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Sample records for fish myofibrillar proteins

  1. Effect of γ-irradiation on the physicochemical properties and structure of fish myofibrillar proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Li, Ru-yi; Tu, Zong-cai; Ma, Da; Wang, Hui; Huang, Xiao-qin; He, Na

    2015-04-01

    The influence of γ-irradiation on physicochemical properties and structures of myofibrillar protein from grass crap exposed to dose up to 10 kGy was investigated. Irradiated samples exhibited decreased emulsifying property and increased surface hydrophobicity. Increasing dose resulted in decreasing free and total sulphydryl groups, decreasing myosin heavy chains in the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns. This study demonstrated that γ-irradiation decreased the myofibrillar protein ordered structure and generated the crosslinking and provided a possible reference for the identification of irradiated fish products.

  2. KARAKTERISASI PROTEIN MIOFIBRIL DARI IKAN KUNIRAN (Upeneus moluccensis DAN IKAN MATA BESAR (Selar crumenophthalmus [Characterization of Myofibrillar Protein from Goldband Goat Fish (Upeneus moluccensis and Bigeye Scad Fish (Selar crumenophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Subagio

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of myofibrillar protein from goldband goat fish (U. moluccensis and bigeye scad fish (S. crumenophthalmus were studied for their development as food ingredient. Color analysis using chromameter showed that myfibrillar protein from goldband goat fish was light colored, while that of bigeye scad was slightly drak colored. Proximate analysis showed that their contents were similar by crude protein 7-10%, crude fat 0.2-0.5%, and ash 0.4-0.7%. Amino acid compositions of both myofibrillar proteins were very close, dominated by glutamic acid (20%, aspartic acid (10% and lysine (9%. However, comparing with bigeye scad, myofibrillar proteins from goldband goatfish were easily aggregated, had higher gelation capacity and higher emulsion activity, but lower solubility. Based on these result, myofibrillar protein from goldband goatfish has good charachteristics as food ingredient especially for restructured products comparing with bigeye scad

  3. Filmes biodegradáveis à base de proteínas miofibrilares de pescado Biodegradable films based on myofibrillar proteins of fish

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    Elessandra da Rosa Zavareze

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as propriedades físicas, mecânicas e de barreira dos filmes produzidos a partir de diferentes concentrações de proteínas miofibrilares de pescado de baixo valor comercial. O pescado utilizado foi a corvina (Micropogonias furnieri, que foi eviscerada e filetada. As proteínas miofibrilares foram obtidas do músculo, em sucessivas lavagens com água destilada. Os filmes foram produzidos com 3, 4 e 5% de proteínas miofibrilares pelo método de casting. Os filmes foram analisados nos seguintes aspectos: espessura, solubilidade, opacidade, resistência à tração, elongação e permeabilidade ao vapor de água (PVA. O aumento da concentração de proteínas miofibrilares atribuiu aos filmes maior espessura, opacidade, resistência à tração e PVA; no entanto, conferiu menor elongação na ruptura dos mesmos.The objective of this work was to study the physical, mechanical and barrier properties of the films produced from different concentrations of myofibrillar proteins of fish. The fish used was croaker (Micropogonias furnieri, which was gutted and filleted. The myofibrillar proteins were obtained through the muscle with successive washes with distilled water. The films were made with 3, 4 and 5% of myofibrillar proteins by the method of casting. The films were analyzed by thickness, solubility, opacity, tensile strength, elongation and water vapor permeability (PVA. The increase of myofibrillar proteins concentration in the films increased thickness, opacity, tensile strength and water vapor permeability and reduced elongation at break of the film.

  4. Fish oil supplementation suppresses resistance exercise and feeding-induced increases in anabolic signaling without affecting myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlory, Chris; Wardle, Sophie L; Macnaughton, Lindsay S; Witard, Oliver C; Scott, Fraser; Dick, James; Bell, J Gordon; Phillips, Stuart M; Galloway, Stuart D R; Hamilton, D Lee; Tipton, Kevin D

    2016-03-01

    Fish oil (FO) supplementation potentiates muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in response to a hyperaminoacidemic-hyperinsulinemic infusion. Whether FO supplementation potentiates MPS in response to protein ingestion or when protein ingestion is combined with resistance exercise (RE) remains unknown. In a randomized, parallel group design, 20 healthy males were randomized to receive 5 g/day of either FO or coconut oil control (CO) for 8 weeks. After supplementation, participants performed a bout of unilateral RE followed by ingestion of 30 g of whey protein. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after supplementation for assessment of muscle lipid composition and relevant protein kinase activities. Infusion of L-[ring-(13)C6] phenylalanine was used to measure basal myofibrillar MP Sat rest (REST), in a nonexercised leg following protein ingestion (FED) and following RE and protein ingestion (FEDEX).MPS was significantly elevated above REST during FEDEX in both the FO and CO groups, but there was no effect of supplementation. There was a significant increase in MPS in both groups above REST during FED but no effect of supplementation. Supplementation significantly decreased pan PKB activity at RESTin the FO group but not the CO group. There was a significant increase from REST at post-RE for PKB and AMPKα2 activity in the CO group but not in the FO group. In FEDEX, there was a significant increase in p70S6K1 activity from REST at 3 h in the CO group only. These data highlight that 8 weeks of FO supplementation alters kinase signaling activity in response to RE plus protein ingestion without influencing MPS. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  5. Influence of xanthan gum on the structural characteristics of myofibrillar proteins treated by high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamonte, Gina; Jury, Vanessa; Jung, Stéphanie; de Lamballerie, Marie

    2015-03-01

    The effects of xanthan gum on the structural modifications of myofibrillar proteins (0.3 M NaCl, pH 6) induced by high pressure (200, 400, and 600 MPa, 6 min) were investigated. The changes in the secondary and tertiary structures of myofibrillar proteins were analyzed by circular dichroism. The protein denaturation was also evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry. Likewise, the protein surface hydrophobicity and the solubility of myofibrillar proteins were measured. High pressure (600 MPa) induced the loss of α-helix structures and an increase of β-sheet structures. However, the presence of xanthan gum hindered the former mechanism of protein denaturation by high pressure. In fact, changes in the secondary (600 MPa) and the tertiary structure fingerprint of high-pressure-treated myofibrillar proteins (400 to 600 MPa) were observed in the presence of xanthan gum. These modifications were confirmed by the thermal analysis, the thermal transitions of high-pressure (400 to 600 MPa)-treated myofibrillar proteins were modified in systems containing xanthan gum. As consequence, the high-pressure-treated myofibrillar proteins with xanthan gum showed increased solubility from 400 MPa, in contrast to high-pressure treatment (600 MPa) without xanthan gum. Moreover, the surface hydrophobicity of high-pressure-treated myofibrillar proteins was enhanced in the presence of xanthan gum. These effects could be due to the unfolding of myofibrillar proteins at high-pressure levels, which exposed sites that most likely interacted with the anionic polysaccharide. This study suggests that the role of food additives could be considered for the development of meat products produced by high-pressure processing. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Effects of estrogen replacement and lower androgen status on skeletal muscle collagen and myofibrillar protein synthesis in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Skovgaard, Dorthe; Reitelseder, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to determine synthesis rate of myofibrillar and collagen proteins in 20 postmenopausal women, who were either nonusers (Controls) or users of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) after hysterectomy/oophorectomy. Myofibrillar and muscle collagen protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) were...... determined in a nonexercised leg and 24 hours after exercise in the contralateral leg. A significant interaction between treatment and mechanical loading was observed in myofibrillar protein FSR. At rest, myofibrillar protein FSR was found to be lower in ERT users than in Controls. Exercise enhanced...... myofibrillar protein FSR only in ERT users. Similarly, muscle collagen FSR tended to be lower in ERT users compared with Controls. In ERT participants, the androgen profile was reduced, whereas estradiol and sex hormone–binding globulin were higher. In conclusion, at rest, myofibrillar protein FSR was lower...

  7. Changes in phosphorylation of myofibrillar proteins during postmortem development of porcine muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Honggang; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Lametsch, Rene

    2012-01-01

    A gel-based phosphoproteomic study was performed to investigate the postmortem (PM) changes in protein phosphorylation of the myofibrillar proteins in three groups of pigs with different pH decline rates, from PM 1 h to 24 h. The global phosphorylation level in the group with a fast pH decline rate...... was higher than that in the slow and intermediate groups at early PM time, but became the lowest at 24 h. The protein phosphorylation level of seven individual protein bands was only significantly (ppH...... phosphorylated protein bands with the highest scores. The results indicate that the phosphorylation pattern of myofibrillar proteins in PM muscle is mainly changed with PM time, but only to a minor extent influenced by the rate of pH decline, suggesting that the phosphorylation of myofibrillar proteins may...

  8. No effect of menstrual cycle on myofibrillar and connective tissue protein synthesis in contracting skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, B.F.; Hansen, M.; Olesen, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that acute exercise would stimulate synthesis of myofibrillar protein and intramuscular collagen in women and that the phase of the menstrual cycle at which the exercise took place would influence the extent of the change. Fifteen young, healthy female subjects were studied...... in the follicular (FP, n=8) or the luteal phase (LP, n=7, n=1 out of phase) 24 h after an acute bout of one-legged exercise (60 min of kicking at 67% W(max)), samples being taken from the vastus lateralis in both the exercised and resting legs. Rates of synthesis of myofibrillar and muscle collagen proteins were...... measured by incorporation of [(13)C]leucine. Myofibrillar protein synthesis (means+/-SD; rest FP: 0.053+/-0.009%/h, LP: 0.055+/-0.013%/h) was increased at 24-h postexercise (FP: 0.131+/-0.018%/h, Psynthesis...

  9. Time Course of the Response of Myofibrillar and Sarcoplasmic Protein Metabolism to Unweighting of the Soleus Muscle

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    Munoz, Kathryn A.; Satarug, Soisungwan; Tischler, Marc E.

    1993-01-01

    Contributions of altered in vivo protein synthesis and degradation to unweighting atrophy of the soleus muscle in tail-suspended young female rats were analyzed daily for up to 6 days. Specific changes in myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins were also evaluated to assess their contributions to the loss of total protein. Synthesis of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins was estimated by intramuscular (IM) injection and total protein by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of flooding doses of H-3-phenylaianine. Total protein loss was greatest during the first 3 days following suspension and was a consequence of the loss of myofibrillar rather than sarcoplasmic proteins. However, synthesis of total myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins diminished in parallel beginning in the first 24 hours. Therefore sarcoplasmic proteins must be spared due to a decrease in their degradation. In contrast, myofibrillar protein degradation increased, thus explaining the elevated degradation of the total pool. Following 72 hours of suspension, protein synthesis remained low, but the rate of myofibrillar protein loss diminished, suggesting a slowing of degradation. These various results show acute loss of protein during unweighting atrophy is a consequence of decreased synthesis and increased degradation of myofibrillar proteins, and sarcoplasmic proteins are spared due to slower degradation, likely explaining the sparing of plasma membrane receptors. Based on other published data, we propose that the slowing of atrophy after the initial response may be attributed to an increased effect of insulin.

  10. Myofibrillar protein oxidation affects filament charges, aggregation and water-holding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, Yulong; Boeren, Sjef; Ertbjerg, Per

    2018-01-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HClO) is a strong oxidant that is able to mediate protein oxidation. In order to study the effect of oxidation on charges, aggregation and water-holding of myofibrillar proteins, extracted myofibrils were oxidized by incubation with different concentrations of HClO (0, 1, 5,

  11. Turnover of whole body proteins and myofibrillar proteins in middle-aged active men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackin, M.; Meredith, C.; Frontera, W.; Evans, W.

    1986-01-01

    Endurance-trained older men have a higher proportion of lean tissue and greater muscle cell oxidative capacity, reversing age-related trends and suggesting major changes in protein metabolism. In this study, protein turnover was determined in 6 middle-aged (52+/-1 yr) men who were well trained (VO 2 max 55.2+/-5.0 ml O 2 /kg.min) and lean (body fat 18.9+/-2.8%, muscle mass 36.6+/-0.6%). The maintained habitual exercise while consuming 0.6, 0.9 or 1.2 g protein/kg.day for 10-day periods. N flux was measured from 15 N in urea after oral 15 N-glycine administration. Myofibrillar protein breakdown was estimated from urinary 3-methyl-histidine. Dietary protein had no effect on turnover rates, even when N balance was negative. Whole body protein synthesis was 3.60+/-0.12 g/kg.day and breakdown was 3.40+/-0.14 g/kg.day for all N intakes. Whole body protein flux, synthesis and breakdown were similar to values reported for sedentary young (SY) or sedentary old (SO) men on comparable diets. 3-me-his (3.67+/-0.14 μmol/kg.day) was similar to values reported for SY but higher (p<0.01) than for SO. Myofibrillar protein breakdown per unit muscle mass (185+/-7 μmol 3-me-his/g creatinine) was higher (p<0.01) than for SY or SO. In active middle-aged men, myofibrillar proteins may account for a greater proportion of whole body protein turnover, despite an age-related reduction in muscle mass

  12. Effect of administration of oral contraceptives on the synthesis and breakdown of myofibrillar proteins in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M; Langberg, Henning; Holm, L

    2011-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) treatment has an inhibiting effect on protein synthesis in tendon and muscle connective tissue. We aimed to investigate whether OC influence myofibrillar protein turnover in young women. OC-users (24±2 years; Lindynette® n=7, Cilest® n=4) and non-OC-users (controls, 24......±4 years n=12) performed one-legged kicking exercise. The next day, the myofibrillar protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) was measured using stable isotopic tracers ((13)C-proline) while the subjects were fed standardized nutrient drinks. Simultaneously, a marker for myofibrillar protein breakdown, 3...

  13. Effect of meat cooking on physicochemical state and in vitro digestibility of myofibrillar proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santé-Lhoutellier, Veronique; Astruc, Thierry; Marinova, Penka; Greve, Eleonore; Gatellier, Philippe

    2008-02-27

    The effect of meat cooking was measured on myofibrillar proteins from bovine M. Rectus abdominis. The heating treatment involved two temperatures (100 degrees C during 5, 15, 30, and 45 min and 270 degrees C during 1 min). Protein oxidation induced by cooking was evaluated by the level of carbonyl and free thiol groups. Structural modifications of proteins were assessed by the measurement of their surface hydrophobicity and by their aggregation state. With the aim of evaluating the impact of heat treatment on the digestive process, myofibrillar proteins were then exposed to proteases of the digestive tract (pepsin, trypsin, and alpha-chymotrypsin) in conditions of pH and temperature that simulate stomach and duodenal digestion. Meat cooking affected myofibrillar protein susceptibility to proteases, with increased or decreased rates, depending on the nature of the protease and the time/temperature parameters. Results showed a direct and quantitative relationship between protein carbonylation (p<0.01) and aggregation (p<0.05) induced by cooking and proteolytic susceptibility to pepsin. However, no such correlations have been observed with trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin.

  14. Polymorphism of myofibrillar proteins of rabbit skeletal-muscle fibres. An electrophoretic study of single fibres.

    OpenAIRE

    Salviati, G; Betto, R; Danieli Betto, D

    1982-01-01

    Rabbit predominantly fast-twitch-fibre and predominantly slow-twitch-fibre skeletal muscles of the hind limbs, the psoas, the diaphragm and the masseter muscles were fibre-typed by one-dimensional polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of the myofibrillar proteins of chemically skinned single fibres. Investigation of the distribution of fast-twitch-fibre and slow-twitch-fibre isoforms of myosin light chains and the type of myosin heavy chains, based on peptide 'maps' published in Cleveland. Fisch...

  15. Proteomic evaluation of myofibrillar carbonylation in chilled fish mince and its inhibition by catechin.

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    Pazos, Manuel; Maestre, Rodrigo; Gallardo, José M; Medina, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the susceptibility of individual myofibrillar proteins from mackerel (Scomber scombrus) mince to undergo carbonylation reactions during chilled storage, and the antioxidant capacity of (+)-catechin to prevent oxidative processes of proteins. The carbonylation of each particular protein was quantified by combining the labelling of protein carbonyls by fluorescein-5-thiosemicarbazide (FTSC) with 1-D or 2-D gel electrophoresis. Alpha skeletal actin, glycogen phosphorylase, unnamed protein product (UNP) similar to enolase, pyruvate kinase, isoforms of creatine kinase, aldolase A and an isoform of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) showed elevated oxidation in chilled non-supplemented mince. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) was not carbonylated in chilled muscle, but an extensive MHC degradation was observed in those samples. The supplementation of catechin reduced protein oxidation and lipid oxidation in a concentration-dependent manner: control>25>100≈200ppm. Therefore, the highest catechin concentrations (100 and 200ppm) exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity. Catechin (200ppm) reduced significantly carbonylation of protein spots identified as glycogen phosphorylase, pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme, isoforms of creatine kinase. Conversely, catechin was ineffective to inhibit the oxidation of actin and UNP similar to enolase. These results draw attention to the inefficiency of catechin to prevent actin oxidation, in contrast to the extremely high efficiency of catechin in inhibiting oxidation of lipids and other proteins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-SDS as a tool to study myofibrillar proteins. A review.

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    Perez-Chabela, M. Lourdes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Miofibrillar proteins are part of land and sea animals’ muscle. Nonetheless, even when muscle proteins are the same type of proteins, their structure, rigor mortis time, and biochemical process associated to muscle to meat conversion, are different among animal species. This review has the aim to describe the advantages of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE in the study of myofibrillar proteins structure, besides the influence of many parameters on this technique to obtain an electrophoretic profile. Applications of this technique as a diagnostic tool in the food science, ecology and health are described as well.

  17. Role of Myofibrillar Protein Catabolism in Development of Glucocorticoid Myopathy: Aging and Functional Activity Aspects

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    Teet Seene

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscle weakness in corticosteroid myopathy is mainly the result of the destruction and atrophy of the myofibrillar compartment of fast-twitch muscle fibers. Decrease of titin and myosin, and the ratio of nebulin and MyHC in myopathic muscle, shows that these changes of contractile and elastic proteins are the result of increased catabolism of the abovementioned proteins in skeletal muscle. Slow regeneration of skeletal muscle is in good correlation with a decreased number of satellite cells under the basal lamina of muscle fibers. Aging causes a reduction of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activity as the result of the reduced function of the mitochondrial compartment. AMPK activity increases as a result of increased functional activity. Resistance exercise causes anabolic and anticatabolic effects in skeletal muscle: muscle fibers experience hypertrophy while higher myofibrillar proteins turn over. These changes are leading to the qualitative remodeling of muscle fibers. As a result of these changes, possible maximal muscle strength is increasing. Endurance exercise improves capillary blood supply, increases mitochondrial biogenesis and muscle oxidative capacity, and causes a faster turnover rate of sarcoplasmic proteins as well as qualitative remodeling of type I and IIA muscle fibers. The combination of resistance and endurance exercise may be the fastest way to prevent or decelerate muscle atrophy due to the anabolic and anticatabolic effects of exercise combined with an increase in oxidative capacity. The aim of the present short review is to assess the role of myofibrillar protein catabolism in the development of glucocorticoid-caused myopathy from aging and physical activity aspects.

  18. On protein quality control, myofibrillar myopathies, and neurodegeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meister, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Eiwitten zijn bouwstenen van de cel en het is noodzakelijk dat zij in specifieke -vooraf bepaalde – 3-dimensionale vormen ‘gevouwen’ worden om hun functies binnen de cel te kunnen vervullen. De cel heeft een speciaal netwerk (Protein Quality Control [PQC] netwerk) die de kwaliteit van dergelijke

  19. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Ingestion Stimulates Muscle Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis following Resistance Exercise in Humans

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    Sarah R. Jackman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ingestion of intact protein or essential amino acids (EAA stimulates mechanistic target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1 signaling and muscle protein synthesis (MPS following resistance exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of myofibrillar-MPS to ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs only (i.e., without concurrent ingestion of other EAA, intact protein, or other macronutrients following resistance exercise in humans. Ten young (20.1 ± 1.3 years, resistance-trained men completed two trials, ingesting either 5.6 g BCAA or a placebo (PLA drink immediately after resistance exercise. Myofibrillar-MPS was measured during exercise recovery with a primed, constant infusion of L-[ring13C6] phenylalanine and collection of muscle biopsies pre and 4 h-post drink ingestion. Blood samples were collected at time-points before and after drink ingestion. Western blotting was used to measure the phosphorylation status of mTORC1 signaling proteins in biopsies collected pre, 1-, and 4 h-post drink. The percentage increase from baseline in plasma leucine (300 ± 96%, isoleucine (300 ± 88%, and valine (144 ± 59% concentrations peaked 0.5 h-post drink in BCAA. A greater phosphorylation status of S6K1Thr389 (P = 0.017 and PRAS40 (P = 0.037 was observed in BCAA than PLA at 1 h-post drink ingestion. Myofibrillar-MPS was 22% higher (P = 0.012 in BCAA (0.110 ± 0.009%/h than PLA (0.090 ± 0.006%/h. Phenylalanine Ra was ~6% lower in BCAA (18.00 ± 4.31 μmol·kgBM−1 than PLA (21.75 ± 4.89 μmol·kgBM−1; P = 0.028 after drink ingestion. We conclude that ingesting BCAAs alone increases the post-exercise stimulation of myofibrillar-MPS and phosphorylation status mTORC1 signaling.

  20. Emulsifying and gelling properties of weakfish myofibrillar proteins as affected by squid mantle myofibrillar proteins in a model system

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    Daniela Mariel Suarez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to investigate the physicochemical, biochemical and functional characteristics of both the myofibrils (MF and actomyosin (AM of squid mantle (Illex argentinus and weakfish (Cynoscion guatucupa muscles, and evaluate the influence of the addition of myofibrilar proteins from the squid mantle on the physicochemical and functional properties of those of the weakfish. After extraction, purification and characterization of the MF and AM of both species, emulsions of each protein fraction from each muscle were formulated. Mixtures of the MF or AM of both species were also analyzed. The emulsifying properties were monitoring using the Emulsifying Activity Index (EAI and Emulsion Stability (ES. In addition, gel pastes were formulated from the squid mantle, weakfish muscle and the mixture of both species, and the following functional properties of the gels assessed: water holding capacity, colour, textural profile analysis (TPA (hardness, elasticity, cohesiveness, gumminess and gel strength. The EAI values of emulsions formulated with the MF of the mantle were significantly (p<0.05 higher than those formulated from those of weakfish. The incorporation of squid MF in the mixture increased the EAI values. Conversely, the highest ES values were obtained with weakfish MF, and the incorporation of MF weakfish in the mixture increased the ES values. Similar EAI and ES behaviours were observed for the AM of the corresponding species. Irrespective of the thermal treatment, the gel strength of the gelled paste of squid muscle was significantly (p<0.05 lower than that of weakfish muscle and of those obtained with the different mixtures. The behaviours of the expressible moisture (EM from the gelled pastes were similar to those of gel strength. Irrespective of the thermal treatment, the pastes formulated with a high weakfish: mantle ratio showed less water loss. The gelled pastes of squid mantle showed the highest values for whiteness

  1. Potential Biomarker of Myofibrillar Protein Oxidation in Raw and Cooked Ham: 3-Nitrotyrosine Formed by Nitrosation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xianchao; Li, Chenyi; Ullah, Niamat; Hackman, Robert M; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-12-30

    The stability of cured meat products is increased by the protection of its proteins from oxidation by sodium nitrite (NaNO2) during processing. This study investigated the effects of NaNO2 (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) on the physiochemical and structural characteristics of myofibrillar protein (MP) in raw and cooked ham. The NaNO2 showed a dose-dependent antioxidant effect, by inhibiting carbonyl formation, dityrosine formation, and denaturation of MP, and a nitrosative effect, through the formation of 3-Nitrotyrosine (3-NT). The 3-NT content within MP of raw ham had distinct negative correlations with sulfhydryl content and surface hydrophobicity. The 3-NT content within MP of cooked ham had significantly negative correlations with carbonyl, sulfhydryl content and turbidity and had significantly positive correlations with disulfide content. These results indicated that 3-NT may be a potential marker for protein oxidation in raw and cooked cured meat products.

  2. Hypoenergetic diet-induced reductions in myofibrillar protein synthesis are restored with resistance training and balanced daily protein ingestion in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Caoileann H; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Mitchell, Cameron J; Kolar, Nathan M; Kassis, Amira; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Burke, Louise M; Hawley, John A; Phillips, Stuart M

    2015-05-01

    Strategies to enhance weight loss with a high fat-to-lean ratio in overweight/obese older adults are important since lean loss could exacerbate sarcopenia. We examined how dietary protein distribution affected muscle protein synthesis during energy balance (EB), energy restriction (ER), and energy restriction plus resistance training (ER + RT). A 4-wk ER diet was provided to overweight/obese older men (66 ± 4 yr, 31 ± 5 kg/m(2)) who were randomized to either a balanced (BAL: 25% daily protein/meal × 4) or skewed (SKEW: 7:17:72:4% daily protein/meal; n = 10/group) pattern. Myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were measured during a 13-h primed continuous infusion of l-[ring-(13)C6]phenylalanine with BAL and SKEW pattern of protein intake in EB, after 2 wk ER, and after 2 wk ER + RT. Fed-state myofibrillar FSR was lower in ER than EB in both groups (P < 0.001), but was greater in BAL than SKEW (P = 0.014). In ER + RT, fed-state myofibrillar FSR increased above ER in both groups and in BAL was not different from EB (P = 0.903). In SKEW myofibrillar FSR remained lower than EB (P = 0.002) and lower than BAL (P = 0.006). Fed-state sarcoplasmic protein FSR was reduced similarly in ER and ER + RT compared with EB (P < 0.01) in both groups. During ER in overweight/obese older men a BAL consumption of protein stimulated the synthesis of muscle contractile proteins more effectively than traditional, SKEW distribution. Combining RT with a BAL protein distribution "rescued" the lower rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis during moderate ER. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Masseter muscle myofibrillar protein synthesis and degradation in an experimental critical illness myopathy model.

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    Hazem Akkad

    Full Text Available Critical illness myopathy (CIM is a debilitating common consequence of modern intensive care, characterized by severe muscle wasting, weakness and a decreased myosin/actin (M/A ratio. Limb/trunk muscles are primarily affected by this myopathy while cranial nerve innervated muscles are spared or less affected, but the mechanisms underlying these muscle-specific differences remain unknown. In this time-resolved study, the cranial nerve innervated masseter muscle was studied in a unique experimental rat intensive care unit (ICU model, where animals were exposed to sedation, neuromuscular blockade (NMB, mechanical ventilation, and immobilization for durations varying between 6 h and 14d. Gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, RT-PCR and morphological staining techniques were used to analyze M/A ratios, myofiber size, synthesis and degradation of myofibrillar proteins, and levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs. Results obtained in the masseter muscle were compared with previous observations in experimental and clinical studies of limb muscles. Significant muscle-specific differences were observed, i.e., in the masseter, the decline in M/A ratio and muscle fiber size was small and delayed. Furthermore, transcriptional regulation of myosin and actin synthesis was maintained, and Akt phosphorylation was only briefly reduced. In studied degradation pathways, only mRNA, but not protein levels of MuRF1, atrogin-1 and the autophagy marker LC3b were activated by the ICU condition. The matrix metalloproteinase MMP-2 was inhibited and protective HSPs were up-regulated early. These results confirm that the cranial nerve innervated masticatory muscles is less affected by the ICU-stress response than limb muscles, in accordance with clinical observation in ICU patients with CIM, supporting the model' credibility as a valid CIM model.

  4. Ca2+-dependent proteolytic activity in crab claw muscle: effects of inhibitors and specificity for myofibrillar proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mykles, D.L.; Skinner, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    The claw closer muscle of the Bermuda land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis, undergoes a sequential atrophy and restoration during each molting cycle. The role of Ca 2+ -dependent proteinases in the turn-over of myofibrillar protein in normal anecdysial (intermolt) claw muscle is described. Crab Ca 2+ -dependent proteinase degrades the myofibrillar proteins actin, myosin heavy and light chains, paramyosin, tropomyosin, and troponin-T and -I. Ca 2+ -dependent proteinase activity in whole homogenates and 90,000 x g supernatant fractions from muscle homogenates has been characterized with respect to Ca 2+ requirement, substrate specificity, and effects of proteinase inhibitors. The enzyme is inhibited by antipain, leupeptin, E-64, and iodoacetamide; it is insensitive to pepstatin A. The specificity of crab Ca 2+ -dependent proteinase was examined with native myosin with normal ATPase activity as well as with radioiodinated myosin and radioiodinated hemolymph proteins. Hydrolysis of 125 I-myosin occurs in two phases, both Ca 2+ -dependent: (1) heavy chain (M/sub r/ = 200,000) is cleaved into four large fragments (M/sub r/ = 160,000, 110,000, 73,000, 60,000) and numerous smaller fragments; light chain (M/sub r/ = 18,000) is cleaved to a 15,000-Da fragment; (2) the fragments produced in the first phase are hydrolyzed to acid-soluble material. Although radioiodinated native hemolymph proteins are not susceptible to the Ca 2+ -dependent proteinase, those denatured by carboxymethylation are degraded. These data suggest that crab Ca 2+ -dependent proteinase is involved in turnover of myofibrillar protein in normal muscle and muscle undergoing proecdysial atrophy

  5. Change of the structure and the digestibility of myofibrillar proteins in Nanjing dry-cured duck during processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaojing; Sun, Yangying; Pan, Daodong; Wang, Ying; Ou, Changrong; Cao, Jinxuan

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the change of bioavailability and structure of myofibrillar proteins during Nanjing dry-cured duck processing, carbonyl content, sulfhydryl (SH) group, disulfide (SS) group, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, surface hydrophobicity, secondary structures and in vitro digestibility were determined. During processing, carbonyl content and surface hydrophobicity increased; SH turned into SS group; α-helix turned into β-sheet and random coil fractions. Protein degradation occurred during dry-curing and drying-ripening stages. The in vitro digestibility of pepsin and pancreatic proteases increased during the salt curing stage and decreased during the drying-ripening stage. The increase of digestibility could be attributed to the mild oxidation, degradation and unfolding of proteins while the decrease of digestibility was related to the intensive oxidation and aggregation of proteins. Protein degradation was not a main factor of digestibility during the drying-ripening stage. Results demonstrated that the bioavailability loss of myofibrillar proteins in Nanjing dry-cured duck occurred during the stage of drying-ripening instead of curing. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Comparison of human myofibrillar protein catabolic rate derived from 3-methylhistidine excretion with synthetic rate from muscle biopsies during L-(. cap alpha. -/sup 15/N)lysine infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeran, R O; Halliday, D; Purkiss, P [Clinical Research Centre, Harrow (UK). Div. of Inherited Metabolic Diseases and Clinical Investigation

    1978-05-01

    Urine was collected in five healthy men over 10 to 14 days, with fasting blood samples on days 1, 5 and 10, whilst they consumed a standard creatine-free diet, which was quantitatively related to their body surface area. The urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine fell to a plateau by day 5 in all subjects. Myofibrillar protein catabolic rate calculated from the mean value of 3-methylhistidine excretion from day 5 to day 10 averaged 1.21 g day/sup -1/ kg/sup -1/ body weight. The average turnover of muscle myofibrillar protein was calculated to be 2.16%/day. From a previous study using continuous intravenous infusion of L-(a-/sup 15/N)lysine with serial muscle biopsies on the same subjects, the mean myofibrillar protein synthetic rate was calculated to be 0.82 g day/sup -1/ kg/sup -1/ body weight, and the mean turnover rate was 1.47%/day of total muscle myofibrillar protein. The estimations of myofibrillar protein turnover rate derived from the two methods are compared and the differences discussed.

  7. Acute post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis is not correlated with resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Parise, Gianni; Bellamy, Leeann; Baker, Steven K; Smith, Kenneth; Atherton, Philip J; Phillips, Stuart M

    2014-01-01

    Muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT) involves activation of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) to expand the myofibrillar protein pool. The degree of hypertrophy following RT is, however, highly variable and thus we sought to determine the relationship between the acute activation of MPS and RT-induced hypertrophy. We measured MPS and signalling protein activation after the first session of resistance exercise (RE) in untrained men (n = 23) and then examined the relation between MPS with magnetic resonance image determined hypertrophy. To measure MPS, young men (24±1 yr; body mass index  = 26.4±0.9 kg•m²) underwent a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-¹³C₆] phenylalanine to measure MPS at rest, and acutely following their first bout of RE prior to 16 wk of RT. Rates of MPS were increased 235±38% (Pmuscle volume and acute rates of MPS measured over 1-3 h (r = 0.02), 3-6 h (r = 0.16) or the aggregate 1-6 h post-exercise period (r = 0.10). Hypertrophy after chronic RT was correlated (r = 0.42, P = 0.05) with phosphorylation of 4E-BP1(Thr37/46) at 1 hour post RE. We conclude that acute measures of MPS following an initial exposure to RE in novices are not correlated with muscle hypertrophy following chronic RT.

  8. Whey protein supplementation preserves postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis during short-term energy restriction in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, Amy J; Marcotte, George R; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Murphy, Caoileann H; Breen, Leigh; von Allmen, Mark; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2015-02-01

    Higher dietary energy as protein during weight loss results in a greater loss of fat mass and retention of muscle mass; however, the impact of protein quality on the rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and lipolysis, processes that are important in the maintenance of muscle and loss of fat, respectively, are unknown. We aimed to determine how the consumption of different sources of proteins (soy or whey) during a controlled short-term (14-d) hypoenergetic diet affected MPS and lipolysis. Men (n = 19) and women (n = 21) (age 35-65 y; body mass index 28-50 kg/m(2)) completed a 14-d controlled hypoenergetic diet (-750 kcal/d). Participants were randomly assigned, double blind, to receive twice-daily supplements of isolated whey (27 g/supplement) or soy (26 g/supplement), providing a total protein intake of 1.3 ± 0.1 g/(kg · d), or isoenergetic carbohydrate (25 g maltodextrin/supplement) resulting in a total protein intake of 0.7 ± 0.1 g/(kg · d). Before and after the dietary intervention, primed continuous infusions of L-[ring-(13)C6] phenylalanine and [(2)H5]-glycerol were used to measure postabsorptive and postprandial rates of MPS and lipolysis. Preintervention, MPS was stimulated more (P whey than with soy or carbohydrate. Postintervention, postabsorptive MPS decreased similarly in all groups (all P whey group, which was less (P whey. We conclude that whey protein supplementation attenuated the decline in postprandial rates of MPS after weight loss, which may be of importance in the preservation of lean mass during longer-term weight loss interventions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01530646. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Growth hormone stimulates the collagen synthesis in human tendon and skeletal muscle without affecting myofibrillar protein synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doessing, Simon; Heinemeier, Katja M; Holm, Lars

    2010-01-01

    young individuals. rhGH administration caused an increase in serum GH, serum IGF-I, and IGF-I mRNA expression in tendon and muscle. Tendon collagen I mRNA expression and tendon collagen protein synthesis increased by 3.9-fold and 1.3-fold, respectively (P ...RNA expression and muscle collagen protein synthesis increased by 2.3-fold and 5.8-fold, respectively (P protein synthesis was unaffected by elevation of GH and IGF-I. Moderate exercise did not enhance the effects of GH manipulation. Thus, increased GH availability stimulates...... matrix collagen synthesis in skeletal muscle and tendon, but without any effect upon myofibrillar protein synthesis. The results suggest that GH is more important in strengthening the matrix tissue than for muscle cell hypertrophy in adult human musculotendinous tissue....

  10. Myofibrillar protein synthesis following ingestion of soy protein isolate at rest and after resistance exercise in elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yifan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased amino acid availability stimulates muscle protein synthesis, however, aged muscle appears less responsive to the anabolic effects of amino acids when compared to the young. We aimed to compare changes in myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS in elderly men at rest and after resistance exercise following ingestion of different doses of soy protein and compare the responses to those we previously observed with ingestion of whey protein isolate. Methods Thirty elderly men (age 71 ± 5 y completed a bout of unilateral knee-extensor resistance exercise prior to ingesting no protein (0 g, or either 20 g or 40 g of soy protein isolate (0, S20, and S40 respectively. We compared these responses to previous responses from similar aged men who had ingested 20 g and 40 g of whey protein isolate (W20 and W40. A primed constant infusion of L-[1-13 C]leucine and L-[ring-13 C6]phenylalanine and skeletal muscle biopsies were used to measure whole-body leucine oxidation and MPS over 4 h post-protein consumption in both exercised and non-exercised legs. Results Whole-body leucine oxidation increased with protein ingestion and was significantly greater for S20 vs. W20 (P = 0.003. Rates of MPS for S20 were less than W20 (P = 0.02 and not different from 0 g (P = 0.41 in both exercised and non-exercised leg muscles. For S40, MPS was also reduced compared with W40 under both rested and post-exercise conditions (both P P = 0.04. Conclusions The relationship between protein intake and MPS is both dose and protein source-dependent, with isolated soy showing a reduced ability, as compared to isolated whey protein, to stimulate MPS under both rested and post-exercise conditions. These differences may relate to the lower postprandial leucinemia and greater rates of amino acid oxidation following ingestion of soy versus whey protein.

  11. Emulsion properties of pork myofibrillar protein in combination with microbial transglutaminase and calcium alginate under various pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Geun Pyo; Min, Sang-Gi; Chin, Koo Bok

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effects of microbial transglutaminase (MTG) and calcium alginate (CA) systems in combination with soybean oil on the emulsion properties of porcine myofibrillar protein (MP) were evaluated under various pH conditions. MTG was shown to improve emulsifying capacity and creaming stability, which increased with increasing pH values up to 6.5. The CA did not influence emulsifying capacity, but it improved the creaming stability of the MP-stabilized emulsions. Both MTG and CA enhanced the rheological properties, but their effects on the physical characteristics of the protein evidenced an opposite trend in relation to pH, i.e., the MTG system improved both the emulsion and gelling properties with increasing pH, whereas the CA system was effective when the pH was lowered. By combining the two MP gelling systems, a stable and pH-insensible emulsion could be produced. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Regulation of myofibrillar accumulation in chick muscle cultures - Evidence for the involvement of calcium and lysosomes in non-uniform turnover of contractile proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Geri; Etlinger, Joseph D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of calcium on the synthesis and the degradation of individual myofibrillar proteins were investigated using primary chick-leg skeletal muscle cultures labeled with S-35-methionine (for protein accumulation experiments) or Ca(2+)-45 (for calcium efflux experiments). It was found that the turnover of individual contractile proteins is regulated nonuniformly by a calcium-dependent mechanism involving lysosomes. The results also indicate that contractile proteins are released from the myofibril before their breakdown to amino acids.

  13. Acute post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis is not correlated with resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron J Mitchell

    Full Text Available Muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT involves activation of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS to expand the myofibrillar protein pool. The degree of hypertrophy following RT is, however, highly variable and thus we sought to determine the relationship between the acute activation of MPS and RT-induced hypertrophy. We measured MPS and signalling protein activation after the first session of resistance exercise (RE in untrained men (n = 23 and then examined the relation between MPS with magnetic resonance image determined hypertrophy. To measure MPS, young men (24±1 yr; body mass index  = 26.4±0.9 kg•m² underwent a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-¹³C₆] phenylalanine to measure MPS at rest, and acutely following their first bout of RE prior to 16 wk of RT. Rates of MPS were increased 235±38% (P<0.001 above rest 60-180 min post-exercise and 184±28% (P = 0.037 180-360 min post exercise. Quadriceps volume increased 7.9±1.6% (-1.9-24.7% (P<0.001 after training. There was no correlation between changes in quadriceps muscle volume and acute rates of MPS measured over 1-3 h (r = 0.02, 3-6 h (r = 0.16 or the aggregate 1-6 h post-exercise period (r = 0.10. Hypertrophy after chronic RT was correlated (r = 0.42, P = 0.05 with phosphorylation of 4E-BP1(Thr37/46 at 1 hour post RE. We conclude that acute measures of MPS following an initial exposure to RE in novices are not correlated with muscle hypertrophy following chronic RT.

  14. Controlled formation of emulsion gels stabilized by salted myofibrillar protein under malondialdehyde (MDA)-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feibai; Sun, Weizheng; Zhao, Mouming

    2015-04-15

    This study presented the cold-set gelation of emulsions stabilized by salted myofibrillar protein (MP) under oxidative stress originated from malondialdehyde (MDA). Gel properties were compared over a range of MDA/NaCl concentrations including gel viscoelastic properties, strength, water-holding capacity (WHC), amount of protein entrapped, and microstructure. The oxidative stability of emulsion gels as indicated by lipid hydroperoxide was further determined and compared. Results indicated that emulsion stabilized by MP at swollen state under certain ionic strengths (0.2-0.6 M) was the premise of gel formation under MDA. In the presence of intermediate MDA concentrations (2.5-10 mM), the emulsion gels showed an improved elasticity, strength, WHC, and oxidative stability. This improvement should be mainly attributed to the enhanced protein-protein cross-linkings via MDA, which were homogeneously formed among absorbed and/or unabsorbed proteins, entrapping a greater amount and fractions of protein within network. Therefore, the oil droplets were better adherent to the gel matrix. Nevertheless, addition of high MDA concentrations (25-50 mM) led to the formation of excessive covalent bonds, which might break protein-protein bonds and trigger the desorption of protein from the interface. This ultimately caused "oil leak" phenomena as well as the collapse of gel structure and, thus, overall decreased gel properties and oxidative stability.

  15. Solubilization of myofibrillar proteins in water or low ionic strength media: Classical techniques, basic principles, and novel functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Tume, Ron K; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-10-13

    The qualitative characteristics of meat products are closely related to the functionality of muscle proteins. Myofibrillar proteins (MPs), comprising approximately 50% of total muscle proteins, are generally considered to be insoluble in solutions of low ionic strength ( 0.3 M) for solubilization. These soluble proteins are the ones which determine many functional properties of meat products, including emulsification and thermal gelation. In order to increase the utilization of meat and meat products, many studies have investigated the solubilization of MPs in water or low ionic strength media and determining their functionality. However, there still remains a lack of systematic information on the functional properties of MPs solubilized in this manner. Hence, this review will explore some typical techniques that have been used. The main procedures used for their solubilization, the fundamental principles and their functionalities in water (low ionic strength medium) are comprehensively discussed. In addition, advantages and disadvantages of each technique are summarized. Finally, future considerations are presented to facilitate progress in this new area and to enable water soluble muscle MPs to be utilized as novel meat ingredients in the food industry.

  16. Molecular interactions and redox effects of carvacrol and thymol on myofibrillar proteins using a non-destructive and solvent-free methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmar, Aida; Akcan, Tolga; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila; Estévez, Mario

    2018-04-01

    The present study provides molecular insight into the effect of thymol and carvacrol on the oxidative damage caused to myofibrillar proteins by a hydroxyl-radical generating system (HRGS). An innovative model system was designed, in which gels, prepared with increasing levels of myofibrillar proteins, were oxidized by a HRGS (Fe 3+ /H 2 O 2 , 60 °C and 7 days) in the presence of lipids. The molecular affinity between myofibrillar proteins and both terpenes, as well as their effect on the oxidative stability of the gel systems, were studied using a non-destructive and solvent-free procedure based on fluorescence spectroscopy. Carvacrol displayed more affinity than thymol for establishing chemical interactions with protein residues. Both terpenes exhibited a significant antioxidant potential against the generation of lipid-derived volatile carbonyls and against the formation of protein crosslinking. This procedure may be applied to meat products to assess the effectiveness of a given antioxidant additive without size reduction or sample processing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Water binding of proteins in the processing frankfurter-type sausages. Part. 1. Water-binding ability of freeze-dried meat fractions containing myofibrillar and stromal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinevetter, L; Gassmann, B; Kroll, J

    1987-01-01

    As soon as possible and 48 h after slaughter respectively, from both blade-bone muscle groups of cattle and pig carcasses the "thick pieces" were excised, extracted, and fractionated. Residues and precipitates from water and salt extracts resulted were freeze-dried, and an improved Baumann capillary suction apparatus was used to measure their water binding capacity (WBC) with and without addition of 2% sodium chloride and/or heating to 80 degrees C. With one exception the WBC results followed a relative pattern demonstrating the final residues (stromal proteins and leavings of myofibrillar proteins) binding the highest amount of added water, precipitates of dialysis (mainly containing myofibrillar proteins) a remarkable amount and powdered meats the least. As scanning electron micrographs confirmed, there were no fibrous structures in the precipitates resulted from dialysis of salt solutions (1.0 mol/1). Heating decreased the spontaneous water uptake of all fractions. Addition of sodium chloride had only a noticeable capillary-suction and swelling effect on unheated samples. Hence swelling of undissolved protein structures (extraction of myosin and possibly of actomyosin) is therefore not the only way for water binding in frankfurter-type sausages.

  18. Skeletal Muscle Myofibrillar and Sarcoplasmic Protein Synthesis Rates Are Affected Differently by Altitude-Induced Hypoxia in Native Lowlanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Lyhne Haslund, Mads; Robach, Paul

    2010-01-01

    As a consequence to hypobaric hypoxic exposure skeletal muscle atrophy is often reported. The underlying mechanism has been suggested to involve a decrease in protein synthesis in order to conserve O(2). With the aim to challenge this hypothesis, we applied a primed, constant infusion of 1-(13)C...... and expired breath samples were collected hourly during the 4 hour trial and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies obtained at 1 and 4 hours after tracer priming in the overnight fasted state. Myofibrillar protein synthesis rate was doubled; 0.041±0.018 at sea-level to 0.080±0.018%⋅hr(-1) (p0.05). Trends...... to increments in whole body protein kinetics were seen: Degradation rate elevated from 2.51±0.21 at sea level to 2.73±0.13 µmol⋅kg(-1)⋅min(-1) (p = 0.05) at high altitude and synthesis rate similar; 2.24±0.20 at sea level and 2.43±0.13 µmol⋅kg(-1)⋅min(-1) (p>0.05) at altitude. We conclude that whole body amino...

  19. Inhibition of interaction between epigallocatechin-3-gallate and myofibrillar protein by cyclodextrin derivatives improves gel quality under oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumeng; Chen, Lin; Lv, Yuanqi; Wang, Shuangxi; Suo, Zhiyao; Cheng, Xingguang; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong; Li, Zhixi; Feng, Xianchao

    2018-06-01

    High levels of polyphenols can interact with myofibrillar proteins (MPs), causing damage to a MP emulsion gel. In this study, β-cyclodextrins were used to reduce covalent and non-covalent interaction between epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and MPs under oxidative stress. The loss of both thiol and free amine groups and the unfolding of MPs caused by EGCG (80 μM/g protein) were significantly prevented by β-cyclodextrins, and the structural stability and solubility were improved. MP emulsion gel treated with EGCG (80 μM/g protein) had the highest cooking loss (68.64%) and gel strength (0.51 N). Addition of β-cyclodextrins significantly reduced cooking loss (26.24-58.20%) and improved gel strength (0.31-0.41 N) of MP emulsion gel jeopardized by EGCG under oxidative stress. Damage to the emulsifying properties of MPs caused by EGCG was significantly prevented by addition of β-cyclodextrins. β-cyclodextrins reduced interaction between EGCG and MPs in the order Methyl-β-cyclodextrin > (2-Hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin > β-cyclodextrin. In absence of EGCG, addition of β-cyclodextrins partly protected MPs from oxidative attack and improved its solubility. It is concluded that β-cyclodextrins does not markedly reduce the antioxidant ability of EGCG according to carbonyl analysis, and can effectively increase EGCG loading to potentially provide more durable antioxidant effect for meat products during processing, transportation and storage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Alcohol ingestion impairs maximal post-exercise rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis following a single bout of concurrent training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn B Parr

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The culture in many team sports involves consumption of large amounts of alcohol after training/competition. The effect of such a practice on recovery processes underlying protein turnover in human skeletal muscle are unknown. We determined the effect of alcohol intake on rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS following strenuous exercise with carbohydrate (CHO or protein ingestion. METHODS: In a randomized cross-over design, 8 physically active males completed three experimental trials comprising resistance exercise (8×5 reps leg extension, 80% 1 repetition maximum followed by continuous (30 min, 63% peak power output (PPO and high intensity interval (10×30 s, 110% PPO cycling. Immediately, and 4 h post-exercise, subjects consumed either 500 mL of whey protein (25 g; PRO, alcohol (1.5 g·kg body mass⁻¹, 12±2 standard drinks co-ingested with protein (ALC-PRO, or an energy-matched quantity of carbohydrate also with alcohol (25 g maltodextrin; ALC-CHO. Subjects also consumed a CHO meal (1.5 g CHO·kg body mass⁻¹ 2 h post-exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, 2 and 8 h post-exercise. RESULTS: Blood alcohol concentration was elevated above baseline with ALC-CHO and ALC-PRO throughout recovery (P<0.05. Phosphorylation of mTOR(Ser2448 2 h after exercise was higher with PRO compared to ALC-PRO and ALC-CHO (P<0.05, while p70S6K phosphorylation was higher 2 h post-exercise with ALC-PRO and PRO compared to ALC-CHO (P<0.05. Rates of MPS increased above rest for all conditions (∼29-109%, P<0.05. However, compared to PRO, there was a hierarchical reduction in MPS with ALC-PRO (24%, P<0.05 and with ALC-CHO (37%, P<0.05. CONCLUSION: We provide novel data demonstrating that alcohol consumption reduces rates of MPS following a bout of concurrent exercise, even when co-ingested with protein. We conclude that alcohol ingestion suppresses the anabolic response in skeletal muscle and may therefore impair recovery and adaptation

  1. Resistance training-induced changes in integrated myofibrillar protein synthesis are related to hypertrophy only after attenuation of muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damas, Felipe; Phillips, Stuart M; Libardi, Cleiton A; Vechin, Felipe C; Lixandrão, Manoel E; Jannig, Paulo R; Costa, Luiz A R; Bacurau, Aline V; Snijders, Tim; Parise, Gianni; Tricoli, Valmor; Roschel, Hamilton; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2016-09-15

    Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is one of the main outcomes from resistance training (RT), but how it is modulated throughout training is still unknown. We show that changes in myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) after an initial resistance exercise (RE) bout in the first week of RT (T1) were greater than those seen post-RE at the third (T2) and tenth week (T3) of RT, with values being similar at T2 and T3. Muscle damage (Z-band streaming) was the highest during post-RE recovery at T1, lower at T2 and minimal at T3. When muscle damage was the highest, so was the integrated MyoPS (at T1), but neither were related to hypertrophy; however, integrated MyoPS at T2 and T3 were correlated with hypertrophy. We conclude that muscle hypertrophy is the result of accumulated intermittent increases in MyoPS mainly after a progressive attenuation of muscle damage. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is one of the main outcomes of resistance training (RT), but how hypertrophy is modulated and the mechanisms regulating it are still unknown. To investigate how muscle hypertrophy is modulated through RT, we measured day-to-day integrated myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) using deuterium oxide and assessed muscle damage at the beginning (T1), at 3 weeks (T2) and at 10 weeks of RT (T3). Ten young men (27 (1) years, mean (SEM)) had muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) taken to measure integrated MyoPS and muscle damage (Z-band streaming and indirect parameters) before, and 24 h and 48 h post resistance exercise (post-RE) at T1, T2 and T3. Fibre cross-sectional area (fCSA) was evaluated using biopsies at T1, T2 and T3. Increases in fCSA were observed only at T3 (P = 0.017). Changes in MyoPS post-RE at T1, T2 and T3 were greater at T1 (P Muscle damage was the highest during post-RE recovery at T1, attenuated at T2 and further attenuated at T3. The change in MyoPS post-RE at both T2 and T3, but not at T1, was strongly correlated (r ≈ 0.9, P muscle hypertrophy. Initial Myo

  2. Contraction intensity and feeding affect collagen and myofibrillar protein synthesis rates differently in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Hall, Gerrit van; Rose, Adam John

    2010-01-01

    Exercise stimulates muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) but the importance of contractile intensity and whether it interplays with feeding is not understood. This was investigated following two distinct resistance exercise (RE) contraction intensities using an intra-subject design...... to feeding. Further, although functionally linked, the contractile and the supportive matrix structures upregulate their protein synthesis rate quite differently in response to feeding and contractile-activity and -intensity....

  3. Galalpha1-->4Gal-glycans are expressed on myofibrillar associated proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D; Cläesson, M H

    1998-01-01

    NAcbeta- were used to detect terminal alpha-galactosylated glycoconjugates on muscle proteins. Electrotransfer of proteins, extracted from human masseter and biceps muscles, to nitrocellulose after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and incubation with anti-Pk (CD77) consistently showed two bands...... with apparent molecular weights of 66 kDa and 64 kDa. In fresh frozen muscle sections from some humans there was endothelial reaction with anti-CD77 in capillaries, venules and veins but not in arterioles and arteries. In muscle samples from other humans there was no staining of endothelial cells. Formalin......-fixed human muscle displayed a CD77 reaction with highest accumulation of reaction product at the periphery of the fibers. This may be explained by the presence of Pk glycoconjugates on intermediate filaments in muscle fibers. In preparations of cat masseter muscle proteins the antibodies against P1Pk...

  4. The Study of Effect of Surimi Production Steps on Chemical Composition and Electrophoresis Pattern of Myofibrillar Proteins of Mechanically Deboned poultry meat (MDPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Haji BagherNaeeni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mechanically deboning poultry meat (MDPM is widely used due to its suitable technological properties as well as low lipids and saturated fatty acids contents. Besides, production processes applied during the surimi production can improve the technological properties of MDPM. That is to say, the production steps of surimi can change chemical composition and concentration of myofibrillar proteins and improve functional properties of MDPM. In this study, MDPM was prepared from the poultry meat. The production process consisted of 2 washing steps with sodium bicarbonate solution followed by another washing step with 4°C water. Afterwards, chemical properties of MDPM and surimi (moisture content, protein, lipid, and ash content as well as electrophoresis pattern were evaluated. Result showed that surimi production steps could significantly decrease protein, lipid and ash contents; however, moisture content of MDPM increased significantly. The result of electrophoresis indicated a significant increase in heavy chain myosin with 200 KDa and actin with 45 KDa molecular weights. It was concluded that the production steps improved the chemical properties and increased the concentration of MDPM myofibrillar proteins.

  5. Effect of resistance training and protein intake pattern on myofibrillar protein synthesis and proteome kinetics in older men in energy restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Caoileann H; Shankaran, Mahalakshmi; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Mitchell, Cameron J; Kolar, Nathan M; Burke, Louise M; Hawley, John A; Kassis, Amira; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Li, Kelvin; King, Chelsea; Hellerstein, Marc; Phillips, Stuart M

    2018-06-01

    Strategies to enhance the loss of fat while preserving muscle mass during energy restriction are of great importance to prevent sarcopenia in overweight older adults. We show for the first time that the integrated rate of synthesis of numerous individual contractile, cytosolic and mitochondrial skeletal muscle proteins was increased by resistance training (RT) and unaffected by dietary protein intake pattern during energy restriction in free-living, obese older men. We observed a correlation between the synthetic rates of skeletal muscle-derived proteins obtained in serum (creatine kinase M-type, carbonic anhydrase 3) and the synthetic rates of proteins obtained via muscle sampling; and that the synthesis rates of these proteins in serum revealed the stimulatory effects of RT. These results have ramifications for understanding the influence of RT on skeletal muscle and are consistent with the role of RT in maintaining muscle protein synthesis and potentially supporting muscle mass preservation during weight loss. We determined how the pattern of protein intake and resistance training (RT) influenced longer-term (2 weeks) integrated myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) during energy restriction (ER). MyoPS and proteome kinetics were measured during 2 weeks of ER alone and 2 weeks of ER plus RT (ER + RT) in overweight/obese older men. Participants were randomized to consume dietary protein in a balanced (BAL: 25% daily protein per meal × 4 meals) or skewed (SKEW: 7:17:72:4% daily protein per meal) pattern (n = 10 per group). Participants ingested deuterated water during the consecutive 2-week periods, and skeletal muscle biopsies and serum were obtained at the beginning and conclusion of ER and ER + RT. Bulk MyoPS (i.e. synthesis of the myofibrillar protein sub-fraction) and the synthetic rates of numerous individual skeletal muscle proteins were quantified. Bulk MyoPS was not affected by protein distribution during ER or ER + RT (ER: BAL = 1.24

  6. Comparison of myofibrillar protein degradation, antioxidant profile, fatty acids, metmyoglobin reducing activity, physicochemical properties and sensory attributes of gluteus medius and infraspinatus muscles in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazeem D. Adeyemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The functionality of myofibrillar proteins is a major factor influencing the quality attributes of muscle foods. Nonetheless, the relationships between muscle type and oxidative changes in chevon during ageing are meagrely elucidated. Postmortem changes in antioxidant status and physicochemical properties of glycolytic gluteus medius (GM and oxidative infraspinatus (IS muscles in goats were compared. Methods Twenty Boer bucks (9–10 months old, body weight of 36.9 ± 0.725 kg were slaughtered and the carcasses were subjected to chill storage (4 ± 0.5 °C. Analyses were conducted on GM and IS muscles sampled on 0, 1, 4 and 7 d postmortem. Results Chill storage did not affect the antioxidant enzyme activities in both muscles. The IS had greater (P  0.05 on free thiol, MRA and TBARS. The GM had lower (P  0.05 on consumer preference for flavour, juiciness and overall acceptability. However, IS had higher (P < 0.05 tenderness score than GM on d 1 and 4 postmortem. Intramuscular fat was higher (P < 0.05 in IS compared with GM. Fatty acid composition did not differ between the muscles. However, GM had lower (P < 0.05 n-6/n-3 ratio than IS. The n-3 and n-6 PUFA declined (P < 0.05 while the SFA increased (P < 0.05 over storage. Conclusion The changes in myofibrillar proteins and physicochemical properties of goat meat during postmortem chill storage are muscle-dependent.

  7. Rheological Enhancement of Pork Myofibrillar Protein-Lipid Emulsion Composite Gels via Glucose Oxidase Oxidation/Transglutaminase Cross-Linking Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Xiong, Youling L; Sato, Hiroaki

    2017-09-27

    Porcine myofibrillar protein (MP) was modified with glucose oxidase (GluOx)-iron that produces hydroxyl radicals then subjected to microbial transglutaminase (TGase) cross-linking in 0.6 M NaCl at 4 °C. The resulting aggregation and gel formation of MP were examined. The GluOx-mediated oxidation promoted the formation of both soluble and insoluble protein aggregates via disulfide bonds and occlusions of hydrophobic groups. The subsequent TGase treatment converted protein aggregates into highly cross-linked polymers. MP-lipid emulsion composite gels formed with such polymers exhibited markedly enhanced gelling capacity: up to 4.4-fold increases in gel firmness and 3.5-fold increases in gel elasticity over nontreated protein. Microstructural examination showed small oil droplets dispersed in a densely packed gel matrix when MP was oxidatively modified, and the TGase treatment further contributed to such packing. The enzymatic GluOx oxidation/TGase treatment shows promise to improve the textural properties of emulsified meat products.

  8. Soluble protein isolated from low cost fish and fish wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Lekshmy Nair, A.; Gopakumar, K.

    1982-01-01

    The method of preparation, composition, amino acid content, protein efficiency ratio and areas of possible application of water soluble protein isolates from low cost fish and fish wastes are discussed in detail in this communication.

  9. Konjac flour improved textural and water retention properties of transglutaminase-mediated, heat-induced porcine myofibrillar protein gel: Effect of salt level and transglutaminase incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Koo B; Go, Mi Y; Xiong, Youling L

    2009-03-01

    Functional properties of heat-induced gels prepared from microbial transglutaminase (TG)-treated porcine myofibrillar protein (MP) containing sodium caseinate with or without konjac flour (KF) under various salt concentrations (0.1, 0.3 and 0.6MNaCl) were evaluated. The mixed MP gels with KF exhibited improved cooking yields at all salt concentrations. TG treatment greatly enhanced gel strength and elasticity (storage modulus, G') at 0.6M NaCl, but not at lower salt concentrations. The combination of KF and TG improved the gel strength at 0.1 and 0.3M NaCl and G' at all salt concentrations, when compared with non-TG controls. Incubation of MP suspensions (sols) with TG promoted the disappearance of myosin heavy chain and the production of polymers. The TG-treated MP mixed gels had a compact structure, compared to those without TG, and the KF incorporation modified the gel matrix and increased its water-holding capacity. Results from differential scanning calorimetry suggested possible interactions of MP with KF, which may explain the changes in the microstructure of the heat-induced gels.

