this data set...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in the Hudson River. Vector polygons in this...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, freshwater, and anadromous fish species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector polygons...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species for the Upper Coast of Texas. Vector polygons in this...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackish/freshwater fish species in North Carolina. Vector polygons...
Abdalrahman B. Fadhil
Full Text Available Biodiesel fuels were prepared from a special type of frying oil namely spent fish frying oil through two step transesterification viz. acid-base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The oil was pre-treated with (1.0 wt% HCl and methanol to reduce free fatty acids content of the oil. Then, conditions of the base catalyzed step such as base concentration, reaction temperature, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction time were optimized. The study raveled that, 0.50% KOH w/w of oil; a 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio; a reaction temperature of 60°C and a duration of 1h were the optimal conditions because they resulted in high biodiesel yield. Fuel properties of the products were assessed and found better than those of the parent oil. Furthermore, they met the specified limits according to the ASTM standards. Thin layer chromatography was used as a simple technique to monitor the transesterification of the oil. Blending of the optimal biodiesel sample with petro diesel using specified volume percentages was done as well. The results indicated that biodiesel had slight effect on the values of the assessed properties.
Anh Van Nguyen
Full Text Available Relative retention analysis and increment approach were applied for the comparison of triglycerides (TGs retention of a broad set of plant seed oils with isomeric conjugated octadecatrienoic acids (CLnA by reversed-phase HPLC for “propanol-2-acetonitrile” mobile phases and Kromasil 100-5C18 stationary phase with diode array detection (DAD and mass spectrometric (MS detection. The subjects of investigation were TGs of seed oils: Calendula officinalis, Catalpa ovata, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Centranthus ruber, Momordica charantia, Trichosanthes anguina, Punica granatum, Thladiantha dubia, Valeriana officinalis, and Vernicia montana. It was found that a sequence of elution of TGs of the same types is the same without any inversions for full range of mobile phase compositions: punicic (C18:39Z11E13Z < jacaric (C18:38Z10E12Z < catalpic (C18:39E11E13Z < α-eleostearic (C18:39Z11E13E < calendic (C18:38E10E12Z < β-eleostearic (C18:39E11E13E < all-E calendic (C18:38E10E12E acids. TGs and fatty acid compositions were calculated for all oil samples. Regularities of solute retentions as a function of isomeric conjugated octadecatrienoic acid moiety structure are discussed. Thus, it was proven that it is possible to differentiate TGs of complex composition with moieties of all natural CLnA by retention control accomplished by electronic spectra comparison, even though there are only three types of electronic-vibration spectra for seven isomeric CLnA.
Fowler, Ashley M; Macreadie, Peter I; Bishop, David P; Booth, David J
Over 7500 oil and gas structures (e.g. oil platforms) are installed in offshore waters worldwide and many will require decommissioning within the next two decades. The decision to remove such structures or turn them into reefs (i.e. 'rigs-to-reefs') hinges on the habitat value they provide, yet this can rarely be determined because the residency of mobile species is difficult to establish. Here, we test a novel solution to this problem for reef fishes; the use of otolith (earstone) properties to identify oil structures of residence. We compare the otolith microchemistry and otolith shape of a site-attached coral reef fish (Pseudanthias rubrizonatus) among four oil structures (depth 82-135 m, separated by 9.7-84.2 km) on Australia's North West Shelf to determine if populations developed distinct otolith properties during their residency. Microchemical signatures obtained from the otolith edge using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) differed among oil structures, driven by elements Sr, Ba and Mn, and to a lesser extent Mg and Fe. A combination of microchemical data from the otolith edge and elliptical Fourier (shape) descriptors allowed allocation of individuals to their 'home' structure with moderate accuracy (overall allocation accuracy: 63.3%, range: 45.5-78.1%), despite lower allocation accuracies for each otolith property in isolation (microchemistry: 47.5%, otolith shape: 45%). Site-specific microchemical signatures were also stable enough through time to distinguish populations during 3 separate time periods, suggesting that residence histories could be recreated by targeting previous growth zones in the otolith. Our results indicate that reef fish can develop unique otolith properties during their residency on oil structures which may be useful for assessing the habitat value of individual structures. The approach outlined here may also be useful for determining the residency of reef fish on artificial reefs, which would
Sacchi, Raffaele; Paduano, Antonello; Fiore, Francesca; Della Medaglia, Dorotea; Ambrosino, Maria Luisa; Medina, Isabel
The chemical modifications and partitioning toward the brine phase (5% salt) of major phenol compounds of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) were studied in a model system formed by sealed cans filled with oil-brine mixtures (5:1, v/v) simulating canned-in-oil food systems. Filled cans were processed in an industrial plant using two sterilization conditions commonly used during fish canning. The partitioning of phenolic compounds toward brine induced by thermal processing was studied by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the phenol fraction extracted from oils and brine. Hydroxytyrosol (1), tyrosol (2), and the complex phenolic compounds containing 1 and 2 (i.e., the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycon 3, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycon 4, and the oleuropein aglycon 6) decreased in the oily phase after sterilization with a marked partitioning toward the brine phase. The increase of the total amount of 1 and 2 after processing, as well as the presence of elenolic acid 7 released in brine, revealed the hydrolysis of the ester bond of hydrolyzable phenolic compounds 3, 4, and 6 during thermal processing. Both phenomena (partitioning toward the water phase and hydrolysis) contribute to explain the loss of phenolic compounds exhibited by EVOO used as filling medium in canned foods, as well as the protection of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned-in-EVOO fish products.
Høy, Carl-Erik; Christensen, Michael Søberg
We investigated the influence of the intramolecular fatty acid distribution of dietary triacyl-sn-glycerols (TAG) rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the structure of chylomicron TAG. Fish oil and seal oil, comparable in fatty acid compositions but with different contents of major n-3...... PUFA esterified at the sn-2 position (20:5n-3, 46,6%, and 5.3%; 22:6n-3, 75.5% and 3.8%, respectively), were fed to rats. Mesenteric lymph was collected and the chylomicrons were isolated by ultracentrifugation. The fatty acid compostition of chylomicrons largely reflected the fatty acid composition...... of the oils administered. The intramolecular fatty acid distributions of the TAG fed were reflected in the chylomicron TAG as the fraction of the total contents observed in the sn-2 postition of 20:5n-3 were 23.6 and 13.3% and of 22:6n-3 were 30.6 and 5.4% for resultant chylomicrons following fish oil...
Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and contribute to boost the intake of omega-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (2% w/v) ...
Slivkoff-Clark Karin M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are associated with a postprandial accumulation of atherogenic chylomicron remnants that is difficult to modulate with lipid-lowering therapies. Dietary fish oil and exercise are cardioprotective interventions that can significantly modify the metabolism of TAG-rich lipoproteins. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exercise and fish oil act in combination to affect chylomicron metabolism in obese men with moderate insulin resistance. Methods The single blind study tested the effect of fish oil, exercise and the combined treatments on fasting and postprandial chylomicron metabolism. Twenty nine men with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to take fish oil or placebo for four weeks, before undertaking an additional 12 week walking program. At baseline and at the end of each treatment, subjects were tested for concentrations of fasting apo B48, plasma lipids and insulin. Postprandial apo B48 and TAG kinetics were also determined following ingestion of a fat enriched meal. Results Combining fish oil and exercise resulted in a significant reduction in the fasting apo B48 concentration, concomitant with attenuation of fasting TAG concentrations and the postprandial TAGIAUC response (p Conclusion Fish oil was shown to independently improve plasma TAG homeostasis but did not resolve hyper-chylomicronaemia. Instead, combining fish oil with chronic exercise reduced the plasma concentration of pro-atherogenic chylomicron remnants; in addition it reduced the fasting and postprandial TAG response in viscerally obese insulin resistant subjects.
Ghorbanzade, Tahere; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Akhavan, Sahar; Hadavi, Roxana
Fish oils have many dietary benefits, but due to their strong odors and rapid deterioration, their application in food formulations is limited. For these reasons, nano-liposome was used to nano-encapsulate fish oil in this study and encapsulated fish oil was utilized in fortifying yogurt. Physicochemical properties of produced yogurt including pH, acidity, syneresis, fatty acid composition, peroxide value as well as sensory tests were investigated during three weeks storage at 4°C. Nano-liposome encapsulation resulted in a significant reduction in acidity, syneresis and peroxide value. The results of gas chromatography analyses revealed that after 21days storage, yogurt fortified with nano-encapsulated fish oil had a higher DHA and EPA contents than yogurt containing free fish oil. Overall, the results of this study indicates that adding nano-encapsulated fish oil into yogurt gave closer characteristics to control sample in terms of sensory characteristics than yogurt fortified with free fish oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mathieu, A.; Hanlon, J.; Melvin, W.; French, B. [Oceans Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada); Myers, M. [Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Williams, U.; Janes, G. [Petro-Canada, East Coast Operations, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Wight, F. [Husky Oil Operations Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada)
American plaice are used as an indicator species for environmental effects monitoring (EEM) programs in the Grand Banks area of Newfoundland. This study reported on fish health studies conducted between 2000 to 2006 at the Terra Nova oil development site before and after the release of produced waters. A total of 500 fishes were studied for a 5-year period in order to evaluate health effect indicators including fish condition; visible skin and organ lesions; levels of mixed-function-oxygenase (MFO) enzymes; haematology; and various histopathological indices in the liver and gills. The study demonstrated slight elevations of MFO enzyme activity in fish from the development site in 2002, before the release of produced water. On the basis of the various studied indicators, results suggest that the project is not having a significant impact on the health of American plaice.
Mathieu, A.; Hanlon, J.; Melvin, W.; French, B.; Myers, M.; Williams, U.; Janes, G.; Wight, F.
American plaice are used as an indicator species for environmental effects monitoring (EEM) programs in the Grand Banks area of Newfoundland. This study reported on fish health studies conducted between 2000 to 2006 at the Terra Nova oil development site before and after the release of produced waters. A total of 500 fishes were studied for a 5-year period in order to evaluate health effect indicators including fish condition; visible skin and organ lesions; levels of mixed-function-oxygenase (MFO) enzymes; haematology; and various histopathological indices in the liver and gills. The study demonstrated slight elevations of MFO enzyme activity in fish from the development site in 2002, before the release of produced water. On the basis of the various studied indicators, results suggest that the project is not having a significant impact on the health of American plaice.
Full Text Available Both fish oil and montelukast have been shown to reduce the severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of fish oil and montelukast, alone and in combination, on airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction induced by eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea (EVH in asthmatics.In this model of EIB, twenty asthmatic subjects with documented hyperpnea-induced bronchoconstriction (HIB entered a randomized double-blind trial. All subjects entered on their usual diet (pre-treatment, n = 20 and then were randomly assigned to receive either one active 10 mg montelukast tablet and 10 placebo fish oil capsules (n = 10 or one placebo montelukast tablet and 10 active fish oil capsules totaling 3.2 g EPA and 2.0 g DHA (n = 10 taken daily for 3-wk. Thereafter, all subjects (combination treatment; n = 20 underwent another 3-wk treatment period consisting of a 10 mg active montelukast tablet or 10 active fish oil capsules taken daily.While HIB was significantly inhibited (p0.017 between treatment groups; percent fall in forced expiratory volume in 1-sec was -18.4 ± 2.1%, -9.3±2.8%, -11.6 ± 2.8% and -10.8 ± 1.7% on usual diet (pre-treatment, fish oil, montelukast and combination treatment respectively. All three treatments were associated with a significant reduction (p0.017 in these biomarkers between treatments.While fish oil and montelukast are both effective in attenuating airway inflammation and HIB, combining fish oil with montelukast did not confer a greater protective effect than either intervention alone. Fish oil supplementation should be considered as an alternative treatment for EIB.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00676468.
Najafi, M H; Zeinoaldini, S; Ganjkhanlou, M; Mohammadi, H; Hopkins, D L; Ponnampalam, E N
This study examined the effect of palm, soybean or fish oils on the performance, muscle fatty acid composition and meat quality of goat kids. Twenty-four male Mahabadi kids (BW=19.4±1.2 kg) were divided into three groups according to liveweight and randomly allocated to one of three diets. Animals were fed ad libitum for 84 days. Different dietary fat sources had no effect on performance and/or carcass quality attributes. The soybean oil diet decreased 16:0 and 18:0 concentrations and increased 18:2 and 18:3 and the ratio of PUFA/SFA in the muscle compared with other treatments. Fish oil feeding increased 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 concentrations and decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 in the muscle. The results demonstrate that the use of fish oil is a nutritional strategy to improve the health claimable long-chain omega-3 fatty acid content and n-6/n-3 ratio in goat meat without changing the sensory properties or colour of meat. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mutch David M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The functions, actions, and regulation of tissue metabolism affected by the consumption of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA from fish oil and other sources remain poorly understood; particularly how LC-PUFAs affect transcription of genes involved in regulating metabolism. In the present work, mice were fed diets containing fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, fungal oil rich in arachidonic acid, or the combination of both. Liver and hippocampus tissue were then analyzed through a combined gene expression- and lipid- profiling strategy in order to annotate the molecular functions and targets of dietary LC-PUFA. Results Using microarray technology, 329 and 356 dietary regulated transcripts were identified in the liver and hippocampus, respectively. All genes selected as differentially expressed were grouped by expression patterns through a combined k-means/hierarchical clustering approach, and annotated using gene ontology classifications. In the liver, groups of genes were linked to the transcription factors PPARα, HNFα, and SREBP-1; transcription factors known to control lipid metabolism. The pattern of differentially regulated genes, further supported with quantitative lipid profiling, suggested that the experimental diets increased hepatic β-oxidation and gluconeogenesis while decreasing fatty acid synthesis. Lastly, novel hippocampal gene changes were identified. Conclusions Examining the broad transcriptional effects of LC-PUFAs confirmed previously identified PUFA-mediated gene expression changes and identified novel gene targets. Gene expression profiling displayed a complex and diverse gene pattern underlying the biological response to dietary LC-PUFAs. The results of the studied dietary changes highlighted broad-spectrum effects on the major eukaryotic lipid metabolism transcription factors. Further focused studies, stemming from such transcriptomic data, will need to
Mathieu, A.; Hanlon, J.; Melvin, W.; French, B. [Oceans Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada); DeBlois, E. [Elisabeth DeBlois Inc., St. John' s, NL (Canada); Williams, U.; Wight, F.; Janes, G. [Petro-Canada, St. John' s, NL (Canada)
Bioindicators or health effect indicators can be a valuable reconnaissance tool for addressing concerns on the part of the fishing industry and public interests regarding any potential impacts of pollutants on fish stocks. American plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoides) was initially chosen by the oil industry as an indicator species for Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) programs in the Grand Banks of Newfoundland because it is an important commercial flatfish. This presentation reported on fish health studies carried out at the Terra Nova development site before and after release of produced waters, which began in 2003. These studies represented 1 component of the overall Terra Nova EEM program. Fish were collected near the development area and in a reference area 20 km away. A broad range of health effect indicators were studied, including fish condition, visible skin and organ lesions, levels of mixed-function oxygenase (MFO) enzymes, haematology and an array of 19 histopathological indices in liver and gills. These indicators have been widely used in laboratory and field investigations with various fish species. A slight elevation of MFO enzyme activity was observed in fish from the development area in 2002, before release of produced water. In 2006, other indices were similar between the development and reference area. It was concluded that the overall results do not indicate any project effects.
Martin, J.; Hodson, P.
In August 2005, a freight train derailment near the shore of Lake Wabamun near Edmonton, Alberta resulted in the release of nearly 150,000 litres of Bunker C oil on the lakeshore. The purpose of this study was to define the toxic load of oil in sediments to better describe the exposure and toxicity of fish to sunken heavy oil on spawning substrates. Heavy Bunker C fuel contains a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), particularly the 3-4 ringed alkylated forms that cause sublethal toxic responses in early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Oil patches still persist in near-shore sediments where fish spawn. This study evaluated how the behaviour of heavy oil in water interacts with exposure and toxicity to trout embryo. Flow-through oiled gravel columns were used to determine whether the toxic constituents of heavy oil are transferred to water quickly enough to cause toxicity. Embryonic trout exposed to the outflow of these columns showed signs of sublethal toxicity and dose-dependent mortality. In addition, column output of hydrocarbons and CYP1A induction in fish were flow-dependent. The desorption kinetics of the gravel column dosing was characterized in order to evaluate the toxicity of oil on these substrates and relate it back to toxicity of oil in sediments. The time to steady-state desorption of oil constituents in water was first determined, and then the rate at which different classes of oil constituents partition into water were identified.
García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Özdemir, N.; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen
The encapsulation of fish oil in carbohydrate-based nanomicrostructures obtained by electrohydrodynamic processing was investigated. Solutions of pullulan 200 kDa (15 wt%) and dextran 70 kDa (25 wt%) presented appropriate properties (viscosity, surface tension and conductivity) to allow the forma......The encapsulation of fish oil in carbohydrate-based nanomicrostructures obtained by electrohydrodynamic processing was investigated. Solutions of pullulan 200 kDa (15 wt%) and dextran 70 kDa (25 wt%) presented appropriate properties (viscosity, surface tension and conductivity) to allow...... the formation of nano-microfibers and nano-microcapsules, respectively. Although dextran 70 kDa exhibited antioxidant properties in solution, their capsules produced at lab and pilot-plant scales showed a low oxidative stability both with emulsified and neat oil. Phase separation of solution and opened capsules...... indicated a poor interaction between dextran and fish oil, which suggested that further optimization of the electrospraying solution is necessary. On the contrary, pullulan solutions were optimized to work even at pilot-plant scale. In this case, in spite of the prooxidant effect of pullulan in solution...
Rodrigues, Angélica Heringer; Moreira, Carolina Campos Lima; Neves, Maria José; Botion, Leida Maria; Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia
Several studies have demonstrated that fish oil consumption improves metabolic syndrome and comorbidities, as insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, dyslipidaemia and hypertension induced by high-fat diet ingestion. Previously, we demonstrated that administration of a fructose-rich diet to rats induces liver lipid accumulation, accompanied by a decrease in liver cytosolic lipases activities. In this study, the effect of replacement of soybean oil by fish oil in a high-fructose diet (FRUC, 60% fructose) for 8 weeks on lipid metabolism in liver and epididymal adipose tissue from rats was investigated. The interaction between fish oil and FRUC diet increased glucose tolerance and decreased serum levels of triacylglycerol (TAG), VLDL-TAG secretion and lipid droplet volume of hepatocytes. In addition, the fish oil supplementation increased the liver cytosolic lipases activities, independently of the type of carbohydrate ingested. Our results firmly establish the physiological regulation of liver cytosolic lipases to maintain lipid homeostasis in hepatocytes. In epididymal adipose tissue, the replacement of soybean oil by fish oil in FRUC diet did not change the tissue weight and lipoprotein lipase activity; however, there was increased basal and insulin-stimulated de novo lipogenesis and glucose uptake. Increased cytosolic lipases activities were observed, despite the decreased basal and isoproterenol-stimulated glycerol release to the incubation medium. These findings suggest that fish oil increases the glycerokinase activity and glycerol phosphorylation from endogenous TAG hydrolysis. Our findings are the first to show that the fish oil ingestion increases cytosolic lipases activities in liver and adipose tissue from rats treated with high-carbohydrate diets. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; de Diego, Sara; Petersen, Lone Kristine
oxidation than PUFAs from vegetable oils due to their highly polyunsaturated nature, it is necessary to develop methods to protect these PUFAs. Many food systems are emulsions. Due to the so-called polar paradox phenomenon, hydrophilic antioxidants may in many cases be better antioxidants in bulk oil than...... lipophilic compounds, whereas lipophilic antioxidants are more efficient than hydrophilic antioxidants in emulsions. This phenomenon has been explained by the affinity of the compounds towards the different phases in bulk oil and emulsions. The hydrophilic character of many naturally occurring antioxidants...... that generally, lipophilized dihydrocaffeic acid and rutin increased the oxidative stability of o/w emulsions and fish oil enriched milk compared with their parent compound. The results supported a cut-off effect in relation to the acyl chain length esterified to the phenolic compound. Octyl dihydrocaffeate (C8...
Wan Ahmad, Wan A R; Stone, David A J; Schuller, Kathryn A
Complete dietary fish oil replacement with palm or poultry oil in barramundi (Lates calcarifer) had no detrimental effects on growth or hepatosomatic index of juvenile fish up to an average size of ~50 g. However, it significantly decreased the omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the fish muscle (fillet) lipids. This was particularly true for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) which are recognised for their health beneficial effects in the human diet. As a result of their decreased EPA and DHA content, the peroxidation index of the muscle lipids was also decreased. This was associated with increased simulated retail storage shelf life as indicated by decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in muscle samples from fish fed the palm or poultry oil-based diets. Concomitantly, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, but not glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity or reduced glutathione concentration, was significantly reduced in the liver of barramundi fed the palm or poultry oil-based diets as compared with the fish fed the fish oil-based diet. Furthermore, GPx and GST activity were very low in muscle, much lower than in gastrointestinal tract, liver or swim bladder. Therefore, we propose that liver GPx activity may be a good predictor of fillet shelf life in barramundi and other fish species.
Hodson, P.V.; Khan, C.W.; Saravanabhavan, G.; Clarke, L.; Brown, R.S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). School of Environmental Studies; Hollebone, B.; Wang, Z. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). ; Short, J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Juneau, AK (United States). Auke Bay Lab; Lee, K.; King, T. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Centre for Offshore Oil and Gas Environmental Research
In order to mitigate the risk to fisheries following an offshore oil spill, it is necessary to know the components of crude oil that are toxic. Chronic exposure of early life stages of fish to crude oil causes Blue Sac Disease, a syndrome characterized by induction of the cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) enzyme. In this study, effects-driven fractionation of Alaska North Slope Crude was used to identify the classes of compounds that cause CYP1A induction in juvenile rainbow trout and chronic toxicity to developing stages of Japanese medaka. Four fractions of compounds were created by low temperature vacuum distillation. This separated the constituents of oil according to their volatility within defined temperature ranges. The fractions were separated according to their boiling points. With a temperature range of 287-481 degrees C, fraction F3 was the only fraction as toxic as whole oil and induced CYPP1A enzymes of fish. Fractions containing specific classes of alkyl PAH were also collected. For all separations, the performance of the method was evaluated by the extent to which PAH were separated from aliphatics, resins and waxes, as well as by the quantitative recovery of mass in fractions and subfractions. The induction of CYP1A enzymes showed that PAH was present in all fractions that were highly toxic, but the toxicity tests indicated that not all fractions containing PAH were toxic. This research provided a scientific basis for comparing the risks of different crude oils based on chemical analyses that show the different proportions or amounts of PAH present. The results indicate which compounds of concern should be used to determine the extent and success of oil spill remediation, and provide a biological interpretation of chemical fingerprinting used to discriminate the sources of oil pollution. 15 refs., 1 tab.
Hodson, P.V.; Khan, C.W.; Saravanabhavan, G.; Clarke, L.; Brown, R.S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). School of Environmental Studies; Hollebone, B.; Wang, Z. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). ; Short, J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Juneau, AK (United States). Auke Bay Lab; Lee, K.; King, T. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Centre for Offshore Oil and Gas Environmental Research
In order to mitigate the risk to fisheries following an offshore oil spill, it is necessary to know the components of crude oil that are toxic. Chronic exposure of early life stages of fish to crude oil causes Blue Sac Disease, a syndrome characterized by induction of the cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) enzyme. In this study, effects-driven fractionation of Alaska North Slope Crude was used to identify the classes of compounds that cause CYP1A induction in juvenile rainbow trout and chronic toxicity to developing stages of Japanese medaka. Four fractions of compounds were created by low temperature vacuum distillation. This separated the constituents of oil according to their volatility within defined temperature ranges. The fractions were separated according to their boiling points. With a temperature range of 287-481 degrees C, fraction F3 was the only fraction as toxic as whole oil and induced CYPP1A enzymes of fish. Fractions containing specific classes of alkyl PAH were also collected. For all separations, the performance of the method was evaluated by the extent to which PAH were separated from aliphatics, resins and waxes, as well as by the quantitative recovery of mass in fractions and subfractions. The induction of CYP1A enzymes showed that PAH was present in all fractions that were highly toxic, but the toxicity tests indicated that not all fractions containing PAH were toxic. This research provided a scientific basis for comparing the risks of different crude oils based on chemical analyses that show the different proportions or amounts of PAH present. The results indicate which compounds of concern should be used to determine the extent and success of oil spill remediation, and provide a biological interpretation of chemical fingerprinting used to discriminate the sources of oil pollution. 15 refs., 1 tab.
de Castro Nizio, Daniela Aparecida; Fujimoto, Rodrigo Yudi; Maria, Alexandre Nizio; Carneiro, Paulo César Falanghe; França, Carina Caroline Silva; da Costa Sousa, Natalino; de Andrade Brito, Fabiany; Sampaio, Taís Santos; de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank, Maria; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of essential oils from Varronia curassavica accessions against different stages of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Essential oils from each accession were tested in vitro at the concentrations 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 200 mg/L. The VCUR-001, VCUR-202, VCUR-509, and VCUR-601 accessions presented the major compounds α-pinene, germacrene D-4-ol, (E)-caryophyllene and epiglobulol, and sabinene, respectively. These isolated compounds were tested in vitro at a concentration proportional to that found in the essential oil which caused 100% mortality of the parasite. The concentrations of 10 and 50 mg/L of the essential oil of accession VCUR-202 provided 100% mortality of trophonts and tomonts, respectively. For the accession VCUR-509, 100% mortality of trophonts and tomonts was observed at concentrations 75 and 200 mg/L of essential oil, respectively. The same mortality was observed at concentration 200 mg/L in both stages of the parasite for the other accessions. The major compounds α-pinene, sabinene, and the (E)-caryophyllene + epiglobulol mixture caused 100% mortality of trophonts and tomonts. The in vivo assay for white spot disease control was performed in a therapeutic bath of 1 h with the essential oil of accession VCUR-202 at concentrations of 0.5 and 2.0 mg/L. A significant reduction of about 30% of trophonts on infected fish was observed, independent of the oil concentration. The V. curassavica essential oil, especially the VCUR-202 accession, is a potential source of raw material for the formulation and commercialization of bioproducts to control freshwater white spot disease in fish.
Huang, Lin; Ma, Xian-Yong; Jiang, Zong-Yong; Hu, You-Jun; Zheng, Chun-Tian; Yang, Xue-Fen; Wang, Li; Gao, Kai-Guo
To investigate the effect of glycitein, a synthetic soybean isoflavone (ISF), on the intestinal antioxidant capacity, morphology, and cytokine content in young piglets fed oxidized fish oil, 72 4-d-old male piglets were assigned to three treatments. The control group was fed a basal diet containing fresh fish oil, and the other two groups received the same diet except for the substitution with the same dosage of oxidized fish oil alone or with ISF (oxidized fish oil plus ISF). After 21 d of feeding, supplementation of oxidized fish oil increased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), nuclear factor κ B (NF-κB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), NO, and Caspase-3 in jejunal mucosa, and decreased the villous height in duodenum and the levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and IL-4 in the jejunal mucosa compared with supplementation with fresh oil. The addition of oxidized fish oil plus ISF partially alleviated this negative effect. The addition of oxidized fish oil plus ISF increased the villous height and levels of sIgA and IL-4 in jejunal mucosa, but decreased the levels of IL-1β and IL-2 in jejunal mucosa (Poil. Collectively, these results show that dietary supplementation of ISF could partly alleviate the negative effect of oxidized fish oil by improving the intestinal morphology as well as the antioxidant capacity and immune function in young piglets.
Teo, T C; DeMichele, S J; Selleck, K M; Babayan, V K; Blackburn, G L; Bistrian, B R
The effects of enteral feeding with safflower oil or a structured lipid (SL) derived from 60% medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) and 40% fish oil (MCT/fish oil) on protein and energy metabolism were compared in gastrostomy-fed burned rats (30% body surface area) by measuring oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, nitrogen balance, total liver protein, whole-body leucine kinetics, and rectus muscle and liver protein fractional synthetic rates (FSR, %/day). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (195 +/- 5g) received 50 ml/day of an enteral regimen containing 50 kcal, 2 g amino acids, and 40% nonprotein calories as lipid for three days. Protein kinetics were estimated by using a continuous L-[1-14C] leucine infusion technique on day 2. Thermally injured rats enterally fed MCT/fish oil yielded significantly higher daily and cumulative nitrogen balances (p less than or equal to 0.025) and rectus muscle (39%) FSR (p less than or equal to 0.05) when compared with safflower oil. MCT/fish oil showed a 22% decrease (p less than or equal to 0.005) in per cent flux oxidized and a 7% (p less than or equal to 0.05) decrease in total energy expenditure (TEE) versus safflower oil. A 15% increase in liver FSR was accompanied by a significant elevation (p less than or equal to 0.025) in total liver protein with MCT/fish oil. This novel SL shares the properties of other structured lipids in that it reduces the net protein catabolic effects of burn injury, in part, by influencing tissue protein synthetic rates. The reduction in TEE is unique to MCT/fish oil and may relate to the ability of fish oil to diminish the injury response. PMID:2500898
Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte
work better as antioxidants in bulk oil, whereas lipophilic compounds are better antioxidants in emulsions. This presentation is an overview of our previous work in the area of fish oil enriched emulsions with antioxidants. Our studies have shown that the lipophilicity of the compounds is not the only...... with increased lipophilicity. Instead a cut-off effect was observed in relation to the alkyl chain length lipophilized to the phenolic compound. Furthermore, the efficacy of lipophilic antioxidants is influenced by the type of food system. Thus, our results show that the antioxidant behavior may not be as simple...
Pritsos, Karen L; Perez, Cristina R; Muthumalage, Thivanka; Dean, Karen M; Cacela, Dave; Hanson-Dorr, Katie; Cunningham, Fred; Bursian, Steven J; Link, Jane E; Shriner, Susan; Horak, Katherine; Pritsos, Chris A
The Deepwater Horizon oil spill released 134 million gallons of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico making it the largest oil spill in US history and exposing fish, birds, and marine mammals throughout the Gulf of Mexico to its toxicity. Fish eating waterbirds such as the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) were exposed to the oil both by direct contact with the oil and orally through preening and the ingestion of contaminated fish. This study investigated the effects of orally ingestedMC252 oil-contaminated live fish food by double-crested cormorants on oxidative stress. Total, reduced, and oxidized glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation were assessed in the liver tissues of control and treated cormorants. The results suggest that ingestion of the oil-contaminated fish resulted in significant increase in oxidative stress in the liver tissues of these birds. The oil-induced increase in oxidative stress could have detrimental impacts on the bird's life-history. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ruth, van S.M.; Rozijn, M.; Koot, A.H.; Perez-Garcia, R.; Kamp, van der H.J.; Codony, R.
Classification of fats and oils involves the recognition of one/several markers typical of the product. The ideal marker(s) should be specific to the fat or oil. Not many chemical markers fulfill these criteria. Authenticity assessment is a difficult task, which in most cases requires the
Porsgaard, Trine; Overgaard, Jesper; Krogh, Anne Louise
Many studies have shown beneficial effects of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on human health. Regardless of the positive effects of n-3 PUFA, the intake of these fatty acids remains low. An approach to increase the intake of n-3 PUFA in the population is to incorporate fish oil...... Syrian hamsters received hamster feed blended with one of the three butter products. After 6 weeks of feeding, the fatty acid compositions of plasma, erythrocytes, liver, brain, and visceral fat were determined. The intake of butter product with fish oil resulted in a higher level of n-3 PUFA in plasma...... into food. In the present study, fish oil was incorporated into butter blends by enzymatic interesterification. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of this butter product in comparison with a commercial butter blend and a product produced by interesterification but without fish oil. Golden...
MUSKIET, FAJ; MUSKIET, FD; MEIBORG, G; SCHERMER, JG
Thirteen patients (aged 0.7-17.9 y) with homozygous sickle cell disease were supplemented with alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, zinc, and soybean oil (suppl 1; for 8 mo) and alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, and fish oil (suppl 2; for 7 mo). Urinary zinc (suppl 1), plasma vitamin C, plasma cholesterol ester
Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Íñiguez-González, Gonzalo; Fehrmann-Cartes, Karen
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of fish oil (FO) alone or in combination with hydrogenated palm oil (FOPO) on the fatty acid (FA) profile of milk and cheese from dairy cows, and the sensory characteristics of cheese. Nine Holstein cows (173...
Dommels, Y.E.M.; Heemskerk, S.; Berg, H. van den; Alink, G.M.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Ommen, B. van
Modulating effects of high fat fish oil (HFFO) and high fat corn oil (HFCO) diets on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were studied in male F344 rats following 8 weeks of dietary treatment. The incidence of AOM-induced ACF was significantly lower in the proximal colon of
Mortensen, Alicja; Hansen, Birgit Fischer; Hansen, Jørgen Fischer
). No group differences were recorded for LDL- and HDL-cholesterol or triacylglycerol levels. A significantly higher oxidation of LDL was recorded 1 h after exposure to CuSO4 in the fish-oil group when compared with the olive-oil soup (0.465 v. 0.202, arbitrary units). The following indicators...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intestinal chronic rejection (CR is the major limitation to long-term survival of transplanted organs. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplantation, and to find out whether fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The luminal and mucosal microbiota composition of CR rats were characterized by DGGE analysis at 190 days after intestinal transplant. The specific bacterial species were determined by sequence analysis. Furthermore, changes in the localization of intestinal TJ proteins were examined by immunofluorescent staining. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that gut microbiota in CR rats had a shift towards Escherichia coli, Bacteroides spp and Clostridium spp and a decrease in the abundance of Lactobacillales bacteria in the intestines. Fish oil supplementation could enhance the recovery of gut microbiota, showing a significant decrease of gut bacterial proportions of E. coli and Bacteroides spp and an increase of Lactobacillales spp. In addition, CR rats showed pronounced alteration of tight junction, depicted by marked changes in epithelial cell ultrastructure and redistribution of occuldin and claudins as well as disruption in TJ barrier function. Fish oil administration ameliorated disruption of epithelial integrity in CR, which was associated with an improvement of the mucosal structure leading to improved tight junctions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study have presented novel evidence that fish oil is involved in the maintenance of epithelial TJ integrity and recovery of gut microbiota, which may have therapeutic potential against CR in intestinal transplantation.
Subroto, Edy; Tensiska, Tensiska; Indiarto, Rossi; Hidayat, Chusnul
Structured lipid with saturated fatty acid (SFA) at outer position and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) at sn-2 position has good dietary and stabilized characteristics. In this research structured lipids was synthesized by enzymatic transesterification between fish oil and milk fat. The reaction was catalyzed by lipase from Candida antartica that has randomized specificity to inter esterification. The factor substrat ratio of fish oil and milk fat were studied. Reaction operated at 40 oC fo...
James R Petrie
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Omega-3 long-chain (≥C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are critical for human health and development [corrected].. Numerous studies have indicated that deficiencies in these fatty acids can increase the risk or severity of cardiovascular, inflammatory and other diseases or disorders. EPA and DHA are predominantly sourced from marine fish although the primary producers are microalgae. Much work has been done to engineer a sustainable land-based source of EPA and DHA to reduce pressure on fish stocks in meeting future demand, with previous studies describing the production of fish oil-like levels of DHA in the model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we describe the production of fish oil-like levels (>12% of DHA in the oilseed crop species Camelina sativa achieving a high ω3/ω6 ratio. The construct previously transformed in Arabidopsis as well as two modified construct versions designed to increase DHA production were used. DHA was found to be stable to at least the T5 generation and the EPA and DHA were found to be predominantly at the sn-1,3 positions of triacylglycerols. Transgenic and parental lines did not have different germination or seedling establishment rates. CONCLUSIONS: DHA can be produced at fish oil-like levels in industrially-relevant oilseed crop species using multi-gene construct designs which are stable over multiple generations. This study has implications for the future of sustainable EPA and DHA production from land-based sources.
Farvin, Sabeena; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte
The objectives of the present work were (a) to extract the phenolic fraction from the peels of two Danish varieties of potatoes, viz. Sava and Bintje, and examine their antioxidant capacity in in-vitro systems (b) to evaluate the effect of these extracts on the storage stability of a fish- rapeseed...... oil mixture and oil-in-water emulsions. Multiple antioxidant activity of the potato peel extracts was evident from in-vitro systems as they showed strong reducing power, radical scavenging ability, ferrous ion chelating activity and prevented oxidation in a liposome model system. The Sava variety...... in emulsions. Thus, the results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing waste potato peel as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation....
Abd Ghani, Asmaliza; Adachi, Sae; Shiga, Hirokazu; Neoh, Tze Loon; Adachi, Shuji; Yoshii, Hidefumi
Encapsulating fish oil by spray drying with an adequate wall material was investigated to determine if stable powders containing emulsified fish-oil-droplets can be formed. In particular, the dextrose equivalent (DE) of maltodextrin (MD) affects the powder structure, surface-oil ratio, and oxidative stability of fish oil. The carrier solution was prepared using MD with different DEs (DE = 11, 19, and 25) and sodium caseinate as the wall material and the emulsifier, respectively. The percentage of microcapsules having a vacuole was 73, 39, and 38% for MD with DE = 11, 19, and 25, respectively. Peroxide values (PVs) were measured for the microcapsules incubated at 60 °C. The microcapsules prepared with MD of DE = 25 and 19 had lower PVs than those prepared with MD of DE = 11. The difference in PV can be ascribed to the difference in the surface-oil ratio of the spray-dried microcapsules.
Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the quantitative and qualitative properties of the extracted fish oil from Sardinella longiceps (S. longiceps. Methods: Four size groups of S. longiceps were examined for the extraction of fish oil based on length. The size groups included Group I (size range of 7.1–10.0 cm, Group II (size range of 10.1–13.0 cm, Group III (size range of 13.1–16.0 cm and Group IV (size range of 16.1– 19.0 cm. Fish oil was extracted from the tissues of S. longiceps by direct steaming method. The oil was then subjected to the determination of specific gravity, refractive index, moisture content, free fatty acids, iodine value, peroxide value, saponification value and observation of colour. Results: The four groups showed different yield of fish oil that Group IV recorded the highest values of (165.00 ± 1.00 mL/kg followed by Group III [(145.66 ± 1.15 mL/kg] and Group II [(129.33 ± 0.58 mL/kg], whereas Group I recorded the lowest values of (78.33 ± 0.58 mL/ kg in monsoon season, and the average yield was (180.0 ± 4.9 mL/kg fish tissues. These analytical values of the crude oil were well within the acceptable standard values for both fresh and stocked samples. Conclusions: The information generated in the present study pertaining to the quantitative and qualitative analysis of fish oil will serve as a reference baseline for entrepreneurs and industrialists in future for the successful commercial production of fish oil by employing oil sardines.
Birkholz, D.A.; Goudey, J.S.; Balch, G.C.; Nelson, L.R.; MacKinnon, M.
Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of oil sands wastewater in flow through laboratory experiments as well as to artificial ponds containing sub-lethal concentrations of tailings pond water and fine tails in order to study the viability of the wet landscape remediation option. Large (200--300 g) fish were used for all the exposures in this preliminary study and the following data were collected: blood cell counts, sex hormone concentrations, sexual maturation, stress protein concentrations, PAH-metabolites in bile, condition factors, liver somatic indices, mixed function oxygenase induction, PAHs in muscle, external condition and the condition of internal organs. The data obtained from this study revealed no adverse effects upon fish during extended field exposures. Given similar exposure conditions in the release waters of a wet landscape reclamation, the data suggest that there may be no adverse effects upon fish, however, longer term studies, other indicator organisms and additional chronic tests should be conducted
Pramono, A.; Widayati, D. T.; Handayanta, E.
The research aims to evaluate the influence of protected sardine fish oil as feed supplement on ruminal fermentation (pH rumen fluid, ammonia concentration and volatile fatty acids production in the rumen). Protected feed supplement was produced from sardine fish oil and soybean meal, through two protection methods, they were saponification and microencapsulation. The experiment consists of two treatments i.e. P0: basal diet (control) and P1: basal diet + 3 % protected feed supplement. Each treatment was repeated 10 times. The kinetics observation of the pH rumen fluid, ammonia concentration and volatile fatty acids production were performed at incubation times 0, 2, 4 and 6 hours respectively. Data were analyzed using independent samples t-test. Results in cow with protected feed supplement showed that kinetics of pH rumen fluid: 7.23; 7.13; 6.90 and 6.76 respectively; ruminal ammonia concentration: 26.70; 31.06; 19.75 and 15.52 respectively; and volatile fatty acids production: 22.75; 26.08; 29.19 and 25.79 respectively. The results could be concluded that the effect of supplementation of protected sardine fish oil have an optimal of pH rumen fluid, ammonia concentration, and volatile fatty acids production so it did not interfere the ruminal fermentation in the rumen.
Cátia Lira do Amaral
Full Text Available Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded.
Stanley, D.R.; Wilson, C.A.
A logbook program was initiated to determine the relative abundance of selected fish species around oil and gas platforms off the Louisiana coast. Logbooks were maintained by 55 anglers and 10 charterboat operators from March 1987 to March 1988. A total of 36,839 fish were caught representing over 46 different species. Principal component analysis (PCA) grouped the seventeen most abundant species into reef fish, pelagic fish, bluefish-red drum, Atlantic croaker-silver/sand seatrout, and cobia-shark-blue runner associations. Multiple regression analyses were used to compare PCA groupings to physical platform, temporal, geological, and angler characteristic variables and their interactions. Reef fish, Atlantic croaker, and silver/sand seatrout abundances were highest near large, structurally complex platforms in relatively deep water. High spotted seatrout abundances were correlated with small, unmanned oil and gas platforms in shallow water. Pelagic fish, bluefish, red drum, cobia, and shark abundances were not related to the physical parameters of the platforms
Stanley, D.R.; Wilson, C.A. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (United States))
A logbook program was initiated to determine the relative abundance of selected fish species around oil and gas platforms off the Louisiana coast. Logbooks were maintained by 55 anglers and 10 charterboat operators from March 1987 to March 1988. A total of 36,839 fish were caught representing over 46 different species. Principal component analysis (PCA) grouped the seventeen most abundant species into reef fish, pelagic fish, bluefish-red drum, Atlantic croaker-silver/sand seatrout, and cobia-shark-blue runner associations. Multiple regression analyses were used to compare PCA groupings to physical platform, temporal, geological, and angler characteristic variables and their interactions. Reef fish, Atlantic croaker, and silver/sand seatrout abundances were highest near large, structurally complex platforms in relatively deep water. High spotted seatrout abundances were correlated with small, unmanned oil and gas platforms in shallow water. Pelagic fish, bluefish, red drum, cobia, and shark abundances were not related to the physical parameters of the platforms.
Fernandes, I M; Bastos, Y F; Barreto, D S; Lourenço, L S; Penha, J M
Clove oil is used as a fish anesthetic because it is a natural and inexpensive product with low toxicity risks. The goal of the present study was to determine the appropriate concentration of clove oil for small-sized tropical fish to be used in mark-recapture studies or when individuals are to be sacrificed. We applied three different clove oil concentrations (D1=0.05 mL, D2=0.10 mL and D3=0.20 mL per 500 mL of water) on three small-sized fish species. We found a negative relationship between induction time and treatment for two species (Hyphessobrycon sp.1 and Hemigrammus sp.), while concentration was unrelated to recovery time. Fish body length was positively related to induction time in the D2 treatment for Hemigrammus sp., and negatively for Hyphessobrycon sp.1 in the D1 treatment, but was unrelated to recovery time for three species and treatments. Mortality rates varied across treatments, but higher rates were observed with higher clove oil concentrations. We conclude that 0.05 mL of clove oil per 500 mL of water is the most efficient dose for studies where fish will be released back to their natural habitats, while 0.20 mL of clove oil is recommended for studies that require fish euthanization for further laboratory analyses.
Dean, Angela J; Bor, William; Adam, Kareen; Bowling, Francis G; Bellgrove, Mark A
Epidemiological research links aggression to low serum concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids, such as those found in fish oil. However, no studies have specifically examined whether fish oil supplementation can reduce the frequency and severity of impulsive aggression in children with disruptive behavior disorders. Children presenting with impulsive aggression and meeting research criteria for diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorders were randomized to receive either: 1) Fish oil capsules (4 g daily) for 6 weeks followed by placebo (identical-looking capsules) for 6 weeks; or 2) placebo for 6 weeks, followed by fish oil for 6 weeks, in a double-blind, crossover design. Primary outcomes were the Children's Aggression Scale and the Modified Overt Aggression Scale. Secondary outcomes included emotional and behavioral functioning (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire [SDQ]), hyperactivity symptoms (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder [ADHD] Rating Scale), family functioning (Family Assessment Device), and cognitive functioning (Stop Signal Task, Trail-Making Task, and Eriksen Flanker Task). Serum concentrations of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids were measured at baseline, and at 6 and 12 weeks. Twenty-one children participated (81% male; mean age 10.3±2.2 years; range 7-14). Fish oil treatment increased serum concentrations of eicosapentanoic acid (F=14.76, pConduct Subscale, F=4.34, p=0.06). Fish oil treatment was associated with an improvement in one rating of hyperactivity (SDQ Hyperactivity Subscale, F=2.22, pchildren with disruptive behavior disorders.
Kim, Minji; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Yu, Rina; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Tominaga, Makoto; Kano, Yuriko; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a central role in regulating energy homeostasis, and may provide novel strategies for the treatment of human obesity. BAT-mediated thermogenesis is regulated by mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in classical brown and ectopic beige adipocytes, and is controlled by sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Previous work indicated that fish oil intake reduces fat accumulation and induces UCP1 expression in BAT; however, the detailed mechanism of this effect remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of fish oil on energy expenditure and the SNS. Fish oil intake increased oxygen consumption and rectal temperature, with concomitant upregulation of UCP1 and the β3 adrenergic receptor (β3AR), two markers of beige adipocytes, in the interscapular BAT and inguinal white adipose tissue (WAT). Additionally, fish oil intake increased the elimination of urinary catecholamines and the noradrenaline (NA) turnover rate in interscapular BAT and inguinal WAT. Furthermore, the effects of fish oil on SNS-mediated energy expenditure were abolished in transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) knockout mice. In conclusion, fish oil intake can induce UCP1 expression in classical brown and beige adipocytes via the SNS, thereby attenuating fat accumulation and ameliorating lipid metabolism.
Full Text Available Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC methods such as AOAC Fat in foods 966.06 (2005, AOCS Official Methods Ce 1h-05 (2005, Ce 1j-07 (2007, allow for analyzing the fatty acids (FAs in dietary fats using highly polar liquid phase capillary columns. However, there are still difficulties in completely separating butiric acid from solvent, FA critical pairs with similar polarity, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA isomers, and long chainpolyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs. Therefore, the selection of the temperature program to be employed is important. This work aimed to improve the AOCS Ce 1j-07 Method for the FA composition of a mixture of soybean and sunflower oil, fish oil, and butterfat, using a modified temperature program, tested among five laboratories. It takes more time, but it allows to completely separate butyric acid from the solvent, trans-18:1 from cis-18:1, 20:1 isomers from 18:3 n-3, 22:1 n-9 from 20:4 n-6, 20:5 n-3 from 24:0 and the main CLA isomers, thus permitting FA quantification in fats and oils for different purposes such as nutritional labeling, quality control and research.Métodos por cromatografía gas-líquido, AOAC 966.06 (2005, AOCS Ce 1h-05 (2005, Ce 1j-07 (2007 permiten determinar ácidos grasos (AG en matrices grasas usando columnas capilares altamente polares y distintos programas de temperatura. No obstante, aún existen dificultades para separar ácido butírico del solvente, pares críticos de AG con polaridades similares, isómeros del ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA, AG de cadena larga poliinsaturados (LC-PUFAs. El objetivo fue mejorar el Método AOCS Ce 1j-07 aplicándolo a la composición en AG de mezcla de aceite soja/girasol, aceite de pescado, mantequilla, usando un programa de temperatura modificado, entre cinco laboratorios. El programa de temperatura elegido, si bien emplea más tiempo, permite separar completamente ácido butírico del solvente, trans-18:1 de cis-18:1, isómeros 20:1 de 18:3 n-3, 22:1 n-9 de 20:4 n-6
Kızılşahin, Sadi; Nalbantsoy, Ayşe; Yavaşoğlu, N Ülkü Karabay
The aim of this study was to determine in vitro synergistic efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), oleic acid (OLA), safflower oil and taxol (Tax) cytotoxicity on human prostate cancer (PC3) cell line. To determine synergistic efficacy of oil combinations, PC3 treated with different doses of compounds alone and combined with 10 μg/mL Tax. The MTT results indicated that OLA-Tax combinations exhibited cytotoxicity against PC3 at doses of 30 nM+10 μg-Tax, 15 nM+5 μg-Tax and 7.5 nM+2.5 μg-Tax. The treatment of OLA or Tax did not show significant inhibition on PC3, while OLA-Tax combinations showed effective cytotoxicity at treated doses. CLA-Tax combinations demonstrated the same effect on PC3 as combined form with 45.72% versus the alone form as 74.51% viability. Cytotoxic synergy between Tax, OLA and CLA shows enhanced cytotoxicity on PC3 which might be used in the therapy of prostate cancer.
Khaskheli, Abid Ali; Talpur, Farah Naz; Cebeci Aydin, Aysun; Jawaid, Sana; Surhio, Muhammad Ali; Afridi, Hassan Imran
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has attracted as novel type of fatty acids having unusual health-promoting properties such as anticarcinogenic and antiobesitic effects. The present work employed castor oil as substrate for one-pot production of CLA using washed cells of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) and lipases as catalysts. Among the screened lipases, the lipase Rhizopus oryzae (ROL) greatly assisted resting cells to produce CLA. Mass spectral analysis of the product showed that two major isomers of CLA were produced in the reaction mixture i.e. cis-9, trans-11 56.55% and trans-10, cis-12 43.45%. Optimum factors for CLA synthesis were found as substrate concentration (8 mg/mL), pH (6.5), washed cell concentration (12% w/v), and incubation time of 20 h. Hence, the combination of ROL with L. plantarum offers one pot production of CLA selectively using castor oil as a cost-effective substrate.
Lopes, Paula A; Martins, Susana V; Viana, Ricardo S J; Ramalho, Rita M; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pinho, Mário S; Jerónimo, Eliana; Bessa, Rui J B; Castro, Matilde F; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Prates, José A M
We hypothesized that reducing weight properties of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are due to adipocyte apoptosis and that CLA differentially modulates the apoptotic responses in hepatic lipotoxicity from rats fed saturated fat diets. Obese Zucker rats were fed atherogenic diets (2%w/w of cholesterol) formulated with high (15%w/w) saturated fat, from vegetable or animal origin, supplemented or not with 1% of a mixture (1:1) of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers for 14 weeks. CLA induced no changes on retroperitoneal fat depot weight, which was in line with similar levels of apoptosis. Interestingly, CLA had a contrasting effect on cell death in the liver according to the dietary fat. CLA increased hepatocyte apoptosis, associated with upregulation of Fas protein in rats fed palm oil, compared to rats receiving palm oil alone. However, rats fed ovine fat alone displayed the highest levels of hepatic cell death, which were decreased in rats fed ovine fat plus CLA. This reducing effect of CLA was related to positively restoring endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ATF-6α, BiP and CHOP protein levels and increasing phosphorylated c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and c-Jun, thus suggesting an adaptive response of cell survival. These findings reinforce the role of CLA as regulator of apoptosis in the liver. Moreover, the dietary fat composition is a key factor in activation of apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
den Ruijter, H.M.; Berecki, G.; Verkerk, A.O.; Bakker, D.; Baartscheer, A.; Schumacher, C.A.; Belterman, C.N.; de Jonge, N.; Fiolet, J.W.; Brouwer, I.A.; Coronel, R.
Background-Fish oil reduces sudden death in patients with prior myocardial infarction. Sudden death in heart failure may be due to triggered activity based on disturbed calcium handling. We hypothesized that superfusion with ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) from fish inhibits triggered
González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L.; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I.; Ramírez-Tortosa, M. Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J.; Quiles, José L.
An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources. PMID:26426013
Full Text Available An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources.
Peake, Jonathan M; Gobe, Glenda C; Fassett, Robert G; Coombes, Jeff S
We examined whether dietary supplementation with fish oil modulates inflammation, fibrosis and oxidative stress following obstructive renal injury. Three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=16 per group) were fed for 4 wk on normal rat chow (oleic acid), chow containing fish oil (33 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 26 g docosahexaenoic acid per kg diet), or chow containing safflower oil (60 g linoleic acid per kg diet). All diets contained 7% fat. After 4 wk, the rats were further subdivided into four smaller groups (n=4 per group). Unilateral ureteral obstruction was induced in three groups (for 4, 7 and 14 days). The fourth group for each diet did not undergo surgery, and was sacrificed as controls at 14 days. When rats were sacrificed, plasma and portions of the kidneys were removed and frozen; other portions of kidney tissue were fixed and prepared for histology. Compared with normal chow and safflower oil, fish oil attenuated collagen deposition, macrophage infiltration, TGF-β expression, apoptosis, and tissue levels of arachidonic acid, MIP-1α, IL-1β, MCP-1 and leukotriene B(4). Compared with normal chow, fish oil increased the expression of HO-1 protein in kidney tissue. Fish oil intake reduced inflammation, fibrosis and oxidative stress following obstructive renal injury. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Full Text Available Lan Feng1, Huali Wu2, Ping Ma1, Russell J Mumper1,3, S Rahima Benhabbour11Division of Molecular Pharmaceutics, Center for Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, 2Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, 3UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: Three docetaxel (DX lipid conjugates: 2’-lauroyl-docetaxel (C12-DX, 2’-stearoyl-docetaxel (C18-DX, and 2’-behenoyl-docetaxel (C22-DX were synthesized to enhance drug loading, entrapment, and retention in liquid oil-filled lipid nanoparticles (NPs. The three conjugates showed ten-fold higher solubility in the liquid oil phase Miglyol 808 than DX. To further increase the drug entrapment efficiency in NPs, orthogonal design was performed. The optimized formulation was composed of Miglyol 808, Brij 78, and Vitamin E tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS. The conjugates were successfully entrapped in the reduced-surfactant NPs with entrapment efficiencies of about 50%–60% as measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC at a final concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. All three conjugates showed 45% initial burst release in 100% mouse plasma. Whereas C12-DX showed another 40% release over the next 8 hours, C18-DX and C22-DX in NPs showed no additional release after the initial burst of drug. All conjugates showed significantly lower cytotoxicity than DX in human DU-145 prostate cancer cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration values (IC50 of free conjugates and conjugate NPs were comparable except for C22-DX, which was nontoxic in the tested concentration range and showed only vehicle toxicity when entrapped in NPs. In vivo, the total area under the curve (AUC0-∞ values of all DX conjugate NPs were significantly greater than that of Taxotere, demonstrating prolonged retention of drug in the blood. The AUC0-∞ value of DX in Taxotere was 8.3-fold, 358
Feng, Lan; Wu, Huali; Ma, Ping; Mumper, Russell J; Benhabbour, S Rahima
THREE DOCETAXEL (DX) LIPID CONJUGATES: 2'-lauroyl-docetaxel (C12-DX), 2'-stearoyl-docetaxel (C18-DX), and 2'-behenoyl-docetaxel (C22-DX) were synthesized to enhance drug loading, entrapment, and retention in liquid oil-filled lipid nanoparticles (NPs). The three conjugates showed ten-fold higher solubility in the liquid oil phase Miglyol 808 than DX. To further increase the drug entrapment efficiency in NPs, orthogonal design was performed. The optimized formulation was composed of Miglyol 808, Brij 78, and Vitamin E tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS). The conjugates were successfully entrapped in the reduced-surfactant NPs with entrapment efficiencies of about 50%-60% as measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) at a final concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. All three conjugates showed 45% initial burst release in 100% mouse plasma. Whereas C12-DX showed another 40% release over the next 8 hours, C18-DX and C22-DX in NPs showed no additional release after the initial burst of drug. All conjugates showed significantly lower cytotoxicity than DX in human DU-145 prostate cancer cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration values (IC(50)) of free conjugates and conjugate NPs were comparable except for C22-DX, which was nontoxic in the tested concentration range and showed only vehicle toxicity when entrapped in NPs. In vivo, the total area under the curve (AUC(0-∞)) values of all DX conjugate NPs were significantly greater than that of Taxotere, demonstrating prolonged retention of drug in the blood. The AUC(0-∞) value of DX in Taxotere was 8.3-fold, 358.0-fold, and 454.5-fold lower than that of NP-formulated C12-DX, C18-DX, and C22-DX, respectively. The results of these studies strongly support the idea that the physical/chemical properties of DX conjugates may be fine-tuned to influence the affinity and retention of DX in oil-filled lipid NPs, which leads to very different pharmacokinetic profiles and blood exposure of an otherwise potent chemo
Boles, J A; Kott, R W; Hatfield, P G; Bergman, J W; Flynn, C R
The objective of this study was to determine whether increasing levels of dietary safflower oil would alter unsaturated fat (especially CLA) and tocopherol content of lamb, animal performance, carcass characteristics, or color stability of lamb muscle tissue. Targhee x Rambouillet wethers (n = 60) were assigned to one of three diets (four pens per treatment with five lambs per pen) in a completely random design. Diets were formulated with supplemental safflower oil at 0 (control), 3, or 6% (as-fed basis) of the diet. Diets containing approximately 80% concentrate and 20% roughage were formulated, on a DM basis, to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous and to meet or exceed NRC requirements for Ca, P, and other nutrients. A subsample of 12 wethers per treatment was selected based on average BW (54 kg) and slaughtered. Carcass data (LM area, fat thickness, and internal fat content) and wholesale cut weight (leg, loin, rack, shoulder, breast, and foreshank), along with fatty acid, tocopherol, and color analysis, were determined on each carcass. The LM and infraspinatus were sampled for fatty acid profile. Increasing safflower oil supplementation from 0 to 3 or 6% increased the proportion of linoleic acid in the diet from 49.93 to 55.32 to 62.38%, respectively, whereas the percentage of oleic acid decreased from 27.94 to 23.80 to 20.73%, respectively. The percentage of oil in the diet did not (P > or = 0.11) alter the growth and carcass characteristics of lambs, nor did it alter the tocopherol content or color stability of meat. Increasing levels of safflower oil in lamb diets decreased (P safflower oil, up to 6% of the diet, resulted in increasing levels of unsaturated fatty acids and CLA in the lean tissue, without adversely affecting growth performance, carcass characteristics, or color stability of lamb.
Jacobsen, Charlotte; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Lund, Pia
The effect of the water-dispersible tocopherol preparation, Grindox 1032, and the oil-soluble tocopherol preparation, Toco 70, on oxidative stability in fish oil-enriched mayonnaise was examined. The two commercial antioxidant preparations were supplemented in different levels corresponding to 20......-280 ppm tocopherol in addition to the 600 ppm present in the oils used for the mayonnaise. The oxidative stability was assessed by sensory analysis, the tendency of formation of free radicals, and concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides and volatile oxidation products. The effect of tocopherol on oxidation...... depended on the nature and the concentration of the tocopherol preparation employed, and it also depended on the parameters evaluated. Addition of high levels of Grindox 1032 (similar to 140-280 ppm tocopherol) thus decreased the intensity of rancid off-flavor, but increased the formation of fishy off...
Clausen, M; Jonasson, K; Keil, T; Beyer, K; Sigurdardottir, S T
Consumption of oily fish or fish oil during pregnancy, lactation and infancy has been linked to a reduction in the development of allergic diseases in childhood. In an observational study, Icelandic children (n = 1304) were prospectively followed from birth to 2.5 years with detailed questionnaires administered at birth and at 1 and 2 years of age, including questions about fish oil supplementation. Children with suspected food allergy were invited for physical examinations, allergic sensitization tests, and a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge if the allergy testing or clinical history indicated food allergy. The study investigated the development of sensitization to food and confirmed food allergy according to age and frequency of postnatal fish oil supplementation using proportional hazards modelling. The incidence of diagnosed food sensitization was significantly lower in children who received regular fish oil supplementation (relative risk: 0.51, 95% confidence interval: 0.32-0.82). The incidence of challenge-confirmed food allergy was also reduced, although not statistically significant (0.57, 0.30-1.12). Children who began to receive fish oil in their first half year of life were significantly more protected than those who began later (P = .045 for sensitization, P = .018 for allergy). Indicators of allergy severity decreased with increased fish oil consumption (P = .013). Adjusting for parent education and allergic family history did not change the results. Postnatal fish oil consumption is associated with decreased food sensitization and food allergies in infants and may provide an intervention strategy for allergy prevention. © 2018 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Martino, D; Harsløf, Laurine Bente Schram
Recent evidence suggests that the effects of n-3LCPUFA might be mediated through epigenetic mechanisms, especially DNA-methylation, during pregnancy and early life. A randomized trial was conducted in 133 9-mo-old, infants who received 3.8g/day of fish oil (FO) or sunflower oil (SO) for 9 mo. In ...
Andersen, Anders Daniel; Mølbak, Lars; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer
supplementation with 5mL of fish oil (FO) or sunflower oil (SO) from 9 to 18 months of age, stool samples were collected from 132 healthy Danish infants. Molecular fingerprints of the bacterial DNA were obtained by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Results: The T-RFLP profiles indicated...
... Recreational Diving, Oil and Gas Operations and Commercial Fishing Seats for the Flower Garden Banks National... Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce DOC). ACTION... seats on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Recreational Diving, Oil...
SMIT, MJ; TEMMERMAN, AM; WOLTERS, H; KUIPERS, F; BEYNEN, AC; VONK, RJ
Hepatic cholesterol metabolism was studied in rats fed purified diets supplemented (9% wt/wt) with either fish oil (FO) (n-3 fatty acids) or corn oil (CO) (n-6 fatty acids) for 4 wk. Rats were equipped with permanent catheters in heart, bile duct, and duodenum to allow studies under normal feeding
Pulmonary and systemic effects of ozone (O3) are mediated by hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis activation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if these supplements can protect against t...
% hazelnut oil (Group E) for five weeks. Diets contained 230 g crude protein/kg and 12.97 MJ metabolisable energy (ME)/kg (starter diet); 220 g crude protein/kg and 12.97 MJ ME/kg (grower diet) or 200 crude protein/kg and 12.97 MJ ME/kg ...
Leke, J. R.; Mandey, J. S.; Laihad, J. T.; Tinangon, R. M.; Tangkau, L.; Junus, C.
The study was conducted to determine the use of fish oil as by-product of fish canning factory in diet on the performance and lipid profiles of native chickens. The experiment used 100 native chicken with an average initial body weight of 48,9 gram (sd + 9.9), was used in this study for 8 weeks experiment. These were arranged by a completely randomized design with 5 treatments, 5 replications and 4 hens in replication each. The diets were: R0 = 100% Based Diet (BD) + 0% Fish Oil (FO); R1 = 98.5% BD + 1.5% FO; R2 = 98% BD + 2% FO; R3 = 97.5% BD + 2.5% FO; R4 = 97 % BD + 3% FO. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Variables were performance parameters and lipid profiles. Results showed that fish oil inclusion in diets were significantly increased feed intake, body weight gain, carcass percentage, liver, breast and thigh weight, and decreased blood cholesterol, carbohydrate and meat cholesterol, and also tended to decrease abdominal fat. However, there were no affected on feed conversion, water, protein, fat and ash of breast meat. It can be concluded that the use of fish oil in diet up to 3% could improved performance parameters of native chickens.
Full Text Available Background: Omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have modulating effects in several chronic inflammatory conditions. The aim of the present study was to test whether prior short-term dietary supplementation with n-3 (fish or seal oil or n-6 (soy oil PUFA rich oils would protect the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis in rats.Methods: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups: no intervention, sham, DSS, seal oil + DSS, fi sh oil +DSS and soy oil + DSS. Following 7 days of acclimatisation, 1 mL oil (seal, fish or soy or distilled water (sham was administered by gavage day 8 to 14. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in drinking water from day 15 to 21. Rats were sacrificed on day 23. Histological colitis (crypt and inflammation scores, faecal granulocyte marker protein (GMP and quantitative fatty acid composition in red blood cells were measured.Results: Pretreatment with fish or seal oils did not significantly influence DSS induced inflammation. In fact, all the oils tended to exacerbate the inflammation. Soy oil increased the mean crypt score (P < 0.04, but not the inflammation score or GMP. The ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (FAs was 11 to 1 and 10 to 1 in standard diet and in red blood cells of control rats, respectively. Following administration of DSS, the ratio fell in all treatment groups (P < 0.001. The lowest ratios were seen in the groups receiving DSS + fi sh or seal oils (around 6 to 1.Conclusion: Short-term pretreatment with fish or seal oils did not protect against subsequent induction of colitis by DSS in this rat model. Whether the high ratio of n-6 to n-3 FAs in the standard diet concealed effects of n-3 FA supplementation should be further investigated.
Hermund, Ditte Baun; Karadaǧ, Ayşe; Andersen, Ulf
as a barrier to the penetration and diffusion of molecular species that promote oxidation. The positive charge of oil droplets in the secondary emulsion may also inhibit iron-lipid interaction through electrostatic repulsion. Additional protection against lipid oxidation was obtained when fish oil emulsions......Fucus vesiculosus extracts that have both radical scavenging activity and metal chelating ability in vitro were used as natural antioxidant in granola bars enriched with fish oil emulsion by using primary and secondary emulsion systems stabilized by sodium caseinate alone and sodium caseinate...
Miyazaki, Kinuko; Koyama, Kazuo
The enzymatic indirect method for simultaneous determinations of 3-chloro-1, 2-propanediol fatty acid esters (3-MCPD-Es) and glycidyl fatty acid esters (Gly-Es) make use of lipase from Candida cylindracea (previously referred to as C. rugosa). Because of low substrate specificity of the lipase for esters of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), fish oils high in PUFAs are currently excluded from the range of application of the method. The objective of this study was to make the enzymatic indirect method applicable to fats and oils containing PUFAs. By using a Burkholderia cepacia lipase, and by removing sodium bromide from hydrolysis step and adding it after completion of the hydrolysis step, satisfactory recovery rates of 91-109% for 3-MCPD, and 91-110% for glycidol (Gly) were obtained from an EPA and DHA concentrated sardine oil, three DHA concentrated tuna oils, two fish oils, and five fish-oil based dietary supplements spiked with DHA-esters or oleic acid-esters of 3-MCPD and Gly at 20 mg/kg. Further, results from unspiked samples of seven fish oil based dietary supplements and five DHA concentrated tuna oils analyzed by the improved enzymatic indirect method were compared with the results analyzed by AOCS Cd 29a. For all 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and Gly, the 95% confidence intervals determined by the weighted Deming regression for slopes and intercepts contained the value of 1 and 0, respectively. It was therefore concluded that the results from the two methods were not statistically different. These results suggest that fish oils high in PUFAs may be included in the range of application for the improved enzymatic indirect method for simultaneous determinations of 3-MCPD and Gly esters in fats and oils.
Jimenez-Alvarez, D; Giuffrida, F; Golay, P A; Cotting, C; Lardeau, A; Keely, Brendan J
The antioxidant activity of oregano, parsley, olive mill wastewaters (OMWW), Trolox, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was evaluated in bulk oils and oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions enriched with 5% tuna oil by monitoring the formation of hydroperoxides, hexanal, and t-t-2,4-heptadienal in samples stored at 37 degrees C for 14 days. In bulk oil, the order of antioxidant activity was, in decreasing order (p oregano > parsley > EDTA > Trolox. The antioxidant activity in o/w emulsion followed the same order except that EDTA was as efficient an antioxidant as OMWW. In addition, the total phenolic content, the radical scavenging properties, the reducing capacity, and the iron chelating activity of OMWW, parsley, and oregano extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and iron(II) chelating activity assays, respectively. The antioxidant activity of OMWW, parsley, and oregano in food systems was related to their total phenolic content and radical scavenging capacity but not to their ability to chelate iron in vitro. OMWW was identified as a promising source of antioxidants to retard lipid oxidation in fish oil-enriched food products.
Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M
Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality.