  10. Exome sequencing identifies variants in two genes encoding the LIM-proteins NRAP and FHL1 in an Italian patient with BAG3 myofibrillar myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avila, Francesca; Meregalli, Mirella; Lupoli, Sara; Barcella, Matteo; Orro, Alessandro; De Santis, Francesca; Sitzia, Clementina; Farini, Andrea; D'Ursi, Pasqualina; Erratico, Silvia; Cristofani, Riccardo; Milanesi, Luciano; Braga, Daniele; Cusi, Daniele; Poletti, Angelo; Barlassina, Cristina; Torrente, Yvan

    2016-06-01

    Myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs) are genetically heterogeneous dystrophies characterized by the disintegration of Z-disks and myofibrils and are associated with mutations in genes encoding Z-disk or Z-disk-related proteins. The c.626 C > T (p.P209L) mutation in the BAG3 gene has been described as causative of a subtype of MFM. We report a sporadic case of a 26-year-old Italian woman, affected by MFM with axonal neuropathy, cardiomyopathy, rigid spine, who carries the c.626 C > T mutation in the BAG3 gene. The patient and her non-consanguineous healthy parents and brother were studied with whole exome sequencing (WES) to further investigate the genetic basis of this complex phenotype. In the patient, we found that the BAG3 mutation is associated with variants in the NRAP and FHL1 genes that encode muscle-specific, LIM domain containing proteins. Quantitative real time PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis of the patient's muscular biopsy showed the absence of NRAP expression and FHL1 accumulation in aggregates in the affected skeletal muscle tissue. Molecular dynamic analysis of the mutated FHL1 domain showed a modification in its surface charge, which could affect its capability to bind its target proteins. To our knowledge this is the first study reporting, in a BAG3 MFM, the simultaneous presence of genetic variants in the BAG3 and FHL1 genes (previously described as independently associated with MFMs) and linking the NRAP gene to MFM for the first time.

  11. Preparo e caracterização de proteínas miofibrilares de tilápia-do-nilo para elaboração de biofilmes Extraction and properties of nile tilapia myofibrillar proteins for edible films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednelí Soraya Monterrey-Quintero

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A elaboração de filmes comestíveis à base de biopolímeros implica conhecimento das propriedades físico-químicas da macromolécula. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram a descrição de um método de preparo de proteínas miofibrilares de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, o estudo das propriedades relacionadas com a formação de filmes, e a caracterização dos biofilmes elaborados com a proteína. Músculo moído de tilápia-do-nilo, recém-abatida, foi lavado e processado até formação de uma pasta homogênea. A evolução das frações protéicas, durante o processamento, foi acompanhada por calorimetria diferencial de varredura. Estudou-se a solubilidade das proteínas miofibrilares liofilizadas (PML em função do pH (2-7. A identificação das frações protéicas e dos aminoácidos foi realizada por SDS-PAGE e cromatografia de troca iônica, respectivamente. Os biofilmes formados foram submetidos a testes de perfuração, de solubilidade e microscopia eletrônica. A amostra de PML, constituída apenas de proteínas miofibrilares, apresentou uma região de máxima solubilidade (96,9% em torno do pH 3,0 e elevado potencial de interações iônicas (74,4 kJ/100 kJ. Os biofilmes à base das PML de tilápia-do-nilo são pouco solúveis (abaixo de 20 g/100 g matéria seca. O glicerol influencia fortemente as propriedades mecânicas e a solubilidade dos biofilmes.The elaboration of edible films based on biopolymers, implies the knowledge of physicochemical properties of macromolecules. The objectives of this work were to describe a methodology of preparing Nile Tilapia myofibrillar proteins and study the properties related to formation and characterization of edible film elaborated with these proteins. Freshly slaughtered ground Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus muscle was washed and processed until the formation of a homogeneous paste. Evolution of protein fractions during processing was followed by scanning differential

  12. Analysis of myofibrillar proteins and transcripts in adult skeletal muscles of the American lobster Homarus americanus: variable expression of myosins, actin and troponins in fast, slow-twitch and slow-tonic fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medler, Scott; Mykles, Donald L

    2003-10-01

    Skeletal muscles are diverse in their contractile properties, with many of these differences being directly related to the assemblages of myofibrillar isoforms characteristic of different fibers. Crustacean muscles are similar to other muscles in this respect, although the majority of information about differences in muscle organization comes from vertebrate species. In the present study, we examined the correlation between myofibrillar protein isoforms and the patterns of myofibrillar gene expression in fast, slow-phasic (S(1)) and slow-tonic (S(2)) fibers of the American lobster Homarus americanus. SDS-PAGE and western blotting were used to identify isoform assemblages of myosin heavy chain (MHC), P75, troponin T (TnT) and troponin I (TnI). RT-PCR was used to monitor expression of fast and slow (S(1)) MHC, P75 and actin in different fiber types, and the MHC and actin levels were quantified by real-time PCR. Fast and slow fibers from the claw closers predominantly expressed fast and S(1) MHC, respectively, but also lower levels of the alternate MHC. By contrast, fast fibers from the deep abdominal muscle expressed fast MHC exclusively. In addition, slow muscles expressed significantly higher levels of actin than fast fibers. A distal bundle of fibers in the cutter claw closer muscle was found to be composed of a mixture of S(1) and S(2) fibers, many of which possessed a mixture of S(1) and S(2) MHC isoforms. This pattern supports the idea that S(1) and S(2) fibers represent extremes in a continuum of slow muscle phenotype. Overall, these patterns demonstrate that crustacean skeletal muscles cannot be strictly categorized into discrete fiber types, but a muscle's properties probably represent a point on a continuum of fiber types. This trend may result from differences in innervation pattern, as each muscle is controlled by a unique combination of phasic, tonic or both phasic and tonic motor nerves. In this respect, future studies examining how muscle phenotype

  13. Extração de proteínas miofibrilares de carne bovina para elaboração de filmes comestíveis Extraction of bovine meat myofibrillar proteins for elaboration edible films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia M. A. de Souza

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de proteínas miofibrilares de carne na elaboração de filmes comestíveis implica, inicialmente, na obtenção desta macromolécula, uma vez que ela é indisponível comercialmente. Assim, os objetivos deste trabalho foram a obtenção e caracterização de proteínas miofibrilares de carne bovina, em escala de laboratório, e a elaboração e caracterização da microestrutura de filmes à base dessas proteínas. As proteínas miofibrilares foram extraídas do músculo Semitendinosus bovino, pós rigor mortis, empregando-se uma técnica de extração por centrifugação diferencial em solução tampão, com diferentes concentrações salinas, segundo metodologia de EISELE & BREKKE [13] modificada neste trabalho. As proteínas, assim obtidas, foram liofilizadas (PML e analisadas para determinação do teor de proteínas, de lipídios, de sais minerais, de cinzas e da umidade. A composição de aminoácidos foi determinada por cromatografia de troca iônica e o perfil eletroforético foi determinado em gel de poliacrilamida. Alguns filmes foram elaborados com 1g de PML/100g de solução, 60g de glicerol/100g de proteínas e ácido acético glacial para ajuste do pH=2,8. A microestrutura desses filmes foram analisadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A PML, que apresentou teor de proteínas de 84,3%, foi composta de diversas frações de proteínas miofibrilares, com destaque para frações da miosina e da actina, segundo os resultados da eletroforese. Trabalhando-se a composição de aminoácidos, verificou-se que a maior contribuição energética das interações potenciais dos aminoácidos, foram as provenientes de ligações covalentes (58,3%, seguidas das interações iônicas (35,72%. A microestrutura do filme revelou uma estrutura pouco homogênea, porém coesa e densa e uma matriz protéica compacta e fina.The use of meat myofibrillar proteins for edible film production involves initially the extraction of the

  14. Myofibrillar proteolysis in response to voluntary or electrically stimulated muscle contractions in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M; Trappe, T; Crameri, R M

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge about the effects of exercise on myofibrillar protein breakdown in human subjects is limited. Our purpose was to measure the changes in the degradation of myofibrillar proteins in response to different ways of eliciting muscle contractions using the local interstitial 3-methyl-histidine......Knowledge about the effects of exercise on myofibrillar protein breakdown in human subjects is limited. Our purpose was to measure the changes in the degradation of myofibrillar proteins in response to different ways of eliciting muscle contractions using the local interstitial 3-methyl....... Only after ES did the histochemical stainings show significant disruption of cytoskeletal proteins. Furthermore, intracellular disruption and destroyed Z-lines were markedly more pronounced in ES vs VOL. In conclusion, the local level of interstitial 3-MH in the skeletal muscle was significantly...... enhanced after ES compared with VOL immediately after exercise, while the level of 3-MH did not change in the post-exercise period after VOL. These results indicate that the local myofibrillar breakdown is accelerated after ES associated with severe myofiber damage....

  15. 21 CFR 172.340 - Fish protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.340 Fish protein isolate. (a) The food additive fish... accordance with recognized good manufacturing practice for fish to be used as human food. (4) The additive... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fish protein isolate. 172.340 Section 172.340 Food...

  16. 21 CFR 172.385 - Whole fish protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.385 Whole fish protein concentrate. The food additive whole fish protein concentrate may be safely used as a food supplement in accordance with the... fish that are used in other forms for human food. (b) The additive consists essentially of a dried fish...

  17. Effect of sepsis on calcium uptake and content in skeletal muscle and regulation in vitro by calcium of total and myofibrillar protein breakdown in control and septic muscle: Results from a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, D.W.; Hasselgren, P.O.; Hiyama, D.T.; James, J.H.; Li, S.; Rigel, D.F.; Fischer, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Because high calcium concentration in vitro stimulates muscle proteolysis, calcium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of increased muscle breakdown in different catabolic conditions. Protein breakdown in skeletal muscle is increased during sepsis, but the effect of sepsis on muscle calcium uptake and content is not known. In this study the influence of sepsis, induced in rats by cecal ligation and puncture, on muscle calcium uptake and content was studied. Sixteen hours after cecal ligation and puncture or sham operation, calcium content of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles was determined with an atomic absorption spectrometer. Calcium uptake was measured in intact SOL muscles incubated in the presence of calcium 45 (45Ca) for between 1 and 120 minutes. Total and myofibrillar protein breakdown was determined in SOL muscles, incubated in the presence of different calcium concentrations (0; 2.5; 5.0 mmol/L), and measured as release into the incubation medium of tyrosine and 3-methylhistidine (3-MH), respectively. Calcium content was increased by 51% (p less than 0.001) during sepsis in SOL and by 10% (p less than 0.05) in EDL muscle. There was no difference in 45Ca uptake between control and septic muscles during the early phase (1 to 5 minutes) of incubation. During more extended incubation (30 to 120 minutes), muscles from septic rats took up significantly more 45Ca than control muscles (p less than 0.05). Tyrosine release by incubated SOL muscles from control and septic rats was increased when calcium was added to the incubation medium, and at a calcium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L, the increase in tyrosine release was greater in septic than in control muscle. Addition of calcium to the incubation medium did not affect 3-MH release in control or septic muscle

  18. Zebrafish models of BAG3 myofibrillar myopathy suggest a toxic gain of function leading to BAG3 insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruparelia, Avnika A; Oorschot, Viola; Vaz, Raquel; Ramm, Georg; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    Mutations in the co-chaperone Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) can cause myofibrillar myopathy (MFM), a childhood-onset progressive muscle disease, characterized by the formation of protein aggregates and myofibrillar disintegration. In contrast to other MFM-causing proteins, BAG3 has no direct structural role, but regulates autophagy and the degradation of misfolded proteins. To investigate the mechanism of disease in BAG3-related MFM, we expressed wild-type BAG3 or the dominant MFM-causing BAG3 (BAG3(P209L)) in zebrafish. Expression of the mutant protein results in the formation of aggregates that contain wild-type BAG3. Through the stimulation and inhibition of autophagy, we tested the prevailing hypothesis that impaired autophagic function is responsible for the formation of protein aggregates. Contrary to the existing theory, our studies reveal that inhibition of autophagy is not sufficient to induce protein aggregation. Expression of the mutant protein, however, did not induce myofibrillar disintegration and we therefore examined the effect of knocking down Bag3 function. Loss of Bag3 resulted in myofibrillar disintegration, but not in the formation of protein aggregates. Remarkably, BAG3(P209L) is able to rescue the myofibrillar disintegration phenotype, further demonstrating that its function is not impaired. Together, our knockdown and overexpression experiments identify a mechanism whereby BAG3(P209L) aggregates form, gradually reducing the pool of available BAG3, which eventually results in BAG3 insufficiency and myofibrillar disintegration. This mechanism is consistent with the childhood onset and progressive nature of MFM and suggests that reducing aggregation through enhanced degradation or inhibition of nucleation would be an effective therapy for this disease.

  19. Production of Fish Hydrolysates Protein From Waste of Fish Carp (Cyprinus Carpio) by Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Saputra, Dede; Nurhayati, Tati

    2016-01-01

    Fish Protein Hydrolysates (FPH) is the mixed products of polypeptide, dipeptides, and amino acid. It can be produced from materials that contained of protein by acid reaction, base reaction or enzymatic hydrolysis. The objectives of this study were to study the production of FPH from fish carp meat at post rigor phase and viscera by enzymatic hydrolysis, to determine the specific activity of papain enzyme, and to determine the solubility of FPH. Capacity of fish hydrolyzing can be identified ...

  20. Physicochemical characterization of fish protein adlayers with bacteria repelling properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, R. L.; Arpanaei, A.; Pillai, S.

    2013-01-01

    Materials coated with aqueous fish protein extracts can reduce bacterial adhesion, but the mechanism behind the observed effect is not fully understood. In this study we explore the physicochemical properties of fish muscle protein adlayers on four substrates: gold, stainless steel, polystyrene...

  1. Influência da espessura de biofilmes feitos à base de proteínas miofibrilares sobre suas propriedades funcionais Thickness effects of myofibrillar protein based edible films on their functional properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO JOSÉ DO AMARAL SOBRAL

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O emprego potencial de filmes comestíveis e biodegradáveis em embalagens é condicionado pelas suas propriedades funcionais, que são influenciadas por muitos fatores, inclusive pela espessura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a influência da espessura dos biofilmes feitos à base de proteínas miofibrilares (de carne bovina e de tilápia-do-nilo sobre suas propriedades funcionais. Os biofilmes foram preparados a partir de uma solução filmogênica com 1 g de proteínas/100 g de solução. A concentração de plastificante foi de 45 g de glicerina/100 g de proteínas, e o pH foi mantido em 2,7. Após secagem, os filmes foram acondicionados em dessecadores a 58% de umidade relativa e 22°C, por quatro dias. As propriedades mecânicas foram determinadas por teste de perfuração; a permeabilidade ao vapor de água, por um método gravimétrico, e a cor e a opacidade, com colorímetro HunterLab, a 22°C. A força na perfuração, a permeabilidade ao vapor de água, a diferença de cor e a opacidade dos dois biofilmes aumentaram linearmente com a espessura dos corpos-de-prova. A deformação na perfuração foi pouco dependente da espessura e apresentou grande dispersão, em ambos os filmes. A taxa de permeabilidade ao vapor de água diminuiu linearmente com a espessura.Research on edible and biodegradable films had been promoted recently because of environmental concerns. The use of these materials for packaging applications is conditioned by their functional properties, which are influenced by many factors, including thickness. The objective of this work was to study the influence of thickness of myofibrillar protein-based biofilms on some of their functional properties. Biofilms were prepared from film forming solutions (FFS containing 1 g of protein/100 g of FFS. The plasticizer concentration was 45 g glycerin/100 g of protein and the pH was kept at 2.7. After drying, biofilms were conditioned in desiccators at 58% relative humidity and

  2. Cardiac myofibrillar contractile properties during the progression from hypertension to decompensated heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanft, Laurin M; Emter, Craig A; McDonald, Kerry S

    2017-07-01

    Heart failure arises, in part, from a constellation of changes in cardiac myocytes including remodeling, energetics, Ca 2+ handling, and myofibrillar function. However, little is known about the changes in myofibrillar contractile properties during the progression from hypertension to decompensated heart failure. The aim of the present study was to provide a comprehensive assessment of myofibrillar functional properties from health to heart disease. A rodent model of uncontrolled hypertension was used to test the hypothesis that myocytes in compensated hearts exhibit increased force, higher rates of force development, faster loaded shortening, and greater power output; however, with progression to overt heart failure, we predicted marked depression in these contractile properties. We assessed contractile properties in skinned cardiac myocyte preparations from left ventricles of Wistar-Kyoto control rats and spontaneous hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rats at ~3, ~12, and >20 mo of age to evaluate the time course of myofilament properties associated with normal aging processes compared with myofilaments from rats with a predisposition to heart failure. In control rats, the myofilament contractile properties were virtually unchanged throughout the aging process. Conversely, in SHHF rats, the rate of force development, loaded shortening velocity, and power all increased at ~12 mo and then significantly fell at the >20-mo time point, which coincided with a decrease in left ventricular fractional shortening. Furthermore, these changes occurred independent of changes in β-myosin heavy chain but were associated with depressed phosphorylation of myofibrillar proteins, and the fall in loaded shortening and peak power output corresponded with the onset of clinical signs of heart failure. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This novel study systematically examined the power-generating capacity of cardiac myofilaments during the progression from hypertension to heart disease. Previously

  3. Pea protein concentrate as a substitute for fish meal protein in sea bass diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Badini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pea seeds, even if lower in protein than oilseed meals, have been shown to successfully replace moderate amounts of fish meal protein in diets for carnivorous fish species (Kaushik et al., 1993, Gouveia and Davies, 2000. A further processing of such pulses provides concentrated protein products which look very promising as fish meal substitutes in aquafeeds (Thiessen et al., 2003. The aim of the present study was to evaluate nutrient digestibility, growth response, nutrient and energy retention efficiencies and whole body composition of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. fed complete diets in which a pea protein concentrate (PPC was used to replace graded levels of fish meal protein.

  4. BAG3 myofibrillar myopathy presenting with cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konersman, Chamindra G; Bordini, Brett J; Scharer, Gunter; Lawlor, Michael W; Zangwill, Steven; Southern, James F; Amos, Louella; Geddes, Gabrielle C; Kliegman, Robert; Collins, Michael P

    2015-05-01

    Myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs) are a heterogeneous group of neuromuscular disorders distinguished by the pathological hallmark of myofibrillar dissolution. Most patients present in adulthood, but mutations in several genes including BCL2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) cause predominantly childhood-onset disease. BAG3-related MFM is particularly severe, featuring weakness, cardiomyopathy, neuropathy, and early lethality. While prior cases reported either neuromuscular weakness or concurrent weakness and cardiomyopathy at onset, we describe the first case in which cardiomyopathy and cardiac transplantation (age eight) preceded neuromuscular weakness by several years (age 12). The phenotype comprised distal weakness and severe sensorimotor neuropathy. Nerve biopsy was primarily axonal with secondary demyelinating/remyelinating changes without "giant axons." Muscle biopsy showed extensive neuropathic changes that made myopathic changes difficult to interpret. Similar to previous cases, a p.Pro209Leu mutation in exon 3 of BAG3 was found. This case underlines the importance of evaluating for MFMs in patients with combined neuromuscular weakness and cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Immunochemical analyses of soluble lens proteins in some marine fishes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.

    Soluble eye lens proteins of 10 fishes, belonging to the families Clupeidae, Hemirhamphidae, Lactaridae, Scombridae, Stromatidae, Psettodidae, Bothidae and Soleidae were studied by immunoelectrophoresis using the lens antiserum of Sardinella...

  6. THE EFFECT OF THE PROTEIN SOLUBILITY OF FISH MEAL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    utilization of fish meal proteins was determined by a relationship between their solubility or apparent digestibility and the ... Data obtained from these trials should indicate what re- ..... 4 in mind it is thus obvious that the big variation which oc-.

  7. Sperm proteins in teleostean and chondrostean (sturgeon) fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Hulak, Martin; Linhart, Otomar

    2009-11-01

    Sperm proteins in the seminal plasma and spermatozoa of teleostean and chondrostean have evolved adaptations due to the changes in the reproductive environment. Analysis of the composition and functions of these proteins provides new insights into sperm motility and fertilising abilities, thereby creating possibilities for improving artificial reproduction and germplasm resource conservation technologies (e.g. cryopreservation). Seminal plasma proteins are involved in the protection of spermatozoa during storage in the reproductive system, whereas all spermatozoa proteins contribute to the swimming and fertilising abilities of sperm. Compared to mammalian species, little data are available on fish sperm proteins and their functions. We review here the current state of the art in this field and focus on relevant subjects that require attention. Future research should concentrate on protein functions and their mode of action in fish species, especially on the role of spermatozoa surface proteins during fertilisation and on a description of sturgeon sperm proteins.

  8. Production of Fish Hydrolysates Protein From Waste of Fish Carp (Cyprinus Carpio by Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Saputra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fish Protein Hydrolysates (FPH is the mixed products of polypeptide, dipeptides, and amino acid. It can be produced from materials that contained of protein by acid reaction, base reaction or enzymatic hydrolysis. The objectives of this study were to study the production of FPH from fish carp meat at post rigor phase and viscera by enzymatic hydrolysis, to determine the specific activity of papain enzyme, and to determine the solubility of FPH. Capacity of fish hydrolyzing can be identified by analyzing the content of dissolved total nitrogen (NTT compared with nitrogen total ingredient (NTB in order to get the value of total soluble nitrogen/total nitrogen material (NTT/NTB. The hydrolysis processes were carried out in 0,26% (w/v papain, 60 οC for 3 hours. The result showed that the specific activity of papain enzyme was about 3.28 U/mg. Solubility of FPH by comparing NTT/NTB was about 0.29% (fish meat and 0.40% (fish viscera. Proximate test of protein content of fish meat was 18.34 ± 0.04 (g/100 g; while viscera was about 0.95±0.04 (g/100 g. The result indicated that product waste of fish carp had potential as a major of source of FPH.

  9. The nutritonal value of protein in radiation sterilized fish meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmuth-Hoene, A.E.; Partmann, W.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations of four samples of fish flour from various countries which had been sterilized by radiation (5 Mrad) did not show any evidence of radiation-induced changes in crude protein content as well as protein digestibility by enzymatic hydrolysis. Of the 16 amino acids studied only serine suffered a mean loss of 16% while the remaining amino acids showed only slight changes after irradiation. In all four samples we noticed a mean loss of 9% in available lysine. The sterilization of fish flour by irradiation does not diminish the nutritional value of fish protein to any significant extent and, should be given preference over sterilization by heat which reduces the protein quality of fumigation by heat which leaves residues. (orig.) [de

  10. Sarcoplasmatic and myofibrillar protein changes caused by acute heat stress in broiler chicken Alterações nas proteínas sarcoplasmáticas e miofibrilares em frangos de corte causadas por estresse térmico agudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Castro Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute heat stress (AHS modifies the structure of myofibrils affecting functional properties of meat, mainly the water holding capacity. This experiment aimed to identify changes in proteolysis and migration between the myofibrillar and sarcoplasmatic fractions due to pre-slaughter AHS. Myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI, SDS-PAGE, western blot of vinculin (WB and shear force (SF were determined. Six hundred broilers (Gallus gallus were slaughtered in three different days (ST. In each ST, groups of ten animals were placed in transport crates and submitted to AHS (35ºC, 75 - 85% RH for 2 hours. Simultaneously, the non-stressed broilers (NS were kept in thermoneutral environment (22ºC, 83 ± 6.6% RH within the crates in the same density. After slaughter, the breast muscles were kept refrigerated until the withdrawal of all samples (0, 1, 2, 6 and 24 hours after slaughter. Sampling within AHS and NS birds was collected according to lightness value (normal L* 51, except for determination of MFI and SF. The lightness was used later to perform SDS-PAGE and WB analyses. MFI kinetics showed that the fragmentation rate was superior in animals NS, indicating that AHS can harm proteolysis and rate of myofibrillar fragmentation. However, the extent of fragmentation did not change, as well as SF values. SDS-PAGE for Troponin fragments indicated a differentiated pattern between AHS and NS. The WB did not show alterations in vinculin fragmentation. Modifications in sarcoplasmatic fraction are observed in meat with high L*values, independent of environmental condition.O estresse térmico agudo (ET causa alterações na estrutura das miofibrilas, afetando propriedades funcionais da carne, principalmente a capacidade de retenção de água. Identificaram-se mudanças na proteólise e migração entre as frações miofibrilar e sarcoplasmática, decorrentes do ET pré-abate, através do índice de fragmentação miofibrilar (MFI, SDS-PAGE para troponina (SDS

  11. Vegetable and cereal protein exploitation for fish feed

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available cultivated fish (Naylor et al., 2000). Therefore, considerable amounts of resources are currently being used worldwide to evaluate the nutritional quality and possible health implications of alternative plant-based feed- stuffs with the potential... and storage. All of this needs to be implemented without excessive costs, as the feed costs usually make up around 40–75% of the total running cost of rearing fish (Young and Muir, 2000). As the challenges for utilising legume and cereal protein sources...

  12. Marine fish as source of protein supplement in meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasekh, J G

    1987-01-01

    For the past 2 decades, a great deal of research has been done in fish technology, particularly in the area of mechanically deboned minced fish. Minced fish is the edible muscle flesh of fish that has been mechanically separated from the bones and skin. Ideally, the product is prepared from a high quality fish and resembles hamburger meat. In its final form, minced fish is used either as an ingredient or as an extender in seafood or in food products that require further processing. On the basis of technological advancements, the National Marine Fisheries Service of the U.S. Department of Commerce and the National Fisheries Institute jointly petitioned the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1980 to add minced fish at a level of 15% in the meat formulation of frankfurters. This paper explores certain aspects of processing, production, acceptance, and hazard assessment of minced fish ingredients as possible protein supplements in meat and poultry food products relative to this request.

  13. Development of fish protein powder as an ingredient for food applications: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Shaviklo, Amir Reza

    2013-01-01

    The increasing awareness that dried fish protein can be applied for food fortification and production of value added/functional foods has encouraged the food industry to examine different methods for developing fish protein ingredient from different raw materials. Fish protein powder (FPP) is a dried and stable fish product, intended for human consumption, in which the protein is more concentrated than in the original fish flesh. Quality and acceptability of FPP depend on several factors. The...

  14. Proteolytic activities in fillets of selected underutilized Australian fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Z; Donkor, O; Street, W A; Vasiljevic, T

    2013-09-01

    The hydrolytic activity of major endogenous proteases, responsible for proteolysis of myofibrillar proteins during post-mortem storage, may be an indicator of the textural quality of fish which influences consumer purchasing behaviour and thus market value of the final product. Furthermore, it may also influence the type and bioactive properties of the peptides released during post-mortem proteolysis of myofibrillar proteins. This study compared the activities of cathepsins B, B+L, D, H and calpain-like enzymes in crude muscle extracted from 16 Australian underutilized fish species. Fish species had a significant effect on the activity of these enzymes with barracouta showing the highest cathepsins B, B+L, D and H activities. Activities of cathepsins B and B+L were higher than cathepsin H for all studied species. The more commercially important rock ling and tiger flathead demonstrated higher cathepsin B+L activity, whereas gemfish and eastern school whiting showed higher activity towards cathepsin B. Underutilized fish species showing higher endogenous protease activities may be suitable for fish sauce production, whereas those with lower protease activities for surimi processing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Myofibrillar myopathies: State of the art, present and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhin, A; Salort-Campana, E; Wahbi, K; Richard, P; Carlier, R-Y; Carlier, P; Laforêt, P; Stojkovic, T; Maisonobe, T; Verschueren, A; Franques, J; Attarian, S; Maues de Paula, A; Figarella-Branger, D; Bécane, H-M; Nelson, I; Duboc, D; Bonne, G; Vicart, P; Udd, B; Romero, N; Pouget, J; Eymard, B

    2015-10-01

    Myofibrillar myopathies (MFM) have been described in the mid-1990s as a group of diseases sharing common histological features, including an abnormal accumulation of intrasarcoplasmic proteins, the presence of vacuoles and a disorganization of the intermyofibrillar network beginning at the Z-disk. The boundaries of this concept are still uncertain, and whereas six genes (DES, CRYAB, LDB3/ZASP, MYOT, FLNC and BAG3) are now classically considered as responsible for MFM, other entities such as FHL1 myopathy or Hereditary Myopathy with Early Respiratory Failure linked to mutations of titin can now as well be included in this group. The diagnosis of MFM is not always easy; as histological lesions can be focal, and muscle biopsy may be disappointing; this has led to a growing importance of muscle imaging, and the selectivity of muscle involvement has now been described in several disorders. Due to the rarity of these myopathies, if some clinical patterns (such as distal myopathy associated with cardiomyopathy due to desmin mutations) are now well known, surprises remain possible and should lead to systematic testing of the known genes in case of a typical histological presentation. In this paper, we aim at reviewing the data acquired on the six main genes listed above as well as presenting the experience from two French reference centres, Paris and Marseilles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Feeds and feeding strategies for Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier 1818) : fish growth as related to dietary protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Colossoma macropomum is an indigenous fish species from the Amazon region. The amino acid profile of its body protein proved to be similar to that of other fish species. Soya meal and fish meal have, based on their amino acid profiles, a comparable protein quality. This

  17. Insect-based protein: future promising protein source for fish cultured

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, R. A.; Nur, F. M.

    2018-04-01

    As one of the vital component feed used in fisheries, fishmeal (FM) is generally added to the fish diet to enhance fish growth, digestive performance and absorption of nutrients. This addition contributes significantly to the variable production cost in the aquaculture industry. Expanded production of carnivorous species requiring high protein, high-energy feeds will further tax global fish meal. Thus, research based on the low-cost budget for feed operating cost should be strategized to assist aquaculturists in enhancing fish productivity. Moreover, suitable alternative feed ingredients will have to be utilized to provide the essential nutrients and energy needed to fuel the growth of aquaculture production. To this effect, the use of insect-based protein sources to replace FM that often scarce, expensive, limited availability, and leads to high fish production costs is alternative ways and has been gaining momentum. Currently, Insects have been proposed as one of the potential future protein sources of protein because of the production of insects is highly sustainable. Farming insects is characterized by higher food conversion efficiencies, lower environmental impact, and higher potential to be grown on waste streams.

  18. Preparation of Modified Films with Protein from Grouper Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecante, A.; Granados-Navarrete, S.; Martínez-García, C.

    2016-01-01

    A protein concentrate (PC) was obtained from Grouper fish skin and it was used to prepare films with different amounts of sorbitol and glycerol as plasticizers. The best performing films regarding resistance were then modified with various concentrations of CaCl2, CaSO4 (calcium salts), and glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) with the purpose of improving their mechanical and barrier properties. These films were characterized by determining their mechanical properties and permeability to water vapor and oxygen. Formulations with 5% (w/v) protein and 75% sorbitol and 4% (w/v) protein with a mixture of 15% glycerol and 15% sorbitol produced adequate films. Calcium salts and GDL increased the tensile fracture stress but reduced the fracture strain and decreased water vapor permeability compared with control films. The films prepared represent an attractive alternative for being used as food packaging materials. PMID:27597950

  19. Preparation of Modified Films with Protein from Grouper Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Valdivia-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A protein concentrate (PC was obtained from Grouper fish skin and it was used to prepare films with different amounts of sorbitol and glycerol as plasticizers. The best performing films regarding resistance were then modified with various concentrations of CaCl2, CaSO4 (calcium salts, and glucono-δ-lactone (GDL with the purpose of improving their mechanical and barrier properties. These films were characterized by determining their mechanical properties and permeability to water vapor and oxygen. Formulations with 5% (w/v protein and 75% sorbitol and 4% (w/v protein with a mixture of 15% glycerol and 15% sorbitol produced adequate films. Calcium salts and GDL increased the tensile fracture stress but reduced the fracture strain and decreased water vapor permeability compared with control films. The films prepared represent an attractive alternative for being used as food packaging materials.

  20. Soluble lens protein polymorphism in flying fishes from the central Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.

    Soluble eye lens nuclei proteins of flying-fishes were studied by cellogel electrophoresis. Three distinct patterns characterized by the number of bands, mobility and staining intensity were observed. Morphological studies of these fishes showed...

  1. Inter-specific and intraspecific eye lens protein differences in some sciaenid fishes from Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.

    Soluble eye lens nuclei proteins of sciaenid fishes were studied by cellogel electrophoresis. Four distinct patterns characterized by the number of bands, mobility and staining intensity were observed. Morphological studies of these fishes showed...

  2. Solution-blown nanofiber mats from fish sarcoplasmic protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sett, S.; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; Yarin, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, solution-blowing was adopted to form nanofibers from fish sarcoplasmic proteins (FSPs). Nanofiber mats containing different weight ratios (up to 90/10) of FSP in the FSP/nylon 6 blended nanofibers were formed from formic acid solutions, and compared to electrospun fibers made...... that the production rate of solution-blowing was increased 30-fold in relation to electrospinning. Overall, this study reveals FSP as an interesting biopolymeric alternative to synthetic polymers, and the introduction of FSP to nylon 6 provides a composite with controlled properties....

  3. Electrospun fish protein fibers as a biopolymer-based carrier – implications for oral protein delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; García-Díaz, María; Jessen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Protein-based electrospun fibers have emerged as novel nanostructured materials for tissue engineering and drug delivery due to their unique structural characteristics, biocompatibility and biodegradability. The aim of this study was to explore the use of electrospun fibers based on fish...... sarcoplasmic proteins as an oral delivery platform for biopharmaceuticals, using insulin as a model protein. Methods: Fish sarcoplasmic proteins (FSP) were isolated from fresh cod and electrospun into nanomicrofibers using insulin as a model payload. The morphology of FSP fibers was characterized using...... differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayers was followed by RP-HPLC and ELISA, and the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was measured before and after the experiment. Cell viability was assessed by the MTS/PMS assay. Results: Insulin was encapsulated in the electrospun FSP fibers with high efficiency, high...

  4. Replacement of fish meal protein by surimi by-product protein in the diet of blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, K N; Subramanian, S; Korikanthimath, V S

    2013-02-01

    Based on the nutrient requirement of Trichogaster trichopterus, a fish meal-based basal diet with 350 g/kg diet crude protein and 16.7 MJ/kg energy was formulated, in which the fish meal protein was replaced by surimi by-product protein at 0.0 (control), 12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels. The formulated diets were fed ad libitum to T. trichopterus fingerlings (4.80 ± 0.03 g) in triplicate groups for 45 days in a closed water system. Eighteen fibre-reinforced plastic tanks with 200 l of water were used for rearing the fish. Weight gain, specific growth rate, feed/gain ratio, protein efficiency ratio, nutrient retention and digestibility (protein and energy) of fish were not affected (p > 0.05) up to 50% fish meal protein replacement level by surimi by-product protein. While whole-body protein content of fish was marginally decreased, the lipid content was increased with increase in surumi by-product incorporation level in the diet. The study results suggest that the fish meal protein, which is scarce and costly nowadays, could be replaced up to 50% by surimi by-product protein in the diet of blue gourami without hampering the growth and nutrient utilization of fish. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Preventing protein adsorption from a range of surfaces using an aqueous fish protein extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Saju; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Meyer, Rikke L.

    2009-01-01

    We utilize an aqueous extract of fish proteins (FPs) as a coating for minimizing the adsorption of fibrinogen (Fg) and human serum albumin (HSA). The surfaces include stainless steel (SS), gold (Au), silicon dioxide (SiO2), and poly(styrene) (PS). The adsorption processes (kinetics and adsorbed...

  6. Towards sustainable fish feed production using novel protein sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganovic, V.

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fish and fish-related products is increasing. Due to improved welfare and suggested health benefits, consumers are now eating more fish. In 2008, global fisheries supplied the world with about 142 million tons of fish, of which 115 million tons was used as human food, which is

  7. Fish condensate as effective replacer of fish meal protein in diet for striped snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanakul, Wattana; Wattanakul, Uraiwan; Thongprajukaew, Karun; Muenpo, Chutchawan

    2017-02-01

    The optimal protein replacement of fish meal (FM) by fish condensate (FC) was investigated in striped snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch) (1.78 ± 0.02 g initial weight). The FM-based diet (0FC) was replaced by substituting protein from FC for 100 (100FC), 200 (200FC), 300 (300FC), 400 (400FC), 500 (500FC) or 600 (600FC) g kg -1 of the FM, and a commercial diet (CD) for carnivorous fish was included for comparison. The experiment was conducted indoors under completely randomized design (8 treatments × 3 replications × 60 fish per pond) over a 6-month trial. There were no significant differences in water quality during the experiment. The fish fed with 500FC had superior growth performance and feed utilization. This dietary treatment gave similar levels to all observed specific activities of digestive enzymes as did baseline 0FC. Survival, carcass composition, hematological parameters and liver histopathology were not negatively impacted by this protein replacement level. Economic analysis also supports the use of this by-product as a potent protein replacer in striped snakehead diet. Findings from the current study indicate that a 500 g kg -1 protein replacement of FM by FC is near optimal for striped snakehead, and similar use of it in the aquafeed of other species appears worth further studies.

  8. Peptides from Fish By-product Protein Hydrolysates and Its Functional Properties: an Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Sillero, Juan; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Prentice, Carlos

    2018-04-01

    The inadequate management of fish processing waste or by-products is one of the major problems that fish industry has to face nowadays. The mismanagement of this raw material leads to economic loss and environmental problems. The demand for the use of these by-products has led to the development of several processes in order to recover biomolecules from fish by-products. An efficient way to add value to fish waste protein is protein hydrolysis. Protein hydrolysates improve the functional properties and allow the release of peptides of different sizes with several bioactivities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, or antihyperglycemic among others. This paper reviews different methods for the production of protein hydrolysates as well as current research about several fish by-products protein hydrolysates bioactive properties, aiming the dual objective: adding value to these underutilized by-products and minimizing their negative impact on the environment.

  9. Fish protein hydrolysates: proximate composition, amino acid composition, antioxidant activities and applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, M; Dinesh Kumar, B; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T

    2012-12-15

    The fish processing industry produces more than 60% by-products as waste, which includes skin, head, viscera, trimmings, liver, frames, bones, and roes. These by-product wastes contain good amount of protein rich material that are normally processed into low market-value products, such as animal feed, fish meal and fertilizer. In view of utilizing these fish industry wastes, and for increasing the value to several underutilised fish species, protein hydrolysates from fish proteins are being prepared by several researchers all over the world. Fish protein hydrolysates are breakdown products of enzymatic conversion of fish proteins into smaller peptides, which normally contain 2-20 amino acids. In recent years, fish protein hydrolysates have attracted much attention of food biotechnologists due to the availability of large quantities of raw material for the process, and presence of high protein content with good amino acid balance and bioactive peptides (antioxidant, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial peptides). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Shedding light on proteins, nucleic acids, cells, humans and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlow, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    I was trained as a physicist in graduate school. Hence, when I decided to go into the field of biophysics, it was natural that I concentrated on the effects of light on relatively simple biological systems, such as proteins. The wavelengths absorbed by the amino acid subunits of proteins are in the ultraviolet (UV). The wavelengths that affect the biological activities, the action spectra, also are in the UV, but are not necessarily parallel to the absorption spectra. Understanding these differences led me to investigate the action spectra for affecting nucleic acids, and the effects of UV on viruses and cells. The latter studies led me to the discovery of the important molecular nature of the damages affecting DNA (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers) and to the discovery of nucleotide excision repair. Individuals with the genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) are extraordinarily sensitive to sunlight-induced skin cancer. The finding, by James Cleaver, that their skin cells were defective in DNA repair strongly suggested that DNA damage was a key step in carcinogenesis. Such information was important for estimating the wavelengths in sunlight responsible for human skin cancer and for predicting the effects of ozone depletion on the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer. It took experiments with backcross hybrid fish to call attention to the probable role of the longer UV wavelengths not absorbed by DNA in the induction of melanoma. These reflections trace the biophysicist's path from molecules to melanoma.

  11. Identification and Characterization of Main Allergic Proteins in Cooked Wolf Herring Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadi, Mohsen; Falak, Reza; Mokhtarian, Kobra; Khoramizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Sadroddiny, Esmaeil; Kardar, Gholam Ali

    2016-10-01

    Our aim in this study was to identify and characterize allergic proteins in cooked wolf herring fish. We heated the crude extract alternatively at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100°C for one hour and results were compared by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Also, proteins were immunoblotted with fish-sensitive patients' sera. The major allergenic proteins were identified via mass spectrometry. These allergenic proteins were then purified by anion exchange chromatography and the IgE-immunoreactivity of the fractions was compared with the crude extracts via disk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SDS-PAGE of the crude extract showed more than 15 distinct protein bands. Five of these proteins, with apparent molecular weights of 12, 18, 24, 38, and 51 kDa, were only observed in the 100°C heated extract. Immunoblotting of the heated extract revealed that the 12 and 51 kDa proteins were IgE-immunoreactive with 88 percent of fish-sensitive patient sera while the 24 and 38 kDa proteins reacted with 33.3 and 55.5 percent of fish-sensitive patient sera, respectively. Mass spectrometry of the 12, 38, and 51 kDa proteins revealed that all three were parvalbumin oligomers. Disk ELISA results showed that 20 of 25 and 14 of 25 fish-allergic patients' sera were IgE-reactive with purified oligomeric parvalbumin-coated and crude extract-coated disks, respectively. Parvalbumin and its oligomers are the main allergenic molecules in cooked fish. Therefore, an enriched or purified fraction containing this protein could be a useful source of allergen for applications in ELISA-based immunoassays and could discriminate fish-allergic patients who can tolerate cooked fish from those who cannot.

  12. Leaching and heating process as alternative to produce fish protein powder from Kilka (Clupeonella cultiventris caspia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAVEH RAHMANIFARAH

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rahmanifarah K, Shabanpour B, Shaviklo AR, Aalami M. 2014. Leaching and heating process as alternative to produce fish protein powder from Kilka (Clupeonella cultiventris caspia. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 1-6. The effect of protein extraction procedures (leached mince and heated suspension on selected properties of fish protein powder (proximate composition, pH, color, density, viscosity, fat adsorption, emulsifying capacity, emulsifying stability, foaming capacity, foaming stability, WBC, protein solubility in water, hygroscopicity, Trichloroacetic acid (TCA-soluble peptides and free sulfhydryl groups was investigated. Results showed that Fish protein powder (FPP produced by leaching mince (LM have higher protein, moisture, ash, pH, L*, viscosity, emulsion capacity, emulsion stability, foam capacity, foam stability, water binding capacity (WBC, protein solubility, hygroscopicity, TCA soluble peptides and free sulfhydryl group content than heated suspension (HS (P0.05. Overall, it was observed that high temperature during heating of suspension in HS method makes possible protein denaturation and aggregation. Consequently, based on functional, chemical and physical properties, extraction of fish protein by leaching process was found to be suitable for the production of fish protein powder.

  13. Fish protein fingerprint in whole muscle samples of yellow perch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many studies have shown the impact of environmental and/or genetic factors on the growth and development of various fish species. However, the role of genes supporting the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for fish was to compare whole muscle proteomic profiles of large versus small growth yellow perch ...

  14. Development of fish protein powder as an ingredient for food applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaviklo, Amir Reza

    2015-02-01

    The increasing awareness that dried fish protein can be applied for food fortification and production of value added/functional foods has encouraged the food industry to examine different methods for developing fish protein ingredient from different raw materials. Fish protein powder (FPP) is a dried and stable fish product, intended for human consumption, in which the protein is more concentrated than in the original fish flesh. Quality and acceptability of FPP depend on several factors. The fat content of the FPP is a critical issue because when it is oxidized a strong and often rancid flavour is produced. Protein content of FPP depends on the raw materials, amount of additives and moisture content, but it contains at least 65 % proteins. FPP is used in the food industry for developing re-structured and ready-to-eat food products. The FPP maintains its properties for 6 months at 5 °C but loses them rapidly at 30 °C. Deterioration of the FPP during storage is prevented by lowering the moisture content of the product and eliminating of oxygen from the package. The FPP can be applied as a functional ingredient for developing formulated ready-to-eat products. This article reviews methods for extracting fish proteins, drying methods, characteristics and applications of FPP and factors affecting FPP quality.

  15. Fish allergy in patients with parvalbumin-specific immunoglobulin E depends on parvalbumin content rather than molecular differences in the protein among fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ayako; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2016-10-01

    Allergenic characteristics of purified parvalbumins from different fish species have not been thoroughly investigated. We revealed that purified parvalbumins from nine different fish species have identical IgE-reactivities and high cross-reactivities. We also showed that fish allergenicity is associated with the parvalbumin content of the fish species, rather than species-specific differences in the molecular characteristics of the individual parvalbumin proteins.

  16. Assessment of the effects of fish meal, wheat gluten, soy protein concentrate and feed moisture on extruder system parameters and the technical quality of fish feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganovic, V.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.; Jonkers, J.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of feed ingredient functionality plays a vital role in modern fish feed manufacturing practice. The aim of this study was to examine the extrusion behaviour of blends containing alternative protein sources from plant origin to fish meal (FM), such as wheat gluten (WG) and soy protein

  17. Preparation by enzymolysis and bioactivity of iron complex of fish protein hydrolysate (Fe-FPH) from low value fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shanggui; Huo, Jiancong; Xie, Chao

    2008-08-01

    Preparation of Fe2+ chelate of fish protein hydrolysate (Fe-FPH) obtained from low value fish proteins was introduced and its bioactivity was studied by compound enzymolysis. The optimum conditions for hydrolysate chelating Fe2+ are DH (degree of hydrolysis) at 5%, pH 7.0, 20°C and 15 min chelating time for FM (material not being defatted). Four types of Fe-FPH including CA (deposit after chelating), CB (deposit in 50% of absolute ethanol solution), CC (suspended deposit in 80% of absolute ethanol solution), and CD (bottom deposit in 80% of absolute ethanol solution) were fractionated with absolute ethanol from FM. Structural analysis through infra-red spectrum revealed that Fe2+ was combined strongly with amino-group and carboxyl-group in each chelate and each Fe2+ could form two five-member ring structures. All of the four chelates were shown more significant antioxidative activity and can be used as natural hydrophobic and hydrophilic antioxidant. Among all the chelates, the CB possesses the most effective antioxidative activity at 92% as high as that of a-tocopherol. Among all Fe-FPHs, only CD showed the most effective antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus subtilis and can be used as natural antibacterial. It provides a more effective way for utilization of low value fish proteins and key information of Fe-FPH as additive in food industry.

  18. Suspected myofibrillar myopathy in Arabian horses with a history of exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, S J; McKenzie, E C; Eyrich, L V; Shivers, J; Barnes, N E; Finno, C J

    2016-09-01

    Although exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is common in Arabian horses, there are no dedicated studies describing histopathological characteristics of muscle from Arabian horses with ER. To prospectively identify distinctive histopathological features of muscle from Arabian endurance horses with a history of ER (pro-ER) and to retrospectively determine their prevalence in archived samples from Arabian horses with exertional myopathies (retro-ER). Prospective and retrospective histopathological description. Middle gluteal muscle biopsies obtained from Arabian controls (n = 14), pro-ER (n = 13) as well as archived retro-ER (n = 25) muscle samples previously classified with type 2 polysaccharide storage myopathy (15/25), recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (7/25) and no pathology (3/25) were scored for histopathology and immunohistochemical staining of cytoskeletal proteins. Glutaraldehyde-fixed samples (2 pro-ER, one control) were processed for electron microscopy. Pro-ER and retro-ER groups were compared with controls using Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact tests. Centrally located myonuclei in mature myofibres were found in significantly more (Prhabdomyolysis, ectopic accumulation of cytoskeletal proteins and Z-disc degeneration bear a strong resemblance to a myofibrillar myopathy. While many of these horses were previously diagnosed with type 2 polysaccharide storage myopathy, pools of glycogen forming within disrupted myofibrils appeared to give the false appearance of a glycogen storage disorder. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  19. evaluation of the protein quality of fish meals by means of the npu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUMMARY. Four lish meals were subjected to a Netl hotetn Utilization (NPU) study of which two were then tested in broiler rations. The ... Experiment I - IlPU determin"otions on fish meals ..... for total amino acids. true protein or crude protein.

  20. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type.

  1. A sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of fish protein in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibahara, Yusuke; Uesaka, Yoshihiko; Wang, Jun; Yamada, Shoichi; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2013-01-15

    Fish is one of the most common causes of food allergy and its major allergen is parvalbumin, a 12 kDa muscular protein. In this study, a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of fish protein in processed foods was developed using a polyclonal antibody raised against Pacific mackerel parvalbumin. The developed sandwich ELISA showed 22.6-99.0% reactivity (based on the reactivity to Pacific mackerel parvalbumin) to parvalbumins from various species of fish. The limits of detection and quantitation were estimated to be 0.23 and 0.70 μg protein per g of food, respectively. When the sandwich ELISA was subjected to inter-laboratory validation, spiked fish protein was recovered from five model processed foods in the range of 69.4-84.8% and the repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations were satisfactorily low (≤ 10.5%). Thus, the sandwich ELISA was judged to be a useful tool to determine fish protein in processed foods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Amino acids digestibility of pelleted microparticle protein of fish meal and soybean meal in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Suthama

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Commom protein sources for poultry, fish meal and soybean meal, were ground to obtain reduced particle size. The particle was then dissolved in distilled water (1 : 4 w/v, and added with 2 mL virgin coconut oil for every 500 mL solution prior to ultrasound transducer (ultrasonic bath treatment to obtain protein microparticle. Reducing particle size is one possible way to increase protein utilization.180 birds were used for forced feeding and 10 other birds were plotted for endogenous correction, when they were one month and a half old. Microparticle protein of both ingredients were tested separately in either mash or pelleted forms and compared to intact protein. Completely randomized design with 3 treatments (intact, mash, and pellet and 6 replications (10 bidrs each was arranged for the respective ingredient. Protein and essential amino acid digestibilities, and calcium retention were the parameters measured. Analysis of variance continued to Duncan test were applied to statistically evaluate the data. Pelleted microparticle protein of fish meal and soybean meal, respectively, resulted in significantly (P<0.05 highest protein and amino acids digestibilities, and Ca retention although lower disgestibility of fewer amino acids was found in mash form. In conclusion, pelleted form of microparticle protein of either fish meal or soybean meal improve protein and mostly amino acids digestibilities, and calcium retention in broiler.

  3. Knowledge Transposition from Tropical Fish Serum Proteins to Fundamental Education Students Through Biochemical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V.M. Maciel de Carvalho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The subject was represented and discussed at The National Week of Science and Technology, UFPE, an initiative from The Ministry of Science and Technology to encourage children and people in science and technology activities. The work aimed to renew the importance to transmit knowledge from simple, imaginative, biochemical models and interactive teaching. The stand tool contained an aquarium with fishes, five scale models showing peptide bond, carbohydrate inhibited lectin molecule, hemagglutination reaction, lectin-bacterium surface interaction and enzyme-substract-inhibitor. Posters described tropical fish importance and methods applied to obtain fish serum and organs to purify lectins and protein inhibitors as well as to extract tissue DNA; notions were transmitted on fish immunology and diseases. The students were attracted and impressed with the exotic fishes most cultivated in Brazil; they asked if it is necessary to kill the fish to extract lectin and about lectin importance. Students were also interested to know if all fish enzyme/inhibitors are favorable to the own fish organism. The work succeeded to inform and stimulate future scientists in the field and to awake their scientific curiosity.

  4. A randomised study on the effects of fish protein supplement on glucose tolerance, lipids and body composition in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikøren, Linn A; Nygård, Ottar K; Lied, Einar; Rostrup, Espen; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2013-02-28

    The popularity of high-protein diets for weight reduction is immense. However, the potential benefits from altering the source of dietary protein rather than the amount is scarcely investigated. In the present study, we examined the effects of fish protein supplement on glucose and lipid metabolism in overweight adults. A total of thirty-four overweight adults were randomised to 8 weeks' supplementation with fish protein or placebo tablets (controls). The intake of fish protein supplement was 3 g/d for the first 4 weeks and 6 g/d for the last 4 weeks. In this study, 8 weeks of fish protein supplementation resulted in lower values of fasting glucose (Pfish protein supplementation compared to controls. Glucose-AUC was decreased after 8 weeks with fish protein supplement compared to baseline (Pfish protein may have beneficial effects on blood levels of glucose and LDL-cholesterol as well as glucose tolerance and body composition in overweight adults. The long-term effects of fish protein supplementation is of interest in the context of using more fish as a protein source in the diet, and the effects of inclusion of fish in the diet of individuals with low glucose tolerance should be evaluated.

  5. Expression of Gla proteins during fish skeletal development

    OpenAIRE

    Gavaia, Paulo J.

    2006-01-01

    Senegal sole skeletal development; Skeletal malformations; Skeletal malformation in mediterranean species; Senegal sole skeletal deformities; Zebra fish as model system: skeletal development; Identification of bone cells / skeletal development; Spatial - temporal pattern of bgp expression; Single cell resolution: localization of bgp mRNA; Single cell resolution: Immunolocalization of Bgp; Single cell resolution: localization of mgp mRNA; Single cell resolution: Immunolocalization of Mgp; An i...

  6. Adverse effects of cyclosporine A on HSP25, alpha B-crystallin and myofibrillar cytoskeleton in rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacchiotti, Alessandra; Bonomini, Francesca; Lavazza, Antonio; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio; Rezzani, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CsA) is a universally used immunosuppressive drug which induces adverse side effects in several organs, but its impact on the heart is still controversial. Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs), such as HSP25 and alpha B-crystallin, are cytoprotective stress proteins exceptionally represented in the heart. They act as myofibrillar chaperones that help actin and desmin to maintain their optimum configuration and stability, thereby antagonizing oxidative damage. The present study examined: (1) the cardiac distribution and abundance of HSP25 and alpha B-crystallin in rats receiving CsA at a therapeutic dosage (15 mg/kg/day) for 42 days and 63 days; (2) the presence of myofibrillar proteins, such as actin, alpha-actinin and desmin following the CsA treatments; (3) the subcellular effects of prolonged CsA exposure on the cardiomyocytes by histopathology and transmission electron microscopy. After 63 days CsA intake, sHSPs translocated from a regular sarcomeric pattern to peripheral sarcolemma and intercalated discs, together with actin and desmin. In contrast, the sarcomeric alpha-actinin pattern did not change in all experimental groups. The abundance of actin and HSP25 was unchanged in every time point of treatment while after 63 days CsA, alpha B-crystallin and desmin levels significantly decreased. Furthermore CsA induced fibrosis, irregular sarcomeric alignment and damaged desmosomes. These findings indicate that following prolonged CsA exposure, the cardiac muscle network was affected. In particular, the translocation of sHSPs to intercalated discs merits special consideration as a direct compensatory mechanism to limit CsA cardiotoxicity.

  7. Myofibrillar troponin exists in three states and there is signal transduction along skeletal myofibrillar thin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Darl R; Yang, Zhenyun; Sen, Asok; Tikunova, Svetlana B; Davis, Jonathan P

    2006-08-18

    Activation of striated muscle contraction is a highly cooperative signal transduction process converting calcium binding by troponin C (TnC) into interactions between thin and thick filaments. Once calcium is bound, transduction involves changes in protein interactions along the thin filament. The process is thought to involve three different states of actin-tropomyosin (Tm) resulting from changes in troponin's (Tn) interaction with actin-Tm: a blocked (B) state preventing myosin interaction, a closed (C) state allowing weak myosin interactions and favored by calcium binding to Tn, and an open or M state allowing strong myosin interactions. This was tested by measuring the apparent rate of Tn dissociation from rigor skeletal myofibrils using labeled Tn exchange. The location and rate of exchange of Tn or its subunits were measured by high-resolution fluorescence microscopy and image analysis. Three different rates of Tn exchange were observed that were dependent on calcium concentration and strong cross-bridge binding that strongly support the three-state model. The rate of Tn dissociation in the non-overlap region was 200-fold faster at pCa 4 (C-state region) than at pCa 9 (B-state region). When Tn contained engineered TnC mutants with weakened regulatory TnI interactions, the apparent exchange rate at pCa 4 in the non-overlap region increased proportionately with TnI-TnC regulatory affinity. This suggests that the mechanism of calcium enhancement of the rate of Tn dissociation is by favoring a TnI-TnC interaction over a TnI-actin-Tm interaction. At pCa 9, the rate of Tn dissociation in the overlap region (M-state region) was 100-fold faster than the non-overlap region (B-state region) suggesting that strong cross-bridges increase the rate of Tn dissociation. At pCa 4, the rate of Tn dissociation was twofold faster in the non-overlap region (C-state region) than the overlap region (M-state region) that likely involved a strong cross-bridge influence on Tn

  8. Chemical properties and sensory quality of ice cream fortified with fish protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaviklo, Gholam Reza; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Sveinsdottir, Kolbrun; Rafipour, Fereidon

    2011-05-01

    Fish protein powder is a functional ingredient that can be used for enhancing the nutritional value of food products. In this study the effect of fortification with different levels of fish protein powder (FP) on chemical properties and sensory quality of Persian ice cream with 0, 30 and 50 g kg(-1) FP during storage at - 18 °C for 4 months was investigated. Ice creams fortified with 50 and 30 g kg(-1) FP had significantly higher protein and solid-non-fat content than ice cream with 0% FP or 83, 69 and 51 g kg(-1) protein and 215, 204 and 181 g kg(-1) solid non-fat, respectively. All products had the same levels of fat, lactose, acidity and pH. They had similar sensory quality after production except for colour, but sensory properties of fortified samples changed significantly after 2 months of storage. Colour faded, cohesiveness decreased, sandiness/coarseness increased, sweetness decreased and fish flavour and off-odour increased. The control ice cream scored highest for additives odour and flavour. Development of ice cream fortified with fish protein powder could be an effective way to enhance nutritional and functional value of ice cream. But studies on storage stability, consumers' acceptance and attitudes are recommended if companies are planning to do so. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. The potency of curing fish waste pellet for growth and protein level of African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, Awik Puji Dyah; Febiyani, Asti R.

    2017-06-01

    Fish curing in Kenjeran, Surabaya produces waste such as fish offal, tail and fins which still has some nutrients, especially protein content, so it can be used as fish feed. Fish feed is an important factor in fish growth. Farmers usually use commercial fish pellets, but the price is relatively more expensive. Curing fish waste which is less expensive can be used as materials for pellets. The purpose of this study is to utilize curing fish waste as a material fish pellets for growth African catfish. Experimental design of this research is Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 1 factorial. The pellets varieties were of K.0, K.1, K.2, K.3, and K.4. The pellets were given to the fish for 30 days. Data of growth rate, survival rate and FCR and protein level data of the pellet and the fish flesh were analyzed by one-way ANOVA statistical method. The analysis shows that the K.4 treatment has a best result of relatively growth of length (72.64%)and relatively growth of weight (488,97%). Protein level of fish flesh is 20.97%. The survival rate of 98%, FCR most efficient pellets exist is K.4.

  10. Full replacement of menhaden fish meal protein by low-gossypol cottonseed flour protein in the diet of juvenile black sea bass Centropristis striata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight iso-nitrogeneous (46% crude protein) and iso-lipidic (14% crude lipid) diets were formulated and prepared to replace menhaden fish meal (FM) protein (59.5% CP) by low-gossypol glandless meal (GCSM) protein (50.4% CP), solvent-extracted cottonseed meal (SCSM) protein (53.8% protein) and high go...

  11. A Universal Method for Fishing Target Proteins from Mixtures of Biomolecules using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, X.; Sun, Q; Kini, R; Sivaraman, J

    2008-01-01

    The most challenging tasks in biology include the identification of (1) the orphan receptor for a ligand, (2) the ligand for an orphan receptor protein, and (3) the target protein(s) for a given drug or a lead compound that are critical for the pharmacological or side effects. At present, several approaches are available, including cell- or animal-based assays, affinity labeling, solid-phase binding assays, surface plasmon resonance, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Most of these techniques are not easy to apply when the target protein is unknown and the compound is not amenable to labeling, chemical modification, or immobilization. Here we demonstrate a new universal method for fishing orphan target proteins from a complex mixture of biomolecules using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) as a tracking tool. We took snake venom, a crude mixture of several hundred proteins/peptides, as a model to demonstrate our proposed ITC method in tracking the isolation and purification of two distinct target proteins, a major component and a minor component. Identities of fished out target proteins were confirmed by amino acid sequencing and inhibition assays. This method has the potential to make a significant advancement in the area of identifying orphan target proteins and inhibitor screening in drug discovery and characterization.

  12. Fish Protein Concentrate Fortification Siam Patin on Amplang Snack Products and Mi Sago Instant Product as a Leading Regional Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewita Buchari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To enhance fish consumption in the community especially children, fortification on processed fish product is conducted. The processed fish products are developed to fill the requirements as the fish based food products that own characterizations such as ready to eat, easy to carry, and less time to cook. Amplang snacks and instant sagoo noodles are defined as the products that fills the requirements. The research was aimed to process catfish into fish protein concentrate to become amplang snack and instant sagoo noodles. These products were designed as the effort to develop the local priority products in Riau by using diversification and fortification methods. Experimental method with fortification treatments on Fish Protein Concentrate (FPC extract from Catfish that generate products of amplang snacks and instant sagoo noodles and fish tofu were carried out. The fortified products were examined by organoleptics test that involved panelists. The results showed that the proximate analysis on fortified Catfish Protein Concentrate products were presented as following :1. water contents of 3,13 %, ash of 2,85 %, protein content of 16,13 % and fat content of 18, 66 % for ampang snacks; and 2. water contents of 11,77 %, ash of 1,30 %, protein content of 12,35 % and fat content of 1,86 % for instant sagoo nodles. All fortified FPC products filled the Indonesian Nasional Standard (SNI.Keywords: Fortification, Catfish, and Fish Protein Concentrate

  13. Characterization of snakehead fish protein that’s potential as antihyperglikemik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindytia Prastari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Snakehead fish has been sources that have high protein content and can be used as antioxidant and anti-diabetes. To increase the level of protein content and amino acid in snakehead fish, the treatment of hydrolysis and fermentation were chosen in this study. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of snakehead fish protein and its potential as antihyperglycemic. Three samples were used in this study, i.e., hydrolysate, fermented and non-fermented isolates. The experimental design used was completely randomized design. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA and continued by Duncan multiple range test (DMRT (α = 5%.  The current study reported that the hydrolysate had higherprotein content 90.43%, as compared to the fermented and non-fermented isolates were 84.43% and 78.69%, respectively. At a concentration of 10.000 ppm, hydrolysate showed highest inhibition activity (74%, as compared to fermented isolate inhibited 59% and none-fermentation isolate inhibited 56%. Hydrolysate also had higher amino acid content than fermented and non-fermented isolates of 51.15, 44.34, and 32.00 %w/w, respectively. Hydrolysate had the lowest molecular weight (<10 kDa, while fermented and non-fermented isolates were <10 kDa. This probably due to the hydrolysis process using an enzyme was capable to break the peptide fractions of snakehead fish protein. Hence, it increased the levels of protein, amino acids, there by protein hydrolysate had high inhibitory potential than fermented and non-fermented isolates.

  14. Total protein and lipid contents of canned fish on the Serbian market

    OpenAIRE

    Marković Goran; Mladenović Jelena; Cvijović Milica; Miljković Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Total protein and lipid contents were analysed in 5 samples of canned fish (sardines, Atlantic mackerel fillets, tuna in olive oil, smoked Baltic sprat and herring fillets) available on the Serbian market. Standard methods for the determination of protein (Kjeldahl method) and lipid (Soxhlet method) contents were used on drained samples. The protein content was 21.31% on average, with a range of 18.59% - 24.17%. Total lipids showed considerably large variations (5.49% - 35.20%), and averaged ...

  15. Replacement of fish meal by protein soybean concentrate in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Litopenaeus vannameifed different levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of soybean protein concentrate (63.07% crude protein, CP to replace fish meal-by product (61.24% CP. The study was conducted in clear water in fifteen 800 L tanks equipped with aeration systems, constant heating (29 ºC, and daily water exchange (30%. Each tank was stocked with 37.5 shrimp/m3 (3.03±0.14 g. Feed was supplied four times a day, at 6% of the initial biomass, adjusted daily. After 42 days, the weight gain of shrimp fed diets with 0 and 25% protein replacement was higher than that observed in shrimp fed 100% replacement, and there were no differences among those fed the other diets. Feed efficiency and survival did not differ among shrimp fed different protein replacements. There was a negative linear trend for growth parameters and feed intake as protein replacement with soybean protein concentrate increased. Fish meal by-product can be replaced by up to 75% of soybean protein concentrate, with no harm to the growth of Pacific white shrimp.

  16. Blocking of bacterial biofilm formation by a fish protein coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Klemm, Per

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation on inert surfaces is a significant health and economic problem in a wide range of environmental, industrial, and medical areas. Bacterial adhesion is generally a prerequisite for this colonization process and, thus, represents an attractive target for the development......, this proteinaceous coating is characterized with regards to its biofilm-reducing properties by using a range of urinary tract infectious isolates with various pathogenic and adhesive properties. The antiadhesive coating significantly reduced or delayed biofilm formation by all these isolates under every condition...... examined. The biofilm-reducing activity did, however, vary depending on the substratum physicochemical characteristics and the environmental conditions studied. These data illustrate the importance of protein conditioning layers with respect to bacterial biofilm formation and suggest that antiadhesive...

  17. Effects of dietary protein levels on growth performance and body composition of juvenile parrot fish, Oplegnathus fasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Woong Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein levels on growth, biometrics, hematology and body composition in juvenile parrot fish Oplegnathus fasciatus. Fish averaging 7.1 ± 0.06 g (mean ± SD was randomly distributed into 15 net cages (each size: 60 × 40 × 90 cm, W × L × H as groups of 20 fish. Five isocaloric diets (16.7 kJ/g energy were formulated to contain crude protein levels (CP as 35 (CP35, 40 (CP40, 45 (CP45, 50 (CP50 and 60 % (CP60 in the diets. Fish were fed one of the experimental diets at apparent satiation twice a day in triplicate groups. At the end of 8-week feeding trial, weight gain (WG of fish fed with CP50 and CP60 diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed with CP35, CP40 and CP45 diets. Fish fed with CP45, CP50 and CP60 diets had higher feed efficiency (FE and specific growth rate (SGR than those of fish fed with CP35 and CP40 diets. Protein retention efficiency (PRE decreased with increase of dietary protein levels among fish fed with the experimental diets. Whole-body crude protein and lipid contents increased with the dietary protein level up to CP50 diet. In conclusion, analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed that the optimum dietary protein level could be 50 % for maximum growth of juvenile parrot fish, while the broken-line analysis of WG suggested that the level could be 48.5 %, in a diet containing 16.7 kJ/g energy.

  18. The treatment of fish meal with gamma radiation - effect on protein fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchman, W.; Konieczny, P.; Zabielski, J.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was determination of the gamma radiation effect on changes of protein fraction of fish meal. For determination of the changes seven dose levels (0-20 kGy) were applied. The doses up to 5 kGy did not influence significantly on solubility, aminoacids composition, content of amino-nitrogen and enzymatic digestibility of proteins in vitro. For 5-10 kGy doses an insignificant decrease of the content of tryptophan was observed. The dose of 5 kGy is quite satisfactory in elimination of vegetative forms of most pathogens. For elimination of yeasts and moulds, the doses up to 10 kGy have to be applied. In this situation supplementation the fish meal with tryptophan is recommended

  19. Expression of the Major Vault Protein (MVP) and Cellular Vault Particles in Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiotta, Alyssa L; Bain, Lisa J; Rice, Charles D

    2017-11-01

    Cellular vaults are ubiquitous 13 mega Da multi-subunit ribonuceloprotein particles that may have a role in nucleocytoplasmic transport. Seventy percent of the vault's mass consists of a ≈100 kDa protein, the major vault protein (MVP). In humans, a drug resistance-associated protein, originally identified as lung resistance protein in metastatic lung cancer, was ultimately shown to be the previously described MVP. In this study, a partial MVP sequence was cloned from channel catfish. Recombinant MVP (rMVP) was used to generate a monoclonal antibody that recognizes full length protein in distantly related fish species, as well as mice. MVP is expressed in fish spleen, liver, anterior kidney, renal kidney, and gills, with a consistent expression in epithelial cells, macrophages, or endothelium at the interface of the tissue and environment or vasculature. We show that vaults are distributed throughout cells of fish lymphoid cells, with nuclear and plasma membrane aggregations in some cells. Protein expression studies were extended to liver neoplastic lesions in Atlantic killifish collected in situ at the Atlantic Wood USA-EPA superfund site on the southern branch of the Elizabeth River, VA. MVP is highly expressed in these lesions, with intense staining at the nuclear membrane, similar to what is known about MVP expression in human liver neoplasia. Additionally, MVP mRNA expression was quantified in channel catfish ovarian cell line following treatment with different classes of pharmacological agents. Notably, mRNA expression is induced by ethidium bromide, which damages DNA. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 300:1981-1992, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Hydrolysis of fish protein by Bacillus megaterium cells immobilized in radiation induced polymerized wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S.; Alur, M.D.; Nerkar, D.P.

    1992-01-01

    The immobilization of Bacillus megaterium cells in radiation-induced polymerized wood was studied for hydrolysis of trash fish protein. The optimum conditions and reaction kinetics for hydrolysis of protein by free and immobilized cells were found to be similar. Maximum hydrolysis occurred at 50 o C and at pH 7.5 with 15-20% (w/v) of immobilized matrix. The soluble content of the resultant hydrolysate about 2.4% (w/v). (author). 10 refs., 4 figs

  1. Fish protein hydrolysates: application in deep-fried food and food safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Franco, Christopher; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Four different processes (enzymatic, microwave-intensified enzymatic, chemical, and microwave-intensified chemical) were used to produce fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) from Yellowtail Kingfish for food applications. In this study, the production yield and oil-binding capacity of FPH produced from different processes were evaluated. Microwave intensification significantly increased the production yields of enzymatic process from 42% to 63%. It also increased the production yields of chemical process from 87% to 98%. The chemical process and microwave-intensified chemical process produced the FPH with low oil-binding capacity (8.66 g oil/g FPH and 6.25 g oil/g FPH), whereas the microwave-intensified enzymatic process produced FPH with the highest oil-binding capacity (16.4 g oil/g FPH). The FPH from the 4 processes were applied in the formulation of deep-fried battered fish and deep-fried fish cakes. The fat uptake of deep-fried battered fish can be reduced significantly from about 7% to about 4.5% by replacing 1% (w/w) batter powder with FPH, and the fat uptake of deep-fried fish cakes can be significantly reduced from about 11% to about 1% by replacing 1% (w/w) fish mince with FPH. Food safety tests of the FPH produced by these processes demonstrated that the maximum proportion of FPH that can be safely used in food formulation is 10%, due to its high content of histamine. This study demonstrates the value of FPH to the food industry and bridges the theoretical studies with the commercial applications of FPH. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Acute satiety response of mammalian, avian and fish proteins in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vester Boler, Brittany M; Faber, Trevor A; Bauer, Laura L; Swanson, Kelly S; Smiley, Scott; Bechtel, Peter J; Fahey, George C

    2012-01-01

    Fish proteins have been reported to be more satiating than meat proteins. The objective was to determine the effect of different animal protein pre-meals on satiety. A total of ten intact female hounds were fed pork loin, beef loin, chicken breast, salmon fillet or pollock fillet. Each pre-meal was fed to contain 100 g protein. Blood was collected at 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min postprandially and analysed for glucose, insulin, total ghrelin, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and plasma amino acids (AA). Dogs were fed 2 ×  metabolisable energy, 3 h following the pre-meal, and intake was determined 30, 60, 180 and 1440 min after food presentation. Glucose decreased over time (P dogs consumed pollock or chicken. Insulin increased (P dogs consumed salmon. GLP-1 increased (P dogs consumed beef. Ghrelin decreased (P dogs consumed pork, salmon and pollock. Different protein sources may influence blood markers in dogs, but it does not appear that fish substrates have different satiating abilities than mammalian or avian sources.

  3. Surface protein composition of Aeromonas hydrophila strains virulent for fish: identification of a surface array protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, J.S.G.; Trust, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    The surface protein composition of members of a serogroup of Aeromonas hydrophila was examined. Immunoblotting with antiserum raised against formalinized whole cells of A. hydrophila TF7 showed a 52K S-layer protein to be the major surface protein antigen, and impermeant Sulfo-NHS-Biotin cell surface labeling showed that the 52K S-layer protein was the only protein accessible to the Sulfo-NHS-Biotin label and effectively masked underlying outer membrane (OM) proteins. In its native surface conformation the 52K S-layer protein was only weakly reactive with a lactoperoxidase 125 I surface iodination procedure. A UV-induced rough lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutant of TF7 was found to produce an intact S layer, but a deep rough LPS mutant was unable to maintain an array on the cell surface and excreted the S-layer protein into the growth medium, indicating that a minimum LPS oligosaccharide size required for A. hydrophila S-layer anchoring. The native S layer was permeable to 125 I in the lactoperoxidase radiolabeling procedure, and two major OM proteins of molecular weights 30,000 and 48,000 were iodinated. The 48K species was a peptidoglycan-associated, transmembrane protein which exhibited heat-modifiable SDS solubilization behavior characteristic of a porin protein. A 50K major peptidoglycan-associated OM protein which was not radiolabeled exhibited similar SDS heat modification characteristics and possibly represents a second porin protein

  4. Hydrolysis of insoluble fish protein residue from whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri by fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilásia Guimarães Martins

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A significant amount of insoluble fibrous protein, in the form of feather, hair, scales, skin and others are available as co-products of agro industrial processing. These wastes are rich in keratin and collagen. This study evaluated different fungi for the hydrolysis of insoluble fish protein residues. Proteins resulting from Micropogonias furnieri wastes through pH-shifting process were dried and milled for fermentation for 96 h. This resulted the production of keratinolytic enzymes in the medium. Trichoderma sp. on alkaline substrate (28.99 U mL-1 and Penicillium sp. on acidic substrate (31.20 U mL-1 showed the highest proteolytic activities. Penicillium sp. showed the largest free amino acid solubilization (0.146 mg mL-1 and Fusarium sp. the highest protein solubilization (6.17 mg mL-1.

  5. EFEK KOLAGEN DARI BERBAGAI JENIS TULANG IKAN TERHADAP KUALITAS MIOFIBRIL PROTEIN IKAN SELAMA PROSES DEHIDRASI [Effect of Various Fish Bone Collagens on the Quality of Myofibril Fish Protein During Dehydration Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudhomenggolo Sastro Darmanto*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Increase in fish fillet export in Indonesia has caused an increase in its waste such as bones, spines, skin and entrails of fish. Fish bones can be processed by demineralization to produce collagen, an important food additive. The effect of addition of 5% of collagen obtained from fresh water, brackish water and sea water fish bone on the fish protein miofibril of grouper was investigated in this research. Water sorption isotherm, Ca-ATPase activity, gel strength, water holding capacity, folding test and viscosity during dehydration process were evaluated. The results showed that collagens made from various fish bones have different Ca-ATPase activity. The reduction rate of Ca-ATPase activity were in accordance with the reduction of water sorbtion isotherm, gel forming ability, water holding capacity, viscosity and folding test during dehydration process.

  6. Assessment of Kerch Bay environmental pollution using neuroglial proteins of ground fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Sukharenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The modern ecology situation in waters of the Kerch Strait requires assessment of disturbances in biotopes and monitoring of the degree of impact of industrial pollutants on ecosystem. Deposit of oil products after the 2007 year ships’ accidents might have considerable impact on the water biocenosis area. The investigation of cytoskeleton marker of astrocytes glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP in brain of the bullhead (Neogobius fluviatilis, which is the typical representative of the commercial ground fish of the Kerch Strait, has been carried out. The results of comparative analysis of GFAP content in the brain of fish from the Kerch Bay near-shore waters and fish from conditionally clear area of Vorskla river shows the reliable (2.18 times increasing of GFAP in the area of industrial pollution. Rising GFAP content indicates the astrogliosis development as a result of metabolic disturbances which can be induced by higher content of oil products in the near-bottom biotopes of the Kerch Bay. Increase in lipid peroxidation level was observed in the brain of fish from the Kerch Bay. The results provided with regard to violations of the state of astrocyte cytoskeleton and oxidative stress in the brain of bullhead from the Kerch Bay prove the sublethal biology effect of industrial pollutants in hydrobionts from this area. Results of this investigation also indicate the necessity of continuous ecology monitoring and comprehensive study of hydrobiont populations in the industrial regions and ecological disaster zones.

  7. Recombinant expression and purification of the RNA-binding LARP6 proteins from fish genetic model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, José M; Horn, Daniel A; Pu, Xinzhu; Lewis, Karen A

    2017-06-01

    The RNA-binding proteins that comprise the La-related protein (LARP) superfamily have been implicated in a wide range of cellular functions, from tRNA maturation to regulation of protein synthesis. To more expansively characterize the biological function of the LARP6 subfamily, we have recombinantly expressed the full-length LARP6 proteins from two teleost fish, platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). The yields of the recombinant proteins were enhanced to >2 mg/L using a tandem approach of an N-terminal His 6 -SUMO tag and an iterative solubility screening assay to identify structurally stabilizing buffer components. The domain topologies of the purified fish proteins were probed with limited proteolysis. The fish proteins contain an internal, protease-resistant 40 kDa domain, which is considerably more stable than the comparable domain from the human LARP6 protein. The fish proteins are therefore a lucrative model system in which to study both the evolutionary divergence of this family of La-related proteins and the structure and conformational dynamics of the domains that comprise the LARP6 protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolution of the duplicated intracellular lipid-binding protein genes of teleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, Ananda B; Parmar, Manoj B; Wright, Jonathan M

    2017-08-01

    Increasing organismal complexity during the evolution of life has been attributed to the duplication of genes and entire genomes. More recently, theoretical models have been proposed that postulate the fate of duplicated genes, among them the duplication-degeneration-complementation (DDC) model. In the DDC model, the common fate of a duplicated gene is lost from the genome owing to nonfunctionalization. Duplicated genes are retained in the genome either by subfunctionalization, where the functions of the ancestral gene are sub-divided between the sister duplicate genes, or by neofunctionalization, where one of the duplicate genes acquires a new function. Both processes occur either by loss or gain of regulatory elements in the promoters of duplicated genes. Here, we review the genomic organization, evolution, and transcriptional regulation of the multigene family of intracellular lipid-binding protein (iLBP) genes from teleost fishes. Teleost fishes possess many copies of iLBP genes owing to a whole genome duplication (WGD) early in the teleost fish radiation. Moreover, the retention of duplicated iLBP genes is substantially higher than the retention of all other genes duplicated in the teleost genome. The fatty acid-binding protein genes, a subfamily of the iLBP multigene family in zebrafish, are differentially regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms, which may account for the retention of iLBP genes in the zebrafish genome by the process of subfunctionalization of cis-acting regulatory elements in iLBP gene promoters.

  9. Effect of egg albumen protein addition on physicochemical properties and nanostructure of gelatin from fish skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Luyun; Feng, Jianhui; Peng, Xichun; Regenstein, Joe M; Li, Xiuxia; Li, Jianrong; Zhao, Wei

    2016-12-01

    The physicochemical properties and nanostructure of mixtures of egg albumen protein (EAP) and gelatin from under-utilised grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella ) skins were studied. The gelatin with 1% EAP had an acceptable gel strength. The addition of 5% EAP significantly increased the melting and gelling temperatures of gelatin gels. Additionally, the colour turned white and the crystallinity was higher in gelatin gels with gradient concentrations of EAP (1, 3, and 5%). Gelatin with 5% EAP had the highest G' values while gelatin with 1% EAP had the lowest G' values. Atomic force microscopy showed the heterogeneous nanostructure of fish gelatin, and a simple coacervate with a homogeneous distribution was only observed with the addition of 1% EAP, indicating interaction between gelatin and EAP. These results showed that EAP effect fish gelatin's physicochemical and nanostructure properties and has potential applications in foods and pharmaceuticals.

  10. Use of fish processing waste as protein source in diet for Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chotipuntu, P.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Five diets were prepared using fish processing waste meal (FMFP to replace fish meal (FM at inclusion levels of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Frog diet was used as a control diet. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were reared in laboratory conditions for 8 weeks. It was found that substitution levels of protein from FMFP in the tested diets reduced growth and feed efficiency of tilapia (p<0.05. However, the differences looks like significant trend especially that between the 100% substitution level and the frog diet. Substitution of FM by FMFD at 75% reduced cost of feed by 15.35%. It was concluded that up to 75% inclusion of FMFD in the diet of tilapia could support normal growth of Nile tilapia with the potential for substitution of FM.

  11. Phytoplankton IF-FISH: Species-specific labeling of cellular proteins by immunofluorescence (IF) with simultaneous species identification by fluorescence immunohybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Megan E; Van Dolah, Frances M

    2016-05-01

    Phytoplankton rarely occur as unialgal populations. Therefore, to study species-specific protein expression, indicative of physiological status in natural populations, methods are needed that will both assay for a protein of interest and identify the species expressing it. Here we describe a protocol for IF-FISH, a dual labeling procedure using immunofluorescence (IF) labeling of a protein of interest followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to identify the species expressing that protein. The protocol was developed to monitor expression of the cell cycle marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, using a large subunit (LSU) rRNA probe to identify K. brevis in a mixed population of morphologically similar Karenia species. We present this protocol as proof of concept that IF-FISH can be successfully applied to phytoplankton cells. This method is widely applicable for the analysis of single-cell protein expression of any protein of interest within phytoplankton communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Administration of structured lipid composed of MCT and fish oil reduces net protein catabolism in enterally fed burned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, T C; DeMichele, S J; Selleck, K M; Babayan, V K; Blackburn, G L; Bistrian, B R

    1989-01-01

    The effects of enteral feeding with safflower oil or a structured lipid (SL) derived from 60% medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) and 40% fish oil (MCT/fish oil) on protein and energy metabolism were compared in gastrostomy-fed burned rats (30% body surface area) by measuring oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, nitrogen balance, total liver protein, whole-body leucine kinetics, and rectus muscle and liver protein fractional synthetic rates (FSR, %/day). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (195 +/- 5g) received 50 ml/day of an enteral regimen containing 50 kcal, 2 g amino acids, and 40% nonprotein calories as lipid for three days. Protein kinetics were estimated by using a continuous L-[1-14C] leucine infusion technique on day 2. Thermally injured rats enterally fed MCT/fish oil yielded significantly higher daily and cumulative nitrogen balances (p less than or equal to 0.025) and rectus muscle (39%) FSR (p less than or equal to 0.05) when compared with safflower oil. MCT/fish oil showed a 22% decrease (p less than or equal to 0.005) in per cent flux oxidized and a 7% (p less than or equal to 0.05) decrease in total energy expenditure (TEE) versus safflower oil. A 15% increase in liver FSR was accompanied by a significant elevation (p less than or equal to 0.025) in total liver protein with MCT/fish oil. This novel SL shares the properties of other structured lipids in that it reduces the net protein catabolic effects of burn injury, in part, by influencing tissue protein synthetic rates. The reduction in TEE is unique to MCT/fish oil and may relate to the ability of fish oil to diminish the injury response. PMID:2500898

  13. Design and characterization of self-assembled fish sarcoplasmic protein-alginate nanocomplexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; Mattebjerg, Maria Ahlm; Wattjes, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Macrostructures based on natural polymers are subject to large attention, as the application range is wide within the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study we present nanocomplexes (NCXs) made from electrostatic self-assembly between negatively charged alginate and positively charged...... fish sarcoplasmic proteins (FSP), prepared by bulk mixing. A concentration screening revealed that there was a range of alginate and FSP concentrations where stable NCXs with similar properties were formed, rather than two exact concentrations. The size of the NCXs was 293 +/- 3 nm, and the zeta...

  14. Interaction of fish aryl hydrocarbon receptor paralogs (AHR1 and AHR2) with the retinoblastoma protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merson, Rebeka R., E-mail: rmerson@ric.edu [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Biology Department, Rhode Island College, 500 Mt. Pleasant Ave., Providence, RI 02908 (United States); Karchner, Sibel I.; Hahn, Mark E. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)

    2009-08-13

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates the toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds. In some mammalian cell lines, TCDD induces G1 cell cycle arrest, which depends on an interaction between the AHR and the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (RB). Mammals possess one AHR, whereas fishes possess two or more AHR paralogs that differ in the domains important for AHR-RB interactions in mammals. To test the hypothesis that fish AHR paralogs differ in their ability to interact with RB, we cloned RB cDNA from Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, and studied the interactions of killifish RB protein with killifish AHR1 and AHR2. In coimmunoprecipitation experiments, in vitro-expressed killifish RB coprecipitated with both AHR1 and AHR2. Consistent with these results, both killifish AHR1 and AHR2 interacted with RB in mammalian two-hybrid assays. These results suggest that both fish AHR1 and AHR2 paralogs may have the potential to influence cell proliferation through interactions with RB.

  15. Fish proteins as targets of ferrous-catalyzed oxidation: identification of protein carbonyls by fluorescent labeling on two-dimensional gels and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Manuel; da Rocha, Angela Pereira; Roepstorff, Peter; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2011-07-27

    Protein oxidation in fish meat is considered to affect negatively the muscle texture. An important source of free radicals taking part in this process is Fenton's reaction dependent on ferrous ions present in the tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of cod muscle proteins in sarcoplasmic and myofibril fractions to in vitro metal-catalyzed oxidation and to point out protein candidates that might play a major role in the deterioration of fish quality. Extracted control proteins and proteins subjected to free radicals generated by Fe(II)/ascorbate mixture were labeled with fluorescein-5-thiosemicarbazide (FTSC) to tag carbonyl groups and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Consecutive visualization of protein carbonyl levels by capturing the FTSC signal and total protein levels by capturing the SyproRuby staining signal allowed us to quantify the relative change in protein carbonyl levels corrected for changes in protein content. Proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and homology-based searches. The results show that freshly extracted cod muscle proteins exhibit a detectable carbonylation background and that the incubation with Fe(II)/ascorbate triggers a further oxidation of both sarcoplasmic and myofibril proteins. Different proteins exhibited various degrees of sensitivity to oxidation processes. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NDK), triosephosphate isomerase, phosphoglycerate mutase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and enolase were the sarcoplasmic proteins most vulnerable to ferrous-catalyzed oxidation. Moreover, NDK, phosphoglycerate mutase, and GAPDH were identified in several spots differing by their pI, and those forms showed different susceptibilities to metal-catalyzed oxidation, indicating that post-translational modifications may change the resistance of proteins to oxidative damage. The Fe(II)/ascorbate treatment significantly

  16. Composite films from pectin and fish skin gelatin or soybean flour protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, LinShu; Liu, Cheng-Kung; Fishman, Marshall L; Hicks, Kevin B

    2007-03-21

    Composite films were prepared from pectin and fish skin gelatin (FSG) or pectin and soybean flour protein (SFP). The inclusion of protein promoted molecular interactions, resulting in a well-organized homogeneous structure, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy and fracture-acoustic emission analysis. The resultant composite films showed an increase in stiffness and strength and a decrease in water solubility and water vapor transmission rate, in comparison with films cast from pectin alone. The composite films inherited the elastic nature of proteins, thus being more flexible than the pure pectin films. Treating the composite films with glutaraldehyde/methanol induced chemical cross-linking with the proteins and reduced the interstitial spaces among the macromolecules and, consequently, improved their mechanical properties and water resistance. Treating the protein-free pectin films with glutaraldehyde/methanol also improved the Young's modulus and tensile strength, but showed little effect on the water resistance, because the treatment caused only dehydration of the pectin films and the dehydration is reversible. The composite films were biodegradable and possessed moderate mechanical properties and a low water vapor transmission rate. Therefore, the films are considered to have potential applications as packaging or coating materials for food or drug industries.

  17. Spatial Expression of Otolith Matrix Protein-1 and Otolin-1 in Normally and Kinetotically Swimming Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigele, Jochen; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A; Hilbig, Reinhard

    2015-10-01

    Kinetosis (motion sickness) has been repeatedly shown to affect some fish of a given clutch following the transition from 1g to microgravity or from hypergravity to 1g. This susceptibility to kinetosis may be correlated with irregular inner ear otolith growth. Otoliths are mainly composed of calcium carbonate and matrix proteins, which play an important role in the process of otolith mineralization. Here, we examine the morphology of otoliths and the expression pattern of the major otolith proteins OMP-1 and otolin-1 in a series of hypergravity experiments. In the utricle, OMP-1 is present in centripetal (medial) and centrifugal (lateral) regions of the meshwork area. In the saccule, OMP-1 was expressed within a dorsal and a ventral narrow band of the meshwork area opposite to the periphery of the sulcus acusticus. In normal animals, the spatial expression pattern of OMP-1 reaches more posteriorly in the centrifugal aspect and is considerably broader in the centripetal portion of the utricle compared to kinetotic animals. However, otolin-1 was not expressed in the utricule. In the saccule, no differences were observed for either gene when comparing normal and kinetotically behaving fish. The difference in the utricular OMP-1 expression pattern between normally and kinetotically swimming fish indicates a different otolith morphology and thus a different geometry of the otoliths resting on the corresponding sensory maculae. As the utricle is the endorgan responsible for sensing gravity, the aberrant morphology of the utricular otoliths, based on OMP-1 expression, likely leads to the observed kinetotic behavior. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Growth performance of sea bass fed increasing levels of pea-wheat protein in diets varying in fish meal quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tibaldi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A 11-week trial was carried out to compare the growth performance of sea bass (D. labrax fed six isonitrogenous isocaloric diets where protein from two fish meals of different nutritive value was replaced with graded levels (0, 50 or 75% of a mixture made up by a pea protein concentrate and wheat gluten. Fish meal quality did not affect (P>0.05 weight gain or feed efficiency in fish fed graded levels of plant protein in the diet. Feed intake decreased (P<0.05 as the level of plant protein was increased in the diet but this did not led to impaired growth or feed conversion rate. Protein efficiency and retention were equally improved (P<0.05 only with diets where a poor quality fish meal was substituted by protein rich-plant ingredients. Calculations based on the mass balance of nutrients of sea bass proven the inclusion of a mixture of highly purified plant-protein derivatives in complete diets for the sea bass, to be beneficial in reducing pollution load.

  19. Characterisation of kiwifruit and asparagus enzyme extracts, and their activities toward meat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Minh; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Carne, Alan; Hopkins, David L

    2013-01-15

    Two plant enzyme extracts from kiwifruit and asparagus were evaluated for their ability to hydrolyse commercially available substrates and proteins present in both beef connective tissue and topside myofibrillar extracts. The results show significant differences in protease activity depending on the assay used. Protease assays with connective tissue and meat myofibrillar extracts provide a more realistic evaluation of the potential of the enzymes for application in meat tenderization. Overall, the kiwifruit protease extract was found to be more effective at hydrolysing myofibrillar and collagen proteins than the asparagus protease extract. The two protease extracts appeared to target meat myofibrillar and collagen proteins differently, suggesting the potential of a synergistic effect of these proteases in improving the tenderness of specific cuts of meat, based on their intrinsic protein composition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Whey protein delays gastric emptying and suppresses plasma fatty acids and their metabolites compared to casein, gluten, and fish protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanstrup, Jan; Schou, Simon S; Holmer-Jensen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    ), and cod (COD). Obese, nondiabetic subjects were included in the randomized, blinded, crossover meal study. Subjects ingested a high fat meal containing one of the four protein sources. Plasma samples were collected at five time points and metabolites analyzed using LC-Q-TOF-MS. In contrast to previous...... studies, the WI meal caused a decreased rate of gastric emptying compared to the other test meals. The WI meal also caused elevated levels of a number of amino acids, possibly stimulating insulin release leading to reduced plasma glucose. The WI meal also caused decreased levels of a number of fatty acids......, while the GLU meal caused elevated levels of a number of unidentified hydroxy fatty acids and dicarboxylic fatty acids. Also reported are a number of markers of fish intake unique to the COD meal....

  1. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... symptoms are linked to the presence of IgE-antibodies recognizing parvalbumin, the fish panallergen. This view was challenged by results from recent studies as follows. 1. Allergic reactions which are limited to single or several fish species (mono-or oligosensitisations) apply not only to single cases...... but patients with this phenotype constitute an important sub-group among fish-allergic individuals. 2. Newly identified fish allergens, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, are of high relevance as the majority of the fish-allergic individuals seem to develop specific IgE against these proteins. The present...

  2. Innovation on Street Food Products (Instant Porridge and Cookies Based on Fortified Patin Fish Protein Concentrate with Red Palm Oil and Encaptulated Oil Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewita Dewita

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to establish innovation on street food (instant porridge and cookiesfrom Patin Fish Protein Concentrate fortified by blending red palm oil and encaptulated patinfish’s oil. The Encaptulation was conducted by blending of red palm oil and patin fish’s oil usingspray dryer. The blending was consisted of three combinations namely 50 : 50 (A1, 40 : 60 (A2and 60 : 40 (A3 for ratio between red palm oil and patin fish’s oil. The best combination’s resultswas fortified into street food (instant porridge and cookies. The blending was tested by measureyield, fat and fatty acid profile. Moreover, organoleptics and proximate tests were carrie out for thebest treatment of blending in instant porridge and cookies. The results show that encaptulatedyield reached 55 % that rise from A1 treatment as the best treatment with fat content of 17.26%.Profile of unsaturated fatty acid especially fatty acid omega 9 from blending fish oil and palm oilwas 59.29%. The number of fatty acid omega 9 was higher than saturated fatty acid which was18.56%. Furthermore, based on organoleptic tests of instant porridge and cookies using under fiveyear children respondents, it was proven that 93% of children was like the products. Proximate analysis of instant porridge revealed that protein content was 11.04 %, water content was 5.03%,fat content was 1.92 % and ash was 0.64 %. However, proximate analysis showed that cookiesowned protein of 9.11%, fat of 17.03% , water content was 3.93% and ash of 1.38%.Keywords : Encaptulated fish, street food, patin fish protein concentrate, palm oil

  3. Growth and development of skeletal anomalies in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed phosphorus-rich diets with fish meal and hydrolyzed fish protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvanendran, Velmurugu; Riesen, Guido; Seim, Rudi Ripman; Hagen, Ørjan; Martínez-Llorens, Silvia; Falk-Petersen, Inger-Britt; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.; Jobling, Malcolm

    2018-01-01

    Diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar were fed high-protein, phosphorus-rich diets (56–60% protein; ca 18g phosphorus kg-1 diet) whilst being reared at low temperature from start-feeding until parr-smolt transformation. Performances of salmon fed diets based on fish meal (STD) or a mix of fishmeal and hydrolysed fish proteins (HFM) as the major protein sources were compared in terms of mortality, diet digestibility, growth and skeletal deformities. Separate groups of diploids and triploids were reared in triplicate tanks (initially 3000 fish per tank; tank biomass ca. 620 g) from 0–2745 degree-days post-start feeding (ddPSF). Growth metrics (weight, length, condition factor) were recorded at ca. 4 week intervals, external signs of deformities to the operculum, jaws and spinal column were examined in parr sampled at 1390 ddPSF, and external signs of deformity and vertebral anomalies (by radiography) were examined in fish sampled at the end of the trial (2745 ddPSF). The triploid salmon generally had a lower mass per unit length, i.e. lower condition factor, throughout the trial, but this did not seem to reflect any consistent dietary or ploidy effects on either dietary digestibility or the growth of the fish. By the end of the trial fish in all treatment groups had achieved a weight of 50+ g, and had completed the parr-smolt transformation. The triploids had slightly, but significantly, fewer vertebrae (Triploids STD 58.74 ± 0.10; HFM 58.68 ± 0.05) than the diploids (Diploids STD 58.97 ± 0.14; HFM 58.89 ± 0.01), and the incidence of skeletal (vertebral) abnormalities was higher in triploids (Triploids STD 31 ± 0.90%; HFM 15 ± 1.44%) than in diploids (Diploids STD 4 ± 0.80%; HFM 4 ± 0.83%). The HFM diet gave a significant reduction in the numbers of triploid salmon with vertebral anomalies in comparison with the triploids fed the STD diet possibly as a result of differences in phosphorus bioavailability between the two diets. Overall, the

  4. Impact of ultrafiltration and nanofiltration of an industrial fish protein hydrolysate on its bioactive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Laurent; Ravallec, Rozenn; Fouchereau-Péron, Martine; Vandanjon, Laurent; Jaouen, Pascal; Chaplain-Derouiniot, Maryse; Guérard, Fabienne; Chabeaud, Aurélie; Legal, Yves; Alvarez, Oscar Martinez; Bergé, Jean-Pascal; Piot, Jean-Marie; Batista, Irineu; Pires, Carla; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Delannoy, Charles; Jakobsen, Greta; Johansson, Inez; Bourseau, Patrick

    2010-08-30

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that in vitro controlled enzymatic hydrolysis of fish and shellfish proteins leads to bioactive peptides. Ultrafiltration (UF) and/or nanofiltration (NF) can be used to refine hydrolysates and also to fractionate them in order to obtain a peptide population enriched in selected sizes. This study was designed to highlight the impact of controlled UF and NF on the stability of biological activities of an industrial fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) and to understand whether fractionation could improve its content in bioactive peptides. The starting fish protein hydrolysate exhibited a balanced amino acid composition, a reproducible molecular weight (MW) profile, and a low sodium chloride content, allowing the study of its biological activity. Successive fractionation on UF and NF membranes allowed concentration of peptides of selected sizes, without, however, carrying out sharp separations, some MW classes being found in several fractions. Peptides containing Pro, Hyp, Asp and Glu were concentrated in the UF and NF retentates compared to the unfractionated hydrolysate and UF permeate, respectively. Gastrin/cholecystokinin-like peptides were present in the starting FPH, UF and NF fractions, but fractionation did not increase their concentration. In contrast, quantification of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-like peptides demonstrated an increase in CGRP-like activities in the UF permeate, relative to the starting FPH. The starting hydrolysate also showed a potent antioxidant and radical scavenging activity, and a moderate angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-1 inhibitory activity, which were not increased by UF and NF fractionation. Fractionation of an FPH using membrane separation, with a molecular weight cut-off adapted to the peptide composition, may provide an effective means to concentrate CGRP-like peptides and peptides enriched in selected amino acids. The peptide size distribution observed after UF and NF fractionation

  5. Development of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods for the quantitation of Anisakis simplex proteins in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Moen, Anders; Schniedewind, Björn; Haug Anonsen, Jan; Klawitter, Jelena; Christians, Uwe

    2016-02-05

    The parasite Anisakis simplex is present in many marine fish species that are directly used as food or in processed products. The anisakid larvae infect mostly the gut and inner organs of fish but have also been shown to penetrate into the fillet. Thus, human health can be at risk, either by contracting anisakiasis through the consumption of raw or under-cooked fish, or by sensitisation to anisakid proteins in processed food. A number of different methods for the detection of A. simplex in fish and products thereof have been developed, including visual techniques and PCR for larvae tracing, and immunological assays for the determination of proteins. The recent identification of a number of anisakid proteins by mass spectrometry-based proteomics has laid the groundwork for the development of two quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods for the detection of A. simplex in fish that are described in the present study. Both, the label-free semi-quantitative nLC-nESI-Orbitrap-MS/MS (MS1) and the heavy peptide-applying absolute-quantitative (AQUA) LC-TripleQ-MS/MS (MS2) use unique reporter peptides derived from anisakid hemoglobin and SXP/RAL-2 protein as analytes. Standard curves in buffer and in salmon matrix showed limits of detection at 1μg/mL and 10μg/mL for MS1 and 0.1μg/mL and 2μg/mL for MS2. Preliminary method validation included the assessment of sensitivity, repeatability, reproducibility, and applicability to incurred and naturally-contaminated samples for both assays. By further optimization and full validation in accordance with current recommendations the LC-MS/MS methods could be standardized and used generally as confirmative techniques for the detection of A. simplex protein in fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fish sarcoplasmic proteins as a high value marine material for wound dressing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Sara; Franco, Albina R; Fernandes, Emanuel M; Amorim, Sara; Ferreira, Helena; Pires, Ricardo A; Reis, Rui L; Martins, Albino; Neves, Nuno M

    2018-07-01

    Fish sarcoplasmic proteins (FSP) constitute around 25-30% of the total fish muscle protein. As the FSP are water soluble, FSP were isolated from fresh cod (Gadus morhua) by centrifugation. By SDS-PAGE, it was possible to determine the composition of FSP extracts (FSP-E). The FSP-E undergo denaturation at 44.12 ± 2.34° C, as characterized by differential scanning calorimetry thermograms (DSC). The secondary structure of FSP-E is mainly composed by α-helix structure, as determined by circular dichroism. The cytocompatibility of FSP-E, at concentrations ranging from 5 to 20 mg/mL, was investigated. Concentrations lower than 10 mg/mL have no cytotoxicity cultures of fibroblasts over 72 h. Further on, FSP membranes (FSP-M) were produced by spin coating to evaluate its properties. FSP-M shown having uniform surface as analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The relative amount of α-helix structures is higher when compared with the FSP-E. The FSP-M have higher temperature stability than the FSP-E, since they presented a denaturation temperature of 58.88 ± 3.36° C, according to the DSC analysis. FSP-M shown distinctive mechanical properties, with a stiffness of 16.57 ± 3.95 MPa and a yield strength of 23.85 ± 5.97 MPa. Human lung fibroblasts cell lines (MRC-5) were cultured in direct contact with FSP-M, demonstrating its cytocompatibility for 48 h. Based on these results, FSP can be considered a potential biomaterial recovered from nature, for wound dressing applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fish Proteins as Targets of Ferrous-Catalyzed Oxidation: Identification of Protein Carbonyls by Fluorescent Labeling on Two-Dimensional Gels and MALDI-TOF/TOF Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazos, Manuel; da Rocha, Angela Pereira; Roepstorff, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Protein oxidation in fish meat is considered to affect negatively the muscle texture. An important source of free radicals taking part in this process is Fenton's reaction dependent on ferrous ions present in the tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of cod muscle pr...

  8. Chymase inhibition prevents fibronectin and myofibrillar loss and improves cardiomyocyte function and LV torsion angle in dogs with isolated mitral regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat, Betty; Chen, Yuanwen; Killingsworth, Cheryl; Gladden, James D; Shi, Ke; Zheng, Junying; Powell, Pamela C; Walcott, Greg; Ahmed, Mustafa I; Gupta, Himanshu; Desai, Ravi; Wei, Chih-Chang; Hase, Naoki; Kobayashi, Tsunefumi; Sabri, Abdelkarim; Granzier, Henk; Denney, Thomas; Tillson, Michael; Dillon, A Ray; Husain, Ahsan; Dell'italia, Louis J

    2010-10-12

    The left ventricular (LV) dilatation of isolated mitral regurgitation (MR) is associated with an increase in chymase and a decrease in interstitial collagen and extracellular matrix. In addition to profibrotic effects, chymase has significant antifibrotic actions because it activates matrix metalloproteinases and kallikrein and degrades fibronectin. Thus, we hypothesize that chymase inhibitor (CI) will attenuate extracellular matrix loss and LV remodeling in MR. We studied dogs with 4 months of untreated MR (MR; n=9) or MR treated with CI (MR+CI; n=8). Cine MRI demonstrated a >40% increase in LV end-diastolic volume in both groups, consistent with a failure of CI to improve a 25% decrease in interstitial collagen in MR. However, LV cardiomyocyte fractional shortening was decreased in MR versus normal dogs (3.71±0.24% versus 4.81±0.31%; P<0.05) and normalized in MR+CI dogs (4.85±0.44%). MRI with tissue tagging demonstrated an increase in LV torsion angle in MR+CI versus MR dogs. CI normalized the significant decrease in fibronectin and FAK phosphorylation and prevented cardiomyocyte myofibrillar degeneration in MR dogs. In addition, total titin and its stiffer isoform were increased in the LV epicardium and paralleled the changes in fibronectin and FAK phosphorylation in MR+CI dogs. These results suggest that chymase disrupts cell surface-fibronectin connections and FAK phosphorylation that can adversely affect cardiomyocyte myofibrillar structure and function. The greater effect of CI on epicardial versus endocardial titin and noncollagen cell surface proteins may be responsible for the increase in torsion angle in chronic MR.

  9. Complete replacement of fish meal by other animal protein sources on growth performance of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnauld S. M. Djissou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To completely replace the fish meal by a mixture of earthworm and maggot meals, experimental diets were tested during 42 days on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Five isoproteic and isoenergetic diets (40 % crude protein and 17.9 ± 0.3 kJ g−1 including the control diet (D1 based on fish meal, were formulated. All these diets satisfied the essential amino acids requirements of C. gariepinus fingerlings. These diets were tested on triplicate groups of 50 fishes (initial body weight: 3 ± 0.1 g bred in tank (0.5 m3. The approximate ratios 2:5; 1:4; 1:12 and 0:1 between the earthworm meal and the maggot meal were used, respectively, to formulate four diets D2, D3, D4 and D5 without fish meal. After the feeding period, significant differences (P < 0.05 were observed on growth, feed utilization between control diet (D1 and test diets (D2–D5. Fish fed earthworm- and maggot-based diets were grown better than those fed the control diet. Survival and feed utilization were not significantly affected by the ratio between earthworm meal and maggot meal in the test diets. Lipid content was higher in carcass and fillet of fishes fed earthworm- and maggot meals-based diets than that of those fed fish meal-based diet. This study indicates that when the ratio 2:5 between the earthworm meal and the maggot meal is used to entirely replace fish meal and the ratio lysine/arginine of the diet is inferior to 1, the growth performances and feed utilization of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings are improved.

  10. The influence of additives and drying methods on quality attributes of fish protein powder made from saithe (Pollachius virens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaviklo, Gholam Reza; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Arason, Sigurjon; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Sveinsdottir, Kolbrun

    2010-09-01

    Fish protein powder (FPP) is used in the food industry for developing formulated food products. This study investigates the feasibility of increasing the value of saithe (Pollachius virens) by producing a functional FPP. Quality attributes of spray and freeze-dried saithe surimi containing lyoprotectants were studied. A freeze-dried saithe surimi without lyoprotectants was also prepared as a control sample. The amount of protein, moisture, fat and carbohydrate in the FPPs were 745-928, 39-58, 21-32 and 10-151 g kg(-1). Quality attributes of FPPs were influenced by the two drying methods and lyoprotectants. The highest level of lipid oxidation was found in the control and the second highest in the spray-dried FPP. The spray-dried fish protein had the lowest viscosity among all FPPs. Gel-forming ability of samples with lyoprotectants was higher than that of the control. Water-binding capacity, emulsion properties and solubility of the freeze-dried fish protein containing lyoprotectants were significantly higher than spray-dried and control samples. However, functional properties of spray-dried FPP were higher than the control sample. It is feasible to develop value-added FPP from saithe surimi using spray- and freeze-drying processes, but freeze-dried FPP containing lyoprotectant had superior functional properties and stability compared with spray-dried sample. Both products might be used as functional protein ingredients in various food systems. Copyright 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Fishmeal with different levels of biogenic amines in Aquafeed: Comparison of feed protein quality, fish growth performance, and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasour, Mohammad Sedigh; Wagner, Liane; Sundekilde, Ulrik Kræmer

    2018-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of fishmeal quality (low (LB) and high (HB) levels of endogenous biogenic amines) and feed extrusion temperatures (100 and 130 °C) on protein oxidation indicators and amino acids racemization (AAR) in extruded fish feed. Furthermore, the study investigated......, secondary oxidation products, and racemized methionine correlated positively with a low content of biogenic amines, whereas the primary oxidation product, protein hydroperoxides, and in vivo AAs digestibility correlated positively with high content of biogenic amines. At an extrusion temperature of 100 °C......, the growth performance of the fish decreased when the content of biogenic amines increased. In contrast, at an extrusion temperature of 130 °C, the growth performance was unaffected by the level of biogenic amines. The latter could be a consequence of the higher level of protein oxidation of LB fishmeal...

  12. SIMULATING PROTEIN DIGESTION ON TROUT A RAPID AND INEXPENSIVE METHOD FOR DOCUMENTING FISH MEAL QUALITY AND SCREENING NOVEL PROTEIN SOURCES FOR USE IN AQUAFEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bassompierre

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel in vitro digestion system, which simulated rainbow trout gastric and intestinal digestion was developed. The method was employed to evaluate the impact of the gastric phase of digestion upon degradation of three fish meals od differing quality. Results illustrated that two-phase gastric-intestinal digestion increased the discriminatory powers of the system when compared to one-step intestinal digestion. A comparison of the system with pH-STAT methods demonstrated that the in vitro technique was superior. The presented method provides an ethical and cost effective means for rapid evaluation of fish meals and potentially, alternative protein sources for aquafeeds.

  13. Distinct physiological, plasma amino acid, and liver transcriptome responses to purified dietary beef, chicken, fish, and pork proteins in young rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Shangxin; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J.; Li, Mengjie; Zhao, Fan; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Xinglian; Müller, M.R.; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    Young rats received semi-synthetic diets for 1 wk that differed only
    regarding protein source; casein (reference) was replaced by beef, chicken, fish, or pork proteins.
    Compared to casein, all proteins, except pork, increased total plasma AA concentrations.
    Pork protein reduced adipose

  14. The expression and function of hsp30-like small heat shock protein genes in amphibians, birds, fish, and reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkila, John J

    2017-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are a superfamily of molecular chaperones with important roles in protein homeostasis and other cellular functions. Amphibians, reptiles, fish and birds have a shsp gene called hsp30, which was also referred to as hspb11 or hsp25 in some fish and bird species. Hsp30 genes, which are not found in mammals, are transcribed in response to heat shock or other stresses by means of the heat shock factor that is activated in response to an accumulation of unfolded protein. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that representative HSP30s from different classes of non-mammalian vertebrates were distinct from other sHSPs including HSPB1/HSP27. Studies with amphibian and fish recombinant HSP30 determined that they were molecular chaperones since they inhibited heat- or chemically-induced aggregation of unfolded protein. During non-mammalian vertebrate development, hsp30 genes were differentially expressed in selected tissues. Also, heat shock-induced stage-specific expression of hsp30 genes in frog embryos was regulated at the level of chromatin structure. In adults and/or tissue culture cells, hsp30 gene expression was induced by heat shock, arsenite, cadmium or proteasomal inhibitors, all of which enhanced the production of unfolded/damaged protein. Finally, immunocytochemical analysis of frog and chicken tissue culture cells revealed that proteotoxic stress-induced HSP30 accumulation co-localized with aggresome-like inclusion bodies. The congregation of damaged protein in aggresomes minimizes the toxic effect of aggregated protein dispersed throughout the cell. The current availability of probes to detect the presence of hsp30 mRNA or encoded protein has resulted in the increased use of hsp30 gene expression as a marker of proteotoxic stress in non-mammalian vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fatty acid-binding protein genes of the ancient, air-breathing, ray-finned fish, spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, Ananda B; Fontenot, Quenton; Farrara, Allyse; Wright, Jonathan M

    2018-03-01

    With the advent of high-throughput DNA sequencing technology, the genomic sequence of many disparate species has led to the relatively new discipline of genomics, the study of genome structure, function and evolution. Much work has been focused on the role of whole genome duplications (WGD) in the architecture of extant vertebrate genomes, particularly those of teleost fishes which underwent a WGD early in the teleost radiation >230 million years ago (mya). Our past work has focused on the fate of duplicated copies of a multigene family coding for the intracellular lipid-binding protein (iLBP) genes in the teleost fishes. To define the evolutionary processes that determined the fate of duplicated genes and generated the structure of extant fish genomes, however, requires comparative genomic analysis with a fish lineage that diverged before the teleost WGD, such as the spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), an ancient, air-breathing, ray-finned fish. Here, we describe the genomic organization, chromosomal location and tissue-specific expression of a subfamily of the iLBP genes that code for fatty acid-binding proteins (Fabps) in spotted gar. Based on this work, we have defined the minimum suite of fabp genes prior to their duplication in the teleost lineages ~230-400 mya. Spotted gar, therefore, serves as an appropriate outgroup, or ancestral/ancient fish, that did not undergo the teleost-specific WGD. As such, analyses of the spatio-temporal regulation of spotted gar genes provides a foundation to determine whether the duplicated fabp genes have been retained in teleost genomes owing to either sub- or neofunctionalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of gamma radiation and heat treatment for the preparation of fish protein concentrates from Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrier, S.B.K.; Ninjoor, V.; Kumta, U.S.

    1976-01-01

    Limitations in the conventional procedures for the manufacture of fish protein concentrate (FPG), such as residual toxicity of the solvents and loss in functional properties necessitate the need for evolving newer methods. A simple method has been developed for the preparation of FPC from the muscle of Bombay duck employing radiation-heat combination treatments. This involves extraction of the muscle proteins in 0.01 M phosphate buffer containing 5 percent sodium chloride, pH 7.5, irradiation at a dose of 100-250 krad followed by heat treatment at 60 degC for 10 min. The procedure permits the precipitation of fibrillar proteins to the extent of 83 percent. There is no change in the digestibility of the precipitated proteins as revealed by the tryptic hydrolysis. These results point to the synergestic effect of radiation and heat on the precipitation of proteins - an observation that has high potential for scaling up as a new process. (author)

  17. Discrimination of in vitro and in vivo digestion products of meat proteins from pork, beef, chicken, and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Siying; Zhou, Guanghong; Song, Shangxin; Xu, Xinglian; Voglmeir, Josef; Liu, Li; Zhao, Fan; Li, Mengjie; Li, Li; Yu, Xiaobo; Bai, Yun; Li, Chunbao

    2015-11-01

    In vitro digestion products of proteins were compared among beef, pork, chicken, and fish. Gastric and jejunal contents from the rats fed these meat proteins were also compared. Cooked pork, beef, chicken, and fish were homogenized and incubated with pepsin alone or followed by trypsin. The digestion products with molecular weights of less than 3000 Da were identified with MALDI-TOF-MS and nano-LC-MS/MS. Gastric and jejunal contents obtained from the rats fed the four meat proteins for 7 days were also analyzed. After pepsin digestion, pork, and beef samples had a greater number of fragments in similarity than chicken and fish samples, but the in vitro digestibility was the greatest (p 0.05). A total of 822 and 659 peptides were identified from the in vitro and in vivo digestion products, respectively. Our results could interpret for the differences in physiological functions after the ingestion of different species of meat. © 2015 The Authors. PROTEOMICS Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Innovation on Street Food Products (Instant Porridge and Cookies Based on Fortified Patin Fish Protein Concentrate with Red Palm Oil and Encaptulated Oil Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewita

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to establish innovation on street food (instant porridge and cookies from Patin Fish Protein Concentrate fortified by blending red palm oil and encaptulated patin fish’s oil. The Encaptulation was conducted by blending of red palm oil and patin fish’s oil using spray dryer. The blending was consisted of three combinations namely 50 : 50 (A1, 40 : 60 (A2 and 60 : 40 (A3 for ratio between red palm oil and patin fish’s oil. The best combination’s results was fortified into street food (instant porridge and cookies. The blending was tested by measure yield, fat and fatty acid profile. Moreover, organoleptics and proximate tests were carrie out for the best treatment of blending in instant porridge and cookies. The results show that encaptulated yield reached 55 % that rise from A1 treatment as the best treatment with fat content of 17.26%. Profile of unsaturated fatty acid especially fatty acid omega 9 from blending fish oil and palm oil was 59.29%. The number of fatty acid omega 9 was higher than saturated fatty acid which was 18.56%. Furthermore, based on organoleptic tests of instant porridge and cookies using under five year children respondents, it was proven that 93% of children was like the products. Proximateanalysis of instant porridge revealed that protein content was 11.04 %, water content was 5.03%, fat content was 1.92 % and ash was 0.64 %. However, proximate analysis showed that cookies owned protein of 9.11%, fat of 17.03% , water content was 3.93% and ash of 1.38%.

  19. Protein and carbohydrate in P-POM collected from the fishing ground in Minnan-Taiwan Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yongquan; Zhang, Huan

    1992-06-01

    The analysis of the protein and carbohydrate in P-POM (Plankton and Particulate Organic Matter) samples collected from the fishing ground in Minnan-Taiwan Bank in five voyages (April, June, July, August and November, 1988) shows that the protein and carbohydrate contents and amounts in samples from four stations (501, 401, 301, 201) along the coast and another four stations (404, 304, 403, 204) south and southeast of the shoal were higher than those in April and November, indicating that this phenomenon is related to the upwelling in the two regions in summer.

  20. Effect of ice storage on muscle protein properties and qualities of emulsion fish sausage from bigeye snapper (Priacanthus tayenus and lizardfish (Saurida undosquamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittayanont, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical changes in fish muscle and natural actomyosin (NAM from bigeye snapper (Priacanthus tayenus and lizardfish (Saurida undosquamis muscle during 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 days of iced storage were studied. Myosin heavy chain (MHC of NAM extracted from two fish species was degraded throughout iced storage. However, no changes in actin were observed. The total volatile base (TVB. trimethylamine (TMA and surface hydrophobicity increased, while the total sulfhydryl content and emulsion capacity of NAM from both fish species decreased significantly as the storage time increased (p<0.05. A Texture ProfileAnalysis (TPA and shear force of emulsion fish sausages prepared from two fish species kept in ice for 0, 4, 8 and 12 days were investigated. The results showed that hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and shear force of sausage prepared from fish kept in ice were lower than those produced from fresh fish. However, no significant differences in adhesiveness were observed. Cooking loss of emulsion fish sausage from two fish species increased throughout storage time (p<0.05. The texture of bigeye snapper sausage was better than that of lizardfish sausages. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM micrographs of emulsion fish sausage from two fish species revealed bigger voids, thicker strands and less continuity of protein strands with increasing storage time. More microstructural changes were observed in sausages from lizardfish, compared to those in sausages from bigeye snapper.

  1. Effects of whole grain, fish and bilberries on serum metabolic profile and lipid transfer protein activities: a randomized trial (Sysdimet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lankinen

    Full Text Available We studied the combined effects of wholegrain, fish and bilberries on serum metabolic profile and lipid transfer protein activities in subjects with the metabolic syndrome.Altogether 131 subjects (40-70 y, BMI 26-39 kg/m(2 with impaired glucose metabolism and features of the metabolic syndrome were randomized into three groups with 12-week periods according to a parallel study design. They consumed either: a wholegrain and low postprandial insulin response grain products, fatty fish 3 times a week, and bilberries 3 portions per day (HealthyDiet, b wholegrain and low postprandial insulin response grain products (WGED, or c refined wheat breads as cereal products (Control. Altogether 106 subjects completed the study. Serum metabolic profile was studied using an NMR-based platform providing information on lipoprotein subclasses and lipids as well as low-molecular-weight metabolites.There were no significant differences in clinical characteristics between the groups at baseline or at the end of the intervention. Mixed model analyses revealed significant changes in lipid metabolites in the HealthyDiet group during the intervention compared to the Control group. All changes reflected increased polyunsaturation in plasma fatty acids, especially in n-3 PUFAs, while n-6 and n-7 fatty acids decreased. According to tertiles of changes in fish intake, a greater increase of fish intake was associated with increased concentration of large HDL particles, larger average diameter of HDL particles, and increased concentrations of large HDL lipid components, even though total levels of HDL cholesterol remained stable.The results suggest that consumption of diet rich in whole grain, bilberries and especially fatty fish causes changes in HDL particles shifting their subclass distribution toward larger particles. These changes may be related to known protective functions of HDL such as reverse cholesterol transport and could partly explain the known protective

  2. Biochemical and physicochemical analysis of fish protein isolate recovered from red snapper (Lutjanus sp.) by-product using isoelectric solubilization/precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, H.; Pujiastuti, D. Y.; Sahidu, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of acid- and alkali-process on biochemical and physicochemical characteristics of fish protein isolate from red snapper (Lutjanus sp) by-product was evaluated. Protein recovered by alkali process (16.79%) was higher compared to acid process (13.75%). Reduction of lipid content and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) exhibited in both treatments indicated both process improved fish protein isolate recovered from red snapper by-product. In addition, the increasing of water holding capacity and oil binding capacity were observed. However, high peroxide value of fish protein isolate was showed in both treatment. This finding indicated that acid and alkali process can be used as a useful method to recover proteins from red snapper by-product. Alkali process gave a protein isolate with better overall quality compared to acid process.

  3. Coordinated collagen and muscle protein synthesis in human patella tendon and quadriceps muscle after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Benjamin F; Olesen, Jens L; Hansen, Mette

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized that an acute bout of strenuous, non-damaging exercise would increase rates of protein synthesis of collagen in tendon and skeletal muscle but these would be less than those of muscle myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins. Two groups (n = 8 and 6) of healthy young men were studied...... collagen (0.077% h(-1)), muscle collagen (0.054% h(-1)), myofibrillar protein (0.121% h(-1)), and sarcoplasmic protein (0.134% h(-1))). The rates decreased toward basal values by 72 h although rates of tendon collagen and myofibrillar protein synthesis remained elevated. There was no tissue damage...... of muscle visible on histological evaluation. Neither tissue microdialysate nor serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-4) or procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide changed from resting values. Thus, there is a rapid increase in collagen synthesis after strenuous exercise...

  4. Exercise & NSAID: Effect on muscle protein synthesis in knee osteoarthritis patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, S.G.; Miller, Ben F; Hansen, M

    2011-01-01

    the contralateral leg remained rested. Twenty-four hours after exercise, we determined circulating concentrations of inflammatory parameters and measured FSR of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein fractions of vastus lateralis muscle and patellar tendon collagen protein by the direct incorporation method using...... a flooding dose of 13C/12C-proline.RESULTS:Circulating levels of prostaglandin F2α were lower in the NSAID group compared with the placebo group (P effect of exercise on FSR in muscle myofibrillar (P = 0.003) and sarcoplasmic protein (P = 0.026) but not in tendon...... collagen protein (P = 0.52). No overall significant effect of the drug was seen on either of the tissue protein fractions (P > 0.05) or on the interaction between the drug and exercise on FSR in tendon collagen (P = 0.21), muscle myofibrillar (P = 0.68), or sarcoplasmic protein, FSR (P = 0.16).CONCLUSION...