Zmijewski, Peter A; Gao, Linda Y; Saxena, Abhinav R; Chavannes, Nastacia K; Hushmendy, Shazaan F; Bhoiwala, Devang L; Crawford, Dana R
We have considered a novel gene targeting approach for treating pathologies and conditions whose genetic bases are defined using diet and nutrition. One such condition is Down syndrome, which is linked to overexpression of RCAN1 on human chromosome 21 for some phenotypes. We hypothesize that a decrease in RCAN1 expression with dietary supplements in individuals with Down syndrome represents a potential treatment. Toward this, we used in vivo studies and bioinformatic analysis to identify potential healthy dietary RCAN1 expression modulators. We observed Rcan1 isoform 1 (Rcan1-1) protein reduction in mice pup hippocampus after a 4-week curcumin and fish oil supplementation, with only fish oil reduction being statistically significant. Focusing on fish oil, we observed a 17% Rcan1-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and 19% Rcan1-1 protein reduction in BALB/c mice after 5 weeks of fish oil supplementation. Fish oil supplementation starting at conception and in a different mouse strain (C57BL) led to a 27% reduction in hippocampal Rcan1-1 mRNA and a 34% reduction in spleen Rcan1-1 mRNA at 6 weeks of age. Hippocampal protein results revealed a modest 11% reduction in RCAN1-1, suggesting translational compensation. Bioinformatic mining of human fish oil studies also revealed reduced RCAN1 mRNA expression, consistent with the above studies. These results suggest the potential use of fish oil in treating Down syndrome and support our strategy of using select healthy dietary agents to treat genetically defined pathologies, an approach that we believe is simple, healthy, and cost-effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Fang; Ma, Xiang; Huang, Huihua; Wang, Yong
Fish oil products in the form of triacylglycerols generally have relatively low contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and so it is of potential research and industrial interest to enrich the related contents in commercial products. Thereby an economical and efficient two-stage preparation of EPA and DHA enriched fish oil triacylglycerols is proposed in this study. The first stage was the partial hydrolysis of fish oil by only 0.2 wt.‰ AY "Amano" 400SD which led to increases of EPA and DHA contents in acylglycerols from 19.30 and 13.09 wt % to 25.95 and 22.06 wt %, respectively. Subsequently, products of the first stage were subjected to transesterification with EPA and DHA enriched fatty acid ethyl esters (EDEE) as the second stage to afford EPA and DHA enriched fish oil triacylglycerols by using as low as 2 wt % Novozyme 435. EDEEs prepared from fish oil ethyl ester, and recycled DHA and EPA, respectively, were applied in this stage. Final products prepared with two different sources of EDEEs were composed of 97.62 and 95.92 wt % of triacylglycerols, respectively, with EPA and DHA contents of 28.20 and 21.41 wt % for the former and 25.61 and 17.40 wt % for the latter. Results not only demonstrate this two-stage process's capability and industrial value for enriching EPA and DHA in fish oil products, but also offer new opportunities for the development of fortified fish oil products.
Martin, J.; Young, G.; Lemire, B.; Hodson, P.
A train derailment in 2005 caused the release of 150,000 litres of No. 6 heavy fuel oil into a lake in Alberta. The oil is a residue of the crude oil refinement process and contains 3-4 ringed alkylated forms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that are known to cause sub-lethal toxic responses during the early life stages of rainbow trout. Because the oil does not disperse well, oil patches still persist in near-shore sediments of the lake where fish spawn. This study assessed how the behaviour of heavy oil in water interacts with exposure and toxicity to the early life stages of fish. Daily renewal tests with heavy fuel oil coated on glass plate demonstrated higher levels of toxicity to trout embryos than oil that was mechanically or chemically dispersed. A flow-through oil gravel column was used to assess whether the toxic constituents of the heavy oil are transferred quickly enough to cause toxicity. The aim of the study was to develop exposure and toxicity test methods that accurately reflect the behaviour of heavy oil after a spill.
Sarker, Mohamed Zaidul Islam; Selamat, Jinap; Habib, Abu Sayem Md. Ahsan; Ferdosh, Sahena; Akanda, Mohamed Jahurul Haque; Jaffri, Juliana Mohamed
Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y) as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis) in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method. PMID:23109854
Mohamed Zaidul Islam Sarker
Full Text Available Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2. A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.
Full Text Available The catfish viscera fat, is cathfish processing by-products, has potential to be used as a source ofraw material for production of fish oil. This study aimed to analyze the value of proximate, heavy metalcontent and fatty acid profile of catfish viscera fat (Pangasius hypopthalmus and characterized fish oilextracted by dry rendering in various temperature and time than compared it to fish oil extracted by stoveheating to obtain the best treatment. Proximate, heavy metal residue, and the fatty acid profile analysiswere conducted for characterizing catfish viscera fat. Fish oil extraction was conducted by dry renderingin various temperatures of 50, 60, 70, 80 °C for 1, 2, and 3 hours. Fish oil quality was determined by thechemical characteristics i.e. PV, FFA, anisidin and TOTOX. The results of the study showed that fat contentof catfish fat viscera was 88.19 %, the heavy metals content was below SNI standart to be consumed, and fattyacid profile composition was SFA>MUFA>PUFA. The highest fatty acid content was oleic acid. The best fishoil quality was resulted on temperature extraction of 50°C for 2 hours with yield value, PV, FFA, anisidin,and TOTOX were 45.17 %, 2.77 meq/kg, 0.83 %, 2.86 meq/kg, 8.39 meq/kg respectively. This result was notsignificantly different with fish oil extracted by the stove heating expect for yield and PV were 80.11% and6.52 meq/kg, respectively.
Clarke, L.M.; Hodson, P.V. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Brown, R.S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; King, T.; Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography
Fish exposed to crude oil in their early life stages exhibit signs of dioxin-like toxicity which is linked to the presence of alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Exposure is characterized by the presence of blue-sac disease which manifests itself in edema, hemorrhaging, deformities and induction of CYP1A enzymes. In this study, the extent of CYP1A induction and BSD was compared in the early life stages of rainbow trout and Japanese medaka following exposure to two crude oils (Scotian Shelf and Alaskan North Slope Crude). Embryos were exposed to a broad range of concentrations of chemically enhanced water fractions of both oils which have unique PAH composition and chemical characteristics. It was assumed that Alaskan North Slope Crude would be more toxic than Scotian Shelf because it has a higher PAH concentration. The occurrence and severity of BSD was characterized along with the extent of PAH exposure. Preliminary results confirm that PAH exposure is greater for Alaskan North Slope Crude and that the responses of the two fish species were highly correlated.
Maghami, M.; Sadrameli, S. M.; Shamloo, M.
Biodiesel is an environmental friendly alternative liquid transportation fuel that can be used in diesel engines without major modifications. The scope of this research work is to produce biodiesel from waste fish oil and its purification from the byproducts using a ceramic membrane. Transesterification of waste fish oil was applied for the biodiesel production using methanol in the presence of KOH as a catalyst. Effect of catalyst weight percent, temperature and methanol to oil molar ratio (MR) on the biodiesel yield have been studied and the results show that highest methyl ester yield of 79.2% has been obtained at 60 °C, MR: 6 and 1% KOH. The produced biodiesel purified by a ceramic membrane. Membrane flux and glycerin removal at different operating conditions such as temperature, trans-membrane pressures and cross flow velocities have been measured. Glycerin purity by membrane method is 99.97% by weight at the optimum condition. The highest membrane flux occurred at 50 °C temperature, 1 bar pressure and 3 m/s velocity.
Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Serrano, Roque; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Navarro, Juan C; López, Francisco J; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume
Organochlorine pesticide residues and polychlorinated biphenyls were determined in raw materials, fish feeds and fillets from fish exposed through the productive cycle (14 months) to experimental diets with different percentages of fish oil replacement with vegetable oils. Detectable amounts of organochlorine compounds were found in raw materials derived from fish sources with none being detected in vegetable ingredients. Fish feeds presented trace concentrations of contaminants at the ng/g level, which varied according to the contribution of the different resources used in their manufacture. Contaminants did not accumulate during the first 11 months of exposure, and low concentrations of organochlorine compounds were found both at the start and at the end of this feeding period. Fillets from fish fed the fish oil diet presented the highest concentrations of organochlorine compounds, with these decreasing in proportion to fish oil replacement. Three months of fish oil re-feeding during the finishing phase only produced significant bioaccumulation over the course of the first month. By optimizing fish meal and fish oil replacement with vegetable oils alternative feeds can contribute to significantly reduce the risk of organochlorine uptake by consumers.
Kitessa, Soressa M.; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Wijesundera, Chakra; Nichols, Peter D.
Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA. PMID:24858407
Soressa M. Kitessa
Full Text Available Benefits of long-chain (≥C20 omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3. However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.
Kitessa, Soressa M; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Wijesundera, Chakra; Nichols, Peter D
Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.
Monte Blanco, S F M; Santos, J S; Feltes, M M C; Dors, G; Licodiedoff, S; Lerin, L A; de Oliveira, D; Ninow, J L; Furigo, A
The diacylglycerols (DAG) are emulsifiers with high added value used as functional additives in food, medicine, and cosmetic industries. In glycerolysis of oils for the production of DAG, the immiscibility between the substrates (glycerol and oil phases) has to be overcome, for example, by the addition of a food grade surfactant like Tween 65. The main objective of this work was to optimize the process conditions for obtaining diacylglycerols rich in the omega-3 eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, through the enzymatic glycerolysis of fish oil, in systems with Tween 65 and without this surfactant, using Lipozyme TL(®) IM as biocatalyst. The experiments were performed according to predetermined conditions varying the temperature, enzyme load, the oil to glycerol molar ratio and, when added, the surfactant load. After 6 h of reaction, it was possible to produce up to 20.76 and 13.76% of diacylglycerols from fish oil in the reactions with and without Tween 65, respectively.
Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Ares, Irma; Fontecha, Javier; Martínez-Larrañaga, María-Rosa; Anadón, Arturo; Martínez, María-Aránzazu
This study aimed to assess the oral absorption and plasma kinetics of two main isomers contained in commercial conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich oil (Tonalin TG-80), rumenic acid (RA), and C18:2 trans-10, cis-12. The isomer plasma disposition after the single oral dose of 3000 mg of Tonalin TG-80/kg, containing 1200 mg/kg of each isomer, was studied in rats. The isomer plasma concentrations were determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The plasma kinetics showed rapid oral absorption of RA and C18:2 trans-10, cis-12 (t 1/2a 0.34 ± 0.09 and 0.53 ± 0.01 h) and slow elimination (t 1/2β 25.68 ± 3.29 and 18.12 ± 1.71 h); the maximal isomer plasma concentrations (C max ) of 8.48 ± 0.98 and 7.67 ± 0.80 μg mL -1 , respectively, were estimated at 2.08 ± 0.14 and 2.26 ± 0.11 h. Our results from a preclinical kinetic study in rats help to design future studies in humans for evaluating the CLA isomer dose-response.
Full Text Available The proximate composition of male and female Leuciscus lepidus in Beyşehir Lake was investigated. The fatty acid profiles of total lipid, phospholipid, and triacylglycerol in muscle and liver of male and female L. lepidus were evaluated by gas chromatography. Proximate analyses showed that meat of male and female L. lepidus had 15.13 ± 0.04 and 18.75 ± 0.11% fat, 20.42 ± 0.45 and 22.21 ± 0.56% protein, 65.47 ± 1.37 and 61.28 ± 1.03% moisture, and 1.51 ± 0.05 and 1.50 ± 0.03% ash, respectively. The percentage of total saturated fatty acids was higher in liver than in muscle, whereas the total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA content was the lowest in all fatty acid profiles. The phospholipids contained more PUFAs than triacylglycerol. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences (P<0.05 between male (47.51% and female (49.98% muscle PUFAs in total lipid. The proportion of omega 3 (ω3 to omega 6 (ω6 fatty acids of total lipid was 3.15 in male and 3.68 in female. The ratio is an important indicator for comparing the value of fish oil. Therefore, it was concluded that L. lepidus was considered to be a high quality product for healthy food choice. Additionally, female L. lepidus may especially be used to produce fish oil supplements from freshwater fish combined with vegetable oils.
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the survival of autochthonous, potentially probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum 564, and the influence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 (omega-3 PUFA fish oil fortification on the sensory quality of yoghurt. Three variants of yoghurt were produced using starter cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (Chr. Hansen, Denmark, and the potentially probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 564 (Culture Collection of the Department for Industrial Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade as follows: (1 without omega-3 PUFA; (2 with 100 mg/l omega-3 PUFA; and (3 with 200mg/l omega-3 PUFA. The survival of potential probiotic Lb. plantarum 564, the changes of starter bacteria counts, changes of pH values, as well as sensory evaluation, were examined during 3 weeks of yoghurt storage. Cells of Lb. plantarum 564 were maintained at >108 cfug−1. Starter bacteria counts were >107 cfug−1 for streptococci and >106 cfug−1 for lactobacilli. The changes of pH were within normal pH of fermented milks. Sensory evaluation showed that all variants of yoghurt produced with Lb. plantarum 564 and 2 concentrations of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids had a high sensory quality (above 90% of maximal quality, and which did not change significantly throughout the examined storage period. Although the sensory quality of the control sample was evaluated as better, the experimental samples fortified with fish oil were also characterized with very acceptable sensory properties. Results of high viability of potential probiotic Lb. plantarum 564, as well as very acceptable yoghurt sensory properties, indicate that this strain can be successfully used in the production of yoghurt fortified with PUFA omega-3 fish oil as a new functional dairy product. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 046010 i br. 046009
Abd El-Azime, Afrag S H; Hussein, Elham M; Ashry, Omaima M
To evaluate the impact of oral administration of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) extract or fish oil and their co-treatments in the modulation of radiation-induced damage. Purslane (P) (400 mg/kg body weight) or fish oil (Fo) (60 mg/kg body weight) was administrated to male albino rats via gastric intubation for 15 days after whole body exposure to a single dose of 6 Gy gamma rays. The animals were sacrificed after the elapse of 15 days. The results revealed that irradiation induced a significant elevation of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and atherogenic index: TC/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in addition to aspartate and alanine transaminase (AST, ALT), alkaline phophatase (ALP), bilirubin, as well as urea, creatinine and uric acid. Moreover, liver, kidney and heart malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly elevated, whereas nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and HDL-c were depressed. Purslane and/or fish oil treatment significantly attenuated lipids alteration, liver and kidney functions as well as oxidative stress in irradiated rats. The results pointed out that dietary fish oil supplementation, at adequate doses, may provide a cushion for a prolonged therapeutic option against radiation-induced damage without harmful side-effects. It could be concluded that purslane extract and fish oil may have therapeutic potential to improve hepatic and renal functions as well as oxidative stress in irradiated rats. Moreover, their co-administration showed a better improved liver function.
Said, U.Z.; El-Tahawy, N.A.; Ibrahim, F.R.; Kamal, G.M.; EL-Sayed, T.M.
The impacts of environmental and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation and to long-term intake of high levels of fluoride have caused health problems and increasingly alarming in recent years. Fish oil omega-3 (polyunsaturated fatty acids essential fatty acids) is found in the highest concentrations in fish oil, claim a plethora of health benefits. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of fish oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids on sodium fluoride (NaF) and or gamma (γ) rays in inducing neurological and biochemical disturbances in rat’s brain cerebral hemispheres. The results revealed that whole body exposure to γ- radiation at 6 Gy applied as fractionated doses (1.5 Gy x 4 times) and/or chronic receipt of NaF solution (0.13 mg/Kg/day) for a period of 28 days, significantly increased brain fluoride and calcium content, decreased level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and induced brain oxidative stress which led to neurotransmitters dysfunction. Supplementation of treated rats with fish oil, via gavages, at a dose of 400 mg/kg body wt has significantly modulated oxidative stress and neurotransmitters alterations. It could be concluded that EPA and DHA, found in fish oil, could possibly protect brain from damaging free radicals and consequently minimize the severity of brain biochemical disturbances
SARFARAZ AHMAD; NITESH KUMAR
The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of nanoemulsion formulation for topical delivery of Betamethasone Dipropionate (BD) using Salmon fish oil (containing omega-3 fatty acids) as the oil phase. BD has antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory and antiproliferative activity. However, its clinical use is restricted to some extent due to its poor permeability across the skin. Salmon fish oil was used as the oil phase and was also exploited for its antiinflammatory effect along ...
In 1992 the Government of Canada gave the green light for the start of construction of the Hibernia oil platform; in the same year moratorium on cod fishing was declared. Hibernia ushered in a new era of growth in Atlantic Canada, the moratorium put an end to cod exports for a period of seven years. Environmental activist believe that the two events are not unrelated; after-effects of the Hibernia development played a role in reducing fish stocks and likely to inhibit their recovery. The environmental group 'Save our Seas and Shores' (SOSS) claims that seismic work and drilling are likely to interfere with the migration patterns of young cod, forcing them to spawn in areas that are not safe for egg maturity. According to SOSS, the future of cod fishing is in danger of destruction by further exploration and development in spawning nursery and migratory areas. The group is claiming support from a Nova Scotia government review of two marine ecosystems both of which were declared too delicate to withstand the effects of oil and gas activity. SOSS, supported by a coalition of fishery, native, environmental and tourism groups is determined to halt petroleum exploration along the western coast of Cape Breton Island. In the meantime, the Atlantic Petroleum Institute, first opened in Nova Scotia, and now in the process of expanding into Newfoundland, supported by industry and the Canada Atlantic Opportunities Council, has been assured of funding for a period of five years to develop education and training programs, organize forums for discussion, debate and problem solving, and coordinate research and development. The Institute hopes that SOSS will want to participate in finding solutions to the problems of fisheries that are acceptable to both petroleum and fishing industry interests
Boris, J.; Jensen, Benny; Salvig, J.D.
week 30 of gestation (FO-group) or to a control regimen (olive oil or no oil; controls). The FO-group was randomly subdivided into women stopping fish oil supplementation at delivery [FO(pregn)], and women continuing supplementation for an additional 30 d [FO(pregn/lact)]. Thirty-six women agreed......The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation, in the third trimester of pregnancy and early lactation period of healthy pregnant Danish women. Forty-four pregnant women were randomly allocated to fish oil supplementation (1.3 g EPA and 0.9 g DHA per day) from...
Venkateshwarlu Venkat, Guidipati; Bruni Let, Mette; Meyer, Anne S.
cold storage (2 degreesC) for 14 days by dynamic headspace sampling followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Different volatiles (n = 60) comprising alkenals, alkadienals, alkatrienals, and vinyl ketones were identified in the fish oil enriched milk. The potent odorants identified...... by gas chromatography-olfactometry were 1-penten-3-one, (Z)-4-heptenal, 1-octen-3-one, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal, and (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, but despite their potency, none of the separated volatiles imparted a fishy or metallic odor. Two isomers, (E,Z,Z) and (E,E,Z) of 2...
Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte
P>Fish oil (FO) enrichment of foods is relevant owing to the beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on human health. However, the susceptibility of FO to oxidation necessitates careful control to avoid this oxidation. In this study, energy bars were successfully supplemented...... similar protection towards oxidation as packaging the energy bars in modified atmosphere. These protection methods were although not as efficient as addition of FO as micro-encapsulated powder. Addition of the metal chelator ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) (100-2000 ppm) to emulsified FO...
Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Lyneborg, Karina Sieron; Villeneuve, Pierre
Lipophilization of phenolics by esterification with fatty alcohols may alter their localization in an emulsion and thereby their antioxidant efficacy. In this study, synthesized unbranched alkyl ferulates were evaluated as antioxidants in fish oil enriched milk. Lipid oxidation was determined...... by peroxide values and concentration of volatile oxidation products. A cut-off effect in the antioxidant efficacy in relation to the alkyl chain length was observed. The most efficient alkyl ferulate was methyl ferulate followed by ferulic acid and butyl ferulate, whereas octyl ferulate was prooxidative...
Gibson, D L; Gill, S K; Brown, K; Tasnim, N; Ghosh, S; Innis, S; Jacobson, K
Our previous studies revealed that offspring from rat dams fed fish oil (at 8% and 18% energy), developed impaired intestinal barriers sensitizing the colon to exacerbated injury later in life. To discern the mechanism, we hypothesized that in utero exposure to fish oil, rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), caused abnormal intestinal reparative responses to mucosal injury through differences in intestinal microbiota and the presence of naïve immune cells. To identify such mechanisms, gut microbes and naïve immune cells were compared between rat pups born to dams fed either n-6 PUFA, n-3 PUFA or breeder chow. Maternal exposure to either of the PUFA rich diets altered the development of the intestinal microbiota with an overall reduction in microbial density. Using qPCR, we found that each type of PUFA differentially altered the major gut phyla; fish oil increased Bacteroidetes and safflower oil increased Firmicutes. Both PUFA diets reduced microbes known to dominate the infant gut like Enterobacteriaceae and Bifidobacteria spp. when compared to the chow group. Uniquely, maternal fish oil diets resulted in offspring showing blooms of opportunistic pathogens like Bilophila wadsworthia, Enterococcus faecium and Bacteroides fragilis in their gut microbiota. As well, fish oil groups showed a reduction in colonic CD8+ T cells, CD4+ Foxp3+ T cells and arginase+ M2 macrophages. In conclusion, fish oil supplementation in pharmacological excess, at 18% by energy as shown in this study, provides an example where excess dosing in utero can prime offspring to harbor intestinal pathobionts and alter immune cell homeostasis.
Turner, Justine M; Field, Catherine J; Goruk, Sue; Wizzard, Pamela; Dicken, Bryan J; Bruce, Aisha; Wales, Paul W
Fish oil monotherapy has been an advance for treating intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD). However, such patients are at risk of bleeding complications from liver disease and because fish oil can inhibit thrombosis. We have previously reported abnormal platelet function in neonatal piglets given fish oil monotherapy during parenteral nutrition (PN). The purpose of this study was to determine if abnormal fatty acid composition of the platelets could explain the prior observed antiplatelet effect. Neonatal piglets were assigned to 2 treatments: PN with fish oil monotherapy (FO; n = 4) or PN with soy oil (SO; n = 5). On day 14, plasma was collected and platelets isolated by centrifuging. The fatty acid content in plasma and platelet plug were measured using gas liquid chromatography and compared with controls (CON; n = 5). The arachidonic acid (AA) content in the FO group was on average half that of the SO group, in both the platelets (FO, 3.5% vs SO, 7.6%; P = .021; CON, 4.5%-11%) and the plasma (FO, 3.8% vs SO, 9.2%; P = .002; CON, 6.1%-9.5%). No bleeding complications were observed for any piglets during PN treatment. Using platelet mapping, we have previously shown that neonatal piglets given fish oil monotherapy have abnormal platelet function in the AA pathway. This report demonstrates that such an abnormality can be explained by platelet AA deficiency. Platelet mapping and platelet fatty acid analysis should be undertaken in human infants treated with fish oil monotherapy during PN. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
Yu, Deng-Hang; Chang, Jia-Zhi; Dong, Gui-Fang; Liu, Jun
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the replacement of fish oil (FO) by soybean oil (SO) on growth performance, liver lipid peroxidation, and biochemical composition in juvenile Chinese sucker, Myxocyprinus asiaticus. Fish (13.7 ± 0.2 g) in triplicate were fed five experimental diets in which 0% (FO as control), 40% (SO40), 60% (SO60), 80% (SO40), and 100% (SO100) FO were replaced by SO. The body weight gain of fish fed SO40, SO60, or SO80 diet was similar to FO group, but diets that have 100% soybean oil as dietary lipid significantly reduced fish growth (P fish liver fed diets that contained SO, but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and the ratio n-3/n-6 were significantly reduced by the inclusion of dietary SO (P fish. However, diet containing 100% SO as dietary lipid could reduce growth performance. Thus, we recommended that 40-80% SO can be used as dietary lipid to replace FO for juvenile Chinese sucker.
Hixson, S M; Parrish, C C
Developing a commercially relevant Atlantic cod aquaculture industry will require improvements in feed sustainability. Camelina oil and meal are potential replacements of fish oil and fish meal in aquaculture feeds. Camelina oil is high in 18:3ω3 (30%), with an ω3/ω6 ratio > 1. Camelina meal has a considerable crude protein level (38%), which includes significant amounts of methionine and phenylalanine. Four diets were tested; each diet was fed to triplicate tanks (3 tanks per diet) of Atlantic cod (14.4 g/fish; 70 fish per tank) for 13 wk. The diets included a fish oil/fish meal control (FO) and three diets which replaced 100% of fish oil with camelina oil: one diet contained fish meal (100CO), another solvent extracted fish meal (100COSEFM), and another had fish meal partially reduced by 15% inclusion of camelina meal (100CO15CM). Growth was measured (length and weight) and tissue samples were collected for lipid analysis (muscle, liver, brain, gut, spleen, skin, and carcass) at wk 0 (before feeding the experimental diet) and at wk 13. Cod fed camelina oil had a lower (P replacement of fish oil with camelina oil, plus solvent extracted fish meal had an overarching effect on the entire fatty acid profile of the whole animal. Fatty acid mass balance calculations indicated that cod fed 100COSEFM elongated 13% of 18:3ω3 to 20:3ω3 and oxidized the remaining 87%, whereas cod fed fish oil showed a much lower (P meal caused the greatest change in cod lipid composition and utilization.
Adjou, Euloge S; Dègnon, René G; Dahouenon-Ahoussi, Edwige; Soumanou, Mohamed M; Sohounhloue, Dominique C K
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the essential oil extracted from fresh leaves of Pimenta racemosa in the improvement of fermented fish flour producing technology. Essential oil of Pimenta racemosa was extracted by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition was determined by GC and GC/MS. Different types of fermented fish flours from Lesser African Threadfin (Galeoides decadactylus) were produced by the modification of the traditional processing technology and the introduction of a step of essential oil adjunction during the process. Three different essential oil concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 μL g -1 ) were investigated. Physicochemical, microbiological and nutritional analyzes were performed in order to evaluate the quality of the fermented fish flour produced. Results obtained revealed that the essential oil of Pimenta racemosa investigated has a chemical composition characterized by the presence of myrcene (25.1%), chavicol (7.5%) and eugenol (51.1%). Fermented fish flour produced have a good nutritional potential. However, on the microbiological level, only samples produced by adjunction of essential oil have a low level of microbial contamination, with an absence of pathogenic microorganisms.
Larsen, L.F.; Marckmann, P.; Hansen, A.K.
Background: Chronic fish oil consumption is associated with reduced postprandial lipaemia, but the mechanism behind this effect is not fully understood. We studied whether lipid absorption might be altered in rats fed fish oil. Methods: Male Wistar rats were fed fish oil enriched chow (n = 6...... contents of enterocytes were determined by liquid scintillation counting. Two other groups of rats (2 x 6) fed the experimental diets were given an oral fat load and fasting and postprandial blood samples were taken. Results: The accumulation of H-3-lipids in enterocytes was higher in rats fed fish oil...... than in controls (area under the H-3-lipid time curve: 1041.3 versus 670.3 nmol oleic acid x min/mug DNA, P fish oil. The amount of non-absorbed H-3-lipid tended to be higher in the fish...
Larsson, Karin; Harrysson, Hanna; Havenaar, Robert; Alminger, Marie; Undeland, Ingrid
Marine lipids contain a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including the characteristic long chain (LC) n-3 PUFA. Upon peroxidation these lipids generate reactive products, such as malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), which can form covalent adducts with biomolecules and thus are regarded as genotoxic and cytotoxic. PUFA peroxidation can occur both before and after ingestion. The aim of this study was to determine what levels of MDA, HHE and HNE can evolve in the gastric and intestinal lumen after ingesting meals containing fish or fish oil using a dynamic gastrointestinal (GI) model (TIM). The impact of the fish muscle matrix, lipid content, fish species, and oven baking on GI oxidation was evaluated. MDA and HHE concentrations in gastric lumen increased for all meals during digestion, with the highest level found with herring mince; ∼ 25 μM MDA and ∼ 850 nM HHE. Aldehyde concentrations reached in intestinal lumen during digestion of fish containing meals were generally lower than in gastric lumen, while isolated herring oils (bulk and emulsified) generated higher MDA and HHE values in intestinal lumen compared to gastric lumen. Based on aldehyde levels in gastric lumen, meals containing herring lipids were ranked: raw herring (17% lipid) = baked herring (4% lipid) > raw herring (4% lipid) ≫ herring oil emulsion > herring oil. Herring developed higher concentrations of MDA and HHE during gastric digestion compared to salmon, which initially contained lower levels of oxidation products. Cooked salmon generated higher MDA concentrations during digestion than raw salmon. Low levels of HNE were observed during digestion of all test meals, in accordance with the low content of n-6 PUFA in fish lipids.
The economic recovery of Newfoundland as a result of success in the Hibernia oilfield off the coast of Newfoundland is discussed. Oil production and the transport of oil from the Hibernia to the mainland by rugged double-hulled tankers that are about five times bigger than any other ship in Canada in terms of carrying capacity is a welcome event, considering that the seal hunt and the fishing industry that formerly provided sustenance to the people of Newfoundland have died as a result of world-wide pressure by animal rights groups, and indiscriminate overfishing. Transport of the crude oil from the Hibernia field is provided by Canship Ugland, a St. John's-based firm which now operates a fleet of three tankers. Each of the three vessels are capable of carrying 850,000 barrels of oil, or more than four times Hibernia's daily production. The 'Vinland' the latest of the three tankers to be commissioned, was built in South Korea, is 272 metres long and 46 metres wide. The ship is expected to carry oil from the rig 315 kms offshore to the Newfoundland Terminal at Whiffen Head, where the oil is picked up by smaller vessels. The 'Vinland' is equipped with the dynamic positioning feature which lets the ship maintain its maneuverability and position even if half her power is lost. The company employs people from all over the province and puts millions of dollars annually into the Newfoundland economy. 1 photo.
Mi, Xiu-Bo; Su, Yang; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y
The present study examined the bioacessibility of DDTs and PBDEs in cooked fish (yellow grouper; Epinephelus awoara) with and without heating using the colon extended physiologically based extraction test. The bioaccessibility of DDTs and PBDEs increased from 60 and 26% in raw fish to 83 and 63%, respectively, after the addition of oil to raw fish. However, they decreased from 83 to 66% and from 63 to 40%, respectively, when oil-added fish were cooked. Human health risk assessment based on bioaccessible concentrations of DDTs and PBDEs in fish showed that the maximum allowable daily fish consumption rates decreased from 25, 59, and 86 g day -1 to 22, 53, and 77 g day -1 for children, youths, and adults, respectively, after fish were cooked with oil. These findings indicated that the significance of cooking oil to the bioaccessibility of DDTs and PBDEs in food should be considered in assessments of human health risk.
Meldrum, Suzanne; Dunstan, Janet A; Foster, Jonathan K; Simmer, Karen; Prescott, Susan L
A number of trials have been undertaken to assess whether the intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) during pregnancy can influence the neurological development of the offspring, yet no consensus from these trials has been reached. We aimed to investigate the long-term effects (12 years) of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on neurodevelopment, including cognition, language and fine motor skills. In a follow up of a previously published randomised controlled trial of 98 pregnant women, their children were assessed at 12 years of age using a battery of neurodevelopmental assessments. Fifty participants were assessed at 12 years, with 25 participant's mothers receiving fish oil supplementation, and 25 receiving control capsules. There were no significant differences for any of the assessment measures completed. Our data indicate that fish oil supplementation during pregnancy does not influence the cognition, language or fine motor skills of children in late primary school (12 years of age).
Overgaard, Julie; Porsgaard, Trine; Guo, Zheng
blend with fish oil (352 mg n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA)) or the commercial butter blend. Blood samples were collected after the meals and in the fasting condition on the test day and the following morning, and were analysed for cholesterol absorption, plasma lipid profile and fatty acid composition....... No significant difference in the postprandial plasma fatty acid composition was observed between the groups, neither difference in cholesterol absorption, plasma cholesterol or the cholesterol contents of plasma lipoproteins. The incorporation of fish oil in the butter resulted in a significant lower......The postprandial effects of a butter product containing fish oil were investigated in a single-meal, randomized crossover study with a commercial butter product as the control. Twelve healthy males consumed two test meals with (13)C-labelled cholesterol (45 mg) and either an interesterified butter...