  5. Amino acid fortified diets for weanling pigs replacing fish meal and whey protein concentrate: Effects on growth, immune status, and gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Weaver, Alexandra C; Fellner, Vivek; Payne, Robert L; Kim, Sung Woo

    2014-01-01

    Limited availability of fish meal and whey protein concentrate increases overall feed costs. Availability of increased number of supplemental amino acids including Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Val, and Ile allows replacing expensive protein supplements to reduce feed costs. This study was to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal and/or whey protein concentrate in nursery diets with 6 supplemental amino acids on growth performance and gut health of post-weaning pigs. Treatments were 1) FM-WPC: diet with fish meal (FM) and whey protein concentrate (WPC); 2) FM-AA: diet with FM and crystalline amino acids (L-Lys, L-Thr, L-Trp, DL-Met, L-Val, and L-Ile); 3) WPC-AA: diet with WPC and crystalline amino acid; and 4) AA: diet with crystalline amino acid. Pigs in FM-AA, WPC-AA, and AA had greater (P replace fish meal and/or whey protein concentrate without adverse effects on growth performance, immune status, and gut health of pigs at d 21 to 49 of age. Positive response with the use of 6 supplemental amino acids in growth during the first week of post-weaning may due to increased plasma insulin potentially improving uptake of nutrients for protein synthesis and energy utilization. The replacement of fish meal and/or whey protein concentrate with 6 supplemental amino acids could decrease the crude protein level in nursery diets, and potentially lead to substantial cost savings in expensive nursery diets.

  6. Relationship between bcl-2, bax, beclin-1, and cathepsin-D proteins during postovulatory follicular regression in fish ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Roberto D V S; Thomé, Ralph G; Santos, Hélio B; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2016-04-01

    In fish ovaries, postovulatory follicles (POFs) are key biomarkers of breeding and provide an interesting model for studying the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of autophagic and apoptotic proteins to improve the knowledge on the mechanisms regulating ovarian remodeling after spawning. Females from three neotropical fish species kept in captivity were submitted to hormonal induction. After ova stripping, ovarian sections were sampled daily until 5 days postspawning (dps). Similar events of POF regression were detected by histology, terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL), and electron microscopy in the three species: follicular cells hypertrophy, progressive disintegration of the basement membrane, gradual closing of the follicular lumen, theca thickening, and formation of large autophagic vacuoles preceding apoptosis of the follicular cells. Autophagic and apoptotic proteins were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Morphometric analysis of the immunolabeling revealed a more intense reaction for bcl-2 and beclin-1 (BECN1) in POFs at 0 to 1 dps and for bax at 2 to 3 dps (P family, BECN1, and cathepsin-D can be involved in the regulation of ovarian remodeling in teleost fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. CRTAC1 homolog proteins are conserved from cyanobacteria to man and secreted by the teleost fish pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redruello, Begoña; Louro, Bruno; Anjos, Liliana; Silva, Nádia; Greenwell, Roger S; Canario, Adelino V M; Power, Deborah M

    2010-05-15

    Cartilage acidic protein 1 (CRTAC1) gene expression is used as a marker for chondrocyte differentiation in stem cell-based tissue engineering. It is also transcribed outside the skeleton where at least two different transcripts are expressed in lung and brain. In the pituitary gland of the teleost fish sea bream Sparus auratus, we have found a transcript with a high degree of sequence identity to CRTAC1 family members but lacking the EGF-like calcium-binding domain encoding sequence of CRTAC1 and designated it as CRTAC2. Database searches revealed many previously unidentified members of the CRTAC1 and CRTAC2 in phylogenetically distant organisms, such as cyanobacteria, bryophyta, lancelets, and diverse representatives of vertebrates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the genes encoding CRTAC1 and CRTAC2 proteins coexist in teleost fish genomes. Structural prediction analysis identified the N-terminal region of the CRTAC1/CRTAC2 family members as a potential seven-bladed beta-propeller structure, closely related to those of integrin alpha chains and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D1 protein families. This relationship is confirmed by phylogenetic analysis with the N-terminal domain of sea bream CRTAC2 as the most divergent sequence. Because teleost fishes are the only phylogenetic group where both CRTAC1 and CRTAC2 genes are present, they occupy a pivotal position in studies of the mechanisms governing the specific expression patterns of each gene/protein subfamily. This will be essential to elucidate their respective biological roles. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Not All Inner Ears are the Same: Otolith Matrix Proteins in the Inner Ear of Sub-Adult Cichlid Fish, Oreochromis Mossambicus, Reveal Insights Into the Biomineralization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigele, Jochen; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A; Hilbig, Reinhard

    2016-02-01

    The fish ear stones (otoliths) consist mainly of calcium carbonate and have lower amounts of a proteinous matrix. This matrix consists of macromolecules, which directly control the biomineralization process. We analyzed the composition of this proteinous matrix by mass spectrometry in a shotgun approach. For this purpose, an enhanced protein purification technique was developed that excludes any potential contamination of proteins from body fluids. Using this method we identified eight proteins in the inner ear of Oreochromis mossambicus. These include the common otolith matrix proteins (OMP-1, otolin-1, neuroserpin, SPARC and otoconin), and three proteins (alpha tectorin, otogelin and transferrin) not previously localized to the otoliths. Moreover, we were able to exclude the occurrence of two matrix proteins (starmaker and pre-cerebellin-like protein) known from other fish species. In further analyses, we show that the absence of the OMP starmaker corresponds to calcitic otoliths and that pre-cerebellin-like protein is not present at any stage during the development of the otoliths of the inner ear. This study shows O. mossambicus does not have all of the known otolith proteins indicating that the matrix proteins in the inner ear of fish are not the same across species. Further functional studies of the novel proteins we identified during otolith development are required. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Tuning the pH-shift protein-isolation method for maximum hemoglobin-removal from blood rich fish muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Mehdi; Marmon, Sofia; Chaijan, Manat; Undeland, Ingrid

    2016-12-01

    A main challenge preventing optimal use of protein isolated from unconventional raw materials (e.g., small pelagic fish and fish by-products) using the pH-shift method is the difficulty to remove enough heme-pigments. Here, the distribution of hemoglobin (Hb) in the different fractions formed during pH-shift processing was studied using Hb-fortified cod mince. Process modifications, additives and prewashing were then investigated to further facilitate Hb-removal. The alkaline pH-shift process version could remove considerably more Hb (77%) compared to the acidic version (37%) when proteins were precipitated at pH 5.5; most Hb was removed during dewatering. Protein precipitation at pH 6.5 improved total Hb removal up to 91% and 74% during alkaline and acid processing, respectively. Adding phytic acid to the first supernatant of the alkaline process version yielded 93% Hb removal. Combining one prewash with phytic acid at pH 5.5 followed by alkaline/acid pH-shift processing increased Hb removal up to 96/92%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Low-fat meat sausages with fish oil: optimization of milk proteins and carrageenan contents using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, L; Andrés, S C; Califano, A N

    2014-03-01

    Response surface methodology was used to analyze the effect of milk proteins and 2:1 κ:ι-carrageenans on cooking loss (CL), weight lost by centrifugation (WLC) and texture attributes of low-fat meat sausages with pre-emulsified fish oil. A central-composite design was used to develop models for the objective responses. Changes in carrageenans affected more the responses than milk proteins levels. Convenience functions were calculated for CL, WLC, hardness, and springiness of the product. Responses were optimized simultaneously minimizing CL and WLC; ranges for hardness and springiness corresponded to commercial products (20 g of pork fat/100 g). The optimum corresponded to 0.593 g of carrageenans/100 g and 0.320 g of milk proteins and its total lipid content was 6.3 g/100 g. This formulation was prepared and evaluated showing a good agreement between predicted and experimental responses. These additives could produce low-fat meat sausages with pre-emulsified fish oil with good nutritional quality and similar characteristics than traditional ones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of replacing fish meal by a mixture of different plant protein sources on the growth performance in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thobaiti, A; Al-Ghanim, K; Ahmed, Z; Suliman, E M; Mahboob, S

    2017-10-23

    The present study aimed to assess the appropriate level of replacement of fish meal (FM) with alternative plant sources in the feed fed to Oreochromis niloticus to evaluate the growth performance. Three isoproteinious (40% crude protein) diets were prepared from different ingredients viz., fish meal, corn gluten meal, wheat gluten meal, and bagasse kenna meal. O. niloticus showed a maximum increase in weight as 9.70, 11.09, 8.53 and 8.32 g during the 2nd, 2nd, 3rd and 2nd fortnight with feeding treatment A, B, C and D, respectively. The growth performance of the fish in terms of weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio were found to be significantly (P replacement of fishmeal in diet B. The worst growth performance was observed in fish fed with commercial diet, designated as diet D. It was concluded that the fish meal can be replaced up to 20 percent with other plant protein sources without any negative impact on fish health. The replacement of fish meal with local plant sources (corn gluten meal, wheat gluten meal, soybean meal and bagasse kenna mix) will not only be beneficial to achieve better growth performance in O. niloticus, it will be a value addition as well.

  12. Protein-Protein Multilayer Oil-in-Water Emulsions for the Microencapsulation of Flaxseed Oil: Effect of Whey and Fish Gelatin Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustier, Patrick; Achouri, Allaoua; Taherian, Ali R; Britten, Michel; Pelletier, Marylène; Sabik, Hassan; Villeneuve, Sébastien; Mondor, Martin

    2015-10-28

    The impact of whey protein isolate (WPI) and fish gelatin (FG) deposited sequentially at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 0.75% on the surface of primary oil-in-water emulsions containing 5% flaxseed oil stabilized with either 0.5% fish gelatin or whey protein, respectively, was investigated. The results revealed that the adsorption of WPI/FG or FG/WPI complexes to the emulsion interface led to the formation of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions with different stabilities and different protection degrees of the flaxseed oil. Deposition of FG on the WPI primary emulsion increased the particle size (from 0.53 to 1.58 μm) and viscosity and decreased electronegativity (from -23.91 to -11.15 mV) of the complexes. Different trends were noted with the deposition of WPI on the FG primary emulsion, resulting in decreasing particle size and increasing electronegativity and viscosity to a lower extent. Due to the superior tension-active property of WPI, the amount of protein load in the WPI primary emulsion as well as in WPI/FG complex was significantly higher than the FG counterparts. A multilayer emulsion made with 0.5% WPI/0.75% FG exhibited the lowest oxidation among all of the multilayered emulsions tested (0.32 ppm of hexanal) after 21 days, likely due to the charge effect of FG that may prevent pro-oxidant metals to interact with the flaxseed oil.

  13. Investigating the role of uncoupling of Troponin I phosphorylation from changes in myofibrillar Ca2+-sensitivity in the pathogenesis of Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Easton Messer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Contraction in the mammalian heart is controlled by the intracellular Ca2+ concentration as it is in all striated muscle, but the heart has an additional signalling system that comes into play to increase heart rate and cardiac output during exercise or stress. β-adrenergic stimulation of heart muscle cells leads to release of cyclic-AMP and the activation of protein kinase A which phosphorylates key proteins in the sarcolemma, sarcoplasmic reticulum and contractile apparatus. Troponin I (TnI and Myosin Binding Protein C (MyBP-C are the prime targets in the myofilaments. TnI phosphorylation lowers myofibrillar Ca2+-sensitivity and increases the speed of Ca2+-dissociation and relaxation (lusitropic effect.Recent studies have shown that this relationship between Ca2+-sensitivity and TnI phosphorylation may be unstable. In familial cardiomyopathies, both dilated and hypertrophic (DCM and HCM, a mutation in one of the proteins of the thin filament often results in the loss of the relationship (uncoupling and blunting of the lusitropic response. For familial dilated cardiomyopathy in thin filament proteins it has been proposed that this uncoupling is causative of the phenotype. Uncoupling has also been found in human heart tissue from patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy as a secondary effect. Recently, it has been found that Ca2+-sensitizing drugs can promote uncoupling, whilst one Ca2+-desensitising drug Epigallocatechin 3-Gallate (EGCG can reverse uncoupling.We will discuss recent findings about the role of uncoupling in the development of cardiomyopathies and the molecular mechanism of the process.

  14. Extracellular acidification activates ovarian cancer G-protein-coupled receptor 1 and GPR4 homologs of zebra fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochimaru, Yuta [Laboratory of Cell Signaling Regulation, Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan); Azuma, Morio [Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Oshima, Natsuki; Ichijo, Yuta; Satou, Kazuhiro [Laboratory of Cell Signaling Regulation, Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan); Matsuda, Kouhei [Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Asaoka, Yoichi; Nishina, Hiroshi [Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Nakakura, Takashi [Department of Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, Teikyo University, 2-11-1 Kaga Itabashi-Ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Mogi, Chihiro; Sato, Koichi; Okajima, Fumikazu [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan); Tomura, Hideaki, E-mail: tomurah@meiji.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell Signaling Regulation, Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan)

    2015-02-20

    Mammalian ovarian G-protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1) and GPR4 are identified as a proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptor coupling to multiple intracellular signaling pathways. In the present study, we examined whether zebra fish OGR1 and GPR4 homologs (zOGR1 and zGPR4) could sense protons and activate the multiple intracellular signaling pathways and, if so, whether the similar positions of histidine residue, which is critical for sensing protons in mammalian OGR and GPR4, also play a role to sense protons and activate the multiple signaling pathways in the zebra fish receptors. We found that extracellular acidic pH stimulated CRE-, SRE-, and NFAT-promoter activities in zOGR1 overexpressed cells and stimulated CRE- and SRE- but not NFAT-promoter activities in zGPR4 overexpressed cells. The substitution of histidine residues at the 12th, 15th, 162th, and 264th positions from the N-terminal of zOGR1 with phenylalanine attenuated the proton-induced SRE-promoter activities. The mutation of the histidine residue at the 78th but not the 84th position from the N-terminal of zGPR4 to phenylalanine attenuated the proton-induced SRE-promoter activities. These results suggest that zOGR1 and zGPR4 are also proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors, and the receptor activation mechanisms may be similar to those of the mammalian receptors. - Highlights: • Zebra fish OGR1 and GPR4 homologs (zOGR1, zGPR4) are proton-sensing receptors. • The signaling pathways activated by zOGR1 and zGPR4 are different. • Histidine residues critical for sensing protons are conserved.

  15. Dietary phosphorus restriction in dialysis patients: potential impact of processed meat, poultry, and fish products as protein sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Richard A; Mehta, Ojas

    2009-07-01

    Dietary intake of phosphorus is derived largely from protein sources and is a critical determinant of phosphorus balance in patients with chronic kidney disease. Information about the phosphorus content of prepared foods generally is unavailable, but it is believed to contribute significantly to the phosphorus burden of patients with chronic kidney disease. Analysis of dietary components. We measured the phosphorus content of 44 food products, including 30 refrigerated or frozen precooked meat, poultry, and fish items, generally national brands. Measured and reported phosphorus content of foods. Phosphorus by using Association of Analytical Communities official method 984.27; protein by using Association of Analytical Communities official method 990.03. We found that the ratio of phosphorus to protein content in these items ranged from 6.1 to 21.5 mg of phosphorus per 1 g of protein. The mean ratio in the 19 food products with a label listing phosphorus as an additive was 14.6 mg/g compared with 9.0 mg/g in the 11 items without listed phosphorus. The phosphorus content of only 1 precooked food product was available in a widely used dietary database. Results cannot be extrapolated to other products. Manufacturers also may alter the phosphorus content of foods at any time. Protein content was not directly measured for all foods. Better reporting of phosphorus content of foods by manufacturers could result in improved dietary phosphorus control without risk of protein malnutrition.

  16. Nontraditional protein sources and their effect on growth and survival, during masculinization, of the fish Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Perciformes: Cichlidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cuenca-Soria, Carlos A.; Navarro Angulo, Leonardo I.; Castillo-Domínguez, Alfonso; Melgar Valdes, Carolina E.; Pérez-Palafox, Xchel A.; Ortiz-Hernández, Mateo

    2016-01-01

    In Southeastern Mexico, aquaculture has been seriously affected by the high costs of commercial food. As part of the search for alternative foods we tested the freshwater fish Astyanax aeneus and the snail Pomacea flagellata as possible protein sources for Cichlasoma urophthalmus. We applied fluoxymesterone androgenic hormone for 45 days. One kilogram of experimental food (P. flagellate/A. aeneus) and one of commercial food were sprayed with solution of fluoxymesterone/absolute ethanol, at 5m...

  17. Fish silage as feed ingredient for fish and livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurangwa, E.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Poelman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present report analyses through a literature review the potential of fish silage to valorise fish processing by-products into economically relevant protein sources for fish and livestock feed production in East Africa.

  18. Influence of pre-cooking protein paste gelation conditions and post-cooking gel storage conditions on gel texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paker, Ilgin; Matak, Kristen E

    2016-01-15

    Gelation conditions affect the setting of myofibrillar fish protein gels. Therefore the impact of widely applied pre-cooking gelation time/temperature strategies and post-cooking period on the texture and color of final protein gels was determined. Four pre-cooking gelation strategies (no setting time, 30 min at 25 °C, 1 h at 40 °C or 24 h at 4 °C) were applied to protein pastes (fish protein concentrate and standard functional additives). After cooking, texture and color were analyzed either directly or after 24 h at 4 °C on gels adjusted to 25 °C. No-set gels were harder, gummier and chewier (P cooking. Gel-setting conditions had a greater (P cooking stored gels in texture and color, depending on the pre-cooking gelation strategy. Pre-cooking gelation conditions will affect final protein gel texture and color, with gel stability benefiting from a gel-setting period. However, post-cooking storage may have a greater impact on final gels, with textural attributes becoming more consistent between all samples. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Polyvalent cation receptor proteins (CaRs) are salinity sensors in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, J; Betka, M; Quinn, S; Hentschel, H; Elger, M; Baum, M; Bai, M; Chattopadyhay, N; Brown, E M; Hebert, S C; Harris, H W

    2002-07-09

    To determine whether calcium polyvalent cation-sensing receptors (CaRs) are salinity sensors in fish, we used a homology-based cloning strategy to isolate a 4.1-kb cDNA encoding a 1,027-aa dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) kidney CaR. Expression studies in human embryonic kidney cells reveal that shark kidney senses combinations of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+) ions at concentrations present in seawater and kidney tubules. Shark kidney is expressed in multiple shark osmoregulatory organs, including specific tubules of the kidney, rectal gland, stomach, intestine, olfactory lamellae, gill, and brain. Reverse transcriptase-PCR amplification using specific primers in two teleost fish, winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), reveals a similar pattern of CaR tissue expression. Exposure of the lumen of winter flounder urinary bladder to the CaR agonists, Gd(3+) and neomycin, reversibly inhibit volume transport, which is important for euryhaline teleost survival in seawater. Within 24-72 hr after transfer of freshwater-adapted Atlantic salmon to seawater, there are increases in their plasma Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+) that likely serve as a signal for internal CaRs, i.e., brain, to sense alterations in salinity in the surrounding water. We conclude that CaRs act as salinity sensors in both teleost and elasmobranch fish. Their tissue expression patterns in fish provide insights into CaR functions in terrestrial animals including humans.

  20. Effects of protein hydrolysates supplementation in low fish meal diets on growth performance, innate immunity and disease resistance of red sea bream Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Sanaz; Rahimnejad, Samad; Herault, Mikaël; Fournier, Vincent; Lee, Cho-Rong; Dio Bui, Hien Thi; Jeong, Jun-Bum; Lee, Kyeong-Jun

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the supplemental effects of three different types of protein hydrolysates in a low fish meal (FM) diet on growth performance, feed utilization, intestinal morphology, innate immunity and disease resistance of juvenile red sea bream. A FM-based diet was used as a high fish meal diet (HFM) and a low fish meal (LFM) diet was prepared by replacing 50% of FM by soy protein concentrate. Three other diets were prepared by supplementing shrimp, tilapia or krill hydrolysate to the LFM diet (designated as SH, TH and KH, respectively). Triplicate groups of fish (4.9 ± 0.1 g) were fed one of the test diets to apparent satiation twice daily for 13 weeks and then challenged by Edwardsiella tarda. At the end of the feeding trial, significantly (P red sea bream. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antacid medication inhibits digestion of dietary proteins and causes food allergy: a fish allergy model in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untersmayr, Eva; Schöll, Isabella; Swoboda, Ines; Beil, Waltraud J; Förster-Waldl, Elisabeth; Walter, Franziska; Riemer, Angelika; Kraml, Georg; Kinaciyan, Tamar; Spitzauer, Susanne; Boltz-Nitulescu, George; Scheiner, Otto; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2003-09-01

    Digestible proteins were supposed to be irrelevant for oral sensitization and induction of food allergy. Approximately 10% of the adult population uses antacids for the treatment of dyspeptic disorders, drugs that hinder peptic digestion. In these patients, proteins that are normally degradable might act as food allergens. We aimed to study the influence of antacid intake on the allergenicity of dietary proteins, taking sturgeon caviar and parvalbumin, the major fish allergen, as examples. Caviar proteins and recombinant parvalbumin from carp, rCyp c 1, were applied for intragastric feedings with or without the antacids sucralfate, ranitidine or omeprazole, using a Balb/c mouse model. Both caviar proteins and parvalbumin were rapidly degraded in an in vitro digestion assay at pH 2.0, but not at pH 5.0, imitating the effect of antacids. The groups fed with caviar in combination with ranitidine hydrochloride intramuscularly or sucralfate orally had significant levels of caviar-specific IgE antibodies (P allergy in these groups was further evidenced by oral provocation tests and positive immediate-type skin reactivity. In contrast, feedings with caviar alone led to antigen-specific T-cell tolerance. None of the groups showed immune reactivity against the daily mouse diet. As a proof of the principle, feeding mice with parvalbumin in combination with ranitidine or omeprazole intramuscularly induced allergen-specific IgE antibodies (P allergy.

  2. Effects of elevated temperature on protein breakdown in muscles from septic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall-Angeras, M.A.; Angeras, U.H.; Hasselgren, P.O.; Fischer, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Elevated temperature has been proposed to contribute to accelerated muscle protein degradation during fever and sepsis. The present study examined the effect of increased temperature in vitro on protein turnover in skeletal muscles from septic and control rats. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP); control rats were sham operated. After 16 h, the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles were incubated at 37 or 40 degrees C. Protein synthesis was determined by measuring incorporation of [14C]phenylalanine into protein. Total and myofibrillar protein breakdown was assessed from release of tyrosine and 3-methylhistidine (3-MH), respectively. Total protein breakdown was increased at 40 degrees C by 15% in EDL and by 29% in SOL from control rats, whereas 3-MH release was not affected. In muscles from septic rats, total and myofibrillar protein breakdown was increased by 22 and 30%, respectively, at 40 degrees C in EDL but was not altered in SOL. Protein synthesis was unaffected by high temperature both in septic and nonseptic muscles. The present results suggest that high temperature is not the primary mechanism of increased muscle protein breakdown in sepsis because the typical response to sepsis, i.e., a predominant increase in myofibrillar protein breakdown, was not induced by elevated temperature in normal muscle. It is possible, however, that increased temperature may potentiate protein breakdown that is already stimulated by sepsis because elevated temperature increased both total and myofibrillar protein breakdown in EDL from septic rats

  3. Fish –based diet- correlations between metabolism of carbohydrates, lipidis and proteins. Study case population of the Sulina Town, Danube Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana ENE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to literature data, the normal values of biochemical parameters in blood vary by sex, age, geographical region, and type of diet. The aim of this study was to analyze the benefits of a fish-based diet among the population of Sulina, in the Danube Delta (3,663 individuals, by performing a comparative hepatic evaluation, lipid profile, serum glucose levels and total protein profile of these patients. Fish is an important source of protein with high biological value, containing all essential aminoacids and low lipid levels. The novelty of the research is represented by the analyzed geographical area. The Danube Delta had no medical analysis laboratory until 2010, when the RoutineMed Sulina laboratory was opened. Patients had a set of biochemical tests in the RoutineMed Sulina laboratory and declared they eat fish or fish-based products at least once a week. Tests were performed on 200 patients for the evaluation of the liver of these patients: Aspartate Amino Transferase, alanine amino transferase, de Ritis ratio, High Density Lipoprotein, Low Density Lipoprotein, total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides and 200 tests for the evaluation of the serum glucose levels and total protein. Both women and men were involved in the research and patients were grouped into age ranges: 20-40 years, 40-60 years, > 60 years. The values obtained were statistically analyzed using the SPSS v. 20 software and then compared to the ranges considered normal for these parameters. The results obtained showed that patients with a fish-based diet seem to be healthier than those with a diet in which fish meat is scarce, as their blood biochemical parameters values are closer to normal, which leads to the conclusion that including fish and fish products in people's regular diet is beneficial in preventing lipid, protein and carbohydrate metabolism disorders and preserving the overall health of the body.

  4. Chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids from blue mussel, starfish, and fish silage in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jens Vinther; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf; Tørring, Ditte Bruunshøj

    2015-01-01

    –162 g CP/kg and 5 g chromicoxide/kg. Endogenous losses of protein and AA were estimated by feeding an N-free diet.On a dry matter (DM) basis, mussel meal contained 605 g, mussel silage 575 g, starfish meal700 g, starfish juice 393 g, and fish silage 776 g CP/kg. The ratio of AA to CP ranged from0......Mussels cultured on lines for nine months and harvested in March were boiled to removeshells and processed into a dry meal or a silage acidified by formic acid. Starfish mealwas prepared from starfish caught in May, and a starfish juice fraction was obtained bypressing fresh starfish. Commercial...... fish silage from farmed salmon was also included in theexperiment. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids(AA) was evaluated in a Latin square design with pigs (initial weight 39.3 kg) fitted with asimple T-cannula in the terminal ileum. Diets contained 131...

  5. Optimization of Maillard reaction with ribose for enhancing anti-allergy effect of fish protein hydrolysates using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung-Yong; Kim, Se-Wook; Kim, Yoonsook; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Jeon, Hyeonjin; Lee, Kwang-Won

    2015-06-01

    Halibut is served on sushi and as sliced raw fish fillets. We investigated the optimal conditions of the Maillard reaction (MR) with ribose using response surface methodology to reduce the allergenicity of its protein. A 3-factored and 5-leveled central composite design was used, where the independent variables were substrate (ribose) concentration (X1, %), reaction time (X2, min), and pH (X3), while the dependent variables were browning index (Y1, absorbance at 420nm), DPPH scavenging (Y2, EC50 mg/mL), FRAP (Y3, mM FeSO4/mg extract) and β-hexosaminidase release (Y4, %). The optimal conditions were obtained as follows: X1, 28.36%; X2, 38.09min; X3, 8.26. Maillard reaction products of fish protein hydrolysate (MFPH) reduced the amount of nitric oxide synthesis compared to the untreated FPH, and had a significant anti-allergy effect on β-hexosaminidase and histamine release, compared with that of the FPH control. We concluded that MFPH, which had better antioxidant and anti-allergy activities than untreated FPH, can be used as an improved dietary source. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adoption Of Improved Fish Technologies Among Fish Farmers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A shortfall exists between fish supply and fish demand in the country despite the introduction of improved technology to fish farmers. This led to huge wage bill on the importation of fish to meet the protein need of the ever increasing population. This prompted this study with focus on adoption of improved fish technologies ...

  7. Mercury Exposure: Protein Biomarkers of Mercury Exposure in Jaraqui Fish from the Amazon Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, José Cavalcante Souza; Braga, Camila Pereira; de Oliveira, Grasieli; Padilha, Cilene do Carmo Federici; de Moraes, Paula Martin; Zara, Luiz Fabricio; Leite, Aline de Lima; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Padilha, Pedro de Magalhães

    2018-05-01

    This study presents data on the extraction and characterization of proteins associated with mercury in the muscle and liver tissues of jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp.) from the Madeira River in the Brazilian Amazon. Protein fractionation was carried out by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Mercury determination in tissues, pellets, and protein spots was performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Proteins in the spots that showed mercury were characterized by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The highest mercury concentrations were found in liver tissues and pellets (426 ± 6 and 277 ± 4 μg kg -1 ), followed by muscle tissues and pellets (132 ± 4 and 86 ± 1 μg kg -1 , respectively). Mercury quantification in the protein spots allowed us to propose stoichiometric ratios in the range of 1-4 mercury atoms per molecule of protein in the protein spots. The proteins characterized in the analysis by ESI-MS/MS were keratin, type II cytoskeletal 8, parvalbumin beta, parvalbumin-2, ubiquitin-40S ribosomal S27a, 39S ribosomal protein L36 mitochondrial, hemoglobin subunit beta, and hemoglobin subunit beta-A/B. The results suggest that proteins such as ubiquitin-40S ribosomal protein S27a, which have specific domains, possibly zinc finger, can be used as biomarkers of mercury, whereas mercury and zinc present characteristics of soft acids.

  8. Quantity and functionality of protein fractions in chicken breast fillets affected by white striping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudalal, S; Babini, E; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2014-08-01

    Recently, white striations parallel to muscle fibers direction have been observed on the surface of chicken breast, which could be ascribed to intensive growth selection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of white striping on chemical composition with special emphasis on myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein fractions that are relevant to the processing features of chicken breast meat. During this study, a total of 12 pectoralis major muscles from both normal and white striped fillets were used to evaluate chemical composition, protein solubility (sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar, and total protein solubility), protein quantity (sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar, and stromal proteins), water holding capacity, and protein profile by SDS-PAGE analysis. White-striped fillets exhibited a higher percentage of moisture (75.4 vs. 73.8%; P cooking loss (33.7 vs. 27.4%; P chicken breast meat with white striping defect had different chemical composition (more fat and less protein) and protein quality and quantity (low content of myofibrillar proteins and high content of stromal proteins) with respect to normal meat. Furthermore, white striped fillets had lower protein functionality (higher cooking loss). All the former changes indicate that white striping has great impact on quality characteristics of chicken breast meat. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Fish for Feed vs Fish for Food

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Geoff L.

    2004-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food producing industry sector in the world. Demand for feed ingredients, particularly for preferred protein sources such as fishmeal, fish oil and ‘trash fish’, has also increased, raising questions about sustainability and uses of fish for aquaculture feeds or directly as human food. Approximately 30 million metric tonnes (MMT) of fish from capture fisheries are used each year to produce fishmeal and fish oil. The species used are not usually consumed dire...

  10. Changes in Moisture, Protein, and Fat Content of Fish and Rice Flour Coextrudates during Single-Screw Extrusion Cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Sukumar Bandyopadhyay; A. S. Bawa

    2013-02-01

    Changes in proximate composition of fish and rice flour coextrudates like moisture, protein, and fat content were studied with respect to extrusion process v ariables like barrel temperature, x1 (100–200 degrees C); screw speed, x2 (70–110 rpm); fish content of the feed, x3 (5–45 percent); and feed moisture content, x4 (20–60 percent). Experiments were conducted at five levels of the process variables based on rotatable experimental design. Response surface models (RSM) were developed that adequately described the changes in moisture, protein, and fat content of the extrudates based on the coeff icient of determination (R2) values of 0.95, 0.99, and 0.94. ANOVA analysis indicated that extrudate moisture content was influenced by x4, protein content by x1 and x3, and fat content by x3 and x4 at P < 0.001. Trends based on response surf ace plots indicated that the x1 of about 200 degrees C, x2 of about 90 rpm, x3 of about 25%, and x4 of about 20% minimized the moisture in the extrudates. Protein content was maximized at x1 of 100 degrees C, x2 > 80 rpm, x3 of about 45 percent, and x4 > 50 percent, and fat content was minimized at x1 of about 200 degrees C, x2 of about 85–95 rpm, x3 < 15 percent, and x4 of about >50 percent. Optimized process variables based on a genetic algorithm (GA) for minimum moisture and fat content and maximum protein content were x1 = 199.86, x2 = 109.86, x3 = 32.45, x4 = 20.03; x1 = 199.71, x2 = 90.09, x3 = 15.27, x4 = 58.47; and x1 = 102.97, x2 = 107.67, x3 = 44.56, x4 = 59.54. The predicted values were 17.52 percent, 0.57 percent, and 46.65 percent. Based on the RSM and GA analy sis, extrudate moisture and protein content was influenced by x1, x3, and x4 and fat content by x2, x3, and x4.

  11. Protein degradation systems in the skeletal muscles of parr and smolt Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout Salmo trutta L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantserova, Nadezda P; Lysenko, Liudmila A; Veselov, Alexey E; Nemova, Nina N

    2017-08-01

    Although protein degradation limits the rate of muscle growth in fish, the role of proteolytic systems responsible for degrading myofibrillar proteins in skeletal muscle is not well defined. The study herein aims to evaluate the role of calpains (calcium-activated proteases) and proteasomes (ATP-dependent proteases) in mediating muscle protein turnover at different life stages in wild salmonids. Protease activities were estimated in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) parr and smolts from the Indera River (Kola Peninsula, Russia). Calpain and proteasome activities in Atlantic salmon skeletal muscles were lower in smolts as compared with parr. Reduced muscle protein degradation accompanying Atlantic salmon parr-smolt transformation appeared to provide intense muscle growth essential for a minimum threshold size achievement that is required for smoltification. Calpain and proteasome activities in brown trout parr and smolts at age 3+ did not significantly differ. However, calpain activity was higher in smolts brown trout 4+ as compared with parr, while proteasome activity was lower. Results suggest that brown trout smoltification does not correspond with intense muscle growth and is more facultative and plastic in comparison with Atlantic salmon smoltification. Obtained data on muscle protein degradation capacity as well as length-weight parameters of fish reflect differences between salmon and trout in growth and smoltification strategies.

  12. Effects of starvation on protein synthesis and nucleic acid metabolism in the muscle of the barred sand bass Paralabrax nebulifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowery, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Starvation induced different protein synthesis responses in red and white muscle of the barred sand bass Paralabrax nebulifer. Red muscle had /sup 14/C-leucine incorporation rates into total protein which were several times higher than white muscle in both the fed and starved states. Muscle was separated into a myofibrillar fraction consisting of the structural proteins and a sarcoplasmic fraction consisting of soluble proteins. Synthesis of the myofibrillar fraction of white muscle decreased by 90%, while red muscle myofibrillar synthesis remained essentially unchanged. Changes in the labeling of several enzymes purified from the sarcoplasmic fraction were different even though the overall loss of enzyme activity was similar, suggesting that changes in synthesis rates were important in maintaining appropriate relative enzyme concentrations.

  13. Improved physicochemical properties and hepatic protection of Maillard reaction products derived from fish protein hydrolysates and ribose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung-Yong; Lee, Sanghoon; Pyo, Min Cheol; Jeon, Hyeonjin; Kim, Yoonsook; Lee, Kwang-Won

    2017-04-15

    High amounts of waste products generated from fish-processing need to be disposed of despite their potential nutritional value. A variety of methods, such as enzymatic hydrolysis, have been developed for these byproducts. In the current study, we investigated the physicochemical, biological and antioxidative properties of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) conjugated with ribose through the Maillard reaction. These glycated conjugates of FPH (GFPH) had more viscous rheological properties than FPH and exhibited higher heat, emulsification and foaming stability. They also protected liver HepG2 cells against t-BHP-induced oxidative stress with enhanced glutathione synthesis in vitro. Furthermore, it was shown that GFPH induced upregulation of phase II enzyme expression, such as that of HO-1 and γ-GCL, via nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and phosphorylation of ERK. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potential of GFPH for use as a functional food ingredient with improved rheological and antioxidative properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of soybean meal and papain to partially replace animal protein for culturing three marine fish species: Fish growth and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, W Y; Lau, R S S; Kwok, A C K; Wong, M H

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using soybean meal added with papain to replace half of the fishmeal used in the moist pellets (49% fishmeal and 45% trash fish) developed by the Hong Kong Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department (AFCD) for culturing marine fish. Gold-lined seabream (Rhabdosargus sarba), brown spotted grouper (Epinephelus bleekeri) and pompano (Trachinotus blochii) were farmed at one of the research stations (Kat-O) of AFCD, for a period of 340 days. Results indicated that diets containing papain resulted in better fish growth (reflected by relative weight gain and feed conversion ratio) than diets without papain. In general, wet weight gain of fish depends on the amount of papain added in diet rather than the diet composition. Soybean used in conjunction with papain also contributed to a more effective growth than fish fed with the moist pellets alone. A laboratory experiment (using tanks) was conducted to study the effects of the diets on concentrations of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate in the tank water. Results showed that concentrations of ammonia and nitrate were significantly lower (p marine fish and lower the adverse impact of trash fish and fishmeal on water quality of the mariculture zones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fish protein hydrolysate elevates plasma bile acids and reduces visceral adipose tissue mass in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liaset, Bjørn; Madsen, Lise; Hao, Qin

    2009-01-01

    levels relative to rats fed soy protein or casein. Concomitantly, the saithe FPH fed rats had reduced liver lipids and fasting plasma TAG levels. Furthermore, visceral adipose tissue mass was reduced and expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and energy expenditure was induced in perirenal....../retroperitoneal adipose tissues of rats fed saithe FPH. Our results provide the first evidence that dietary protein sources with different amino acid compositions can modulate the level of plasma bile acids and our data suggest potential novel mechanisms by which dietary protein sources can affect energy metabolism....

  16. Structural modification of swai-fish (Pangasius hypophthalmus)-based emulsions containing non-meat protein additives by ultra-high pressure and thermal treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techarang, Jiranat; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee; Phanchaisri, Boonrak; Pathomrungsiyoungkul, Pattavara; Sriwattana, Sujinda

    2017-07-01

    Swai-fish emulsions containing fermented soybeans (thua nao and rice-koji miso) were pressurized at 600 MPa for 20 min or heated at 72°C for 30 min. The fish batters were blended with soy protein isolate (SPI) or whey protein concentrate (WPC) to stabilize the emulsions. The processed fish emulsions were then subjected to physical, chemical and microbiological examinations. The results of gel strength and water-holding potential showed that SPI addition yielded higher impact on these properties than WPC addition, which was also confirmed by the interactions between SPI and native fish proteins depicted by electrophoregrams. The frequency profiles suggested that the heated gels had a greater storage and loss moduli than pressurized gels, while pressurized WPC set-gel displayed larger loss tangent (the predominance of viscous moiety) than those pressurized SPI set-gel. High bacteria and spore counts of B. subtilis (residual of the thua nao) were observed in both pressurized and heated fish-based emulsions.

  17. Studies on substitutional protein sources for fish meal in the diet of Japanese flounder; Hirame shiryo ni okeru miriyo shigen no riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, K; Furuta, T; Sakaguchi, I [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    Effectiveness of livestock industry wastes and vegetable protein added to fish meal in fish farming is tested by feeding the Japanese flounder. In the experiment, a part or the whole of the fish meal protein is replaced by the meat meal (MM), meat and bone meal (MBM), corngluten meal (CGM), or dried silkworm pupa meal (SPM), and fries of the Japanese flounder are fed on the new diets for eight weeks. On a diet containing 60% or less of MM, no change is detected in the fish in terms of increase in weight, protein efficiency ratio, and blood components, indicating that 60% at the highest of fish meal may be replaced by MM. In the case of MBM, it can occupy approximately 20%. As for CGM, the proper substitution rate is approximately 40%. Essential amino acids that the new diets may lack are added for an approximately 10% improvement on the result. The SPM substitution works up to 40%, when, however, the blood components are degraded. The proper substitution rate is therefore placed at approximately 20%. 38 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. Valorization of Proteins from Co- and By-Products from the Fish and Meat Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Aspevik, Tone; Oterhals, Åge; Rønning, Sissel Beate; Altintzoglou, Themistoklis; Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachhew; Gildberg, Asbjørn; Afseth, Nils Kristian; Whitaker, Ragnhild; Lindberg, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Large volumes of protein-rich residual raw materials, such as heads, bones, carcasses, blood, skin, viscera, hooves and feathers, are created as a result of processing of animals from fisheries, aquaculture, livestock and poultry sectors. These residuals contain proteins and other essential nutrients with potentially bioactive properties, eligible for recycling and upgrading for higher-value products, e.g. for human, pet food and feed purposes. Here, we aim to cover all the important aspects ...

  19. Transcriptomic changes underlie altered egg protein production and reduced fecundity in an estuarine model fish exposed to bifenthrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brander, Susanne M; Jeffries, Ken M; Cole, Bryan J; DeCourten, Bethany M; White, J Wilson; Hasenbein, Simone; Fangue, Nann A; Connon, Richard E

    2016-05-01

    Pyrethroid pesticides are a class of insecticides found to have endocrine disrupting properties in vertebrates such as fishes and in human cell lines. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are environmental contaminants that mimic or alter the process of hormone signaling. In particular, EDCs that alter estrogen and androgen signaling pathways are of major concern for fishes because these EDCs may alter reproductive physiology, behavior, and ultimately sex ratio. Bifenthrin, a pyrethroid with escalating usage, is confirmed to disrupt estrogen signaling in several species of fish, including Menidia beryllina (inland silverside), an Atherinid recently established as a euryhaline model. Our main objective was to broadly assess the molecular and physiological responses of M. beryllina to the ng/L concentrations of bifenthrin typically found in the environment, with a focus on endocrine-related effects, and to discern links between different tiers of the biological hierarchy. As such, we evaluated the response of juvenile Menidia to bifenthrin using a Menidia-specific microarray, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on specific endocrine-related genes of interest, and a Menidia-specific ELISA to the egg-coat protein choriogenin, to evaluate a multitude of molecular-level responses that would inform mechanisms of toxicity and any underlying causes of change at higher biological levels of organization. The sublethal nominal concentrations tested (0.5, 5 and 50ng/L) were chosen to represent the range of concentrations observed in the environment and to provide coverage of a variety of potential responses. We then employed a 21-day reproductive assay to evaluate reproductive responses to bifenthrin (at 0.5ng/L) in a separate group of adult M. beryllina. The microarray analysis indicated that bifenthrin influences a diverse suite of molecular pathways, from baseline metabolic processes to carcinogenesis. A more targeted examination of gene expression via q

  20. Dietary Intake of High-Protein Foods and Other Major Foods in Meat-Eaters, Poultry-Eaters, Fish-Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans in UK Biobank

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are defined by the absence of meat and fish, but differences in the intake of other foods between meat-eaters and low or non-meat eaters are also important to document. We examined intakes of high-protein foods (meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, vegetarian protein alternatives, dairy products, and eggs) and other major food groups (fruit, vegetables, bread, pasta, rice, snack foods, and beverages) in regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans of white ethnicity participating in UK Biobank who had completed at least one web-based 24-h dietary assessment (n = 199,944). In regular meat-eaters, around 25% of total energy came from meat, fish, dairy and plant milk, cheese, yogurt, and eggs. In vegetarians, around 20% of energy came from dairy and plant milk, cheese, yoghurt, eggs, legumes, nuts, and vegetarian protein alternatives, and in vegans around 15% came from plant milk, legumes, vegetarian alternatives, and nuts. Low and non-meat eaters had higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of roast or fried potatoes compared to regular meat-eaters. The differences in the intakes of meat, plant-based high-protein foods, and other foods between meat-eaters and low and non-meat eaters in UK Biobank may contribute to differences in health outcomes. PMID:29207491

  1. Dietary Intake of High-Protein Foods and Other Major Foods in Meat-Eaters, Poultry-Eaters, Fish-Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans in UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Kathryn E; Tong, Tammy Y N; Key, Timothy J

    2017-12-02

    Vegetarian diets are defined by the absence of meat and fish, but differences in the intake of other foods between meat-eaters and low or non-meat eaters are also important to document. We examined intakes of high-protein foods (meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, vegetarian protein alternatives, dairy products, and eggs) and other major food groups (fruit, vegetables, bread, pasta, rice, snack foods, and beverages) in regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans of white ethnicity participating in UK Biobank who had completed at least one web-based 24-h dietary assessment ( n = 199,944). In regular meat-eaters, around 25% of total energy came from meat, fish, dairy and plant milk, cheese, yogurt, and eggs. In vegetarians, around 20% of energy came from dairy and plant milk, cheese, yoghurt, eggs, legumes, nuts, and vegetarian protein alternatives, and in vegans around 15% came from plant milk, legumes, vegetarian alternatives, and nuts. Low and non-meat eaters had higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of roast or fried potatoes compared to regular meat-eaters. The differences in the intakes of meat, plant-based high-protein foods, and other foods between meat-eaters and low and non-meat eaters in UK Biobank may contribute to differences in health outcomes.

  2. Homogenization conditions affect the oxidative stability of fish oil enriched milk emulsions: Oxidation linked to changes in protein composition at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Baron, Caroline; Bruni Let, Mette

    2007-01-01

    Fish oil was incorporated into milk under different homogenization temperatures (50 and 72 °C) and pressures (5, 15, and 22.5 MPa). Subsequently, the oxidative stability of the milk and changes in the protein composition of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) were examined. Results showed...

  3. Dietary Intake of High-Protein Foods and Other Major Foods in Meat-Eaters, Poultry-Eaters, Fish-Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans in UK Biobank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E. Bradbury

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian diets are defined by the absence of meat and fish, but differences in the intake of other foods between meat-eaters and low or non-meat eaters are also important to document. We examined intakes of high-protein foods (meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, vegetarian protein alternatives, dairy products, and eggs and other major food groups (fruit, vegetables, bread, pasta, rice, snack foods, and beverages in regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans of white ethnicity participating in UK Biobank who had completed at least one web-based 24-h dietary assessment (n = 199,944. In regular meat-eaters, around 25% of total energy came from meat, fish, dairy and plant milk, cheese, yogurt, and eggs. In vegetarians, around 20% of energy came from dairy and plant milk, cheese, yoghurt, eggs, legumes, nuts, and vegetarian protein alternatives, and in vegans around 15% came from plant milk, legumes, vegetarian alternatives, and nuts. Low and non-meat eaters had higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of roast or fried potatoes compared to regular meat-eaters. The differences in the intakes of meat, plant-based high-protein foods, and other foods between meat-eaters and low and non-meat eaters in UK Biobank may contribute to differences in health outcomes.

  4. Valorization of Proteins from Co- and By-Products from the Fish and Meat Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspevik, Tone; Oterhals, Åge; Rønning, Sissel Beate; Altintzoglou, Themistoklis; Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachew; Gildberg, Asbjørn; Afseth, Nils Kristian; Whitaker, Ragnhild Dragøy; Lindberg, Diana

    2017-06-01

    Large volumes of protein-rich residual raw materials, such as heads, bones, carcasses, blood, skin, viscera, hooves and feathers, are created as a result of processing of animals from fisheries, aquaculture, livestock and poultry sectors. These residuals contain proteins and other essential nutrients with potentially bioactive properties, eligible for recycling and upgrading for higher-value products, e.g. for human, pet food and feed purposes. Here, we aim to cover all the important aspects of achieving optimal utilization of proteins in such residual raw materials, identifying those eligible for human consumption as co-products and for feed applications as by-products. Strict legislation regulates the utilization of various animal-based co- and by-products, representing a major hurdle if not addressed properly. Thorough understanding and optimization of all parts of the production chain, including conservation and processing, are important prerequisites for successful upgrading and industrial implementation of such products. This review includes industrially applied technologies such as freezing/cooling, acid preservation, salting, rendering and protein hydrolysis. In this regard, it is important to achieve stable production and quality through all the steps in the manufacturing chain, preferably supported by at- or online quality control points in the actual processing step. If aiming for the human market, knowledge of consumer trends and awareness are important for production and successful introduction of new products and ingredients.

  5. Band 3 protein function in teleost fish erythrocytes: effect of oxygenation-deoxygenation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Russo, A.; Tellone, E.; Ficarra, S.; Giardina, B.; Bellocco, E.; Lagana, G.; Leuzzi, U.; Kotyk, Arnošt; Galtieri, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2008), s. 49-54 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : erythrocytes * hemoglobin * band 3 protein Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008

  6. Drench application of fish-derived protein hydrolysates affects lettuce growth, chlorophyll content, and gas exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of biostimulants to enhance crop production has gained considerable momentum because of its contribution to agroecological sustainability. Protein hydrolysates (PHs) are an important group of plant biostimulants that have received increasing attention in recent years due to their positive ef...

  7. The levels of plasma low density lipoprotein are independent of cholesterol ester transfer protein in fish-oil fed F1B hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Phillip J

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP plays a major role in regulating the levels of LDL- and HDL-cholesterol. We previously observed a fish-oil-induced elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL-and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-cholesterol concentrations and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol concentration in F1B hamsters. The molecular mechanism/s by which fish oil induces hyperlipidaemic effect was investigated in this study. We examined whether the effects of dietary fish oil on plasma lipoprotein concentrations are due to fish-oil-induced alterations in plasma CETP activity. MIX diet, a diet supplemented with a mixture of lard and safflower oil, was used as the control diet. Results We found that fish oil feeding in hamsters reduced CETP mass as well as CETP activity. Increasing the dietary fat level of fish-oil from 5% to 20% (w/w led to a further decrease in CETP mass. Supplementation with dietary cholesterol increased both CETP mass and CETP activity in fish-oil and MIX-diet fed hamsters. However, there was no correlation between CETP mass as well as CETP activity and LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Conclusion These findings suggest that cholesterol ester transfer between HDL and LDL is not likely to play a major role in determining fish-oil-induced changes in LDL- and HDL-cholesterol concentrations in F1B hamsters. A possible role of reduced clearance of LDL-particles as well as dietary fat level and dietary cholesterol dependent changes in LDL-lipid composition have been discussed.

  8. A study on the relationship of arsenic accumulation with protein, lipid, ash and moisture contents in muscle of eight species of fish in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Askary Sary

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was conducted to investigate a relationship between concentration of arsenic with protein, lipid, ash and moisture content in Cyprinus carpio, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Aristichthys nobilis, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Scomberomorus commerson, Scomberomorus guttatus and Otolithes ruber. A total of 72 sample of common carp, Bighead carp, silver carp and grass carp fishing from Azadegan fish farming center, Ahvaz; Rainbow trout from Cheshme Dimeh and Scomberomorus commerson, Scomberomorus guttatus and Otolithes ruber caught with gill netfrom Hendijan. Wet-digestion method was performed prior to arsenic determination in the samples. The level of arsenic was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that concentration of arsenic in the muscle of fishes was 269.87 ± 20.96 µg/Kg. Moreover, levels of protein, lipid, ash and moisture in the samples were estimated at 19.67±0.78 g/100, 2.45±0.45 g/100, 1.49±0.23 g/100, 78±1.89 g/100, respectively. Results also showed a positive correlation between the accumulation of arsenic in muscle of fishes with levels of protein, lipid, ash and moisture (p

  9. Impact of replacing fish meal by a mixture of different plant protein sources on the growth performance in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) diets

    OpenAIRE

    A. Al-Thobaiti; K. Al-Ghanim; Z. Ahmed; E. M. Suliman; S. Mahboob

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The present study aimed to assess the appropriate level of replacement of fish meal (FM) with alternative plant sources in the feed fed to Oreochromis niloticus to evaluate the growth performance. Three isoproteinious (40% crude protein) diets were prepared from different ingredients viz., fish meal, corn gluten meal, wheat gluten meal, and bagasse kenna meal. O. niloticus showed a maximum increase in weight as 9.70, 11.09, 8.53 and 8.32 g during the 2nd, 2nd, 3rd and 2nd fortnight w...

  10. Expression Profiles of Branchial FXYD Proteins in the Brackish Medaka Oryzias dancena: A Potential Saltwater Fish Model for Studies of Osmoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Kai; Kang, Chao-Kai; Chang, Chia-Hao; Hsu, An-Di; Lee, Tsung-Han; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2013-01-01

    FXYD proteins are novel regulators of Na+-K+-ATPase (NKA). In fish subjected to salinity challenges, NKA activity in osmoregulatory organs (e.g., gills) is a primary driving force for the many ion transport systems that act in concert to maintain a stable internal environment. Although teleostean FXYD proteins have been identified and investigated, previous studies focused on only a limited group of species. The purposes of the present study were to establish the brackish medaka (Oryzias dancena) as a potential saltwater fish model for osmoregulatory studies and to investigate the diversity of teleostean FXYD expression profiles by comparing two closely related euryhaline model teleosts, brackish medaka and Japanese medaka (O. latipes), upon exposure to salinity changes. Seven members of the FXYD protein family were identified in each medaka species, and the expression of most branchial fxyd genes was salinity-dependent. Among the cloned genes, fxyd11 was expressed specifically in the gills and at a significantly higher level than the other fxyd genes. In the brackish medaka, branchial fxyd11 expression was localized to the NKA-immunoreactive cells in gill epithelia. Furthermore, the FXYD11 protein interacted with the NKA α-subunit and was expressed at a higher level in freshwater-acclimated individuals relative to fish in other salinity groups. The protein sequences and tissue distributions of the FXYD proteins were very similar between the two medaka species, but different expression profiles were observed upon salinity challenge for most branchial fxyd genes. Salinity changes produced different effects on the FXYD11 and NKA α-subunit expression patterns in the gills of the brackish medaka. To our knowledge, this report is the first to focus on FXYD expression in the gills of closely related euryhaline teleosts. Given the advantages conferred by the well-developed Japanese medaka system, we propose the brackish medaka as a saltwater fish model for

  11. Development of Spore Protein of Myxobolus koi as an Immunostimulant for Prevent of Myxobolusis on Gold Fish (Cyprinus carpio Linn) by Oral Immunisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasri, Gunanti

    2017-02-01

    Production of Gold fish (Cyprinus carpio Linn) in Indonesia has always increased from 2013 to 2015 year by year with increasing average 2% per year. The amount of production was respectively 571.892 tonnes, 1129.273 tonnes, and 1186.674 tonnes. There were almost no problems to sale of gold fish because it had a good enough prospect. The aims of this research were Isolation of spore protein of Myxobolus koi by using SDS-PAGE to analyze immun respons and survival rate gold fish that immunized with spore protein of Myxobolus koi. The method of this research used experimental method, and belonged to 4 treatments that are: Controle = the group of gold fish not immunized with protein spore of Myxobolus koi neither infected by Myxobolus koi (T1). The group immunized and infested by spore of Myxobolus koi (T2), The group which immunized and not infested by Myxobolus koi (T3), and The group only infested by Myxobolus koi (T4). The dose of immunostimulant was 5 ml in 1 kg of food. The result showed that there were two bands of whole spore protein with molecule weight (MW) 150 kDa and 72 kDa and one band of crude protein Myxobolus koi with molecule weight 73 kD and the optical density point was 0.132 on the first day and increased to 0.769 on the 56 th day. The result also showed that the immun respons and survival rate increased from 27% to 86% in chellence test. The protein spore of Myxobolus koi can used to develops material for immunostimulant and to prevent the myxobolusis.

  12. Evolution of biochemical parameters in irradiated fishes: Serum proteins and intestinal nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garces, F.; Andres, P.; Davila, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    In sublethal gamma-irradiated C. auratus, a sudden decrease of total serum protein concentration and a preferential descent of the low molecular weight gamma-globulin fraction have been observed. These effects are transient and after different latent periods dependent on doses, normal values are recovered, A temporal failure of a vascular permeability regulation system is probably implied. The DMA depolymerization. observed in the intestine indicates the action of radio-induced DNA degradation mechanisms since this effect is independent on doses. (Author) 29 refs

  13. Mercury distribution and lipid oxidation in fish muscle: Effects of washing and isoelectric protein precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Ren, L.; Egelandsdal, B.; Richards, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all the mercury (Hg) in whole muscle from whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and walleye (Sander vitreus) was present as methyl mercury (MeHg). The Hg content in whole muscle from whitefish and walleye was 0.04-0.09 and 0.14-0.81 ppm, respectively. The myofibril fraction contained approximately three-fourths of the Hg in whitefish and walleye whole muscle. The sarcoplasmic protein fraction (e.g., press juice) was the next most abundant source of Hg. Isolated myosin, triacylglycerols, and cellular membranes contained the least Hg. Protein isolates prepared by pH shifting in the presence of citric acid did not decrease Hg levels. Addition of cysteine during washing decreased the Hg content in washed muscle probably through the interaction of the sulfhydryl group in cysteine with MeHg. Primary and secondary lipid oxidation products were lower during 2 ??C storage in isolates prepared by pH shifting compared to those of washed or unwashed mince from whole muscle. This was attributed to removing some of the cellular membranes by pH shifting. Washing the mince accelerated lipid peroxide formation but decreased secondary lipid oxidation products compared to that of the unwashed mince. This suggested that there was a lipid hydroperoxide generating system that was active upon dilution of aqueous antioxidants and pro-oxidants. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR of fishes and amphibians: Varying the number of double-stranded RNA binding domains and lineage-specific duplications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dever Thomas E

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Double-stranded (ds RNA, generated during viral infection, binds and activates the mammalian anti-viral protein kinase PKR, which phosphorylates the translation initiation factor eIF2α leading to the general inhibition of protein synthesis. Although PKR-like activity has been described in fish cells, the responsible enzymes eluded molecular characterization until the recent discovery of goldfish and zebrafish PKZ, which contain Z-DNA-binding domains instead of dsRNA-binding domains (dsRBDs. Fish and amphibian PKR genes have not been described so far. Results Here we report the cloning and identification of 13 PKR genes from 8 teleost fish and amphibian species, including zebrafish, demonstrating the coexistence of PKR and PKZ in this latter species. Analyses of their genomic organization revealed up to three tandemly arrayed PKR genes, which are arranged in head-to-tail orientation. At least five duplications occurred independently in fish and amphibian lineages. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that the kinase domains of fish PKR genes are more closely related to those of fish PKZ than to the PKR kinase domains of other vertebrate species. The duplication leading to fish PKR and PKZ genes occurred early during teleost fish evolution after the divergence of the tetrapod lineage. While two dsRBDs are found in mammalian and amphibian PKR, one, two or three dsRBDs are present in fish PKR. In zebrafish, both PKR and PKZ were strongly upregulated after immunostimulation with some tissue-specific expression differences. Using genetic and biochemical assays we demonstrate that both zebrafish PKR and PKZ can phosphorylate eIF2α in yeast. Conclusion Considering the important role for PKR in host defense against viruses, the independent duplication and fixation of PKR genes in different lineages probably provided selective advantages by leading to the recognition of an extended spectrum of viral nucleic acid structures, including both ds

  15. Fish parasites, fish food, and the marine environment | Nnadi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper addresses the incontrovertible fact that fish and fish products have historically been a reliable supplier of protein, in particular, and food, in general for humans. Seventy to a hundred metric tons arc caught each year since the early seventies. Fish protein represents about twenty five percent of the total animal ...

  16. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cause Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Fish Allergy Fish Allergy Learn about fish allergy, how to read ... that you must avoid both. Allergic Reactions to Fish Finned fish can cause severe and potentially life- ...

  17. HAMBÚRGUERES FORMULADOS COM BASE PROTÉICA DE PESCADO HAMBURGERS FORMULATES WITH FISH PROTEIN BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R.S. SIMÕES

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available A recuperação das proteínas de pescado, de espécies de baixo valor comercial ou de subprodutos de sua industrialização, constitui-se em ma alternativa promissora para a elaboração de produtos alimentícios de alta qualidade nutricional e economicamente viáveis. O objetivo deste trabalho foi obter uma Base-Protéica-de-Pescado (BPP que permitisse elaborar hambúrgueres com diferentes sabores. Pela disponibilidade e baixo custo de matéria-prima foi utilizada a pescada (Cynoscion striatus. A parte comestível, essencialmente músculo, foi submetida a sucessivas lavagens para retirar matéria solúvel e odores característicos, controlando-se as variáveis: solvente, soluto/solvente, tempo, temperatura, regime de agitação e número de ciclos de lavagens. A matéria-prima e BPP foram caracterizadas pelas propriedades físico-químicas e microbiológicas. O tratamento estatístico dos resultados, mediante modelo fatorial, permitiu verificar que é possível obter uma BPP, principalmente sem o sabor e odor característico do pescado, utilizando uma parte de soluto para cada duas de solvente, independente do tempo do ciclo de lavagens. A BPP foi utilizada para elaborar seis diferentes tipos de hambúrgueres e, mediante avaliação sensorial, utilizando escala hedônica para sabor, ficou evidenciada a aceitação de todos esses produtos não havendo preferência por um específico. Os resultados experimentais levam a concluir que a BPP, obtida a partir da pescada, pode ser utilizada na elaboração de hambúrgueres com bons atributos sensoriais e nutricionais.The utilization of fish protein, from species of low commercial value or subproducts of industrialization, became a promising alternative for the food products development with high nutritive quality and economically feasible. The goal of this work was to obtain a Fish Protein Base (FPB wich allowed preparation of different flavors of hamburgers. Whting Cynoscion striatu was used, due to

  18. Duplication of the IGFBP-2 gene in teleost fish: protein structure and functionality conservation and gene expression divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2 is a secreted protein that binds and regulates IGF actions in controlling growth, development, reproduction, and aging. Elevated expression of IGFBP-2 is often associated with progression of many types of cancers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the identification and characterization of two IGFBP-2 genes in zebrafish and four other teleost fish. Comparative genomics and structural analyses suggest that they are co-orthologs of the human IGFBP-2 gene. Biochemical assays show that both zebrafish igfbp-2a and -2b encode secreted proteins that bind IGFs. These two genes exhibit distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns. During embryogenesis, IGFBP-2a mRNA is initially detected in the lens, then in the brain boundary vasculature, and subsequently becomes highly expressed in the liver. In the adult stage, liver has the highest levels of IGFBP-2a mRNA, followed by the brain. Low levels of IGFBP-2a mRNA were detected in muscle and in the gonad in male adults only. IGFBP-2b mRNA is detected initially in all tissues at low levels, but later becomes abundant in the liver. In adult males, IGFBP-2b mRNA is only detected in the liver. In adult females, it is also found in the gut, kidney, ovary, and muscle. To gain insights into how the IGFBP-2 genes may have evolved through partitioning of ancestral functions, functional and mechanistic studies were carried out. Expression of zebrafish IGFBP-2a and -2b caused significant decreases in the growth and developmental rates and their effects are comparable to that of human IGFBP-2. IGFBP-2 mutants with altered IGF binding-, RGD-, and heparin-binding sites were generated and their actions examined. While mutating the RGD and heparin binding sites had little effect, altering the IGF binding site abolished its biological activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that IGFBP-2 is a conserved regulatory protein and it inhibits

  19. Supplementation with a fish protein hydrolysate (Micromesistius poutassou: effects on body weight, body composition, and CCK/GLP-1 secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Nobile

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs have been reported as a suitable source of proteins for human nutrition because of their balanced amino acid composition and positive effect on gastrointestinal absorption. Objective: Here, we investigated the effect of a FPH, Slimpro®, obtained from blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou muscle by enzymatic hydrolysis, on body composition and on stimulating cholecystokinin (CCK and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 secretion. Design: A randomized clinical study was carried out on 120, slightly overweight (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMI<30 kg/m2, male (25% and female (75% subjects. FPH was tested in a food supplement at two doses (1.4 and 2.8 g to establish if a dose–effect relationship exists. Product use was associated with a mild hypocaloric diet (−300 kcal/day. Body composition (body weight; fat mass; extracellular water; and circumference of waist, thighs, and hips and CCK/GLP-1 blood levels were measured at the beginning of the study and after 45 and 90 days of product use. CCK/GLP-1 levels were measured since they are involved in controlling food intake. Results: Treated subjects reported an improvement of body weight composition and an increased blood concentration of both CCK and GLP-1. No differences were found between the 1.4 and 2.8 g FPH doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 1.4 g FPH. Conclusions: Both 1.4 and 2.8 g of FPH were effective in improving body composition and in increasing CCK and GLP-1 blood levels.

  20. Leucaena leucocephala pod seed protein as an alternate to animal protein in fish feed and evaluation of its role to fight against infection caused by Vibrio harveyi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vipin Kumar; Rani, Kumari Vandana; Kumar, Shiva Raj; Prakash, Om

    2018-05-01

    The laboratory acclimatized Clarias gariepinus (80 ± 10 g) were divided into six groups and five subgroups each containing 10 fish. A fish feed was reconstituted by adding 33% powder of Leucaena leucocephala seed in place of fish trash. Group B, C and E were fed on reconstituted feed and group A, D and F were fed on artificial feed containing animal protein for 7 days prior to start of experiments. Then Group B was challenged with BSA while other groups were challenged with Vibrio harveyi (Group C, D) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Group E, F). Group A was used as negative control (not challenged with antigen). The fish were challenged on weekly intervals till 28th day. Blood was collected from one subgroup of each group on day 7, 14, 21 & 28 and finally sacrificed on day 35. Change in body weight, liver function tests (SGOT, SGPT) and serum ALP levels were monitored. The phagocytic index, percentage phagocytosis and nitric oxide levels were measured in macrophages isolated from spleen and head kidney. The levels of total fish immunoglobulin were also measured following indirect ELISA. The results showed improved immune response in fish fed on 33% L. leucocephala pod seed reconstituted feed; however their specific growth rate was low. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Encapsulated Fish Oil by Polymerized Whey Protein on the Textural and Sensory Characteristics of Low-Fat Yogurt

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    Liu Diru

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Five types of polymerized whey protein (PWP1, PWP2, PWP3, PWP4 and PWP5 containing different amounts of fish oil were added to low-fat yogurt as fat replacers. The texture, apparent viscosity, and sensory properties of the yogurts were analyzed in comparison with full-fat ( 3.0%, w/w, fat and low-fat (1.5%, w/w; and 1.2%, w/w milk yogurt controls. The majority (~85% of the particle size distribution was in the range of 1106±158 nm. Thermal property analysis indicated PWP was thermally stable between 50°C and 90°C. Yogurts formulated with 12% of PWP4 and 14% of PWP5 demonstrated higher firmness, springiness and adhesiveness (P<0.05, and lower cohesiveness (P<0.05 than the low-fat milk yogurt controls. There was no fat separation and they had less fishy smell. Yogurts incorporated with 12% of PWP4 had comparable sensory and textural characteristics to the full- -fat milk yogurt control.

  2. Prolonging hypothermic storage (4 C) of bovine embryos with fish antifreeze protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideta, Atsushi; Aoyagi, Yoshito; Tsuchiya, Kanami; Nakamura, Yuuki; Hayama, Kou; Shirasawa, Atsushi; Sakaguchi, Kenichiro; Tominaga, Naomi; Nishimiya, Yoshiyuki; Tsuda, Sakae

    2015-01-01

    Embryos obtained via superovulation are necessary for mammalian artificial reproduction, and viability is a key determinant of success. Nonfreezing storage at 4 C is possible, but currently used storage solutions can maintain embryo viability for only 24-48 h. Here we found that 10 mg/ml antifreeze protein (AFP) dissolved in culture medium 199 with 20% (v/v) fetal bovine serum and 25 mM HEPES could keep bovine embryos alive for 10 days at 4 C. We used a recombinant AFP isolated from the notched-fin eelpout (Zoarces elongatus Kner). Photomicroscopy indicated that the AFP-embryo interaction was enhanced at 37 C. Embryos pre-warmed with the AFP solution at 37 C for 60 min maintained high viability, whereas those that were not pre-warmed could live no longer than 7 days. Thus, short-term storage of bovine embryos was achieved by a combination of AFP-containing medium and controlled pre-warming.

  3. The effect of increasing levels of fish oil-containing structured triglycerides on protein metabolism in parenterally fed rats stressed by burn plus endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollaher, C J; Fechner, K; Karlstad, M; Babayan, V K; Bistrian, B R

    1993-01-01

    This report investigates the effect of various levels of medium-chain/fish oil structured triglycerides on protein and energy metabolism in hypermetabolic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (192 to 226 g) were continuously infused with isovolemic diets that provided 200 kcal/kg per day and 2 g of amino acid nitrogen per kilogram per day. The percentage of nonnitrogen calories as structured triglyceride was varied: no fat, 5%, 15%, or 30%. A 30% long-chain triglyceride diet was also provided as a control to compare the protein-sparing abilities of these two types of fat. Nitrogen excretion, plasma albumin, plasma triglycerides, and whole-body and liver and muscle protein kinetics were determined after 3 days of feeding. Whole-body protein breakdown, flux, and oxidation were similar in all groups. The 15% structured triglyceride diet maximized whole-body protein synthesis (p structured triglyceride (p triglycerides were markedly elevated in the 30% structured triglyceride-fed rats. The 30% structured triglyceride diet maintained plasma albumin levels better than those diets containing no fat, 5% medium-chain triglyceride/fish oil structured triglyceride, or 30% long-chain triglycerides. Nitrogen excretion was lower in animals receiving 30% of nonnitrogen calories as a structured triglyceride than in those receiving 30% as long-chain triglycerides, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (p = .1). These data suggest that protein metabolism is optimized when structured triglyceride is provided at relatively low dietary fat intakes.

  4. Fish Immunoglobulins

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Mashoof; Michael F. Criscitiello

    2016-01-01

    The B cell receptor and secreted antibody are at the nexus of humoral adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize what is known of the immunoglobulin genes of jawed cartilaginous and bony fishes. We focus on what has been learned from genomic or cDNA sequence data, but where appropriate draw upon protein, immunization, affinity and structural studies. Work from major aquatic model organisms and less studied comparative species are both included to define what is the rule for an immunoglob...

  5. Fish hemoglobins

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,P.C. de; Bonilla-Rodriguez,G.O.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta) and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemica...

  6. The ichthyotoxic alga Chattonella marina induces Na+, K+-ATPase, and CFTR proteins expression in fish gill chloride cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Janet Y.M.; Wong, Chris K.C.; Au, Doris W.T.

    2007-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that the ichthyotoxic Chattonella marina stimulated proliferation of branchial chloride cell (CC) and induced osmotic distress akin to hyperactive elimination of ions in fish (Rhabdosargus sarba). To ascertain the in vivo effects of C. marina on key CC ion transporters, the localization and expression of Na + , K + -ATPase (NKA) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) proteins in response to C. marina exposure were investigated, using a quantitative immunocytochemical approach. The polarized distributions of NKA (α subunit) and CFTR proteins in branchial CCs of R. sarba remained unchanged under C. marina exposure. However, significant inductions of these two ion-transporters were detected in CCs of fish after 6 h exposure. By real-time PCR, no significant changes in gill NKA and CFTR mRNA expressions were detected, suggesting a post-transcriptional pathway is likely involved in regulating the ion transporters abundance. This study is the first to demonstrate the in vivo effects of harmful algal toxin on NKA and CFTR protein expressions in gill transepithelial cells. Taken together, an augmentation of branchial CCs together with hyper-stimulation of NKA and CFTR in CCs attribute to the rapid development of osmotic distress in C. marina susceptible fish

  7. Shelf-life extension of refrigerated sea bass slices wrapped with fish protein isolate/fish skin gelatin-ZnO nanocomposite film incorporated with basil leaf essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfat, Yasir Ali; Benjakul, Soottawat; Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Yarnpakdee, Suthasinee

    2015-10-01

    Microbiological, chemical and sensory changes of sea bass slices wrapped with fish protein isolate (FPI)/fish skin gelatin (FSG) films incorporated with 3 % ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONP) (w/w, based on protein content) and 100 % basil leaf essential oil (BEO) (w/w, based on protein content) during storage of 12 days at 4 °C were investigated. Sea bass slices wrapped with FPI/FSG-ZnONP-BEO film had the lowest growth of psychrophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and spoilage microorganisms including Pseudomonas , H2S-producing bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae throughout storage of 12 days in comparison with those wrapped with FPI/FSG-BEO, FPI/FSG-ZnONP, FPI/FSG film, polypropylene film (PP film) and the control (without wrapping), respectively (P < 0.05). Lowered increases in pH, total volatile base, peroxide value and TBARS value were found in FPI/FSG-ZnO-BEO film wrapped samples, compared with others (P < 0.05). Sensory evaluation revealed that shelf-life of sea bass slices was longest for samples wrapped with FPI/FSG-ZnONP-BEO film (12 days), as compared to the control (6 days) (P < 0.05).

  8. Adding Fish Oil to Whey Protein, Leucine, and Carbohydrate Over a Six-Week Supplementation Period Attenuates Muscle Soreness Following Eccentric Exercise in Competitive Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Jordan D; Donnelly, Chris; Walshe, Ian H; MacKinley, Elizabeth E; Dick, James; Galloway, Stuart D R; Tipton, Kevin D; Witard, Oliver C

    2018-01-01

    Soccer players often experience eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage given the physical demands of soccer match-play. Since long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA) enhance muscle sensitivity to protein supplementation, dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil-derived n-3PUFA, protein, and carbohydrate may promote exercise recovery. This study examined the influence of adding n-3PUFA to a whey protein, leucine, and carbohydrate containing beverage over a six-week supplementation period on physiological markers of recovery measured over three days following eccentric exercise. Competitive soccer players were assigned to one of three conditions (2 × 200 mL): a fish oil supplement beverage (FO; n = 10) that contained n-3PUFA (1100 mg DHA/EPA-approximately 550 mg DHA, 550 mg EPA), whey protein (15 g), leucine (1.8 g), and carbohydrate (20 g); a protein supplement beverage (PRO; n = 10) that contained whey protein (15 g), leucine (1.8 g), and carbohydrate (20 g); and a carbohydrate supplement beverage (CHO; n = 10) that contained carbohydrate (24 g). Eccentric exercise consisted of unilateral knee extension/flexion contractions on both legs separately. Maximal force production was impaired by 22% during the 72-hour recovery period following eccentric exercise (p recovery, was less in FO (1948 ± 1091 mm × 72 h) than PRO (4640 ± 2654 mm × 72 h, p soccer performance, or blood c-reactive protein concentrations were observed between groups. In conclusion, the addition of n-3PUFA to a beverage containing whey protein, leucine, and carbohydrate ameliorates the increase in muscle soreness and blood concentrations of creatine kinase following eccentric exercise in competitive soccer players.

  9. Inhibition of ErbB2 by receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors causes myofibrillar structural damage without cell death in adult rat cardiomyocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentassuglia, Laura; Graf, Michael; Lane, Heidi; Kuramochi, Yukio; Cote, Gregory; Timolati, Francesco; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Zuppinger, Christian; Suter, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    Inhibition of ErbB2 (HER2) with monoclonal antibodies, an effective therapy in some forms of breast cancer, is associated with cardiotoxicity, the pathophysiology of which is poorly understood. Recent data suggest, that dual inhibition of ErbB1 (EGFR) and ErbB2 signaling is more efficient in cancer therapy, however, cardiac safety of this therapeutic approach is unknown. We therefore tested an ErbB1-(CGP059326) and an ErbB1/ErbB2-(PKI166) tyrosine kinase inhibitor in an in-vitro system of adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and assessed their effects on 1. cell viability, 2. myofibrillar structure, 3. contractile function, and 4. MAPK- and Akt-signaling alone or in combination with Doxorubicin. Neither CGP nor PKI induced cardiomyocyte necrosis or apoptosis. PKI but not CGP caused myofibrillar structural damage that was additive to that induced by Doxorubicin at clinically relevant doses. These changes were associated with an inhibition of excitation-contraction coupling. PKI but not CGP decreased p-Erk1/2, suggesting a role for this MAP-kinase signaling pathway in the maintenance of myofibrils. These data indicate that the ErbB2 signaling pathway is critical for the maintenance of myofibrillar structure and function. Clinical studies using ErbB2-targeted inhibitors for the treatment of cancer should be designed to include careful monitoring for cardiac dysfunction.

  10. An analysis of partial efficiencies of energy utilisation of different macronutrients by barramundi (Lates calcarifer) shows that starch restricts protein utilisation in carnivorous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glencross, Brett D; Blyth, David; Bourne, Nicholas; Cheers, Susan; Irvin, Simon; Wade, Nicholas M

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the effect of including different dietary proportions of starch, protein and lipid, in diets balanced for digestible energy, on the utilisation efficiencies of dietary energy by barramundi (Lates calcarifer). Each diet was fed at one of three ration levels (satiety, 80 % of initial satiety and 60 % of initial satiety) for a 42-d period. Fish performance measures (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio) were all affected by dietary energy source. The efficiency of energy utilisation was significantly reduced in fish fed the starch diet relative to the other diets, but there were no significant effects between the other macronutrients. This reduction in efficiency of utilisation was derived from a multifactorial change in both protein and lipid utilisation. The rate of protein utilisation deteriorated as the amount of starch included in the diet increased. Lipid utilisation was most dramatically affected by inclusion levels of lipid in the diet, with diets low in lipid producing component lipid utilisation rates well above 1·3, which indicates substantial lipid synthesis from other energy sources. However, the energetic cost of lipid gain was as low as 0·65 kJ per kJ of lipid deposited, indicating that barramundi very efficiently store energy in the form of lipid, particularly from dietary starch energy. This study defines how the utilisation efficiency of dietary digestible energy by barramundi is influenced by the macronutrient source providing that energy, and that the inclusion of starch causes problems with protein utilisation in this species.

  11. Optimum composite flour, water and mixing time of dough for crispy snack containing fish-head protein hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitbunjerdkul, S.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The properties of dough are responsible to the final quality of crispy snack. The effect of flour, water and mixing time on dough quality were evaluated. The simplex-centroid design for mixture of three flours (A, B and C in a composite flour of 30-70, 25-65 and 5-45%, respectively was used in this study. Contour plot of hedonic scores and the predictive regression models were calculated, using Design-Expert version 7.0.3 (Stat-Ease, Inc. MN, USA. The result revealed that the predictive regression model and goodness-of-fit for the correlation between different composite flours and sensory properties showed adj. R2 0.87-0.96 and lack of fit, p>0.05 in the attribute of color, odor, taste and overall liking. The optimum amount of flour A, B and C that would yield the crispy snack with 9-point hedonic score of the all terms in the range of 6.0-9.0 was 45, 25 and 30% respectively. The optimum mixing conditions of dough using the optimum composite flour were studied. Factorial design of 56, 58, 60 and 62% water and mixing time 5, 10 and 15 min was used. When the physical properties were evaluated, this results showed elasticity, cohesion and adhesion of dough increased with increasing water at mixing time ranging from 5 to 10 min. The crispy snack containing 5% fish-head protein hydrolysate, using the composite flour with flours A, B and C in the ratio of 45 : 25 :30, 62% water and mixing time 10 min obtained bulk density 16.17 g/100 ml, water absorption index 5.15 g/g dried sample, maximum force (hardness 141.74 g and numbers of major peak (crispness 8.2 peaks. The acceptance scores of color, odor, taste, crispness and overall liking of the final product evaluated by 9-point hedonic scales, were 6.84, 6.50 , 6.38, 7.68 and 6.64, respectively.

  12. Evaluation of gene amplification and protein expression of HER-2/neu in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato-Kuwabara, Yukie; Neves, José I; Fregnani, José HTG; Sallum, Rubens A; Soares, Fernando A

    2009-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the sixth most frequent neoplasia in Brazil. It is usually associated with a poor prognosis because it is often at an advanced stage when diagnosed and there is a high frequency of lymph node metastases. It is important to know what prognostic factors can facilitate diagnosis, optimize therapeutic decisions, and improve the survival of these patients. A member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, c-erbB-2, has received much attention because of its therapeutic implications; however, few studies involving fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of HER-2/neu gene amplification and protein expression in ESCC have been conducted. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of HER-2/neu gene amplification using FISH, and to correlate the results with immunohistochemical expression and clinical-pathological findings. One hundred and ninety-nine ESCC cases were evaluated using the Tissue Microarray (TMA) technique. A polyclonal antibody against c-erbB-2 was used for immunohistochemistry. Analyses were based on the membrane staining pattern. The results were classified according to the Herceptest criteria (DAKO): negative (0/1+), potential positive (2+) and positive (3+). The FISH reactions were performed according to the FISH HER2 PharmDx (DAKO) protocol. In each case, 100 tumor nuclei were evaluated. Cases showing a gene/CEN17 fluorescence ratio ≥ 2 were considered positive for gene amplification. The c-erbB-2 expression was negative in 117/185 cases (63.2%) and positive in 68 (36.8%), of which 56 (30.3%) were 2+ and 12 (6.5%) were 3+. No significant associations were found among protein expression, clinicopathological data and overall survival. Among the 47 cases analyzed, 38 (80.9%) showed no gene amplification while 9 (19.1%) showed amplification, as demonstrated by FISH. Cases that were negative (0/1+) and potential positive (2+) for c-erbB-2 expression by immunohistochemistry showed no

  13. Which Fish Should I Eat? Perspectives Influencing Fish Consumption Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Anna L.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Mariën, Koenraad; Rheinberger, Christoph M.; Schoeny, Rita; Sunderland, Elsie; Korrick, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diverse perspectives have influenced fish consumption choices. Objectives: We summarized the issue of fish consumption choice from toxicological, nutritional, ecological, and economic points of view; identified areas of overlap and disagreement among these viewpoints; and reviewed effects of previous fish consumption advisories. Methods: We reviewed published scientific literature, public health guidelines, and advisories related to fish consumption, focusing on advisories targeted at U.S. populations. However, our conclusions apply to groups having similar fish consumption patterns. Discussion: There are many possible combinations of matters related to fish consumption, but few, if any, fish consumption patterns optimize all domains. Fish provides a rich source of protein and other nutrients, but because of contamination by methylmercury and other toxicants, higher fish intake often leads to greater toxicant exposure. Furthermore, stocks of wild fish are not adequate to meet the nutrient demands of the growing world population, and fish consumption choices also have a broad economic impact on the fishing industry. Most guidance does not account for ecological and economic impacts of different fish consumption choices. Conclusion: Despite the relative lack of information integrating the health, ecological, and economic impacts of different fish choices, clear and simple guidance is necessary to effect desired changes. Thus, more comprehensive advice can be developed to describe the multiple impacts of fish consumption. In addition, policy and fishery management inter-ventions will be necessary to ensure long-term availability of fish as an important source of human nutrition. PMID:22534056

  14. Standardization of metachromatic staining method of myofibrillar ATPase activity of myosin to skeletal striated muscle of mules and donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora H.F. D'Angelis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at standardizing the pre-incubation and incubation pH and temperature used in the metachromatic staining method of myofibrillar ATPase activity of myosin (mATPase used for asses and mules. Twenty four donkeys and 10 mules, seven females and three males, were used in the study. From each animal, fragments from the Gluteus medius muscle were collected and percutaneous muscle biopsy was performed using a 6.0-mm Bergström-type needle. In addition to the metachromatic staining method of mATPase, the technique of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide tetrazolium reductase (NADH-TR was also performed to confirm the histochemical data. The histochemical result of mATPase for acidic pre-incubation (pH=4.50 and alkaline incubation (pH=10.50, at a temperature of 37ºC, yielded the best differentiation of fibers stained with toluidine blue. Muscle fibers were identified according to the following colors: type I (oxidative, light blue, type IIA (oxidative-glycolytic, intermediate blue and type IIX (glycolytic, dark blue. There are no reports in the literature regarding the characterization and distribution of different types of muscle fibers used by donkeys and mules when performing traction work, cargo transportation, endurance sports (horseback riding and marching competitions. Therefore, this study is the first report on the standardization of the mATPase technique for donkeys and mules.

  15. Effects of brown seaweed polyphenols, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid on protein oxidation and textural properties of fish mince (Pagrosomus major) during frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiantian; Li, Zhenxing; Yuan, Fangzhou; Lin, Hong; Pavase, Tushar Ramesh

    2017-03-01

    Frozen storage of minced fish is currently one of the most important techniques to maintain its functional properties. However, some deterioration does occur during frozen storage and cause quality loss. The effects of brown seaweed polyphenols, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid on lipid and protein oxidation and textural properties of red sea bream (Pagrosomus major) during 90 days of frozen storage at -18 °C were investigated. All added antioxidants at 1 g kg -1 resulted in significantly lower thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) compared to the control during the 45 days of frozen storage. The antioxidants were also effective in retarding protein oxidation concerning to total sulfhydryl content and protein carbonyl content. Brown seaweed polyphenols and α-tocopherol significantly retarded the inactivation of Ca 2+ -ATPase activity during the first 45 days, whereas ascorbic acid had no such effect. The antioxidant activity showed either an invariable or decrease trend after 45 days storage. Adding antioxidants had a significant effect on the breaking force of the gels during the frozen storage period. These results indicate that brown seaweed polyphenols and α-tocopherol can be used to prevent oxidative reactions and thus maintain the structure of the gel formed by fish mince during frozen storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Rapid heating of Alaska pollock and chicken breast myofibrillar protein gels as affecting water-holding properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Clinton D; Liu, Wenjie; Lanier, Tyre C

    2012-10-10

    The gelation response of salted muscle minces to rapid versus slow heating rates is thought to differ between homeotherm and poikilotherm species. This study investigated water-holding (WH) properties of pastes prepared from refined myofibrils, at equal pH, of chicken breast versus Alaska pollock both during [cook loss (CL)] and following [expressible water (EW)] their cooking by rapid [microwave (MW)] versus slow [water bath (WB)] heating and whether such properties were related to gel matrix structure parameters and water mobility. Results did not confirm the industrial experience that pastes of meat from homeotherms benefit from slower cooking. Gels of equally high WH ability (low CL or EW) were made by rapid heating when the holding time did not exceed 5 min prior to cooling, which was sufficient for completion of gelation. Reduced CL and EW correlated with larger and smaller amplitudes of T21 and T22 water pools, respectively, measured by time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR).

  17. Trace element-protein interactions in endolymph from the inner ear of fish: implications for environmental reconstructions using fish otolith chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Oliver R B; Ganio, Katherine; Roberts, Blaine R; Swearer, Stephen E

    2017-03-22

    Otoliths, the biomineralised hearing "ear stones" from the inner ear of fish, grow throughout the lifespan of an individual, with deposition of alternating calciferous and proteinaceous bands occurring daily. Trace element : calcium ratios within daily increments measured by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are often used in fisheries science to reconstruct environmental histories. There is, however, considerable uncertainty as to which elements are interacting with either the proteinaceous or calciferous zones of the otolith, and thus their utility as indicators of environmental change. To answer this, we used size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS) of endolymph, the otolith growth medium, to determine the binding interactions for a range of elements. In addition, we used solution ICP-MS to quantify element concentrations in paired otolith and endolymph samples and determined relative enrichment factors for each. We found 12 elements that are present only in the proteinaceous fraction, 6 that are present only in the salt fraction, and 4 that are present in both. These findings have important implications for the reconstruction of environmental histories based on changes in otolith elemental composition: (1) elements occurring only in the salt fraction are most likely to reflect changes in the physico-chemical environment experienced during life; (2) elements occurring only in the proteinaceous fraction are more likely to reflect physiological rather than environmental events; and (3) elements occurring in both the salt and proteinaceous fractions are likely to be informative about both endogenous and exogenous processes, potentially reducing their utility in environmental reconstructions.

  18. Fish hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  19. Effect of biostimulator on the incorporation of DL(1-14C)leucine into skeletal muscle proteins of buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, N.C.; Singh, L.N.

    1982-01-01

    Incorporation of 14 C-leucine into muscle proteins of buffalo calves was studied in vitro using muscle fibre preparations from biceps femoris. Biostimulator (a spleen tissue extract) stimulated the incorporation of 14 C-leucine into total proteins to some extent, but inhibited the synthesis of sarcoplasmic proteins. There was no significant difference in the relative proportion of the individual sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins in the presence or absence of biostimulator. In one major sarcoplasmic protein there was higher specific activity in the presence of biostimulator. In all the remaining 4 proteins the incorporation was inhibited. Among the myofibrillar proteins, the incorporation into troponins, myosin light chains and tropomyosin was stimulated in the presence of biostimulator. Myosin heavy chain and acting did not show any change in incorporation of 14 C-leucine after addition of the biostimulator. (author)

  20. Gross and true ileal digestible amino acid contents of several animal body proteins and their hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J; Chong, B; Rutherfurd, S M; Wilkinson, B; Singh, H; Moughan, P J

    2013-07-01

    Amino acid compositions of ovine muscle, ovine myofibrillar protein, ovine spleen, ovine liver, bovine blood plasma, bovine blood globulins and bovine serum albumin and the amino acid compositions and in vivo (laboratory rat) true ileal amino acid digestibilities of hydrolysates (sequential hydrolysis with Neutrase, Alcalase and Flavourzyme) of these protein sources were determined. True ileal amino acid digestibility differed (Pprotein hydrolysates. The ovine myofibrillar protein and liver hydrolysates were the most digestible, with a mean true ileal digestibility across all amino acids of 99%. The least digestible protein hydrolysate was bovine serum albumin with a comparable mean true ileal digestibility of 93%. When the digestible amino acid contents were expressed as proportions relative to lysine, considerable differences, across the diverse protein sources, were found in the pattern of predicted absorbed amino acids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Different Lipophilized Ferulate Esters in Fish Oil-Enriched Milk: Partitioning, Interaction, Protein, and Lipid Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Xujian; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Villeneuve, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidant effects of ferulic acid and lipophilized ferulate esters were investigated in fish oil-enriched milk. Methyl ferulate (C1) and ethyl ferulate (C2) more efficiently prevented lipid oxidation than dodecyl ferulate (C12) did, followed by ferulic acid (C0). The combination of C1 or C2 wit...

  2. Whey and casein labelled with L-[1-13C]-leucine and muscle protein synthesis: effect of resistance exercise and protein ingestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitelseder, Søren; Agergaard, Jakob; Doessing, Simon

    2011-01-01

    to a single bolus intake of whey or casein after performance of heavy resistance exercise. Young male individuals were randomly assigned to participate in two protein trials (n = 9) or one control trial (n = 8). Infusion of l-[1-(13)C]leucine was carried out, and either whey, casein (0.3 g/kg lean body mass......), or a noncaloric control drink was ingested immediately after exercise. l-[1-(13)C]leucine-labeled whey and casein were used while muscle protein synthesis (MPS) was assessed. Blood and muscle tissue samples were collected to measure systemic hormone and amino acid concentrations, tracer enrichments......, and myofibrillar protein synthesis. Western blots were used to investigate the Akt signaling pathway. Plasma insulin and branched-chain amino acid concentrations increased to a greater extent after ingestion of whey compared with casein. Myofibrillar protein synthesis was equally increased 1-6 h postexercise after...

  3. Expression and genomic organization of zonadhesin-like genes in three species of fish give insight into the evolutionary history of a mosaic protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson William S

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mosaic sperm protein zonadhesin (ZAN has been characterized in mammals and is implicated in species-specific egg-sperm binding interactions. The genomic structure and testes-specific expression of zonadhesin is known for many mammalian species. All zonadhesin genes characterized to date consist of meprin A5 antigen receptor tyrosine phosphatase mu (MAM domains, mucin tandem repeats, and von Willebrand (VWD adhesion domains. Here we investigate the genomic structure and expression of zonadhesin-like genes in three species of fish. Results The cDNA and corresponding genomic locus of a zonadhesin-like gene (zlg in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar were sequenced. Zlg is similar in adhesion domain content to mammalian zonadhesin; however, the domain order is altered. Analysis of puffer fish (Takifugu rubripes and zebrafish (Danio rerio sequence data identified zonadhesin (zan genes that share the same domain order, content, and a conserved syntenic relationship with mammalian zonadhesin. A zonadhesin-like gene in D. rerio was also identified. Unlike mammalian zonadhesin, D. rerio zan and S. salar zlg were expressed in the gut and not in the testes. Conclusion We characterized likely orthologs of zonadhesin in both T. rubripes and D. rerio and uncovered zonadhesin-like genes in S. salar and D. rerio. Each of these genes contains MAM, mucin, and VWD domains. While these domains are associated with several proteins that show prominent gut expression, their combination is unique to zonadhesin and zonadhesin-like genes in vertebrates. The expression patterns of fish zonadhesin and zonadhesin-like genes suggest that the reproductive role of zonadhesin evolved later in the mammalian lineage.

  4. Testing for adaptive evolution of the female reproductive protein ZPC in mammals, birds and fishes reveals problems with the M7-M8 likelihood ratio test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Sofia; Smith, Nick G C

    2005-11-10

    Adaptive evolution appears to be a common feature of reproductive proteins across a very wide range of organisms. A promising way of addressing the evolutionary forces responsible for this general phenomenon is to test for adaptive evolution in the same gene but among groups of species, which differ in their reproductive biology. One can then test evolutionary hypotheses by asking whether the variation in adaptive evolution is consistent with the variation in reproductive biology. We have attempted to apply this approach to the study of a female reproductive protein, zona pellucida C (ZPC), which has been previously shown by the use of likelihood ratio tests (LRTs) to be under positive selection in mammals. We tested for evidence of adaptive evolution of ZPC in 15 mammalian species, in 11 avian species and in six fish species using three different LRTs (M1a-M2a, M7-M8, and M8a-M8). The only significant findings of adaptive evolution came from the M7-M8 test in mammals and fishes. Since LRTs of adaptive evolution may yield false positives in some situations, we examined the properties of the LRTs by several different simulation methods. When we simulated data to test the robustness of the LRTs, we found that the pattern of evolution in ZPC generates an excess of false positives for the M7-M8 LRT but not for the M1a-M2a or M8a-M8 LRTs. This bias is strong enough to have generated the significant M7-M8 results for mammals and fishes. We conclude that there is no strong evidence for adaptive evolution of ZPC in any of the vertebrate groups we studied, and that the M7-M8 LRT can be biased towards false inference of adaptive evolution by certain patterns of non-adaptive evolution.

  5. Trypsin from unicorn leatherjacket (Aluterus monoceros) pyloric caeca: purification and its use for preparation of fish protein hydrolysate with antioxidative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Abbas; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2016-02-01

    Fish proteases, especially trypsin, could be used to prepare fish protein hydrolysates with antioxidative activities. In this study, trypsin from the pyloric caeca of unicorn leatherjacket was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI)-Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography. Hydrolysate from Indian mackerel protein isolate with different degrees of hydrolysis (20, 30 and 40% DH) was prepared using the purified trypsin, and antioxidative activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical-scavenging activities, ferric-reducing antioxidant power and ferrous-chelating activity) of the hydrolysate were determined. Trypsin was purified 26.43-fold with a yield of 13.43%. The purified trypsin had a molecular weight (MW) of 23.5 kDa and optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 55 °C. It displayed high stability in the pH range of 6.0-11.0 and was thermally stable up to 50 °C. Both SBTI (0.05 mmol L(-1)) and N-p-tosyl-L-lysine-chloromethylketone (5 mmol L(-1)) completely inhibited trypsin activity. Antioxidative activities of the hydrolysate from Indian mackerel protein isolate increased with increasing DH up to 40% (P unicorn leatherjacket pyloric caeca was identified as trypsin based on its ability to hydrolyze a specific synthetic substrate and the response to specific trypsin inhibitors. The purified trypsin could hydrolyze Indian mackerel protein isolate, and the resulting hydrolysate exhibited antioxidative activity depending on its DH. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. [Evaluation of ten fish species to be included as part of renal diet, due to their protein, phosphorus and fatty acids content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-González, Maria Isabel; Maafs-Rodríguez, Ana Gabriela; Pérez-Gil Romo, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    Because renal disease is highly complex, its nutritional treatment is complicated and many foods are restricted, including fish because its phosphorus content. The aim of the present study was to analyze ten fillet fish species, commonly consumed in Mexico (Cyprinus carpio carpio, Ophichthus rex, Symphurus elongatus, Eucinostomus entomelas, Chirostoma patzcuaro, Bairdiella chrysoura, Salmo salar Oreochromis urolepis hornorum, Sphyraena guachancho, Istiophorus albicans), to determine their phosphorus (P), protein (Pr), cholesterol, sodium, potassium, vitamins D3 and E, and n-3 PUFA (EPA+DHA) according to the AOAC techniques, in order to identify which species could be included in renal diet; particularly because of their risk:benefit relations (calculated with those results). Protein values ranged from 16.5 to 33.5g/100 g of fillet; the specie with the highest phosphorus contest was Salmo salar, and with the lowest, Symphurus elongatus. EPA+DHA quantity ranged from 79.64 mg/100 g to 1,381.53 mg/100 g. Considering de P/Pr relation recommended to renal patients, all analyzed species (except Salmo salar, Ophichthus rex and Istiophorus albicans) could be included in their diet. As for the P/EPA+DHA relation, the species most recommended to renal patients are Symphurus elongatus, Bairdiella chrysoura and Sphyraena guachancho.

  7. Physicochemical characterization and oxidative stability of fish oil-loaded electrosprayed capsules: Combined use of whey protein and carbohydrates as wall materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Pelayo, Andres; Yu, Sen

    2018-01-01

    The encapsulation of fish oil in electrosprayed capsules using whey protein and carbohydrates (pullulan and dextran or glucose syrup) mixtures as glassy wall materials was studied. Capsules with fish oil emulsified by using only a rotor-stator emulsification exhibited higher oxidative stability...... than capsules where the oil was emulsified by high-pressure homogenization. Moreover, glucose syrup capsules (with a peroxide value, PV, of 19.7 ± 4.4 meq/kg oil and a content of 1-penten-3-ol of 751.0 ± 69.8 ng/g oil) were less oxidized than dextran capsules after 21 days of storage at 20 °C (PV of 24.......9 ± 0.4 meq/kg oil and 1-penten-3-ol of 1161.0 ± 222.0 ng/g oil). This finding may be attributed to differences in oxygen permeability between both types of capsules. These results indicated the potential of both combinations of whey protein, pullulan, and dextran or glucose syrup as shell materials...

  8. The Possibility of Using Irradiated Khishni (Liza abu) Fish Meal Instead of the Imported Protein Sources in The Diet of Common Carp (Cprinus carpio L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL shammaa, A.A; Abu Tabigh, S.M; Al Fadily, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments were done,the first for ten week,in which fish meal (FM) were used instead of animal protein (AP). A total of (12) group of young common carps Cyprinus carpio L.(25.98±0.27 gm.) were fed on four experimental diets. The first three diets were with 4%, 8% and 12% of (FM) (total replacement),specific growth rate, final fish weight and protein efficiency ratio. Whereas, in the second experiment, a total of (15) groups of C.carpio (36,44±0.23 gm)were fed on five experimental diets in which (FM) were used by 12% and 15% instead of (AP) as well as by 10% and 15% instead of Soyabean meal . The fifth diets was with 0% (F M). Statistical analysis (CRD and Dun cans test ) showed no significant differences (P>0.05) between the experimental diet according to food conversion ratio. According to these results dried irradiated Khishni can be used as a (FM). and to be a good replacer for all (AP) and 50% of Soyabean (c.p. 44%) in the diet of common carp.) (author)

  9. Energetic costs of protein synthesis do not differ between red- and white-blooded Antarctic notothenioid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Johanne M; Grove, Theresa J; O'Brien, Kristin M

    2015-09-01

    Antarctic icefishes (Family Channichthyidae) within the suborder Notothenioidei lack the oxygen-binding protein hemoglobin (Hb), and six of the 16 species of icefishes lack myoglobin (Mb) in heart ventricle. As iron-centered proteins, Hb and Mb can promote the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage biological macromolecules. Consistent with this, our previous studies have shown that icefishes have lower levels of oxidized proteins and lipids in oxidative muscle compared to red-blooded notothenioids. Because oxidized proteins are usually degraded by the 20S proteasome and must be resynthesized, we hypothesized that rates of protein synthesis would be lower in icefishes compared to red-blooded notothenioids, thereby reducing the energetic costs of protein synthesis and conferring a benefit to the loss of Hb and Mb. Rates of protein synthesis were quantified in hearts, and the fraction of oxygen consumption devoted to protein synthesis was measured in isolated hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes of notothenioids differing in the expression of Hb and cardiac Mb. Neither rates of protein synthesis nor the energetic costs of protein synthesis differed among species, suggesting that red-blooded species do not degrade and replace oxidatively modified proteins at a higher rate compared to icefishes but rather, persist with higher levels of oxidized proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. SIMULATING PROTEIN DIGESTION ON TROUT A RAPID AND INEXPENSIVE METHOD FOR DOCUMENTING FISH MEAL QUALITY AND SCREENING NOVEL PROTEIN SOURCES FOR USE IN AQUAFEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    M Bassompierre; A Kjar; Ewen McLean

    1997-01-01

    A novel in vitro digestion system, which simulated rainbow trout gastric and intestinal digestion was developed. The method was employed to evaluate the impact of the gastric phase of digestion upon degradation of three fish meals od differing quality. Results illustrated that two-phase gastric-intestinal digestion increased the discriminatory powers of the system when compared to one-step intestinal digestion. A comparison of the system with pH-STAT methods demonstrated that the in vitro tec...

  11. Effect of experimental hyperthyroidism on protein turnover in skeletal and cardiac muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W J; Van Der Weijden Benjamin, W S; Faas, F H

    1980-10-01

    Since experimental hyperthyroidism reduces skeletal muscle mass while simultaneously increasing cardiac muscle mass, the effect of hyperthyroidism on muscle protein degradation was compared in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Pulse-labeling studies using (3H) leucine and (14C) carboxyl labeled aspartate and glutamate were carried out. Hyperthyroidism caused a 25%-29% increase in protein breakdown in both sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar fractions of skeletal muscle. Increased muscle protein degradation may be a major factor in the development of skeletal muscle wasting and weakness in hyperthyroidism. In contrast, protein breakdown appeared to be reduced 22% in the sarcoplasmic fraction of hyperthyroid heart muscle and was unchanged in the myofibrillar fraction. Possible reasons for the contrasting effects of hyperthyroidism on skeletal and cardiac muscle include increased sensitivity of the hyperthyroid heart to catecholamines, increased cardiac work caused by the hemodynamic effects of hyperthyroidism, and a different direct effect of thyroid hormone at the nuclear level in cardiac as opposed to skeletal muscle.

  12. Evaluation of cassava leaf meal protein in fish and soybean meal-based diets for young pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siaka Seriba Diarra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The unavailability and high cost of traditional ingredients calls for more research into alternative sources for pig feeding in the South Pacific region. The effect of replacing feed protein with cassava leaf meal (CLM protein in weaner and growing pigs’ diets was investigated in two experiments. In experiment 1, three diets in which CLM protein replaced 0, 15 and 30% of feed protein were fed each to five replicate pens of weaner pigs. Feed intake (FI, body weight gain (BWG and feed conversion ratio (FCR were improved and feed cost of gain reduced (P<0.05 on 30% while dressing percentage was maximized (P<0.05 on 15% protein replacement diets. In experiment 2, three diets containing 0, 30 and 45% CLM protein as replacement for feed protein were fed as in experiment 1 to grower pigs. FI and BWG were reduced while FCR and feed cost of gain were increased (P<0.05 above 30% protein replacement. Dressing percentage assumed the highest value (P<0.05 on 30% replacement. It was concluded that replacing 30% of feed protein with sun-dried CLM protein will maintain growth and reduce cost of pork production. Efficient use of CLM in the diet will be an alternative way of value addition to this by-product.

  13. A case report: a heterozygous deletion (2791_2805 del) in exon 18 of the filamin C gene causing filamin C-related myofibrillar myopathies in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jing; Su, Fei-Fei; Liu, Xue-Mei; Wei, Xiao-Jing; Yuan, Yun; Yu, Xue-Fan

    2018-06-04

    Filamin C-related myofibrillar myopathies (MFM) are progressive skeletal myopathies with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. The conditions are caused by mutations of the filamin C gene (FLNC) located in the chromosome 7q32-q35 region. Genetic variations in the FLNC gene result in various clinical phenotypes. We describe a 43-year-old woman who suffered filamin C-related MFM, with symptoms first presenting in the proximal muscles of the lower limbs and eventually spreading to the upper limbs and distal muscles. The patient's serum level of creatine kinase was mildly increased. Mildy myopathic changes in the electromyographic exam and moderate lipomatous alterations in lower limb MRI were found. Histopathological examination revealed increased muscle fiber size variability, disturbances in oxidative enzyme activity, and the presence of abnormal protein aggregates and vacuoles in some muscle fibers. Ultrastructural analysis showed inclusions composed of thin filaments and interspersed granular densities. DNA sequencing analysis detected a novel 15-nucleotide deletion (c.2791_2805del, p.931_935del) in the FLNC gene. The patient's father, sister, brother, three paternal aunts, one paternal uncle, and the uncle's son also had slowly progressive muscle weakness, and thus, we detected an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern of the disorder. A novel heterogeneous 15-nucleotide deletion (c.2791_2805del, p.931_935del) in the Ig-like domain 7 of the FLNC gene was found to cause filamin C-related MFM. This deletion in the FLNC gene causes protein aggregation, abnormalities in muscle structure, and impairment in muscle fiber function, which leads to muscle weakness.

  14. Two desmin gene mutations associated with myofibrillar myopathies in Polish families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Piotr Fichna

    Full Text Available Desmin is a muscle-specific intermediate filament protein which forms a network connecting the sarcomere, T tubules, sarcolemma, nuclear membrane, mitochondria and other organelles. Mutations in the gene coding for desmin (DES cause skeletal myopathies often combined with cardiomyopathy, or isolated cardiomyopathies. The molecular pathomechanisms of the disease remain ambiguous. Here, we describe and comprehensively characterize two DES mutations found in Polish patients with a clinical diagnosis of desminopathy. The study group comprised 16 individuals representing three families. Two mutations were identified: a novel missense mutation (Q348P and a small deletion of nine nucleotides (A357_E359del, previously described by us in the Polish population. A common ancestry of all the families bearing the A357_E359del mutation was confirmed. Both mutations were predicted to be pathogenic using a bioinformatics approach, including molecular dynamics simulations which helped to rationalize abnormal behavior at molecular level. To test the impact of the mutations on DES expression and the intracellular distribution of desmin muscle biopsies were investigated. Elevated desmin levels as well as its atypical localization in muscle fibers were observed. Additional staining for M-cadherin, α-actinin, and myosin heavy chains confirmed severe disruption of myofibrill organization. The abnormalities were more prominent in the Q348P muscle, where both small atrophic fibers as well large fibers with centrally localized nuclei were observed. We propose that the mutations affect desmin structure and cause its aberrant folding and subsequent aggregation, triggering disruption of myofibrils organization.

  15. Two Desmin Gene Mutations Associated with Myofibrillar Myopathies in Polish Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdynski, Mariusz; Sikorska, Agata; Filipek, Slawomir; Redowicz, Maria Jolanta; Kaminska, Anna; Zekanowski, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    Desmin is a muscle-specific intermediate filament protein which forms a network connecting the sarcomere, T tubules, sarcolemma, nuclear membrane, mitochondria and other organelles. Mutations in the gene coding for desmin (DES) cause skeletal myopathies often combined with cardiomyopathy, or isolated cardiomyopathies. The molecular pathomechanisms of the disease remain ambiguous. Here, we describe and comprehensively characterize two DES mutations found in Polish patients with a clinical diagnosis of desminopathy. The study group comprised 16 individuals representing three families. Two mutations were identified: a novel missense mutation (Q348P) and a small deletion of nine nucleotides (A357_E359del), previously described by us in the Polish population. A common ancestry of all the families bearing the A357_E359del mutation was confirmed. Both mutations were predicted to be pathogenic using a bioinformatics approach, including molecular dynamics simulations which helped to rationalize abnormal behavior at molecular level. To test the impact of the mutations on DES expression and the intracellular distribution of desmin muscle biopsies were investigated. Elevated desmin levels as well as its atypical localization in muscle fibers were observed. Additional staining for M-cadherin, α-actinin, and myosin heavy chains confirmed severe disruption of myofibrill organization. The abnormalities were more prominent in the Q348P muscle, where both small atrophic fibers as well large fibers with centrally localized nuclei were observed. We propose that the mutations affect desmin structure and cause its aberrant folding and subsequent aggregation, triggering disruption of myofibrils organization. PMID:25541946

  16. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fish Allergy KidsHealth / For Parents / Fish Allergy What's in this ... Print en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the same ...

  17. Antioxidant Activity of Fish Protein Hydrolysates in in vitro Assays and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    The aim of this study was to screen different protein hydrolysates with respect to their antioxidative properties in order to select the most promising extracts for further evaluation in oil-in-water emulsions. Three fractions of protein hydrolysates (Crude, >5kDa and 5kDa, 3-5kDa and...

  18. Emerging Evidence for the Importance of Dietary Protein Source on Glucoregulatory Markers and Type 2 Diabetes: Different Effects of Dairy, Meat, Fish, Egg, and Plant Protein Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Comerford

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies provide evidence that a higher intake of protein from plant-based foods and certain animal-based foods is associated with a lower risk for type 2 diabetes. However, there are few distinguishable differences between the glucoregulatory qualities of the proteins in plant-based foods, and it is likely their numerous non-protein components (e.g., fibers and phytochemicals that drive the relationship with type 2 diabetes risk reduction. Conversely, the glucoregulatory qualities of the proteins in animal-based foods are extremely divergent, with a higher intake of certain animal-based protein foods showing negative effects, and others showing neutral or positive effects on type 2 diabetes risk. Among the various types of animal-based protein foods, a higher intake of dairy products (such as milk, yogurt, cheese and whey protein consistently shows a beneficial relationship with glucose regulation and/or type 2 diabetes risk reduction. Intervention studies provide evidence that dairy proteins have more potent effects on insulin and incretin secretion compared to other commonly consumed animal proteins. In addition to their protein components, such as insulinogenic amino acids and bioactive peptides, dairy products also contain a food matrix rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, trans-palmitoleic fatty acids, and low-glycemic index sugars—all of which have been shown to have beneficial effects on aspects of glucose control, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and/or type 2 diabetes risk. Furthermore, fermentation and fortification of dairy products with probiotics and vitamin D may improve a dairy product’s glucoregulatory effects.

  19. Effects of prerigor pressurization on the emulsifying capacity of muscle protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgasim, E.A.; Kennick, W.H.; Anglemier, A.F.; Elkhalifa, E.A.; Koohmaraie, M.

    1982-05-01

    The emulsifying capacities of pressure treated and control muscle homogenates, sarcoplasmic protein and myofibrillar proteins of ovine and bovine longissimus muscles were determined at 2, 6, 24 and 168 hr postmortem. The pH of the intact muscle, muscle homogenate and myofibrillar protein extract were taken at these times. Before onset of rigor mortis, the emulsifying capacity of muscle homogenate from the control samples was higher than the pressure treated samples. At 24 and 168 hr postmortem, the pressure treated and control samples were not significantly different (P>0.05) for emulsifying capacity. At 2 hr postmortem, the emulsifying capacity of myofibrillar protein extract from control samples was higher (P<0.05) than that from pressure treated samples; thereafter, the emulsification curve for the pressure treated samples was higher than that of the control. The emulsification capacity of sarcoplasmic proteins from control muscles was slightly, but consistently, higher than that from pressure treated muscles throughout the test period. Overall, the emulsification capacity of muscle proteins was not detrimentally affected by pressure treatment.

  20. Flow Cytometric Immunobead Assay for Detection of BCR-ABL1 Fusion Proteins in Chronic Myleoid Leukemia: Comparison with FISH and PCR Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Anna Grazia; Caruso, Nadia; Bossio, Sabrina; Pellicanò, Mariavaleria; De Stefano, Laura; Franzese, Stefania; Palummo, Angela; Abbadessa, Vincenzo; Lucia, Eugenio; Gentile, Massimo; Vigna, Ernesto; Caracciolo, Clementina; Agostino, Antolino; Galimberti, Sara; Levato, Luciano; Stagno, Fabio; Molica, Stefano; Martino, Bruno; Vigneri, Paolo; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Morabito, Fortunato

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is characterized by a balanced translocation juxtaposing the Abelson (ABL) and breakpoint cluster region (BCR) genes. The resulting BCR-ABL1 oncogene leads to increased proliferation and survival of leukemic cells. Successful treatment of CML has been accompanied by steady improvements in our capacity to accurately and sensitively monitor therapy response. Currently, measurement of BCR-ABL1 mRNA transcript levels by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) defines critical response endpoints. An antibody-based technique for BCR-ABL1 protein recognition could be an attractive alternative to RQ-PCR. To date, there have been no studies evaluating whether flow-cytometry based assays could be of clinical utility in evaluating residual disease in CML patients. Here we describe a flow-cytometry assay that detects the presence of BCR-ABL1 fusion proteins in CML lysates to determine the applicability, reliability, and specificity of this method for both diagnosis and monitoring of CML patients for initial response to therapy. We show that: i) CML can be properly diagnosed at onset, (ii) follow-up assessments show detectable fusion protein (i.e. relative mean fluorescent intensity, rMFI%>1) when BCR-ABL1IS transcripts are between 1–10%, and (iii) rMFI% levels predict CCyR as defined by FISH analysis. Overall, the FCBA assay is a rapid technique, fully translatable to the routine management of CML patients. PMID:26111048

  1. Flow Cytometric Immunobead Assay for Detection of BCR-ABL1 Fusion Proteins in Chronic Myleoid Leukemia: Comparison with FISH and PCR Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grazia Recchia

    Full Text Available Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML is characterized by a balanced translocation juxtaposing the Abelson (ABL and breakpoint cluster region (BCR genes. The resulting BCR-ABL1 oncogene leads to increased proliferation and survival of leukemic cells. Successful treatment of CML has been accompanied by steady improvements in our capacity to accurately and sensitively monitor therapy response. Currently, measurement of BCR-ABL1 mRNA transcript levels by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR defines critical response endpoints. An antibody-based technique for BCR-ABL1 protein recognition could be an attractive alternative to RQ-PCR. To date, there have been no studies evaluating whether flow-cytometry based assays could be of clinical utility in evaluating residual disease in CML patients. Here we describe a flow-cytometry assay that detects the presence of BCR-ABL1 fusion proteins in CML lysates to determine the applicability, reliability, and specificity of this method for both diagnosis and monitoring of CML patients for initial response to therapy. We show that: i CML can be properly diagnosed at onset, (ii follow-up assessments show detectable fusion protein (i.e. relative mean fluorescent intensity, rMFI%>1 when BCR-ABL1IS transcripts are between 1-10%, and (iii rMFI% levels predict CCyR as defined by FISH analysis. Overall, the FCBA assay is a rapid technique, fully translatable to the routine management of CML patients.

  2. Characteristic of sausages as influenced by partial replacement of pork back-fat using pre-emulsified soybean oil stabilized by fish proteins isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nopparat Cheetangdee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Substitution of animal fat with oils rich in n-3 is a feasible way to improve the nutritive value of comminuted meat product. The effect on the characteristics of sausages was investigated of partial replacement of porcine fat with soybean oil (SBO using a pre-emulsification technique. Fish protein isolate (FPI produced from yellow stripe trevally (Selaroides leptolepis was used as an emulsifier to prepare pre-emulsified SBO (preSBO, and its concentration effect (1%, 2% and 3%, w/v was observed in comparison with soy protein isolate (SPI. Substitution of porcine fat using preSBO enhanced the product stability. SPI exhibited better emulsifying ability than FPI. However, FPI was more effective at reinforcing the protein matrix of the sausages than SPI, as suggested by a lowered cooking loss and the restored textural attributes of the sausages formulated with FPI stabilized preSBO. The effective concentration of FPI to improve the product stability was 2%. This work suggested that FPI was promising in the preparation of emulsified meat products.

  3. Enhanced oxidative stability of fish oil by encapsulating in culled banana resistant starch-soy protein isolate based microcapsules in functional bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrin, Taslima Ayesha Aktar; Anal, Anil Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Oil in water emulsions were produced by the mixture of culled banana resistant starch (CBRS) & soy protein isolate (SPI), mixture of Hylon VII & SPI and SPI with 7.5 and 5 % (w/w) Menhaden fish oil. The emulsions were further freeze- dried obtaining 33 and 50 % oil load microcapsules. The range of particles diameter was 4.11 to 7.25 μm and viscosity was 34.6 to 146.48 cP of the emulsions. Compressibility index (CI), Hasner ratio (HR) and angle of repose (AR) was significantly (p < 0.01) lower of the microcapsules made with starch and protein (CBRS & SPI and Hylon VII & SPI) than that made with protein (SPI) only. Microcapsules composed of CBRS & SPI with 33 % oil load had maximum microencapsulation efficiency (82.49 %) and highest oxidative stability. Muffin made with emulsions containing mixture of CBRS & SPI exhibited less fishy flavour than that containing mixture of Hylon VII & SPI.

  4. Biochemical genetics of some Indian fishes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.; Qasim, S.Z.

    similarities in their protein make up, whereas these taxonomically apart showed striking differences. Thus, the usefulness of employing this method was clearly demonstrated in fish taxonomy. The study of genetic struture of fish populations through the analysis...

  5. Fish protein hydrolysate production from sardine solid waste by crude pepsin enzymatic hydrolysis in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhabiles, M.S.; Abdi, N.; Drouiche, N.; Lounici, H.; Pauss, A.; Goosen, M.F.A.; Mameri, N.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the study were to optimize the production a fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid waste using crude pepsin, and to scale up the process in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit for product recovery. Results showed that the crude pepsin prepared by autolysis of the mucous membranes of a sheep stomach at optimal conditions (i. e. pH = 1.5–2 and incubation time of 6 h) could be satisfactory used for the enzymatic hydrolysis of fish solid waste. The optimal conditions for enzymatic reaction were: temperature 48 °C, and pH 1.5. The scale up of the enzymatic hydrolysis and the coupling of the reactor an ultrafiltration unit to concentrate the hydrolysate gave good results with a rejection coefficient for the protein hydrolysate product in the range of 90%. The volumetric concentration factor was 2.5, with a permeate flux of 200 L m −2 bar −1 . However, the results also suggest that the ultrafiltration product concentration process may be operating beyond the critical flux at which point irreversible membrane fouling occurs. - Highlights: ► Evaluating to produce a (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid wastes was achieved. ► Investigation of key parameters for optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis have been studied. ► Valorization of sardine waste was realized by enzymatic hydrolysis process. ► Performances of this enzyme gave comparable results to those obtained with commercial pepsin. ► The nutritional quality of the FPH produced appears to be satisfactory.

  6. Alternagin-C (ALT-C), a disintegrin-like protein from Rhinocerophis alternatus snake venom promotes positive inotropism and chronotropism in fish heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, D A; Kalinin, A L; Selistre-de-Araujo, H S; Vasconcelos, E S; Rantin, F T

    2016-02-01

    Alternagin-C (ALT-C) is a disintegrin-like protein purified from the venom of the snake, Rhinocerophis alternatus. Recent studies showed that ALT-C is able to induce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, endothelial cell proliferation and migration, angiogenesis and to increase myoblast viability. This peptide, therefore, can play a crucial role in tissue regeneration mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a single dose of alternagin-C (0.5 mg kg(-1), via intra-arterial) on in vitro cardiac function of the freshwater fish traíra, Hoplias malabaricus, after 7 days. ALT-C treatment increased the cardiac performance promoting: 1) significant increases in the contraction force and in the rates of contraction and relaxation with concomitant decreases in the values of time to the peak tension and time to half- and 90% relaxation; 2) improvement in the cardiac pumping capacity and maximal electrical stimulation frequency, shifting the optimum frequency curve upward and to the right; 3) increases in myocardial VEGF levels and expression of key Ca(2+)-cycling proteins such as SERCA (sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase), PLB (phospholamban), and NCX (Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger); 4) abolishment of the typical negative force-frequency relationship of fish myocardium. In conclusion, this study indicates that ALT-C improves cardiac function, by increasing Ca(2+) handling efficiency leading to a positive inotropism and chronotropism. The results suggest that ALT-C may lead to better cardiac output regulation indicating its potential application in therapies for cardiac contractile dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 5S rRNA and accompanying proteins in gonads: powerful markers to identify sex and reproductive endocrine disruption in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz de Cerio, Oihane; Rojo-Bartolomé, Iratxe; Bizarro, Cristina; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren; Cancio, Ibon

    2012-07-17

    In anuran ovaries, 5S rDNA is regulated transcriptionally by transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA), which upon transcription, binds 5S rRNA, forming 7S RNP. 5S rRNA can be stockpiled also in the form of 42S RNP bound to 42sp43. The aim of the present study was to assess the differential transcriptional regulation of 5S rRNA and associated proteins in thicklip gray mullet (Chelon labrosus) gonads. Up to 75% of the total RNA from mullet ovaries was 5S rRNA. qPCR quantification of 5S rRNA expression, in gonads of histologically sexed individuals from different geographical areas, successfully sexed animals. All males had expression levels that were orders of magnitude below expression levels in females, throughout an annual reproductive cycle, with the exception of two individuals: one in November and one in December. Moreover, intersex mullets from a polluted harbor had expression levels between both sexes. TFIIIA and 42sp43 were also very active transcriptionally in gonads of female and intersex mullets, in comparison to males. Nucleocytoplasmatic transport is important in this context and we also analyzed transcriptional levels of importins-α1, -α2, and -β2 and different exportins. Importin-αs behaved similarly to 5S rRNA. Thus, 5S rRNA and associated proteins constitute very powerful molecular markers of sex and effects of xenosterogens in fish gonads, with potential technological applications in the analysis of fish stock dynamics and reproduction as well as in environmental health assessment.

  8. A calorie-restriction diet supplemented with fish oil and high-protein powder is associated with reduced severity of metabolic syndrome in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H-Y; Lee, H-C; Cheng, W-Y; Huang, S-Y

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity has increased worldwide, as well as in Taiwan, particularly in women aged>40 years. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of a calorie-restriction diet (CR) supplemented with protein and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on women with MetS. A total of 143 eligible female participants were recruited and assigned to four dietary interventions such as 1500-kcal CR, calorie-restriction meal-replacement diet (CRMR), calorie-restriction diet with fish oil supplementation (CRF) and calorie-restriction meal-replacement diet with fish oil supplementation (CRMRF). The changes in anthropometric measures, metabolic profiles, inflammatory response and the Z-score of severity of MetS were evaluated. Among 143 female MetS patients enrolled, 136 patients completed the 12-week study. After the 12-week dietary interventions, we observed reductions in body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in all groups. BMI and triglyceride (TG) levels decreased significantly in the CRMR, CRF and CRMRF groups, but not in the CR group. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) had significantly improved in all four groups, and the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) had significantly decreased in the CRF and CRMRF groups. Following the interventions, the changes in waist circumference (WC), mean arterial pressure (MAP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), TGs, HOMA-IR, CRP and IL-6 significantly correlated with the reductions in Z-score of MetS severity. Our study results indicate that a calorie-restriction dietary intervention combined with various macronutrients can reduce the severity of MetS in women and increase recovery from MetS by almost twofold in comparison with a CR alone.