Functional genomics reveals increases in cholesterol biosynthetic genes and highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis after dietary substitution of fish oil with vegetable oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar
Bron James E
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing drive to replace fish oil (FO in finfish aquaculture diets with vegetable oils (VO, driven by the short supply of FO derived from wild fish stocks. However, little is known of the consequences for fish health after such substitution. The effect of dietary VO on hepatic gene expression, lipid composition and growth was determined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, using a combination of cDNA microarray, lipid, and biochemical analysis. FO was replaced with VO, added to diets as rapeseed (RO, soybean (SO or linseed (LO oils. Results Dietary VO had no major effect on growth of the fish, but increased the whole fish protein contents and tended to decrease whole fish lipid content, thus increasing the protein:lipid ratio. Expression levels of genes of the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways were increased in all vegetable oil diets as was SREBP2, a master transcriptional regulator of these pathways. Other genes whose expression was increased by feeding VO included those of NADPH generation, lipid transport, peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, a marker of intracellular lipid accumulation, and protein and RNA processing. Consistent with these results, HUFA biosynthesis, hepatic β-oxidation activity and enzymic NADPH production were changed by VO, and there was a trend for increased hepatic lipid in LO and SO diets. Tissue cholesterol levels in VO fed fish were the same as animals fed FO, whereas fatty acid composition of the tissues largely reflected those of the diets and was marked by enrichment of 18 carbon fatty acids and reductions in 20 and 22 carbon HUFA. Conclusion This combined gene expression, compositional and metabolic study demonstrates that major lipid metabolic effects occur after replacing FO with VO in salmon diets. These effects are most likely mediated by SREBP2, which responds to reductions in dietary cholesterol. These changes are sufficient to maintain
Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q
The effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation and the dietary replacement of FO with flaxseed oil (FlaxO) and canola oil (CO) on the growth of cultured abalone was investigated. The study involved three growth experiments: (E1) diets containing 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO, respectively; (E2) diets in which FO was serially replaced by 25, 50, 75 and 100% FlaxO, respectively; and (E3) diets in which FO was serially replaced by 25, 50, 75 and 100% CO, respectively. In Experiment 1, abalone fed a diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed a significantly higher (121.2 ± 1.1 mg day(-1)) daily growth rate of weight (DGRw ) compared to control (70.1 ± 1.71 mg day(-1)). In Experiment 2, abalone fed 1.5% FO diet and diets containing 25-75% FlaxO showed no significant differences in DGRw. The diet containing 100% FlaxO showed significantly lower (63.3 ± 6.7 mg day(-1)) DGRw. In Experiment 3, abalone fed diets containing 25% and 50% CO showed similar DGRw as those fed a 1.5% FO diet. The diet containing 75% and 100% CO showed significantly lower (63.7 ± 5.0 to 95.4 ± 5.1 mg day(-1)) DGRw. Supplementation with 1.5% of dietary FO can improve growth performance in cultured abalone. It is feasible to replace 75% of dietary FO with FlaxO and 50% of dietary FO with CO, without negative effect on growth performance. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Yamazaki, Ricardo K; Brito, Gleisson A P; Coelho, Isabela; Pequitto, Danielle C T; Yamaguchi, Adriana A; Borghetti, Gina; Schiessel, Dalton Luiz; Kryczyk, Marcelo; Machado, Juliano; Rocha, Ricelli E R; Aikawa, Julia; Iagher, Fabiola; Naliwaiko, Katya; Tanhoffer, Ricardo A; Nunes, Everson A; Fernandes, Luiz Claudio
Obesity is commonly associated with diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The purpose of this study was to determinate the effect of a lower dose of fish oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and muscle metabolism in obese rats. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) (4 mg/g body weight) was injected in neonatal Wistar male rats. Three-month-old rats were divided in normal-weight control group (C), coconut fat-treated normal weight group (CO), fish oil-treated normal weight group (FO), obese control group (Ob), coconut fat-treated obese group (ObCO) and fish oil-treated obese group (ObFO). Obese insulin-resistant rats were supplemented with fish oil or coconut fat (1 g/kg/day) for 4 weeks. Insulin sensitivity, fasting blood biochemicals parameters, and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism were analyzed. Obese animals (Ob) presented higher Index Lee and 2.5 fold epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue than C. Insulin sensitivity test (Kitt) showed that fish oil supplementation was able to maintain insulin sensitivity of obese rats (ObFO) similar to C. There were no changes in glucose and HDL-cholesterol levels amongst groups. Yet, ObFO revealed lower levels of total cholesterol (TC; 30%) and triacylglycerol (TG; 33%) compared to Ob. Finally, since exposed to insulin, ObFO skeletal muscle revealed an increase of 10% in lactate production, 38% in glycogen synthesis and 39% in oxidation of glucose compared to Ob. Low dose of fish oil supplementation (1 g/kg/day) was able to reduce TC and TG levels, in addition to improved systemic and muscle insulin sensitivity. These results lend credence to the benefits of n-3 fatty acids upon the deleterious effects of insulin resistance mechanisms.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is commonly associated with diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The purpose of this study was to determinate the effect of a lower dose of fish oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and muscle metabolism in obese rats. Methods Monosodium glutamate (MSG (4 mg/g body weight was injected in neonatal Wistar male rats. Three-month-old rats were divided in normal-weight control group (C, coconut fat-treated normal weight group (CO, fish oil-treated normal weight group (FO, obese control group (Ob, coconut fat-treated obese group (ObCO and fish oil-treated obese group (ObFO. Obese insulin-resistant rats were supplemented with fish oil or coconut fat (1 g/kg/day for 4 weeks. Insulin sensitivity, fasting blood biochemicals parameters, and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism were analyzed. Results Obese animals (Ob presented higher Index Lee and 2.5 fold epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue than C. Insulin sensitivity test (Kitt showed that fish oil supplementation was able to maintain insulin sensitivity of obese rats (ObFO similar to C. There were no changes in glucose and HDL-cholesterol levels amongst groups. Yet, ObFO revealed lower levels of total cholesterol (TC; 30% and triacylglycerol (TG; 33% compared to Ob. Finally, since exposed to insulin, ObFO skeletal muscle revealed an increase of 10% in lactate production, 38% in glycogen synthesis and 39% in oxidation of glucose compared to Ob. Conclusions Low dose of fish oil supplementation (1 g/kg/day was able to reduce TC and TG levels, in addition to improved systemic and muscle insulin sensitivity. These results lend credence to the benefits of n-3 fatty acids upon the deleterious effects of insulin resistance mechanisms.
Nusrat N. Memon
Full Text Available The effect of refrigerated storage on the quality of freshwater fish oil Jarko (Wallago attu was evaluated by measuring fatty acid profile, free fatty acids (FFA, peroxide value (PV, acid value (AV, sponification value (SV, iodine value (IV and poylene index (PI up to the time period of 120 days. After 120 days storage, mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA contents were decreased by 24.89% and 33.70%, respectively. While, saturated fatty acids (SFA content was found to be increased by 26.82%, against the actual value. The change in polyunsaturated fatty acids during refrigerated storage was measured by the PI value. The PI decreased during storage due to lipid oxidation, but remained nearly constant after 90th day of storage. The results of PV, AV and FFA demonstrates that Wallago attu fish oil remained acceptable for consumption for 60 days but eventually exceeded the recommended values after 60 days of refrigerated storage.
Iagher Fabiola; Aikawa Julia; Rocha Ricelli ER; Machado Juliano; Kryczyk Marcelo; Schiessel Dalton; Borghetti Gina; Yamaguchi Adriana A; Pequitto Danielle CT; Coelho Isabela; Brito Gleisson AP; Yamazaki Ricardo K; Naliwaiko Katya; Tanhoffer Ricardo A; Nunes Everson A
Abstract Background Obesity is commonly associated with diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The purpose of this study was to determinate the effect of a lower dose of fish oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and muscle metabolism in obese rats. Methods Monosodium glutamate (MSG) (4 mg/g body weight) was injected in neonatal Wistar male rats. Three-month-old rats were divided in normal-weight control group (C), coconut fat-treated normal weight group (CO), fish...
Love, M.S.; Westphal, W.
Since 1958, 29 oil platforms have been sited in the southern California Bight of which 28 still remain in place. However, little is known of the fish populations surrounding these structures, particularly those sited in water deeper than 30 m. In the course of research on the Santa Barbara, California, party vessel sport fishery, it was noted that the platforms off Santa Barbara supported considerable sportfishing activity. Those platforms, located to the southeast of Santa Barbara in depths of 48-62 m, were particularly important and were fished intensively for various rockfishes (genus Sebastes). When fishing a platform, the vessel pulled up to within 5-10 m of a platform and drifts along one side, with the vessel operator using intermittent power to keep it near the structure. Most of the desirable species, particularly rockfishes, remained close to the platforms, rarely venturing more than perhaps 20 m from the structure. The party vessels also spent considerable time fishing over nearby natural reefs. In this survey, it was noted that there appeared to be differences in species catch composition and fish size between oil platforms and these natural reefs. Increased offshore oil drilling off California has raised interest in the role platforms play in marine systems. Questions have been raised regarding what fish live around platforms, how these structures influence populations over surrounding reefs, and whether the platforms act as fish enhancers (promoting recruitment) or only as aggregators. These questions are particularly relevant when the platforms are to be decommissioned and the possibility of allowing them to remain as artificial reefs is raised. This paper describes the results of the study on the fish populations around oil platforms and nearby natural reefs off Santa Barbara
Carlson, Sarah J; Nandivada, Prathima; Chang, Melissa I; Mitchell, Paul D; O'Loughlin, Alison; Cowan, Eileen; Gura, Kathleen M; Nose, Vania; Bistrian, Bruce R; Puder, Mark
Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD) is a deadly complication of long term parenteral nutrition (PN) use in infants. Fish oil-based lipid emulsion has been shown in recent years to effectively treat PNALD. Alternative fat sources free of essential fatty acids have recently been investigated for health benefits related to decreased inflammatory response. We hypothesized that the addition of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) to a purified fish oil-based diet would decrease the response to inflammatory challenge in mice, while allowing for sufficient growth and development. Six groups of ten adult male C57/Bl6 mice were pair-fed different dietary treatments for a period of twelve weeks, varying only in fat source (percent calories by weight): 10.84% soybean oil (SOY), 10% coconut oil (HCO), 10% medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), 3% purified fish oil (PFO), 3% purified fish oil with 3% medium-chain triglycerides (50:50 MCT:PFO) and 3% purified fish oil with 7.59% medium-chain triglycerides (70:30 MCT:PFO). An endotoxin challenge was administered to half of the animals in each group at the completion of dietary treatment. All groups demonstrated normal growth throughout the study period. Groups fed MCT and HCO diets demonstrated biochemical essential fatty acid deficiency and decreased IL-6 and TNF-α response to endotoxin challenge. Groups containing PFO had increased inflammatory response to endotoxin challenge, and the addition of MCT to PFO mitigated this inflammatory response. These results suggest that the addition of MCT to PFO formulations may decrease the host response to inflammatory challenge, which may pose potential for optimized PN formulations. Inclusion of MCT in lipid emulsions given with PN formulations may be of use in therapeutic interventions for disease states resulting from chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Miranda, D T S Z; Zanatta, A L; Dias, B C L; Fogaça, R T H; Maurer, J B B; Donatti, L; Calder, P C; Nishiyama, A
Episodes of acute exacerbation are the major clinical feature of asthma and therefore represent an important focus for developing novel therapies for this disease. There are many reports that the n-3 fatty acids found in fish oil exert anti-inflammatory effects, but there are few studies of the action of fish oil on airway smooth muscle (ASM) function. In the present investigation, we evaluated the effect of fish oil supplementation on smooth muscle force of contraction in ovalbumin-induced asthmatic Wistar rats, and its consequences on static lung compliance, mucus production, leukocyte chemotaxis and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Fish oil supplementation suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lung in asthmatic animals (2.04 ± 0.19 × 10(6) cells vs. 3.33 ± 0.43 × 10(6) cells in the control asthmatic group; P < 0.05). Static lung compliance increased with fish oil supplementation in asthmatic rats (0.640 ± 0.053 mL/cm H2O vs. 0.399 ± 0.043 mL/cm H2O; P < 0.05). However, fish oil did not prevent asthma-associated lung eosinophilia and did not affect the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in lung tissue or the proportion of the airways obliterated with mucus. Fish oil had no effect on the force of contraction in asthmatic rats in response to acetylcholine (3.026 ± 0.274 mN vs. 2.813 ± 0.364 mN in the control asthmatic group). In conclusion, although fish oil exerts some benefits in this model of asthma, its effectiveness appears to be limited by an inefficient action on airway smooth muscle function.
Teti Estiasih; Endang Trowulan; Widya Dwi Rukmi
One source of ω-3 fatty acids is a by-product of lemuru canning processing that can be used for fortification. Generally, fortification uses fish oil microcapsule but it is more expensive than direct fortification. In this study, fish oil from a by-product of lemuru canning processing was directly fortified into beef meatball and chicken nugget at concentration of 0, 2, 4, and 6% (w/w). Oxidation level, free fatty acid content, colour, lightness, texture, and sensory acceptance by triangle...
Hermund, Ditte Baun; Yesiltas, Betül; Honold, Philipp
Bioactive compounds from Fucus vesiculosus were extracted and their antioxidant efficacy in fish-oil-enriched foods was evaluated. Water extract (WE) and ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) were obtained and characterised. Furthermore, WE and EAF were added to fish-oil-enriched milk or mayonnaise....... Oxidation during storage was evaluated. EAF showed highest phenolic and pigment contents compared with WE. Antioxidant efficacy was found to be dependent on the concentration in the foods. Furthermore, high antioxidant activity in the foods was related to high radical scavenging, high or moderate metal...
Melissa I. Chang
Full Text Available Since 2004, fish oil based lipid emulsions have been used in the treatment of intestinal failure associated liver disease, with a noticeable impact on decreasing the incidence of morbidity and mortality of this often fatal condition. With this new therapy, however, different approaches have emerged as well as concerns about potential risks with using fish oil as a monotherapy. This review will discuss the experience to date with this lipid emulsion along with the rational for its use, controversies and concerns.
Flores-Álvarez, María Del Carmen; Molina-Hernández, Erika F; Hernández-Raya, José Concepción; Sosa-Morales, María Elena
Oil that is reused multiple times for deep frying goes through changes in chemical composition and physical characteristics, affecting the quality of the fried foods. In this study, the effect of the food type (fish nuggets or French fries) on the degradation of an oil blend during the deep-fat frying of each food at 180°C during 12 days was determined, and the characteristics of the fried products were evaluated. The degradation of oil during repeated use was relatively faster when fish nuggets were fried than when French fries were fried, as higher values of total polar compounds were obtained. The results are useful for producers of French fries and fish nuggets, such as restaurants or fast foods sellers, providing them with practical guidelines within the permitted values established by the regulatory authorities. The studied foods have high economic importance and are different in their composition. Under the studied conditions, the tested oil blend may be used during 4 d (4 h per day) with a daily replenishment, without discarding the oil when frying fish nuggets, and must be discarded after 8 d when French fries are processed. This suggestion allows preparing safe fried foods for consumers. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil (EO against six fish spoilage bacteria for evaluation of its potential utilization in the preservation of minimally processed fish products. Methods: Firstly, GC-MS analysis of the EO was performed to determine its chemical composition. Then, antibacterial effect of the EO in a range of 0.031 to 4 mg/ml was tested against different fish spoilage bacteria such as Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis by broth microdilution method to determine minimum inhibitory (MIC and minimum bactericidal (MBC concentrations. Results: GC-MS results showed that phenolic components such as carvacrol (51.55% and thymol (25.49% were predominant constituents of the EO. Zataria multiflora Boiss EO exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria. Shewanella Putrefaciens was the most sensitive bacteria with MBC value of 0. 5 mg/ml. Conclusion: According to the results, this EO could be used as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial growth in food specially seafood products to preserve them against bacterial spoilage.
Full Text Available EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid and DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid content in common fresh water fish : mujahir (Oreochromis mossambicus after indirect heating were analysed. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of indirect heating process and α-tocopherol additions on both fatty acid stability.Lipids content in the mujahir fillets were extracted by Folch method using chloroform-metanol (2:1 mixture. Fatty acids in fish oil were converted to fatty acid methyl esters and then injected into gas chromatography to determine the EPA and DHA concentration. Operating condition of gas chromatography were programmed as follows: injection port temperature at 270 oC, detector at 280 oC, initial column temperature at 200 oC, and the final at 280 oC, the carrier gas was helium with flow rate of 10 ml per minute and temperature of column was increased gradually at 10 oC per minute. The effect of α-tocopherol addition on the stability of EPA and DHA was studied by adding α-tocopherol at 50 to 200 mg per kilogram sample before indirect heating process was carried out.The analysis of mujahir fish oil showed that the content of EPA and DHA in 100 grams fresh sample was 105 and 406,5 mg respectivelly. Indirect heating caused the EPA and DHA content decreased significantly. The addition of α-tocopherol results in a positive corelation between α-tocopherol concentration added and the decrease of EPA and DHA content during the heating process. Keywords: fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid
Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Baron, Caroline; Bruni Let, Mette
Fish oil was incorporated into milk under different homogenization temperatures (50 and 72 °C) and pressures (5, 15, and 22.5 MPa). Subsequently, the oxidative stability of the milk and changes in the protein composition of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) were examined. Results showed...
We studied the combined effect of fish oil and α-lipoic acid on hepatic lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation and parameters of oxidative stress in rats fed lipogenic diets high in sucrose. A control diet contained a saturated fat (palm oil) that gives high rate of hepatic lipogenesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 2.5 g/kg α-lipoic acid and containing 0, 20, or 100 g/kg fish oil, for 21 days. α-Lipoic acid significantly reduced food intake during 0-8 days but not the later period of the experiment. Fish oil and α-lipoic acid decreased serum lipid concentrations and their combination further decreased the parameters in an additive fashion. The combination of fish oil and α-lipoic acid decreased the activity and mRNA levels of hepatic lipogenic enzymes in an additive fashion. Fish oil increased the parameters of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes. α-Lipoic acid appeared to antagonize the stimulating effects of fish oil of fatty acid oxidation through reductions in the activity of some fatty acid oxidation enzymes. α-Lipoic acid attenuated fish oil-dependent increases in serum and liver malondialdehyde levels, and this compound also reduced the serum 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine level. α-Lipoic acid affected various parameters related to the antioxidant system; fish oil also affected some of the parameters. The combination of fish oil and α-lipoic acid effectively reduced serum lipid levels through the additive down-regulation of hepatic lipogenesis. α-Lipoic acid was effective in attenuating fish oil-mediated oxidative stress.
Full Text Available Abstract Conjugated fatty acid, the general term of positional and geometric isomers of polyunsaturated fatty acids with conjugated double bonds, has attracted considerable attention because of its potentially beneficial biological effects. In the present study, dietary effect of pomegranate seed oil rich in punicic acid (9cis, 11trans, 13cis-conjugated linolenic acid; 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA on lipid metabolism was investigated in obese, hyperlipidemic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF rats. After 2 weeks feeding period, OLETF rats revealed obesity and hyperlipidemia compared with their progenitor LETO rats. Feeding of the diet supplemented with 9% safflower oil and 1% pomegranate seed oil (9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA diet did not affect abdominal white adipose tissue weights and serum lipid levels compared with the diet supplemented with 10% safflower oil (control diet in OLETF rats. However, the accumulated hepatic triacylglycerol was markedly decreased by 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA diet in OLETF rats. Activities of hepatic enzymes related to fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid β-oxidation were not altered by 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA diet. Levels of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA, major storage form of fatty acid, in serum triacylglycerol were markedly higher in obese, hyperlipidemic OLETF rats than in lean LETO rats. In addition, 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA diet significantly decreased MUFA levels in OLETF rats. This is the first study showing that 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA suppresses delta-9 desaturation in vivo, and we suggest that the alleviation of hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation by 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA diet was, at least in part, attributable to the suppression of delta-9 desaturation in OLETF rats.
Harbild, Helle Liliegren; Harsløf, Laurine Bente Schram; Christensen, J. H.
This intervention examined whether fish-oil-supplementation in late infancy modifies free-play test scores and if this is related to blood pressure (BP) and mean RR interval.......This intervention examined whether fish-oil-supplementation in late infancy modifies free-play test scores and if this is related to blood pressure (BP) and mean RR interval....
Muurling, Martin; Mensink, Ronald P.; Pijl, Hanno; Romijn, Johannes A.; Havekes, Louis M.; Voshol, Peter J.
Dietary interventions with fish oil have been found to protect against the development of high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and to decrease the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. However, the effect of fish oil administration on preexisting insulin resistance is subject to
Josquin, N.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Houben, J.H.
Dutch-style fermented sausages were manufactured with 15% and 30% pork back-fat substitution by pure or commercial encapsulated fish oil, either added as such or as pre-emulsified mixture with soy protein isolate. Adding commercial encapsulated fish oil was the most important factor influencing the
Best, Karen P; Sullivan, Thomas; Palmer, Debra; Gold, Michael; Kennedy, Declan John; Martin, James; Makrides, Maria
Evidence from randomized controlled trials in early infancy suggest that prenatal supplementation with Ω-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) reduces the incidence of allergic disease characterized by an immunoglobulin E (IgE) response. We aimed to determine whether protective effects were evident in the 6-year-old offspring of women supplemented with n-3 rich fish oil during pregnancy. Six-year follow-up of children (n = 706) with a family history of allergic disease from the Docosahexaenoic Acid to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome (DOMInO) trial. Women were randomly allocated to receive n-3 LCPUFA-rich fish oil capsules (800 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid DHA and 100mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid) or vegetable oil capsules (without n-3 LCPUFA). Allergic disease symptoms including eczema, wheeze, rhinitis, and rhino-conjunctivitis, were assessed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire and sensitization to allergens was measured by skin prick test. There was no difference in the percentage of children with any IgE-associated allergic disease between the n-3 LCPUFA and control groups (116/367 [31.5%] vs 106/336 [31.5%]; adjusted relative risk, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.33; P = .73). There was a reduction in the percentage of children sensitized to house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae (49/367 [13.4%] vs 68/336 [20.3%]; adjusted relative risk, 0.67, 95% confidence interval, 0.44-1.00; P = .0495). Prenatal n-3 LCPUFA supplementation did not reduce IgE-associated allergic disease at 6 years of age. Secondary outcomes were suggestive of a protective effect of the intervention on the incidence of D. farinae sensitization. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Zhu, Xueping; Xiao, Zhihui; Xu, Yumin; Zhao, Xingli; Cheng, Ping; Cui, Ningxun; Cui, Mingling; Li, Jie; Zhu, Xiaoli
Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is a severe ailment associated with long-term parenteral nutrition. Soybean oil-based lipid emulsions (SOLE) are thought to promote PNALD development, whereas fish oil-based lipid emulsions (FOLE) are thought to protect against PNALD. This study aimed to investigate the effects of SOLE and FOLE on primary rabbit hepatocytes. The results reveal that SOLE caused significant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial damage, ultimately resu...
Honold, Philipp; Nouard, Marie-Louise; Jacobsen, Charlotte
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is the main fish species produced in Danish fresh water farming. Large amounts of fileting by-products like heads, bones, tails (HBT), and intestines are produced when rainbow trout is processed to smoked rainbow trout filets. The filleting by-products can...... be used to produce high quality fish oil. In this study, the oxidative stability of fish oil produced from filleting by-products was evaluated. The oil was produced from conventional or organic fish (low and high omega-3 fatty acid content) at different temperatures (70 and 90°C). The oxidative stability...
Frankel, E.N.; Satue-Gracia, T.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge
from algae are unusually stable to oxidation, Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) prevented oxidation of both fish and algal oil emulsions without added iron and at low iron:EDTA molar concentrations. EDTA, however, promoted the oxidation of the corresponding emulsions that contained...... high iron:EDTA ratios. Therefore, to be effective as a metal chelator, EDTA must be added at molar concentrations higher than that of iron to inhibit oxidation of foods containing long-chain PUFA from either fish or algae and fortified with iron.......The oxidative stability of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-containing fish and algae oils varies widely according to their fatty acid composition, the physical and colloidal states of the lipids, the contents of tocopherols and other antioxidants...
Manzanares, W; Langlois, P L
Third-generation lipid emulsions (LE) are soybean oil sparing strategies with immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory effects. Current evidence supporting the use of intravenous (i.v) fish oil (FO) LE in critically ill patients requiring parenteral nutrition or receiving enteral nutrition (pharmaconutrient strategy) mainly derives from small phase ii clinical trials in heterogenous intensive care unit patient's population. Over the last three years, there have been published different systematic reviews and meta-analyses evaluating the effects of FO containing LE in the critically ill. Recently, it has been demonstrated that i.v FO based LE may be able to significantly reduce the incidence of infections as well as mechanical ventilation days and hospital length of stay. Nonetheless, more robust evidence is required before giving a definitive recommendation. Finally, we strongly believe that a dosing study is required before new phase iii clinical trials comparing i.v FO containing emulsions versus other soybean oil strategies can be conducted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Jacobsen, Charlotte; Timm Heinrich, Maike; Meyer, Anne S.
The effect of ascorbic acid (0-4000 ppm) and pH (3.8-6.2) on oxidation and levels of iron and copper in various fractions of mayonnaise enriched with 16% fish oil was investigated. Ascorbic acid induced release of iron from the assumed oil- water interface into the aqueous phase at all pH levels......, but this effect of ascorbic acid was strongest at low pH (pH 3.8- 4.2). Ascorbic acid generally promoted formation of volatile oxidation compounds and reduced the peroxide value in mayonnaises. Peroxide values and total volatiles generally increased with decreasing pH values, suggesting that low pH promoted...... oxidation. It is proposed that iron bridges between the egg yolk proteins low-density lipoproteins, lipovitellin, and phosvitin at the oil-water interface are broken at low pH values, whereby iron ions become accessible as oxidation initiators. In the presence of ascorbic acid, oxidation is further enhanced...
Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte
The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of caffeic acid, ascorbyl palmitate and gamma-tocopherol on protection of fish oil-enriched energy bars against lipid oxidation during storage for 10 weeks at room temperature. The lipophilic gamma-tocopherol reduced lipid oxidation during...... storage when added at a concentration above 440 mu g/g fish oil. However, the best antioxidative effect was observed when it was added at a concentration of 660 mu g/g fish oil. In contrast, prooxidative effects were observed when using either gamma-tocopherol at concentrations below 220 mu g/g fish oil......, or the hydrophilic caffeic acid, or the amphiphilic ascorbyl palmitate at concentrations of 75, 150 and 300 mu g/g fish oil. Prooxidative effects were observed as an increase in the formation of lipid hydroperoxides and volatile secondary oxidation products, as well as the development of rancid off...
Leaf, Alexander; Albert, Christine M; Josephson, Mark; Steinhaus, David; Kluger, Jeffrey; Kang, Jing X; Cox, Benjamin; Zhang, Hui; Schoenfeld, David
The long-chain n-3 fatty acids in fish have been demonstrated to have antiarrhythmic properties in experimental models and to prevent sudden cardiac death in a randomized trial of post-myocardial infarction patients. Therefore, we hypothesized that these n-3 fatty acids might prevent potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias in high-risk patients. Four hundred two patients with implanted cardioverter/defibrillators (ICDs) were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with either a fish oil or an olive oil daily supplement for 12 months. The primary end point, time to first ICD event for ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT or VF) confirmed by stored electrograms or death from any cause, was analyzed by intention to treat. Secondary analyses were performed for "probable" ventricular arrhythmias, "on-treatment" analyses for all subjects who had taken any of their oil supplements, and "on-treatment" analyses only of those subjects who were on treatment for at least 11 months. Compliance with double-blind treatment was similar in the 2 groups; however, the noncompliance rate was high (35% of all enrollees). In the primary analysis, assignment to treatment with the fish oil supplement showed a trend toward a prolonged time to the first ICD event (VT or VF) or of death from any cause (risk reduction of 28%; P=0.057). When therapies for probable episodes of VT or VF were included, the risk reduction became significant at 31%; P=0.033. For those who stayed on protocol for at least 11 months, the antiarrhythmic benefit of fish oil was improved for those with confirmed events (risk reduction of 38%; P=0.034). Although significance was not achieved for the primary end point, this study provides evidence that for individuals at high risk of fatal ventricular arrhythmias, regular daily ingestion of fish oil fatty acids may significantly reduce potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias.
Full Text Available Structured triglycerides (STs containing both medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in the same molecule offer nutritional and therapeutic benefits. The aim of this work was to establish the incorporation of MCFA into fish oil triglycerides (TAGs, while maintaining substantial levels of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The effects of different acyl donors (capric acid methyl ester/MeC10 or medium chain triglyceride/TCM and of the catalyst (chemical or enzymatic on the fatty acid composition of the reaction product were studied. The fatty acid composition of the fish oil TAG was modified after interesterification to contain MCFA, and it depended on the catalyst and on the substrates. Thermograms obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC showed that interesterification promoted noteworthy changes in the melting profile of the samples. STs of clinical nutrition interest containing both EPA and DHA obtained from fish oil along with MCFA were successfully produced.
Triglicéridos estructurados (SL conteniendo ácidos grasos de cadena media (MCFA y ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA en la misma molécula de glicerol tienen ventajas nutricionales y terapéuticas. Se establece la incorporación de MCFA a los triglicéridos (TAGs de aceite de pescado, conservando un contenido considerable de ácidos docosahexaenóico (DHA y eicosapentaenóico (EPA. El efecto de diferentes acil donadores (éster metílico de ácido cáprico/MeC10 o triglicéridos de cadena media/TCM y de catalizador (químico o enzimático sobre la composición del producto de las reacciones fue estudiado. La composición de ácidos grasos de los TAGs del aceite de pescado fue modificada después de las reacciones para contener MCFA y dependió del catalizador y de los substratos. Los termogramas obtenidos por Calorimetría Diferencial de Barrido (DSC indicaron que la interesterificación provocó alteraciones considerables de
Patel, Unisha; Chauhan, Kishor; Gupte, Shilpa
In the present work, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by chemical precipitation of trivalent and divalent iron ions which were functionalized using citric acid. The bacterial isolate Staphylococcus epidermidis KX781317 was isolated from oil-contaminated site. The isolate produced lipase, which was purified and immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for ester synthesis from waste frying oil (WFO). The characterization of MNPs employed conventional TEM, XRD and FTIR techniques. TEM analysis of MNPs showed the particle size in the range of 20-50 nm. FTIR spectra revealed the binding of citric acid to Fe 3 O 4 and lipase on citric acid-coated MNPs. The citric acid-coated MNPs and lipase-conjugated citric acid-coated MNPs had similar XRD patterns which indicate MNPs could preserve their magnetic properties. The maximum immobilization efficiency 98.21% of lipase-containing citric acid-coated MNPs was observed at ratio 10:1 of Cit-MNPs:lipase. The pH and temperature optima for lipase conjugated with Cit-MNPs were 7 and 35 °C, respectively. Isobutanol was found to be an effective solvent for ester synthesis and 1:2 ratio of oil:alcohol observed significant for ester formation. The ester formation was determined using TLC and the % yield of ester conversion was calculated. The rate of ester formation is directly proportional to the enzyme load. Formed esters were identified as isobutyl laurate ester and isobutyl myristate ester through GC-MS analysis.
Damsgaard, C. T.; Lauritzen, L.; Calder, P. C.
production from cultures of whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and monocytes in healthy men. The study was a double-blinded, controlled, 2 X 2 factorial 8-wk intervention. Sixty-four healthy men were randomized to 5 mL/d FO or olive oil (00) provided in capsules and to spreads and oils......Fish oil (FO) is considered antiinflammatory, but evidence regarding its effect on human cytokine production is conflicting. High linoleic acid (LA) intake may impair any effects of FO. The aim of this study was to investigate how FO combined with high or low LA intake affected ex vivo cytokine...
Meldrum, S J; D'Vaz, N; Casadio, Y; Dunstan, J A; Niels Krogsgaard-Larsen, N; Simmer, K; Prescott, S L
Although omega (n)-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), intakes are important during infancy, the optimal method of increasing infant status remains unclear. We hypothesized that high-dose infant fish oil supplementation would have greater relative effects upon n-3 LCPUFA status at six months of age than breast milk fatty acids. Infants (n=420) were supplemented daily from birth to six months with fish oil or placebo. In a subset of infants, LCPUFA levels were measured in cord blood, breast milk and in infant blood at 6 months. DHA levels increased in the fish oil group relative to placebo (p<05). Breast milk DHA was the strongest predictor of infant erythrocyte DHA levels (p=<001). This remained significant after adjustment for cord blood DHA, supplementation group and adherence. In this cohort, breast milk DHA was a greater determinant of infant erythrocyte n-3 LCPUFA status, than direct supplementation with fish oil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vlijmen, B.J.M. van; Mensink, R.P.; Hof, H.B. van 't; Offermans, R.F.G.; Hofker, M.H.; Havekes, L.M.
Studying the effects of dietary fish oil on VLDL metabolism in humans is subject to both large intra- and interindividual variability. In the present study we therefore used hyperlipidentic apolipoprotein (APO) E*3-Leiden mice, which have impaired chylomicron and very low density lipoprotein (VDL)
Blok, W.K.L.; Deslypere, J.P.; Demacker, P.N.M.; Ven-Jongekrijg, van der J.; Hectors, M.P.C.; Meer, van der J.W.M.; Katan, M.B.
Dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids from fish oil alleviates inflammation in various chronic inflammatory disease states. Reductions in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1 (IL-1), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) have been seen in humans
Full Text Available Background: According to national tuberculosis control guide, two-step tuberculin skin test (TST should be done in the elderly, if the initial test is negative. However, it raises questions about the usefulness of this approach. Objective: This study aimed to explore the effects of fish oil supplements on the two-step tuberculin test in hospitalized patients. Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 128 patients randomly allocated to control group (receiving placebo, n=64 and treatment group (receiving fish oil supplements, n=64 during 2016. Fish oil supplement group was treated with 2 g daily for 4 consecutive days. The outcome was considered a change in 2 sequential TST induration sizes. Significant increase in the size of the secondary induration compared to primary was considered 6 mm or more. Findings: There was significant difference between primary and secondary indurations of two groups (higher in treatment group (P=0.04. According to the results of analysis of variance and correlation tests, two effective factors were identified: initial induration and residence location (P=0.014 and P=0.002, respectively. In both groups, no clinically significant increase in the size of induration was observed. Conclusion: It seems that the number of cases considered as infected with tuberculosis does not increase with two- rather than one-step tuberculin skin test. Also, the short-term administration of fish oil supplements does not change this result.
Kjær Pedersen, D.; Munck, L.; Balling Engelsen, S.
A preliminary investigation of fish oils demonstrates that fluorescence excitation-emission landscapes evaluated by 3-way chemometric methods may be a candidate for an inexpensive screening method to indicate the level of contamination by dioxins and PCB’s which are normally analysed with expensive...
Klieverik, L.; Fehres, O.; Griffini, P.; van Noorden, C. J.; Frederiks, W. M.
Recently, it was demonstrated that dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induce 10-fold more metastases in number and 1000-fold in volume in an animal model of colon cancer metastasis in rat liver. It was observed that tumors of rats on a fish oil diet lacked peritumoral stroma unlike
Mannaa, Fathia; El-Shamy, Karima A; El-Shaikh, Kamal A; El-Kassaby, Mahitab
To evaluate the action of fish liver oil and propolis in pilocarpine epileptic rats treated with the anticonvulsant drug valproate. Seven groups of rats were treated daily for six months: control; fish liver oil (0.4ml/kg b.w); propolis (50mg/kg b.w); pilocarpine-treated rats (epileptic control); epileptic rats treated with valproate (400mg/kg b.w); groups 6 and 7, epileptic rats treated with valproate plus fish liver oil or propolis. Pilocarpine administration caused a significant increase in hippocampal dopamine and serotonin levels accompanied with a significant decrease in their levels in serum. Lipid peroxidation level and LDH activity in hippocampus were significantly increased after pilocarpine treatment whereas Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and total antioxidant capacity were significantly decreased compared to the controls. Animals treated with the combined treatments showed a significant improvement in tested parameters towards the normal values of the control. Fish liver oil and propolis when given in combination with valproate, neuroprotected against the neurophysiological disorders induced by pilocarpine epilepsy in rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zabel, R; Ash, S; King, N; Naslund, E; Bauer, J
Haemodialysis patients show signs of chronic inflammation and reduced appetite, which is associated with a worse clinical status and an increased mortality risk. Fish oil has anti-inflammatory properties and may be useful as a therapeutic treatment. There is limited evidence to indicate the feasibility and efficacy of this intervention in dialysis patients. The present study aimed to compare the effect of 12 weeks of supplementation with fish oil on markers of appetite and inflammation in male and female haemodialysis patients. The study was conducted in 28 haemodialysis patients. All patients were prescribed 3 g of fish oil per day for 12 weeks. Changes in appetite, plasma fatty acid profiles and inflammatory markers were measured at baseline and at 12 weeks. The mean (SD) increase in percent plasma eicosapentaenoic acid was statistically significant [1.1 (0.8) to 4.1 (2.2), P appetite and certain inflammatory markers (although no change in dietary intake) and this effect was more pronounced in males. However, the levels of some inflammatory markers increased in females and this requires further study. The high level of adherence achieved indicates that an intervention requiring patients to consume four fish oil capsules per day is achievable. This was a short-term study and the effects need to be confirmed in a randomised controlled trial.