  9. Fish protein hydrolysate production from sardine solid waste by crude pepsin enzymatic hydrolysis in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhabiles, M.S.; Abdi, N. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Drouiche, N., E-mail: nadjibdrouiche@yahoo.fr [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS) 2, Bd Frantz Fanon BP140, Alger-7 Merveilles, 16000 (Algeria); Lounici, H. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Pauss, A. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France); Goosen, M.F.A. [Alfaisal University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Mameri, N. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France)

    2012-05-01

    The aims of the study were to optimize the production a fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid waste using crude pepsin, and to scale up the process in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit for product recovery. Results showed that the crude pepsin prepared by autolysis of the mucous membranes of a sheep stomach at optimal conditions (i. e. pH = 1.5-2 and incubation time of 6 h) could be satisfactory used for the enzymatic hydrolysis of fish solid waste. The optimal conditions for enzymatic reaction were: temperature 48 Degree-Sign C, and pH 1.5. The scale up of the enzymatic hydrolysis and the coupling of the reactor an ultrafiltration unit to concentrate the hydrolysate gave good results with a rejection coefficient for the protein hydrolysate product in the range of 90%. The volumetric concentration factor was 2.5, with a permeate flux of 200 L m{sup -2} bar{sup -1}. However, the results also suggest that the ultrafiltration product concentration process may be operating beyond the critical flux at which point irreversible membrane fouling occurs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluating to produce a (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid wastes was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of key parameters for optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Valorization of sardine waste was realized by enzymatic hydrolysis process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performances of this enzyme gave comparable results to those obtained with commercial pepsin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nutritional quality of the FPH produced appears to be satisfactory.

  10. No effect of anti-inflammatory medication on postprandial and postexercise muscle protein synthesis in elderly men with slightly elevated systemic inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, Kasper Juel; Reitelseder, Søren; Malmgaard-Clausen, Nikolai Mølkjær

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Based on circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, some individuals develop slightly increased inflammation as they age. In elderly inflamed rats, the muscle response to protein feeding is impaired, whereas it can be maintained by treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs...... (NSAIDs). It is unknown whether this applies to elderly humans with increased inflammation. Thus, the muscle response to whey protein bolus ingestion with and without acute resistance exercise was compared between healthy elderly individuals and elderly individuals with slightly increased inflammation......protein synthetic response was measured as the fractional synthetic rate (FSR) and p70S6K phosphorylation-to-total protein ratio. RESULTS: The basal myofibrillar FSR and the myofibrillar FSR responses to whey protein bolus ingestion with and without acute resistance exercise were...

  11. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Protein A from orange-spotted nervous necrosis virus triggers type I interferon production in fish cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Runqing; Zhou, Qiong; Shi, Yan; Zhang, Jing; He, Jianguo; Xie, Junfeng

    2018-05-04

    Family Nodaviridae consists of two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus, and the latter is classified into four genotypes, including red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus, tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus, striped jack nervous necrosis virus, and barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus. Type I interferons (IFNs) play a central role in the innate immune system and antiviral responses, and the interactions between IFN and NNV have been investigated in this study. We have found that the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) from orange-spotted nervous necrosis virus (OGNNV), named protein A, was capable of activating IFN promoter in fathead minnow (FHM) cells. Transient expression of protein A was found to induce IFN expression and secretion, endowing FHM cells with anti-tiger frog virus ability. Protein A from SJNNV can also induce IFN expression in FHM cells but that from Flock House virus (FHV), a well-studied representative species of genus Alphanodavirus, cannot. RdRp activity and mitochondrial localization were shown to be required for protein A to induce IFN expression by means of activating IRF3 but not NFκB. Furthermore, DsRNA synthesized in vitro transcription and poly I:C activated IFN promoter activity when transfected into FHM cells, and dsRNA were also detected in NNV-infected cells. We postulated that dsRNA, a PAMP, was produced by protein A, leading to activation of innate immune response. These results suggest that protein As from NNV are the agonists of innate immune response. This is the first work to demonstrate the interaction between NNV protein A and innate immune system, and may help to understand pathogenesis of NNV. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Assessments of fish catch composition of marine artisanal fishery in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish is a major source of protein in human diets. Fish demand has been on the increase due to increase in human population which has resulted to wide gap between fish demand and supply. This study was carried out to elucidate the major fish species that are economically important in the study area. Assessment of fish ...

  14. Hydrolyzed fish proteins modulates both inflammatory and antioxidant gene expression as well as protein expression in a co culture model of liver and head kidney cells isolated from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holen, Elisabeth; He, Juyun; Araujo, Pedro; Seliussen, Jørgen; Espe, Marit

    2016-07-01

    Hydrolyzed fish proteins (H-pro) contain high concentrations of free amino acids and low molecular peptides that potentially may benefit fish health. The following study aimed to test whether the water-soluble phase of H-pro could attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provoked inflammation in liver cells and head kidney cells isolated from Atlantic salmon. Cells were grown as mono cultures or co cultures to assess possible crosstalk between immune cells and metabolic cells during treatments. Cells were added media with or without H-pro for 2 days before LPS exposure and harvested 24 h post LPS exposure. Respective cells without H-pro and LPS were used as controls. H-pro alone could affect expression of proteins directly as H-pro increased catalase protein expression in head kidney- and liver cells, regardless of culturing methods and LPS treatment. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production was also increased by H-pro in head kidney cells co cultured with liver cells. H-pro increased LPS induced interleukin 1β (IL-1β) transcription in liver cells co cultured with head kidney cells. All cultures of head kidney cells showed a significant increase in IL-1β transcription when treated with H-pro + LPS. H-pro decreased caspase-3 transcription in liver cells cultured co cultured with head kidney cells. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPAR α) was upregulated, regardless of treatment, in liver cells co cultured with head kidney cells clearly showing that culturing method alone affected gene transcription. H-pro alone and together with LPS as an inflammation inducer, affect both antioxidant and inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain transgenic fishes with accelerated growth and for designing surrogate fishes. Methods for receiving unisexual shoals of salmon and sturgeon female fishes with the view of obtaining a large quantity of caviar, as well as receiving sterile (triploid fishes are analyzed. Great attention is given to androgenesis, particularly to disperm one, in connection with the problem of conserving rare and vanishing fish species using only sperm genetic material. Examples how distant hybrids may be obtained with the use of disperm androgenesis and alkylated DNA are given. Methods of obtaining fish primordium germ cells, recent developments in cultivation of fish stem cells and their use in biotechnology, as well as ones of transplantation of oogonium and spermatogonium to obtain surrogate fishes. The examples of successful experiments on spermatogonial xenotransplantation and characteristic of antifreezing fish proteins and also the prospect of their practical usage are given.

  16. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L.K.; Hansen, Tine Kjær; Norgaard, A.

    2001-01-01

    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  17. Fish allergy in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Cristina Y; Reche, Marta; Fiandor, Ana; Valbuena, Teresa; Cuevas, Teresa; Esteban, Manuel Martin

    2008-11-01

    Fish and its derived products play an important role in human nutrition, but they may also be a potent food allergen. Fish can be an ingested, contact, and inhalant allergen. Gad c I, a Parvalbumin, the major allergen in codfish, is considered as fish and amphibian pan-allergen. Prevalence of fish allergy appears to depend on the amount of fish eaten in the local diet. In Europe, the highest consumption occurs in Scandinavian countries, Spain and Portugal. In Spain, fish is the third most frequent allergen in children under 2 yr of age after egg and cow's milk. An adverse reaction to fish may be of non-allergic origin, due to food contamination or newly formed toxic products, but the most frequent type of adverse reactions to fish are immunologic-mediated reactions (allergic reactions). Such allergic reactions may be both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated. Most cases are IgE-mediated, due to ingestion or contact with fish or as a result of inhalation of cooking vapors. Some children develop non-IgE-mediated type allergies such as food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome. The clinical symptoms related to IgE-mediated fish allergy are most frequently acute urticaria and angioedema as well as mild oral symptoms, worsening of atopic dermatitis, respiratory symptoms such as rhinitis or asthma, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting. Anaphylaxis may also occur. Among all the species studied, those from the Tunidae and Xiphiidae families appear to be the least allergenic.

  18. Intestinal digestibility of amino acids in rumen-undegraded protein estimated using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster bioassay: II. Distillers dried grains with solubles and fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, S E; Calsamiglia, S; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H; Stern, M D; Erickson, P S; Utterback, P L; Schwab, C G

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to measure intestinal digestibility of AA in the rumen-undegraded protein fraction (RUP-AA) of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and fish meal (FM) samples and to determine whether these feeds contain a constant protein fraction that is undegradable in the rumen and indigestible in the small intestine, as assumed in the French Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (Paris, France) and Scandinavian AAT-PBV (AAT = AA absorbed from small intestine; PBV = protein balance in the rumen) models. Five sources of DDGS and 5 sources of FM were obtained from Feed Analysis Consortium, Inc. (Champaign, IL). To obtain the rumen-undegradable protein fraction, samples were ruminally incubated in situ for 16 h in 4 lactating cows, and the collected rumen-undegraded residues (RUR) were pooled by sample. Subsamples of the intact feeds and RUR were crop-intubated to 4 cecectomized roosters, and total excreta were collected for 48 h. Intact feeds, RUR, and excreta were analyzed for AA. Basal endogenous AA loss estimates were obtained from fasted birds and were used to calculate standardized digestibility of RUP-AA and AA in the intact feeds. Indigestibility coefficients of the intact feeds were calculated as (100 - % standardized AA digestibility), and indigestibility of the RUR was calculated as [(100 - % ruminal degradation of AA) x (100 - % standardized RUP-AA digestibility)/100]. Results indicate that standardized digestibility of feed-AA differs from RUP-AA for DDGS samples but not for FM samples, and that standardized digestibility of individual AA differs within samples. For the DDGS samples, standardized feed-AA and RUP-AA digestibility values were most often lowest for His and Lys and highest for Met and Trp. For FM samples, standardized feed-AA and RUP-AA digestibility values were most often lowest for His and highest for Trp. Results also indicate that DDGS and most FM samples do not contain a constant protein fraction

  19. Determination of muscle protein synthesis rates in fish using (2)H2O and (2)H NMR analysis of alanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Cátia; Viegas, Filipa; Rito, João; Jones, John; Viegas, Ivan

    2016-09-15

    Following administration of deuterated water ((2)H2O), the fractional synthetic rate (FSR) of a given endogenous protein can be estimated by (2)H-enrichment quantification of its alanine residues. Currently, this is measured by mass spectrometry following a derivatization procedure. Muscle FSR was measured by (1)H/(2)H NMR analysis of alanine from seabass kept for 6 days in 5% (2)H-enriched saltwater, following acid hydrolysis and amino acid isolation by cation-exchange chromatography of muscle tissue. The analysis is simple and robust, and provides precise measurements of excess alanine (2)H-enrichment in the 0.1-0.4% range from 50 mmol of alanine recovered from muscle protein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fish oil decreases C-reactive protein/albumin ratio improving nutritional prognosis and plasma fatty acid profile in colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Michel Carlos; Pastore e Silva, Juliana de Aguiar; Camargo, Carolina de Quadros; Fabre, Maria Emília de Souza; Gevaerd, Scheila; Naliwaiko, Katya; Moreno, Yara Maria Franco; Nunes, Everson Araújo; Trindade, Erasmo Benicio Santos de Moraes

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 (n-3 PUFA) have several anticancer effects, especially attributed to their ability to modulate a variety of genomic and immune responses. In this context, this randomized, prospective, controlled clinical trial was conducted in order to check whether supplementation of 2 g/day of fish oil for 9 weeks alters the production of inflammatory markers, the plasma fatty acid profile and the nutritional status in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Eleven adults with CRC in chemotherapy were randomized into two groups: (a) supplemented (SG) daily with 2 g/day of encapsulated fish oil [providing 600 mg/day of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] for 9 weeks (n = 6), and (b) control (CG) (n = 5). All outcomes were evaluated on the day before the first chemotherapy session and 9 weeks later. Plasma TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-17A, the pro/anti-inflammatory balance (ratio TNF-α/IL-10 and IL-1β/IL10) and serum albumin, showed no significant changes between times and study groups (p > 0.05). C-reactive protein (CRP) and the CRP/albumin ratio showed opposite behavior in groups, significantly reducing their values in SG (p < 0.05). Plasma proportions of EPA and DHA increased 1.8 and 1.4 times, respectively, while the ARA reduced approximately 0.6 times with the supplementation (9 weeks vs baseline, p < 0.05). Patients from SG gained 1.2 kg (median) while the CG lost -0.5 kg (median) during the 9 weeks of chemotherapy (p = 0.72). These results demonstrate that 2 g/day of fish oil for 9 weeks of chemotherapy improves CRP values, CRP/albumin status, plasma fatty acid profile and potentially prevents weight loss during treatment.

  1. Developmental expression of the G protein-coupled receptor 54 and three GnRH mRNAs in the teleost fish cobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, J Shaik; Benninghoff, Abby D; Holt, G Joan; Khan, Izhar A

    2007-02-01

    The cDNAs of the G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) and three prepro-gonadotropin-releasing hormones, GnRH-I (seabream GnRH), GnRH-II (chicken GnRH-II), and GnRH-III (salmon GnRH) were isolated and cloned from the brain of the teleost fish cobia, Rachycentron canadum. The cobia GPR54 cDNA was 95 and 51-56% identical to those of tilapia and mammalian models respectively. The GnRH cDNA sequences of cobia showed strong identities to those of tilapia, Atlantic croaker, red drum, and the seabass and seabream species. The real-time quantitative RT-PCR methods allowed detection of all three GnRH mRNAs on the first day after hatching (DAH). The GnRH-I mRNA levels, which were the lowest among the three GnRHs, increased gradually with two distinct peaks in larvae at 3 and 4 DAH. On the other hand, GnRH-II and GnRH-III mRNAs were significantly higher in larvae at 2 and 6 DAH compared with those on the preceding days. In addition, significant peaks of all the three GnRH mRNAs were observed in the brains of 26-day-old fish. The finding of higher GnRH-I and GnRH-II mRNAs in males than females at 153 DAH may be related to early puberty observed during the first year in laboratory-reared male cobia. Moreover, this study demonstrates for the first time the expression of GPR54 mRNA during larval development in a vertebrate species. The concomitant expression patterns of GPR54 and GnRH mRNAs during different stages of larval and juvenile developments, and during early puberty in male cobia suggest a potential relationship between GPR54 and multiple GnRHs during these stages of development consistent with the role of GPR54 in controlling GnRH release in mammals. The increase in GPR54 and GnRH mRNAs observed during early puberty in cobia is consistent with a similar change reported in pubertal rats. This finding together with the localization of GPR54 mRNAs on GnRH neurons in fish and mammals suggests that the GPR54-GnRH interactions may be conserved in different vertebrate groups.

  2. Incorporation of DL(1-14C)-leucine into muscle proteins in buffalo calves and its response to exogenous insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivekanandan, R.; Singh, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    Protein synthesis and the effect of insulin on this process have been studied in buffalo skeletal muscles using DL(1- 14 C)-leucine. The muscle fibres isolated from triceps, showed highest specific radioactivity (SRA) in the sarcoplasmic proteins followed by myofibrillar and stroma proteins. Exogenous insulin stimulated the incorporation in the myofibrillar and stroma fractions but not in the sarcoplasmic proteins. Radioscanning of the polyacrylamide gel electrophorograms further revealed preferential labelling of only some of the myofibrillar proteins in the presence of exogenous insulin. Statistically significant differences in the SRA were observed between nuclear, mitochondrial and post-mitochondrial proteins without exogenous insulin the post-mitochondrial proteins showing highest SRA. Addition of insulin to the assay medium significantly stimulated the incorporation in the nuclear fraction whereas mitochondrial and post-mitochondrial fractions did not respond. Intramuscular injection of insulin, 3 hours prior to collection of tissue, stimulated the incorporation in nuclear as well as post-mitochondrial fractions but had no effect on the mitochondrial protein synthesis. (author)

  3. A Drosophila model of dominant inclusion body myopathy type 3 shows diminished myosin kinetics that reduce muscle power and yield myofibrillar defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Jennifer A; Melkani, Girish C; Glasheen, Bernadette M; Detor, Mia M; Melkani, Anju; Marsan, Nathan P; Swank, Douglas M; Bernstein, Sanford I

    2017-06-01

    Individuals with inclusion body myopathy type 3 (IBM3) display congenital joint contractures with early-onset muscle weakness that becomes more severe in adulthood. The disease arises from an autosomal dominant point mutation causing an E706K substitution in myosin heavy chain type IIa. We have previously expressed the corresponding myosin mutation (E701K) in homozygous Drosophila indirect flight muscles and recapitulated the myofibrillar degeneration and inclusion bodies observed in the human disease. We have also found that purified E701K myosin has dramatically reduced actin-sliding velocity and ATPase levels. Since IBM3 is a dominant condition, we now examine the disease state in heterozygote Drosophila in order to gain a mechanistic understanding of E701K pathogenicity. Myosin ATPase activities in heterozygotes suggest that approximately equimolar levels of myosin accumulate from each allele. In vitro actin sliding velocity rates for myosin isolated from the heterozygotes were lower than the control, but higher than for the pure mutant isoform. Although sarcomeric ultrastructure was nearly wild type in young adults, mechanical analysis of skinned indirect flight muscle fibers revealed a 59% decrease in maximum oscillatory power generation and an approximately 20% reduction in the frequency at which maximum power was produced. Rate constant analyses suggest a decrease in the rate of myosin attachment to actin, with myosin spending decreased time in the strongly bound state. These mechanical alterations result in a one-third decrease in wing beat frequency and marginal flight ability. With aging, muscle ultrastructure and function progressively declined. Aged myofibrils showed Z-line streaming, consistent with the human heterozygote phenotype. Based upon the mechanical studies, we hypothesize that the mutation decreases the probability of the power stroke occurring and/or alters the degree of movement of the myosin lever arm, resulting in decreased in vitro

  4. A Drosophila model of dominant inclusion body myopathy type 3 shows diminished myosin kinetics that reduce muscle power and yield myofibrillar defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Suggs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with inclusion body myopathy type 3 (IBM3 display congenital joint contractures with early-onset muscle weakness that becomes more severe in adulthood. The disease arises from an autosomal dominant point mutation causing an E706K substitution in myosin heavy chain type IIa. We have previously expressed the corresponding myosin mutation (E701K in homozygous Drosophila indirect flight muscles and recapitulated the myofibrillar degeneration and inclusion bodies observed in the human disease. We have also found that purified E701K myosin has dramatically reduced actin-sliding velocity and ATPase levels. Since IBM3 is a dominant condition, we now examine the disease state in heterozygote Drosophila in order to gain a mechanistic understanding of E701K pathogenicity. Myosin ATPase activities in heterozygotes suggest that approximately equimolar levels of myosin accumulate from each allele. In vitro actin sliding velocity rates for myosin isolated from the heterozygotes were lower than the control, but higher than for the pure mutant isoform. Although sarcomeric ultrastructure was nearly wild type in young adults, mechanical analysis of skinned indirect flight muscle fibers revealed a 59% decrease in maximum oscillatory power generation and an approximately 20% reduction in the frequency at which maximum power was produced. Rate constant analyses suggest a decrease in the rate of myosin attachment to actin, with myosin spending decreased time in the strongly bound state. These mechanical alterations result in a one-third decrease in wing beat frequency and marginal flight ability. With aging, muscle ultrastructure and function progressively declined. Aged myofibrils showed Z-line streaming, consistent with the human heterozygote phenotype. Based upon the mechanical studies, we hypothesize that the mutation decreases the probability of the power stroke occurring and/or alters the degree of movement of the myosin lever arm, resulting in

  5. Dietary fish protein hydrolysates containing bioactive motifs affect serum and adipose tissue fatty acid compositions, serum lipids, postprandial glucose regulation and growth in obese Zucker fa/fa rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drotningsvik, Aslaug; Mjøs, Svein A; Pampanin, Daniela M; Slizyte, Rasa; Carvajal, Ana; Remman, Tore; Høgøy, Ingmar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2016-10-01

    The world's fisheries and aquaculture industries produce vast amounts of protein-containing by-products that can be enzymatically hydrolysed to smaller peptides and possibly be used as additives to functional foods and nutraceuticals targeted for patients with obesity-related metabolic disorders. To investigate the effects of fish protein hydrolysates on markers of metabolic disorders, obese Zucker fa/fa rats consumed diets with 75 % of protein from casein/whey (CAS) and 25 % from herring (HER) or salmon (SAL) protein hydrolysate from rest raw material, or 100 % protein from CAS for 4 weeks. The fatty acid compositions were similar in the experimental diets, and none of them contained any long-chain n-3 PUFA. Ratios of lysine:arginine and methionine:glycine were lower in HER and SAL diets when compared with CAS, and taurine was detected only in fish protein hydrolysate diets. Motifs with reported hypocholesterolemic or antidiabetic activities were identified in both fish protein hydrolysates. Rats fed HER diet had lower serum HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, and higher serum TAG, MUFA and n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio compared with CAS-fed rats. SAL rats gained more weight and had better postprandial glucose regulation compared with CAS rats. Serum lipids and fatty acids were only marginally affected by SAL, but adipose tissue contained less total SFA and more total n-3 PUFA when compared with CAS. To conclude, diets containing hydrolysed rest raw material from herring or salmon proteins may affect growth, lipid metabolism, postprandial glucose regulation and fatty acid composition in serum and adipose tissue in obese Zucker rats.

  6. Fish Rhabdoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, G.; Winton, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many important viral pathogens of fish are members of the family Rhabdoviridae. The viruses in this large group cause significant losses in populations of wild fish as well as among fish reared in aquaculture. Fish rhabdoviruses often have a wide host and geographic range, and infect aquatic animals in both freshwater and seawater. The fish rhabdoviruses comprise a diverse collection of isolates that can be placed in one of two quite different groups: isolates that are members of the established genusNovirhabdovirus, and those that are most similar to members of the genus Vesiculovirus. Because the diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses are important to aquaculture, diagnostic methods for their detection and identification are well established. In addition to regulations designed to reduce the spread of fish viruses, a significant body of research has addressed methods for the control or prevention of diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses, including vaccination. The number of reported fish rhabdoviruses continues to grow as a result of the expansion of aquaculture, the increase in global trade, the development of improved diagnostic methods, and heightened surveillance activities. Fish rhabdoviruses serve as useful components of model systems to study vertebrate virus disease, epidemiology, and immunology.

  7. SMOKED AND FROZEN FISH CONSUMPTION AND MARKETING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apusigah

    There is also a high demand for fish because it is an important source of cheap first class protein ... While hotel kitchens deep fry, grill and bake for ... fish and the price per kilogram of both smoked and frozen fish with a view to improving the.

  8. A fish protein hydrolysate alters fatty acid composition in liver and adipose tissue and increases plasma carnitine levels in a mouse model of chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Berge, Christ; Ramsvik, Marie Sannes; Svardal, Asbjørn; Bohov, Pavol; Skorve, Jon; Berge, Rolf K

    2013-10-07

    There is growing evidence that fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) diets affect mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism in animals. The aim of the study was to determine if FPH could influence fatty acid metabolism and inflammation in transgene mice expressing human tumor necrosis factor alpha (hTNFα). hTNFα mice (C57BL/6 hTNFα) were given a high-fat (23%, w/w) diet containing 20% casein (control group) or 15% FPH and 5% casein (FPH group) for two weeks. After an overnight fast, blood, adipose tissue, and liver samples were collected. Gene expression and enzyme activity was analysed in liver, fatty acid composition was analyzed in liver and ovarian white adipose tissue, and inflammatory parameters, carnitine, and acylcarnitines were analyzed in plasma. The n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio was higher in mice fed the FPH diet than in mice fed the control diet in both adipose tissue and liver, and the FPH diet affected the gene expression of ∆6 and ∆9 desaturases. Mice fed this diet also demonstrated lower hepatic activity of fatty acid synthase. Concomitantly, a lower plasma INF-γ level was observed. Plasma carnitine and the carnitine precursor γ-butyrobetaine was higher in the FPH-group compared to control, as was plasma short-chained and medium-chained acylcarnitine esters. The higher level of plasma acetylcarnitine may reflect a stimulated mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids, as the hepatic activities of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase 1 and mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase-II were higher in the FPH-fed mice. The FPH diet was shown to influence hepatic fatty acid metabolism and fatty acid composition. This indicates that effects on fatty acid metabolism are important for the bioactivity of protein hydrolysates of marine origin.

  9. Ameliorating effects of goby fish protein hydrolysates on high-fat-high-fructose diet-induced hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and deterioration of kidney function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Rim; Abdelhedi, Ola; Jemil, Ines; Daoued, Ines; Hamden, Khaled; Kallel, Choumous; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Lamri-Senhadji, Myriem; Boualga, Ahmed; Nasri, Moncef; Karra-Châabouni, Maha

    2015-12-05

    This study investigated the therapeutic potential of undigested goby fish (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) muscle proteins (UGP) and their hydrolysates on high-fat-high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed rats. HFFD induced hyperglycemia, manifested by a significant increase in the levels of glucose and glycogen as well as α-amylase activity when compared to normal rats. The administration of GPHs to HFFD-fed rats significantly decreased α-amylase activity and the contents of blood glucose and hepatic glycogen. By contrast, the UGP increased the glucose metabolic disorders in HFFD-fed rats. Furthermore, HFFD-fed rats showed oxidative stress, as evidenced by decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione (GSH) levels and increased concentration of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde in liver and kidney. Interestingly, the daily gavage of UGP and GPHs improved the redox status in liver and kidney of HFFD-rats by ameliorating or reversing the above-mentioned changes. Moreover, GPHs exhibited a renal protective role by reversing the HFFD-induced decease of uric acid and increase of creatinine levels in serum and preventing some HFFD-induced changes in kidney architecture. The results demonstrate that GPHs contain bioactive peptides that possess significant hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties, and ameliorate renal damage in rats fed hypercaloric diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biochemical effects of glyphosate based herbicide, Excel Mera 71 on enzyme activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and protein content on teleostean fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Palas; Pal, Sandipan; Mukherjee, Aloke Kumar; Ghosh, Apurba Ratan

    2014-09-01

    Effects of glyphosate based herbicide, Excel Mera 71 at a dose of 17.20mg/l on enzyme activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and protein content were measured in different tissues of two Indian air-breathing teleosts, Anabas testudineus (Bloch) and Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) during an exposure period of 30 days under laboratory condition. AChE activity was significantly increased in all the investigated tissues of both fish species and maximum elevation was observed in brain of H. fossilis, while spinal cord of A. testudineus showed minimum increment. Fishes showed significant increase LPO levels in all the tissues; highest was observed in gill of A. testudineus but lowest LPO level was observed in muscle of H. fossilis. CAT was also enhanced in both the fishes, while GST activity in liver diminished substantially and minimum was observed in liver of A. testudineus. Total protein content showed decreased value in all the tissues, maximum reduction was observed in liver and minimum in brain of A. testudineus and H. fossilis respectively. The results indicated that Excel Mera 71 caused serious alterations in the enzyme activities resulting into severe deterioration of fish health; so, AChE, LPO, CAT and GST can be used as suitable indicators of herbicidal toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non-virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  12. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K; Laing, Kerry J; Winton, James R

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  13. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen K. Purcell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  14. Notes on electropherograms of eye-lens, muscle proteins and zymograms of muscle esterases of fish collected during the first Brazilian expedition to the Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Ngan Phan

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was carried out on electropherograms of eye-lens, muscle proteins and zymograms of muscle esterases of ten Notothenia larseni, six Notothenia nudifrons and one lanternfish, Electrona antarctica. The fish were collected by the R/V "Prof. W. Besnard" of the Institute of Oceanography, University of São Paulo, during the First Brazilian Expedition to Antarctica. Eye-lens proteins were analysed on cellulose acetate membrane, muscle proteins and esterases on gel of polyaorylamide. Eye-lens proteins showed three types of electropherograms for N. larseni, and two types for N. nudifrons. One of the electropherograms of N. larseni can be readily distinguished from those of N. nudifrons. Electropherograms of muscle proteins of N. larseni and N. nudifrons are very similar and, consist of sixteen to seventeen fractions. Electropherograms of muscle proteins of N. larseni are severely affected by the conservation of the extracts overnight under -20ºC. All N. nudifrons were of the same zymograms of esterases while those of N. larseni varied. Electropherograms of eye-lens and muscle proteins as well as zymograms of esterases of the lanternfish are different from those of nototheniids.Foi realizado um estudo preliminar sobre eletroferogramas de proteínas de cristalino e de músculo esquelético, e zimogramas de esterases de músculo esquelético de dez Notothenia larseni, seis Notothenia nudifrons e de um peixe-lanterna, Electrona antarctica. Os peixes foram coletados pelo N/Oc. "Prof. W. Besnard" do Instituto Oceanográfico da Universidade de São Paulo durante a I Expedição Brasileira à Antártica. As proteinas do cristalino foram analisadas em membranas de acetato de celulose, enquanto que as proteínas e esterases do músculo esquelético, em gel de poliacrilamida. As proteínas do cristalino apresentam três tipos distintos de eletroferogramas para N. larseni, e dois para N. nudifrons. Um dos eletroferogramas de N. larseni, pode ser

  15. Alternagin-C (ALT-C), a Disintegrin-Like Cys-Rich Protein Isolated from the Venom of the Snake Rhinocerophis alternatus, Stimulates Angiogenesis and Antioxidant Defenses in the Liver of Freshwater Fish, Hoplias malabaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Diana Amaral; Selistre-de-Araújo, Heloisa Sobreiro; Tavares, Driele; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso; Kalinin, Ana Lúcia; Rantin, Francisco Tadeu

    2017-09-28

    Alternagin-C (ALT-C) is a disintegrin-like protein isolated from Rhinocerophis alternatus snake venom, which induces endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the systemic effects of a single dose of alternagin-C (0.5 mg·kg -1 , via intra-arterial) on oxidative stress biomarkers, histological alterations, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production, and the degree of vascularization in the liver of the freshwater fish traíra, Hoplias malabaricus , seven days after the initiation of therapy. ALT-C treatment increased VEGF levels and hepatic angiogenesis. ALT-C also enhanced hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, decreasing the basal oxidative damage to lipids and proteins in the fish liver. These results indicate that ALT-C improved hepatic tissue and may play a crucial role in tissue regeneration mechanisms.

  16. Fish health and fish quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    Aquaculture is an expanding worldwide industry producing an increasing amount of fish every year. The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon many biological and non-biological factors. Infectious diseases are known to cause bleedings and damage of the muscle tissue that may lead to scarring...... are poorly described in fish. The present work in this thesis focused on: 1) examination of potential changes in the quality regarding texture of the muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after previous infection with the bacterial pathogens Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum; 2...... of these studies showed that previous infections by Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum gave rise to subsequent changes regarding textural quality parameters in fresh fish meat, while no differences were seen for cold-smoked meat from the same fish. The texture in previous infected fish was less flaky and less...

  17. Ingestion of Wheat Protein Increases In Vivo Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates in Healthy Older Men in a Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorissen, Stefan Hm; Horstman, Astrid Mh; Franssen, Rinske; Crombag, Julie Jr; Langer, Henning; Bierau, Jörgen; Respondek, Frederique; van Loon, Luc Jc

    2016-09-01

    Muscle mass maintenance is largely regulated by basal muscle protein synthesis and the capacity to stimulate muscle protein synthesis after food intake. The postprandial muscle protein synthetic response is modulated by the amount, source, and type of protein consumed. It has been suggested that plant-based proteins are less potent in stimulating postprandial muscle protein synthesis than animal-derived proteins. However, few data support this contention. We aimed to assess postprandial plasma amino acid concentrations and muscle protein synthesis rates after the ingestion of a substantial 35-g bolus of wheat protein hydrolysate compared with casein and whey protein. Sixty healthy older men [mean ± SEM age: 71 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 25.3 ± 0.3] received a primed continuous infusion of l-[ring-(13)C6]-phenylalanine and ingested 35 g wheat protein (n = 12), 35 g wheat protein hydrolysate (WPH-35; n = 12), 35 g micellar casein (MCas-35; n = 12), 35 g whey protein (Whey-35; n = 12), or 60 g wheat protein hydrolysate (WPH-60; n = 12). Plasma and muscle samples were collected at regular intervals. The postprandial increase in plasma essential amino acid concentrations was greater after ingesting Whey-35 (2.23 ± 0.07 mM) than after MCas-35 (1.53 ± 0.08 mM) and WPH-35 (1.50 ± 0.04 mM) (P protein synthesis rates increased after ingesting MCas-35 (P protein synthesis rates above basal rates (0.049% ± 0.007%/h; P = 0.02). The myofibrillar protein synthetic response to the ingestion of 35 g casein is greater than after an equal amount of wheat protein. Ingesting a larger amount of wheat protein (i.e., 60 g) substantially increases myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in healthy older men. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01952639. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Fish Synucleins: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Toni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Synucleins (syns are a family of proteins involved in several human neurodegenerative diseases and tumors. Since the first syn discovery in the brain of the electric ray Torpedo californica, members of the same family have been identified in all vertebrates and comparative studies have indicated that syn proteins are evolutionary conserved. No counterparts of syns were found in invertebrates suggesting that they are vertebrate-specific proteins. Molecular studies showed that the number of syn members varies among vertebrates. Three genes encode for α-, β- and γ-syn in mammals and birds. However, a variable number of syn genes and encoded proteins is expressed or predicted in fish depending on the species. Among biologically verified sequences, four syn genes were identified in fugu, encoding for α, β and two γ (γ1 and γ2 isoforms, whereas only three genes are expressed in zebrafish, which lacks α-syn gene. The list of “non verified” sequences is much longer and is often found in sequence databases. In this review we provide an overview of published papers and known syn sequences in agnathans and fish that are likely to impact future studies in this field. Indeed, fish models may play a key role in elucidating some of the molecular mechanisms involved in physiological and pathological functions of syn proteins.

  19. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A

    2001-01-01

    , denominated the parvalbumins. This cross-reactivity has been indicated to be of clinical relevance for several species, since patients with a positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge to cod will also react with other fish species, such as herring, plaice and mackerel. In spite......Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  20. Fish allergens at a glance: Variable allergenicity of parvalbumins, the major fish allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Annette eKuehn; Ines eSwoboda; Karthik eArumugam; Christiane eHilger; François eHentges; François eHentges

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand,...

  1. Fish Allergens at a Glance: Variable Allergenicity of Parvalbumins, the Major Fish Allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehn, Annette; Swoboda, Ines; Arumugam, Karthik; Hilger, Christiane; Hentges, François

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand,...

  2. Fish pelleting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    fish meal pelletizing machine utilized 4kg of ingredients to produce 3.77kg pellets at an effi- ciency of .... Design and fabrication of fish meal pellet processing machine ... 53 ... horsepower for effective torque application on .... two edges were tacked with a spot weld to hold ... then welded on to the shaft making sure that the.

  3. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  4. Fish reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rocha, Maria João; Arukwe, Augustine; Kapoor, B. G

    2008-01-01

    ... of reproductive systems is essential for such studies. Fishes comprise over 28,000 species, with a remarkable variability in morphology, physiology and environmental adaptation. Knowledge on fish reproduction is scattered across numerous sources that shows a dynamic research field. The Editors believe it to be an opportune moment for a...

  5. A fish oil diet does not reverse insulin resistance despite decreased adipose tissue TNF-alpha protein concentration in ApoE-3*Leiden mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muurling, Martin; Mensink, Ronald P.; Pijl, Hanno; Romijn, Johannes A.; Havekes, Louis M.; Voshol, Peter J.

    2003-01-01

    Dietary interventions with fish oil have been found to protect against the development of high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and to decrease the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. However, the effect of fish oil administration on preexisting insulin resistance is subject to

  6. Increased consumption of fatty and lean fish reduces serum c-reactive protein concentrations but not inflammation markers in feces and in colonic biopsies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, G.K.; Geelen, A.; Majsak-Newman, G.; Harvey, L.J.; Nagengast, F.M.; Witteman, B.J.M.; Meeberg, van de P.C.; Hart, A.R.; Schaafsma, G.; Lund, E.K.; Rijkers, G.T.; Kampman, E.

    2010-01-01

    Fish consumption is associated with a reduced colorectal cancer risk. A possible mechanism by which fish consumption could decrease colorectal cancer risk is by reducing inflammation. However, thus far, intervention studies investigating both systemic and local gut inflammation markers are lacking.

  7. Fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Daniel J.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Li, Hiram W.; Li, Judith; Hauer, F. Richard; Lamberti, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Methods to sample fishes in stream ecosystems and to analyze the raw data, focusing primarily on assemblage-level (all fish species combined) analyses, are presented in this chapter. We begin with guidance on sample site selection, permitting for fish collection, and information-gathering steps to be completed prior to conducting fieldwork. Basic sampling methods (visual surveying, electrofishing, and seining) are presented with specific instructions for estimating population sizes via visual, capture-recapture, and depletion surveys, in addition to new guidance on environmental DNA (eDNA) methods. Steps to process fish specimens in the field including the use of anesthesia and preservation of whole specimens or tissue samples (for genetic or stable isotope analysis) are also presented. Data analysis methods include characterization of size-structure within populations, estimation of species richness and diversity, and application of fish functional traits. We conclude with three advanced topics in assemblage-level analysis: multidimensional scaling (MDS), ecological networks, and loop analysis.

  8. Dermal matrix proteins initiate re-epithelialization but are not sufficient for coordinated epidermal outgrowth in a new fish skin culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Reiko; Sugimoto, Masazumi

    2007-02-01

    We have established a new culture system to study re-epithelialization during fish epidermal wound healing. In this culture system, fetal bovine serum (FBS) stimulates the epidermal outgrowth of multi-cellular layers from scale skin mounted on a coverslip, even when cell proliferation is blocked. The rate of outgrowth is about 0.4 mm/h, and at 3 h after incubation, the area occupied by the epidermal sheet is nine times larger than the area of the original scale skin. Cells at the bottom of the outgrowth show a migratory phenotype with lamellipodia, and "purse string"-like actin bundles have been found over the leading-edge cells with polarized lamellipodia. In the superficial cells, re-development of adherens junctions and microridges has been detected, together with the appearance and translocation of phosphorylated p38 MAPK into nuclear areas. Thus, this culture system provides an excellent model to study the mechanisms of epidermal outgrowth accompanied by migration and re-differentiation. We have also examined the role of extracellular matrix proteins in the outgrowth. Type I collagen or fibronectin stimulates moderate outgrowth in the absence of FBS, but development of microridges and the distribution of phosphorylated p38 MAPK are attenuated in the superficial cells. In addition, the leading-edge cells do not have apparent "purse string"-like actin bundles. The outgrowth stimulated by FBS is inhibited by laminin. These results suggest that dermal substrates such as type I collagen and fibronectin are able to initiate epidermal outgrowth but require other factors to enhance such outgrowth, together with coordinated alterations in cellular phenotype.

  9. Comparison of protein degradation, protein oxidation, and μ-calpain activation between pale, soft, and exudative and red, firm, and nonexudative pork during postmortem aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y; Zhang, W G; Zhou, G H; Guo, B

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in protein modifications between pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) and red, firm, and nonexudative (RFN) pork during postmortem (PM) aging. Longissimus dorsi (LD) including 8 PSE and 8 RFN muscles were individually removed from 16 carcasses. These 16 LD muscles were vacuum packaged at 24 h after slaughter and stored at 4°C for 1, 3, and 5 d. The centrifugation loss, drip loss, color, protein solubility, protein oxidation, protein degradation including desmin, troponin T, and integrin, and μ-calpain activation were determined. The pH of PSE samples was significantly lower than that of RFN samples at both 1 and 24 h PM (P 0.05). In addition, PSE pork presented a lower solubility of sarcoplasmic protein, myofibrillar protein, and total protein than RFN pork except the solubility of myofibrillar protein at d 1 (P firm, and nonexudative pork presented lower intensity of intact 80 kDa calpain and greater intensity of autolyzed 76 kDa product compared to PSE pork (P < 0.01). The results indicate that the degree of μ-calpain activation, the extent of protein degradation including desmin and integrin, and the level of protein solubility in PSE pork could contribute to its low water holding capacity during PM storage.

  10. Particle size analysis of lamb meat: Effect of homogenization speed, comparison with myofibrillar fragmentation index and its relationship with shear force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karumendu, L U; Ven, R van de; Kerr, M J; Lanza, M; Hopkins, D L

    2009-08-01

    The impact of homogenization speed on Particle Size (PS) results was examined using samples from the M.longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) of 40 lambs. One gram duplicate samples from meat aged for 1 and 5days were homogenized at five different speeds; 11,000, 13,000, 16,000, 19,000 and 22,000rpm. In addition to this LL samples from 30 different lamb carcases also aged for 1 and 5days were used to study the comparison between PS and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) values. In this case, 1g duplicate samples (n=30) were homogenized at 16,000rpm and the other half (0.5g samples) at 11,000rpm (n=30). The homogenates were then subjected to respective combinations of treatments which included either PS analysis or the determination of MFI, both with or without three cycles of centrifugation. All 140 samples of LL included 65g blocks for subsequent shear force (SF) testing. Homogenization at 16,000rpm provided the greatest ability to detect ageing differences for particle size between samples aged for 1 and 5days. Particle size at the 25% quantile provided the best result for detecting differences due to ageing. It was observed that as ageing increased the mean PS decreased and was significantly (P<0.001) less for 5days aged samples compared to 1day aged samples, while MFI values significantly increased (P<0.001) as ageing period increased. When comparing the PS and MFI methods it became apparent that, as opposed to the MFI method, there was a greater coefficient of variation for the PS method which warranted a quality assurance system. Given this requirement and examination of the mean, standard deviation and the 25% quantile for PS data it was concluded that three cycles of centrifugation were not necessary and this also applied to the MFI method. There were significant correlations (P<0.001) within the same lamb loin sample aged for a given period between mean MFI and mean PS (-0.53), mean MFI and mean SF (-0.38) and mean PS and mean SF (0.23). It was

  11. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  12. Proteome Analysis of Pyloric Ceca: A Methodology for Fish Feed Development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Tune; Petersen, Jørgen; Nørrelykke, Mette R.

    2012-01-01

    Changing the protein source of fish feed from fish meal to alternative sources of protein will affect traits such as fish growth, quality, and feed utilization. The present investigation was initiated to introduce a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis based proteomic workflow as a tool to investi......Changing the protein source of fish feed from fish meal to alternative sources of protein will affect traits such as fish growth, quality, and feed utilization. The present investigation was initiated to introduce a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis based proteomic workflow as a tool...... to investigate feed effects on fish by analyzing protein changes in the fish gut. The workflow was used to study the effect of substituting fish meal in fish feed by alternative sources of protein. Rainbow trout divided into five groups were fed for 72 days with feeds varying in protein composition. By two...

  13. Alabama ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  14. Maryland ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data...

  15. Hawaii ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this data...

  16. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data...

  17. Louisiana ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and other...

  18. Co-expression of antioxidant enzymes with expression of p53, DNA repair, and heat shock protein genes in the gamma ray-irradiated hermaphroditic fish Kryptolebias marmoratus larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Jae-Sung [Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo-Mi; Kim, Ryeo-Ok [Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Jung Soo [Pathology Team, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Busan 619-902 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il-Chan [Division of Life Sciences, Korea Polar Research Institute, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young-Mi, E-mail: ymlee70@smu.ac.kr [Department of Green Life Science, College of Convergence, Sangmyung University, Seoul 110-743 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Seong, E-mail: jslee2@hanyang.ac.kr [Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Novel identification of DNA repair-related genes in fish. •Investigation of whole expression profiling of DNA repair genes upon gamma radiation. •Analysis of effects of gamma radiation on antioxidant system and cell stress proteins. •Usefulness of verification of pathway-based profiling for mechanistic understanding. -- Abstract: To investigate effects of gamma ray irradiation in the hermaphroditic fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus larvae, we checked expression of p53, DNA repair, and heat shock protein genes with several antioxidant enzyme activities by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and biochemical methods in response to different doses of gamma radiation. As a result, the level of gamma radiation-induced DNA damage was initiated after 4 Gy of radiation, and biochemical and molecular damage became substantial from 8 Gy. In particular, several DNA repair mechanism-related genes were significantly modulated in the 6 Gy gamma radiation-exposed fish larvae, suggesting that upregulation of such DNA repair genes was closely associated with cell survival after gamma irradiation. The mRNA expression of p53 and most hsps was also significantly upregulated at high doses of gamma radiation related to cellular damage. This finding indicates that gamma radiation can induce oxidative stress with associated antioxidant enzyme activities, and linked to modulation of the expression of DNA repair-related genes as one of the defense mechanisms against radiation damage. This study provides a better understanding of the molecular mode of action of defense mechanisms upon gamma radiation in fish larvae.

  19. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  20. Do bacteria, not fish, produce 'fish kairomone'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.; Van Gool, E.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-associated chemicals enhance phototactic downward swimming in Daphnia. If perch were treated with the antibiotic ampicillin, this enhancement was significantly decreased. Therefore, not fish, but bacteria associated with fish, seem to produce this kairomone. [KEYWORDS: Diel vertical migration;

  1. Invasion of parasitic isopods in marine fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapathy Rameshkumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To carry out a detailed three-year observation study on isopod parasites infestation in fish. Methods: Fish samples were collected from different localities in various landing centers along the Tamil Nadu coastal area. The prevalence and mean intensity were calculated. The proximate composition of infestation and uninfestation were studied in different marine fishes. A comparative analysis of bacteria and fungi in the infected and uninfected regions of fishes were analysed. Results: Tweenty six species including 12 genera of isopods (Cymothoidae distributed in 39 species of marine fishes along the Tamil Nadu coast. The isopod parasites were attached in three different microhabitats in host fishes viz. , buccal, branchial and body surfaces. They exhibited host and site specific occurrence. Maximum prevalence 17.11% was recorded in March 2010 and minimum 0.27% in Febuary 2010. The intensity ranged from 1 to 1.7 parasites per fish during the different months from Decmber 2008 to November 2011. There was a decrease in the protein, carbohydrate and lipid content in the infested fishes compared to uninfected fishes. A comparative analysis of bacteria and fungi in the infected and uninfected region of fishes were analysed. It revealed that infected portions had dense bacterial load as observed in the lesions of infected fishes than uninfected fishes. Conclusion: Factors which are able to induce parasitic manifestation are stock quality, stocking density, environmental conditions, biological and physiological characteristics of parasite, zoo technical measures, food quantity, feeding strategies, etc.

  2. Differences in postprandial protein handling after beef compared with milk ingestion during postexercise recovery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Nicholas A; Gorissen, Stefan H; van Vliet, Stephan; Snijders, Tim; van Loon, Luc Jc

    2015-10-01

    Protein consumed after resistance exercise increases postexercise muscle protein synthesis rates. To date, dairy protein has been studied extensively, with little known about the capacity of other protein-dense foods to augment postexercise muscle protein synthesis rates. We aimed to compare protein digestion and absorption kinetics, postprandial amino acid availability, anabolic signaling, and the subsequent myofibrillar protein synthetic response after the ingestion of milk compared with beef during recovery from resistance-type exercise. In crossover trials, 12 healthy young men performed a single bout of resistance exercise. Immediately after cessation of exercise, participants ingested 30 g protein by consuming isonitrogenous amounts of intrinsically l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine-labeled beef or milk. Blood and muscle biopsy samples were collected at rest and after exercise during primed continuous infusions of l-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine and l-[ring-3,5-(2)H2]tyrosine to assess protein digestion and absorption kinetics, plasma amino acid availability, anabolic signaling, and subsequent myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in vivo in young men. Beef protein-derived phenylalanine appeared more rapidly in circulation compared with milk ingestion (P Nutrition.

  3. Nutritional value and digestion rate of rhea meat proteins in association with storage and cooking processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueras, Renata S; Gatellier, Philippe; Ferreira, Claude; Zambiazi, Rui C; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2011-09-01

    The nutritional value of proteins was investigated after the storage and cooking of rhea M. Gastrocnemius pars interna. Oxidation of basic and aromatic amino acids, surface hydrophobicity and aggregation state of proteins, were determined in raw and cooked meat. In addition, myofibrillar proteins were exposed in vitro to proteases of the digestive tract. Cooking markedly affected the protein surface hydrophobicity. The BBP bound content was three times greater in cooked than in fresh rhea meat. A small increment in tryptophan content after cooking was observed. Storage influenced Schiff bases formation indicating the presence of protein-aldehyde adducts after cooking. High content of Schiff bases was found after cooking of samples stored for 5 days, demonstrating a probable implication of free amino groups, most likely from lysine. Cooking decreased the myofibrillar protein susceptibility to pepsin activity. After cooking, the proteolysis rate by pancreatic enzymes increased. Our findings support the importance of protein aggregation in the nutritional value of meat proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fish allergens at a glance: variable allergenicity of parvalbumins, the major fish allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Annette; Swoboda, Ines; Arumugam, Karthik; Hilger, Christiane; Hentges, François

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand, some individuals have IgE antibodies directed against unique, species-specific parvalbumin epitopes, and these patients show clinical symptoms only with certain fish species. Furthermore, different parvalbumin isoforms and isoallergens are present in the same fish and might display variable allergenicity. This was shown for salmon homologs, where only a single parvalbumin (beta-1) isoform was identified as allergen in specific patients. In addition to the parvalbumins, several other fish proteins, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, seem to be important allergens. New clinical and molecular insights advanced the knowledge and understanding of fish allergy in the last years. These findings were useful for the advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis and also for the management of fish allergies consisting of advice and treatment of fish-allergic patients.

  5. Fish allergens at a glance: Variable allergenicity of parvalbumins, the major fish allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette eKuehn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand, some individuals have IgE antibodies directed against unique, species-specific parvalbumin epitopes, and these patients show clinical symptoms only with certain fish species. Furthermore, different parvalbumin isoforms and isoallergens are present in the same fish and might display variable allergenicity. This was shown for salmon homologs, where only a single parvalbumin (beta-1 isoform was identified as allergen in specific patients. In addition to the parvalbumins, several other fish proteins, enolases, aldolases and fish gelatin, seem to be important allergens.New clinical and molecular insights advanced the knowledge and understanding of fish allergy in the last years. These findings will be useful for the advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis but also for the management of fish allergies consisting of advice and treatment of fish-allergic patients.

  6. Fish irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Tengumnuay, C.; Juangbhanich, C.

    1970-01-01

    Chub-mackerel was chosen for the study because they are the most common fish in Thailand. Preliminary investigations were conducted to determine the maximum radiation dose of gamma-rays by organoleptic tests. The samples were subjected to radiation at various doses up to 4 Mrad. Many experiments were conducted using other kinds of fish. The results showed that 1 Mrad would be the maximum acceptable dose for fish. Later, the influence of the radiation dose from 0.1-1 Mrad was studied in order to find the optimum acceptable dose for preservation of fish without off-flavour. For this purpose, the Hedonic scale was used. It was found that 0.2 and 0.5 Mrad gave the best result on Chub mackerel. The determinations of optimum dose, organoleptic, microbiological and trimethylamine content changes were done. The results showed that Chub mackerel irradiated at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 Mrad stored at 3 0 C for 71 days were still acceptable, on the contrary the untreated samples were found unacceptable at 14 days. The trimethylamine increment was significantly higher in the untreated samples. At 15 days storage, trimethylamine in the non-irradiated Chub-mackerel was about 10 times higher than the irradiated ones. At 51 and 79 days storage, about 13 times higher in the control samples than the irradiated samples except 0.1 Mrad. Only 2 times higher was found for the 0.1 Mrad. The microbiological results showed that the irradiation above 0.2 Mrad gave favorable extension of shelf-life of fish

  7. Climate Change and Fish Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Paul P. S.; Lassa, Jonatan; Caballero-Anthony, Mely

    Human consumption of fish has been trending upwards in the past decades and this is projected to continue. The main sources of fish are from wild fisheries (marine and freshwater) and aquaculture. Climate change is anticipated to affect the availability of fish through its effect on these two sources as well as on supply chain processes such as storage, transport, processing and retail. Climate change is known to result in warmer and more acid oceans. Ocean acidification due to higher CO2 concentration levels at sea modifies the distribution of phytoplankton and zooplankton to affect wild, capture fisheries. Higher temperature causes warm-water coral reefs to respond with species replacement and bleaching, leading to coral cover loss and habitat loss. Global changes in climatic systems may also cause fish invasion, extinction and turnover. While this may be catastrophic for small scale fish farming in poor tropical communities, there are also potential effects on animal protein supply shifts at local and global scales with food security consequences. This paper discusses the potential impacts of climate change on fisheries and aquaculture in the Asian Pacific region, with special emphasis on Southeast Asia. The key question to be addressed is “What are the impacts of global climate change on global fish harvests and what does it mean to the availability of fish?”

  8. Effects of replacing fish meal with soy protein concentrate and of DL-methionine supplementation in high-energy, extruded diets on the growth and nutrient utilization of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambrini, M; Roem, A J; Carvèdi, J P; Lallès, J P; Kaushik, S J

    1999-11-01

    Our objectives were to test the potential replacement of fish meal by soy protein concentrate (SPC) in high-energy, extruded diets fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and to evaluate the efficiency of DL-methionine supplementation of soy-based diets. Groups of trout (initial BW 103 to 106 g) were fed to visual satiety with isonitrogenous (6.6% DM) high-energy (22.8 MJ/kg DM gross energy), extruded diets, in which fish meal was progressively replaced with SPC (0, 50, 75, and 100%). Three 100% SPC diets were formulated to be either unsupplemented or supplemented with DL-methionine, so that total methionine content was .8 or 1.0% of DM. The quality of the SPC source used was assessed by measuring the antitryptic and antigenic activities and the concentrations of the isoflavones daidzein and genistein. Apparent digestibility of the diets was determined using the indirect method. A growth trial was conducted over 90 d at a water temperature of 18 degrees C. In addition to body composition analysis, plasma amino acid concentrations, anti-soy protein antibodies in the serum, and isoflavone concentrations in the bile were measured. The SPC source tested exhibited low antitryptic and antigenic activities, but it contained high concentrations of isoflavones (1,990 and 5,903 ppm for daidzein and genistein, respectively). Protein digestibility was high (92%) and was unaffected either the proportion of SPC in the diet or by DL-methionine supplementation. This was also true for the availability of amino acids, except phenylalanine. Digestibility of lipid and energy was reduced by 19% when SPC totally replaced fish meal. Growth rate was reduced when more than 50% of the dietary protein was of soy origin (daily growth coefficient of 3.2 and 2.1% for the control and the unsupplemented 100% SPC diet, respectively). The effect on growth was mainly explained by a general decline in feed intake (13.7 and 12.0 g DM x kg BW(-1) x d(-1) for the control and the unsupplemented 100

  9. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...... biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram......- positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish...

  10. Influence of Diet and Postmortem Ageing on Oxidative Stability of Lipids, Myoglobin and Myofibrillar Proteins and Quality Attributes of Gluteus Medius Muscle in Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Shittu, Rafiat Morolayo; Sabow, Azad Behnan; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2016-01-01

    This study appraised the effects of dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil and postmortem ageing on oxidative stability, fatty acids and quality attributes of gluteus medius (GM) muscle in goats. Twenty-four Boer bucks were randomly allotted to diet supplemented with 0, 4 and 8% oil blend, fed for 100 days and slaughtered, and the GM muscle was subjected to a 7 d chill storage (4±1°C). Diet had no effect (P> 0.05) on the colour, drip loss, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value, free thiol, carbonyl, myoglobin and metmyoglobin contents, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), antioxidant enzyme activities and abundance of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and actin in the GM muscle in goats. The meat from goats fed 4 and 8% oil blend had higher (Pgoats. The GM muscle from the oil-supplemented goats had lower (Pgoats. Nonetheless, diet did not affect (Pgoats. Regardless of the diet, the free thiol and myoglobin contents, concentration of tocopherol and total carotenoids, MHC and MRA in the GM muscle decreased (P< 0.05) while carbonyl content, TBARS, drip loss and metmyoglobin content increased over storage. Dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil beneficially altered tissue lipids without hampering the oxidative stability of chevon. PMID:27138001

  11. New salty waffle products "Fish Krekis" with fish & plant semifinished products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorova Dina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the directions of expansion of the range of wafer snack products of high nutritional value by using fish & plant semifinished products. The study scientifically grounds the benefits of using the new fish & plant semifinished products in manufacturing waffle salty snack products. The data provided in the article prove that the use of the fish & plant semifinished products & herbal ingredients enable a range of the new wafer snack products «Fish krekis» with high content of proteins, organic calcium, fiber and vitamins, with improved consumer properties, as well as more efficient use of Ukrainian raw fish materials.

  12. Supplementation with a fish oil-enriched, high-protein medical food leads to rapid incorporation of EPA into white blood cells and modulates immune responses within one week in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Joyce; Berkhout, Marloes; Vos, Arjan P; Sijben, John W C; Calder, Philip C; Garssen, Johan; van Helvoort, Ardy

    2011-05-01

    Immune modulatory effects of EPA and DHA are well described. However, these fatty acids must be effectively incorporated into cell membrane phospholipids to modify cell function. To address the absence of human data regarding short-term incorporation, the present study investigated the incorporation of EPA and DHA into white blood cells (WBC) at different time points during 1 wk of supplementation with a medical food, which is high in protein and leucine and enriched with fish oil and specific oligosaccharides. Additionally, the effects on ex vivo immune function were determined. In a single-arm, open label study, 12 healthy men and women consumed 2 × 200 mL of medical food providing 2.4 g EPA, 1.2 g DHA, 39.7 g protein (including 4.4 g L-leucine), and 5.6 g oligosaccharides daily. Blood samples were taken at d 0 (baseline), 1, 2, 4, and 7. Within 1 d of nutritional intervention, the percentage of EPA in phospholipids of WBC increased from 0.5% at baseline to 1.3% (P blood cultures was significantly increased within 1 wk. Nutritional supplementation with a fish oil-enriched medical food significantly increased the percentage of EPA in phospholipids of WBC within 1 wk. Simultaneously, ex vivo immune responsiveness to LPS increased significantly. These results hold promise for novel applications such as fast-acting nutritional interventions in cancer patients, which should be investigated in future studies.

  13. Rice-Fish Culture in China

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Bumper harvests of both rice and fish provided more protein, improved ...... and photosynthesizing bacteria are the primary producers and the raw materials used ... 5-cm deep in the booting and earing stages, and about 6-cm deep in the milk ...... of fish have different shapes and feeding habits, fat contents, and distributions.

  14. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J; McGregor, Robin A; D'Souza, Randall F; Thorstensen, Eric B; Markworth, James F; Fanning, Aaron C; Poppitt, Sally D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-10-21

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring (13)C₆ phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h(-1) in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810). FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein.

  15. Mechanosensitive molecular networks involved in transducing resistance exercise-signals into muscle protein accretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Rindom

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Loss of skeletal muscle myofibrillar protein with disease and/or inactivity can severely deteriorate muscle strength and function. Strategies to counteract wasting of muscle myofibrillar protein are therefore desirable and invite for considerations on the potential superiority of specific modes of resistance exercise and/or the adequacy of low load resistance exercise regimens as well as underlying mechanisms. In this regard, delineation of the potentially mechanosensitive molecular mechanisms underlying muscle protein synthesis (MPS, may contribute to understanding on how differentiated resistance exercise can transduce a mechanical signal into stimulation of muscle accretion. Recent findings suggest specific upstream exercise-induced mechano-sensitive myocellular signaling pathways to converge on mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1, to influence MPS. This may e.g. implicate mechanical activation of signaling through a diacylglycerol kinase (DGKζ-phosphatidic acid (PA axis or implicate integrin deformation to signal through a Focal adhesion kinase (FAK-Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2TSC2-Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb axis. Moreover, since initiation of translation is reliant on mRNA, it is also relevant to consider potentially mechanosensitive signaling pathways involved in muscle myofibrillar gene transcription and whether some of these pathways converge with those affecting mTORC1 activation for MPS. In this regard, recent findings suggest how mechanical stress may implicate integrin deformation and/or actin dynamics to signal through a Ras homolog gene family member A protein (RhoA-striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS axis or how it may implicate deformation of Notch to affect Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP signaling through a small mother of decapentaplegic (Smad axis.

  16. [Progress in transgenic fish techniques and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xing; Tian, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Feng-Ying

    2011-05-01

    Transgenic technique provides a new way for fish breeding. Stable lines of growth hormone gene transfer carps, salmon and tilapia, as well as fluorescence protein gene transfer zebra fish and white cloud mountain minnow have been produced. The fast growth characteristic of GH gene transgenic fish will be of great importance to promote aquaculture production and economic efficiency. This paper summarized the progress in transgenic fish research and ecological assessments. Microinjection is still the most common used method, but often resulted in multi-site and multi-copies integration. Co-injection of transposon or meganuclease will greatly improve the efficiency of gene transfer and integration. "All fish" gene or "auto gene" should be considered to produce transgenic fish in order to eliminate misgiving on food safety and to benefit expression of the transferred gene. Environmental risk is the biggest obstacle for transgenic fish to be commercially applied. Data indicates that transgenic fish have inferior fitness compared with the traditional domestic fish. However, be-cause of the genotype-by-environment effects, it is difficult to extrapolate simple phenotypes to the complex ecological interactions that occur in nature based on the ecological consequences of the transgenic fish determined in the laboratory. It is critical to establish highly naturalized environments for acquiring reliable data that can be used to evaluate the environ-mental risk. Efficacious physical and biological containment strategies remain to be crucial approaches to ensure the safe application of transgenic fish technology.

  17. Fish gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fish cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Bshary, Redouan; Brown, Culum

    2017-01-01

    The central nervous system, and the brain in particular, is one of the most remarkable products of evolution. This system allows an individual to acquire, process, store and act on information gathered from the environment. The resulting flexibility in behavior beyond genetically coded strategies is a prime adaptation in animals. The field of animal cognition examines the underlying processes and mechanisms. Fishes are a particularly interesting group of vertebrates to study cognition for two...

  19. Influence of ionizing radiation on fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.A.S.

    1998-01-01

    Seafood are important sources of nutrients such as proteins of high biological value as well as other important nutrients for human. Common carp fish have a low commercial value due to the presence of fine spines between muscles in addition to the poor yield of fillets. The aim of this investigation was production of fish burger from the common carp fish and studying the possibility of using gamma irradiation doses of 2,4, and 6 kGy for increasing the shelf-life of cold stored fish burger samples as well as improving the hygienic quality of frozen storage ones in comparison with the addition of potassium sorbate as a preservative

  20. Allergenicity of bony and cartilaginous fish - molecular and immunological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, J N; Sharp, M F; Ruethers, T; Taki, A; Campbell, D E; Lopata, A L

    2017-03-01

    Allergy to bony fish is common and probably increasing world-wide. The major heat-stable pan-fish allergen, parvalbumin (PV), has been identified and characterized for numerous fish species. In contrast, there are very few reports of allergic reactions to cartilaginous fish despite widespread consumption. The molecular basis for this seemingly low clinical cross-reactivity between these two fish groups has not been elucidated. PV consists of two distinct protein lineages, α and β. The α-lineage of this protein is predominant in muscle tissue of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes), while β-PV is abundant in muscle tissue of bony fish (Osteichthyes). The low incidence of allergic reactions to ingested rays and sharks is likely due to the lack of molecular similarity, resulting in reduced immunological cross-reactivity between the two PV lineages. Structurally and physiologically, both protein lineages are very similar; however, the amino acid homology is very low with 47-54%. Furthermore, PV from ancient fish species such as the coelacanth demonstrates 62% sequence homology to leopard shark α-PV and 70% to carp β-PV. This indicates the extent of conservation of the PV isoforms lineages across millennia. This review highlights prevalence data on fish allergy and sensitization to fish, and details the molecular diversity of the two protein lineages of the major fish allergen PV among different fish groups, emphasizing the immunological and clinical differences in allergenicity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Rice-Fish Culture in China | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Raising fish in rice paddies brings to farmers in Asia an important source of protein, as well as extra income. Rice–Fish Culture in China is an important addition to the English language literature in this area. Along with biological and ecological aspects of rice–fish culture, the book addresses its economic and social ...

  2. Biochemical characteristics of four marine fish skins in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Kwon; Jin, Young-Guk; Rha, Sung-Ju; Kim, Seon-Jae; Hwang, Jae-Ho

    2014-09-15

    In this study, we investigated the biochemical characteristics of the fish skins of four industrial species: olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli), sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) and red sea bream (Pagrus major). There is high domestic demand in Korea for farming of these fish for human consumption. Crude protein contents in the skin of these fish ranged from 73% to 94% by dry weight; this was in part due to a high content of the structural protein, collagen. Among the four species, olive flounder had the thickest dermal and epidermal layers in the dorsal skin. This species was also associated with the highest extraction ratio of acid-soluble collagen. We also examined whether fish skin could be a cost-effective alternative to current fish meal sources. Our analysis indicates that, when supplemented with additional fish oils and essential amino acids, fish skin is a viable alternative for fish meal formulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fish Tales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-01-01

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not

  4. Fish Tales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical

  5. The composition of readily available carbon sources produced by fermentation of fish faeces is affected by dietary protein:energy ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Letelier-Gordo, Carlos Octavio; Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Dalsgaard, Johanne

    2017-01-01

    , 17, 19, 21 and 23 g/MJ) to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ethanol during 7 days fermentation of the produced fish faeces. The total yields of VFAs and ethanol obtained (expressed as chemical oxygen demand (COD)) ranged between 0.21–0.24 g...... of acetic and valeric acid. Changing the diet composition thus affects the composition of readily available carbon that can be derived from the faeces. This can be applied to enhance on-farm single sludge denitrification and reduce the need for adding external carbon sources such as e.g. methanol....

  6. Development of forage cryo minced fish technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titova S. A.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The technology of grinding the frozen fish raw material using the useful model of a piston-type extrusion plant with cold working bodies for fodder minced fish (cryo minced fish feed by the method of cryoextrusion has been developed. The possibility of replacing the standard manufacturing operations (defrosting and subsequent grinding of raw materials to the one (cryoextrusion has been substantiated. The optimal shape of holes of the die for forcing the raw material has been determined in the form of "hourglass", the hole diameter is 7 mm, the length of the process of pushing is 40 s. It has been established that the finished product (cryo minced fish feed has a homogeneous grinding, juicy, crumbly texture, the temperature in the thickness of the product is equal to the temperature of the raw material before processing (–18 °C. The technological scheme of producing the minced fish feed by the method of cryoextrusion has been developed. Researching the chemical composition of fish and feed of mince produced by the traditional and developed methods it has been established that protein content in the cryo minced fish feed remains unchanged. The amino acid composition of cryo minced fish feed has been determined, the amount of essential amino acids is 365.6 mg/g of protein. In the proteins of the cryo minced fish feed methionine has been contained in the minimum quantity (10.0 mg/g protein and in the maximum – serine (155.3 mg/g protein. In the protein of the cryo minced fish feed the only limiting amino acid is methionine. The coefficient of rationality of the cryo minced fish feed whiting is equal to 0.33. The product is not toxic, is not subject to contamination with dangerous microorganisms, has high biological value, contains necessary in animal nutrition mineral elements, the energy value per 100 g of the product is 87 kcal. The combination of the processes of cryoextrusion and lyophilization allows to obtain a new food product with high

  7. Fishing activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand; Puig, Pere; Martin, Jacobo; Micallef, Aaron; Krastel, Sebastian; Savini, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Unlike the major anthropogenic changes that terrestrial and coastal habitats underwent during the last centuries such as deforestation, river engineering, agricultural practices or urbanism, those occurring underwater are veiled from our eyes and have continued nearly unnoticed. Only recent advances in remote sensing and deep marine sampling technologies have revealed the extent and magnitude of the anthropogenic impacts to the seafloor. In particular, bottom trawling, a fishing technique consisting of dragging a net and fishing gear over the seafloor to capture bottom-dwelling living resources has gained attention among the scientific community, policy makers and the general public due to its destructive effects on the seabed. Trawling gear produces acute impacts on biota and the physical substratum of the seafloor by disrupting the sediment column structure, overturning boulders, resuspending sediments and imprinting deep scars on muddy bottoms. Also, the repetitive passage of trawling gear over the same areas creates long-lasting, cumulative impacts that modify the cohesiveness and texture of sediments. It can be asserted nowadays that due to its recurrence, mobility and wide geographical extent, industrial trawling has become a major force driving seafloor change and affecting not only its physical integrity on short spatial scales but also imprinting measurable modifications to the geomorphology of entire continental margins.

  8. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory Activity and ACE Inhibitory Peptides of Salmon (Salmo salar Protein Hydrolysates Obtained by Human and Porcine Gastrointestinal Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Darewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were two-fold: first, to detect whether salmon protein fractions possess angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory properties and whether salmon proteins can release ACE inhibitory peptides during a sequential in vitro hydrolysis (with commercial porcine enzymes and ex vivo digestion (with human gastrointestinal enzymes. Secondly, to evaluate the ACE inhibitory activity of generated hydrolysates. A two-step ex vivo and in vitro model digestion was performed to simulate the human digestion process. Salmon proteins were degraded more efficiently by porcine enzymes than by human gastrointestinal juices and sarcoplasmic proteins were digested/hydrolyzed more easily than myofibrillar proteins. The ex vivo digested myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic duodenal samples showed IC50 values (concentration required to decrease the ACE activity by 50% of 1.06 and 2.16 mg/mL, respectively. The in vitro hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic samples showed IC50 values of 0.91 and 1.04 mg/mL, respectively. Based on the results of in silico studies, it was possible to identify 9 peptides of the ex vivo hydrolysates and 7 peptides of the in vitro hydrolysates of salmon proteins of 11 selected peptides. In both types of salmon hydrolysates, ACE-inhibitory peptides IW, IY, TVY and VW were identified. In the in vitro salmon protein hydrolysates an ACE-inhibitory peptides VPW and VY were also detected, while ACE-inhibitory peptides ALPHA, IVY and IWHHT were identified in the hydrolysates generated with ex vivo digestion. In our studies, we documented ACE inhibitory in vitro effects of salmon protein hydrolysates obtained by human and as well as porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.

  9. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  10. High virulence differences among phylogenetically distinct isolates of the fish rhabdovirus viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus are not explained by variability of the surface glycoprotein G or the non-virion protein Nv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einer-Jensen, Katja; Harmache, Abdallah; Biacchesi, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    -related novirhabdovirus [infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV)], four chimaeric IHNV–VHSV recombinant viruses were generated. These chimaeric viruses included substitution of the IHNV glyco- (G) or non-structural (Nv) protein with their counterparts from either a trout-derived or a marine VHSV strain....... Comparative challenge experiments in rainbow trout fingerlings revealed similar levels of survival induced by the recombinant (r)IHNV–VHSV chimaeric viruses regardless of whether the G or Nv genes originated from VHSV isolated from a marine fish species or from rainbow trout. Interestingly, recombinant IHNV...... gained higher virulence following substitution of the G gene with those of the VHSV strains, whilst the opposite was the case following substitution of the Nv genes....

  11. Effect of replacement of fish meal by potato protein concentrate in the diet for rainbow trout on feeding rate, digestibility and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Shougi; Jokumsen, Alfred

    1999-01-01

    Six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were composed to investigate the effects of incorporation of potato protein concentrate (PPC) and supplementation of methionine in the diet for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on feeding rate, digestion, growth, feed utilization and body composition. ...

  12. Fish welfare: Fish capacity to experience pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Teleost fish possess similar nociceptive processing systems to those found in terrestrial vertebrates. It means that they react to potential painful stimuli in a similar manner as mammals and birds. However, the welfare of fish has been the focus of less research than that of higher vertebrates. Humans may affect the welfare of fish through fisheries, aquaculture and a number of other activities. There is scientific evidence to support the assumption that fish have the capacity to experience pain because they possess functional nociceptors, endogenous opioids and opioid receptors, brain structures involved in pain processing and pathways leading from nociceptors to higher brain structures. Also, it is well documented that some anaesthetics and analgesics may reduce nociceptive responses in fish. Behavioural indicators in fish such as lip-rubbing and rocking behaviours are the best proof that fish react to potential painful stimuli. This paper is an overview of some scientific evidence on fish capacity to experience pain.

  13. Utilization of Bonga ( Ethmalosa fimbriata Bodwich) fish concentrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bonga fishmeal (BFM) used as Fish Protein Concentrate (FPC) in bread baking to address the problem of inadequate intake of protein at Njala - Mokonde community and also to determine acceptable proportion of FPC to wheat flour by consumers were bought from Tombo - the largest artisanal fish-landing site along the ...

  14. AMP-activated protein kinase plays an important evolutionary conserved role in the regulation of glucose metabolism in fish skeletal muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo J Magnoni

    Full Text Available AMPK, a master metabolic switch, mediates the observed increase of glucose uptake in locomotory muscle of mammals during exercise. AMPK is activated by changes in the intracellular AMP:ATP ratio when ATP consumption is stimulated by contractile activity but also by AICAR and metformin, compounds that increase glucose transport in mammalian muscle cells. However, the possible role of AMPK in the regulation of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle has not been investigated in other vertebrates, including fish. In this study, we investigated the effects of AMPK activators on glucose uptake, AMPK activity, cell surface levels of trout GLUT4 and expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 as well as the expression of enzymes regulating glucose disposal and PGC1α in trout myotubes derived from a primary muscle cell culture. We show that AICAR and metformin significantly stimulated glucose uptake (1.6 and 1.3 fold, respectively and that Compound C completely abrogated the stimulatory effects of the AMPK activators on glucose uptake. The combination of insulin and AMPK activators did not result in additive nor synergistic effects on glucose uptake. Moreover, exposure of trout myotubes to AICAR and metformin resulted in an increase in AMPK activity (3.8 and 3 fold, respectively. We also provide evidence suggesting that stimulation of glucose uptake by AMPK activators in trout myotubes may take place, at least in part, by increasing the cell surface and mRNA levels of trout GLUT4. Finally, AICAR increased the mRNA levels of genes involved in glucose disposal (hexokinase, 6-phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase and citrate synthase and mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α and did not affect glycogen content or glycogen synthase mRNA levels in trout myotubes. Therefore, we provide evidence, for the first time in non-mammalian vertebrates, suggesting a potentially important role of AMPK in stimulating glucose uptake and utilization in the skeletal muscle of fish.

  15. Omics approaches in fish quality and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Guerra Monteiro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Omics is a new technology that uses genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics to investigate metabolites from foods. The global demand for fish has shown a progressive increase because it is a significant source of high quality protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially omega-3, and essential minerals. However, there are barriers in the fishery production chain such as lack of standardization, knowledge, and technology transfer to industry. Moreover, fish effective monitoring is difficult due to restricted quality parameters and analytical methods determined by current Brazilian legislation. This review details the limiting chemical parameters and recent advances in analytical procedures for fish quality determination. To improve fish quality monitoring, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N, trimethylamine (TMA, ammonia, pH, and biogenic amines values should be revised and established by fish category and/or type of fish product. On the other hand, protein carbonyl concentration, free fatty acids (FFAs, peroxide values (POV, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS should be included in the national legislation. Simultaneously, the official authorities should take into account effective, practical, and low cost analytical methodologies, which lead to faster results in order to facilitate and enhance the quality control of the products from the fish production chain, ensuring the consumer’s health. Moreover, analytical techniques for the identification of fish species must be introduced in the Brazilian legislation in order to avoid illegal substitutions and negative impacts to consumers.

  16. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, L; Huss, H H

    1996-11-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram-positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish is well understood, much less is known about spoilage of lightly preserved fish products. It is concluded that the spoilage is probably caused by lactic acid bacteria, certain psychotrophic Enterobacteriaceae and/or Photobacterium phosphoreum. However, more work is needed in this area.

  17. Fishing Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transplants

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Yunhan

    2011-01-01

    Fish has been the subject of various research fields, ranging from ecology, evolution, physiology and toxicology to aquaculture. In the past decades fish has attracted considerable attention for functional genomics, cancer biology and developmental genetics, in particular nuclear transfer for understanding of cytoplasmic-nuclear relationship. This special issue reports on recent progress made in fish stem cells and nuclear transfer.

  18. Protein oxidation in aquatic foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Caroline P.

    2014-01-01

    The chapter discusses general considerations about protein oxidation and reviews the mechanisms involved in protein oxidation and consequences of protein oxidation on fish proteins. It presents two case studies, the first deals with protein and lipid oxidation in frozen rainbow trout......, and the second with oxidation in salted herring. The mechanisms responsible for initiation of protein oxidation are unclear, but it is generally accepted that free radical species initiating lipid oxidation can also initiate protein oxidation. The chapter focuses on interaction between protein and lipid...... oxidation. The protein carbonyl group measurement is the widely used method for estimating protein oxidation in foods and has been used in fish muscle. The chapter also talks about the impact of protein oxidation on protein functionality, fish muscle texture, and food nutritional value. Protein oxidation...

  19. Protein turnover, amino acid requirements and recommendations for athletes and active populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poortmans, J.R.; Carpentier, A.; Pereira-Lancha, L.O.; Lancha, A. Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the major deposit of protein molecules. As for any cell or tissue, total muscle protein reflects a dynamic turnover between net protein synthesis and degradation. Noninvasive and invasive techniques have been applied to determine amino acid catabolism and muscle protein building at rest, during exercise and during the recovery period after a single experiment or training sessions. Stable isotopic tracers ( 13 C-lysine, 15 N-glycine, 2 H 5 -phenylalanine) and arteriovenous differences have been used in studies of skeletal muscle and collagen tissues under resting and exercise conditions. There are different fractional synthesis rates in skeletal muscle and tendon tissues, but there is no major difference between collagen and myofibrillar protein synthesis. Strenuous exercise provokes increased proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis, the opposite occurring during the recovery period. Individuals who exercise respond differently when resistance and endurance types of contractions are compared. Endurance exercise induces a greater oxidative capacity (enzymes) compared to resistance exercise, which induces fiber hypertrophy (myofibrils). Nitrogen balance (difference between protein intake and protein degradation) for athletes is usually balanced when the intake of protein reaches 1.2 g·kg −1 ·day −1 compared to 0.8 g·kg −1 ·day −1 in resting individuals. Muscular activities promote a cascade of signals leading to the stimulation of eukaryotic initiation of myofibrillar protein synthesis. As suggested in several publications, a bolus of 15-20 g protein (from skimmed milk or whey proteins) and carbohydrate (± 30 g maltodextrine) drinks is needed immediately after stopping exercise to stimulate muscle protein and tendon collagen turnover within 1 h

  20. Protein turnover, amino acid requirements and recommendations for athletes and active populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poortmans, J.R.; Carpentier, A. [Laboratory for Biometry and Sport Nutrition, Faculty of Motor Sciences, Free University of Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Pereira-Lancha, L.O. [Departamento de Nutrição, Instituto Vita, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lancha, A. Jr. [Laboratório de Nutrição Aplicada à Atividade Motora, Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-08

    Skeletal muscle is the major deposit of protein molecules. As for any cell or tissue, total muscle protein reflects a dynamic turnover between net protein synthesis and degradation. Noninvasive and invasive techniques have been applied to determine amino acid catabolism and muscle protein building at rest, during exercise and during the recovery period after a single experiment or training sessions. Stable isotopic tracers ({sup 13}C-lysine, {sup 15}N-glycine, {sup 2}H{sub 5}-phenylalanine) and arteriovenous differences have been used in studies of skeletal muscle and collagen tissues under resting and exercise conditions. There are different fractional synthesis rates in skeletal muscle and tendon tissues, but there is no major difference between collagen and myofibrillar protein synthesis. Strenuous exercise provokes increased proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis, the opposite occurring during the recovery period. Individuals who exercise respond differently when resistance and endurance types of contractions are compared. Endurance exercise induces a greater oxidative capacity (enzymes) compared to resistance exercise, which induces fiber hypertrophy (myofibrils). Nitrogen balance (difference between protein intake and protein degradation) for athletes is usually balanced when the intake of protein reaches 1.2 g·kg{sup −1}·day{sup −1} compared to 0.8 g·kg{sup −1}·day{sup −1} in resting individuals. Muscular activities promote a cascade of signals leading to the stimulation of eukaryotic initiation of myofibrillar protein synthesis. As suggested in several publications, a bolus of 15-20 g protein (from skimmed milk or whey proteins) and carbohydrate (± 30 g maltodextrine) drinks is needed immediately after stopping exercise to stimulate muscle protein and tendon collagen turnover within 1 h.

  1. Protein turnover, amino acid requirements and recommendations for athletes and active populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Poortmans

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is the major deposit of protein molecules. As for any cell or tissue, total muscle protein reflects a dynamic turnover between net protein synthesis and degradation. Noninvasive and invasive techniques have been applied to determine amino acid catabolism and muscle protein building at rest, during exercise and during the recovery period after a single experiment or training sessions. Stable isotopic tracers (13C-lysine, 15N-glycine, ²H5-phenylalanine and arteriovenous differences have been used in studies of skeletal muscle and collagen tissues under resting and exercise conditions. There are different fractional synthesis rates in skeletal muscle and tendon tissues, but there is no major difference between collagen and myofibrillar protein synthesis. Strenuous exercise provokes increased proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis, the opposite occurring during the recovery period. Individuals who exercise respond differently when resistance and endurance types of contractions are compared. Endurance exercise induces a greater oxidative capacity (enzymes compared to resistance exercise, which induces fiber hypertrophy (myofibrils. Nitrogen balance (difference between protein intake and protein degradation for athletes is usually balanced when the intake of protein reaches 1.2 g·kg-1·day-1 compared to 0.8 g·kg-1·day-1 in resting individuals. Muscular activities promote a cascade of signals leading to the stimulation of eukaryotic initiation of myofibrillar protein synthesis. As suggested in several publications, a bolus of 15-20 g protein (from skimmed milk or whey proteins and carbohydrate (± 30 g maltodextrine drinks is needed immediately after stopping exercise to stimulate muscle protein and tendon collagen turnover within 1 h.

  2. The use of lactic acid bacteria isolated from intestinal tract of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, as growth promoters in fish fed low protein diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurilio Lara-Flores

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect as growth promoter of five lactic acid strains (Enterococcus faecium, E. durans, Leuconostoc sp., Streptococcus sp. I and Streptococcus sp. II, isolated from intestinal tract of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, was evaluated. Eight isocaloric diets were formulated: one containing 40% of protein as positive control, and seven with 27% protein. Five diets with 27% protein were supplemented with one of the isolated lactic acid bacteria in a concentration of 2.5x10(6 cfu g-1 of diet. A commercial probiotic based on S. faecium and Lactobacillus acidophilus was added at the same concentration to one 27% protein diet as a comparative diet, and the last diet was not supplemented with bacteria (negative control. Tilapia fry (280 mg basal weight stocked in 15 L aquaria at a density of two per liter were fed for 12 weeks with experimental diets. Results showed that fry fed with native bacteria supplemented diets presented significantly higher growth and feeding performance than those fed with control diet. Treatment with Streptococcus sp. I isolated from the intestine of Tilapia produced the best growth and feeding efficiency, suggesting that this bacteria is an appropriate native growth promoter.

  3. Bioactive Components in Fish Venoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegman, Rebekah; Alewood, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Animal venoms are widely recognized excellent resources for the discovery of novel drug leads and physiological tools. Most are comprised of a large number of components, of which the enzymes, small peptides, and proteins are studied for their important bioactivities. However, in spite of there being over 2000 venomous fish species, piscine venoms have been relatively underrepresented in the literature thus far. Most studies have explored whole or partially fractioned venom, revealing broad pharmacology, which includes cardiovascular, neuromuscular, cytotoxic, inflammatory, and nociceptive activities. Several large proteinaceous toxins, such as stonustoxin, verrucotoxin, and Sp-CTx, have been isolated from scorpaenoid fish. These form pores in cell membranes, resulting in cell death and creating a cascade of reactions that result in many, but not all, of the physiological symptoms observed from envenomation. Additionally, Natterins, a novel family of toxins possessing kininogenase activity have been found in toadfish venom. A variety of smaller protein toxins, as well as a small number of peptides, enzymes, and non-proteinaceous molecules have also been isolated from a range of fish venoms, but most remain poorly characterized. Many other bioactive fish venom components remain to be discovered and investigated. These represent an untapped treasure of potentially useful molecules. PMID:25941767

  4. Fish under exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, A.P.; Planas, J.V.

    2011-01-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish

  5. Meet the surrogate fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Bob; Neitzel, Duane; Moxon, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    This article gives details of the US Department of Energy's innovative research into the development of a sensor system that will work as a surrogate fish to provide information to aid the design of fish-friendly turbines for hydroelectric power plants. The selection of the dams for the testing of sensor fish, the release and recovery of the sensor fish, the recording of the physical forces exerted on fish as they pass through the turbines, and use of the information gathered to build more sensor fish are discussed. Fish investigations conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are briefly described. (UK)

  6. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  7. Three Kinds of Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2012-01-01

    There are three kinds of fish. Fish you were given, fish you bought and fish you lease. This might sound a bit odd, but it is nevertheless the basis for the activities of Danish commercial fishers since the introduction of transferable fishing concessions (TFCs) in 2007. In the current 2012 reform...... of market based systems are wild speculation, concentration and monopolization of fishing access and subsequent leasing with fishing communities and new entrants very likely being worse off (see for example the chapter “From fishing rights to financial derivatives” is this volume or Olson 2011; Sumaila 2010...... will examine five Danish fishing operations and discuss how they have reacted in different ways to the newly introduced system of transferable fishing concessions. By introducing TFCs as a solution to fleet overcapacity, the EU Commission will also be introducing a system where buying, selling and leasing...

  8. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of heat-induced gel prepared with chicken salt-soluble proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Seo, Kwang-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    The technological effects of gamma irradiation (0, 3, 7, and 10 kGy) on chicken salt-soluble meat proteins in a model system were investigated. There were no significant differences in protein, fat, and ash content, and sarcoplasmic protein solubility among all samples. The samples with increasing gamma irradiation levels had higher pH, lightness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity, whereas moisture content, water holding capacity, redness, myofibrillar protein solubility, total protein solubility, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness were the highest in the unirradiated control. The result from meat products using gamma irradiation was intended to provide a basic resource processing technology. - Highlights: • The effect of gamma irradiation on salt-soluble meat proteins was investigated. • Gelling properties of salt-soluble protein affected by gamma irradiation. • Gamma irradiation of meat products provides a basic resource processing technology

  9. Lactobacillus sakei CRL1862 improves safety and protein hydrolysis in meat systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, P; Aristoy, M C; Sentandreu, M A; Vignolo, G; Toldrá, F

    2012-12-01

    The capacity of Lactobacillus sakei CRL1862 to prevent the growth of pathogens and its ability to degrade sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins in pork meat systems was evaluated. In addition, basic safety aspects of Lact. sakei CRL1862 such as production of biogenic amines and antibiotic susceptibility were addressed. The bacteriocin-producing Lact. sakei CRL1862 showed respectively bactericide and bacteriostatic effect against Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in beaker sausage assay during 9 days of storage at 22 °C. The hydrolytic effect of Lact. sakei CRL1862 on protein extracts was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and reverse phase HPLC. A more pronounced proteolysis was evidenced in inoculated sarcoplasmic proteins compared with myofibrillar extracts with the generation of predominantly hydrophilic peptides and increase of total free amino acids concentration. Lactobacillus sakei CRL1862 produced neither histamine nor tyrosine and exhibited no resistance to the antibiotics assayed. Lactobacillus sakei CRL1862 effectively controlled the growth of L. monocytogenes and Staph. aureus; moreover, it was able to hydrolyse pork meat extracts generating peptides and amino acids, which may improve hygienic and sensorial attributes of fermented meat products. The use of an integrated approach to evaluate the major traits of Lact. sakei CRL1862 showed it can be applied as an autochthonous functional starter in meat fermentation. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Evolution of biochemical parameters in irradiated fishes: Serum proteins and intestinal nucleic acids; Evolucion de parametros bioquimicos en peces irradiados: Proteinas en suero y acidos nucleicos en intestino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces, F; Andres, P; Davila, C A

    1976-07-01

    In sublethal gamma-irradiated C. auratus, a sudden decrease of total serum protein concentration and a preferential descent of the low molecular weight gamma-globulin fraction have been observed. These effects are transient and after different latent periods dependent on doses, normal values are recovered, A temporal failure of a vascular permeability regulation system is probably implied. The DMA depolymerization. observed in the intestine indicates the action of radio-induced DNA degradation mechanisms since this effect is independent on doses. (Author) 29 refs.

  11. No additional effect of different types of physical activity on 10-hour muscle protein synthesis in elderly men on a controlled energy- and protein-sufficient diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulow, Jacob; Agergaard, Jakob; Kjær, Michael

    2016-01-01

    protein synthesis (MPS) are less investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of daily physical activities upon MPS in elderly individuals. Methods: A total of 24 elderly men (70 +/- 1 year) were recruited and randomly assigned: inactivity in form of bed-rest (IA), daily physical......-hour myofibrillar protein fractional synthesis rates (FSR), and typical prerequisites for calculating FSR were fulfilled. Physical activities were monitored, and venous blood and muscle biopsies collected. Results: Physical activity was highest in the DA compared to both the IA and RE groups. Nutrient...... activities (DA), or heavy resistance exercise (RE). All groups undertook a normal eating routine containing carbohydrates (52 E%), fat (32 E%), and protein (16 E%). Ingestion of labeled milk protein ([1-C-13] leucine-labeled whey and caseinate) served to maintain tracer enrichment for determination of 10...

  12. Anti-adhesive properties of fish tropomyosins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Bernbom, Nete; Gram, Lone

    2008-01-01

    Aims: We have recently found that preconditioning of stainless steel surfaces with an aqueous fish muscle extract can significantly impede bacterial adhesion. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the primary components associated with this bacteria-repelling effect. Methods...... to the formation of a proteinaceous conditioning film composed primarily of fish tropomyosins. These fibrous proteins formed a considerable anti-adhesive conditioning layer on and reduced bacterial adhesion to several different materials including polystyrene, vinyl plastic, stainless steel and glass. The protein...... the importance of substratum's physiochemical properties and exposure time with regards to protein adsorption/elution efficiency and subsequent bacterial adhesion. Significance and Impact of the Study: Fish tropomyosin-coatings could potentially offer a nontoxic and relatively inexpensive measure of reducing...

  13. Methodical investigation of the protein metabolism and of the bioenergetics of protein retention in growing animals. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiemann, R.; Bock, H.D.; Keller, J.; Hoffmann, L.; Krawielitzki, K.; Klein, M.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of different protein levels in the feed (group R1 20%, R2 38% crude protein) and of different energy levels (group J1 low, J2 high energy level) on the composition of the carcass and the apparent half-life periods of the body proteins were determined in 4 groups of 15 male broiler chickens labelled with 15 NH 4 acetate. In all slaughtering phases the higher protein level resulted in a higher weight of the feathers, breast and leg muscles, higher amounts of N in all parts of the body and a higher percentage of feathers, breast and leg muscles of the total carcass than the lower protein level. Between 13 and 19% of the N in the carcass contributed to the feathers, 24-31% to the breast and leg muscles and 50-63% to the rest of the carcass. The relative quotas of the sum of breast and leg muscles in the carcass were higher for the low energy level than for the high energy level. There were no remarkable differences as to the protein content of the muscles in dependence on the energy level, the quota of sarcoplasmatic proteins, however, was higher on the high level in contrast to the low energy level, that of the myofibrillar proteins was lower. The apparent half-life period of the total body protein after normal protein supply was 22 days (group R1) and 14 after high protein supply. The energy levels in groups J1 and J2 had no significant influence on the half-life period of the total body protein. In the body fractions examined the apparent half-life periods were highest in the breast muscle and lowest in the rest of the carcass. The protein stored in the feathers did not undergo decomposition. The protein fractions 'sarcoplasmatic protein' and 'myofibrillar protein' of breast and leg muscle neither differed from one another nor from the respective total muscle fractions as regards their half-life period. (author)

  14. Anabolic sensitivity of postprandial muscle protein synthesis to the ingestion of a protein-dense food is reduced in overweight and obese young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Joseph W; Sukiennik, Richard A; Nallabelli, Julian; Emmons, Russell S; van Vliet, Stephan; Young, Justin R; Ulanov, Alexander V; Li, Zhong; Paluska, Scott A; De Lisio, Michael; Burd, Nicholas A

    2016-10-01

    Excess body fat diminishes muscle protein synthesis rates in response to hyperinsulinemic-hyperaminoacidemic clamps. However, muscle protein synthetic responses after the ingestion of a protein-dense food source across a range of body mass indexes (BMIs) have not been compared. We compared the myofibrillar protein synthetic response and underlying nutrient-sensing mechanisms after the ingestion of lean pork between obese, overweight, and healthy-weight adults. Ten healthy-weight [HW; BMI (in kg/m 2 ): 22.7 ± 0.4], 10 overweight (OW; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.5), and 10 obese (OB; BMI: 35.9 ± 1.3) adults received primed continuous l-[ring- 13 C 6 ]phenylalanine infusions. Blood and muscle biopsy samples were collected before and after the ingestion of 170 g pork (36 g protein and 3 g fat) to assess skeletal muscle anabolic signaling, amino acid transporters [large neutral and small neutral amino acid transporters (LAT1, SNAT2) and CD98], and myofibrillar protein synthesis. At baseline, OW and OB groups showed greater relative amounts of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) protein than the HW group. Pork ingestion increased mTORC1 phosphorylation only in the HW group (P = 0.001). LAT1 and SNAT2 protein content increased during the postprandial period in all groups (time effect, P anabolic signals, that reduces muscle sensitivity to food ingestion. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02613767. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Proteomic analysis of processing by-products from canned and fresh tuna: identification of potentially functional food proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartín, Esther; Arboleya, Juan Carlos; Iloro, Ibon; Escuredo, Kepa; Elortza, Felix; Moreno, F Javier

    2012-09-15

    Proteomic approaches have been used to identify the main proteins present in processing by-products generated by the canning tuna-industry, as well as in by-products derived from filleting of skeletal red muscle of fresh tuna. Following fractionation by using an ammonium sulphate precipitation method, three proteins (tropomyosin, haemoglobin and the stress-shock protein ubiquitin) were identified in the highly heterogeneous and heat-treated material discarded by the canning-industry. Additionally, this fractionation method was successful to obtain tropomyosin of high purity from the heterogeneous starting material. By-products from skeletal red muscle of fresh tuna were efficiently fractionated to sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar fractions, prior to the identification based mainly on the combined searching of the peptide mass fingerprint (MALDI-TOF) and peptide fragment fingerprinting (MALDI LIFT-TOF/TOF) spectra of fifteen bands separated by 1D SDS-PAGE. Thus, the sarcoplasmic fraction contained myoglobin and several enzymes that are essential for efficient energy production, whereas the myofibrillar fraction had important contractile proteins, such as actin, tropomyosin, myosin or an isoform of the enzyme creatine kinase. Application of proteomic technologies has revealed new knowledge on the composition of important by-products from tuna species, enabling a better evaluation of their potential applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Towards generation of bioactive peptides from meat industry waste proteins: Generation of peptides using commercial microbial proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Kate; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; McConnell, Michelle; Carne, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Five commercially available food-grade microbial protease preparations were evaluated for their ability to hydrolyse meat myofibrillar and connective tissue protein extracts to produce bioactive peptides. A bacterial-derived protease (HT) extensively hydrolysed both meat protein extracts, producing peptide hydrolysates with significant in vitro antioxidant and ACE inhibitor activities. The hydrolysates retained bioactivity after simulated gastrointestinal hydrolysis challenge. Gel permeation chromatography sub-fractionation of the crude protein hydrolysates showed that the smaller peptide fractions exhibited the highest antioxidant and ACE inhibitor activities. OFFGEL electrophoresis of the small peptides of both hydrolysates showed that low isoelectric point peptides had antioxidant activity; however, no consistent relationship was observed between isoelectric point and ACE inhibition. Cell-based assays indicated that the hydrolysates present no significant cytotoxicity towards Vero cells. The results indicate that HT protease hydrolysis of meat myofibrillar and connective tissue protein extracts produces bioactive peptides that are non-cytotoxic, should be stable in the gastrointestinal tract and may contain novel bioactive peptide sequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus on levels of heat shock proteins (HSP70) and metallothioneins in their fish and crustacean intermediate hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Sabrina N.; Godehardt, Saskia; Nachev, Milen; Trubiroha, Achim; Kloas, Werner; Sures, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    It is a common method to analyse physiological mechanisms of organisms – commonly referred to as biomarkers – to indicate the presence of environmental pollutants. However, as biomarkers respond to a wide range of stressors we want to direct the attention on natural stressors, i.e. on parasites. After two years maintenance under controlled conditions, roach (Rutilus rutilus) revealed no influence on levels of metallothionein by the parasite Ligula intestinalis. The same was found for Gammarus fossarum infected with Polymorphus minutus. However, the heat shock protein (HSP70) response was affected in both host-parasite systems. While the infection of roach resulted in reduced levels of HSP70 compared to uninfected roach, the infection in G. fossarum led to higher levels of HSP70. We also analysed the effect of a 14 days Cd exposure (4 μg/L) on the uninfected and infected gammarids. The exposure resulted in induced levels for both, metallothionein and HSP70 whereas the combination of stressors, parasite and exposure, revealed a decrease for levels of HSP70 in comparison to the metal exposure only. Accordingly, parasites as natural parts of aquatic ecosystems have to be considered in ecotoxicological research. -- Highlights: •We show how parasites and pollutant affect biomarkers. •Metallothioneins were not influenced by parasites. •Heat shock proteins are modulated by parasites. •Biomarker levels of organisms are dependent on infection status. •Infection with parasites has to be considered in ecotoxicology. -- Parasites are capable of affecting host physiology and therefore modulate biomarker responses

  18. Identification of Bound Nitro Musk-Protein Adduct in Fish Liver By Gas Chromatography-Mass Sectrometry: Biotransformation, Dose-Response and Toxicokinetics of Nitro Musk Metabolites Protein Adducts in Trout Liver as Biomarker of Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubiquitous occurrences of synthetic nitro musks are evident in the literature. The In vivo analysis of musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) - protein adducts in trout liver have been performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using selected ion monitoring (GC-SIM-MS). Bio...

  19. Tinned fish with radioprotective ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaneva, M.; Minkova, M.; Zajko, G.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of food ingredients with pronounced radioprotective properties is made. The protective effect of fish proteins and some vegetable oils is mentioned. As suitable additives to tinned fish during the manufacturing process the β carotene, anthocyans and apple pectin are pointed out. β-carotene possesses the ability to absorb radiations. It can be added either as a pure crystalline substance or dissolved in the vegetable oil. Anthocyans have an antimutagen effect due to their ability to inhibit free radical reactions. Some vegetable polyphenols can be added with wine. The Bulgarian anthocyan concentrate Enobagrin (made by extraction of marc and wine) is also proposed. A combination of Enobagrin, β-tocopherol and pyracetam decreases the postradiation hypoplasia. Special attention is paid to the importance of the pectin in intoxication with heavy radioactive metals. It is thought that the pectin forms unsoluble complex compounds with Fe, Zn, Cd, Co, Pb, Hg, Mn, Cr. The binding energy depends on the available carboxylic groups. Some experiments showing the interaction of the pectin with 90 Sr are mentioned. In the tinned fish the pectin can be introduced with tomato paste. Vegetables rich in pectin and carotene - carrots and tomato concentrate - can be added as well. Proposed enriched tinned fish can be used as a preventive radioprotective food under conditions of increased radiation risk. 19 refs

  20. Hawaiian Fish Distributors Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is proprietary sales data from one Kona-based fish dealer for August 1986 to Decemeber 1988. Fishing was generally around Kona. This is Dealer Data and is...

  1. Pittsburgh Fish Fry Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Lenten Fish Fry records for the Greater Pittsburgh region. Data is collected before and during the Lenten fish fry season each year by Code for Pittsburgh. Data is...

  2. Fishing fleet profiling methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferraris, Jocelyne

    2002-01-01

    A fishing fleet profile aims tho assist in understanding the complexity and structure of fisheries from a technical and socio-economic point of view, or from the point of view of fishing strategies...

  3. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  4. Scorpion fish sting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002849.htm Scorpion fish sting To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scorpion fish are members of the family Scorpaenidae, which includes ...

  5. Fish population dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulland, J. A

    1977-01-01

    This book describes how the dynamics of fish populations can be analysed in terms of the factors affecting their rates of growth, mortality and reproduction, with particular emphasis on the effects of fishing...

  6. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabd...

  7. Fish eye optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Michalova, S.

    2017-07-01

    We report on small student (high—school) project of the Czech Academy of Sciences dealing with animal (fish) eyes and possible application in science and technology. Albeit most fishes have refractive eyes, the recent discoveries confirm that some fishes have reflective eyes with strange arrangements as well.

  8. Recombinant fish parvalbumins: Candidates for diagnosis and treatment of fish allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Ines; Bugajska-Schretter, A; Valenta, R; Spitzauer, S

    2002-01-01

    Fish and fish products represent one of the most important causes of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. In sensitized individuals contact with and consumption of fish can lead to severe health problems, ranging from urticaria and dermatitis to angiedema, diarrhoea, asthma and, at worst, systemic anaphylactic reactions and death. Parvalbumin, a small calcium-binding protein present in the muscles of vertebrates, was identified as the major fish allergen. We describe the isolation and characterization of cDNA clones coding for carp parvalbumin by IgE immunoscreening of a carp muscle expression library. These clones will be the basis for the production of recombinant carp parvalbumin, a useful tool for in vitro and in vivo diagnosis of fish allergy.

  9. Utilization and Fortification of Patin Fish on Extrusion Snack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Nurilmala

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Catfish (Pangasius sp. is a well cultured freshwater fish. Fortification improves protein level in snack and an effort to vary catfish fish product. The purpose of this study was to determine drying method for fish grit, formulation of snack and its properties. Grit formation by several drying methods and proximate (AOAC and degree of polarization. Snack used based on the physical measurement, namely development ratio. Formulations of grit composition of corn: rice: fish were 70%:30%:0% (K, 65%:25%:10% (A, 62.5%:22.5%:15% (B, 60%:20%:20% (C. Fish addition only effect the color of snack based on sensory analysis. There was no effect on snacks physical properties both 10% and 15% of fish grit added. Chemical measurements comprised water, ash, lipid, protein levels and polarization degree. Statistical analysis showed that fish addition effect the protein level on extrusion snack. In addition, polarization measurement showed that the snack with fish addition of 10% (A and 15%( B are fully gelatinized.Keyword: formulation, patin fish, snack

  10. Quantitative sandwich ELISA for the determination of fish in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeste, Christiane K; Plassen, Christin

    2008-01-01

    Allergy to fish represents one of the most prevalent causes for severe food-allergic reactions. Therefore, food authorities in different countries have implemented mandatory labeling of fish in pre-packed foods. Detection of fish proteins in food has previously been based on the use of patient serum. In the present study, a novel sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantitation of fish in food matrixes has been developed and validated, using a polyclonal rabbit anti-cod parvalbumin antibody for capture and a biotinylated conjugate of the same antibody for detection. By employing the ubiquitous muscle protein parvalbumin as target the method succeeds to detect a variety of fish. However, the ELISA is specific for fish and does not cross-react with other species. Recoveries ranged from 68-138% in typical food matrixes, while the intra- and inter-assay precisions were parvalbumin ELISA with a limit of detection of 0.01 mg parvalbumin/kg food, about 5 mg fish/kg food, seems sufficient to detect fish protein traces in foods at levels low enough to minimize the risk for fish allergic consumers.

  11. Turbine related fish mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicher, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to assess the factors affecting turbine-related fish mortality. The mechanics of fish passage through a turbine is outlined, and various turbine related stresses are described, including pressure and shear effects, hydraulic head, turbine efficiency, and tailwater level. The methodologies used in determining the effects of fish passage are evaluated. The necessity of adequate controls in each test is noted. It is concluded that mortality is the result of several factors such as hardiness of study fish, fish size, concentrations of dissolved gases, and amounts of cavitation. Comparisons between Francis and Kaplan turbines indicate little difference in percent mortality. 27 refs., 5 figs

  12. Proximate analysis of female population of wild feather back fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... Key words: Body composition, Notopterus notopterus, condition factor, wild fish. INTRODUCTION. Proximate body composition is the analysis of water, fat, protein and ash contents of the fish (Love, 1980). Proximate composition is a good indicator of physiology which is needed for routine analysis of ...

  13. Better processing and marketing of healthy fish products in Malawi

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Malawi, fish provide 70% of the animal protein in people's diets: small fish, in particular, are a vital source of calcium, vi- tamin A, iron, and zinc. ... es in Malawi coincide with seasonal rains and high humidity, which interfere with drying and ...

  14. Moisture migration, microstructure damage and protein structure changes in porcine longissimus muscle as influenced by multiple freeze-thaw cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingcheng; Li, Fangfei; Diao, Xinping; Kong, Baohua; Xia, Xiufang

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of multiple freeze-thaw (F-T) cycles on water mobility, microstructure damage and protein structure changes in porcine longissimus muscle. The transverse relaxation time T 2 increased significantly when muscles were subjected to multiple F-T cycles (Pcycles caused sarcomere shortening, Z line fractures, and I band weakening and also led to microstructural destruction of muscle tissue. The decreased free amino group content and increased dityrosine in myofibrillar protein (MP) revealed that multiple F-T cycles caused protein cross-linking and oxidation. In addition, the results of size exclusion chromatography, circular dichroism spectra, UV absorption spectra, and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy indirectly proved that multiple F-T cycles could cause protein aggregation and degradation, α-helix structure disruption, hydrophobic domain exposure, and conformational changes of MP. Overall, repeated F-T cycles changed the protein structure and water distribution within meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fish allergy: in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  16. Do Fish Resist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Joseph Wadiwel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of scientific studies on the question of whether fish feel pain. Some have suggested that some fish indeed do feel pain and that this has significant welfare implications (2003. Others have argued that fish do not have the brain development necessary to feel pain. In terms of number of animals killed, the slaughter of sea animals for human consumption significantly exceeds that of any land animals that we use for food, and sea animal slaughter practices frequently lack any basic welfare protections. If fish can be shown to feel pain—or more importantly, if humans can agree that fish feel pain—then this would place a significant question mark over many contemporary fishing practices.  This article substitutes the question 'Do Fish Feel Pain?' with an alternative: 'Do Fish Resist?' It explores the conceptual problems of understanding fish resistance, and the politics of epistemology that surrounds and seeks to develop a conceptual framework for understanding fish resistance to human capture by exploring the development of fishing technologies - the hook, the net and contemporary aquaculture.

  17. Augmented fish health monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michak, P.; Rogers, R.; Amos, K.

    1991-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Historically, all agencies involved with fish health in the Columbia Basin were conducting various levels of fish health monitoring, pathogen screening and collection. The goals of this project were; to identify, develop and implement a standardized level of fish health methodologies, develop a common data collection and reporting format in the area of artificial production, evaluate and monitor water quality, improve communications between agencies and provide annual evaluation of fish health information for production of healthier smolts. This completion report will contain a project evaluation, review of the goals of the project, evaluation of the specific fish health analyses, an overview of highlights of the project and concluding remarks. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  18. Consumption of whole eggs promotes greater stimulation of postexercise muscle protein synthesis than consumption of isonitrogenous amounts of egg whites in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Stephan; Shy, Evan L; Abou Sawan, Sidney; Beals, Joseph W; West, Daniel Wd; Skinner, Sarah K; Ulanov, Alexander V; Li, Zhong; Paluska, Scott A; Parsons, Carl M; Moore, Daniel R; Burd, Nicholas A

    2017-12-01

    Background: Protein in the diet is commonly ingested from whole foods that contain various macro- and micronutrients. However, the effect of consuming protein within its natural whole-food matrix on postprandial protein metabolism remains understudied in humans. Objective: We aimed to compare the whole-body and muscle protein metabolic responses after the consumption of whole eggs with egg whites during exercise recovery in young men. Design: In crossover trials, 10 resistance-trained men [aged 21 ± 1 y; 88 ± 3 kg; body fat: 16% ± 1% (means ± SEMs)] received primed continuous l-[ ring - 2 H 5 ]phenylalanine and l-[1- 13 C]leucine infusions and performed a single bout of resistance exercise. After exercise, participants consumed intrinsically l-[5,5,5- 2 H 3 ]leucine-labeled whole eggs (18 g protein, 17 g fat) or egg whites (18 g protein, 0 g fat). Repeated blood and muscle biopsy samples were collected to assess whole-body leucine kinetics, intramuscular signaling, and myofibrillar protein synthesis. Results: Plasma appearance rates of protein-derived leucine were more rapid after the consumption of egg whites than after whole eggs ( P = 0.01). Total plasma availability of leucine over the 300-min postprandial period was similar ( P = 0.75) between the ingestion of whole eggs (68% ± 1%) and egg whites (66% ± 2%), with no difference in whole-body net leucine balance ( P = 0.27). Both whole-egg and egg white conditions increased the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 during postexercise recovery (all P egg ingestion increased the postexercise myofibrillar protein synthetic response to a greater extent than did the ingestion of egg whites ( P = 0.04). Conclusions: We show that the ingestion of whole eggs immediately after resistance exercise resulted in greater stimulation of myofibrillar protein synthesis than did the ingestion of egg whites

  19. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector...

  20. Columbia River ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this...

  1. Western Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and anadromous fish species in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  2. Health effects of fish and fish oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chandra, Ranjit Kumar

    1989-01-01

    .... Based on epidemiologic data, it has been suggested that a fish-containing diet is beneficial in the prevention and management of a variety of disorders including coronary heart disease, hypertension, and psoriasis...

  3. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for estuarine, benthic, and pelagic fish in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  4. Fish elevator and method of elevating fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truebe, J.; Drooker, M.S.

    1984-02-14

    A means and method are disclosed for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprise a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water. 6 figs.

  5. Fish elevator and method of elevating fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truebe, Jonathan; Drooker, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    A means and method for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprises a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water.

  6. Effect of Fortification with Fish (Pseudophycis bachus) Powder on Nutritional Quality of Durum Wheat Pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Ajay S; Brennan, Margaret A; Brennan, Charles S

    2018-04-17

    This paper investigates the nutraceutical (phenolic content and antioxidant activity) and nutritional potential (protein and starch digestibility) of supplementation of durum wheat semolina with 5–20% fish powder ( Pseudophycis bachus ). In general, all enriched pasta with fish powder showed a significant decrease ( p pasta. The potentially bioaccessible fraction of pasta enriched with 20% fish powder (FP) was characterized as having a 177–191% increase in phenolic content and a 145–556% higher antiradical activity. Elevation of these parameters in fortified pasta was accompanied by interaction of wheat starch, protein, and fish powder protein. Supplementation of fish powder also influenced protein digestibility (a reduction from 84.60% for control pasta to 80.80% for pasta with 20% fish powder). Fortification improved the nutraceutical and nutritional potential of the studied pasta with the effects depending on factors including protein-starch-phenolic interactions.

  7. Fish and fisheries of Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.

    Fish is a protein rich food. It forms a chief component in the diet of about 90% of the population of Goa. Capture fisheries of Goa (India) constitute a highly productive sector. They remain one of the major sources of valuable food and employment...

  8. Malondialdehyde levels of frozen fish, chicken and turkey on sale in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... Highest levels of MDA were obtained in oily fishes,. Trachurus trecae .... fish (or smoked fish) and game formed the major protein sources for ... Rey AI, Kerry JP, Lynch PB, Lopez-Bote CJ, Buckley DJ, Morrissey PA. (2001).

  9. Worm-it: converting organic wastes into sustainable fish feed by using aquatic worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elissen, H.J.H.; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, H.; Laarhoven, B.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2015-01-01

    Due to overfishing and the use of one-third of wild fish catches for feeding farmed fish and livestock, there is a strong need for alternative sources of suitable proteins and lipids in fish feeds. Small freshwater worms of the species Lumbriculus variegatus can be such a source based on their high

  10. Maggot meal as a substitute for fish meal in laying chicken diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 56-day experiment was conducted to determine thereplacement value of maggot meal for fish meal in diet of laying chicken. Fish meal was included at 30 g kg-1 of the control diet. Maggot meal incrementally replaced fish meal at 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g kg-1 on crude protein basis. The five diets were fed to a total of ...

  11. Protein synthesis and degradation during starvation-induced cardiac atrophy in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarel, A.M.; Parmacek, M.S.; Magid, N.M.; Decker, R.S.; Lesch, M.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the relative importance of protein degradation in the development of starvation-induced cardiac atrophy, in vivo fractional synthetic rates of total cardiac protein, myosin heavy chain, actin, light chain 1, and light chain 2 were measured in fed and fasted rabbits by continuous infusion of [ 3 H] leucine. In addition, the rate of left ventricular protein accumulation and loss were assessed in weight-matched control and fasted rabbits. Rates of total cardiac protein degradation were then estimated as the difference between rates of synthesis and growth. Fasting produced left ventricular atrophy by decreasing the rate of left ventricular protein synthesis (34.8 +/- 1.4, 27.3 +/- 3.0, and 19.3 +/- 1.2 mg/day of left ventricular protein synthesized for 0-, 3-, and 7-day fasted rabbits, respectively). Inhibition of contractile protein synthesis was evident by significant reductions in the fractional synthetic rates of all myofibrillar protein subunits. Although fractional rates of protein degradation increased significantly within 7 days of fasting, actual amounts of left ventricular protein degraded per day were unaffected. Thus, prolonged fasting profoundly inhibits the synthesis of new cardiac protein, including the major protein constituents of the myofibril. Both this inhibition in new protein synthesis as well as a smaller but significant reduction in the average half-lives of cardiac proteins are responsible for atrophy of the heart in response to fasting

  12. Fueling Global Fishing Fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyedmers, Peter H.; Watson, Reg; Pauly, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Over the course of the 20th century, fossil fuels became the dominant energy input to most of the world's fisheries. Although various analyses have quantified fuel inputs to individual fisheries, to date, no attempt has been made to quantify the global scale and to map the distribution of fuel consumed by fisheries. By integrating data representing more than 250 fisheries from around the world with spatially resolved catch statistics for 2000, we calculate that globally, fisheries burned almost 50 billion L of fuel in the process of landing just over 80 million t of marine fish and invertebrates for an average rate of 620 L/t. Consequently, fisheries account for about 1.2% of global oil consumption, an amount equivalent to that burned by the Netherlands, the 18th-ranked oil consuming country globally, and directly emit more than 130 million t of CO 2 into the atmosphere. From an efficiency perspective, the energy content of the fuel burned by global fisheries is 12.5 times greater than the edible protein energy content of the resulting catch

  13. Immunostimulants in fish diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannam, A.L.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Various immunostimulants and their methods of application in fish culture are examined in this review. Important variables such as life stage and innate disease resistance of the fish; immunostimulant used, its structure and mode of action; and the fish's environment are discussed. Conflicting results have been published about the efficacy of immunostimulants in fish diets. Some researchers have had positive responses demonstrated as increased fish survival, others have not. Generally, immunostimulants enhance individual components of the non-specific immune response but that does not always translate into increased fish survival. In addition, immunostimulants fed at too high a dose or for too long can be immunosuppressive. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com ].

  14. Vaccination in Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    vaccines have reduced the need for usage of antibiotics with more than 99 % since the 1980s. Fish can be vaccinated by three different administration routes: injection, immersion and oral vaccination. Injection vaccination (intraperitoneal injection of vaccine) is the most time consuming and labor...... intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...... respond to vaccination by increasing the specific antibody titer and by activating the cellular responses. My talk will cover vaccination methods in fish, immune responses and some adverse effect of oil-adjuvanted vaccines in fish with reference to our work in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....

  15. Parasites modify sub-cellular partitioning of metals in the gut of fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah, E-mail: elijaoyoo2009@gmail.com [Division of Environmental Health, School of Environmental Studies, Moi University, P.O. Box 3900, Eldoret (Kenya); Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 9424/1090 GE (Netherlands); Admiraal, Wim [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 9424/1090 GE (Netherlands); Osano, Odipo [Division of Environmental Health, School of Environmental Studies, Moi University, P.O. Box 3900, Eldoret (Kenya); Kraak, Michiel H.S. [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 9424/1090 GE (Netherlands); Gichuki, John; Ogwai, Caleb [Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute, P.O. Box 1881, Kisumu (Kenya)

    2012-01-15

    Infestation of fish by parasites may influence metal accumulation patterns in the host. However, the subcellular mechanisms of these processes have rarely been studied. Therefore, this study determined how a cyprinid fish (Rastrineobola argentea) partitioned four metals (Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu) in the subcellular fractions of the gut in presence of an endoparasite (Ligula intestinalis). The fish were sampled along four sites in Lake Victoria, Kenya differing in metal contamination. Accumulation of Cd, Cr and Zn was higher in the whole body and in the gut of parasitized fish compared to non-parasitized fish, while Cu was depleted in parasitized fish. Generally, for both non-parasitized and parasitized fish, Cd, Cr and Zn partitioned in the cytosolic fractions and Cu in the particulate fraction. Metal concentrations in organelles within the particulate fractions of the non-parasitized fish were statistically similar except for Cd in the lysosome, while in the parasitized fish, Cd, Cr and Zn were accumulated more by the lysosome and microsomes. In the cytosolic fractions, the non-parasitized fish accumulated Cd, Cr and Zn in the heat stable proteins (HSP), while in the parasitized fish the metals were accumulated in the heat denatured proteins (HDP). On the contrary, Cu accumulated in the HSP in parasitized fish. The present study revealed specific binding of metals to potentially sensitive sub-cellular fractions in fish in the presence of parasites, suggesting interference with metal detoxification, and potentially affecting the health status of fish hosts in Lake Victoria.

  16. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  17. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species

  18. Methodical investigation of the protein metabolism and of the bioenergetics of protein retention in growing animals. 1. Determination of parameters of growth and protein retention of chickens after long-term labelling with /sup 15/NH/sub 4/ acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiemann, R.; Bock, H.D.; Keller, J.; Hoffmann, L.; Krawielitzki, K.; Klein, M. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Dummerstorf-Rostock. Forschungszentrum fuer Tierproduktion)

    1983-01-01

    The influence of different protein levels in the feed (group R1 20%, R2 38% crude protein) and of different energy levels (group J1 low, J2 high energy level) on the composition of the carcass and the apparent half-life periods of the body proteins were determined in 4 groups of 15 male broiler chickens labelled with /sup 15/NH/sub 4/ acetate. In all slaughtering phases the higher protein level resulted in a higher weight of the feathers, breast and leg muscles, higher amounts of N in all parts of the body and a higher percentage of feathers, breast and leg muscles of the total carcass than the lower protein level. Between 13 and 19% of the N in the carcass contributed to the feathers, 24-31% to the breast and leg muscles and 50-63% to the rest of the carcass. The relative quotas of the sum of breast and leg muscles in the carcass were higher for the low energy level than for the high energy level. There were no remarkable differences as to the protein content of the muscles in dependence on the energy level, the quota of sarcoplasmatic proteins, however, was higher on the high level in contrast to the low energy level, that of the myofibrillar proteins was lower. The apparent half-life period of the total body protein after normal protein supply was 22 days (group R1) and 14 after high protein supply. The energy levels in groups J1 and J2 had no significant influence on the half-life period of the total body protein. In the body fractions examined the apparent half-life periods were highest in the breast muscle and lowest in the rest of the carcass. The protein stored in the feathers did not undergo decomposition. The protein fractions 'sarcoplasmatic protein' and 'myofibrillar protein' of breast and leg muscle neither differed from one another nor from the respective total muscle fractions as regards their half-life period.

  19. Removal of cadmium from fish sauce using chelate resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tetsuya; Araki, Ryohei; Michihata, Toshihide; Kozawa, Miyuki; Tokuda, Koji; Koyanagi, Takashi; Enomoto, Toshiki

    2015-04-15

    Fish sauce that is prepared from squid organs contains cadmium (Cd), which may be present at hazardous concentrations. Cd molecules are predominantly protein bound in freshly manufactured fish sauce, but are present in a liberated form in air-exposed fish sauce. In the present study, we developed a new method for removing both Cd forms from fish sauce using chelate resin and a previously reported tannin treatment. Sixteen-fold decreases in Cd concentrations were observed (0.78-0.05 mg/100 mL) following the removal of liberated Cd using chelate resin treatment, and the removal of protein-bound Cd using tannin treatment. Major nutritional components of fish sauce were maintained, including free amino acids and peptides, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cross-reactivity to fish and chicken meat - a new clinical syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Codreanu-Morel, F; Lehners-Weber, C

    2016-01-01

    fish and chicken meat in patients with allergy to chicken meat without sensitization to hen's eggs. METHODS: Patients with food allergy to fish and chicken meat (n = 29) or chicken meat only (n = 7) were recruited. IgE-reactive chicken proteins were identified (Edman, MS analysis) and quantified (ELISA...... for the fish homologues as well. Fish and chicken meat allergens were highly cross-reactive while high inhibition rates with fish or chicken allergens correlated with the patients' primary sensitization to fish or chicken. In cooked or roasted foods, enolase and aldolase were detectable in chicken breast while...

  1. Local NSAID infusion does not affect protein synthesis and gene expression in human muscle after eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, U R; Schjerling, P; Helmark, Ida Carøe

    2010-01-01

    models, and inhibit the exercise-induced satellite cell proliferation and protein synthesis in humans. However, the cellular mechanisms eliciting these responses remain unknown. Eight healthy male volunteers performed 200 maximal eccentric contractions with each leg. To block prostaglandin synthesis...... locally in the skeletal muscle, indomethacin (NSAID) was infused for 7.5 h via microdialysis catheters into m. vastus lateralis of one leg. Protein synthesis was determined by the incorporation of 1,2-(13)C(2) leucine into muscle protein from 24 to 28 h post-exercise. Furthermore, mRNA expression...... of selected genes was measured in muscle biopsies (5 h and 8 days post-exercise) by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. Myofibrillar and collagen protein synthesis were unaffected by the local NSAID infusion. Five hours post-exercise, the mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) was sixfold higher...