Yesiltas, Betül; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús
Sodium caseinate (CAS) and commercial sodium alginate (CA), long chain modified alginate (LCMA) or short chain modified alginate (SCMA) were used in combination for emulsifying and stabilizing high fat (50–70%) fish oil-in-water emulsions. Physical (creaming, droplet size, viscosity and protein...
Farvin Habebullah, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte
In this study the antioxidant activity of absolute ethanol, 50 % ethanol and water extracts of two species of seaweeds, namely Fucus serratus and Polysiphonia fucoides, were evaluated both in in vitro assays and in 5 % fish oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. The 50 % ethanolic extracts of P. fucoides...
Qiu, Xujian; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Villeneuve, Pierre
Antioxidant effects of ferulic acid and lipophilized ferulate esters were investigated in fish oil-enriched milk. Methyl ferulate (C1) and ethyl ferulate (C2) more efficiently prevented lipid oxidation than dodecyl ferulate (C12) did, followed by ferulic acid (C0). The combination of C1 or C2 wit...
Bucio, S.L.; Soalesa, A.G.; Sanz, M.T.; Melgosa, R.; Beltrán, S.; Sovová, Helena
Roč. 64, č. 4 (2015), s. 431-441 ISSN 1345-8957 Grant - others:MINECO(ES) CTQ2012-39131-C02-01 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : fish oil * ethanolysis * kinetic parameters * lipase Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.108, year: 2015
S. Salehi Borban
Full Text Available Heavy metal pollution in marine environments and the potential for bioaccumulation of contaminants have been considered as a serious threat for a long time. These contaminants accumulate in fish body and then transferred through the food chain to humans. The aim of this study was to determine the heavy metals cadmium, lead, arsenic, mercury and copper and iron metals in muscle and fish oil (Rutilus frisii kutum ،Clupeonella cultriventris ،Liza saliens. Three samples of Rutilus frisii kutum ،Clupeonella cultriventris and Liza saliens were caught in Mahmoud Abad area. One part of the muscle was dried by freeze drying method and another part was used to extract the oil. Then, using the atomic absorption spectrometric and Mercury Analyzer heavy metals concentrations were determined in muscle and fish oil. The results of muscle showed the highest accumulation of mercury (0.347±0.018, cadmium (0.08±0.001, copper (1.2156±0.059 and iron (2.643±0.231 in Rutilus frisii kutum and the highest level of lead (0.3593±0.015 and arsenic (0.0892±0.001 in Liza saliens. Moreover, in the fish oils samples, lead and mercury had the highest concentrations. The heavy metals in the samples were lower than or close to international standards. Therefore, their use does not pose a health problem for the consumers.
Let, M.B.; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.
The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of γ-tocopherol, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), and ascorbyl palmitate to protect fish oil enriched salad dressing against oxidation during a 6 week storage period at room temperature. The lipid-soluble γ-tocopherol (220 and 880 µg g-1...
Borsonelo, Elizabethe C; Suchecki, Deborah; Calil, Helena Maria; Galduróz, José Carlos F
Adequate development of the central nervous system depends on prenatal and postnatal factors. On one hand, prenatal stress (PNS) has been implicated in impaired development of the offspring. On other hand, nutritional factors during pregnancy and lactation can influence fetal and postnatal growth. This study assessed the postnatal development of rat offspring exposed to PNS, which consisted of restraint and bright lights, 3 times/day, from days 14 to 20 of pregnancy, whose mothers were fed different diets during pregnancy and lactation: regular diet, diet supplemented with coconut fat or fish oil. When pregnancy was confirmed, they were distributed into control (CTL) or PNS groups. At birth, PNS males and females weighed less than those in the group CTL. At 21 days of age, this alteration was no longer observed with fish oil and coconut fat groups. PNS and coconut fat diet induced increased locomotor activity in 13 day old male and female pups, and this effect was prevented by fish oil supplementation only in females. In conclusion, postnatal development from birth to weaning was influenced by PNS and diet and some of those alterations were prevented by coconut fat and fish oil. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Our previous report showed that concomitant supplementation of lycopene and eicosa-pentaenoic acid synergistically inhibited the proliferation of human colon cancer HT-29 cells in vitro. To validate our findings, the present study investigated whether consumption of lycopene and fish oil would help ...
The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids present in fish oil supplements are proposed to offer cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if these supplements can protect against the adverse health effects induced by exposure to air pollution. Ozone, an ubiquitous air p...
Verschuren, L.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Tijani, S.; Toet, K.; Ommen, B. van; Kooistra, T.; Kleemann, R.
Chronic inflammation and proatherogenic lipids are important risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Specific dietary constituents such as polyphenols and fish oils may improve cardiovascular risk factors and may have a beneficial effect on disease outcomes. We hypothesized that the intake of
Jacobs, D.M.; Mihaleva, V.V.; Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Graaf, A.A. de; Vervoort, J.; Dorsten, F.A. van; Ras, R.T.; Demonty, I.; Trautwein, E.A.; Duynhoven, J. van
Scope: Consumption of a low-fat spread enriched with plant sterols (PS) and different low doses (<2 g/day) of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish oil reduces serum triglycerides (TGs) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-Chol) and thus beneficially affects
Lee, Yiu Yiu; Crauste, Céline; Wang, Hualin; Leung, Ho Hang; Vercauteren, Joseph; Galano, Jean-Marie; Oger, Camille; Durand, Thierry; Wan, Jennifer Man-Fan; Lee, Jetty Chung-Yung
The effects of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) induced oxidative stress in rats were determined by the generation of isoprostanoids. These are known to be robust biomarkers to evaluate nonenzymatic and free radical related oxidation. Other oxidative stress biomarkers such as hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid products (HETEs) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) were also determined. The rodents received a control diet, high-fat diet (20% w/w) composed of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), corn oil (CO), or lard, and high-fat diets with CCl 4 insult throughout the experimental period. The EVOO diet was found to suppress the formation of isoprostanoids and COPs compared to that of the control. EVOO also had a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity compared to those of CO and lard and may be contributed to by the hydroxytyrosol component conjugated to fatty acids (HT-FA). This is the first study to identify HT-FA in EVOO, and it was 4-fold higher than that of olive oil, whereas none was found in corn oil. Furthermore, the EVOO diet showed reduced liver lipid vesicles in CCl 4 treated rats compared to that of the control. However, liver toxicity measurements of AST (aspartate transaminase) and ALT (alanine transaminase) activities showed augmentation with CCl 4 treatment but were not alleviated by the diets given. Our findings suggest that EVOO is a daily functional food capable of enhancing the antioxidant system for liver protection; the effect is potentially attributed to the phenolic and lipophenolic (phenol conjugated by fatty acids) content.
Kadamne, Jeta V; Jain, Vishal P; Saleh, Mohammed; Proctor, Andrew
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in oils are currently measured as fatty acid methyl esters by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) technique, which requires approximately 2 h to complete the analysis. Hence, we aim to develop a method to rapidly determine CLA isomers in CLA-rich soy oil. Soy oil with 0.38-25.11% total CLA was obtained by photo-isomerization of 96 soy oil samples for 24 h. A sample was withdrawn at 30 min intervals with repeated processing using a second batch of oil. Six replicates of GC-FID fatty acid analysis were conducted for each oil sample. The oil samples were scanned using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and the spectrum was collected. Calibration models were developed using partial least-squares (PLS-1) regression using Unscrambler software. Models were validated using a full cross-validation technique and tested using samples that were not included in the calibration sample set. Measured and predicted total CLA, trans,trans CLA isomers, total mono trans CLA isomers, trans-10,cis-12 CLA, trans-9,cis-11 CLA and cis-10,trans-12 CLA, and cis-9,trans-11 CLA had cross-validated coefficients of determinations (R2v) of 0.97, 0.98, 0.97, 0.98, 0.97, and 0.99 and corresponding root-mean-square error of validation (RMSEV) of 1.14, 0.69, 0.27, 0.07, 0.14, and 0.07% CLA, respectively. The ATR-FTIR technique is a rapid and less expensive method for determining CLA isomers in linoleic acid photo-isomerized soy oil than GC-FID.
The Regional Aquatics Monitoring Program (RAMP) was launched to provide a better understanding of the potential effects of oil sands development on aquatic systems, and to address issues important to communities of northern Alberta, such as mercury concentrations in fish. Muskeg dewatering, deforestation, flooding, and air emissions are among the potential mercury sources entering the aquatic systems within the oil sands region. RAMP collects non-lethal tissue samples on an annual basis for mercury analysis from northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Sander vitreus), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in various rivers and lakes within the oil sands region. The purpose is to evaluate the suitability of fisheries resources for human consumption and to evaluate the potential cumulative biological effects on fish. A mercury database was developed based on studies in other regions in Alberta and across Canada in order to provide a regional context to the RAMP monitoring results. Data points from 1975 to 2009 were mapped to evaluate spatial and temporal differences in mercury concentrations and any exceedances of subsistence and general consumption guidelines. This monitoring effort has been instrumental in determining whether changes in mercury concentrations in fish are localized to a specific waterbody or regional in nature.
Hybrid striped bass feeds based on fish oil, beef tallow, and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid supplements: Insight regarding fish oil sparing and demand for -3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Bowzer, J; Jackson, C; Trushenski, J
Previous research suggests that saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) rich lipids, including beef tallow, can make utilization or diet-to-tissue transfer of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) more efficient. We hypothesized that using beef tallow as an alternative to fish oil may effectively reduce the LC-PUFA demand of hybrid striped bass × and allow for greater fish oil sparing. Accordingly, we evaluated growth performance and tissue fatty acid profiles of juvenile fish (23.7 ± 0.3 g) fed diets containing menhaden fish oil (considered an ideal source of LC-PUFA for this taxon), beef tallow (BEEF ONLY), or beef tallow amended with purified sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to achieve levels corresponding to 50 or 100% of those observed in the FISH ONLY feed. Diets were randomly assigned to quadruplicate tanks of fish ( = 4; 10 fish/tank), and fish were fed assigned diets to apparent satiation once daily for 10 wk. Survival (98-100%) was equivalent among treatments, but weight gain (117-180%), specific growth rate (1.1-1.5% BW/d), feed intake (1.4-1.8% BW/d), thermal growth coefficient (0.50-0.70), and feed conversion ratio (FCR; 1.1-1.4, DM basis) varied. Except for FCR, no differences were observed between the FISH ONLY and BEEF ONLY treatments, but performance was generally numerically superior among fish fed the diets containing beef tallow supplemented with DHA at the 100% or both EPA and DHA at the 50% or 100% level. Tissue fatty acid composition was significantly distorted in favor among fish fed the beef tallow-based feeds; however, profile distortion was most overt in peripheral tissues. Results suggest that beef tallow may be used as a primary lipid source in practical diets for hybrid striped bass, but performance may be improved by supplementation with LC-PUFA, particularly DHA. Furthermore, our results suggest that -3 LC-PUFA requirements reported for hybrid striped bass may not be
Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Petersen, Lone Kirsten; de Diego, Sara
The antioxidative effect of phenolipids was evaluated in fish oil enriched milk emulsions as a model for a complex food system. Two different phenolipids modified from dihydrocaffeic acid (with C8 or C18:1) and rutin (with C12 or C16) were evaluated. Both dihydrocaffeate esters and rutin laurate...... provides new knowledge that can be used to develop new antioxidant strategies to protect foods against lipid oxidation. However, the results indicate that both optimization of alkyl chain length for each type of phenolic, and optimization for each type of emulsion will be necessary in order to get the best...... oxidative stability of an emulsion with these phenolipids. Use of efficient antioxidants may lower the amount of antioxidant needed to protect against lipid oxidation and may in addition decrease the costs....
An oil containing EPA and DHA from transgenic Camelina sativa to replace marine fish oil in feeds for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.: Effects on intestinal transcriptome, histology, tissue fatty acid profiles and plasma biochemistry.
Mónica B Betancor
Full Text Available New de novo sources of omega 3 (n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA are required as alternatives to fish oil in aquafeeds in order to maintain adequate levels of the beneficial fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic (EPA and DHA, respectively. The present study investigated the use of an EPA+DHA oil derived from transgenic Camelina sativa in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar feeds containing low levels of fishmeal (35% and fish oil (10%, reflecting current commercial formulations, to determine the impacts on tissue fatty acid profile, intestinal transcriptome, and health of farmed salmon. Post-smolt Atlantic salmon were fed for 12-weeks with one of three experimental diets containing either a blend of fish oil/rapeseed oil (FO, wild-type camelina oil (WCO or transgenic camelina oil (DCO as added lipid source. The DCO diet did not affect any of the fish performance or health parameters studied. Analyses of the mid and hindgut transcriptomes showed only mild effects on metabolism. Flesh of fish fed the DCO diet accumulated almost double the amount of n-3 LC-PUFA than fish fed the FO or WCO diets, indicating that these oils from transgenic oilseeds offer the opportunity to increase the n-3 LC-PUFA in farmed fish to levels comparable to those found a decade ago.
Gadjiev, R.V; Kasimov, R.Yu; Akhundov, M.M; Karaev, A.I.
Full text:The Caspian Sea plays important role in supply of the population of Azerbaijan Republic with fish products. Furthermore, the Caspian Sea is the single pond where more than 70% of sturgeons are harvested all over the world. Besides, more than 80% of the big bony fishes harvested in the ponds of Azerbaijan, are caught in the Caspian Sea. On the other hand, the entrails of the Caspian Sea contain tremendous amounts of oil and gas deposits whose extraction disturbs partially the ecological equilibrium in this unique pond. It should be noticed that since 1973-1974 the increase of sturgeon harvest was observed. The special scientific Institute of Fish Industry in Astrakhan city with its branch in Azerbaijan was founded. In the same years top amount of oil was extracted in the Caspian Sea and simultaneously high pollution level of the sea with oil and oil products, having been clearly seen in the Sea-attached Boulevard, was fixed. However, in spite of these unfavorable conditions, the sturgeon harvests, due to their reproduction in the hatcheries and following release into the sea, increased not only in Azerbaijan, but also all over the whole Caspian Sea basin. It is impossible to keep serenity today owing to the fact that broadening of oil extraction in the Caspian Sea for new deposits are situated near to the fattening areas of juveniles of valuable fish species, in the estuary of the Kura river and other small rivers where sex-mature fishes migrate. Besides, the migration ways of sturgeons the North origin pass through these zones: in autumn- from the North to the South, while in early and middle spring- in opposite direction
Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur; Jørgensen, Marianne Willemoes
In spring 2007 a project was carried out at the Arctic Technology Centre in which research of various possibilities of utilizing waste products from fishing and hunting generated in Uummannaq County was performed. Numerous alternatives were identified in the project, which were weighed against...... the specific conditions that apply in Uummannaq County. The best alternatives were evaluated to be biogas production and utilization of fat from the fish waste to produce bio-oil. The results showed that with the price of energy in Greenland in 2009 of 3,71 DKR per kWh, the waste in Uummannaq County would...... amount to approximately 6 million DKR when using biogas production and 5,7 million DKR when using bio-oil. Compared with the energy used in Uummannaq County today, the biogas production would be able to supply 17 percent of the energy and bio-oil production would cover approximately 16 percent....
Hermund, Ditte B; Karadağ, Ayşe; Andersen, Ulf; Jónsdóttir, Rósa; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Jacobsen, Charlotte
Fucus vesiculosus extracts that have both radical scavenging activity and metal chelating ability in vitro were used as natural antioxidant in granola bars enriched with fish oil emulsion by using primary and secondary emulsion systems stabilized by sodium caseinate alone and sodium caseinate-chitosan. The bars were stored at 20 °C and evaluated over a period of 10 weeks by measuring the development of primary and secondary oxidation products. The samples prepared with secondary emulsion system developed less oxidation products probably due to increased interfacial layer thickness that would act as a barrier to the penetration and diffusion of molecular species that promote oxidation. The positive charge of oil droplets in the secondary emulsion may also inhibit iron-lipid interaction through electrostatic repulsion. Additional protection against lipid oxidation was obtained when fish oil emulsions were added to the granola bars especially in combination with acetone and ethanol extracts of Fucus vesiculosus.
Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Sano, Kayo; Shozawa, Chikako; Osaka, Toshimasa; Ezaki, Osamu
Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is a possible target molecule for energy dissipation. Many dietary fats, including safflower oil and lard, induce obesity in C57BL/6 mice, whereas fish oil does not. Fish oil increases UCP2 expression in hepatocytes and may enhance UCP2 activity by activating the UCP2 molecule or altering the lipid bilayer environment. To examine the role of liver UCP2 in obesity, we created transgenic mice that overexpressed human UCP2 in hepatocytes and examined whether UCP2 transgenic mice showed less obesity when fed a high-fat diet (safflower oil or lard). In addition, we examined whether fish oil had antiobesity effects in UCP2 knockout mice. UCP2 transgenic and wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet (safflower oil or lard) developed obesity to a similar degree. UCP2 knockout and wild-type mice fed fish oil had lower rates of obesity than mice fed safflower oil. Remarkably, safflower oil did not induce obesity in female UCP2 knockout mice, an unexpected phenotype for which we presently have no explanation. However, this unexpected effect was not observed in male UCP2 knockout mice or in UCP2 knockout mice fed a high-lard diet. These data indicate that liver UCP2 is not essential for fish oil-induced decreases in body fat.
Full Text Available The regiospecific distribution of fatty acids (FAs and composition of triglyceride (TAG molecular species of fishes were analyzed and calculated by pancreatic lipase (PL hydrolysis and Visual Basic (VB program. DHA was preferentially located at sn-2 position in TAG molecule, whereas EPA was almost equally distributed in each position of glycerol backbone. DOP, DPP, EPP, PoPP, PPO, and PPP were the predominant TAG species. MPP in anchovy, DDP, DOP, DPP in tuna, and EOO and OOO in salmon were the characteristic TAG molecules, which were meaningful to differentiate marine fish oils. Furthermore, the data management, according to TCN and ECN, was firstly applied to classify the TAG molecular species. The ECN42, ECN46, and ECN48 groups were rich in TAGs. The lower ECN values, compared to the higher TCN values, indicated that the most abundant TAGs exhibited a higher unsaturated degree. Therefore, our study not only offered a simple and feasible approach for the analysis of TAG composition but also firstly summarized the information by data management within ECN and TCN.
Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common complication in sepsis. This study compared the effects of a fish oil-based with a mixed oil fat emulsion on remote renal injury in an antibiotic-treated septic murine model. Mice were randomly assigned to a normal control (NC group and three septic groups. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. The antibiotic was injected intraperitoneally (IP after CLP and then daily till the time of sacrifice. Three hours after antibiotic treatment, one of the septic groups was injected IP with a fish oil-based emulsion (FO, while the other two groups were given either a mixed oil emulsion (MO or saline (SC. The septic groups were further divided into two separate time groups, with blood and kidneys samples collected at 24 h or 72 h post-CLP. The results showed that sepsis leads to the activation of neutrophils, T helper (Th1/Th-2/Th-17 and Treg cells (p < 0.05. Plasma NGAL and mRNA expressions of renal MyD88 and TLR4 were also enhanced (p < 0.05. Compared to the SC group, the group given the fish oil-based emulsion had decreased plasma NGAL by 22% and Treg by 33%. Furthermore, renal gene expressions of MyD88 and TLR4 reduced by 46% and 62%, respectively, whereas heat shock protein 70 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ increased by 158% and 69%, respectively (p < 0.05, at Day 3 after CLP. These results suggest that administration of a fish oil-based emulsion has favorable effects, maintaining blood T cell percentage, downregulating Treg expression, attenuating systemic and local inflammation and offering renal protection under conditions of antibiotic-treated polymicrobial sepsis.
Full Text Available Aging enhances frequency of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases or periodontitis. Here we reproduced an age-dependent model of the periodontium, a fully physiological approach to periodontal conditions, to evaluate the impact of dietary fat type on gingival tissue of young (6 months old and old (24 months old rats.Animals were fed life-long on diets based on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA as virgin olive oil, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA, as sunflower oil, or n-3PUFA, as fish oil. Age-related alveolar bone loss was higher in n-6PUFA fed rats, probably as a consequence of the ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Gene expression analysis suggests that MUFA or n-3PUFA allowed mitochondria to maintain an adequate turnover through induction of biogenesis, autophagy and the antioxidant systems, and avoiding mitochondrial electron transport system alterations.The main finding is that the enhanced alveolar bone loss associated to age may be targeted by an appropriate dietary treatment. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are related with an ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Thus, MUFA or n-3PUFA might allow mitochondrial maintaining turnover through biogenesis or autophagy. They might also be able to induce the corresponding antioxidant systems to counteract age-related oxidative stress, and do not inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain. From the nutritional and clinical point of view, it is noteworthy that the potential treatments to attenuate alveolar bone loss (a feature of periodontal disease associated to age could be similar to some of the proposed for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, a group of pathologies recently associated with age-related periodontitis.
Full Text Available Due to its composition of unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, oils and fats are very susceptible to oxidation, with rancidity being one of the main defects. Among the several existing methodologies to monitor oxidation in foods, sensory analysis stands out because of the sensitivity of responses. Accordingly, this study aimed to select and train a panel of expert assessors to identify the rancid flavor, showing the statistical steps in the process. Assessors were selected according to their individual performance, statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s mean comparison, Wald Sequential Analysis and chi-square test. The validation of the trained panel was carried out with the sensory analysis of fish burgers and soybean oil. F Value and box-plot graphic methods were effective for better visualization of results when used along with the mean and standard deviation tables. The final trained panel consisted of seven assessors, who have been able to identify and differentiate rancid taste in both samples used for validation.
Marques, C.; Dos Reis, A.S.; Da Silva, L.D.; Carpes, S.T.; Mitterer-Daltoé, M.L.
Due to its composition of unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, oils and fats are very susceptible to oxidation, with rancidity being one of the main defects. Among the several existing methodologies to monitor oxidation in foods, sensory analysis stands out because of the sensitivity of responses. Accordingly, this study aimed to select and train a panel of expert assessors to identify the rancid flavor, showing the statistical steps in the process. Assessors were selected according to their individual performance, statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s mean comparison, Wald Sequential Analysis and chi-square test. The validation of the trained panel was carried out with the sensory analysis of fish burgers and soybean oil. F Value and box-plot graphic methods were effective for better visualization of results when used along with the mean and standard deviation tables. The final trained panel consisted of seven assessors, who have been able to identify and differentiate rancid taste in both samples used for validation. [es
Full Text Available The present randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-groups clinical trial examined the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells. Healthy adult humans (n = 160 were randomized to receive 6 g of fish oil, 6 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin, 3 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin or a placebo daily for 16 weeks. Treatment with 6 g of fish oil, with or without a daily multivitamin, led to higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA composition at endpoint. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA composition was unchanged following treatment. The long chain LC n-3 PUFA index was only higher, compared to placebo, in the group receiving the combination of 6 g of fish oil and the multivitamin. Analysis by gender revealed that all treatments increased EPA incorporation in females while, in males, EPA was only significantly increased by the 6 g fish oil multivitamin combination. There was considerable individual variability in the red blood cell incorporation of EPA and DHA at endpoint. Gender contributed to a large proportion of this variability with females generally showing higher LC n-3 PUFA composition at endpoint. In conclusion, the incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA into red blood cells was influenced by dosage, the concurrent intake of vitamin/minerals and gender.
A. Y. A. AL-Kindi
Full Text Available Various endocrine and physiological responses of fish exposed to forceful physical and chemical stimuli are reviewed with emphasis on the effects of crude oils and their hydrocarbon constituents. The chemistry and toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons are examined and methods for experimental exposure of fish to crude oil and petroleum hydrocarbons are considered. A variety of blood-borne parameters recognized as reliable tools in determining the relative severity of stress in fish are reviewed. The effects of stress and petroleum hydrocarbons on endocrine responses including changes in plasma catecholamines, corticosteroids, and thyroid hormones are reviewed. The physiological responses: changes in plasma glucose, osmotic and ionic regulation, blood oxygen, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration are explored, and histopathological effects of crude oil on fish are reviewed. Recent studies of the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on fish larvae are considered and the increased sensitivity of the early life stages of fish are highlighted.
Fustier, Patrick; Achouri, Allaoua; Taherian, Ali R; Britten, Michel; Pelletier, Marylène; Sabik, Hassan; Villeneuve, Sébastien; Mondor, Martin
The impact of whey protein isolate (WPI) and fish gelatin (FG) deposited sequentially at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 0.75% on the surface of primary oil-in-water emulsions containing 5% flaxseed oil stabilized with either 0.5% fish gelatin or whey protein, respectively, was investigated. The results revealed that the adsorption of WPI/FG or FG/WPI complexes to the emulsion interface led to the formation of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions with different stabilities and different protection degrees of the flaxseed oil. Deposition of FG on the WPI primary emulsion increased the particle size (from 0.53 to 1.58 μm) and viscosity and decreased electronegativity (from -23.91 to -11.15 mV) of the complexes. Different trends were noted with the deposition of WPI on the FG primary emulsion, resulting in decreasing particle size and increasing electronegativity and viscosity to a lower extent. Due to the superior tension-active property of WPI, the amount of protein load in the WPI primary emulsion as well as in WPI/FG complex was significantly higher than the FG counterparts. A multilayer emulsion made with 0.5% WPI/0.75% FG exhibited the lowest oxidation among all of the multilayered emulsions tested (0.32 ppm of hexanal) after 21 days, likely due to the charge effect of FG that may prevent pro-oxidant metals to interact with the flaxseed oil.
Boespflug, E L; McNamara, R K; Eliassen, J C; Schidler, M D; Krikorian, R
To determine the effects of long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids found in fish oil, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on cortical blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity during a working memory task in older adults with subjective memory impairment. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Academic medical center. Healthy older adults (62-80 years) with subjective memory impairment, but not meeting criteria for mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Fish oil (EPA+DHA: 2.4 g/d, n=11) or placebo (corn oil, n=10) for 24 weeks. Cortical BOLD response patterns during performance of a sequential letter n-back working memory task were determined at baseline and week 24 by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). At 24 weeks erythrocyte membrane EPA+DHA composition increased significantly from baseline in participants receiving fish oil (+31%, p ≤ 0.0001) but not placebo (-17%, p=0.06). Multivariate modeling of fMRI data identified a significant interaction among treatment, visit, and memory loading in the right cingulate (BA 23/24), and in the right sensorimotor area (BA 3/4). In the fish oil group, BOLD increases at 24 weeks were observed in the right posterior cingulate and left superior frontal regions during memory loading. A region-of-interest analysis indicated that the baseline to endpoint change in posterior cingulate cortex BOLD activity signal was significantly greater in the fish oil group compared with the placebo group during the 1-back (p=0.0003) and 2-back (p=0.0005) conditions. Among all participants, the change in erythrocyte EPA+DHA during the intervention was associated with performance in the 2-back working memory task (p = 0.01), and with cingulate BOLD signal during the 1-back (p = 0.005) with a trend during the 2-back (p = 0.09). Further, cingulate BOLD activity was related to performance in the 2-back condition. Dietary fish oil supplementation increases red blood cell omega-3 content
Cynthia Q. Sun
Full Text Available Enzymatic conjugation with fatty acids including omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs derived from fish oil to three citrus fruit-derived flavonoids: grapefruit extract, naringin, and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone were investigated. The conversions were achieved over 85% under the catalysis of lipase Novozyme 435 in acetone at 45°C at semi-preparative scale. The conjugates were purified via solvent partition and silica gel chromatography and achieved 90–98% in purity. The NMR analysis of the conjugates confirmed that the fatty acid carbon chain was linked onto the primary –OH group on the glucose moiety of the flavonoids. The purified flavonoid conjugates alongside their original flavonoids were analyzed for antioxidant activities via 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay, and anti-peroxidation test via peroxide values measured during a 1-week fish oil storage trial. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF assay was conducted with 1, 10, and 100 μM of naringin and grapefruits and their conjugates, respectively, and total VEGF levels were measured at 24 and 48 h, respectively, using ELISA and dot blot analysis. The results from these functionality experiments demonstrated that flavonoid FA conjugates have at least comparable (if not higher antioxidant activity, anti-peroxidation activity, and anti-angiogenic activity.
evident that the continued exploitation of industrial fish as a resource fish feed will ultimately become both environmentally and economically unsustainable. Microalgae are at the base of the entire aquatic food chain and play a major role in the diet of aquatic animals such as fish. Microalgae’s main...... application for aquaculture are related to nutrition, being used as a sole fresh feed or an additive, e.g. source of pigment. Algae produce almost all nutritious compounds which are required for fish. The diverse biochemical composition of microalgae represents them as a promising candidate...... for the formulation of fish feed. The nutritional composition of microalgae depends on the species, environmental conditions and growth medium composition. Microalgae for use in aquaculture should be non-toxic and possess the essential nutritive constituents, in a reasonable price. Photosynthetic production of algae...
Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Belenguer, A; Rouel, J; Hervás, G; Chilliard, Y; Frutos, P
Direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression (MFD) in the bovine reveals relevant species-by-diet interactions in ruminal lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer potential mechanisms responsible for differences in the rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5.3% sunflower oil and additional starch (+38%; SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 25-d experimental periods. On the last day of each period, fatty acid composition (by gas chromatography) and bacterial community (by terminal-RFLP), as well as fermentation characteristics, were measured in rumen fluid samples. Results showed significant differences in the response of cows and goats to dietary treatments, although variations in some fermentation parameters (e.g., decreases in the acetate-to-propionate ratio due to FO or SOS) were similar in both species. Main alterations in ruminal BH pathways potentially responsible for MFD on the SOS diet (i.e., the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 18:1 and related increases in trans-10,cis-12 18:2) tended to be more pronounced in cows, which is consistent with an associated MFD only in this species. However, changes linked to FO-induced MFD (e.g., decreases in 18:0 and increases in total trans-18:1) were stronger in caprine rumen fluid, which may explain their unexpected susceptibility (although less marked than in bovine) to the negative effect of FO on milk fat content. Altogether, these results suggest that distinct ruminal mechanisms lead to each type of diet-induced MFD and confirm a pronounced interaction with species. With regard to microbiota, differences between cows and goats in the composition of the rumen bacterial community might be behind the disparity in the microorganisms
Jones, F.V.; Rushing, J.H.; Churan, M.A.
One of the major factors concerning oil-wet cuttings discharges in the long-term effect on the aquatic environment. This paper investigates the survival and growth of the mud minnow, Fundulus grandis, when exposed to different concentrations of mineral oil-wet and synthetic liquid-wet cuttings in flow-through bioassay chambers. The test fluids were a low aromatic mineral oil-based mud (MOBM) and a synthetic liquid-based mud (SBM). Each test fluid was added to a container of dried water-based cuttings which contained minimum hydrocarbons. The fluid and cuttings were mixed to obtain the desired test concentrations. The study tested three concentrations (1%, 5%, and 8.4% by dry weight) of each fluid on the cuttings. Growth rates during the 3-day period were modest with fish in 1% MOBM losing weight. The highest percent growth rates were obtained with fish cultured in 5% SBM and the controls. However, overall growth was not significantly different between treatments. Mean growth did show a significant difference between controls and 5% SBM, and other treatments. The cuttings of the 5% and 8.4% concentrations of both treatments looked like paste. These pastes may have slowed the movement of organics off of the cuttings beds and affected biodegradability and growth rates. Cuttings in the controls and 1% concentrations stayed suspended in the water column longer when disturbed and looked more like loose gravel. Uptake of the MOBM occurred in the internal organs and tissue of fish. No such uptake was observed in the fish tissue with the SBM; a very low level of synthetic liquid was detected in one gut sample only. This may be the major reason for the variations noted in growth rates. Fish mortality during the study was related to the buildup of anaerobic conditions and insufficient aeration. Fish survival for the entire study was 94%
Rasmy, G. E.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of fish oil supplementation in male wistar rat colon carcinogenesis. In order to induce colon cancer, the rats were given a weekly subcutaneous injection of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w. for five weeks. Afterwards, some of the rats ingested fish oil for either 4 weeks (DMH-FO4 group, or 17 weeks (DMH-FO17 group. The remaining rats continued without any supplementation for the same 4 weeks (DMH4 group, or 17 weeks (DMH17 group. Another two groups of rats did not receive the DMH and were given fish oil (FO17 group or a normal diet only and considered as the control group (CN group. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed; and were subsequently subjected to biochemical and molecular biological analyses as well as histopathological examinations. The results showed increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, malondialdehyde (MDA and alkaline phoshatase (ALP activities in the DMH rats compared to the control. The liver and colonic changes that were induced by DMH were significantly improved through fish oil supplementation in the DMH-FO17 group. The molecular analysis revealed that DMH treatment induced the expression alterations of genes p53, p27 and p21 and increased DNA band patterns related to cancer, while both FO17 and DMH-FO17 groups showed much better results. A histopathological examination of the DMH17 group revealed colon adenocarcinoma and several lesions in rat liver tissues. An improvement in the histopathological picture was seen in the livers and colons of groups DMHFO17. In conclusion, the present results demonstrated the anti-carciongenic effect of herring fish oil against DMH induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. The inhibitory effect of FO was due to the modulation of elevated biochemical parameters, DNA damage, gene expression and histopathological lesions caused by DMH.
Este estudio fue realizado para examinar la eficacia de la
Kairenius, P; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Muetzel, S; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Wallace, R J; Shingfield, K J
Fish oil (FO) alters ruminal biohydrogenation causing trans fatty acid (FA) intermediates to accumulate, but the effects of 18-carbon polyunsaturated FA supply on ruminal long-chain FA metabolism and microbial communities in cattle fed FO are not well established. Four cows fitted with rumen cannula were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square with 21-d experimental periods to evaluate the effects of FO alone or in combination with plant oils high in 18:2n-6 or 18:3n-3 on rumen microbial ecology and flow of FA at the omasum. Treatments comprised a basal grass silage-based diet containing no additional oil (control) or supplements of FO (200 g/d) or FO (200 g/d) plus 500 g/d of sunflower oil (SFO) or linseed oil (LFO). Flow of FA was determined using the omasal sampling technique. The relative abundance of key biohydrogenating bacteria was assessed by quantitative PCR on 16S rRNA genes in omasal digesta. Fish oil-supplemented treatments increased the amounts of trans-18:1, trans-18:2, and 20- to 22-carbon polyunsaturated FA escaping the rumen. Relative to the control, oil supplements had no effect on the amount of 18:0 leaving the rumen, but LFO decreased the flow of 18:0 at the omasum compared with SFO. Both SFO and LFO increased trans-18:1 relative to FO, whereas LFO resulted in the highest trans-18:2 and 20- to 22-carbon FA flow. Supplements of FO plus plant oils shifted biohydrogenation toward trans-10 18:1 formation. Compared with FO alone, the ruminal metabolism of 22:6n-3 in the rumen of lactating cows is more extensive on diets containing higher amounts of 18-carbon polyunsaturated FA. However, the biohydrogenation of 22:5n-3 was less extensive in LFO than SFO, but showed no difference between FO and diets containing plant oils. Ruminal outflow of 20:5n-3 was not altered when plant oils were added to FO. Alterations in the amount of intermediates at the omasum or ruminal biohydrogenation pathways were not accompanied by major changes in analyzed bacterial populations
Full Text Available In the presented study for the first time a new, optimized, fast SFC (supercritical fluid chromatography method was applied to separate in one run fat-soluble vitamins from waste fish oil, including cis-and trans-retinyl palmitate, cis- and trans-retinyl acetate, retinol, α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, γ‑tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, ergocalciferol (D2, cholecalciferol (D3, cis- and trans-phylloquinone (K1 and menaquinone-4 (K2-MK4. Vitamins were baseline separated on an Acquity UPC2 (ultra performance convergence chromatography HSS C18 SB (highly strength chemically modified silica column within 13 min. The influence of the stationary phase, such as Torus 1-AA (1-aminoanthracene, Torus Diol (high density diol, Torus DEA (diethylamine, BEH (silica with no bonding, BEH-2EP (2-ethylpirydine, CSH Fluoro-Phenyl (silica with fluoro-phenyl groups, column temperature, flow rate and back pressure on the separation of the compounds was described. The application of the modified saponification procedure allowed us to increase concentration in the sample prepared for the analysis of γ‑tocopherol from less than 1% (wt % to 14% for the first time. In addition, α‑tocopherol, γ‑tocopherol, δ‑tocopherol and retinol were identified in waste fish oil. Vitamin purification and analysis in waste fish oil are reported for the first time here. Due to the short time and effectiveness of the proposed method, it can be easily applied in industrial processes.
Full Text Available Fish supplies more than 87% of the animal protein in Nigeria, and more than 90% of coastal communities depend solely on fishing and fisheries related activities for their survival. Available information however, shows that Nigeria's inland water bodies are producing less than 13% of their estimated fishery potential. And domestic demand for fish has never been met by dependence on output from available aquatic sources. Nigeria therefore imports over US$ 200 million worth of frozen fish per annum. The capacity of artisanal fisheries to play its role of bridging this food gap, providing employment and generating income, particularly for the coastal communities in Nigeria, will largely depend on the adoption of appropriate management strategies that will ensure efficiency and sustainability given their debilitating oil pollution environment. This study employed a Cobb- Douglas stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and its determinants among these households. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 160 respondents from whom input-output data, prices and socioeconomic characteristics were obtained. The results of the analysis showed that individual levels of economic efficiency ranged from 0.10 - 0.96 with a mean of 0.68. While age, household size and number of fishing trips made in a week decreased, access to credit, membership of co-operative society, and oil spill increased, significantly, the respondents' level of economic inefficiency. These observations particularly suggest that the farmers were yet to harness the potentials of farm credit and membership of cooperative societies in their farm business, perhaps as a result of poverty. We recommend training workshops and seminars to remedy this. There is also the need for policies that could compel oil companies to minimize oil spill within the farmers' fishing environment. The adverse effects of oil spill on the environment and the
Davis Phillip J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP plays a major role in regulating the levels of LDL- and HDL-cholesterol. We previously observed a fish-oil-induced elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL-and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-cholesterol concentrations and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol concentration in F1B hamsters. The molecular mechanism/s by which fish oil induces hyperlipidaemic effect was investigated in this study. We examined whether the effects of dietary fish oil on plasma lipoprotein concentrations are due to fish-oil-induced alterations in plasma CETP activity. MIX diet, a diet supplemented with a mixture of lard and safflower oil, was used as the control diet. Results We found that fish oil feeding in hamsters reduced CETP mass as well as CETP activity. Increasing the dietary fat level of fish-oil from 5% to 20% (w/w led to a further decrease in CETP mass. Supplementation with dietary cholesterol increased both CETP mass and CETP activity in fish-oil and MIX-diet fed hamsters. However, there was no correlation between CETP mass as well as CETP activity and LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Conclusion These findings suggest that cholesterol ester transfer between HDL and LDL is not likely to play a major role in determining fish-oil-induced changes in LDL- and HDL-cholesterol concentrations in F1B hamsters. A possible role of reduced clearance of LDL-particles as well as dietary fat level and dietary cholesterol dependent changes in LDL-lipid composition have been discussed.
Simplice, Mouokeu Raymond; Macaire, Womeni Hilaire; Hervé, Njike Ngamga Fabrice; Fabrice, Tonfack Djikeng; Justin, Djopnang DJimbie; François, Tchoumbougnang; Jules-Roger, Kuiate
Oils of fish origin are a very rich source of Omega - 3 and Omega - 6 fatty acids. They have been suggested to provide numerous health benefits for humans involving antimicrobial properties. Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Hepsetus odoe are two fishes well known in Cameroon. The chemical composition and the antibacterial activity of these fishes derived oils are unknown. The study was designed to valorise C. nigrodigitatus and H.s odoe oils activity against food poisoning bacteria. Oils were extracted by pressing and maceration methods. Their quality was assessed by analysing quality indexes including peroxides, acid, iodine, anisidine and thiobarbituric acid values. Chemical analysis was established by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by broth microdilution method. C. nigrodigitatus oil obtained by maceration exhibited highest acid (7.33 ± 0.00 mg KOH/g), anisidine (34.5 ± 1.84) and thiobarbituric acid (7.50 ± 0.30 μmol MDA/Kg) values compared to that obtained by pressing method (9.13 ± 0.64 and 6.72 ± 0.34 μmol MDA/Kg) respectively. H. odoe oil obtained by pressing method showed highest peroxide value (6.22 ± 1.31 meq O 2 /kg). Oil chemical analysis revealed long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of the ω-3 family: linolenic acid (C18:3); eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6) and ω-6 family; arachidonic acid (C20:4). In addition, C. nigrodigitatus oil obtained by pressing and maceration methods showed Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) values ranging from 32 to 64 mg/ml. H. odoe oil obtained by pressing method revealed MIC values ranging between 8 and 64 mg/ml. C. nigrodigitatus and H. odoe oils have activity against food poisoning bacteria, due to their chemical composition.
Hong, Mee Young; Turner, Nancy D; Murphy, Mary E; Carroll, Raymond J; Chapkin, Robert S; Lupton, Joanne R
We have shown that dietary fish oil is protective against experimentally induced colon cancer, and the protective effect is enhanced by coadministration of pectin. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We hypothesized that fish oil with butyrate, a pectin fermentation product, protects against colon cancer initiation by decreasing cell proliferation and increasing differentiation and apoptosis through a p27(Kip1)-mediated mechanism. Rats were provided diets of corn or fish oil, with/without butyrate, and terminated 12, 24, or 48 hours after azoxymethane (AOM) injection. Proliferation (Ki-67), differentiation (Dolichos Biflorus Agglutinin), apoptosis (TUNEL), and p27(Kip1) (cell-cycle mediator) were measured in the same cell within crypts in order to examine the coordination of cell cycle as a function of diet. DNA damage (N(7)-methylguanine) was determined by quantitative IHC analysis. Dietary fish oil decreased DNA damage by 19% (P = 0.001) and proliferation by 50% (P = 0.003) and increased differentiation by 56% (P = 0.039) compared with corn oil. When combined with butyrate, fish oil enhanced apoptosis 24 hours after AOM injection compared with a corn oil/butyrate diet (P = 0.039). There was an inverse relationship between crypt height and apoptosis in the fish oil/butyrate group (r = -0.53, P = 0.040). The corn oil/butyrate group showed a positive correlation between p27(Kip1) expression and proliferation (r = 0.61, P = 0.035). These results indicate the in vivo effect of butyrate on apoptosis and proliferation is dependent on dietary lipid source. These results demonstrate the presence of an early coordinated colonocyte response by which fish oil and butyrate protects against colon tumorigenesis. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
A Randomized Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial Investigating the Effect of Fish Oil Supplementation on Gene Expression Related to Insulin Action, Blood Lipids, and Inflammation in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus-Fish Oil Supplementation and Gestational Diabetes
Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a common complication of pregnancy, and it is mostly associated with postpartum diabetes, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Fish oil (omega-3 supplementation has been shown to reduce the risk of different chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancers, though the evidence of its impact on gestational diabetes is scarce. Our goal in this study was to determine the effect of fish oil administration on gene expression related to insulin action, blood lipids, and inflammation in women with GDM. Participants with GDM (n = 40, aged 18–40 years, were randomized to take either 1000 mg fish oil capsules, containing 180 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 120 mg docosahexaenoic acid (n = 20, or placebo (n = 20 twice a day for 6 weeks. Gene expression related to insulin, lipids, and inflammation was quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of GDM women using Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR method. Results of RT-PCR indicated that omega-3 supplementation upregulated gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ (P = 0.04 in PBMCs of patients with GDM, compared with the placebo. In addition, gene expression of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR (P < 0.001, interleukin-1 (IL-1 (P = 0.007, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α (P = 0.01 was downregulated in PBMCs of women with GDM, following omega-3 supplementation. No significant effect of omega-3 supplementation was indicated on gene expression of IL-8 in PBMCs of patients with GDM. Overall, fish oil supplementation for 6 weeks in women with GDM significantly improved gene expression of PPAR-γ, IL-1, and TNF-α, but not gene expression of IL-8.
Stanley, D.R.; Wilson, C.A.
The impact of oil and gas development on fish populations off Louisiana is presumed significant but poorly understood. This study was undertaken to determine the applicability of a logbook program in developing a long-term database of species composition and relative abundance of fish associated with oil and gas structures. A pilot logbook program involving 120 private vessel owners and 25 charterboat operators was conducted between March 1987 and December 1988. Participants recorded date, fishing time, fishing method, number of anglers, and catch composition at each structure fished. Logbooks from a total of 55 private vessel owners and 10 charterboat operators were used in the analysis. Data collected included 15,780 angler hours of fishing effort and 61,227 fish caught over the study period. A total of 1,719 trips were made to 589 different oil and gas structures with at least 46 different species of fish caught. Red snapper and spotted seatrout were the most commonly caught species and had the highest catch rates. Results differed from past logbook programs and creel surveys, possibly indicating a change in the community of fish associated with oil and gas structures
Claisse, J.; Pondella, D.; Love, M.; Zahn, L.; Williams, C.; Bull, A. S.
When oil and gas platforms become obsolete they go through a decommissioning process. This may include partial removal (from the surface to 26 m depth) or complete removal of the platform structure. While complete removal would likely eliminate most of the existing fish biomass and associated secondary production, we find that the potential impacts of partial removal would likely be limited on all but one platform off the coast of California. On average 80% of fish biomass and 86% of secondary fish production would be retained after partial removal, with above 90% retention expected for both metrics on many platforms. Partial removal would likely result in the loss of fish biomass and production for species typically found residing in the shallow portions of the platform structure. However, these fishes generally represent a small proportion of the fishes associated with these platforms. More characteristic of platform fauna are the primarily deeper-dwelling rockfishes (genus Sebastes). "Shell mounds" are biogenic reefs that surround some of these platforms resulting from an accumulation of mollusk shells that have fallen from the shallow areas of the platforms mostly above the depth of partial removal. We found that shell mounds are moderately productive fish habitats, similar to or greater than natural rocky reefs in the region at comparable depths. The complexity and areal extent of these biogenic habitats, and the associated fish biomass and production, will likely be reduced after either partial or complete platform removal. Habitat augmentation by placing the partially removed platform superstructure or some other additional habitat enrichment material (e.g., rock boulders) on the seafloor adjacent to the base of partially removed platforms provides additional options to enhance fish production, potentially mitigating reductions in shell mound habitat.
Population estimates were calculated for four fish species occurring at offshore oil and gas structures in water depths of 14-32 m off the Louisiana and upper Texas coasts in the US Gulf of Mexico. From 1993-1999 sampling was conducted at eight offshore platforms in conjunction with explosive salvage of the structures. To estimate fish population size prior to detonation of explosives, a fish mark-recapture study was conducted. Fish were captured on rod and reel using assorted hook sizes. Traps were occasionally used to supplement catches. Fish were tagged below the dorsal fin with plastic t-bar tags using tagging guns. Only fish that were alive and in good condition were released. Recapture sampling was conducted after explosives were detonated during salvage operations. Personnel operating from inflatable boats used dip nets to collect all dead fish that floated to the surface. Divers collected representative samples of dead fish that sank to the sea floor. Data provided estimates for red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), Atlantic spadefish (Chaetodipterus faber), gray triggerfish (Balistes capriscus), and blue runner (Caranx crysos) at one or more of the eight platforms studied. At seven platforms, population size for red snapper was calculated at 503-1,943 with a 95% CI of 478. Abundance estimates for Atlantic spadefish at three platforms ranged from 1,432-1,782 with a 95% CI of 473. At three platforms, population size of gray triggerfish was 63-129 with a 95% CI of 82. Blue runner abundance at one platform was 558. Unlike the other three species which occur close to the platforms, blue runner range widely and recapture of this species was dependent on fish schools being in close proximity to the platform at the time explosives were detonated. Tag recapture was as high as 73% for red snapper at one structure studied.
Osadnik, Kamila; Jaworska, Joanna
Study results indicate that a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 (PUFA n-3) exerts favorable effect on human health, accounting for reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PUFA n-3 contained in marine fish oils, particularly eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6 n-3) acids, are attributed antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-arrhythmic effects. They have also beneficial effects on cognitive functions and immunological mechanisms of an organism. Considering the fact that marine fish are not abundant in Western diet, the pharmaceutical industry reacts with a broad selection of PUFA n-3 containing dietary supplements and drugs. Increased consumers' interest with those products has been observed recently. Therefore, their quality, understood as reliability of manufacturer's declaration of composition of offered dietary supplements, is highly important. We have tested 22 products available in pharmacies and supermarkets, manufacturers of which declared content of n-3 fatty acids (21 dietary supplements and I drug). Identity and content of DHA and EPA were assessed using ¹H NMR spectroscopy, based on characteristic signals from protons in methylene groups. Almost one in five of the examined dietary supplements contains content was consistent with the actual composition. It is notable that more cases of discrepancy between the declared and the actual content regarded DHA than EPA, which indicates a less favorable balance, considering the pro-health effect of those acids. Over a half of tested products provides the supplementary dose (250 mg/day) with one capsule taken daily, and in 27% of cases the daily dosage should be doubled. Only 10% of those products ensure the appropriate dose for cardiovascular patients (1 g/day) with the use of I capsule a day. Correct information provided by a manufacturer on a label regarding the total amount of DHA and EPA is a basis for selection of an appropriate
José F. Guzmán
Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 has shown to improve neuromotor function. This study examined the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA on complex reaction time, precision and efficiency, in female elite soccer players. 24 players from two Spanish female soccer Super League teams were randomly selected and assigned to two experimental groups, then administered, in a double-blind manner, 3.5 g·day-1 of either DHA-rich fish oil (FO =12 or olive oil (OO = 12 over 4 weeks of training. Two measurements (pre- and post-treatment of complex reaction time and precision were taken. Participants had to press different buttons and pedals with left and right hands and feet, or stop responding, according to visual and auditory stimuli. Multivariate analysis of variance displayed an interaction between supplement administration (pre/post and experimental group (FO/OO on complex reaction time (FO pre = 0.713 ± 0.142 ms, FO post = 0.623 ± 0.109 ms, OO pre = 0.682 ± 1.132 ms, OO post = 0.715 ± 0.159 ms; p = 0.004 and efficiency (FO pre = 40.88 ± 17.41, FO post = 57.12 ± 11.05, OO pre = 49.52 ± 14.63, OO post = 49. 50 ± 11.01; p = 0.003. It was concluded that after 4 weeks of supplementation with FO, there was a significant improvement in the neuromotor function of female elite soccer players
Shimajiri, Junki; Shiota, Makoto; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo
The effects of milk phospholipids (PLs), sphingolipids (SLs), and their sphingoid backbone on the oxidation of fish oil triacylglycerol (TAG) were examined with or without α-tocopherol. All compounds had little effect on the TAG oxidation in the absence of α-tocopherol. On the other hand, they could act synergistically with α-tocopherol. The highest synergistic activity was shown by sphingoid bases, followed by sphingomyelin (SPM) and other amine-containing PLs and SLs. This result showed that the synergistic activity increased with an increasing concentration of amine group of PLs, SLs, or sphingoid bases in the reaction mixture. The comparison of changes in α-tocopherol content in fish oil TAG and tricaprylin suggested that antioxidant compounds would be formed from the amine group and the lipid oxidation products in a mild oxidation condition controlled by α-tocopherol.
Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall
The oxidative stabilities of traditional fish oil (FO), randomized lipids (RFO), or specific structured lipids (SFO) produced from fish oil were compared when incorporated into either milk drink or mayonnaise. Furthermore, the effect of adding the potential antioxidants EDTA (240 mg...... not be ascribed to a single factor, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipids and differences in the processes used to produce and purify the lipids. In milk drinks based on SFO, EDTA slightly reduced oxidation, while lactoferrin did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect....../kg) or lactoferrin (1000 mg/kg) to the milk drink based on SFO was investigated. The lipid type significantly affected the oxidative stability of both mayonnaises and milk drinks: The oxidative stability decreased in the order RFO>FO>SFO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SFO food emulsions could...
Vanschoonbeek, Kristof; Feijge, Marion A H; Saris, Wim H M
fish-oil effects. In study 1, 54 overweight subjects consumed 3.1 g (n-3) PUFA daily. In study 2, which involved 42 overweight patients with type 2 diabetes, 20 subjects consumed (n-3) PUFA, whereas 22 others ingested a preparation rich in (n-6) PUFA. Tissue factor-induced thrombin generation (thrombin...... potential) was determined as an integrated measure of plasma coagulant activity. In both studies, multivariate analysis indicated a strong clustering of fasting concentrations of triacylglycerols, prothrombin, factor V, factor VII, and factor X with one another at baseline. This cluster of factors......-induced lowering of triacylglycerol and coagulation factor V, VII, and X concentrations, and thrombin generation. We conclude that high fasting triacylglycerol concentrations predict high procoagulant activity and a lowering of thrombin potential with dietary fish oil....
Sorokin, Alexander V.; Yang, Zhi-Hong; Vaisman, Boris L.; Thacker, Seth; Yu, Zu-Xi; Sampson, Maureen; Serhan, Charles N.; Remaley, Alan T.
Aspirin (ASA) is known to alter the production of potent inflammatory lipid mediators, but whether it interacts with omega-3 fatty acids (FA) from fish oil to affect atherosclerosis has not been determined. The goal was to investigate the impact of a fish oil enriched diet alone and in combination with ASA on the production of lipid mediators and atherosclerosis. ApoE−/− female mice were fed for 13 weeks one of the four following diets: Omega-3 FA deficient (OD), Omega-3 FA Rich (OR) (1.8 g Omega-3 FAs/kg • diet per day), Omega-3 FA Rich plus ASA (ORA) (0.1 g ASA/kg • diet per day), or an Omega-3 FA deficient plus ASA (ODA) with supplement levels equivalent to human doses. Plasma lipids, atherosclerosis, markers of inflammation, hepatic gene expression and aortic lipid mediators were determined. Hepatic omega-3 FAs were markedly higher in OR (9.9-fold) and ORA (7-fold) groups. Mice in both OR and ORA groups had 40% less plasma cholesterol in VLDL and LDL fractions, but aortic plaque area formation was only significantly lower in the ORA group (5.5%) compared to the OD group (2.5%). Plasma PCSK9 protein levels were approximately 70% lower in the OR and ORA groups. Pro-inflammatory aortic lipid mediators were 50–70% lower in the ODA group than in the OD group and more than 50% lower in the ORA group. In summary, less aortic plaque lesions and aortic pro-inflammatory lipid mediators were observed in mice on the fish oil diet plus ASA versus just the fish oil diet. PMID:27394692
Jung, Jee-Hyun; Chae, Young Sun; Kim, Ha Na; Kim, Moonkoo; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; Han, Gi Myung; An, Joon Geon; Kim, Eunsic; Shim, Won Joon
This study describes the spatial variation and the duration of the impacts from the Hebei Spirit oil spill using specific biochemical indices in resident benthic fish. Enzymatic activities and biliary PAHs metabolites were higher at the site closer to the spill area in four months after spill incident. Regarding our results of detoxification response, markers of Phase I followed a similar trend in accordance with levels of biliary metabolites, while markers of phase II and GST appeared relatively unchanged.
Yuan, Fahu; Wang, Hualin; Tian, Yu; Li, Qi; He, Lei; Li, Na; Liu, Zhiguo
Intake of fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is believed to be beneficial against development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study was to gain further understanding of the potential mechanisms of the protective effects of fish oil against NAFLD. Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control diet (CON), a Western style high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (WD), or a WD diet containing fish oil (FOH) for 16 weeks respectively. The development of liver steatosis and fibrosis were verified by histological and biochemical examination. Hepatic transcriptome were extracted for RNA-seq analysis, and particular results were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The consumption of fish oil significantly ameliorated WD-induced dyslipidemia, transaminase elevation, hepatic steatosis, inflammatory infiltration, and fibrosis. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis showed that long-term intake of fish oil restored the expression of circadian clock-related genes per2 and per3, which were reduced in WD fed animals. Fish oil consumption also corrected the expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism, such as Srebf1, Fasn, Scd1, Insig2, Cd36, Cyp7a1, Abcg5, Abcg8 and Pcsk9. Moreover, the expression levels of pro-inflammation genes Mcp1, Socs2, Sema4a, and Cd44 in the FOH group were lower than that of WD group, implying that fish oil protects the liver against WD-induced hepatic inflammation. The present study demonstrates fish oil protects against WD-induced NALFD via improving lipid metabolism and ameliorating hepatic inflammation. Our findings add to the current understanding on the benefits of n-3 PUFAs against NAFLD.
Muñoz, Monica A; Liu, Wei; Delaney, Joseph A C; Brown, Elizabeth; Mugavero, Michael J; Mathews, W Chris; Napravnik, Sonia; Willig, James H; Eron, Joseph J; Hunt, Peter W; Kahn, James O; Saag, Michael S; Kitahata, Mari M; Crane, Heidi M
The goal of this study was to compare the effectiveness of fish oil, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, and atorvastatin on reducing triglyceride (TG) levels among a large cohort of HIV-infected patients in clinical care. Retrospective observational cohort study. The primary endpoint was absolute change in TG levels measured using the last TG value pretreatment and the first TG value posttreatment. A pre-post quasi-experimental design was used to estimate the change in TG because of initiating fish oil. Linear regression models examined the comparative effectiveness of treatment with fish oil versus gemfibrozil, fenofibrate, or atorvastatin for TG reduction. Models were adjusted for baseline differences in age, sex, race, CD4⁺ cell count, diabetes, body mass index, protease inhibitor use, and time between TG measures. A total of 493 patients (mean age, 46 years; 95% male) were included (46 patients receiving gemfibrozil; 80, fenofibrate; 291, atorvastatin; and 76, fish oil) with a mean baseline TG of 347 mg/dL. New use of fish oil decreased TG [ΔTG, -45 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval (CI): -80 to -11] in the pre-post study. Compared with fish oil (reference), fibrates were more effective (ΔTG, -66; 95% CI: -120 to -12) in reducing TG levels, whereas atorvastatin was not (ΔTG, -39; 95% CI: -86 to 9). In HIV-infected patients in routine clinical care, fish oil is less effective than fibrates (but not atorvastatin) at lowering TG values. Fish oil may still represent an attractive alternative for patients with moderately elevated TGs, particularly among patients who may not want or tolerate fibrates.
Full Text Available One source of ω-3 fatty acids is a by-product of lemuru canning processing that can be used for fortification. Generally, fortification uses fish oil microcapsule but it is more expensive than direct fortification. In this study, fish oil from a by-product of lemuru canning processing was directly fortified into beef meatball and chicken nugget at concentration of 0, 2, 4, and 6% (w/w. Oxidation level, free fatty acid content, colour, lightness, texture, and sensory acceptance by triangle difference test were analyzed. The results showed that oxidation level of nugget was higher than meatball. Free fatty acid content increased in nugget by increasing fortification level, but it was decrease in meatball. Texture of both was relatively unchanged, with a tendency to increase in nugget and decrease in meatball. Lightness (L of meatball surface was higher than nugget surface. Lightness did not significantly change by increasing fortification level. Redness (+a and yellowness (+b of meatball and nugget changed significantly by fortification. Difference test showed that fortification level of 2% was the highest level of fortification that taste and odor could not be distinguished with control by panelists. Best level of fish oil fortification was 2%. At 2% fortification, EPA was 2.85% for meatball, and 2.22% for nugget. Sharp decline was occured in EPA and the decrease washigher in nugget than meatball.
Full Text Available A number of trials have been undertaken to assess whether the intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA during pregnancy can influence the neurological development of the offspring, yet no consensus from these trials has been reached. We aimed to investigate the long-term effects (12 years of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on neurodevelopment, including cognition, language and fine motor skills. In a follow up of a previously published randomised controlled trial of 98 pregnant women, their children were assessed at 12 years of age using a battery of neurodevelopmental assessments. Fifty participants were assessed at 12 years, with 25 participant’s mothers receiving fish oil supplementation, and 25 receiving control capsules. There were no significant differences for any of the assessment measures completed. Our data indicate that fish oil supplementation during pregnancy does not influence the cognition, language or fine motor skills of children in late primary school (12 years of age.
Ramesha, D. K.; Thimmannachar, Rajiv K.; Simhasan, R.; Nagappa, Manjunath; Gowda, P. M.
Bio-fuel is a clean burning fuel made from natural renewable energy resource; it operates in C. I. engine similar to the petroleum diesel. The rising cost of diesel and the danger caused to the environment has led to an intensive and desperate search for alternative fuels. Among them, animal fats like the fish oil have proven to be a promising substitute to diesel. In this experimental study, A computerized 4-stroke, single cylinder, constant speed, direct injection diesel engine was operated on fish oil-biodiesel of different blends. Three different blends of 10, 20, and 30 % by volume were used for this study. Various engine performance, combustion and emission parameters such as Brake Thermal Efficiency, Brake Specific Fuel Consumption, Heat Release Rate, Peak Pressure, Exhaust Gas Temperature, etc. were recorded from the acquired data. The data was recorded with the help of an engine analysis software. The recorded parameters were studied for varying loads and their corresponding graphs have been plotted for comparison purposes. Petroleum Diesel has been used as the reference. From the properties and engine test results it has been established that fish oil biodiesel is a better replacement for diesel without any engine modification.
Mariana Bocca Nejm
Full Text Available Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP is a major cause of premature death related to epilepsy. The causes of SUDEP remain unknown, but cardiac arrhythmias and asphyxia have been suggested as a major mechanism of this event. Inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of both epilepsy and ventricular arrhythmia, with interleukin-6 (IL-6 being recognized as a crucial orchestrator of inflammatory states. Our group previously reported that levels of IL-6 were increased in the hearts of epileptic rats. In this scenario, anti-inflammatory actions are among the beneficial effects of fish oil dietary supplementation. This investigation revealed that elevated levels of IL-6 in the heart were markedly reduced in epileptic rats that were treated in the long-term with fish oil, suggesting protective anti-inflammatory actions against dangerously high levels of IL-6. Based on these findings, our results suggest beneficial effects of long-term intake of fish oil in reducing the inflammation associated with chronic epilepsy.
Nielsen, Forrest H; Penland, James G
To determine whether boron deprivation affects rat behaviour and whether behavioural responses to boron deprivation are modified by differing amounts of dietary long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were fed diets containing 0.1 mg (9 micromol)/kg boron in a factorial arrangement with dietary variables of supplemental boron at 0 and 3mg (278 micromol)/kg and fat sources of 75 g/kg safflower oil or 65 g/kg fish (menhaden) oil plus 10 g/kg linoleic acid. After 6 weeks, six females per treatment were bred. Dams and pups continued on their respective diets through gestation, lactation and after weaning. Between ages 6 and 20 weeks, behavioural tests were performed on 13-15 male offspring from three dams in each dietary treatment. The rats were euthanized at age 21 weeks for the collection of tissues and blood. At ages 6 and 19 weeks, auditory startle was evaluated with an acoustic startle system and avoidance behaviour was evaluated by using an elevated plus maze. At ages 7 and 20 weeks, spontaneous behaviour activity was evaluated with a photobeam activity system. A brightness discrimination test was performed on the rats between age 15 and 16 weeks. Brain mineral composition was determined by coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Plasma total glutathione was determined by HPLC and total cholesterol and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2alpha) were determined by using commercially available kits. Boron-deficient rats were less active than boron-adequate rats when fed safflower oil based on reduced number, distance and time of horizontal movements, front entries, margin distance and vertical breaks and jumps in the spontaneous activity evaluation. Feeding fish oil instead of safflower oil attenuated the activity response to boron deprivation. In the plus maze evaluation, the behavioural reactivity of the boron-deficient rats fed fish oil was noticeably different than the other three treatments. They made more entries into both open and closed
Bastien Vallée Marcotte
Full Text Available The objective was to test whether FFAR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are associated with glycemic control-related traits in humans following fish oil supplementation. A total of 210 participants were given 3 g/day of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids (FA (1.9–2.2 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and 1.1 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA during six weeks. Biochemical parameters were taken before and after the supplementation. Using the HapMap database and the tagger procedure in Haploview, 12 tagging SNPs in FFAR4 were selected and then genotyped using TaqMan technology. Transcript expression levels were measured for 30 participants in peripheral mononuclear blood cells. DNA methylation levels were measured for 35 participants in leukocytes. In silico analyses were also performed. Four gene–diet interactions on fasting insulin levels and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index values were found. rs17108973 explained a significant proportion of the variance of insulin levels (3.0% and HOMA-IR (2.03% index values. Splice site prediction was different depending on the allele for rs11187527. rs17108973 and rs17484310 had different affinity for transcription factors depending on the allele. n-3 FAs effectively improve insulin-related traits for major allele homozygotes of four FFAR4 SNPs as opposed to carriers of the minor alleles.
Li, Jingbo; Pedersen, Jacob Nedergaard; Anankanbil, Sampson; Guo, Zheng
It is hypothesized that rapeseed lecithins may have different emulsifying and antioxidant properties in delivering fish oil compared to soy lecithin based on previous studies. The results showed that in vitro antioxidant activities of rapeseed lecithins were stronger than those of soy lecithin. Emulsions stabilized by rapeseed based lecithins and DATEM were stable over 3 months at 4 °C, whereas the creaming of emulsions containing soy lecithin started immediately after its preparation. Zeta-potential of rapeseed lecithins was higher than soy lecithin and DATEM, which partially contributed to the emulsion stability. Although the particle sizes of emulsions prepared by rapeseed lecithins increased after 14 days storage, no creaming was observed. Lipid oxidation as indicated by TBARS values suggested that DATEM was the most unfavorable, followed by soy lecithin. It is concluded that rapeseed lecithins are better than soy lecithin and DATEM in terms of emulsion stability and antioxidant capability, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Block, Robert C; Abdolahi, Amir; Smith, Brian; Meednu, N; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Cai, Xueya; Cui, Huadong; Mousa, Shaker; Brenna, J. Thomas; Georas, S
SUMMARY Introduction Many diabetics are insensitive to aspirin’s platelet anti-aggregation effects. The possible modulating effects of coadministration of aspirin and fish oil in subjects with diabetes are poorly characterized. Participants and Methods Thirty adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus were treated with aspirin 81 mg/d for 7 days, then with fish oil 4g/day for 28 days, then the combination of fish oil and aspirin for another 7 days. Results Aspirin alone and in combination with fish oil reduced platelet aggregation in most participants. Five of 7 participants classified as aspirin insensitive 1 week after daily aspirin ingestion were sensitive after the combination. Although some platelet aggregation measures correlated positively after aspirin and fish oil ingestion alone and (in combination) in all individuals, correlation was only observed in those who were aspirin insensitive after ingestion of the combination. Conclusions Co-adminstration of aspirin and fish oil may reduce platelet aggregation more than aspirin alone in adults with diabetes mellitus. PMID:23664596
Sulis, Paola M.; Motta, Katia; Barbosa, Amanda M.; Besen, Matheus H.; da Silva, Julia S.; Nunes, Everson A.
Background. Continuous fructose consumption may cause elevation of circulating triacylglycerol. However, how much of this alteration is reverted after the removal of fructose intake is not known. We explored this question and compared the efficacy of this approach with fish oil supplementation. Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: control (C), fructose (F) (water intake with 10% or 30% fructose for 9 weeks), fish oil (FO), and fructose/fish oil (FFO). Fish oil was supplemented only for the last 33 days of fructose ingestion. Half of the F group remained for additional 8 weeks without fructose ingestion (FR). Results. Fructose ingestion reduced food intake to compensate for the increased energy obtained through water ingestion, independent of fructose concentration. Fish oil supplementation exerted no impact on these parameters, but the removal of fructose from water recovered both ingestion behaviors. Plasma triacylglycerol augmented significantly during the second and third weeks (both fructose groups). Fish oil supplementation did not attenuate the elevation in triacylglycerol caused by fructose intake, but the interruption of sugar consumption normalized this parameter. Conclusion. Elevation in triacylglyceridemia may be recovered by removing fructose from diet, suggesting that it is never too late to repair improper dietary habits. PMID:28929113
Sarker, Pallab K.; Kapuscinski, Anne R.; Lanois, Alison J.; Livesey, Erin D.; Bernhard, Katie P.; Coley, Mariah L.
We conducted a 84-day nutritional feeding experiment with dried whole cells of DHA-rich marine microalga Schizochytrium sp. (Sc) to determine the optimum level of fish-oil substitution (partial or complete) for maximum growth of Nile tilapia. When we fully replaced fish oil with Schizochytrium (Sc100 diet), we found significantly higher weight gain and protein efficiency ratio (PER), and lower (improved) feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake compared to a control diet containing fish oil (Sc0); and no significant change in SGR and survival rate among all diets. The Sc100 diet had the highest contents of 22:6n3 DHA, led to the highest DHA content in fillets, and consequently led to the highest DHA:EPA ratios in tilapia fillets. Schizochytrium sp. is a high quality candidate for complete substitution of fish oil in juvenile Nile tilapia feeds, providing an innovative means to formulate and optimize the composition of tilapia juvenile feed while simultaneously raising feed efficiency of tilapia aquaculture and to further develop environmentally and socially sustainable aquafeeds. Results show that replacing fish oil with DHA-rich marine Sc improves the deposition of n3 LC PUFA levels in tilapia fillet. These results support further studies to lower Schizochytrium production costs and to combine different marine microalgae to replace fish oil and fishmeal into aquafeeds. PMID:27258552
Burridge, T.R.; Shir, M.-A.
Germination inhibition of the marine macrophyte Phyllospora comosa was utilized as a sub-lethal end-point to assess and compare the effects of four oil dispersants and dispersed diesel fuel and crude oil combinations. Inhibition of germination by the water-soluble fraction of diesel fuel increased following the addition of each of the dispersants; the nominal 48-h EC 50 concentration of diesel fuel declined from 6800 to approximately 400 μl 1 -1 nominal for each dispersed combination. This contrasted with crude oil, where the addition of two dispersants resulted in an enhanced germination rate and an increase in nominal EC 50 concentrations from 130 μl 1 -1 for the undispersed crude to 4000 and 2500 μl 1 -1 . The results indicate that, while germination inhibition of P. comosa may be enhanced by the chemical dispersal of oil response varies with type of both oil and oil dispersant. (author)
Hopperton, Kathryn E; James, Nicholas C E; Mohammad, Dana; Irfan, Maha; Bazinet, Richard P
Increases in astrocytes and one of their markers, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) have been reported in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) modulate neuroinflammation in animal models; however, their effect on astrocytes is unclear. Fat-1 mice and their wildtype littermates were fed either a fish oil diet or a safflower oil diet deprived of n-3 PUFA. At 12 weeks, mice underwent intracerebroventricular infusion of amyloid-β 1-40. Astrocyte phenotype in the hippocampus was assessed at baseline and 10 days post-surgery using immunohistochemistry with various microscopy and image analysis techniques. GFAP increased in all groups in response to amyloid-β, with a greater increase in fish oil-fed mice than either fat-1 or wildtype safflower oil-fed mice. Astrocytes in this group were also more hypertrophic, suggesting increased activation. Both fat-1- and fish oil-fed mice had greater increases in branch number and length in response to amyloid-β infusion than wildtype safflower animals. Fish oil feeding, and to a lesser extent the fat-1 transgene, enhances the astrocyte activation phenotype in response to amyloid-β 1-40. Astrocytes in mice fed fish oil were more activated in response to amyloid-β than in fat-1 mice despite similar levels of hippocampal n-3 PUFA, which suggests that other fatty acids or dietary factors contribute to this effect.
Salamanca, Maria J; Jimenez-Tenorio, Natalia; Reguera, Diana F; Morales-Caselles, Carmen; Delvalls, T Angel
A chronic bioassay was carried out under laboratory conditions using juvenile Solea senegalensis to determine the toxicity of contaminants from an oil spill(Prestige). Also, the repair processes in fish affected by contaminants due to oil exposure were evaluated. Over 30 days individuals were exposed to clean sediment (control) and to sediment contaminated by a mixture of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other substances. The physicochemical parameters of the tanks (salinity, temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen) were controlled during the exposure period. Clean sediment from the Bay of Cadiz (Spain) was used as negative control and was mixed with fuel oil to prepare the dilution (0.5% w:w dry-weight). After the exposure period, fish were labeled and transferred to "clean tanks" (tanks without sediment) in order to study the recovery and the repair processes in the exposed organisms. A biomarker of exposure (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity - EROD activity) and a biomarker of effect (histopathology) were analyzed during the exposure and recovery period. After 10, 20 and 30 days of exposure, individuals showed significant induction (P tank", enabled a first evaluation of the repair process of the induced damages due to the fuel oil exposure. After the recovery phase, control individuals showed a more significant decrease (P repair processes probably need longer recovery periods to observe significant improvement of the affected organs. This will be further investigated in the future.
Li, Junjie; Xiong, Shanbai; Wang, Fang; Regenstein, Joe M; Liu, Ru
Fish oil was encapsulated with gum arabic/casein/beta-cyclodextrin mixtures using spray drying. The processing parameters (solids concentration of the barrier solutions, ratio of oil to barrier materials, emulsifying temperature, and air inlet temperature) were optimized based on emulsion viscosity, emulsion stability, encapsulation efficiency, and yield. A suitable viscosity and high emulsion stability could increase encapsulation efficiency and yield. Encapsulation efficiency and yield were significantly affected by all the 4 parameters. Based on the results of orthogonal experiments, encapsulation efficiency and yield reached a maximum of 79.6% and 55.6%, respectively, at the optimal condition: solids concentration of 35%, ratios of oil to barrier materials of 3:7, emulsifying temperature of 55 °C, and air inlet temperature of 220 °C. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that fish oil microcapsules were nearly spherical with a smooth surface with droplet size ranging from 1 to 10 μm. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®
Yang, Tsung-Shi; Liu, Tai-Ti; Lin, I-Hwa
The aims of this research were to conjugate chitosan (CT) with stearic acid (SA) and gallic acid (GA), and apply the modified chitosan to stabilize labile aroma compounds such as allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and limonene in oil-in-water emulsions. Generally, the antioxidant activity of CT-SA-GA increased as the GA content in the conjugate increased. In most assays, GA had a lower IC 50 value than that of CT-SA-GA; however, CT-SA-GA exhibited better performance than GA in the Fe 2+ -chelating activity. In accelerated tests (heating or illumination) for evaluating the chemical stability of AITC and limonene during storage, CT-SA and CT-SA-GA were used to prepare AITC and limonene O/W emulsions, respectively. Tween 80 and Span 80 (T-S-80), an emulsifier mixture, were used as a control in both emulsions for comparison. The results show that CT-SA or CT-SA-GA could protect AITC or limonene from degradation or oxidation more effectively than T-S-80. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kimoto, N; Hirose, M; Futakuchi, M; Iwata, T; Kasai, M; Shirai, T
Modifying effects of dietary administration of conjugated fatty acids from safflower oil (CFA-S), rich in conjugated linoleic acid, on major organs were examined in the post-initiation stage of a two-stage carcinogenesis model in female rats. Groups of 21 or 22 F344 female rats were treated sequentially with 2,2'-dihydroxy-di-n-propylnitosamine (intragastrically, i.g.), 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (i.g.), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (subcutaneously) and N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (in drinking water) during the first 3 weeks for initiation, and then administered diet containing 1 or 0.1% CFA-S for 33 weeks. Further groups of animals were treated with carcinogens or 1% CFA-S alone, or maintained as non-treated controls. All surviving animals were killed at week 36, and major organs were examined histopathologically for development of pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. The 1 and 0.1% CFA-S treatment significantly decreased the incidence and multiplicity of mammary carcinomas, though a clear dose response was not observed. In the urinary bladder, the incidence of papillary or nodular hyperplasia but not tumors was significantly increased in the 1% CFA-S-treated group. The results indicate that low dose CFA-S may find application as a potent chemopreventor of mammary carcinogenesis.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish and rare fish species occurrences in Central California. Vector lines in this data set...
Norris, Leigh E; Collene, Angela L; Asp, Michelle L; Hsu, Jason C; Liu, Li-Fen; Richardson, Julia R; Li, Dongmei; Bell, Doris; Osei, Kwame; Jackson, Rebecca D
Background: Weight loss may improve glucose control in persons with type 2 diabetes. The effects of fat quality, as opposed to quantity, on weight loss are not well understood. Objective: We compared the effects of 2 dietary oils, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and safflower oil (SAF), on body weight and composition in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Design: This was a 36-wk randomized, double-masked, crossover study. Fifty-five obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes received SAF or CLA (8 g oil/d) during two 16-wk diet periods separated by a 4-wk washout period. Subjects met monthly with the study coordinator to receive new supplements and for assessment of energy balance, biochemical endpoints, or anthropometric variables. Results: Thirty-five women completed the 36-wk intervention. Supplementation with CLA reduced body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.0022) and total adipose mass (P = 0.0187) without altering lean mass. The effect of CLA in lowering BMI was detected during the last 8 wk of each 16-wk diet period. In contrast, SAF had no effect on BMI or total adipose mass but reduced trunk adipose mass (P = 0.0422) and increased lean mass (P = 0.0432). SAF also significantly lowered fasting glucose (P = 0.0343) and increased adiponectin (P = 0.0051). No differences were observed in dietary energy intake, total fat intake, and fat quality in either diet period for either intervention. Conclusions: Supplementation with CLA and SAF exerted different effects on BMI, total and trunk adipose mass, and lean tissue mass in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Supplementation with these dietary oils may be beneficial for weight loss, glycemic control, or both. PMID:19535429
Norris, Leigh E; Collene, Angela L; Asp, Michelle L; Hsu, Jason C; Liu, Li-Fen; Richardson, Julia R; Li, Dongmei; Bell, Doris; Osei, Kwame; Jackson, Rebecca D; Belury, Martha A
Weight loss may improve glucose control in persons with type 2 diabetes. The effects of fat quality, as opposed to quantity, on weight loss are not well understood. We compared the effects of 2 dietary oils, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and safflower oil (SAF), on body weight and composition in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. This was a 36-wk randomized, double-masked, crossover study. Fifty-five obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes received SAF or CLA (8 g oil/d) during two 16-wk diet periods separated by a 4-wk washout period. Subjects met monthly with the study coordinator to receive new supplements and for assessment of energy balance, biochemical endpoints, or anthropometric variables. Thirty-five women completed the 36-wk intervention. Supplementation with CLA reduced body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.0022) and total adipose mass (P = 0.0187) without altering lean mass. The effect of CLA in lowering BMI was detected during the last 8 wk of each 16-wk diet period. In contrast, SAF had no effect on BMI or total adipose mass but reduced trunk adipose mass (P = 0.0422) and increased lean mass (P = 0.0432). SAF also significantly lowered fasting glucose (P = 0.0343) and increased adiponectin (P = 0.0051). No differences were observed in dietary energy intake, total fat intake, and fat quality in either diet period for either intervention. Supplementation with CLA and SAF exerted different effects on BMI, total and trunk adipose mass, and lean tissue mass in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Supplementation with these dietary oils may be beneficial for weight loss, glycemic control, or both.
Full Text Available Abstract Sleep deprivation in humans has been related to weight gain and consequently, increased risk for insulin resistance. In contrast, there is a significant loss of weight in sleep deprived rats suggesting a state of insulin resistance without obesity interference. Thus, we aimed to assess the effects of a rich fish oil dietetic intervention on glucose tolerance, serum insulin and adiponectin, and adipose tissue gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-α of paradoxically sleep deprived (PSD rats. The study was performed in thirty day-old male Wistar randomly assigned into two groups: rats fed with control diet (soybean oil as source of fat and rats fed with a fish oil rich diet. After 45 days of treatment, the animals were submitted to PSD or maintained as home cage control group for 96 h. Body weight and food intake were carefully monitored in all groups. At the end of PSD period, a glucose tolerance test was performed and the total blood and adipose tissues were collected. Serum insulin and adiponectin were analyzed. Adipose tissues were used for RT-PCR to estimate the gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-α. Results showed that although fish oil diet did not exert any effect upon these measurements, PSD induced a reduction in adiponectin gene expression of retroperitoneal adipose tissues, with no change in serum adiponectin concentration or in adiponectin and TNF-α gene expression of epididymal adipose tissue. Thus, the stress induced by sleep deprivation lead to a desbalance of adiponectin gene expression.
Rodacki, Cintia L N; Rodacki, André L F; Pereira, Gleber; Naliwaiko, Katya; Coelho, Isabela; Pequito, Daniele; Fernandes, Luiz Cléudio
Muscle force and functional capacity generally decrease with aging in the older population, although this effect can be reversed, attenuated, or both through strength training. Fish oil (FO), which is rich in n-3 (omega-3) PUFAs, has been shown to play a role in the plasma membrane and cell function of muscles, which may enhance the benefits of training. The effect of strength training and FO supplementation on the neuromuscular system of the elderly has not been investigated. The objective was to investigate the chronic effect of FO supplementation and strength training on the neuromuscular system (muscle strength and functional capacity) of older women. Forty-five women (aged 64 ± 1.4 y) were randomly assigned to 3 groups. One group performed strength training only (ST group) for 90 d, whereas the others performed the same strength-training program and received FO supplementation (2 g/d) for 90 d (ST90 group) or for 150 d (ST150 group; supplemented 60 d before training). Muscle strength and functional capacity were assessed before and after the training period. No differences in the pretraining period were found between groups for any of the variables. The peak torque and rate of torque development for all muscles (knee flexor and extensor, plantar and dorsiflexor) increased from pre- to posttraining in all groups. However, the effect was greater in the ST90 and ST150 groups than in the ST group. The activation level and electromechanical delay of the muscles changed from pre- to posttraining only for the ST90 and ST150 groups. Chair-rising performance in the FO groups was higher than in the ST group. Strength training increased muscle strength in elderly women. The inclusion of FO supplementation caused greater improvements in muscle strength and functional capacity.
Haimeur, Adil; Mimouni, Virginie; Ulmann, Lionel; Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Messaouri, Hafida; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia
Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can have beneficial effects on a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared the effects of two n-3 PUFA rich food supplements (freeze-dried Odontella aurita and fish oil) on risk factors for CVD. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and fed with the following diets: control group (C) received a standard diet containing 7 % lipids; second group (HF high fat) was fed with a high-fat diet containing 40 % lipids; third group (HFFO high fat+fish oil) was fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 % fish oil; and fourth group (HFOA high fat+O. aurita) received the high-fat diet supplemented with 12 % of freeze-dried O. aurita. After 8 weeks rats fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with O. aurita displayed a significantly lower bodyweight than those in the other groups. Both the microalga and the fish oil significantly reduced insulinemia and serum lipid levels. O. aurita was more effective than the fish oil in reducing hepatic triacyglycerol levels and in preventing high-fat diet-induced steatosis. O. aurita and fish oil also reduced platelet aggregation and oxidative status induced by high fat intake. After an OA supplementation, the adipocytes in the HFOA group were smaller than those in the HF group. Freeze-dried O. aurita showed similar or even greater biological effects than the fish oil. This could be explained by a potential effect of the n-3 PUFA but also other bioactive compounds of the microalgae.
Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs exhibit protective effects against various types of cancer and heart diseases. With the newly developed capillary gas chromatographic method (GC, cis9, trans11 and trans10, cis12 octadecadienoic acid isomers of CLA (C18:2 were determined in crude and refined corn oils as qualitative and quantitative measurements. Cis 9, trans11 C18:2 (c9, t11 CLA was the major CLA isomer in both oils. It was found that c9, t11 CLA was 0.62% of the total lipid in crude oil and 1.24% of the total lipid in refined oil. Using the refining process, the total CLA was 1.38% whereas that of crude corn oil was 0.62%. An approximate 2.2 fold increase in the total CLA was found in refined oil (n = 9 (p y = 2.782x + 0.046 (R2 = 0.9999] were performed (p El ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA parece exhibir efecto protector frente a enfermedades cardiovasculares y varios tipos de cáncer. En este trabajo, se establece un mátodo analítico mediante cromatografía de gases con columna capilar para la determinación cualitativa y cuantitativa de los isómeros cis 9,trans 11 y trans 10, cis 12 en aceites de maiz crudo y refinado. El isómero cis 9, trans11 C18:2 fue el mayoritario encontrándose en concentraciones de 0.62% en el aceite cru,do y de 1.24 % en el aceite refinado. La cantidad total de CLA encontrada en el aceite refinado (n = 9 (p 2 = 0.9999 y de recuperación [y = 2.782x+0.046 (R2 = 0.9999]. El método cromatográfico propuesto podría ser usado para el control de calidad de los aceites vegetales.
Differential effects of safflower oil versus fish oil feeding on insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis, glycolysis, and pyruvate dehydrogenase flux in skeletal muscle: a 13C nuclear magnetic resonance study.
Jucker, B M; Cline, G W; Barucci, N; Shulman, G I
To examine the effects of safflower oil versus fish oil feeding on in vivo intramuscular glucose metabolism and relative pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) versus tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux, rats were pair-fed on diets consisting of 1) 59% safflower oil, 2) 59% menhaden fish oil, or 3) 59% carbohydrate (control) in calories. Rates of glycolysis and glycogen synthesis were assessed by monitoring [1-(13)C]glucose label incorporation into [1-(13)C]glycogen, [3-(13)C]lactate, and [3-(13)C]alanine in the hindlimb of awake rats via 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy during a euglycemic (approximately 6 mmol/l) hyperinsulinemic (approximately 180 microU/ml) clamp. A steady-state isotopic analysis of lactate, alanine, and glutamate was used to determine the relative PDH versus TCA cycle flux present in muscle under these conditions. The safflower oil-fed rats were insulin resistant compared with control and fish oil-fed rats, as reflected by a markedly reduced glucose infusion rate (Ginf) during the clamp (21.4 +/- 2.3 vs. 31.6 +/- 2.8 and 31.7 +/- 1.9 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1) in safflower oil versus control and fish oil groups, respectively, P safflower oil group was associated with a lower rate of glycolysis (21.7 +/- 2.2 nmol x g(-1) x min(-1)) versus control (62.1 +/- 10.3 nmol x g(-1) x min(-1), P safflower oil, fish oil, and control, respectively) was detected. The intramuscular triglyceride (TG) content was increased in the safflower oil group (7.3 +/- 0.8 micromol/g) compared with the control group (5.2 +/- 0.8 micromol/g, P safflower oil (43 +/- 8%) versus the control (73 +/- 8%, P safflower oil feeding was a consequence of reduced glycolytic flux associated with an increase in relative free fatty acid/ketone oxidation versus TCA cycle flux, whereas fish oil feeding did not alter glucose metabolism and may in part be protective of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal by limiting intramuscular TG deposition.
Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Mikkelsen, T.B.
of fish oil (FO) supplements in lactating mothers. In this double-blinded randomized trial, Danish mothers with habitual fish intake below the 50th percentile of the Danish National Birth Cohort were randomized to microencapsulated FO [1.3 g/d long-chain n-3 FA (n-3 LCPUFA)] or olive oil (00......). The intervention started within a week after delivery and lasted 4 mon. Mothers with habitual high fish intake and their infants were included as a reference group. Ninety-seven infants completed the trial (44 OO-group, 53 FO-group) and 47 reference infants were followed up. The primary outcome measures were: DHA...... content of milk samples (0, 2, and 4 mon postnatal) and of infant red blood cell (RBC) membranes (4 mon postnatal), and infant visual acuity (measured by swept visual evoked potential at 2 and 4 mon of age). FO supplementation gave rise to a threefold increase in the DHA content of the 4-mon milk samples...
Shaw, R.; Swanson, S.M.; Lagimodiere, M.; Gulley, J.
A multi-level, multi-scale approach was used to assess potential impacts to fish health from oil sands water releases. The method used to arrive at predicted impacts involved assembling experimental data on the effects of chronic exposure to oil sands wastewaters on biochemical, physiological and whole-organism endpoint. This information was used to determine no effect levels (NOELs) and lowest effect levels (LOELs) for the suite of fish health parameters used in laboratory experiments (primarily biochemical and physiological measurement endpoints). LOELs and NOELs were compared to modeled concentrations of wastewater in the Athabasca River for five time snapshots. For each time period, concentrations were predicted based on mean annual flows and 7Q10 flows (low flows). This comparison was used to predict impacts on biochemical/physiological endpoints. Impacts on at the whole-organism and population-level were determined by comparing what the laboratory data would predict with what was observed in the field. This process was used to draw a conclusion regarding the health and sustainability of fish populations
Asnaashari, Maryam; Farhoosh, Reza; Sharif, Ali
The anti-DPPH radical effect as well as anti-peroxide activity of gallic acid, methyl gallate, and α-tocopherol in a bulk Kilka fish oil and its oil-in-water emulsion stabilized by soy protein isolate at 55°C were investigated. Gallic acid with the lowest hydrophobicity (log P=-0.28) was found to be the most active antiradical agent (IC50=29.5 μM), followed by methyl gallate (IC50=38.0 μM, log P=-0.23) and α-tocopherol (IC50=105.3 μM, log P=0.70). The anti-peroxide activity in the bulk oil system decreased in the order of methyl gallate>gallic acid>α-tocopherol. In the emulsion system, methyl gallate still behaved better than gallic acid, but the highest activity belonged to α-tocopherol. Based on the calculation of a number of kinetic parameters, the antioxidants, in general, showed better performances in the bulk oil system than in the emulsion system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pajuelo, José G.; González, José A.; Triay-Portella, Raül; Martín, José A.; Ruiz-Díaz, Raquel; Lorenzo, José M.; Luque, Ángel
This work documents the introduction of non-native fish species to the Canary Islands (central-eastern Atlantic) through oil rigs. Methodological approaches have included surveys by underwater visual censuses around and under oil platforms and along the docking area of rigs at the Port of Las Palmas. Eleven non-native fish species were registered. Paranthias furcifer, Abudefduf hoefleri, Acanthurus bahianus, Acanthurus chirurgus, and Acanthurus coeruleus are first recorded from the Canaries herein. Other three species could not be identified, although they have never been observed in the Canaries. Cephalopholis taeniops, Abudefduf saxatilis, and Acanthurus monroviae had been previously recorded. Native areas of these species coincide with the areas of origin and the scale of oil rigs with destination the Port of Las Palmas. The absence of native species in the censuses at rigs and their presence at rigs docking area, together with the observation of non-native species after the departure of platforms, reject the possibility that these non-native species were already present in the area introduced by another vector. C. taeniops, A. hoefleri, A. saxatilis, A. chirurgus, A. coeruleus and A. monroviae are clearly seafarer species. A. bahianus seems to be a potential seafarer species. P. furcifer is a castaway species. For the moment, the number of individuals of the non-native species in marine ecosystems of the Canaries seems to be low, and more investigation is needed for controlling these translocations.
Mizambwa, Hellen Edward
Low levels of EFA in fish feed as a result of changes in diet composition brings a need of finding a novel ingredient that will supplement Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) in fish feed. Microalgae have ability of producing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and for that are predicted to be a reliable feed ingredients in replacing fish oil in the near future. Main objective of present study was to evaluate effects of replacing fish oil (FO) with microalgae biomass (Schizochytrium spp.) (AA)...
Snuossi, Mejdi; Trabelsi, Najla; Ben Taleb, Sabrine; Dehmeni, Ameni; Flamini, Guido; De Feo, Vincenzo
Several bacterial strains were isolated from wild and reared fish and shellfish. The identification of these strains showed the dominance of the Aeromonas hydrophila species in all seafood samples, followed by Staphylococcus spp., Vibrio alginolyticus , Enterobacter cloacae , Klebsiella ornithinolytica , Klebsiella oxytoca and Serratia odorifera . The isolates were studied for their ability to produce exoenzymes and biofilms. The chemical composition of the essential oils from Laurus nobilis leaves, Zingiber officinale rhizomes and Anethum graveolens aerial parts was studied by GC and GC/MS. The essential oils' antioxidant and antibacterial activities against the isolated microorganisms were studied. Low concentrations of the three essential oils were needed to inhibit the growth of the selected bacteria and the lowest MBCs values were obtained for the laurel essential oil. The selected essential oils can be used as a good natural preservative in fish food due to their antioxidant and antibacterial activities.
Chiu, Chen-Yuan; Chang, Tien-Chia; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Chiang, Meng-Tsan
The present study investigated the regulatory effects of fish oil and chitosan on the signals of hepatic lipid metabolism and the postulated mechanism in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Diet supplementation of chitosan and fish oil efficiently suppressed the increased weights in body and livers of high-fat diet-fed rats. Supplementation of chitosan and fish oil significantly decreased the activities of hepatic lipid biosynthesis-related enzymes and efficiently regulated plasma lipoprotein homeostasis. Both chitosan and fish oil significantly ameliorated the alterations in the protein expressions of hepatic lipogenic transcription factors (LXRα and PPARα), and could also significantly regulate the downstream hepatic lipogenic genes (FAS, HMGCR, CYP7A1, FATP, FABP, AOX, and ABCA) expressions in high-fat diet-fed rats. These results suggest that both fish oil and chitosan exerts downregulative effects on hepatic lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obese rats via the LXRα inhibition and PPARα activation, which further affect the expressions of hepatic lipogenesis-associated genes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of fish oil at different concentrations on post-thawed semen of Kalang swamp buffalo. Methods: A total of 4 Kalang swamp buffalo bulls with 3-5 years of age and weighed about 340-360 kg were slected. Semen was regularly collected from these buffalo bulls once a week by an artificial vagina. Fish oil was supplementary at the dosages of 0 mg (control, 50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg, and 200 mg to the extender (skim milk-egg yolk. Fresh, pre-freezing and frozen semen were thawed at 37 °C and evaluated for motility, viability, morphology, and plasma integrity of membrane. Results: The study results indicated that before freezing, supplementation of fish oil at the dose of 150 mg in the extender had significantly motility. And a significant (P<0.05 increase was observed in viability and motility of post-thawed semen at the dose of 150 mg fish oil, which was in difference with other treatment groups. Conclusions: Addition of 150 mg fish oil in the extender could be positive for the enhancement of the quality of post-thawed semen of Kalang swamp buffaloes.
Hansen, J M; Løkkegaard, H; Høy, Carl-Erik
Dietary supplementation with fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has been suggested to protect the kidney against cyclosporin A (CsA) toxicity. This study investigated the effects of a 10-wk dietary supplementation with fish oil on renal function and renal functional reserve in healt...... transplant recipients treated with a low maintenance dose of CsA had a well-preserved renal functional reserve, and dietary supplementation with fish oil in these patients did not improve renal function.......Dietary supplementation with fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has been suggested to protect the kidney against cyclosporin A (CsA) toxicity. This study investigated the effects of a 10-wk dietary supplementation with fish oil on renal function and renal functional reserve in healthy...... volunteers (N = 9) and two groups of stable long-term kidney-transplanted patients treated with maintenance low-dose CsA (3.0 +/- 0.6 mg/kg; N = 9) or without CsA (N = 9). After an overnight fast, the subjects were water loaded, and clearance studies were performed, postponing morning medication. GFR...
Ravn, Helle Christine; Damstrup, Marianne L.; Meyer, Anne S.
Enzymatic conversion of fish oil free fatty acids (FFA) or fatty acid ethyl esters (FAE) into glycerides via esterification or transesterification was examined. The reactions catalyzed by Lipozyme™ 435, a Candida antarctica lipase, were optimized. Influence on conversion yields of fatty acid chain...... length, saturation degree, temperature, enzyme dosage, molar ratio glycerol:fatty acids, acyl source composition (w/w ratio FFA:FAE), and reaction time was evaluated collectively by multiple linear regression. All reaction variables influenced the conversion into glycerides. Transesterification of FAE...
Hall, Jean A; Brockman, Jeffrey A; Jewell, Dennis E
Increased concentrations of dietary fish oil and antioxidants have been shown previously to change circulating concentrations of individual fatty acids (FAs) and vitamin E. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the effects of vitamins E and C, in combination with dietary fish oil, on selected blood and urinary biomarkers. Fifty adult Beagle dogs (mean age 5.3 years, range 1.4-14.2 years) were randomized into five dietary treatment groups for 90 days. All foods were complete and balanced and met the nutrient profiles of AAFCO for adult dogs. For 60 days before study initiation, dogs consumed a pretrial food that contained 74 IU/kg vitaminE and 0mg/kg vitaminC. The five experimental foods were confirmed by analytical methods to contain ≥ 640 IU/kg vitaminE and 130 mg/kg vitaminC (as fed). Experimental foods ranged from low levels of EPA and DHA (pretrial food and lowest experimental food had 0.01% EPA and no detectable DHA) to the highest experimental food with 0.25% EPA and 0.17% DHA. Serum was analyzed for FAs, vitamin E, and cholesterol concentrations; urine was analyzed for 11-dehydro thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)). Serum was also used for metabolomic analysis. FA intake ranged from 0.02 g/day EPA and 0.02 g/day DHA to 0.58 g/day EPA and 0.39 g/day DHA. Increasing dietary concentrations of EPA and DHA resulted in increased serum concentrations of EPA and DHA in a dose-dependent fashion. Greater dietary vitamin E intake resulted in increased serum vitamin E concentrations (Pvitamin E concentrations (Pvitamin E concentration is enhanced primarily by feeding vitamin E and secondarily by serum cholesterol concentration. When feeding diets enriched with fish oil, the major negative predictor of urinary 11-dehydro TXB(2) concentration is serum EPA concentration. Plasma lysophospholipids can be dynamically regulated by dietary fish oil supplementation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jacobsen, Charlotte; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Thomsen, Mikael Holm
The antioxidative effects of gallic acid, EDTA, and extra emulsifier Panodan DATEM TR in mayonnaise enriched with 16% fish oil were investigated. EDTA reduced the formation of free radicals, lipid hydroperoxides, volatiles, and fishy and rancid off-flavors. The antioxidative effect of EDTA...... acid may therefore promote the decomposition of lipid hydroperoxides to volatile oxidation products. Addition of extra emulsifier reduced the lipid hydroperoxide levels but did not influence the level of free radicals or the oxidative flavor deterioration in mayonnaisse; however, it appeared to alter...
Pedersen, H.; Petersen, M.; Major-Pedersen, A.
in vitro with Cue(2+). As a marker of in vivo oxidation malondialdehyde concentration in LDL (LDL-MDA) was measured.Results: Fish oil reduced both mean lag time (before, 57.8; after, 48.8 min, P propagation rate (before, 0.018 &udelta;OD/min; after, 0.015 &udelta;OD/min, P ... corn oil had no influence on lag time and propagation rate. The changes in lag time and propagation rate differed significantly between fish oil and corn oil treatment. LDL-MDA changes differed borderline significantly between groups (FO, 110.4 pmol/mg protein; CO, 6.7 pmol/mg protein; P = 0.057). Fish...... oil supplementation had no influence on glycemic control as assessed from HbA(1c) and fasting blood glucose.Conclusion: According to our findings, fish oil supplementation leads to increased in vivo oxidation and increased in vitro oxidation susceptibility of LDL particles. More studies are needed...
Angsten, Gertrud; Finkel, Yigael; Lucas, Steven; Kassa, Ann-Marie; Paulsson, Mattias; Lilja, Helene Engstrand
Newborn infants with short bowel syndrome (SBS) represent a high-risk group of developing intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD), which may be fatal. However, infants have a great capacity for intestinal growth and adaptation if IFALD can be prevented or reversed. A major contributing factor to IFALD may be the soybean oil-based intravenous lipid emulsions used since the introduction of parenteral nutrition (PN) 40 years ago. This retrospective study compares the outcome in 20 neonates with SBS treated with parenteral fish oil (Omegaven) in combination with ω-6/9 lipid emulsions (ClinOleic) with the outcome in a historical cohort of 18 patients with SBS who received a soybean oil-based intravenous lipid emulsion (Intralipid). Median gestational age was 26 weeks in the treatment group and 35.5 weeks in the historical group. All patients were started on PN containing Intralipid that was switched to ClinOleic/Omegaven in the treatment group at a median age of 39 gestational weeks. In the treatment group, direct bilirubin levels were reversed in all 14 survivors with cholestasis (direct bilirubin >50 umol/L). Median time to reversal was 2.9 months. Only 2 patients died of liver failure (10%). In the historical cohort, 6 patients (33%) died of liver failure, and only 2 patients showed normalization of bilirubin levels. Parenteral fish oil in combination with ω-6/9 lipid emulsions was associated with improved outcome in premature neonates with SBS. When used instead of traditional soybean-based emulsions, this mixed lipid emulsion may facilitate intestinal adaptation by increasing the IFALD-free period.
Patra, A K; Yu, Z
Coconut (CO) and fish (FO) oils were previously shown to inhibit rumen methanogenesis and biohydrogenation, which mitigates methane emission and helps improve beneficial fatty acids in meat and milk. This study aimed at investigating the comparative effects of CO and FO on the methanogenesis, fermentation, and microbial abundances and diversity in vitro rumen cultures containing different doses (0, 3.1, and 6.2 mL/L) of each oil and 400mg feed substrate using rumen fluid from lactating dairy cows as inocula. Increasing doses of CO and FO quadratically decreased concentrations of methane, but hydrogen concentrations were only increased quadratically by CO. Both oils linearly decreased dry matter and neutral detergent fiber digestibility of feeds but did not affect the concentration of total volatile fatty acids. However, CO reduced acetate percentage and acetate to propionate ratio and increased the percentages of propionate and butyrate to a greater extent than FO. Ammonia concentration was greater for CO than FO. As determined by quantitative real-time PCR, FO had greater inhibition to methanogens than CO, but the opposite was true for protozoal, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and Fibrobacter succinogenes. Ruminococcus albus was not affected by either oil. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles revealed that bacterial and archaeal community composition were changed differently by oil type. Based on Pareto-Lorenz evenness curve analysis of the DGGE profiles, CO noticeably changed the functional organization of archaea compared with FO. In conclusion, although both CO and FO decreased methane concentrations to a similar extent, the mode of reduction and the effect on abundances and diversity of archaeal and bacterial populations differed between the oils. Thus, the use of combination of CO and FO at a low dose may additively lower methanogenesis in the rumen while having little adverse effect on rumen fermentation. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy
Essential oils are concentrated aromatic volatile compounds derived from botanicals by distillation or mechanical pressing. They play multiple, crucial roles as antioxidants, food pathogen inhibitors, shelf-life enhancers, texture promoters, organoleptic agents and toxicity-reducing agents. For their versatility, they appear promising as food preservatives. Several research findings in recent times have validated their potential as functional ingredients in meat and fish processing. Among the assortment of bioactive compounds in the essential oils, p-cymene, thymol, eugenol, carvacrol, isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, linalool, 1,8-cineol, α-pinene, α-terpineol, γ-terpinene, citral and methyl chavicol are most familiar. These terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and phenolics (alcohols, esters, aldehydes and ketones) have been extracted from culinary herbs such as oregano, rosemary, basil, coriander, cumin, cinnamon, mint, sage and lavender as well as from trees such as myrtle, fir and eucalyptus. This review presents essential oils as alternatives to conventional chemical additives. Their synergistic actions with modified air packaging, irradiation, edible films, bacteriocins and plant byproducts are discussed. The decisive roles of metabolic engineering, microwave technology and metabolomics in quality and quantity augmentation of essential oil are briefly mooted. The limitations encountered and strategies to overcome them have been illuminated to pave way for their enhanced popularisation. The literature has been mined from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Pubchem, Scopus and SciFinder.
Time trend investigation of PCBs, PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides in selected n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich dietary fish oil and vegetable oil supplements; nutritional relevance for human essential n-3 fatty acid requirements.
Jacobs, Miriam N; Covaci, Adrian; Gheorghe, Adriana; Schepens, Paul
In addition to being used in the food and animal feed industry, fish oils have also been used traditionally as dietary supplements. Due to the presence of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, fish oils have therapeutic benefits in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular, immunological, and arthritic diseases, as well as childhood deficiency diseases such as rickets, because of a high content of vitamin D. However, fish oils are also susceptible to contamination with lipophilic organic chemicals that are now ubiquitous contaminants of marine ecosystems. Many vegetable oils are sources of the shorter chain precursor forms of n-3 fatty acids, and in recent years the specialist dietary supplement market has expanded to include these oils in a variety of different formulations. This paper reports analytical results of selected contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, for a range of commercially available n-3 fatty acid rich fish and vegetable oil dietary supplements. Using principal component analysis, the values are compared with historic samples to elucidate time trends in contamination profiles. Levels of contaminants are discussed in relation to the nutritional benefits to the consumer of long- and short-chain forms of n-3 fatty acids.
Full Text Available 14.00 This aim of this research was to determine fatty acids and raw proximate composition and calorie value of fish Kijar in Iran. The fatty acids and proximate composition Kijar was determined. The established AOAC (Association of Official Agricultural Chemist, USA methods were followed for composition bio chemical of fish. Mean moisture, fat, protein, ash, carbohydrate contents and calorie value of raw fish were 70.81%, 5.88%, 17.80%, 3.41%, 2.1% and 132.52 kcal, respectively. Among fatty acids, palmitic acid was a major fatty acid while stearic acid was the other major constituent. Unsaturated monoenoic fatty acids (oleic and palmitoleic acids were major constituents. Important unsaturated fatty acids such as EPA and DHA, were also identified. percentage composition of fatty acids in the lipid classes of oil of Saurida undosquamis which the saturated fatty acids ranges from 58% to 72.14%. Palmitic acid is predominant and its composition ranges 38.64% to 48.98% while stearic acid ranges from 11.35% to 19.50%. Among unsaturated fatty acids, monoenoic are the major fatty acids. Oleic acid ranges from 12.15% to 27.48%. It is concluded that fish kijar found as health seafood for Iranian southern peoples form point of view of nutritional values and valuable fatty acids. Therefore it is recommended people put this fish in diet basket and it consumed three times in the week. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA
Andersen, Anders D; Michaelsen, Kim F; Hellgren, Lars
intake affects adipose tissue growth, we randomly allocated 154 healthy infants to daily supplementation with FO or sunflower oil (SO) from 9 to 18 mo of age and measured z-score changes in various anthropometric assessments of body size and skinfold thicknesses and plasma adipokine concentrations. Among...
Full Text Available The global consumption of fish oils currently exceeds one million tonnes, with the natural de novo source of these important fatty acids forming the base of marine foodwebs. Here we describe the first field-based evaluation of a terrestrial source of these essential nutrients, synthesised in the seeds of transgenic Camelina sativa plants via the heterologous reconstitution of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Our data demonstrate the robust nature of this novel trait, and the feasibility of making fish oils in genetically modified crops. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the most complex example of plant genetic engineering to undergo environmental release and field evaluation. Keywords: Plant metabolic engineering, GM field trials, Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, Fish oils, Camelina, Oilseeds
Jacobsen, Charlotte; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Lund, Pia
. The rheological and structural properties of the mayonnaise were also affected by the addition of extra emulsifier, but this did not influence the formation of fishy and rancid off-flavours. Addition of the A system caused the immediate formation of distinct fish; and rancid off-flavours in the fresh mayonnaises......Oxidative protection of mayonnaises with 16% fish oil was studied during cold storage (5 degrees C) after supplementation with different tocopherol systems: the ternary antioxidant system ascorbic acid, lecithin and tocopherol (A/L/T), and two commercial mixtures, an oil-soluble (Toco 70......) preparation and a water-soluble (Grindox 1032) preparation, The physical structure of the fish-oil-enriched mayonnaise was manipulated by adding extra emulsifier (Panodan TR) with the purpose of investigating whether or not this affected the antioxidative activity of the tocopherol mixtures. A number...
Qiu, Xujian; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke
Lipid oxidation of fish oil enriched cow milk and soy milk supplemented with rosemary extract stored at 2 °C was studied. Both peroxide value and volatile secondary lipid oxidation products were determined to monitor the progress of lipid oxidation. Rosemary extract inhibited lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched cow milk. In contrast, soy milk samples having much higher unsaturated fatty acid content showed higher lipid oxidation stability compared to cow milk. Reduction in the content of chlorogenic acid during storage suggested that this compound may contribute to the lipid oxidation stability of fish oil enriched soy milk product. Total carnosic acid and carnosol concentration declined much faster in soy milk than in cow milk. It is suggested from the results that food components could have significant impact on the fate of bioactive antioxidant compounds in a specific food product during storage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meldrum, Suzanne J; Li, Yuchun; Zhang, Guicheng; Heaton, Alexandra E M; D'Vaz, Nina; Manz, Judith; Reischl, Eva; Koletzko, Berthold V; Prescott, Susan L; Simmer, Karen
The enzymes encoded by fatty acid desaturases (FADS) genes determine the desaturation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). We investigated if haplotype and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FADS gene cluster can influence LCPUFA status in infants who received either fish oil or placebo supplementation. Children enrolled in the Infant Fish Oil Supplementation Study (IFOS) were randomly allocated to receive either fish oil or placebo from birth to 6 months of age. Blood was collected at 6 months of age for the measurement of fatty acids and for DNA extraction. A total of 276 participant DNA samples underwent genotyping, and 126 erythrocyte and 133 plasma fatty acid measurements were available for analysis. Twenty-two FADS SNPs were selected on the basis of literature and linkage disequilibrium patterns identified from the HapMap data. Haplotype construction was completed using PHASE. For participants allocated to the fish oil group who had two copies of the FADS1 haplotype consisting of SNP minor alleles, DHA levels were significantly higher compared to other haplotypes. This finding was not observed for the placebo group. Furthermore, for members of the fish oil group only, the minor homozygous carriers of all the FADS1 SNPs investigated had significantly higher DHA than other genotypes (rs174545, rs174546, rs174548, rs174553, rs174556, rs174537, rs174448, and rs174455). Overall results of this preliminary study suggest that supplementation with fish oil may only significantly increase DHA in minor allele carriers of FADS1 SNPs. Further research is required to confirm this novel finding.
Ballou, Michael A; Gomes, Rodrigo C; DePeters, Edward J
The objective was to determine the effects of supplementing the diet with fish oil during the peri-partum period on the immune competence and the pathophysiological response to a lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis challenge. Multiparous Holstein cows (n=30) were completely randomized to one of two treatments at 3 weeks pre-partum. Treatments differed only in the source of supplemental lipid and included either Energy Booster or fish oil. Treatment diets were fed from -21 d relative to expected date of parturition until 10 d post partum. Treatments were fed as a bolus prior to the a.m. feeding. The dose of lipid during the pre-partum period was 250 g/d, whereas the amount of lipid supplemented post partum was adjusted to the level of intake, approximately 0.92% of the previous day's dry matter intake. Ex-vivo analyses of immune competence were measured including the antimicrobial activity of whole blood against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Candida albicans as well as the production of interferon-gamma by peripheral blood mononuclear cultures. At 7 days in milk cows were infused with 100 microg of Esch. coli lipopolysaccharide into one rear quarter. Supplementing fish oil increased plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, but had no affect on the proportions of arachidonic acid at calving. Fish oil did not influence the production of interferon-gamma or the antimicrobial activity of whole blood against any of the microorganisms. Furthermore, fish oil had no ameliorative effect on either the local or the systemic acute phase response following an intramammary lipopolysaccharide challenge in early lactating Holstein cows. Supplementing fish oil in the diet of peri-partum cows will not protect them from deleterious effects of an excessive acute phase response.
Full Text Available Data is provided to show the detailed fatty acid and lipidomic composition of normal and tumor rat colon tissues. Rats were fed either a Western fat diet or a fish oil diet, and half the rats from each diet group were treated with chemical carcinogens that induce colon cancer (azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate. The data show total fatty acid profiles of sera and of all the colon tissues, namely normal tissue from control rats and both normal and tumor tissues from carcinogen-treated rats, as obtained by gas chromatography with mass spectral detection. Data from lipidomic analyses of a representative subset of the colon tissue samples is also shown in heat maps generated from hierarchical cluster analysis. These data display the utility lipidomic analyses to enhance the interpretation of dietary feeding studies aimed at cancer prevention and support the findings published in the companion paper (Effects of fish oil supplementation on prostaglandins in normal and tumor colon tissue: modulation by the lipogenic phenotype of colon tumors, Djuric et al., 2017 .
Marchetti, L; Andrés, S C; Califano, A N
Response surface methodology was used to analyze the effect of milk proteins and 2:1 κ:ι-carrageenans on cooking loss (CL), weight lost by centrifugation (WLC) and texture attributes of low-fat meat sausages with pre-emulsified fish oil. A central-composite design was used to develop models for the objective responses. Changes in carrageenans affected more the responses than milk proteins levels. Convenience functions were calculated for CL, WLC, hardness, and springiness of the product. Responses were optimized simultaneously minimizing CL and WLC; ranges for hardness and springiness corresponded to commercial products (20 g of pork fat/100 g). The optimum corresponded to 0.593 g of carrageenans/100 g and 0.320 g of milk proteins and its total lipid content was 6.3 g/100 g. This formulation was prepared and evaluated showing a good agreement between predicted and experimental responses. These additives could produce low-fat meat sausages with pre-emulsified fish oil with good nutritional quality and similar characteristics than traditional ones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Perez-del-Olmo, A.; Montero, F.E.; Raga, J.A.; Fernandez, M.; Kostadinova, A.
This study evaluates the follow-up trends in the composition and structure of the parasite communities in the marine sparid Boops boops after the Prestige oil-spill. A total of 400 fish comprising 11 seasonal samples was analyzed from three impacted localities on the Atlantic coast of Spain. A large number of parasite species was recovered only after the spill thus suggesting a substantial alteration of the marine food webs. Post-spill communities exhibited higher richness and abundance due to the significant changes in the abundance of the common species, the latter indicating accelerated parasite transmission rates. Multivariate analyses at two nested scales detected a directional trend in parasite community succession towards the pre-spill situation, however, with no full support for community recovery. The state of parasite communities in 2005-2006 may provide the new baseline data which can serve as a framework for quantifying the impact of potential future spills in the region. - Prestige oil-spill impact on parasite communities in the sparid fish B. boops
Udani, Jay K; Ritz, Barry W
The health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids from fish are well known, and fish oil supplements are used widely in a preventive manner to compensate the low intake in the general population. The aim of this open-label study was to determine if consumption of a high potency fish oil supplement could improve blood levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and impact SF-12 mental and physical health scores in healthy adults. A novel virtual clinical research organization was used along with the HS-Omega-3 Index, a measure of EPA and DHA in red blood cell membranes expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids that has been shown to correlate with a reduction in cardiovascular and other risk factors. Briefly, adult subjects (mean age 44 years) were recruited from among U.S. health food store employees and supplemented with 1.1 g/d of omega-3 from fish oil (756 mg EPA, 228 mg DHA, Minami Nutrition MorEPA Platinum) for 120 days (n = 157). Omega-3 status and mental health scores increased with supplementation (p < 0.001), while physical health scores remained unchanged. The use of a virtual, web-based platform shows considerable potential for engaging in clinical research with normal, healthy subjects. A high potency fish oil supplement may further improve omega-3 status in a healthy population regularly consuming an omega-3 supplement.
Asserhøj, M.; Nehammer, S.; Matthiessen, Jeppe
. Danish mothers (n = 122) were randomized to FO [1.5 g/d (n-3) LCPUFA] or olive oil (OO) supplementations during the first 4 mo of lactation. The trial also included a high-fish intake reference group (n = 53). Ninety-eight children were followed-up with blood pressure and anthropometry measurements at 7......Early nutrition may program obesity and cardiovascular risk later in life, and one of the potential agents is (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA). In this study, our objective was to examine whether fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affects blood pressure and body composition of children...
Lauritzen, Lotte; Eriksen, S E; Hjorth, Mads Fiil
between boys and girls. Mother-infant pairs (n 103) completed a randomised controlled trial with FO (1·5 g/d n-3 LCPUFA) or olive oil (OO) supplements during the first 4 months of lactation; forty-seven mother-infant pairs with high fish intake were followed-up for 4 months as the reference group. We also......Dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) in infancy may have long-term effects on lifestyle disease risk. The present follow-up study investigated whether maternal fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affected growth and blood pressure in adolescents and whether the effects differed...
Qiu, Xujian; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke
in fish oil enriched cow milk. In contrast, soy milk samples having much higher unsaturated fatty acid content showed higher lipid oxidation stability compared to cow milk. Reduction in the content of chlorogenic acid during storage suggested that this compound may contribute to the lipid oxidation...... stability of fish oil enriched soy milk product. Total carnosic acid and carnosol concentration declined much faster in soy milk than in cow milk. It is suggested from the results that food components could have significant impact on the fate of bioactive antioxidant compounds in a specific food product...
Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.
Offshore production of oil and gas is accompanied by a saline wastewater, called produced water. Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico often contain elevated concentrations of radionuclides that occur naturally in the geologic reservoir along with the oil and gas. These radionuclides may accumulate in organisms that live near offshore oil and gas structures. Because recreational fishing in the Gulf of Mexico is concentrated near oil and gas platforms, there is the potential for increased risks to recreational fishermen from the ingestion of radionuclides in fish caught near produced water discharges. This analysis investigated the potential risk to recreational fishermen from radium and lead-210 in offshore produced water discharged to the Gulf of Mexico.
Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.
Offshore production of oil and gas is accompanied by a saline wastewater, called produced water. Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico often contain elevated concentrations of radionuclides that occur naturally in the geologic reservoir along with the oil and gas. These radionuclides may accumulate in organisms that live near offshore oil and gas structures. Because recreational fishing in the Gulf of Mexico is concentrated near oil and gas platforms, there is the potential for increased risks to recreational fishermen from the ingestion of radionuclides in fish caught near produced water discharges. This analysis investigated the potential risk to recreational fishermen from radium and lead-210 in offshore produced water discharged to the Gulf of Mexico
Full Text Available Several bacterial strains were isolated from wild and reared fish and shellfish. The identification of these strains showed the dominance of the Aeromonas hydrophila species in all seafood samples, followed by Staphylococcus spp., Vibrio alginolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Klebsiella oxytoca and Serratia odorifera. The isolates were studied for their ability to produce exoenzymes and biofilms. The chemical composition of the essential oils from Laurus nobilis leaves, Zingiber officinale rhizomes and Anethum graveolens aerial parts was studied by GC and GC/MS. The essential oils’ antioxidant and antibacterial activities against the isolated microorganisms were studied. Low concentrations of the three essential oils were needed to inhibit the growth of the selected bacteria and the lowest MBCs values were obtained for the laurel essential oil. The selected essential oils can be used as a good natural preservative in fish food due to their antioxidant and antibacterial activities.
Katsuda, Marly S; McClements, D J; Miglioranza, Lucia H S; Decker, Eric A
The oxidation of fatty acids can be inhibited by engineering the surface of oil-in-water emulsion droplets to decrease interactions between aqueous phase prooxidants and lipids. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether emulsions stabilized by a multilayer emulsifier systems consisting of beta-lactoglobulin and citrus or sugar beet pectin could produce fish oil-in-water emulsions that had good physical and oxidative stability. Sugar beet pectin was compared to citrus pectin because the sugar beet pectin contains the known antioxidant, ferulic acid. A primary Menhaden oil-in-water emulsion was prepared with beta-lactoglobulin upon which the pectins were electrostatically deposited at pH 3.5. Emulsions prepared with 1% oil, 0.05% beta-lactoglobulin, and 0.06% pectins were physically stable for up to 16 days. As determined by monitoring lipid hydroperoxide and headspace propanal formation, emulsions prepared with the multilayer system of beta-lactoglobulin and citrus pectin were more stable than emulsions stabilized with beta-lactoglobulin alone. Emulsions prepared with the multilayer system of beta-lactoglobulin and sugar beet pectin were less stable than emulsions stabilized with beta-lactoglobulin alone despite the presence of ferulic acid in the sugar beet pectin. The lower oxidative stability of the emulsions with the sugar beet pectin could be due to its higher iron and copper concentrations which would produce oxidative stress that would overcome the antioxidant capacity of ferulic acid. These data suggest that the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions containing omega-3 fatty acids could be improved by the use of multilayer emulsion systems containing pectins with low metal concentrations.
Russell, K L; Berman, N E J; Gregg, P R A; Levant, B
The effects of an oral fish oil treatment regimen on sensorimotor, blood-brain barrier, and biochemical outcomes of traumatic brain injury (TBI) were investigated in a juvenile rat model. Seventeen-day old Long-Evans rats were given a 15mL/kg fish oil (2.01g/kg EPA, 1.34g/kg DHA) or soybean oil dose via oral gavage 30min prior to being subjected to a controlled cortical impact injury or sham surgery, followed by daily doses for seven days. Fish oil treatment resulted in less severe hindlimb deficits after TBI as assessed with the beam walk test, decreased cerebral IgG infiltration, and decreased TBI-induced expression of the Mmp9 gene one day after injury. These results indicate that fish oil improved functional outcome after TBI resulting, at least in part from decreased disruption of the blood-brain barrier through a mechanism that includes attenuation of TBI-induced expression of Mmp9. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Myrup, B.; Rossing, P.; Jensen, T.
Objective: We studied the effect of a diet supplementation with fish oil in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy in order to evaluate whether abnormal transcapillary escape rate of albumin and procoagulant activity in these patients could be modified. Methods: A double-blind, rand......Objective: We studied the effect of a diet supplementation with fish oil in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy in order to evaluate whether abnormal transcapillary escape rate of albumin and procoagulant activity in these patients could be modified. Methods: A double......-blind, randomized, controlled study was carried out at a tertiary referral centre. The subjects were 29 insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy. One year of fish oil supplementation (4.6 g n-3 fatty acids/day) was compared with placebo (olive oil). The main outcome measures were N-3 fatty acid...... rate of albumin and activity could not be modified during diet supplementation with fish oil in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy....
Tenore, Gian Carlo; Calabrese, Giorgio; Ritieni, Alberto; Campiglia, Pietro; Giannetti, Daniela; Novellino, Ettore
Commercial canned fish species typical in the Italian market were evaluated for their lipid profile. Bluefin tuna samples showed the highest content in omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) among the canned fish samples analyzed. Tests on H9C2 cardiomyocytes revealed that bluefin tuna n-3 PUFA may responsible for a significant cell protection against both physiological and doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress. Analogous tests performed by incubating cardiac cells with n-3 PUFA ethyl esters, of which most of fish oil pharmaceutical formulations (FOPF) are based, showed cytotoxicity at high doses. Our results highlighted that n-3 PUFA contents in a 50 g canned bluefin tuna portion would be almost equivalent to and potentially safer than those of 1 FOPF capsule (1000 mg)/die usually suggested for hyperlipidaemic subjects. Thus, Italian commercial canned bluefin tuna could be indicated as a functional food with potential health benefits for the prevention and care of cardiovascular disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kirkhus, Bente; Lamglait, Amandine; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Falch, Eva; Haider, Trond; Vik, Hogne; Hoem, Nils; Hagve, Tor-Arne; Basu, Samar; Olsen, Elisabeth; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Nyberg, Lena; Elind, Elisabeth; Ulven, Stine M
There is convincing evidence that consumption of fish and fish oil rich in long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA), EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3) reduce the risk of CHD. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether n-3 LCPUFA-enriched food products provide similar beneficial effects as fish oil with regard to incorporation into plasma lipids and effects on cardiovascular risk markers. A parallel 7-week intervention trial was performed where 159 healthy men and women were randomised to consume either 34 g fish pâté (n 44), 500 ml fruit juice (n 38) or three capsules of concentrated fish oil (n 40), all contributing to a daily intake of approximately 1 g EPA and DHA. A fourth group did not receive any supplementation or food product and served as controls (n 37). Plasma fatty acid composition, serum lipids, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured. Compared with the control group, plasma n-3 LCPUFA and EPA:arachidonic acid ratio increased equally in all intervention groups. However, no significant changes in blood lipids and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were observed. In conclusion, enriched fish pâté and fruit juice represent suitable delivery systems for n-3 LCPUFA. However, although the dose given is known to reduce the risk of CVD, no significant changes were observed on cardiovascular risk markers in this healthy population.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for threatened/endandered/rare and/or anadromous fish species in Southern California. Vector lines in this...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector arcs in this data set represent species...
Homan van der Heide, J. J.; Bilo, H. J.; Donker, A. J.; Wilmink, J. M.; Sluiter, W. J.; Tegzess, A. M.
In a randomized prospective coconut oil (daily 6g[63% C8:0 and 36% C10:0] [EPA-] [n = 48])-controlled trial, we investigated the effect of a one-month dietary supplementation with daily 6 g fish oil (30% C20:5 omega-3 and 20% C22:6 omega-3 as their methyl esthers [EPA+] [n = 40]) on the incidence
Daniele Colembergue Cunha
Full Text Available O fracionamento de óleos via "winterização" consiste numa cristalização fracionada, na qual os triacilgliceróis de óleos e gorduras são separados pela cristalização parcial na fase líquida. O objetivo deste trabalho consistiu na determinação das variáveis significativas e das condições operacionais do processo de "winterização" via solvente do óleo de pescado. Como matéria-prima empregou-se o óleo de pescado bruto de indústrias pesqueiras, o qual foi branqueado. Na etapa de "winterização", o óleo branqueado foi resfriado progressivamente em três estágios, de 30 ºC até -5 ºC. Foram estudados os seguintes fatores: tipo de solvente, proporção de solvente e agitação no segundo estágio do resfriamento. As composições de ácidos graxos dos óleos de pescado foram determinadas através de cromatografia gasosa. Foram analisadas as variações percentuais dos ácidos graxos insaturados e dos ácidos graxos saturados. As condições recomendadas para o processo foram o emprego de hexano como solvente, na proporção de 40% em relação à massa de óleo, e sem o emprego de agitação no segundo estágio do resfriamento. Sob tais condições, obteve-se um óleo com teor de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados (PUFA de 64,3%, sendo observado um aumento no percentual dos ácidos graxos insaturados de aproximadamente 9,2% e uma redução de 13,4% dos saturados, em relação ao óleo branqueado de pescado.The process of winterization consists of fractional crystallization, in which the triglycerides of oils and fats are separate by the partial crystallization in the liquid phase. The objective of this work was to evaluate significant variables and the operational conditions in the solvent winterization process of the fish oil. The crude fish oil from fishery industries was bleached and used as raw material. During the winterization step, the bleached oil was cooled progressively from 30 ºC to 5 ºC in three phases. The solvent
Nielsen, Nina Skall; Marckmann, Peter; Høy, Carl-Erik
We investigated the effect of incorporating n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into the diet on the lipid-class composition of LDLs, their size, and their susceptibility to oxidation. Forty-seven healthy volunteers incorporated 30 g sunflower-oil (SO) margarine/d into their habitual diet...... during a 3-wk run-in period and then used either SQ or a fish-oil-enriched sunflower oil (FO) margarine for the following 4 wk. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and apolipoproteins A-I and B did not differ significantly between the groups...... to 86 min, P = 0.003) and lower maximum rate of oxidation (from 10.5 to 10.2 nmol.mg(-1).min(-1), P = 0.003) after intake of the FO margarine. The results indicate that consumption of the FO compared with the SO margarine had no effect on LDL size and lipid composition and led to minor changes in LDL...
Encina, Cristian; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Holgado, Francisca; Giménez, Begoña; Vergara, Cristina; Robert, Paz
Fish-oil (FO) was encapsulated with hydroxypropylcelullose (HPC) by conventional spray-drying with water (FO-water) and solvent spray-drying with ethanol (FO-EtOH), methanol (FO-MeOH) and acetone (FO-Acet) in order to study the effect of the solvent on the encapsulation efficiency (EE), microparticle properties and stability of FO during storage at 40 °C. Results showed that FO-Acet presented the highest EE of FO (92.0%), followed by FO-EtOH (80.4%), FO-MeOH (75.0%) and FO-water (71.1%). A decrease of the dielectric constant increased the EE of FO, promoting triglyceride-polymer interactions instead of oil-in-water emulsion retention. FO release profile in aqueous model was similar for all FO-microparticles, releasing only the surface FO, according to Higuchi model. Oxidative stability of FO significantly improved by spray-drying with MeOH, both in surface and encapsulated oil fractions. In conclusion, encapsulation of FO by solvent spray-drying can be proposed as an alternative technology for encapsulation of hydrophobic molecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Belenguer, A; Toral, P G; Frutos, P; Hervás, G
Rumen microbial biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids has a major effect on the process of developing healthier dairy products. This study aimed to investigate in vivo the effect of diet supplementation with sunflower (SO) and fish (FO) oils on the rumen bacterial community in dairy sheep. First, 32 lactating ewes, divided in 8 lots of 4 animals each (2 lots per treatment), were fed a high-concentrate total mixed ration supplemented with 0, 2% SO, 1% FO, or 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 21 d, rumen fluid samples were taken from each lot for DNA extraction and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. In a second experiment, 5 cannulated ewes were first fed the same TMR, with the exception of a higher forage level, and then changed to the same diet supplemented with 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 0, 3, and 10 d, rumen content samples were taken for DNA extraction and FISH analysis (fluid). Total bacteria and the Butyrivibrio group were studied in microbial DNA by terminal RFLP analysis (T-RFLP), and real-time PCR was used to quantify Butyrivibrio bacteria that produce vaccenic acid or stearic acid. In rumen fluid samples, total bacteria and clostridial clusters IX and XIV were analyzed by FISH. Dietary supplementation with SO plus FO seemed to induce important changes in the total bacteria and Butyrivibrio populations, and a high interindividual variation was observed, and the speed of the effect of the lipid supplementation depended on the individual microbial composition. Analysis by T-RFLP and FISH showed increases in cluster IX bacteria with SO plus FO supplementation, presumably Quinella-like microorganisms. The abundances of vaccenic acid- and stearic acid-producing Butyrivibrio relative to total bacteria, estimated by real time PCR, were low (0.28 and 0.18%, respectively, in rumen fluid, and 0.86 and 0.81% in rumen contents) and only that of SA-producing bacteria seemed to be reduced by diets containing FO, although differences were only
Nayak, Madhusmita; Saha, Ashis; Pradhan, Avinash; Samanta, Mrinal; Giri, Shiba Shankar
Silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) is considered a promising medium carp species for freshwater aquaculture in Asia. This study in silver barb was carried out to evaluate the effects of total or partial substitution of dietary fish oil (FO) with linseed oil (LO) on growth, nutrient utilization, whole-body composition, muscle and liver fatty acid composition. Fish (12.1±0.4g of initial body weight) were fed for 60days with five experimental iso-proteinous, iso-lipidic and iso-caloric diets in which FO (control diet) was replaced by 33.3%, 50%, 66.7% and 100% LO. Final weight, weight gain, percent weight gain, SGR decreased linearly (p0.05) affect the feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and whole body proximate composition. Furthermore, enhanced level of LO increased α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n3) and linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n6) and decreased eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) in muscle and liver. To understand the molecular mechanism of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis, we cloned and characterized the fatty acyl Δ6 desaturase (Δ6 fad) cDNA and investigated its expression in various organs/tissues following replacement of FO with LO in the diet. The full-length Δ6 fad cDNA was 2056bp encoding 444 amino acids and was widely expressed in various organs/tissues. Replacement of FO with LO increased the expression of Δ6 fad mRNA in liver, muscle and intestine but no significant difference was found in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A four-month growth trial was carried out in order to evaluate performance and quality traits of juvenile shi drum fedwith two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets having different amounts of vegetable products (Vegetable diet vs. Controldiet. Compared to the Control diet, the Vegetable diet was formulated by increasing the replacement of fish meal (14%with soybean and cereal products, and fish oil (12% with a mixture of vegetable oil. On June, 4 groups of 225 fish (2replicates per dietary treatment were sorted according to live weight and reared in fibreglass tanks over a four- monthlong experimental period. Fish were hand fed to apparent satiety. Offered feed, growth parameters and feed efficiencywere recorded as productive performance. At the end of the trial (October biometric, chemical and reological traits wereexamined to assess fish quality. The dietary treatments showed similar productive performance. The relatively high inclusionof vegetable sources led to a significant modification of body shape, mesenteric fat and viscera weight. Among qualitytraits, Vegetable diet-fed fish demonstrated a significantly lower whole body and fillet crude protein content.Yellowness value of the cooked fillet was significantly lower in the Control diet-fed fish, whereas fillet texture was similar.The results of this research showed that shi drum is a suitable candidate for Mediterranean marine aquaculture andits dietary formulation might include at least the amount of vegetable sources used in this trial.
Sekar, Gajalakshmi; Sugumar, Saranya; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan
Nanoemulsions have numerous biomedical applications. For the first time, we have investigated the effects of orange and eucalyptus essential oil based nanoemulsions towards the structural aspect of human serum albumin (HSA). Quenching effect of nanoemulsion against the intrinsic fluorescence potential of tryptophan and tyrosine residues were evidenced from the fluorescence spectroscopic analysis. Static quenching mechanism was found to lead the binding of HSA–nanoemulsion systems. Synchronous and three dimensional spectroscopic studies have revealed the possible changes to the aromatic environment of HSA by the nanoemulsion. UV–Visible spectroscopic studies have confirmed the existence of the ground state complex formation between HSA and the surface of nanoemulsions by exhibiting the hyper-chromic effect in a concentration dependant manner. FTIR spectroscopy revealed the slight alteration in the Amide I, II and III bands of HSA after interaction. FT-Raman spectroscopy showed the decrease in the Raman intensity of the aromatic amino acid residues and shift in the amide bands of HSA upon binding with the nanoemulsion. Dichoric band obtained from the far UV-CD spectra at 208 and 222 nm of HSA showed the corresponding decrease in the alpha-helical contents upon interaction with nanoemulsions. Near UV-CD spectra also showed the prominent changes in the aromatic positions of the amino acid residues of HSA on binding with nanoemulsions. The above study has extrapolated the side effect analysis of the nanoemulsions in pharmaceutical applications in vitro in reference to their interaction with serum proteins. - Highlights: • Orange and eucalyptus oil based nanoemulsions were formulated and characterized. • UV–Visible spectroscopy confirmed the ground state complex formation. • Fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed the molecular conformational changes. • FTIR spectroscopy deep-rooted the alteration in the amide bands of HSA. • FT-Raman spectroscopy established
Sekar, Gajalakshmi; Sugumar, Saranya; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Nanoemulsions have numerous biomedical applications. For the first time, we have investigated the effects of orange and eucalyptus essential oil based nanoemulsions towards the structural aspect of human serum albumin (HSA). Quenching effect of nanoemulsion against the intrinsic fluorescence potential of tryptophan and tyrosine residues were evidenced from the fluorescence spectroscopic analysis. Static quenching mechanism was found to lead the binding of HSA–nanoemulsion systems. Synchronous and three dimensional spectroscopic studies have revealed the possible changes to the aromatic environment of HSA by the nanoemulsion. UV–Visible spectroscopic studies have confirmed the existence of the ground state complex formation between HSA and the surface of nanoemulsions by exhibiting the hyper-chromic effect in a concentration dependant manner. FTIR spectroscopy revealed the slight alteration in the Amide I, II and III bands of HSA after interaction. FT-Raman spectroscopy showed the decrease in the Raman intensity of the aromatic amino acid residues and shift in the amide bands of HSA upon binding with the nanoemulsion. Dichoric band obtained from the far UV-CD spectra at 208 and 222 nm of HSA showed the corresponding decrease in the alpha-helical contents upon interaction with nanoemulsions. Near UV-CD spectra also showed the prominent changes in the aromatic positions of the amino acid residues of HSA on binding with nanoemulsions. The above study has extrapolated the side effect analysis of the nanoemulsions in pharmaceutical applications in vitro in reference to their interaction with serum proteins. - Highlights: • Orange and eucalyptus oil based nanoemulsions were formulated and characterized. • UV–Visible spectroscopy confirmed the ground state complex formation. • Fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed the molecular