  2. Fish and hydroelectricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorpette, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the problems that hydroelectric plants have regarding fish populations. The utilities that operate these plants are finding that accommodating migrating fish presents unique engineering challenges, not the least of which involves designing and building systems to protect fish species whose migratory behavior remains something of a mystery. Where such systems cannot be built, the status of hydroelectric dams may be in doubt, as is now the case with several dams in the United States. A further twist in some regions in the possibility that certain migratory fish will be declared threatened or endangered-a development that could wreak havoc on the hydroelectric energy supply in those regions

  3. Of Fish and Micrornas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bela-Ong, Dennis; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    Fish is an important small vertebrate multidisciplinary model for investigating various aspects of reproduction, development, disease (immunology, toxicology, carcinogenesis), and aging. It is also an important model for comparative and evolutionary studies because it represents the lower...... to the mechanisms of control of gene expression, impacting a broad range of biological processes. Thus far, >25, 000 miRNA sequences have been identified in 193 species, including fish. In fish, the interest on miRNAs started with the analysis of their expression and function during embryonic development. In our...... selection markers to identify disease-resistant fish....

  4. Intelligent Fish Freshness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gholam Hosseini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish species identification and automated fish freshness assessment play important roles in fishery industry applications. This paper describes a method based on support vector machines (SVMs to improve the performance of fish identification systems. The result is used for the assessment of fish freshness using artificial neural network (ANN. Identification of the fish species involves processing of the images of fish. The most efficient features were extracted and combined with the down-sampled version of the images to create a 1D input vector. Max-Win algorithm applied to the SVM-based classifiers has enhanced the reliability of sorting to 96.46%. The realisation of Cyranose 320 Electronic nose (E-nose, in order to evaluate the fish freshness in real-time, is experimented. Intelligent processing of the sensor patterns involves the use of a dedicated ANN for each species under study. The best estimation of freshness was provided by the most sensitive sensors. Data was collected from four selected species of fishes over a period of ten days. It was concluded that the performance can be increased using individual trained ANN for each specie. The proposed system has been successful in identifying the number of days after catching the fish with an accuracy of up to 91%.

  5. Bioactive Peptides from Muscle Sources: Meat and Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Stanton

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides have been identified in a range of foods, including plant, milk and muscle, e.g., beef, chicken, pork and fish muscle proteins. Bioactive peptides from food proteins offer major potential for incorporation into functional foods and nutraceuticals. The aim of this paper is to present an outline of the bioactive peptides identified in the muscle protein of meat to date, with a focus on muscle protein from domestic animals and fish. The majority of research on bioactives from meat sources has focused on angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and antioxidant peptides.

  6. Transcriptomics and comparative analysis of three antarctic notothenioid fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Chul Shin

    Full Text Available For the past 10 to 13 million years, Antarctic notothenioid fish have undergone extraordinary periods of evolution and have adapted to a cold and highly oxygenated Antarctic marine environment. While these species are considered an attractive model with which to study physiology and evolutionary adaptation, they are poorly characterized at the molecular level, and sequence information is lacking. The transcriptomes of the Antarctic fishes Notothenia coriiceps, Chaenocephalus aceratus, and Pleuragramma antarcticum were obtained by 454 FLX Titanium sequencing of a normalized cDNA library. More than 1,900,000 reads were assembled in a total of 71,539 contigs. Overall, 40% of the contigs were annotated based on similarity to known protein or nucleotide sequences, and more than 50% of the predicted transcripts were validated as full-length or putative full-length cDNAs. These three Antarctic fishes shared 663 genes expressed in the brain and 1,557 genes expressed in the liver. In addition, these cold-adapted fish expressed more Ub-conjugated proteins compared to temperate fish; Ub-conjugated proteins are involved in maintaining proteins in their native state in the cold and thermally stable Antarctic environments. Our transcriptome analysis of Antarctic notothenioid fish provides an archive for future studies in molecular mechanisms of fundamental genetic questions, and can be used in evolution studies comparing other fish.

  7. Fish-allergic patients may be able to eat fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Ahmad A; Bahna, Sami L

    2015-03-01

    Reported fish allergy prevalence varies widely, with an estimated prevalence of 0.2% in the general population. Sensitization to fish can occur by ingestion, skin contact or inhalation. The manifestations can be IgE or non-IgE mediated. Several fish allergens have been identified, with parvalbumins being the major allergen in various species. Allergenicity varies among fish species and is affected by processing or preparation methods. Adverse reactions after eating fish are often claimed to be 'allergy' but could be a reaction to hidden food allergen, fish parasite, fish toxins or histamine in spoiled fish. Identifying such causes would allow free consumption of fish. Correct diagnosis of fish allergy, including the specific species, might provide the patient with safe alternatives. Patients have been generally advised for strict universal avoidance of fish. However, testing with various fish species or preparations might identify one or more forms that can be tolerated.

  8. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Areas Protected From Fishing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Designated Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) areas where fishing or the use of fishing gears has been restricted or modified in order to minimize the adverse effects of...

  9. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized for...

  10. Protein Availability and Satellite Cell Dynamics in Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Baubak; Hawley, John A; Camera, Donny M

    2018-06-01

    Human skeletal muscle satellite cells are activated in response to both resistance and endurance exercise. It was initially proposed that satellite cell proliferation and differentiation were only required to support resistance exercise-induced hypertrophy. However, satellite cells may also play a role in muscle fibre remodelling after endurance-based exercise and extracellular matrix regulation. Given the importance of dietary protein, particularly branched chain amino acids, in supporting myofibrillar and mitochondrial adaptations to both resistance and endurance-based training, a greater understanding of how protein intake impacts satellite cell activity would provide further insight into the mechanisms governing skeletal muscle remodelling with exercise. While many studies have investigated the capacity for protein ingestion to increase post-exercise rates of muscle protein synthesis, few investigations have examined the role for protein ingestion to modulate satellite cell activity. Here we review the molecular mechanisms controlling the activation of satellite cells in response to mechanical stress and protein intake in both in vitro and in vivo models. We provide a mechanistic framework that describes how protein ingestion may enhance satellite activity and promote exercise adaptations in human skeletal muscle.

  11. Thermoplastic processing of proteins for film formation--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Izquierdo, V M; Krochta, J M

    2008-03-01

    Increasing interest in high-quality food products with increased shelf life and reduced environmental impact has encouraged the study and development of edible and/or biodegradable polymer films and coatings. Edible films provide the opportunity to effectively control mass transfer among different components in a food or between the food and its surrounding environment. The diversity of proteins that results from an almost limitless number of side-chain amino-acid sequential arrangements allows for a wide range of interactions and chemical reactions to take place as proteins denature and cross-link during heat processing. Proteins such as wheat gluten, corn zein, soy protein, myofibrillar proteins, and whey proteins have been successfully formed into films using thermoplastic processes such as compression molding and extrusion. Thermoplastic processing can result in a highly efficient manufacturing method with commercial potential for large-scale production of edible films due to the low moisture levels, high temperatures, and short times used. Addition of water, glycerol, sorbitol, sucrose, and other plasticizers allows the proteins to undergo the glass transition and facilitates deformation and processability without thermal degradation. Target film variables, important in predicting biopackage performance under various conditions, include mechanical, thermal, barrier, and microstructural properties. Comparisons of film properties should be made with care since results depend on parameters such as film-forming materials, film formulation, fabrication method, operating conditions, testing equipment, and testing conditions. Film applications include their use as wraps, pouches, bags, casings, and sachets to protect foods, reduce waste, and improve package recyclability.

  12. Anadromous fish behaviour important for fish passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kynard, B.E.

    1993-01-01

    An understanding of the behavior of target fish species is necessary for proper design, location, and operation of a successful upstream or downstream fishway for anadromous migrants. Important fish behaviors are seasonal and daily timing of migration; rheotaxis and near field behavior; stimulus-response behavior; swimming capability; shoaling behavior; response to physical environmental factors such as illumination, sound, water depth, current velocity, and structure; response to chemicals; and response to biological factors such as competition for space and response to predators. The information on migrant fish behavior is reviewed, using examples from the literature on the behavior of eastern anadromous species, particularly Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and American shad (Alosa sapidissima). 87 refs

  13. Fish crackers development from minced fish and starch: an innovative approach to a traditional product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Rodrigues Pinheiro Neiva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop sensory acceptable, high nutritional value fish crackers that could be kept at room temperature for 180 days. Minced fish of different low-value species was the raw material employed to produce two types of fish crackers: a the traditional keropok cracker, which was expanded by deep frying; and b a low-fat fish cracker, expanded by microwave cooking. The protein content of the fried fish crackers (FFCs and that of the microwaved fish crackers (MFCs were high (10.86 and 14.70%, respectively. The essential amino acid contents of the two types of fish cracker were above the FAO requirements for adults, and the lysine content was above the requirements for children. Sensory analysis, performed by adult panelists, resulted in a general level of acceptability of 90% for the MFCs and of 97% for the FFCs. Vacuum packaging maintained microbiological and physicochemical properties for a storage period of 180 days at room temperature.

  14. CADMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY CONTENTS IN FISHES – CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Stanovič

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish meat is a perfect foodstuff which is up to standard of rational nourishment. It is source of healthy and good digestible material rich on proteins, minerals and vitamins. Fish muscles especially back and lateral muscles are the most important parts of fish organism consumed for escellent chemical composition. Proteins in fish meat are rich on high aminoacids content. The content of fish fat is usually low with the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. Also minerals and B, A and D vitamins are very important components of this foodstuff. According to rational nourishment the fish meat should be consumed minimal 2 times weekly. Our research was focused on analysis of bottomn sediments in water reservoir Kolinany from the aspect of Cd, Hg and Pb contents, the determination of observed heavy metal contents in different parts of carp body and the evaluation of hygienic status and suitability of fish meat for the human consumption. Our results have confirmed the hygienic wholesomeness of bottom sediments in water reservoir Kolinany. The Cd, Pb and Hg contents in sediments represent no risk of their input into the fish organisms. The Cd content in fish meat was lower than maximal available amount given by legislative norms, but in selected parts of fish organism such as skin, gills and fins the Cd hygienic limit is 2.9 – 6.6 times exceeded. The Pb content in fish meat was under the hygienic limit, however in skin, gills and fins the content of this heavy metal was 1.31- 2.64 higher than maximal legislative given value. Fish skin, gills and fins belong to the non cosumed parts of fish body by people. The Hg content in fish meat was also lower than hygienc limit. The highest Hg content was observed in fish muscles (0.0544 mg.kg-1 and the lowest one in fish gonads (0.0058 mg.kg-1. The results of Cd, Pb and Hg content determination in carp body confirmed that fish muscles belong to suitable foodstuffs for the human consumption.

  15. PARASITES OF FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The intent of this chapter is to describe the parasites of importance to fishes maintained and used in laboratory settings. In contrast to the frist edition, the focus will be only on those parasites that pose a serious threat to or are common in fishes held in these confined en...

  16. Perspectives on fish impingement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    Data on fish impingement and related parameters are being gathered at a large number of power stations throughout the country at substantial monetary and manpower costs. A national survey of fish impingement at power plants was conducted and much of the information compiled in a standardized format--an effort that we think will aid in planning improvements in the design, siting, and operation of the cooling-water intakes. This paper examines the objectives of the fish impingement studies, monitoring programs, variables affecting fish impingement, siting and design criteria, state-of-the-art of screening systems, and suggestions for meeting 316(b) requirements. It also discusses where the emphasis should be placed in future fish-impingement related activities

  17. Chemical composition, mineral content and amino acid and lipid profiles in bones from various fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppe, Jogeir; Albrektsen, Sissel; Hope, Britt; Aksnes, Anders

    2007-03-01

    The chemical composition, content of minerals and the profiles of amino acids and fatty acids were analyzed in fish bones from eight different species of fish. Fish bones varied significantly in chemical composition. The main difference was lipid content ranging from 23 g/kg in cod (Gadus morhua) to 509 g/kg in mackerel (Scomber scombrus). In general fatty fish species showed higher lipid levels in the bones compared to lean fish species. Similarly, lower levels of protein and ash were observed in bones from fatty fish species. Protein levels differed from 363 g/kg lipid free dry matter (dm) to 568 g/kg lipid free dm with a concomitant inverse difference in ash content. Ash to protein ratio differed from 0.78 to 1.71 with the lowest level in fish that naturally have highest swimming and physical activity. Saithe (Pollachius virens) and salmon (Salmo salar) were found to be significantly different in the levels of lipid, protein and ash, and ash/protein ratio in the bones. Only small differences were observed in the level of amino acids although species specific differences were observed. The levels of Ca and P in lipid free fish bones were about the same in all species analyzed. Fatty acid profile differed in relation to total lipid levels in the fish bones, but some minor differences between fish species were observed.

  18. Traditional fish processing: technology, quality development and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nketsia-Tabiri, J.

    1994-01-01

    Traditional fish processing technologies are important in the preservation and utilization of fish in many developing countries. These technologies as well as the quality of the products arc poorly defined and understood. This study therefore investigated the production, quality characteristics and utilization of traditional cured fish products using field surveys and laboratory techniques. It was found that simple traditional technologies for smoking, salting and drying are used to process fish in Ghana; infrastructural requirements for traditional fish processing have high local material input. The cured fish products have distinct sensory, physico-chemical properties and variable storage characteristics. Processors' perceptions of important quality attributes of cured fish products were linked to storage, marketing and other product delivery characteristics. Consumers' perceptions and expectations of desirable quality attributes however were found to he dependent upon the type of cured fish product and the food in which it is used. Cost was found to be the most important factor influencing the utilization of animal protein foods; other factors were nutritional quality, beliefs and food habits. Animal protein consumers showed a high preference for fish in general and cured fish products in particular. U sing central composite rotatable design for k = 3, representing salting time (0 - 24), drying temperature (40°C - 60°C) and drying time (6 - 20 hours), equations for predicting objective and subjective quality indices were developed. The critical salting time for attaining minimum moisture content were 20.5, 12 and 8.5 hours respectively for products dried at 40°C, 50°C and 60°C. At each salting time, the mean hardness score was dependent on the drying temperature and drying time whilst the mean colour and overall acceptability scores were influenced by drying temperature. It was found that the long salting time (24-72 hours) and drying time (5

  19. Proteins: Chemistry, Characterization, and Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sforza, S.; Tedeschi, T.; Wierenga, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are one of the major macronutrients in food, and several traditional food commodities are good sources of proteins (meat, egg, milk and dairy products, fish, and soya). Proteins are polymers made by 20 different amino acids. They might undergo desired or undesired chemical or enzymatic

  20. The effect of replacing Fish meal with 10% of Groundnut cake in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth, food conversion efficiency and survival of H. longifilis fed diets with varying levels of protein in which 10% of fish meal was replaced with groundnut cake were studied for 84 days. Fish fed the diet containing 44.17% crude protein showed the best weight gain, specific growth rate, food conversion ratio and efficiency.

  1. Encapsulation of fish oil in nanofibers by emulsion electrospinning: Physical characterization and oxidative stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; van derKruijs, Jules

    2016-01-01

    The encapsulation of fish oil in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers by emulsion electrospinning was investigated. Independently of the emulsifier used, whey protein isolate (WPI) or fish protein hydrolysate (FPH), PVA concentration had a high influence on fiber morphology. Fibers without bead d...

  2. Why fishing magnifies fluctuations in fish abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christian N K; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Sandin, Stuart A; Hewitt, Roger; Hollowed, Anne; Beddington, John; May, Robert M; Sugihara, George

    2008-04-17

    It is now clear that fished populations can fluctuate more than unharvested stocks. However, it is not clear why. Here we distinguish among three major competing mechanisms for this phenomenon, by using the 50-year California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) larval fish record. First, variable fishing pressure directly increases variability in exploited populations. Second, commercial fishing can decrease the average body size and age of a stock, causing the truncated population to track environmental fluctuations directly. Third, age-truncated or juvenescent populations have increasingly unstable population dynamics because of changing demographic parameters such as intrinsic growth rates. We find no evidence for the first hypothesis, limited evidence for the second and strong evidence for the third. Therefore, in California Current fisheries, increased temporal variability in the population does not arise from variable exploitation, nor does it reflect direct environmental tracking. More fundamentally, it arises from increased instability in dynamics. This finding has implications for resource management as an empirical example of how selective harvesting can alter the basic dynamics of exploited populations, and lead to unstable booms and busts that can precede systematic declines in stock levels.

  3. Selenium-mercury relationships in Idaho lake fish versus Northeastern USA lake fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl-mercury (MeHg) exposure to wildlife and humans occurs primarily through the foodweb, notably fish consumption. Selenium moderates the toxicity of MeHg in all animal models that utilize selenoenzymatic protein synthesis, as do humans. A Se:Hg molar ratio of <1:1 appears to...

  4. Methodical investigation of the protein metabolism and of the bioenergetics of the protein retention in growing animals. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelker, T.; Krawielitzki, K.; Klein, M.; Keller, J.

    1983-01-01

    The amino acid composition of the proteins in selected body fractions of chickens and the 15 N -excess of amino acids isolated from them resulting from a feeding experiment with long-term 15 NH 4 -acetate labelling were determined. The amino acid spectra of feathers, breast and leg muscles are characterized by differences in the content of individual amino acids specific for the organs, the composition of the proteins, however, is independent of the protein content of the ration and the age of the animals. The sarcoplasmatic and myofibrillar proteins also have typical amino acid patterns, which-with the exception of the histidine content-are neither influenced by the extraction of the proteins from the breast or leg muscles nor by the energy level of the feeding or the age of the animals. There are no significant differences in the metabolization of the main protein fraction of the breast and leg muscles. The oral supply of 15 N-ammonium acetate to broilers predominantly labels the non-essential amino acids so that the derived kinetic data chiefly represent the metabolism of the non-essential amino acids. (author)

  5. Why do fish school?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matz LARSSON

    2012-01-01

    Synchronized movements (schooling) emit complex and overlapping sound and pressure curves that might confuse the inner ear and lateral line organ (LLO) of a predator.Moreover,prey-fish moving close to each other may blur the electro-sensory perception of predators.The aim of this review is to explore mechanisms associated with synchronous swimming that may have contributed to increased adaptation and as a consequence may have influenced the evolution of schooling.The evolutionary development of the inner ear and the LLO increased the capacity to detect potential prey,possibly leading to an increased potential for cannibalism in the shoal,but also helped small fish to avoid joining larger fish,resulting in size homogeneity and,accordingly,an increased capacity for moving in synchrony.Water-movements and incidental sound produced as by-product of locomotion (ISOL) may provide fish with potentially useful information during swimming,such as neighbour body-size,speed,and location.When many fish move close to one another ISOL will be energetic and complex.Quiet intervals will be few.Fish moving in synchrony will have the capacity to discontinue movements simultaneously,providing relatively quiet intervals to allow the reception of potentially critical environmental signals.Besides,synchronized movements may facilitate auditory grouping of ISOL.Turning preference bias,well-functioning sense organs,good health,and skillful motor performance might be important to achieving an appropriate distance to school neighbors und aid the individual fish in reducing time spent in the comparatively less safe school periphery.Turning preferences in ancestral fish shoals might have helped fish to maintain groups and stay in formarion,reinforcing aforementioned predator confusion mechanisms,which possibly played a role in the lateralization of the vertebrate brain [Current Zoology 58 (1):116-128,2012].

  6. Technical Resources for Fish and Shellfish Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on ways to develop local fish advisories, access national state and local fish advisories, obtain information on fish tissue contamination and fish tissue studies, and access information on fish consumption and human health.

  7. Biodiversity enhances reef fish biomass and resistance to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, J Emmett; Lefcheck, Jonathan S; Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Navarrete, Sergio A; Edgar, Graham J

    2016-05-31

    Fishes are the most diverse group of vertebrates, play key functional roles in aquatic ecosystems, and provide protein for a billion people, especially in the developing world. Those functions are compromised by mounting pressures on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Because of its economic and food value, fish biomass production provides an unusually direct link from biodiversity to critical ecosystem services. We used the Reef Life Survey's global database of 4,556 standardized fish surveys to test the importance of biodiversity to fish production relative to 25 environmental drivers. Temperature, biodiversity, and human influence together explained 47% of the global variation in reef fish biomass among sites. Fish species richness and functional diversity were among the strongest predictors of fish biomass, particularly for the large-bodied species and carnivores preferred by fishers, and these biodiversity effects were robust to potentially confounding influences of sample abundance, scale, and environmental correlations. Warmer temperatures increased biomass directly, presumably by raising metabolism, and indirectly by increasing diversity, whereas temperature variability reduced biomass. Importantly, diversity and climate interact, with biomass of diverse communities less affected by rising and variable temperatures than species-poor communities. Biodiversity thus buffers global fish biomass from climate change, and conservation of marine biodiversity can stabilize fish production in a changing ocean.

  8. Histamine fish poisoning revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehane, L; Olley, J

    2000-06-30

    Histamine (or scombroid) fish poisoning (HFP) is reviewed in a risk-assessment framework in an attempt to arrive at an informed characterisation of risk. Histamine is the main toxin involved in HFP, but the disease is not uncomplicated histamine poisoning. Although it is generally associated with high levels of histamine (> or =50 mg/100 g) in bacterially contaminated fish of particular species, the pathogenesis of HFP has not been clearly elucidated. Various hypotheses have been put forward to explain why histamine consumed in spoiled fish is more toxic than pure histamine taken orally, but none has proved totally satisfactory. Urocanic acid, like histamine, an imidazole compound derived from histidine in spoiling fish, may be the "missing factor" in HFP. cis-Urocanic acid has recently been recognised as a mast cell degranulator, and endogenous histamine from mast cell degranulation may augment the exogenous histamine consumed in spoiled fish. HFP is a mild disease, but is important in relation to food safety and international trade. Consumers are becoming more demanding, and litigation following food poisoning incidents is becoming more common. Producers, distributors and restaurants are increasingly held liable for the quality of the products they handle and sell. Many countries have set guidelines for maximum permitted levels of histamine in fish. However, histamine concentrations within a spoiled fish are extremely variable, as is the threshold toxic dose. Until the identity, levels and potency of possible potentiators and/or mast-cell-degranulating factors are elucidated, it is difficult to establish regulatory limits for histamine in foods on the basis of potential health hazard. Histidine decarboxylating bacteria produce histamine from free histidine in spoiling fish. Although some are present in the normal microbial flora of live fish, most seem to be derived from post-catching contamination on board fishing vessels, at the processing plant or in the

  9. Food wastes as fish feeds for polyculture of low-trophic-level fish: bioaccumulation and health risk assessments of heavy metals in the cultured fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Lam, Cheung-Lung; Mo, Wing-Yin; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Choi, Wai-Ming; Man, Yu-Bon; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-04-01

    The major purpose of this study was to use different types of food wastes which serve as the major sources of protein to replace the fish meal used in fish feeds to produce quality fish. Two types of food waste-based feed pellets FW A (with cereals) and FW B (with cereals and meat products) and the commercial feed Jinfeng® were used to culture fingerlings of three low-trophic-level fish species: bighead carp, grass carp, and mud carp (in the ratio of 1:3:1) for 1 year period in the Sha Tau Kok Organic Farm in Hong Kong. Heavy metal concentrations in all of the fish species fed with food waste pellets and commercial pellets in Sha Tau Kok fish ponds were all below the local and international maximum permissible levels in food. Health risk assessments indicated that human consumption of the fish fed with food waste feed pellets was safe for the Hong Kong residents. The present results revealed that recycling of food waste for cultivating low-trophic-level fish (mainly herbivores and detritus feeders) is feasible, and at the same time will ease the disposal pressure of food waste, a common problem of densely populated cities like Hong Kong.

  10. Persistent Organohalogens in Paired Fish Fillet and Eggs: Implications for Fish Consumption Advisories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianming; Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P

    2016-04-13

    Fish consumption is associated with both health benefits from high-quality proteins, minerals, vitamins, and fatty acids and risks from contaminants in fish. Fish consumption advisories are issued by many government agencies to keep exposure to contaminants at a safe level. Such advisories are typically based on fillets and neglect consumption of other fish parts such as eggs by certain subpopulations. To evaluate potential for dietary exposure to toxic organic chemicals via fish eggs, we analyzed polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dlPCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in paired fillet and eggs of fish from a tributary to Lake Ontario, one of the North American Great Lakes. All wet weight based concentrations in fish eggs were statistically higher than in the paired fillet samples. In fish eggs, concentrations of Σ14PBDEs, Σ14PCNs, and Σ12dlPCBs were 41-118, 0.3-1.7, and 30-128 ng/g wet weight (ww), respectively; Σ3PCDD/Fs and total (dlPCB+ PCDD/Fs) toxic equivalents (TEQs) were 4-22 and 9-54 pg/g ww, respectively. In fillet samples, Σ14PBDEs, Σ14PCNs, and Σ12dlPCBs were 4-116, 0.05-0.66, and 6-85 ng/g, respectively; Σ3PCDD/Fs and TEQs were 2-10 and 3.4-31 pg/g ww, respectively. In contrast, the fillets had higher lipid normalized concentrations than the paired egg samples, suggesting that these chemicals did not reach equilibrium between the fillets and eggs. Accordingly, measured concentrations in eggs or empirical relationship with fillet rather than prediction from equilibrium partitioning model should be used to evaluate contaminant exposure via consumption of fish eggs. For fatty fish from the lower Great Lakes area, we suggest one fillet meal be reduced from the advised fish consumption frequency for consumptions of 207 ± 37, 39 ± 2, 105 ± 51, and 119 ± 9 g fish eggs of brown trout, Chinook salmon, Coho salmon, and rainbow trout, respectively.

  11. Role of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I, and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in the catabolic response to injury and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Charles H; Frost, Robert A

    2002-05-01

    The erosion of lean body mass resulting from protracted critical illness remains a significant risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality in this patient population. Previous studies have documented the well known impairment in nitrogen balance results from both an increase in muscle protein degradation as well as a decreased rate of both myofibrillar and sacroplasmic protein synthesis. This protein imbalance may be caused by an increased presence or activity of various catabolic agents, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 or glucocorticoids, or may be mediated via a decreased concentration or responsiveness to various anabolic hormones, such as growth hormone or insulin-like growth factor-I. This review focuses on recent developments pertaining to the importance of alterations in the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis as a mechanism for the observed defects in muscle protein balance.

  12. SIS - Fish Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fish Assessment data set within the Species Information System (SIS) constraints information related to fishery stock assessments, including assessment meta-data...

  13. West Coast Fishing Ethnography

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Created as part of a 2012 BOEM study on OCS renewable energy space-use conflicts, this data contains the commercial and recreational fishing locations off the...

  14. In Place of Fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ounanian, Kristen

    Communities historically reliant on fisheries have faced changing circumstances in terms of their livelihoods, identities, demographics, and viabilities. I examine various manifestations of fisheries dependence and the process of transition as related to six cases of fishing communities undergoing...

  15. Fish-friendly future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookshier, P.; Newman, Gemma

    2001-01-01

    The latest US research into ways of reducing the harm to fish from hydroelectric turbines is outlined. Laboratory studies, field studies and advanced computational studies are being carried out to improve the understanding of and reduce the effects of stress and injury to fish from turbines. The Advanced Hydro Turbine System programme is part of the Department of Energy's Hydropower Programme. Turbine passage injuries are caused by a number of mechanisms, leaving the fish either dead or stunned. Advanced turbine technology can help to minimise fish injury and can add dissolved oxygen to the discharged water, thus improving water quality. Turbine modifications are aimed at all species, but studies have focussed on salmon, trout and eels. The new minimum gap runner (MGR) appear as efficient as standard Kaplan turbines

  16. Freshwater Fish Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater fish are ecologically important in stream ecosystems, and they provide people with significant food, recreation, and conservation value as biological indicator of freshwater streams. Historically, the streams and rivers of southern New England supported moderately dive...

  17. Fishing Community Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To enable fisheries managers to comply with National Standard 8 (NS8), NMFS social scientists around the nation are preparing fishing community profiles that present...

  18. Energy and environmental implications of novel protein production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwardson, W; Lewis, C W; Slesser, M

    1981-04-01

    The energy requirements of many novel protein production systems are compared with an examination of the relevant environmental implications of these systems. The prospects for single cell protein, leaf protein, fish farming, fish protein concentrate, algal cultivation, and hydroponic plant growth systems are investigated. Single cell protein from carbohydrate substrates, algal protein, and fish protein seem to hold much promise, as they are technologically feasible for near-term implementation and do not require major energy inputs. (2 diagrams, 1 graph, 47 references, 6 tables)

  19. Social learning in fish

    OpenAIRE

    Atton, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Social learning is known to be a common phenomenon in fish, which they utilise under many different contexts, including foraging, mate-choice and migration. Here I review the literature on social learning in fish and present two studies. The first examines the ability of threespined sticklebacks to use social learning in the enhancement of food preferences. The second study examines the ability of both threespined sticklebacks and ninespined sticklebacks to use social learning in the avoidanc...

  20. Meeting the Needs for More Fish Through Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giap, D. H.; Lam, T. J.

    2015-10-01

    Fish is one of the major sources of animal protein. Due to rising world populations, increasing income and urbanization, demand for fish has been increasing. In order to meet the need for more fish, aquaculture has become increasingly important as wild populations and production from capture fisheries have declined due to overfishing and poor management. In recent years, production from aquaculture has increased rapidly to address the shortfalls in capture fisheries, especially in Asia where aquaculture production accounts for about 90% of world aquaculture production by volume. This paper reviews the status of the world’s fish production, provides an update on Asian aquaculture, and highlights developments that are contributing to sustainable fish production, particularly integrated multi-trophic aquaculture and aquaponics.

  1. Oxidative Stability of Nano-Microstructures containing fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Özdemir, N.; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen

    investigated. For that purpose, three different biopolymers namely pullulan, dextran and whey protein concentrate (WPC) were evaluated as encapsulating materials. First, the influence of biopolymer concentration on the physical properties (e.g. viscosity, conductivity and surface tension) of the biopolymer...... solutions and on the morphology of NMS was assayed. Secondly, the oxidative stability of the biopolymer solutions containing emulsified fish oil during storage (14 days at 40 °C) and of NMS loaded with fish oil (e.g. pullulan fibers and dextran and WPC capsules) was determined. Finally, to improve...... the oxidative status of the NMS, pullulan fibers, dextran capsules and WPC capsules were produced by adding neat fish oil instead of emulsified fish oil to the biopolymer solutions. These latter NMS presented a higher oxidative stability, which may be due to a better entrapment of the fish oil into biopolymer...

  2. Radiation processing for value addition in fish and fishery products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandekar, J.R.; Karani, M.; Kakatkar, A.S.; Sharma, A.

    2009-01-01

    Fish is highly nutritious as it contains easily digestible proteins and nutritionally important vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, due to high ambient temperature in tropical countries, fish is spoiled rapidly. Spoilage of fish during transportation and storage amounting to about 30% of the catch results in heavy economic losses. The microbiological hazard related to the presence of food-borne pathogens is also common in both marine and aqua-cultured fish and shellfish. In dried products (moisture content, < 20%) insects are mainly responsible for the loss of quality during storage. Radiation processing can play a major role in ensuring security and safety of fish and fishery products by reducing post-harvest losses and eliminating pathogenic microorganisms. Being a 'cold process' the technology helps in retaining the quality of fishery products in 'as is' condition. (author)

  3. MACROZOOBENTHOS IN CARP FISH FRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Debeljak

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative components of macrozoobenthos was investigated on six fish farms with 8-10 ha-1 each at "Donji Miholjac". The ponds were stocked with 200,000 individuals per ha! of three-day-old carp larvae. The fry were fed with animal protein throughout the culturing season. The qualitative and quabtitative macrozoobenthos components formed mainly due to systematic groups of Oligochaeta and Chironomidae. The average size of Oligohaeta varied in each pond from 119 to 944 individuals per m-2 and from 2.18 to 14.09 g per m-2, and the larvae of Chironomidae from 174 to 1086 ind. per m-2 and from 2.66 to 14.09 g per m-2. Variation s of the total macrozoobenthos was within the amplitude of from 28 to 5805 ind. per m-2 and from 0.11 to 73.72 g. per m-2. In mid summer it was determined that there was a fall in the amount of macrozoobenthos in all fish ponds (Table 6.

  4. Innovation in utilization of fish tanks for fish culture among fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated innovation in utilization of fish tanks for fish culture among fish farmers in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Data for this study was obtained through the administration of questionnaire and scheduled interview to 120 sampled fish farmers randomly selected from the study ...

  5. Fishing down the largest coral reef fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Douglas

    2014-07-15

    Studies on remote, uninhabited, near-pristine reefs have revealed surprisingly large populations of large reef fish. Locations such as the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, northern Marianas Islands, Line Islands, U.S. remote Pacific Islands, Cocos-Keeling Atoll and Chagos archipelago have much higher reef fish biomass than islands and reefs near people. Much of the high biomass of most remote reef fish communities lies in the largest species, such as sharks, bumphead parrots, giant trevally, and humphead wrasse. Some, such as sharks and giant trevally, are apex predators, but others such as bumphead parrots and humphead wrasse, are not. At many locations, decreases in large reef fish species have been attributed to fishing. Fishing is well known to remove the largest fish first, and a quantitative measure of vulnerability to fishing indicates that large reef fish species are much more vulnerable to fishing than small fish. The removal of large reef fish by fishing parallels the extinction of terrestrial megafauna by early humans. However large reef fish have great value for various ecological roles and for reef tourism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Decellularized fish skin: characteristics that support tissue repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnússon, Skúli; Baldursson, Baldur Tumi; Kjartansson, Hilmar; Thorlacius, Guðný Ella; Axelsson, Ívar; Rolfsson, Óttar; Petersen, Pétur Henry; Sigurjónsson, Guðmundur Fertram

    2015-12-01

    Acellular fish skin of the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is being used to treat chronic wounds. The prevalence of diabetes and the comorbidity of chronic wounds is increasing globally. The aim of the study was to assess the biocompatibility and biological characteristics of acellular fish skin, important for tissue repair. The structure of the acellular fish skin was examined with microscopy. Biocompatibility of the graft was conducted by a specialized certified laboratory. Protein extracts from the material were analyzed using gel electrophoresis. Cytokine levels were measured with an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Angiogenic properties were assessed with a chick chorioallantoic membrane (chick CAM) assay. The structure of acellular fish skin is porous and the material is biocompatible. Electrophoresis revealed proteins around the size 115-130 kDa, indicative of collagens. The material did not have significant effect on IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-6 or TNF-α secretion from monocytes or macrophages. Acellular fish skin has significant effect on angiogenesis in the chick CAM assay. The acellular fish skin is not toxic and is not likely to promote inflammatory responses. The graft contains collagen I, promotes angiogenesis and supports cellular ingrowth. Compared to similar products made from mammalian sources, acellular fish skin does not confer a disease risk and contains more bioactive compounds, due to less severe processing.

  7. ABC transporters in fish species: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eFerreira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ATP-binding cassette (ABC proteins were first recognized for their role in multidrug resistance (MDR in chemotherapeutic treatments, which is a major impediment for the successful treatment of many forms of malignant tumors in humans. These proteins, highly conserved throughout vertebrate species, were later related to cellular detoxification and accounted as responsible for protecting aquatic organisms from xenobiotic insults in the so-called multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR. In recent years, research on these proteins in aquatic species has highlighted their importance in the detoxification mechanisms in fish thus it is of extreme added value to continue these studies. Several transporters have been pointed out as relevant in the ecotoxicological context associated to the transport of xenobiotics, such as P-glycoproteins (Pgps, multidrug-resistance-associated proteins (MRPs 1-5 and breast resistance associated protein (BCRP. In mammals, several nuclear receptors have been identified as mediators of phase I and II metabolizing enzymes and ABC transporters. In aquatic species, knowledge on co-regulation of detoxification mechanism is scarce and needs to be addressed. The interaction of emergent contaminants, with chemosensitizer potential, with ABC transporters in aquatic organisms can compromise detoxification processes and have population effects and should be studied in more detail. This review intends to summarize the recent advances in research on MXR mechanisms in fish species, focusing in 1 regulation and functioning of ABC proteins; 2 cooperation with phase I and II biotransformation enzymes; and 3 ecotoxicological relevance and information on emergent pollutants with ability to modulate ABC transporters expression and activity. Several lines of evidence are clear suggesting the important role of these transporters in detoxification mechanisms and must be further investigated in fish.

  8. Effects of Dehydration on Fish Muscles at Chilled Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Hidemasa; Seto, Fuminori; Nishimoto, Motomi; Nishimoto, Junichi

    Recently,new method of removing water from fish fillet at low temperature using dehydration sheet have been reported. The present study is concerned with the factors to affect the quality during dehydration of horse mackerel muscle at low temperature. The rate of dehydration at -3 °C was about two times faster than that at 0 °C. The rate of denaturation of fish muscle protein was kept less than about 10 % (ATPase activity) of the undenaturated initial values after removing free water content. Present results suggest the practical possibility of the dehydration at -3 °C for keeping quality of fish flesh.

  9. Mercury and nickel contents in fish meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Toth

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of our work was to identify the content of mercury and nickel in selected fish species. Consumers today are increasingly aware of the association between diet and health, and thus in Europe consume more and more fish. Fish is a valuable source of high quality protein, minerals and vitamins, and fatty fish are also rich in omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are normally considered to be beneficial to health. In our work we determined content of mercury and nickel harvested fish in particular were the following species: Common goldfish (Carassius auratus, L., Common roach (Rutilus rutilus, L. and Common bream (Abramis brama, L. Concentrations of mercury and nickel was analyzed and results evaluated according to current standards and compared to the values ​​established by the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic and the EU Commission Regulation no. 1881/2006, as well as in the EU Commission Regulation no. 420/2011 and no. 269/2008. In our research area we analysed 19 samples of fish muscle. Samples were taken from two water reservoirs – Golianovo and Vráble.  The highest mercury content was in sample Rutilus 1 - 0.052632 mg/kg. Lowest mercury content was in sample Abramis 2  - 0.010431 mg/kg. Largest nickel content was in meat of Abramis  - sample 2  - 0.78 mg/kg. Minimum content of nickel was in sample Carassius 1  - 0.11 mg/kg. We got out of the limit values ​​specified: Codex Alimentarius SR - Mercury 0.5 mg/kg and  Regulation of the EU Commission no. 1881/2006, no. 420/2011 and no. 629/2008. To optimize the protection of the population, it is necessary to continue to monitor the concentration of mercury in fish and fish products. Risk management strategy must focus on reducing potential exposure derived from consumption of fish. In particular, the definition of maximum levels for methylmercury, advising consumers and environmental activities oriented to reduce contamination.

  10. Viscoelastic behavior and microstructure of protein solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty percent solutions of calcium caseinate (CC), egg albumin (EA), fish protein isolate (FPI), soy protein isolate (SPI), wheat gluten (WG), and whey protein isolate (WPI) were examined during heating by small amplitude oscillatory shear measurements, which provided an indication of protein behav...

  11. Effect of prolonged intravenous glucose and essential amino acid infusion on nitrogen balance, muscle protein degradation and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene expression in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scaife Jes R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intravenous infusions of glucose and amino acids increase both nitrogen balance and muscle accretion. We hypothesised that co-infusion of glucose (to stimulate insulin and essential amino acids (EAA would act additively to improve nitrogen balance by decreasing muscle protein degradation in association with alterations in muscle expression of components of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. Methods We examined the effect of a 5 day intravenous infusions of saline, glucose, EAA and glucose + EAA, on urinary nitrogen excretion and muscle protein degradation. We carried out the study in 6 restrained calves since ruminants offer the advantage that muscle protein degradation can be assessed by excretion of 3 methyl-histidine and multiple muscle biopsies can be taken from the same animal. On the final day of infusion blood samples were taken for hormone and metabolite measurement and muscle biopsies for expression of ubiquitin, the 14-kDa E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, and proteasome sub-units C2 and C8. Results On day 5 of glucose infusion, plasma glucose, insulin and IGF-1 concentrations were increased while urea nitrogen excretion and myofibrillar protein degradation was decreased. Co-infusion of glucose + EAA prevented the loss of urinary nitrogen observed with EAA infusions alone and enhanced the increase in plasma IGF-1 concentration but there was no synergistic effect of glucose + EAA on the decrease in myofibrillar protein degradation. Muscle mRNA expression of the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, 14-kDa E2 and proteasome sub-unit C2 were significantly decreased, after glucose but not amino acid infusions, and there was no further response to the combined infusions of glucose + EAA. Conclusion Prolonged glucose infusion decreases myofibrillar protein degradation, prevents the excretion of infused EAA, and acts additively with EAA to increase plasma IGF-1 and improve net nitrogen balance. There was no evidence of

  12. Cowlitz Falls fish passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system

  13. Fish robotics and hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, George

    2010-11-01

    Studying the fluid dynamics of locomotion in freely-swimming fishes is challenging due to difficulties in controlling fish behavior. To provide better control over fish-like propulsive systems we have constructed a variety of fish-like robotic test platforms that range from highly biomimetic models of fins, to simple physical models of body movements during aquatic locomotion. First, we have constructed a series of biorobotic models of fish pectoral fins with 5 fin rays that allow detailed study of fin motion, forces, and fluid dynamics associated with fin-based locomotion. We find that by tuning fin ray stiffness and the imposed motion program we can produce thrust both on the fin outstroke and instroke. Second, we are using a robotic flapping foil system to study the self-propulsion of flexible plastic foils of varying stiffness, length, and trailing edge shape as a means of investigating the fluid dynamic effect of simple changes in the properties of undulating bodies moving through water. We find unexpected non-linear stiffness-dependent effects of changing foil length on self-propelled speed, and as well as significant effects of trailing edge shape on foil swimming speed.

  14. Freshwater and fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxen, R.

    1997-01-01

    Severe radioactive contamination of the freshwater environment could have serious consequences for both drinking water and fish. Most of the Nordic countries have an abundance of freshwater lakes and rivers. Finland alone has about 56,000 lakes, each with a surface area of 1 hectare or more. Nearly 10% of Finland's surface is covered with lakes and rivers. In Sweden, about 9% of the surface area is freshwater, in Norway about 5%, and in Denmark only about 2%. Freshwater plays a minor role in Iceland, but even there numerous rivers discharge from the volcanic soils to the Ocean. Cs-137 and 90 Sr are likely to be the most important radionuclides with respect to long term radioactive contamination of freshwater. If radioactive deposition occurs in the absence of snow and ice radionuclides will contaminate the surface water directly and may rapidly enter the aquatic food chain. Fish which eat contaminated plankton become contaminated almost immediately. Deposition during summer increases the transfer for radionuclides to fish since fish metabolism is faster during the warm season. During the cold period, fish metabolism is slow and thus uptake and excretion of radiocaesium are also slow. (EG)

  15. Effects Of Using Fermented Tuna Innards In Fish Feed Formula To Pangasius Pangasius Sp. Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander KorinusMarantika

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to determine the best dosage of the tuna innards fermentation powder substitution based on its survival rate specific growth rate and the conversion ratio of pangasius fish Pangasius sp. fish feed. The fish feed test formula contained 30 of raw protein. The tested fish feed consisted of fish powder mixed with substitution powder from fermented tuna innards. The substitution in fish feed A0 B10 C20 and D30. The number of pangasius fish thrown into 50x30x30 cm aquarium was 20 fish with average weight 3.120.03g. Fish feeding frequency was 5 5 three times a day at 0800 1300 and 1900 for 40 days. The results showed that with the added fermented tuna innards protein powder substitution dosage until 20 of the fish feed the survival rate improved reaching 100 the best specific growth rate was at 3.36 BB and the fish feed conversion ratio declined at the lowest 1.55 gg.

  16. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation prior to presleep protein feeding stimulates the use of protein-derived amino acids for overnight muscle protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Marlou L; Groen, Bart B L; Franssen, Rinske; van Kranenburg, Janneau; van Loon, Luc J C

    2017-01-01

    Short periods of muscle disuse result in substantial skeletal muscle atrophy. Recently, we showed that both neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) as well as presleep dietary protein ingestion represent effective strategies to stimulate muscle protein synthesis rates. In this study, we test our hypothesis that NMES can augment the use of presleep protein-derived amino acids for overnight muscle protein synthesis in older men. Twenty healthy, older [69 ± 1 (SE) yr] men were subjected to 24 h of bed rest, starting at 8:00 AM. In the evening, volunteers were subjected to 70-min 1-legged NMES, while the other leg served as nonstimulated control (CON). Immediately following NMES, 40 g of intrinsically l-[1- 13 C]-phenylalanine labeled protein was ingested prior to sleep. Blood samples were taken throughout the night, and muscle biopsies were obtained from both legs in the evening and the following morning (8 h after protein ingestion) to assess dietary protein-derived l-[1- 13 C]-phenylalanine enrichments in myofibrillar protein. Plasma phenylalanine concentrations and plasma l-[1- 13 C]-phenylalanine enrichments increased significantly following protein ingestion and remained elevated for up to 6 h after protein ingestion (P protein-bound l-[1- 13 C]-phenylalanine enrichments (MPE) increased to a greater extent in the stimulated compared with the control leg (0.0344 ± 0.0019 vs. 0.0297 ± 0.0016 MPE, respectively; P protein-derived amino acids in the NMES compared with CON leg. In conclusion, application of NMES prior to presleep protein feeding stimulates the use of dietary protein-derived amino acids for overnight muscle protein synthesis in older men. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) as well as presleep dietary protein ingestion represent effective strategies to stimulate muscle protein synthesis rates. Here we demonstrate that in older men after a day of bed rest, the application of NMES prior to presleep protein feeding stimulates the use of

  17. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Fish consumption and track to a fish feed formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai-Juan, Soong; Ramli, Razamin; Rahman, Rosshairy Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Strategically located in the equator, Malaysia is blessed with plenty of fish supply. The high demand in fish consumption has helped the development in the fishery industry and provided numerous jobs in the secondary sector, contributing significantly to the nation's income. A survey was conducted to understand the trend of current demands for fish for the purpose of designing a feed formulation, which is still limited in this area of study. Results showed that grouper fish in restaurants commanded a very high price compared to other species of fish. Tiger grouper gained the highest demand in most restaurants, while giant grouper had the highest price in restaurants. Due to the demand and challenges to culture this type of fish, a framework for fish feed formulation is proposed. The formulation framework when materialized could be an alternative to the use of trash fish as the feed for grouper.

  19. Allergy to fish collagen: Thermostability of collagen and IgE reactivity of patients' sera with extracts of 11 species of bony and cartilaginous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Kuriyama, Takuma; Nakagawara, Ryoko; Aihara, Michiko; Hamada-Sato, Naoko

    2016-10-01

    Parvalbumin was identified as a major fish allergen, and has been well investigated. Collagen was identified as a second allergen; however, its allergenic properties remain uncharacterized. Although fish is an important staple in coastal countries, its thermostability is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to determine the thermostability of fish collagen as an allergen. Meat of seven bony and four cartilaginous fishes was heated at various temperatures and times, and extracts were analyzed using SDS-PAGE, IgE-ELISA, and SPTs. Collagen was dissolved from heated meat of Pacific mackerel into a crude extract. Collagen in the extracts was degraded at a high heating load-140 °C (10 min) or 100 °C (320 min). However, ELISA revealed the IgE reactivities of patients' sera with the extracts were unchanged even after heating the samples. Patients strongly reacted to extract proteins of other bony fish, which were detected by patients' IgE even after heating at 100 °C (320 min). In contrast, reactivities of the extracts of cartilaginous fish were lower than those of bony fish. SPTs in one patient revealed that all bony and cartilaginous fish extracts prepared from heated meat elicited allergic reactions. The IgE reactivity of patients' sera to fish collagen in extracts was retained even when fish meat was treated by a high heating load. As for the fish collagen, the IgE reactivities to cartilaginous fish were lower than that to bony fish. Reducing IgE reactivity to fish meat using heat is difficult, and other modalities will be required to produce hypoallergenic fish meat. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Cross reactivity between fish and shellfish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Borrego, J; Martínez Cuevas, J F; Tejero García, J

    2003-01-01

    In Spain, fish allergy represents 18 % of all cases of food allergy in children while reactions caused by crustacea and mollusks account for 3.8 % and 1.6 % respectively. Cross-reactivity is defined as the recognition of distinct antigens by the same IgE antibody, demonstrable by in vivo and in vitro tests, which clinically manifests as reactions caused by antigens homologous to different species. Subclinical sensitization can also occur, giving rise to patients sensitized to particular fish or shellfish but who do not present symptoms on consumption.Cod and shrimp have been the models used to study allergy to fish and crustacea respectively. The major allergens responsible for cross-reactivity among distinct species of fish and amphibians are proteins that control calcium flow in the muscular sarcoplasm of these animals, called parvalbumins, with a molecular weight of approximately 12 kD and an isoelectric point of 4.75, resistant to the action of heat and enzymatic digestion. Recently, recombinant carp parvalbumin has been reproduced, confirming that this allergen contains 70 % of the IgE epitopes present in natural extract of cod, tuna and salmon, which makes it a valid tool in the diagnosis of patients with fish allergy. Moreover, this recombinant allergen could constitute the basis for the development of immunotherapy against food allergy. In the case of shellfish, a non-taxonomic group that includes crustacea and mollusks, the major allergen is tropomyosin, an essential protein in muscle contraction both in invertebrates and vertebrates. In invertebrates, tropomyosins, which have a molecular weight of between 38 and 41 kD, show great homology in their amino acid sequence and are the panallergens responsible for cross-reactions between crustacea, insects, mites, nematodes, and different classes of mollusks. It is estimated that 50 % of individuals allergic to some type of fish are at risk for reacting to a second species, while those allergic to some type of

  1. Fish pigmentation and the melanocortin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cal, Laura; Suarez-Bregua, Paula; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel; Braasch, Ingo; Rotllant, Josep

    2017-09-01

    The melanocortin system is a complex neuroendocrine signaling mechanism involved in numerous physiological processes in vertebrates, including pigmentation, steroidogenesis and metabolic control. This review focuses at one of its most fascinating function in fish, its regulatory role in the control of pigmentation, in which the melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r), its agonist α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-Msh), and the endogenous antagonist agouti signaling protein (Asip1) are the main players. Functional control of Mc1r, which is highly expressed in fish skin and whose activation stimulates melanin production and melanosome dispersion in fish melanophores, is considered a key mechanism for vertebrate pigment phenotypes. The α-Msh peptide, the most documented Mc1r agonist involved in pigmentation, is produced in the pituitary gland, activating melanin synthesis by binding to Mc1r in fish melanophores. Finally, Asip1 is the putative factor for establishing the evolutionarily conserved dorso-ventral pigment pattern found across vertebrates. However, we are just starting to understand how other melanocortin system components are acting in this complex regulatory network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The anabolic potential of dietary protein intake on skeletal muscle is prolonged by prior light-load exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshøft, Rasmus; Dideriksen, Kasper; Reitelseder, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Hyperaminoacidemia stimulates myofibrillar fractional synthesis rate (myoFSR) transiently in resting skeletal muscle. We investigated whether light-load resistance exercise can extent this responsiveness....

  3. Effect of soybean diet: Growth and conversion efficiencies of fingerling of stinging cat fish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzzammil Iqbal Siddiqui

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of 15% protein from soybean meal in Diet II was feasible for the stinging cat fish, Heteropneustes fossilis and no significant differences in growth parameters were found in fish fed soybean meal-based diets compared to those fed control diet (Diet I. Live weight gain percent (165% obtained in fish fed soybean meal based diet was not significantly different to that achieved (171% in fish fed Diet I. Specific growth rate percent, SGR (2.79%, feed conversion ratio FCR (1.40 and protein efficiency ratio PER (1.79 recorded in fish fed Diet II were also more less comparable to those fed control diet. Mortality was not recorded in the period of the feeding trial. Body composition of the fish fed soybean meal based diet (Diet II was also comparable to that fed control diet. Significantly higher fat content was noted in fish fed Diet II. However, the protein contents were not changed in fish fed Diet I and II. Similarly, no significant differences (P > 0.05 in protein productive value were noted between the two groups. However, ash content differed significantly (P < 0.05 in fish fed Diet I and II. Although soybean meal-based diet depressed growth and feed conversion efficiencies of the fish to some extent, inclusion of soybean meal was found to be cost-effective alternative to fish meal.

  4. Fish Commoditization: Sustainability Strategies to Protect Living Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Mimi E.; Pitcher, Tony J.

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of early fishing on aquatic ecosystems were minimal, as primitive technologies were used to harvest fish primarily for food. As fishing technology grew more sophisticated and human populations dispersed and expanded, local economies transitioned from subsistence to barter and trade. Expanded trade networks and mercantilization led to…

  5. Economic differential of integrated fish, rice cum piggery and fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish, rice cum piggery and fish, rice cum poultry production integration platforms were set up to perfect the ideas of integrated fish farming in Sierra Leone. Water quality parameters measured biweekly included: dissolved oxygen, water temperature, pH, water hardness, water alkalinity, ammonia, nitrate, BOD and nitrite.

  6. Dynamic rheological, microstructural and physicochemical properties of blend fish protein recovered from kilka (Clupeonella cultriventris) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) by the pH-shift process or washing-based technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Mehdi; Rezaei, Masoud; Jafarpour, Ali; Undeland, Ingrid

    2017-08-15

    This study aimed to evaluate how blending pH-shift produced protein isolates from gutted kilka (Clupeonella cultriventris) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) affected dynamic rheological and chemical properties of the proteins as well as microstructural and physico-mechanical properties of produced gels. Studied variables were protein solubilization pH (acid vs. alkaline) and blending step (before or after protein precipitation). Comparisons were made with conventionally washed minces from kilka and silver carp fillets; either alone or after blending. Rheological studies revealed that blending alkali-produced protein isolates before precipitation resulted in rapid increase of G' reflecting the formation of intermolecular protein-protein interactions with higher rate. Furthermore, blending of alkali-produced protein isolates and washed minces, respectively, of kilka and silver carp improved physico-mechanical properties of the resultant gels compared to pure kilka proteins. However, the pH-shift method showed higher efficacy in development of blend surimi at the same blending ratio compared to the conventional washing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR FISH CANNED PATE'S COD-FISH SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Efremova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Fish and seafood play an important role in a balanced diet. The most reliable method of preservation is the production of canned fish. Cod fishery considered traditional objects of the North Basin, which catches in recent years stored at a consistently high level. They are represented, mainly cod, haddock, pollack, whiting. Lately there has been a tendency to increase yield loaves (polar bib. The aim of this work - the development of technology - canned pate's cod fish species with the addition of plant materials. We used the adopted research microbiological, chemical and physical methods. The weight proportion of water, lipids, protein, mineral raw determined according to State standard 7636-85. Developed a technology - canned pate's cod fish species with the addition of plant materials. Optimized formulation is set to sterilization. Experimentally determined parameters of quality canned and given comprehensive assessment nutritional value of new products, organoleptic, physico-chemical, biochemical and microbiological tests showed that canned pates of Gadidae species of fish with vegetables, meet all safety requirements and are characterized, along with excellent consumer properties, high nutritional value. Based on the results of the research complex developed technical documentation for production of canned vegetables, pates of Gadidae species.

  8. Cohesion and Adhesion with Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2016-01-01

    With increasing interest in bio-based adhesives, research on proteins has expanded because historically they have been used by both nature and humans as adhesives. A wide variety of proteins have been used as wood adhesives. Ancient Egyptians most likely used collagens tobond veneer to wood furniture, then came casein (milk), blood, fish scales, and soy adhesives, with...

  9. Temperature - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  10. LCA of Danish fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    The article presents the main results from a PhD dissertation about environmental impacts from Danish fish products.......The article presents the main results from a PhD dissertation about environmental impacts from Danish fish products....

  11. KLA - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  12. Pickering nuclear fish diversion net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, J.; Lew, A. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Pickering Fish Diversion Net - An Engineered Environmental Solution that has significantly reduced fish impingement at the Pickering Nuclear Facility. Note: As a recent urgent request/discussed by Mark Elliot, CNE-OPG and Jacques Plourde, CNS.

  13. Guidelines for Eating Fish that Contain Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about how to minimize exposure to methylmercury while eating fish. Read about fish advisories, how to use them to consume fish safely, and use the national fish advisories locator to find them in an area near you.

  14. Fish is food--the FAO's fish price index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveterås, Sigbjørn; Asche, Frank; Bellemare, Marc F; Smith, Martin D; Guttormsen, Atle G; Lem, Audun; Lien, Kristin; Vannuccini, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    World food prices hit an all-time high in February 2011 and are still almost two and a half times those of 2000. Although three billion people worldwide use seafood as a key source of animal protein, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations-which compiles prices for other major food categories-has not tracked seafood prices. We fill this gap by developing an index of global seafood prices that can help to understand food crises and may assist in averting them. The fish price index (FPI) relies on trade statistics because seafood is heavily traded internationally, exposing non-traded seafood to price competition from imports and exports. Easily updated trade data can thus proxy for domestic seafood prices that are difficult to observe in many regions and costly to update with global coverage. Calculations of the extent of price competition in different countries support the plausibility of reliance on trade data. Overall, the FPI shows less volatility and fewer price spikes than other food price indices including oils, cereals, and dairy. The FPI generally reflects seafood scarcity, but it can also be separated into indices by production technology, fish species, or region. Splitting FPI into capture fisheries and aquaculture suggests increased scarcity of capture fishery resources in recent years, but also growth in aquaculture that is keeping pace with demand. Regionally, seafood price volatility varies, and some prices are negatively correlated. These patterns hint that regional supply shocks are consequential for seafood prices in spite of the high degree of seafood tradability.

  15. Fish is food--the FAO's fish price index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigbjørn Tveterås

    Full Text Available World food prices hit an all-time high in February 2011 and are still almost two and a half times those of 2000. Although three billion people worldwide use seafood as a key source of animal protein, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO of the United Nations-which compiles prices for other major food categories-has not tracked seafood prices. We fill this gap by developing an index of global seafood prices that can help to understand food crises and may assist in averting them. The fish price index (FPI relies on trade statistics because seafood is heavily traded internationally, exposing non-traded seafood to price competition from imports and exports. Easily updated trade data can thus proxy for domestic seafood prices that are difficult to observe in many regions and costly to update with global coverage. Calculations of the extent of price competition in different countries support the plausibility of reliance on trade data. Overall, the FPI shows less volatility and fewer price spikes than other food price indices including oils, cereals, and dairy. The FPI generally reflects seafood scarcity, but it can also be separated into indices by production technology, fish species, or region. Splitting FPI into capture fisheries and aquaculture suggests increased scarcity of capture fishery resources in recent years, but also growth in aquaculture that is keeping pace with demand. Regionally, seafood price volatility varies, and some prices are negatively correlated. These patterns hint that regional supply shocks are consequential for seafood prices in spite of the high degree of seafood tradability.

  16. Culture and processing of silver carp, a plankton feeder fish : for sustainable development of freshwater fisheries in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Chunhong

    2009-01-01

    With economical development and life style changes, billions of people want to diversify their diets by consuming less plant starch and more animal protein. Compared to other animals, fish are highly efficient at converting feed into protein. Health concerns have also prompted some people to shift consumption from beef and pork to poultry and fish. These resulted in the quick development of fish culture. According to FAO statistics, aquaculture output expanded from 13 million tons in 1990 to ...

  17. How to Represent a Fish?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elspeth Probyn

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article canvasses a broad range of fish representations across several disciplines. It asks what cultural studies can learn from scientific representation of fish, and argues that in turn cultural studies can be a nuanced understanding of the work of images. The objective of the article is to open debate about fish and their sustainability beyond discrete disciplines and/or ideologies. This, it is argued, is crucial if we are to go beyond a simplified cultural politics of fish.

  18. Fish Oil in Diabetic Nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Peter; Hansen, Birgitte V.; Nielsen, Flemming S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent studies in nondiabetic kidney diseases suggest that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish oil) may have beneficial effects on albuminuria, kidney function, arterial blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. Therefore, we evaluated the long-term effect of fish...... in the fish oil compared with the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Our study does not suggest that fish oil has beneficial effects on albuminuria, kidney function, blood pressure, and dyslipidemia in normotensive IDDM patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy....

  19. Isolated contact urticaria caused by immunoglobulin E-mediated fish allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onesimo, Roberta; Giorgio, Valentina; Pill, Stefania; Monaco, Serena; Sopo, Stefano Miceli

    2012-01-01

    Fish is a common cause of food allergy. The reactions usually occur after its ingestion. In most immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions, the allergens are gastroresistant and heat-stable proteins of low molecularweight (parvalbumin). On the other hand, isolated contact urticaria following the handling of raw fish but without symptoms after its ingestion was found among cooks and professional fish handlers. In these cases, the fish allergens are gastrosensitive and thermolabile, as demonstrated by the decrease in the diameter of the wheal in the skin-prick test using cooked fish. To the best of our knowledge isolated fish contact urticaria in children has not been previously reported. We analyze the features of three pediatric cases of contact urticaria from cod (one of them was sensitized to parvalbumin), with tolerance after ingestion of this fish on oral food challenge.

  20. The fish egg microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Y. Liu

    Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp.

    The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen