WorldWideScience

Sample records for fish collected upstream

  1. Radionuclide concentrations in game and nongame fish upstream and downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory: 1981 to 1993

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Salazar, J.G.

    1994-08-01

    Radionuclide concentrations were determined in game (surface-feeding) and nongame (bottom-feeding) fish collected from reservoirs upstream (Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado) and downstream (Cochiti) of Los Alamos National Laboratory from 1981 to 1993. The average levels of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, and 239 Pu in game and nongame fish collected from Cochiti reservoir were not significantly different in fish collected from reservoirs upstream of the Laboratory. Total uranium was the only radionuclide that was found to be significantly higher n both game and nongame fish from Cochiti as compared to fish from Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado. Uranium concentrations in fish collected from Cochiti, however, significantly decreased from 1981 to 1993, and no evidence of depleted uranium was found in fish samples collected from Cochiti in 1993. Based on the average concentration of radionuclides over the year the effective (radiation) dose equivalent from consuming 46 lb of game fish and nongame fish from Cochiti reservoir after natural background has been subtracted was 0.005 and 0.009 mrem/yr, respectively. The highest dose was <0.01% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) permissible dose limit for protecting members of the public

  2. Influence of seasonal, diel, lunar, and other environmental factors on upstream fish passage in the igarapava fish ladder, Brazil

    Bizzotto, P.M.; Godinho, Alexandre L.; Vono, V.; Kynard, B.; Godinho, Hugo P.

    2009-01-01

    Upstream fish passage was evaluated during 12 months in the vertical-slot Igarapava Fish Ladder constructed around Igarapava Dam, in the heavily dammed Grande River, Southeast Brazil. A video monitoring system was used to observe 61,621 fish that passed the ladder, of which 93.5% were identified to 15 taxa. Among the migratory species, the most abundant were Pimelodus maculatus (33.6% of all fish), Leporinus octofasciatus (31.4%), Leporinus friderici (4.5%), and Prochilodus lineatus (3.1%). Seven taxa were classified as nonmigratory, and of these taxa, the small Bryconamericus stramineus was the most abundant (12.7%) of all fishes. Passage of the 'nonmigratory' taxa upstream in the ladder shows they are migratory in this system and have a strong behavioural drive to move to upstream habitat. Passage of most taxa had a strong seasonal pattern. While some species passed primarily during the day, others showed a distinct nocturnal pattern. Lunar phase and water temperature also strongly affected passage of some taxa. Rainfall and dam discharge had a small or null influence on most taxa; perhaps due to the fairly small catchment area of the reservoir and the highly regulated discharge at Igarapava Dam. ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Analysis of Environmental Issues Related to Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development II: Design Consideration for Passing Fish Upstream Around Dams

    Hildebrandt, S. G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bell, M. C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Anderson, J. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Richey, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Parkhurst, Z. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide general information for use by potential developers of small scale hydroelectric projects that will include facilities to pass migrating fish upstream around dams. The document is not intended to be a textbook on design of fish passage facilities, but rather to be a general guide to some factors that are important when designing such facilities.

  4. Upstream movements of Atlantic Salmon in the Lower Penobscot River, Maine following two dam removals and fish passage modifications

    Izzo, Lisa K.; Maynard, George A.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.

    2016-01-01

    The Penobscot River Restoration Project (PRRP), to be completed in 2016, involved an extensive plan of dam removal, increases in hydroelectric capacity, and fish passage modifications to increase habitat access for diadromous species. As part of the PRRP, Great Works and Veazie dams were removed, making Milford Dam the first impediment to federally endangered Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar. Upstream habitat access for Atlantic Salmon is dependent upon successful and timely passage at Milford Dam because nearly all suitable spawning habitat is located upstream. In 2014 and 2015, a total of 73 adult salmon were radio-tagged to track their upstream movements through the Penobscot River to assess potential delays at (1) the dam remnants, (2) the confluence of the Stillwater Branch and the main stem of the Penobscot River below the impassable Orono Dam, and (3) the Milford Dam fish lift (installed in 2014). Movement rates through the dam remnants and the Stillwater confluence were comparable to open river reaches. Passage efficiency of the fish lift was high in both years (95% and 100%). However, fish experienced long delays at Milford Dam, with approximately one-third of fish taking more than a week to pass in each year, well below the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission passage standard of 95% within 48 h. Telemetry indicates most fish locate the fishway entrance within 5 h of arrival and were observed at the entrance at all hours of the day. These data indicate that overall transit times through the lower river were comparable to reported movement rates prior to changes to the Penobscot River due to the substantial delays seen at Milford Dam. The results of this study show that while adult Atlantic Salmon locate the new fish lift entrance quickly, passage of these fish was significantly delayed under 2014–2015 operations.

  5. A barrier to upstream migration in the fish passage of Itaipu Dam (Canal da Piracema), Paraná River basin

    ,; Fontes Júnior, Hélio Martins; Makrakis, Sergio; Gomes, Luiz Carlos; Latini, João Dirço

    2012-01-01

    The majority of the fish passages built in the Neotropical region are characterised by low efficiency and high selectivity; in many cases, the benefits to fish populations are uncertain. Studies conducted in the Canal da Piracema at Itaipu dam on the Parana River indicate that the system component designated as the Discharge channel in the Bela Vista River (herein named Canal de deságue no rio Bela Vista or CABV), a 200 m long technical section, was the main barrier to the upstream migration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of restriction imposed by the CABV on upstream movements of Prochilodus lineatus and Leporinus elongatus, Characiformes. Fish were tagged with passive integrated transponders (PIT tags) and released both downstream and upstream of this critical section. Individuals of both species released downstream of the CABV took much more time to reach the upper end of the system (43.6 days vs. 15.9 days), and passed in much lower proportions (18% vs. 60.8%) than those tagged upstream of this component. Although more work is needed to differentiate between fishway effects and natural variation in migratory motivation, the results clearly demonstrate passage problems at the CABV.

  6. The control of the upstream movement of fish with pulsated direct current

    McLain, Alberton L.

    1957-01-01

    Alternating-current electromechanical devices installed in the mouths of streams have proved effective in stopping the spawning migrations of the parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) which has seriously damaged Great Lakes fisheries. In a few streams, excessive mortality has occurred to other fish at the alternating-current barriers. A direct-current unit was developed in an attempt to reduce this mortality. This direct-current “diversion device” consists of a row of suspended negative electrodes which begins at the end of a trap wing and extends across the river at a downstream angle of 45° and a series of pipes (positive electrodes) driven into the stream bank. A second array, consisting of horizontal pipes installed downstream and parallel to the suspended electrodes and connected to a series of rods driven into the bank near the positive electrodes, controls the electrical field and dissipates the collecting influence of the positive side of the circuit. The electrical field is established from the end of the trap wing to the opposite bank. Fish are diverted away from the negative electrodes and toward the bank near which the trap is located. The array is activiated by pulsated direct current of essentially square wave shape with pulses at a duty cycle of 0.66 and a repetition rate of 3 per second. Direct-current diversion devices were operated in conjunction with alternating-current barriers during 1956 in the Chocolay River, Marquette County, and the Silver River, Baraga County, Michigan.

  7. Principle and design of hatch operation system for fish migrating upstream-downstream of the discharge sill

    Răzvan G.Voicu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To improve fish migration and restore local lotic ecosystems, it is necessary to consider the various current hydro-construction methods. There have been partial successes in systems that improve fish passage over various obstacles but new approaches that present more efficient solutions and international collaboration among specialists are required. This article deals with European themes of great interest; issues related to interruption of longitudinal connectivity in heavily modified water courses, and improving the ecological status of damaged lotic systems, with the goal of achieving the environmental objectives set forth by the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD and the national legislative framework regarding water policy (which reflects the European directives Water Law no. 107, with subsequent amendments, NT No. / 2006 OM 1163/2007, and discusses the obligation to ensure that construction works protect fish migration to maintain ecological balance in the reservoirs. It is possible to use this system in almost any fish-bearing stream, both upstream and downstream of maximum circulation, which makes the system an excellent solution for assisting and improving migration.

  8. Fishing out collective memory of migratory schools

    De Luca, G.; Mariani, Patrizio; MacKenzie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Animals form groups for many reasons but there are costs and benefit associated with group formation. One of the benefits is collective memory. In groups on the move, social interactions play a crucial role in the cohesion and the ability to make consensus decisions. When migrating from spawning...... to feeding areas fish schools need to retain a collective memory of the destination site over thousand of kilometers and changes in group formation or individual preference can produce sudden changes in migration pathways. We propose a modelling framework, based on stochastic adaptive networks, that can...... reproduce this collective behaviour. We assume that three factors control group formation and school migration behaviour: the intensity of social interaction, the relative number of informed individuals and the preference that each individual has for the particular migration area. We treat these factors...

  9. Radionuclide concentrations in fish collected from Jemez, Nambe, and San Ildefonso Tribal Lakes

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Salazar, J.G.

    1995-02-01

    Radionuclide concentrations ( 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239 Pu,and total uranium) were determined in fish collected from Jemez, Nambe, and San Ildefonso tribal lakes. With the exception of 137 Cs, all other radionuclides were not significantly different in (stocked) rainbow trout collected from Jemez and Nambe as compared with game fish collected from Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado Reservoirs. Although 137 Cs levels in trout from Jemez (3.2 x 10 -2 pCi per dry gram) and Nambe (7.5 x 10 -2 pCi per dry gram) were significantly higher than 137 Cs concentrations in fish from Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado, they were still well below the regional statistical (worldwide fallout) reference level (i.e., -2 pCi per dry gram). Game and nongame fish collected from San Ildefonso contained higher and significantly higher concentrations of uranium, respectively, as compared with fish collected from Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado. The higher uranium concentrations in fish from San Ildefonso as compared with fish from Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado were attributed to the higher natural soil uranium contents in the area as compared with the geology of the area upstream of San Ildefonso. The effective (radiation) dose equivalent (EDE) from consuming 46 lb of game fish from Jemez, Nambe, and San Ildefonso lakes, after natural background has been subtracted, was 0.013 (±0.002), 0.019 (±0.012), and 0.017 (±0.028) mrem/yr, respectively. Similarly, the EDE from consuming nongame fish from San Ildefonso was 0.0092 (±0.0084) mrem/yr. The highest calculated dose, based on the mean + 2 standard deviation (95% confidence level), was 0.073 mrem/yr; this was <0.08% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit for protecting members of the public

  10. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Catfish and Carp Collected from the Rio Grande Upstream and Downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory: Revision 1

    Gilbert J. Gonzales

    2008-05-12

    Concern has existed for years that the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a complex of nuclear weapons research and support facilities, has released polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the environment that may have reached adjacent bodies of water through canyons that connect them. In 1997, LANL's Ecology Group began measuring PCBs in fish in the Rio Grande upstream and downstream of ephemeral streams that cross LANL and later began sampling fish in Abiquiu and Cochiti reservoirs, which are situated on the Rio Chama and Rio Grande upstream and downstream of LANL, respectively. In 2002, we electroshocked channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and common carp (Carpiodes carpio) in the Rio Grande upstream and downstream of LANL and analyzed fillets for PCB congeners. We also sampled soils along the Rio Chama and Rio Grande drainages to discern whether a background atmospheric source of PCBs that could impact surface water adjacent to LANL might exist. Trace concentrations of PCBs measured in soil (mean = 4.7E-05 {micro}g/g-ww) appear to be from background global atmospheric sources, at least in part, because the bimodal distribution of low-chlorinated PCB congeners and mid-chlorinated PCB congeners in the soil samples is interpreted to be typical of volatilized PCB congeners that are found in the atmosphere and dust from global fallout. Upstream catfish (n = 5) contained statistically (P = 0.047) higher concentrations of total PCBs (mean = 2.80E-02 {micro}g/g-ww) than downstream catfish (n = 10) (mean = 1.50E-02 {micro}g/g-ww). Similarly, upstream carp (n = 4) contained higher concentrations of total PCBs (mean = 7.98E-02 {micro}g/g-ww) than downstream carp (n = 4) (3.07E-02 {micro}g/g-ww); however, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.42). The dominant PCB homologue in all fish samples was hexachlorobiphenyls. Total PCB concentrations in fish in 2002 are lower than 1997; however, differences in analytical methods and other uncertainties

  11. A semelparous fish continues upstream migration when exposed to alarm cue, but adjusts movement speed and timing

    Luhring, Thomas M; Meckley, Trevor D.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Siefkes, Michael J.; Hume, John B.; Wagner, C. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Animals make trade-offs between predation risk and pursuit of opportunities such as foraging and reproduction. Trade-offs between antipredator behaviours and foraging are well suited to manipulation in laboratory and field settings and have generated a vast compendium of knowledge. However, much less is known about how animals manage trade-offs between predation risk and pursuit of reproductive opportunities in the absence of the confounding effects of foraging. In the present study, we investigated how the nonfeeding migratory life stage of sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, responds to odour from dead conspecifics (a cue that induces avoidance behaviours in laboratory and field studies). We released groups of PIT-tagged sea lamprey 65 m from the shore of Lake Michigan or 287 m upstream in Carp Lake River and used antennas to detect their movements in the river. As the breeding season progressed, sea lamprey initiated upstream movement earlier and were more likely to enter the river. Sea lamprey that began the night in Lake Michigan entered Carp Lake River at higher rates and accelerated upstream when exposed to high concentrations of alarm cue, consistent with animals attempting to minimize time spent in risky areas. Sea lampreys that began the night in the river delayed upstream movement when exposed to alarm cue, consistent with animals sheltering and gathering information about a source of risk. We attribute this context-specific reaction to alarm cue to differences in perceived vulnerability to predation in sheltered positions in the river versus exposed positions in the lake. Once in the river, the vast majority of sea lamprey moved upstream independent of alarm cue or Julian date. Although life-history-induced time and energy budgets place rigid constraints on the direction of migration, sea lamprey attend to predation risk by modifying movement timing and speed.

  12. Model of Collective Fish Behavior with Hydrodynamic Interactions

    Filella, Audrey; Nadal, François; Sire, Clément; Kanso, Eva; Eloy, Christophe

    2018-05-01

    Fish schooling is often modeled with self-propelled particles subject to phenomenological behavioral rules. Although fish are known to sense and exploit flow features, these models usually neglect hydrodynamics. Here, we propose a novel model that couples behavioral rules with far-field hydrodynamic interactions. We show that (1) a new "collective turning" phase emerges, (2) on average, individuals swim faster thanks to the fluid, and (3) the flow enhances behavioral noise. The results of this model suggest that hydrodynamic effects should be considered to fully understand the collective dynamics of fish.

  13. Upstream fish migration. Report of the hydro power panel of experts; Fischaufstieg. Bericht aus der Expertengruppe Wasserkraft

    Roger, Sebastian [RWE Innogy GmbH, Essen (Germany). Asset Management Hydro National; Kaefer, Sabine [Verbund Hydro Power AG, Villach (Austria); Ulrich, Jochen [EDH Energiedienst Holding AG, Laufenburg (Switzerland). Oekologie und Werkdienst; Zemanek, Friedrich [evn naturkraft Erzeugungsgesellschaft m.b.H., Maria Enzersdorf (Austria)

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, ecological regulations and environmental demands have steadily increased on European, national, and on Federal State level. One key issue of Federal implementations of the European water framework directive is to achieve the environmental targets by establishing the passability for fish. In support of its member companies, VGB (TC 'Hydro Power Plants') set up a transnational expert group. This group was to analyse, compare, and evaluate different essential guidelines for fish passes and residual flows including the exchange of experience and the provision of practical examples. (orig.)

  14. Collecting marine litter during regular fish surveys

    Sluis, van der M.T.; Hal, van R.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of the marine litter monitoring on the IBTS survey of 2014 and the BTS survey of 2013. Since 2013 marine litter is collected during the International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS) and Dutch Beam Trawl Survey (BTS) following a protocol developed by ICES. The composition

  15. SUGGESTIONS OF SCENARIOS FOR RESTORING LONGITUDINAL CONNECTIVITY TO SUSTAIN FISH FAUNA MIGRATION UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM OF APAHIDA BOTTOM SILL

    Razvan VOICU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rivers and their corridors form complex ecosystems that include adjacent land, flora and fauna and the actual courses of water. Given the ecological criteria for prioritizing the rehabilitation of longitudinal continuity of watercourses recommended by the International Commission for Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR (Appendix 1 and starting from the analysis of the Management Plan to ensure longitudinal continuity of watercourses in Some?-Tisa River Area (Annex 9.17.a in BMP – Basin Management Plan there have been proposed several scenarios in order to facilitate fish species migration above the bottom sill from Apahida. The selected case study is focused on the mentioned discharge or bottom sill in Apahida town (hm 985 located 45 m downstream of the bridge located at the intersection of two streets; this bottom sill is 0.8 m high and was built in order to correct the slope, to reduce erosion and to enhance water oxygenation. Currently the bottom sill is supervised by Some?-Tisa River Basin Water Administration, Cluj SGA. One of the important migratory fish species in the study area is the Common Nase (Chondrostoma nasus protected by Bern Convention (Appendix III; barbel (Barbus barbus- rare species, protected Habitats Directive (Annex V,annex 4A of Low nr.462 and Red List of RBDD; bream (Abramis brama bream (Abramis brama - IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The water catchment area of the Apahida commune in Cluj County blocks migration of various species of migratory fish such as: Common Nase (Chondrostoma nasus protected by the Bern Convention (Appendix III; Barbel (Barbus barbus - rare species, protected Habitats Directive (Annex V, Annex 4A of Low No 462 and Red List of RBDD; Bream (Abramis brama Bream (Abramis brama - IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. To help the three species of fish come the solutions proposed in this article.

  16. Water quality and the composition of fish and macroinvertebrate communities in the Devils and Pecos Rivers within and upstream from the Amistad National Recreation Area, Texas, 2005-7

    Moring, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the water quality and status of fish and macroinvertebrate communities, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service and Amistad National Recreation Area, completed a reconnaissance-level survey of the water quality and fish and macroinvertebrate communities in the Devils and Pecos Rivers in and upstream from the Amistad National Recreation Area in southwest Texas during 2005–7. Water-quality conditions during the spring and summer months of 2005 in the Devils and Pecos Rivers were assessed at locations just upstream from the Amistad National Recreation Area, and the composition of fish and macroinvertebrate communities were assessed during 2006 and 2007 in and upstream from the Amistad National Recreation Area and Amistad Reservoir. Water-quality samples were collected at one site on both the Devils and Pecos Rivers. Fish and macroinvertebrates were collected at the water-quality sampling site on each river and at three additional sites on each river. The water-quality constituents of primary concern were total dissolved solids, chloride, sulfate, ammonia plus organic nitrogen, nitrate plus nitrite, orthophosphate, phosphorus, selenium, and selected pesticides. During the spring and summer of 2005, the concentrations of total dissolved solids ranged from 208 to 232 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in samples from the Devils River compared to 1,460 to 2,390 mg/L in samples from the Pecos River. Total dissolved solid concentrations measured in samples collected from the Devils River and Pecos River did not exceed the proposed State of Texas water-quality standard applicable for the segments of each river where samples were collected. During the spring and summer of 2005, chloride concentrations measured in samples collected in 2005 from the Devils River ranged from 11.6 to 12.9 mg/L, compared to chloride concentrations measured in samples collected from the Pecos River, which ranged from 519 to 879 mg

  17. 78 FR 51145 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Comprehensive Data Collection on Fishing...

    2013-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Comprehensive Data Collection on Fishing Dependence of Alaska Communities AGENCY...., Washington, DC 20230 (or via the Internet at [email protected] ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for...

  18. 78 FR 21911 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Fish and Seafood Promotion; Correction

    2013-04-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Fish and Seafood Promotion; Correction AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Federal Register (78 FR 20092) on the proposed information collection, Fish and Seafood Promotion. The...

  19. Asymmetrical, inversely graded, upstream-migrating cyclic steps in marine settings: Late Miocene-early Pliocene Fish Creek-Vallecito Basin, southern California

    Gong, Chenglin; Chen, Liuqin; West, Logan

    2017-10-01

    Cyclic steps are ubiquitous in modern sedimentary environments, yet their recognition remains sparse in the rock record. Here, we interpret three sets of undulating backsets (1 to 3) recognized in the late Miocene-early Pliocene Latrania Formation in the Anza-Borrego Desert, the Fish Creek-Vallecito Basin, southern California, USA as the first cm- to dm-scale outcrop record of cyclic steps, based on asymmetrical cross-sections, upstream migration, and inversely graded laminae. Upstream migration and asymmetrical cross-sections of backsets and concomitant backset laminae are attributed to supercritical-to-subcritical flow transitions through weak hydraulic jumps, which are composed of: (i) thin (tens of centimetres) and slower (reported as flow velocities (Ū) of 0.45 to 1.45 m s- 1, with mean value of Ū = 0.89 m s- 1) subcritical (represented by internal Froude numbers (Fr) of 0.67 to 0.99, with mean value of Fr = 0.84) turbidity currents on the stoss sides, and (ii) thin (tens of centimetres) and faster (reported as Ū of 0.99 to 4.03 m s- 1, with mean value of Ū = 2.24 m s- 1) supercritical (represented by Fr of 1.84 to 3.07, with mean value of Fr = 2.42) turbidity flows on the lee sides. The inversely graded laminae in the troughs of backsets are 2 to 5 cm thick, and consist of two discrete divisions: (i) 1 to 2 cm thick, lower finer-grained divisions made up of parallel laminated siltstones, overlain by very fine- to fine-grained sandstones, and (ii) 2 to 3 cm thick, upper divisions composed of medium- to coarse-grained sandstones, with sporadic occurrence of subrounded pebbles. These inversely graded laminae are related to stratified, collisional and/or frictional traction carpets under conditions of high fall-out rates. Due to the poor preservation potential of cyclic steps, the rock record of cyclic steps is generally considered to be rare. The present outcrop-based study presents a detailed analysis of sedimentary facies, growth patterns, and flow

  20. Collective Motion of Robotic Fish Synchronized with Antiphases

    Wang, Chen; Cao, Ming; Xie, Guangming

    2011-01-01

    The study of design principles for individual robotic fish can be traced back to at least the early 1990’s. More recently, different central pattern generator (CPG) models have been utilized to control the locomotions of robotic fish and some results have been reported to use proper sensing and

  1. 78 FR 28619 - Proposed Information Collection; Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Banking Survey

    2013-05-15

    ...-FF09E31000] Proposed Information Collection; Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Banking Survey AGENCY... banking credits. The surveys will benefit the Service by helping to identify constraints in the current... Number: 1018-XXXX. This is a new collection. Title: Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Banking Survey...

  2. Percent Stomach Emptiness in Fish Collections: Sources of Variation and Study Design Implications

    We summarized fish stomach content data from 369,000 fish from 402 species in 1,096 collections made between 1925 and 2009 and report on the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs (PES). The mean PES among all species, locations, habitats, dates, and collection methods was...

  3. 75 FR 38975 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Foreign Fishing Reporting Requirements

    2010-07-07

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Foreign Fishing Reporting Requirements AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric...-2276 or [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract Foreign fishing activities can be... abundance of the species. This notice is for the extension of a currently approved information collection...

  4. 78 FR 40434 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Fish Processors and Disruptions...

    2013-07-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Fish Processors and Disruptions Caused by Hurricane Sandy AGENCY... continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. DATES: Written...

  5. 77 FR 6784 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Scientific Research, Exempted Fishing, and...

    2012-02-09

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Scientific Research, Exempted Fishing, and Exempted Activity Submissions AGENCY... collection. Fishery regulations do not generally affect scientific research activities conducted by a scientific research vessel. Persons planning to conduct such research are encouraged to submit a scientific...

  6. Assessment of Heavy Metals in the Fish Collected from the River Ravi, Pakistan

    Ghazala Jabeen*, Muhammad Javed and Hamda Azmat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of heavy metals viz. aluminium (Al, arsenic (As, barium (Ba, chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni and zinc (Zn in fish at three main public fishing sites of the river Ravi viz. Shahdara bridge, Baloki headworks and Sidhnai barrage has been studied from June, 2009 to May, 2010. The concentrations of heavy metals in the body organs (gills, liver, kidney, intestine, reproductive organs, skin, muscle, fins, scales, bones, fats of three fish species viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala were determined. The present results reveal that the toxicity of metals fluctuated significantly in fish at all the three sampling stations with season. The fish samples collected from all the three sampling stations had significantly higher aluminium and zinc. However, the fish at Sidhnai barrage showed significantly lower metallic toxicity, followed by that at Baloki headworks and Shahdara bridge. Significantly higher metals were observed in fish liver, followed by that of kidney, gills, intestine, reproductive organs, skin, scales, fins, bones, muscle and fats. The accumulation of metals in carnivorous fish body organs showed significantly direct dependence on the metallic toxicity of herbivorous cyprinids. Fish liver and kidney showed significantly higher abilities for the accumulation of all metals while accumulations were lowest in fish muscle and fats. The health status of river Ravi at three main public fishing sites viz. Shahdara bridge, Baloki headworks and Sidhnai barrage, with respect to eco-toxicity of Al, As, Ba, Cr, Ni and Zn was above the recommended permissible standards.

  7. 77 FR 15378 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Withdrawal of Bonded Stores for Fishing...

    2012-03-15

    ... Activities: Application for Withdrawal of Bonded Stores for Fishing Vessels and Certificate of Use AGENCY: U... information collection request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Application for Withdrawal of Bonded Stores for Fishing Vessels...

  8. 76 FR 43337 - Proposed Information Collection; Hunting and Fishing Application Forms and Activity Reports for...

    2011-07-20

    ... seasons, as determined by State or Federal regulations. FWS Form 3-2359 (Big Game Harvest Report). FWS...] Proposed Information Collection; Hunting and Fishing Application Forms and Activity Reports for National... uses, including hunting and fishing, on lands of the Refuge System when we find that the activity is...

  9. 76 FR 1602 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Scientific Research, Exempted Fishing, and...

    2011-01-11

    ... educational activities with respect to Atlantic HMS. Since the Magnuson-Stevens Act does not consider... recreational fishing platforms. To regulate these fishing activities, NMFS needs information to determine the... Review: Regular submission (extension of a currently approved collection). Affected Public: Non-profit...

  10. Concentrations of radionuclides in fish collected from Bikini Atoll between 1977 and 1984

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.A.

    1986-07-01

    This report summarizes all available data on the concentrations of radionuclides in fish from Bikini Atoll between 1977 and 1984. As found in other global studies, 137 Cs is most highly accumulated in edible flesh of all species of fish, the lowest fractions are found in the bone or liver. The mean concentration of 137 Cs in muscle of reef fish from the southern part of the atoll is comparable to the global fallout concentration measured in market samples of fish collected from Chicago, Illinois, in 1982. 90 Sr is generally associated with non-edible parts of fish, such as bone or viscera. Twenty-five to fifty percent of the total body burden of 60 Co is accumulated in the muscle tissue; the remainder is distributed among the liver, skin, and viscera. The mean concentration of 60 Co in fish has been decreasing at a rate faster than radiological decay alone. Most striking is the range of 207 Bi concentrations among different species of fish collected at the same time and place. Highest concentrations of 207 Bi were consistently detected in the muscle (and other tissues) of goatfish and some of the pelagic lagoon fish. In other reef fish, such as mullet, surgeonfish, and parrotfish, 207 Bi was usually below detection limits by gamma spectrometry. Over 70% of the whole-body activity of 207 Bi in goatfish is associated with the muscle tissue, whereas less than 5% is found in the muscle of mullet and surgeonfish. Neither 239+240 Pu nor 241 Am is significantly accumulated in the muscle tissue of any species of fish. Apparently, 238 Pu is in a more readily available form for accumulation by fishes than 239+240 Pu. Based on a daily ingestion rate of 200 q of fish flesh, dose rates to individuals through the fish-food ingestion pathway are well below current Federal guidelines

  11. Concentrations of radionuclides in fish collected from Bikini Atoll between 1977 and 1984

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.A.

    1986-07-01

    This report summarizes all available data on the concentrations of radionuclides in fish from Bikini Atoll between 1977 and 1984. As found in other global studies, /sup 137/Cs is most highly accumulated in edible flesh of all species of fish, the lowest fractions are found in the bone or liver. The mean concentration of /sup 137/Cs in muscle of reef fish from the southern part of the atoll is comparable to the global fallout concentration measured in market samples of fish collected from Chicago, Illinois, in 1982. /sup 90/Sr is generally associated with non-edible parts of fish, such as bone or viscera. Twenty-five to fifty percent of the total body burden of /sup 60/Co is accumulated in the muscle tissue; the remainder is distributed among the liver, skin, and viscera. The mean concentration of /sup 60/Co in fish has been decreasing at a rate faster than radiological decay alone. Most striking is the range of /sup 207/Bi concentrations among different species of fish collected at the same time and place. Highest concentrations of /sup 207/Bi were consistently detected in the muscle (and other tissues) of goatfish and some of the pelagic lagoon fish. In other reef fish, such as mullet, surgeonfish, and parrotfish, /sup 207/Bi was usually below detection limits by gamma spectrometry. Over 70% of the whole-body activity of /sup 207/Bi in goatfish is associated with the muscle tissue, whereas less than 5% is found in the muscle of mullet and surgeonfish. Neither /sup 239 +240/Pu nor /sup 241/Am is significantly accumulated in the muscle tissue of any species of fish. Apparently, /sup 238/Pu is in a more readily available form for accumulation by fishes than /sup 239 +240/Pu. Based on a daily ingestion rate of 200 q of fish flesh, dose rates to individuals through the fish-food ingestion pathway are well below current Federal guidelines.

  12. 77 FR 2512 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; U.S. Fishermen Fishing in Russian Waters

    2012-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; U.S. Fishermen Fishing in Russian Waters AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce, as part of its...

  13. 75 FR 20811 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Produce Processor Profiles of Fish Processing...

    2010-04-21

    ... processing seasons. However, very limited information is available in a consolidated location or format about... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Produce Processor Profiles of Fish Processing Plants in Alaska AGENCY: National...

  14. 78 FR 70015 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Large Pelagic Fishing Survey

    2013-11-22

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Large Pelagic Fishing Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies... Pelagics Headboat Survey (LPHS) component. Increase the annual Large Pelagics Telephone Survey (LPTS...

  15. Fish4Knowledge collecting and analyzing massive coral reef fish video data

    Chen-Burger, Yun-Heh; Giordano, Daniela; Hardman, Lynda; Lin, Fang-Pang

    2016-01-01

    This book gives a start-to-finish overview of the whole Fish4Knowledge project, in 18 short chapters, each describing one aspect of the project. The Fish4Knowledge project explored the possibilities of big video data, in this case from undersea video. Recording and analyzing 90 thousand hours of video from ten camera locations, the project gives a 3 year view of fish abundance in several tropical coral reefs off the coast of Taiwan. The research system built a remote recording network, over 100 Tb of storage, supercomputer processing, video target detection and tracking, fish species recognition and analysis, a large SQL database to record the results and an efficient retrieval mechanism. Novel user interface mechanisms were developed to provide easy access for marine ecologists, who wanted to explore the dataset. The book is a useful resource for system builders, as it gives an overview of the many new methods that were created to build the Fish4Knowledge system in a manner that also allows readers to see ho...

  16. Application of Pineapple Juice in the Fish Digestion Process for Carcinogenic Liver Fluke Metacercaria Collection

    Sripan, Panupan; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pranee, Sriraj; Songsri, Jiraporn; Boueroy, Parichart; Khueangchaingkhwang, Sukhonthip; Pumhirunroj, Benjamabhorn; Artchayasawat, Atchara

    2017-01-01

    Pepsin is common digestive enzyme used for fish digestion in the laboratory to collect trematode metacercariae. In a field study, to survey the infected fish is needed a huge yield of pepsin and it is very expensive. Therefore, our purpose of this study was to investigate the candidate enzyme from pineapple juice which has a digestive enzyme called bromelain, a mixture of proteolytic enzymes, to digest fish in order to harvest metacercariae. Fish were divided into 2 groups: one group in which metacercariae were harvested using acid pepsin as a control and other groups in which the fish was digested using fresh pineapple juices. The results showed that pineapple juice is able to digest fish similarly to pepsin. The Pattavia pineapple juice had the highest number of metacercariae similar to the control. For Trat Si Thong pineapple juice, we found the number of metacercariae was less than control. This result suggests that the Pattavia pineapple juice was optimal juice for fish digestion to metacercaria collection and can be used instread of pepsin acid. PMID:28441786

  17. 78 FR 20092 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Fish and Seafood Promotion

    2013-04-03

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Fish and Seafood Promotion AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Seafood Promotion Act of 1986, information collected under this program is used to promote domestically... seafood promotion council, and (2) the information required of a formed and operating council, or...

  18. Mobile platform for fish migration upstream from the discharge sill situated near Dacia bridge on Crișul Repede River

    Răzvan VOICU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal connectivity represent the way in which organisms move the energy and material exchanges located throughout the water. Fragmentation the longitudinal connectivity of watercourses caused by dams or other hydrotechnical constructions represent a major impact on sediment transport, hydrological regime, downstream moving and biota migration. The hydromorphological elements (river continuity, as well as chemical, biological, physicochemical elements characterize the ecological status of rivers. Migratory fish species: nase (Chondrostoma nasus - protected by Bern Convention - Appendix III, barbel (Barbus barbus - rare species, protected Habitats Directive (Annex V, annex 4A of Low nr.462 and Red List of RBDD and Freshwater bream (Abramis brama - protected by Bern Convention (Appendix III are blocked by the hydrotechnical constructions (discharge sills, dams located across the watercourse Crișul Repede River. One of the important think of this system is the gravitational fall of water. This solution will lead to the restoration of the longitudinal connection of the Crișul Repede River in the Oradea City, near Dacia Bridge. Romania is part of the European Union and it has the obligation to implement the provisions of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, transposed into Romanian legislation by the Water Law 107/1996 as supplemented and amended (Act 310/2004.

  19. A simple web-based tool to compare freshwater fish data collected using AFS standard methods

    Bonar, Scott A.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Rahr, Matt; Torrey, Yuta T.; Cate, Averill

    2016-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society (AFS) recently published Standard Methods for Sampling North American Freshwater Fishes. Enlisting the expertise of 284 scientists from 107 organizations throughout Canada, Mexico, and the United States, this text was developed to facilitate comparisons of fish data across regions or time. Here we describe a user-friendly web tool that automates among-sample comparisons in individual fish condition, population length-frequency distributions, and catch per unit effort (CPUE) data collected using AFS standard methods. Currently, the web tool (1) provides instantaneous summaries of almost 4,000 data sets of condition, length frequency, and CPUE of common freshwater fishes collected using standard gears in 43 states and provinces; (2) is easily appended with new standardized field data to update subsequent queries and summaries; (3) compares fish data from a particular water body with continent, ecoregion, and state data summaries; and (4) provides additional information about AFS standard fish sampling including benefits, ongoing validation studies, and opportunities to comment on specific methods. The web tool—programmed in a PHP-based Drupal framework—was supported by several AFS Sections, agencies, and universities and is freely available from the AFS website and fisheriesstandardsampling.org. With widespread use, the online tool could become an important resource for fisheries biologists.

  20. Upstream Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) passage

    Clay, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    Upstream salmon passage though a dam is discussed with respect to three main components: the fishway entrance, the fishway, and the exit. Design considerations and alternative types of components are presented. For fishway entrances, an important consideration is the positioning of the entrance as far upstream as the fish can swim with respect to obstacles. For powerhouses using water diverted from a river, the problem of leading fish past the powerhouse may be overcome by either installing a tailrace barrier or increasing the flow until the home stream odor is sufficient to attract fish. Swimming ability should be the first consideration in fishway design. Fishways with 50 cm drops per pool would be satisfactory in most cases. The problem of headwater fluctuation is overcome through careful fishway selection. Fish locks, hoists, and elevators are other alternatives to pool/weir fishways. The location for a fish exit must be decided on the basis of whether the fishway will be used only for upstream migrations. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. 78 FR 41371 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Role of Tournament Fishing in the Development...

    2013-07-10

    ... Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20230 (or via the Internet at [email protected] ). FOR FURTHER... Fisheries Service (NMFS) proposes to conduct a survey to collect demographic, cultural, economic and social... regulations. The data gathered will be used to describe the socio-political impact of tournament fishing in...

  2. Radionuclide accumulations in Clinch River fish

    Oakes, T.W.; Easterly, C.E.; Shank, K.E.

    1976-01-01

    Fish samples were collected from several locations above Melton Hill Dam, which is upstream from the liquid effluent release point of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The sampling locations were chosen to determine the accumulation of natural and man-made radionuclides in fish from areas in the Clinch River not influenced by the Laboratory's liquid effluents. Bass, carp, crappie, shad, bluegill, and other sunfish were collected; ten fish per species were composited to form a single sample for each location. The gamma-emitting radionuclide concentrations were determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Estimates of radiological dose to man subsequent to ingestion of these fish are made

  3. Upstream cash cloud

    Shepherd, R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper focuses on the effects of the slowdown in budgetary growth on the upstream business and offshore services. The dangers facing investors, the strong growth in energy demand, oil company priorities, the dip in profits of the oil companies, new field economics, the budgets for exploration and production, and the rig market outlook are discussed. (UK)

  4. Upstream health law.

    Sage, William M; McIlhattan, Kelley

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, entrepreneurs are aggressively developing new technologies and business models designed to improve individual and population health, not just to deliver specialized medical care. Consumers of these goods and services are not yet "patients"; they are simply people. As this sector of the health care industry expands, it is likely to require new forms of legal governance, which we term "upstream health law." © 2014 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  5. Assessing historical fish community composition using surveys, historical collection data, and species distribution models.

    Labay, Ben; Cohen, Adam E; Sissel, Blake; Hendrickson, Dean A; Martin, F Douglas; Sarkar, Sahotra

    2011-01-01

    Accurate establishment of baseline conditions is critical to successful management and habitat restoration. We demonstrate the ability to robustly estimate historical fish community composition and assess the current status of the urbanized Barton Creek watershed in central Texas, U.S.A. Fish species were surveyed in 2008 and the resulting data compared to three sources of fish occurrence information: (i) historical records from a museum specimen database and literature searches; (ii) a nearly identical survey conducted 15 years earlier; and (iii) a modeled historical community constructed with species distribution models (SDMs). This holistic approach, and especially the application of SDMs, allowed us to discover that the fish community in Barton Creek was more diverse than the historical data and survey methods alone indicated. Sixteen native species with high modeled probability of occurrence within the watershed were not found in the 2008 survey, seven of these were not found in either survey or in any of the historical collection records. Our approach allowed us to more rigorously establish the true baseline for the pre-development fish fauna and then to more accurately assess trends and develop hypotheses regarding factors driving current fish community composition to better inform management decisions and future restoration efforts. Smaller, urbanized freshwater systems, like Barton Creek, typically have a relatively poor historical biodiversity inventory coupled with long histories of alteration, and thus there is a propensity for land managers and researchers to apply inaccurate baseline standards. Our methods provide a way around that limitation by using SDMs derived from larger and richer biodiversity databases of a broader geographic scope. Broadly applied, we propose that this technique has potential to overcome limitations of popular bioassessment metrics (e.g., IBI) to become a versatile and robust management tool for determining status of

  6. Iberian fish records in the vertebrate collection of the Museum of Zoology of the University of Navarra.

    Rodeles, Amaia A; Galicia, David; Miranda, Rafael

    2016-10-11

    The study of freshwater fish species biodiversity and community composition is essential for understanding river systems, the effects of human activities on rivers, and the changes these animals face. Conducting this type of research requires quantitative information on fish abundance, ideally with long-term series and fish body measurements. This Data Descriptor presents a collection of 12 datasets containing a total of 146,342 occurrence records of 41 freshwater fish species sampled in 233 localities of various Iberian river basins. The datasets also contain 148,749 measurement records (length and weight) for these fish. Data were collected in different sampling campaigns (from 1992 to 2015). Eleven datasets represent large projects conducted over several years, and another combines small sampling campaigns. The Iberian Peninsula contains high fish biodiversity, with numerous endemic species threatened by various menaces, such as water extraction and invasive species. These data may support the development of large biodiversity conservation studies.

  7. Social conformity and propagation of information in collective U-turns of fish schools.

    Lecheval, Valentin; Jiang, Li; Tichit, Pierre; Sire, Clément; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K; Theraulaz, Guy

    2018-04-25

    Moving animal groups such as schools of fishes or flocks of birds often undergo sudden collective changes of their travelling direction as a consequence of stochastic fluctuations in heading of the individuals. However, the mechanisms by which these behavioural fluctuations arise at the individual level and propagate within a group are still unclear. In this study, we combine an experimental and theoretical approach to investigate spontaneous collective U-turns in groups of rummy-nose tetra ( Hemigrammus rhodostomus ) swimming in a ring-shaped tank. U-turns imply that fish switch their heading between the clockwise and anticlockwise direction. We reconstruct trajectories of individuals moving alone and in groups of different sizes. We show that the group decreases its swimming speed before a collective U-turn. This is in agreement with previous theoretical predictions showing that speed decrease facilitates an amplification of fluctuations in heading in the group, which can trigger U-turns. These collective U-turns are mostly initiated by individuals at the front of the group. Once an individual has initiated a U-turn, the new direction propagates through the group from front to back without amplification or dampening, resembling the dynamics of falling dominoes. The mean time between collective U-turns sharply increases as the size of the group increases. We develop an Ising spin model integrating anisotropic and asymmetrical interactions between fish and their tendency to follow the majority of their neighbours nonlinearly (social conformity). The model quantitatively reproduces key features of the dynamics and the frequency of collective U-turns observed in experiments. © 2018 The Author(s).

  8. Determination of total mercury in fillets of sport fishes collected from Folsom Reservoir, California, 2006

    May, Thomas W.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, to determine mercury concentrations in selected sport fishes from Folsom Reservoir in California. Fillets were collected from each fish sample, and after homogenization and lyophilization of fish fillets, mercury concentrations were determined with a direct mercury analyzer utilizing the process of thermal combustion-gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mercury concentrations in fillets ranged from 0.031 to 0.20 micrograms per gram wet weight in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) samples and 0.071 to 0.16 micrograms per gram wet weight in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) samples. Mercury concentration was 0.98 microgram per gram wet weight in a single spotted bass (Micropterus punctulatus) sample, which was the only one in the sample set which exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's fish consumption advisory of 0.30 microgram per gram wet weight.

  9. Larval fish collected from sound-scattering layers in an offshore tropical area.

    Castro, M S; Bonecker, A C T

    2017-12-01

    The composition of the larval fish assemblage in the sound-scattering layer of the continental shelf waters off the coast of south-eastern Brazil (12 and 22° S), a research project that is part of the Brazilian programme Avaliação do Potencial Sustentável de Recursos Vivos na Zona Econômica Exclusiva (REVIZEE), is described. Samples were collected during daylight hours and at dusk at five oceanographic stations in the winter of 1999 using an Isaacs-Kidd Midwater Trawl (IKMT). The oceanographic stations were chosen based on the detection of plankton layers by acoustic observation. A total of 2192 larval fish were identified, comprising 52 families and 62 species. Maurolicus stehmanni (Sternoptychidae) was the most abundant species found within the study area, comprising 18·5% of all identified larvae, followed by Psilotris celsus (Gobiidae) at 10·9%. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Determination of total mercury in fillets of sport fishes collected from Folsom and New Melones Reservoirs, California, 2004

    May, Thomas W.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, to determine mercury concentrations in selected sport fishes from Folsom and New Melones Reservoirs in California. Fillets were collected from each fish sample, and after homogenization and lyophilization of fish fillets, mercury concentrations were determined with a direct mercury analyzer utilizing the process of thermal combustion-gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mercury concentrations in fish fillets from Folsom Reservoir ranged from 0.09 to 1.16 micrograms per gram wet weight, and from New Melones Reservoir ranged from 0.03 to 0.94 microgram per gram wet weight. Most of the fish fillets from Folsom Reservoir (87 percent) and 27 percent of the fillets from New Melones Reservoir exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's fish consumption advisory of 0.30 microgram per gram wet weight.

  11. LHCb upstream tracker

    Artuso, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The detector for the LHCb upgrade is designed for 40MHz readout, allowing the experiment to run at an instantaneous luminosity of 2x10^33 cm$^2$s$^-1$. The upgrade of the tracker subsystem in front of the dipole magnet, the Upstream Tracker, is crucial for charged track reconstruction and fast trigger decisions based on a tracking algorithm involving also vertex detector information. The detector consists of 4 planes with a total area of about 8.5m$^2$, made of single sided silicon strip sensors read-out by a novel custom-made ASIC (SALT). Details on the performance of prototype sensors, front-end electronics, near-detector electronics and mechanical components are presented.

  12. 50 CFR 660.350 - Compensation with fish for collecting resource information-exempted fishing permits off...

    2010-10-01

    ... with species that are, or are expected to be, overfished, or that are subject to overfishing, or that are unavoidably caught with species that are overfished or subject to overfishing. NMFS may also... subject to overfishing, fishing in times or areas where fishing is otherwise prohibited or severely...

  13. Baseline of organotin pollution in fishes, clams, shrimps, squids and crabs collected from the west coast of India

    Jadhav, S.; Bhosale, D.; Bhosle, N.B.

    is available. The present study was planned to assess organotin contamination levels in edible marine organisms collected from the fish markets of Goa, Karwar and Mumbai, the west coast of India. The sampling locations: Goa (15.5ºN, 73.9ºE), Karwar (14.8º... of Karwar is around 36,000 tonnes. Mumbai coast is about 140 km long. Mumbai is among busiest harbours on the west coast of India is known for industrial pollution. The fishes, clams, crabs and squids and shrimps were collected from local fish markets...

  14. Harvesting a knowledge commons: collective action, transparency, and innovation at the Portland Fish Exchange

    Jennifer F. Brewer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available While localist visions of alternative food systems advocate for the expansion of local ecological knowledge through more proximate producer-consumer relationships, globalized seafood supply-demand chains persist. Moving beyond this dichotomy, commons scholars recognize that collective action among resource users at the local level can shape cross-scalar producer relations with government and more capitalized firms operating in regional and global markets. In the case of the New England groundfishery, a quasi-public fish auction not only transformed the scalar, logistical, and financial parameters of harvester-buyer relationships, it altered the production and use of local knowledge among some harvesters, and their technological choices. Resulting markets offer potential benefits that extend to broader publics, by increasing the monetary value and experimental development of a knowledge commons. Qualitative analysis of field data shows that with new market transparency, fish are no longer valued as an undifferentiated commodity, but as a variety of products with individually nuanced price structures. Displacement of local seafood buyers incurred some shoreside job losses, but fishers on smaller, owner-operated boats in multi-generational fishing harbours benefit particularly from new opportunities compared to larger, fleet boats due to different labour relations, allocations of decision-making responsibilities, observational contexts, and associated information flows. Implications for the mobilization of knowledge-action linkages to influence formal resource management arenas merit further research.

  15. Sediment Scaling for Mud Mountain Fish Barrier Structure

    2017-06-28

    River serves as a collection point of migratory fish. Operators at the structure collect the fish and transport them upstream of Mud Mountain Dam...fixed weir does not allow for structure operations to mobilize the sediment. Thus, a new structure is desired to both mitigate sediment accumulation...gradation, respectively. This analysis should be based on a representative prototype gradation taken from non- slack water areas (Einstein 1950). For this

  16. High-predation habitats affect the social dynamics of collective exploration in a shoaling fish.

    Ioannou, Christos C; Ramnarine, Indar W; Torney, Colin J

    2017-05-01

    Collective decisions play a major role in the benefits that animals gain from living in groups. Although the mechanisms of how groups collectively make decisions have been extensively researched, the response of within-group dynamics to ecological conditions is virtually unknown, despite adaptation to the environment being a cornerstone in biology. We investigate how within-group interactions during exploration of a novel environment are shaped by predation, a major influence on the behavior of prey species. We tested guppies ( Poecilia reticulata ) from rivers varying in predation risk under controlled laboratory conditions and find the first evidence of differences in group interactions between animals adapted to different levels of predation. Fish from high-predation habitats showed the strongest negative relationship between initiating movements and following others, which resulted in less variability in the total number of movements made between individuals. This relationship between initiating movements and following others was associated with differentiation into initiators and followers, which was only observed in fish from high-predation rivers. The differentiation occurred rapidly, as trials lasted 5 min, and was related to shoal cohesion, where more diverse groups from high-predation habitats were more cohesive. Our results show that even within a single species over a small geographical range, decision-making in a social context can vary with local ecological factors.

  17. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other fluorochemicals in fish blood collected near the outfall of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing

    Li Xuemei; Yeung, Leo Wai Yin; Xu Muqi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Lam, Paul K.S.; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Dai Jiayin

    2008-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in zooplankton and five fish species collected from Gaobeidian Lake, which receives discharge from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing, China. The mean total PFCs in five fish were in the order: crucian carp > common carp > leather catfish > white semiknife carp > tilapia. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) occurred at the greatest concentrations, with mean concentrations ranging from 5.74 to 64.2 ng/ml serum. Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was the second dominant PFC in fish samples except for common carp in which perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) was dominant. A positive linear relationship (r 2 = 0.85, p 15 N) if tilapia was excluded. The risk assessment showed that PFOS might not pose an immediate risk to fish in Gaobeidian Lake. - Distribution of PFCs reveals varied composition profiles in zooplankton and fish from a recipient water affected by WWTPs in Beijing

  18. NCCOS Caribbean Fishery Acoustic Assessment: Fish Density Data Collection from NOAA Ship Nancy Foster, from 2008-03-26 to 2014-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0156395)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets show acoustically detected fish densities throughout the Caribbean ocean. NOAA/NCCOS collected these data sets to help characterize broad-scale fish...

  19. Collection and preservation of fish and other materials exposed to pesticides

    Cope, Oliver B.

    1960-01-01

    The effects of pesticides on fish have become improtant to fish conservation since World War II, when DDT first came into common use. With the development of other potent insecticides and the increasing use of massive dosages in more recent years, the threat to fish and fish foods has increased. Fishery biologists have conducted some studies on the effects of insecticides, but it has been impossible for fishery science to keep pace with chemistry and agriculture.

  20. Efficacy of sanitized ice in reducing bacterial load on fish fillet and in the water collected from the melted ice.

    Feliciano, Lizanel; Lee, Jaesung; Lopes, John A; Pascall, Melvin A

    2010-05-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of sanitized ice for the reduction of bacteria in the water collected from the ice that melted during storage of whole and filleted Tilapia fish. Also, bacterial reductions on the fish fillets were investigated. The sanitized ice was prepared by freezing solutions of PRO-SAN (an organic acid formulation) and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW). For the whole fish study, the survival of the natural microflora was determined from the water of the melted ice prepared with PRO-SAN and tap water. These water samples were collected during an 8 h storage period. For the fish fillet study, samples were inoculated with Escherichia coli K12, Listeria innocua, and Pseudomonas putida then stored on crushed sanitized ice. The efficacies of these were tested by enumerating each bacterial species on the fish fillet and in the water samples at 12 and 24 h intervals for 72 h, respectively. Results showed that each bacterial population was reduced during the test. However, a bacterial reduction of fillet samples. A maximum of approximately 2 log CFU and > 3 log CFU reductions were obtained in the waters sampled after the storage of whole fish and the fillets, respectively. These reductions were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the water from sanitized ice when compared with the water from the unsanitized melted ice. These results showed that the organic acid formulation and NEW considerably reduced the bacterial numbers in the melted ice and thus reduced the potential for cross-contamination.

  1. Artificial fish schools : Collective effects of school size, body size, and body form

    Kunz, H.; Hemelrijk, C.K.

    2003-01-01

    Individual-based models of schooling in fish have demonstrated that, via processes of self-organization. artificial fish may school in the absence of a leader or external stimuli, using local information only. We study for the first time how body size and body form of artificial fish affect school

  2. Seventy years of stream‐fish collections reveal invasions and native range contractions in an Appalachian (USA) watershed

    Buckwalter, Joseph D.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.; Angermeier, Paul L.; Barney, Jacob N.

    2018-01-01

    AimKnowledge of expanding and contracting ranges is critical for monitoring invasions and assessing conservation status, yet reliable data on distributional trends are lacking for most freshwater species. We developed a quantitative technique to detect the sign (expansion or contraction) and functional form of range‐size changes for freshwater species based on collections data, while accounting for possible biases due to variable collection effort. We applied this technique to quantify stream‐fish range expansions and contractions in a highly invaded river system.LocationUpper and middle New River (UMNR) basin, Appalachian Mountains, USA.MethodsWe compiled a 77‐year stream‐fish collections dataset partitioned into ten time periods. To account for variable collection effort among time periods, we aggregated the collections into 100 watersheds and expressed a species’ range size as detections per watershed (HUC) sampled (DPHS). We regressed DPHS against time by species and used an information‐theoretic approach to compare linear and nonlinear functional forms fitted to the data points and to classify each species as spreader, stable or decliner.ResultsWe analysed changes in range size for 74 UMNR fishes, including 35 native and 39 established introduced species. We classified the majority (51%) of introduced species as spreaders, compared to 31% of natives. An exponential functional form fits best for 84% of spreaders. Three natives were among the most rapid spreaders. All four decliners were New River natives.Main conclusionsOur DPHS‐based approach facilitated quantitative analyses of distributional trends for stream fishes based on collections data. Partitioning the dataset into multiple time periods allowed us to distinguish long‐term trends from population fluctuations and to examine nonlinear forms of spread. Our framework sets the stage for further study of drivers of stream‐fish invasions and declines in the UMNR and is widely transferable to

  3. Radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations in soil, vegetation, and fish collected around and within Tsicoma Lake in Santa Clara Canyon

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Radionuclide ( 3 H, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, total U) and heavy metal (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl) contents were determined in soil, vegetation (overstory and understory), and fish (rainbow trout) collected around and within Tsicoma Lake in Santa Clara Canyon in 1995. All heavy metal and most radionuclide contents around or within the lake, except for U in soil, vegetation, and fish, were within or just above upper limit background. Detectable levels (where the analytical result was greater than two times counting uncertainty) of U in soils, vegetation, and fish were found in slightly higher concentrations than in background samples. Overall, however, maximum total committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE)(95% confidence level)--based on consumption of 46 lb of fish--from Tsicoma Lake (0.066 mrem/y) was within the maximum total CEDE from the ingestion of fish from the Mescalero National Fish Hatchery (background)(0.113 mrem/y)

  4. Evaluation of Residues of D.D.T and D.D.A in Fish Collected from Caspian Sea, Iran

    Mohammad Shokrzadeh lamuki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pesticides are essential in modern agricultural practices but due to their biocide activity and potential risk to the consumer, the control of pesticide residues in foods is a growing source of concern for the general population. Extensive application of such agents as organochlorine pesticides in farmlands and contemporary agricultural industries has led to undesired environmental contamination and human health hazards. Thus, this study attempted to evaluate and analyze the residual values of the organochlorine insecticide D.D.T and its metabolite D.D.A in the four species of most consumed fish collected from the Caspian Sea. Methods: In this investigation, concentrations of residual values of D.D.T and D.D.A were quantitatively determined in the 4 species of fish sampled from 4 major fishing centers (Chalous and Babolsar cities and Khazar Abad and Miankaleh regions in Mazandaran province, Iran, using gas chromatography electron-capture detection (GC–ECD in 2008. Results: The results showed that the highest values of D.D.T were in Mugil auratns (0.033±0.008 mg/kg and Rutilus frisikutum (0.031±0.007 mg/kg fishes collected from Babolsar sampling center. Conclusion: Concentrations of D.D.T and D.D.A in the fish were found to be less than the standard permissible intake.

  5. 78 FR 36237 - Proposed Information Collection; Federal Fish and Wildlife Permit Applications and Reports-Native...

    2013-06-17

    ...--Native Endangered and Threatened Species AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... requested in accordance with various Federal wildlife conservation laws, including: Endangered Species Act.... [[Page 36238

  6. 50 CFR 660.30 - Compensation with fish for collecting resource information-EFPs.

    2010-10-01

    ... species that are, or are expected to be, overfished, or that are subject to overfishing, or that are unavoidably caught with species that are overfished or subject to overfishing. NMFS may also consider levels... are expected to be) overfished or subject to overfishing, fishing in times or areas where fishing is...

  7. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other fluorochemicals in fish blood collected near the outfall of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing

    Li Xuemei [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Yeung, Leo Wai Yin [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (China); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Xu Muqi [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Taniyasu, Sachi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Lam, Paul K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (China); Yamashita, Nobuyoshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan)], E-mail: nob.yamashita@aist.go.jp; Dai Jiayin [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)], E-mail: daijy@ioz.ac.cn

    2008-12-15

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in zooplankton and five fish species collected from Gaobeidian Lake, which receives discharge from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing, China. The mean total PFCs in five fish were in the order: crucian carp > common carp > leather catfish > white semiknife carp > tilapia. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) occurred at the greatest concentrations, with mean concentrations ranging from 5.74 to 64.2 ng/ml serum. Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was the second dominant PFC in fish samples except for common carp in which perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) was dominant. A positive linear relationship (r{sup 2} = 0.85, p < 0.05) was observed between ln PFOS concentrations (ln ng/ml) and trophic level (based on {delta}{sup 15}N) if tilapia was excluded. The risk assessment showed that PFOS might not pose an immediate risk to fish in Gaobeidian Lake. - Distribution of PFCs reveals varied composition profiles in zooplankton and fish from a recipient water affected by WWTPs in Beijing.

  8. Swarm intelligence in fish? The difficulty in demonstrating distributed and self-organised collective intelligence in (some) animal groups.

    Ioannou, Christos C

    2017-08-01

    Larger groups often have a greater ability to solve cognitive tasks compared to smaller ones or lone individuals. This is well established in social insects, navigating flocks of birds, and in groups of prey collectively vigilant for predators. Research in social insects has convincingly shown that improved cognitive performance can arise from self-organised local interactions between individuals that integrates their contributions, often referred to as swarm intelligence. This emergent collective intelligence has gained in popularity and been directly applied to groups of other animals, including fish. Despite being a likely mechanism at least partially explaining group performance in vertebrates, I argue here that other possible explanations are rarely ruled out in empirical studies. Hence, evidence for self-organised collective (or 'swarm') intelligence in fish is not as strong as it would first appear. These other explanations, the 'pool-of-competence' and the greater cognitive ability of individuals when in larger groups, are also reviewed. Also discussed is why improved group performance in general may be less often observed in animals such as shoaling fish compared to social insects. This review intends to highlight the difficulties in exploring collective intelligence in animal groups, ideally leading to further empirical work to illuminate these issues. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mercury and selenium concentrations in biofilm, macroinvertebrates, and fish collected in the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho, USA, and their potential effects on fish health

    Rhea, Darren T.; Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David D.; McConnell, Elizabeth; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2013-01-01

    The Yankee Fork is a large tributary of the Salmon River located in central Idaho, USA, with an extensive history of placer and dredge-mining activities. Concentrations of selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) in various aquatic trophic levels were measured in the Yankee Fork during 2001 and 2002. Various measurements of fish health were also performed. Sites included four on the mainstem of the Yankee Fork and two off-channel sites in partially reclaimed dredge pools used as rearing habitat for cultured salmonid eggs and fry. Hg concentrations in whole mountain whitefish and shorthead sculpin ranged from 0.28 to 0.56 μg/g dry weight (dw), concentrations that are generally less than those reported to have significant impacts on fish. Biofilm and invertebrates ranged from 0.05 to 0.43 μg Hg/g dw. Se concentrations measured in biota samples from the Yankee Fork were greater than many representative samples collected in the Snake and Columbia watersheds and often exceeded literature-based toxic thresholds. Biofilm and invertebrates ranged from 0.58 to 4.66 μg Se/g dw. Whole fish ranged from 3.92 to 7.10 μg Se/g dw, and gonads ranged from 6.91 to 31.84 μg Se/g dw. Whole-body Se concentrations exceeded reported toxicological thresholds at three of four sites and concentrations in liver samples were mostly greater than concentrations shown to have negative impacts on fish health. Histological examinations performed during this study noted liver abnormalities, especially in shorthead sculpin, a bottom-dwelling species.

  10. Fish survey data from Uva Island reef, Panama collected between 1980 and 2010 (NCEI Accession 0157563)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains an eastern Pacific fish assemblage associated with a 2.5 hectare coral reef located within the boundaries of Coiba National Park, Panama. From...

  11. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Coral Reef Fish collected in Fl Keys Reef Tract (2014)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Divers conducted reef visual census (RVC) fish surveys and habitat assessments at 433 sites in the Florida Keys, 436 sites in the Dry Tortugas and 320 sites in the...

  12. Guidelines for quality assurance and quality control of fish taxonomic data collected as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Walsh, Stephen Joseph; Meador, Michael R.

    1998-01-01

    Fish community structure is characterized by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program as part of a perennial, multidisciplinary approach to evaluating the physical, chemical, and biological conditions of the Nation's water resources. The objective of quality assurance and quality control of fish taxonomic data that are collected as part of the NAWQA Program is to establish uniform guidelines and protocols for the identification, processing, and archiving of fish specimens to ensure that accurate and reliable data are collected. Study unit biologists, collaborating with regional biologists and fish taxonomic specialists, prepare a pre-sampling study plan that includes a preliminary faunal list and identification of an ichthyological curation center for receiving preserved fish specimens. Problematic taxonomic issues and protected taxa also are identified in the study plan, and collecting permits are obtained in advance of sampling activities. Taxonomic specialists are selected to identify fish specimens in the field and to assist in determining what fish specimens should be sacrificed, fixed, and preserved for laboratory identification, independent taxonomic verification, and long-term storage in reference or voucher collections. Quantitative and qualitative sampling of fishes follows standard methods previously established for the NAWQA Program. Common ichthyological techniques are used to process samples in the field and prepare fish specimens to be returned to the laboratory or sent to an institutional repository. Taxonomic identifications are reported by using a standardized list of scientific names that provides nomenclatural consistency and uniformity across study units.

  13. Assessment of Committed Effective Dose due to consumption of Red Sea coral reef fishes collected from the local market (Sudan)

    Hassona, Rifaat K.; Sam, A.K.; Osman, O.I.; Sirelkhatim, D.A.; LaRosa, J.

    2008-01-01

    An assessment of Committed Effective Dose (CED) due to consumption of Red Sea fish containing 210 Po and 137 Cs was performed for 23 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port Sudan. The fish were classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores. Measured activity concentrations of 210 Po were found in the ranges 0.25-6.42 (carnivores), 0.7-5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight. In the same study, activity concentrations of Cs-137 were determined to be in the ranges 0.1-0.46 (carnivores), 0.09-0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09-0.32 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight, which were several times lower than those of 210 Po. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED, which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 (μSv/yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, for 137 Cs. This contributes about 0.4% of the total dose exclusively by ingestion of fish. For 210 Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81 and 4.14 (μSv/yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, which represents 99.6% of the total dose (exclusively by ingestion of fish). The results of CED calculations suggest that the dose received by the Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fish is rather small and that the contribution of 137 Cs is negligible compared to 210 Po

  14. Assessment of committed effective dose due to consumption of Red Sea coral reef fishes collected from the local market (Sudan)

    Hassona, R. K; Sam, A. K; Sirelkhatim, D. A.; Osman, O. I.; Larosa, J.

    2008-01-01

    An assessment of committed effective dose (CED) due to consumption of Red Sea fish containing ''2''1''0Po and ''1''3''7Cs was performed for 23 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port Sudan. The fish were classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores. Measured activity concentrations of 2 ''1''0Po were found in the ranges 0.25-6.42 (carnivores), 0.7- 5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight. In the same study, activity concentrations of Cs-137 were determined to be in the ranges 0.1-0.46 (carnivores), 0.09-0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09-0.32 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weigh, which were several times lower than those of ''2''1''0Po. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED, which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 (μSv/Yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, for ''1'''3''7Cs. This contributes about 0.4% of the total dose exclusively by ingestion of fish. For ''2''1''0Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81and 4.14 (μSv/Yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, which represents 99.6% of the total dose (exclusively by ingestion of fish ). The results of CED calculations suggest that the dose received by the Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fish is rather small and that the contribution of ''1''3''7Cs is negligible compared to ''2''1''0Po.(Author)

  15. Assessment of Committed Effective Dose due to consumption of Red Sea coral reef fishes collected from the local market (Sudan).

    Hassona, Rifaat K; Sam, A K; Osman, O I; Sirelkhatim, D A; LaRosa, J

    2008-04-15

    An assessment of Committed Effective Dose (CED) due to consumption of Red Sea fish containing (210)Po and (137)Cs was performed for 23 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port Sudan. The fish were classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores. Measured activity concentrations of (210)Po were found in the ranges 0.25-6.42 (carnivores), 0.7-5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight. In the same study, activity concentrations of Cs-137 were determined to be in the ranges 0.1-0.46 (carnivores), 0.09-0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09-0.32 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight, which were several times lower than those of (210)Po. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED, which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 (microSv/yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, for (137)Cs. This contributes about 0.4% of the total dose exclusively by ingestion of fish. For (210)Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81 and 4.14 (microSv/yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, which represents 99.6% of the total dose (exclusively by ingestion of fish). The results of CED calculations suggest that the dose received by the Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fish is rather small and that the contribution of (137)Cs is negligible compared to (210)Po.

  16. Assessment of Committed Effective Dose due to consumption of Red Sea coral reef fishes collected from the local market (Sudan)

    Hassona, Rifaat K. [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum, P.O. Box 3001 (Sudan)], E-mail: rifaatk@yahoo.com; Sam, A.K. [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum, P.O. Box 3001 (Sudan); Osman, O.I. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum (Sudan); Sirelkhatim, D.A. [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum, P.O. Box 3001 (Sudan); LaRosa, J. [Formerly at IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, MC 98000 (Monaco)

    2008-04-15

    An assessment of Committed Effective Dose (CED) due to consumption of Red Sea fish containing {sup 210}Po and {sup 137}Cs was performed for 23 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port Sudan. The fish were classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores. Measured activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po were found in the ranges 0.25-6.42 (carnivores), 0.7-5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight. In the same study, activity concentrations of Cs-137 were determined to be in the ranges 0.1-0.46 (carnivores), 0.09-0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09-0.32 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight, which were several times lower than those of {sup 210}Po. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED, which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 ({mu}Sv/yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, for {sup 137}Cs. This contributes about 0.4% of the total dose exclusively by ingestion of fish. For {sup 210}Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81 and 4.14 ({mu}Sv/yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, which represents 99.6% of the total dose (exclusively by ingestion of fish). The results of CED calculations suggest that the dose received by the Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fish is rather small and that the contribution of {sup 137}Cs is negligible compared to {sup 210}Po.

  17. Cowlitz Falls fish passage

    1995-09-01

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system

  18. 75 FR 6216 - Proposed Information Collection; OMB Control Number 1018-0088; National Survey of Fishing...

    2010-02-08

    ... Service, MS 222-ARLSQ, 4401 North Fairfax Drive, Arlington, VA 22203 (mail); or hope_ [email protected] (e-mail... mail or e-mail (see ADDRESSES) or by telephone at (703) 358-2482. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I... Recreation (FHWAR) assists Federal and State agencies in administering the Sport Fish and Wildlife...

  19. Indirect effects of impoundment on migrating fish: temperature gradients in fish ladders slow dam passage by adult Chinook salmon and steelhead.

    Christopher C Caudill

    Full Text Available Thermal layering in reservoirs upstream from hydroelectric dams can create temperature gradients in fishways used by upstream migrating adults. In the Snake River, Washington, federally-protected adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp. often encounter relatively cool water in dam tailraces and lower ladder sections and warmer water in the upstream portions of ladders. Using radiotelemetry, we examined relationships between fish passage behavior and the temperature difference between the top and bottom of ladders (∆T at four dams over four years. Some spring Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha experienced ∆T ≥ 0.5 °C. Many summer and fall Chinook salmon and summer steelhead (O. mykiss experienced ∆T ≥ 1.0 °C, and some individuals encountered ΔT > 4.0°C. As ΔT increased, migrants were consistently more likely to move down fish ladders and exit into dam tailraces, resulting in upstream passage delays that ranged from hours to days. Fish body temperatures equilibrated to ladder temperatures and often exceeded 20°C, indicating potential negative physiological and fitness effects. Collectively, the results suggest that gradients in fishway water temperatures present a migration obstacle to many anadromous migrants. Unfavorable temperature gradients may be common at reservoir-fed fish passage facilities, especially those with seasonal thermal layering or stratification. Understanding and managing thermal heterogeneity at such sites may be important for ensuring efficient upstream passage and minimizing stress for migratory, temperature-sensitive species.

  20. Notes on the fishes collected by the R.V. “TRIDENS” on the North West African shelf, 19-25 January 1969

    Groot, de S.J.; Nijssen, H.

    1971-01-01

    On the North West African shelf 98 species of fishes were collected of which a classification is given. Three species have hitherto been recorded only farther South. The status of Platophrys podas africanus (Nielsen, 1961) is discussed.

  1. Use of preserved museum fish to evaluate historical and current mercury contamination in fish from two rivers in Oklahoma, USA.

    Hill, J Jaron; Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W; Pinder, John E; Drenner, S Matthew

    2010-02-01

    We examined the effects of a commonly used preservation technique on mercury concentration in fish tissue. After fixing fish muscle tissue in formalin followed by preservation in isopropanol, we found that mercury concentration in fish muscle tissue increased by 18%, reaching an asymptote after 40 days. We used formalin-isopropanol-preserved longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) from the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History to examine historical changes and predict current mercury concentrations in fish from two rivers in southeastern Oklahoma. Glover River was free-flowing, while Mountain Fork River was impounded in 1970 and a coldwater trout fishery was established upstream from the collection site in 1989. Mercury concentrations in longear sunfish from Glover River showed no historical changes from 1963 to 2001. Mercury concentrations in longear sunfish from Mountain Fork River showed no change from 1925 to 1993 but declined significantly from 1993 to 2003. We also compared mercury concentrations of the most recently collected longear sunfish in the museum to mercury concentrations of unpreserved fish collected from the rivers in 2006. Concentrations of mercury in museum fish were not significantly different from mercury concentrations in unpreserved fish we collected from the rivers. Our study indicates that preserved museum fish specimens can be used to evaluate historical changes and predict current levels of mercury contamination in fish.

  2. An annotated list of fish parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda) collected from Snappers and Bream (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Caesionidae) in New Caledonia confirms high parasite biodiversity on coral reef fish.

    Justine, Jean-Lou; Beveridge, Ian; Boxshall, Geoffrey A; Bray, Rodney A; Miller, Terrence L; Moravec, František; Trilles, Jean-Paul; Whittington, Ian D

    2012-09-04

    Coral reefs are areas of maximum biodiversity, but the parasites of coral reef fishes, and especially their species richness, are not well known. Over an 8-year period, parasites were collected from 24 species of Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae and Caesionidae off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Host-parasite and parasite-host lists are provided, with a total of 207 host-parasite combinations and 58 parasite species identified at the species level, with 27 new host records. Results are presented for isopods, copepods, monogeneans, digeneans, cestodes and nematodes. When results are restricted to well-sampled reef fish species (sample size > 30), the number of host-parasite combinations is 20-25 per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 9-13 per fish species. Lutjanids include reef-associated fish and deeper sea fish from the outer slopes of the coral reef: fish from both milieus were compared. Surprisingly, parasite biodiversity was higher in deeper sea fish than in reef fish (host-parasite combinations: 12.50 vs 10.13, number of species per fish 3.75 vs 3.00); however, we identified four biases which diminish the validity of this comparison. Finally, these results and previously published results allow us to propose a generalization of parasite biodiversity for four major families of reef-associated fishes (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Serranidae and Lethrinidae): well-sampled fish have a mean of 20 host-parasite combinations per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 10 per fish species. Since all precautions have been taken to minimize taxon numbers, it is safe to affirm than the number of fish parasites is at least ten times the number of fish species in coral reefs, for species of similar size or larger than the species in the four families studied; this is a major improvement to our estimate of biodiversity in coral reefs. Our results suggest that extinction of a coral reef fish species

  3. Upstream waves in Saturn's foreshock

    Bavassano Cattaneo, M. B.; Cattaneo, P.; Moreno, G.; Lepping, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis based on plasma and magnetic-field data obtained from Voyager 1 during its Saturn encounter is reported. The plasma data provided every 96 sec and magnetic-field data averaged over 48 sec are utilized. The evidence of upstream waves at Saturn are detected. The waves have a period, in the spacecraft frame, of about 550 sec and a relative amplitude larger than 0.3, are left- and right-hand elliptically polarized, and propagate at about 30 deg with respect to the average magnetic field. The appearance of the waves is correlated with the spacecraft being magnetically connected to the bow shock.

  4. The LHCb Upstream Tracker Project

    Steinkamp, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb detector performs searches for New Physics in CP-violating observables and rare heavy-quark decays at the LHC. A comprehensive upgrade is planned for the long shutdown of the LHC in 2018/19. A goal of this upgrade is to abolish hardware triggers and read out the full detector at 40 MHz. This requires to replace the existing TT station upstream of the LHCb magnet by a new silicon micro-strip detector, the Upstream Tracker (UT). The UT will have a new front-end chip compatible with 40 MHz readout, silicon sensors with improved radiation hardness, finer readout granularity, and improved acceptance coverage at small polar angles. The outer region of each detection layer will be covered by p-in-n sensors with 10 cm long strips and a pitch of about 180 mum, while n-in-p sensors with half the pitch and strip length will be employed in the regions of highest particle density close to the beam pipe. The innermost sensors will have a circular cutout to optimize the forward acceptance. The front-end chip is bei...

  5. Protein and carbohydrate in P-POM collected from the fishing ground in Minnan-Taiwan Bank

    Su, Yongquan; Zhang, Huan

    1992-06-01

    The analysis of the protein and carbohydrate in P-POM (Plankton and Particulate Organic Matter) samples collected from the fishing ground in Minnan-Taiwan Bank in five voyages (April, June, July, August and November, 1988) shows that the protein and carbohydrate contents and amounts in samples from four stations (501, 401, 301, 201) along the coast and another four stations (404, 304, 403, 204) south and southeast of the shoal were higher than those in April and November, indicating that this phenomenon is related to the upwelling in the two regions in summer.

  6. Spatial analysis of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in fish collected from UK and proximate marine waters.

    Zhihua, Li; Panton, S; Marshall, Lisa; Fernandes, A; Rose, M; Smith, F; Holmes, Mel

    2018-03-01

    Some commonly consumed marine fish species are considered to display a higher risk of bio-accumulating organic environmental contaminants such as PBDEs. As part of a study to investigate the spatial distribution of these contaminants, data on polybrominated diphenlyethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were collected and analysed by introducing a web-based resource which enables efficient spatial, species and concentration level representations. Furthermore, hierarchical cluster analyses permits correlations within the data to be predicted. The data provide current information on levels of PBDE and PBB occurrence, allowing identification of locations that show higher contaminant levels. 135 fish samples of various species were analysed from UK marine waters, but encompassing the waters around Norway in the North and to the Algarve in the South. PBDEs were observed in all samples with the majority of measured congeners being detected. The concentrations ranged from 0.087 μg/kg to 8.907 μg/kg whole weight (ww) for the sum of all measured PBDE congeners. PBBs occurred less frequently showing a corresponding range of <0.02 μg/kg to 0.97 μg/kg ww for the sum of seven PBB congeners. Concentrations vary depending on species and locations where landed, e.g. PBBs occurred more frequently and at higher levels in grey mullet from French waters. The high frequency of PBDE occurrence makes it prudent to continue the monitoring of these commonly consumed marine fish species. The web-based resource provides a flexible and efficient tool for assessors and policy-makers to monitor and evaluate levels within caught fish species improving evidenced-based decision processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Longitudinal habitat disruption in Neotropical streams: fish assemblages under the influence of culverts

    José Roberto Mariano

    Full Text Available This study assessed differences in fish assemblages existing upstream and downstream two types of culverts, one on each of two different Neotropical streams. We analyzed the composition and structure of the ichthyofauna and tested for spatial patterns. Fish sampling was carried out monthly between November 2009 and October 2010 using different fishing gears. We collected 2,220 fish of 33 species; 901 in stretches of the Lopeí stream - circular culvert and 1,310 in stretches of the Pindorama stream - box culvert. Fish abundance was similar in upstream and downstream stretches of the circular culvert, whereas it was slightly higher in the upstream than downstream stretch for the box culvert. Characiformes predominated in the upstream stretch of both culverts. On the other hand, Siluriformes was abundant in the downstream stretch of the circular culvert, with similar abundance in the stretches of the box culvert. Species richness and diversity (Shannon-Weiner Index were higher in the downstream stretch of the circular culvert, but they were similar in both stretches of the box culvert. The most abundant species were Astyanax altiparanae, A. paranae, A. fasciatus, Ancistrus sp., and Hypostomus sp. The last two species were more abundant in the downstream stretch of the circular culvert, and similar in stretches of the box culvert. Our study indicated variations in the species abundance, richness, and diversity between upstream and downstream stretches in particular of the circular culvert in the Lopeí stream, suggesting that fish movements are restrained more intensively in this culvert, especially for Siluriformes. The drop in the circular culvert outlet probably created passage barriers especially for those fish that has no ability to jump, where downstream erosion could lead to culvert perching. Studies on appropriate road crossing design or installation are fundamental whereas improvements in these structures can restore the connectivity of

  8. Buzz words in the upstream

    Knoll, B.

    1998-01-01

    Examples of misleading or misunderstood 'buzz' words that are prevalent in modern upstream technology are illustrated. The terms underbalanced drilling, horizontal wells, and geo-steering, which were unheard of in the early 1980s, have become key 'buzz' words in modern exploitation terminology. The terms are not only misused, but the technologies themselves are frequently mis-applied as shown by the frequency of economic failures, or less than optimal technical successes which have occurred when these technologies have been employed. Two examples, 'horizontal drilling' and 'geosteering', are used to illustrate the point. With regard to horizontal drilling, many oil field professionals consider it as merely a more advanced method of directional drilling. This represents a serious, yet common, misconception. In truth, horizontal wells are not just an altered drilling process, but a fundamental change in exploitation technology. A more appropriate definition would be that a horizontal well is an enhanced oil recovery process, clearly implying a relationship to the exploitation benefit potential of horizontal wells. The other term, 'geo-steering' refers to defining, generating and monitoring a wellpath on geology rather than geometry. It, too, is frequently misused in the technical media. The term is also misrepresented by implying that it is applicable only to the horizontal section of a well, which in fact is far from the truth. To counter these misconceptions, the paper provides appropriate definitions for each of these terms, and defines the conditions under which the techniques themselves are most appropriately used. 7 figs

  9. Chapter 5. Plant gathering, game hunting, fishing, mineral collecting, and agriculture

    Kurt F. Anschuetz

    2007-01-01

    Native American populations have cut wood for shelters and fuel, gathered native plants, hunted game animals, and collected various other resources, such as obsidian for making chipped-stone tools, clay for crafting pottery vessels, and stone slabs for producing piki (corn meal paper bread) griddles, in the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP) for countless...

  10. 78 FR 30865 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Tilefish Individual Fishing Quota Program

    2013-05-23

    ... Northeastern U.S. EEZ. II. Method of Collection The IFQ Allocation permit application, IFQ holder cap form, and... before July 22, 2013. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Jennifer Jessup, Departmental Paperwork... applications to ensure that IFQ allocation holders are provided a statement of their annual catch quota, and...

  11. 77 FR 16209 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Tilefish Individual Fishing Quota Program

    2012-03-20

    ... Northeastern U.S. EEZ. II. Method of Collection The IFQ Allocation permit application, IFQ ownership cap form... before May 21, 2012. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Jennifer Jessup, Departmental Paperwork... applications to ensure that IFQ allocation owners are provided a statement of their annual catch quota, and for...

  12. 77 FR 16210 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Tilefish Individual Fishing Quota Program

    2012-03-20

    ... Northeastern U.S. EEZ. II. Method of Collection The IFQ Allocation permit application, IFQ ownership cap form... before May 21, 2012. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Jennifer Jessup, Departmental Paperwork... applications to ensure that IFQ allocation owners are provided a statement of their annual catch quota, and for...

  13. 78 FR 16464 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and...

    2013-03-15

    .... Historically, the Census Bureau has conducted the FHWAR by computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI...-screener survey by paper questionnaire or by Internet for the purpose of collecting a household roster... panels. The first panel will receive a letter and a self-administered paper pre-screener questionnaire...

  14. Parasitism of the isopod Artystone trysibia in the fish Chaetostoma dermorhynchum from the Tena River (Amazonian region, Ecuador).

    Junoy, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The isopod Artystone trysibia Schioedte, 1866 is described by using a collection of specimens that were found parasitizing loricariid fish Chaetostoma dermorhynchum Boulenger, 1887 in the Tena River (Napo province, Ecuador, Amazonian region). Additionally to freshly collected specimens, complementary data of the parasite was obtained from preserved fishes at Ecuadorian museums. This is the first record of A. trysibia in Ecuador, and the most upstream location for the species. The new host fish, Chaetostoma dermorhynchum, is used locally as food. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Tissue distribution of HCH and DDT congeners and human health risk associated with consumption of fish collected from Kabul River, Pakistan.

    Aamir, Muhammad; Khan, Sardar; Nawab, Javed; Qamar, Zahir; Khan, Anwarzeb

    2016-03-01

    Distribution of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) congeners in tissues of four different fish species and their associated potential health risks to local consumers are presented in this paper. The average ∑(HCHs+DDTs) concentration in Glyptothorax punjabensis (214ngg(-1) wet weight (ww)) (carnivores) was found higher than Tor putitora (155ngg(-1) ww) (herbivores). The distribution of ∑(HCHs+DDTs) in all fish tissues was found in order of liver>muscle>stomach>gills. The profile of congeners (β-HCH/∑HCH from 0.29-0.47) indicated that all selected fish species were contaminated with HCH because of its recent usage in the study area. Furthermore, DDT profile ((DDE+DDD)/∑DDT from 0.61-0.78) showed that fish contamination with DDT originated from past usage and long-time degradation mechanism. The average estimated daily dietary intake of ∑HCHs (15.0ngkg(-1) day(-1)) was higher than ∑DDTs (12.5ngkg(-1) day(-1)) by the local consumers via fish consumption. On the basis of both 50th and 95th percentile exposure levels, the carcinogenic hazard ratios for DDT and its congeners were exceeded one (safe limit) for all fish species, indicating a great potential cancer risk for local consumers with life time consumption of contaminated fish collected from Kabul River. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Consistent Individual Differences Drive Collective Behavior and Group Functioning of Schooling Fish.

    Jolles, Jolle W; Boogert, Neeltje J; Sridhar, Vivek H; Couzin, Iain D; Manica, Andrea

    2017-09-25

    The ubiquity of consistent inter-individual differences in behavior ("animal personalities") [1, 2] suggests that they might play a fundamental role in driving the movements and functioning of animal groups [3, 4], including their collective decision-making, foraging performance, and predator avoidance. Despite increasing evidence that highlights their importance [5-16], we still lack a unified mechanistic framework to explain and to predict how consistent inter-individual differences may drive collective behavior. Here we investigate how the structure, leadership, movement dynamics, and foraging performance of groups can emerge from inter-individual differences by high-resolution tracking of known behavioral types in free-swimming stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) shoals. We show that individual's propensity to stay near others, measured by a classic "sociability" assay, was negatively linked to swim speed across a range of contexts, and predicted spatial positioning and leadership within groups as well as differences in structure and movement dynamics between groups. In turn, this trait, together with individual's exploratory tendency, measured by a classic "boldness" assay, explained individual and group foraging performance. These effects of consistent individual differences on group-level states emerged naturally from a generic model of self-organizing groups composed of individuals differing in speed and goal-orientedness. Our study provides experimental and theoretical evidence for a simple mechanism to explain the emergence of collective behavior from consistent individual differences, including variation in the structure, leadership, movement dynamics, and functional capabilities of groups, across social and ecological scales. In addition, we demonstrate individual performance is conditional on group composition, indicating how social selection may drive behavioral differentiation between individuals. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by

  17. Human Resource Local Content in Ghana's Upstream Petroleum Industry

    Benin, Papa

    Enactment of Ghana's Petroleum (Local Content and Local Participation) Regulations, 2013 (L.I. 2204) was intended to regulate the percentage of local products, personnel, financing, and goods and services rendered within Ghana's upstream petroleum industry value chain. Five years after the inception of Ghana's upstream oil and gas industry, a gap is evident between the requirements of L.I. 2204 and professional practice. Drawing on Lewin's change theory, a cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the extent of differences between the prevailing human resource local content and the requirements of L.I. 2204 in Ghana's upstream petroleum industry. The extent to which training acquired by indigenous Ghanaians seeking jobs in Ghana's oil fields affects the prevalent local content in its upstream petroleum industry was also examined. Survey data were collected from 97 management, technical, and other staff in 2 multinational petroleum companies whose oil and gas development plans have been approved by the Petroleum Commission of Ghana. To answer the research questions and test their hypotheses, one-way ANOVA was performed with staff category (management, technical, and other) as the independent variable and prevalent local content as the dependent variable. Results indicated that prevailing local content in Ghana's upstream petroleum industry meets the requirements of L.I. 2204. Further, training acquired by indigenous Ghanaians seeking jobs in Ghana's oil fields affects the prevalent local content in its offshore petroleum industry. Findings may encourage leaders within multinational oil companies and the Petroleum Commission of Ghana to organize educational seminars that equip indigenous Ghanaians with specialized skills for working in Ghana's upstream petroleum industry.

  18. Recovery of ovary size, follicle cell apoptosis, and HSP70 expression in fish exposed to bleached pulp mill effluent

    Janz, D. M.; Weber, L. P. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); McMaster, M. E.; Munkittrrick, K. R. [Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada); Van Der Kraak, G. [Guelph Univ., Dept. of Zoology, ON (Canada)

    2001-03-01

    Apoptosis of granulosa cells that provide hormonal support for the oocyte is the normal mechanism by which atresia ( reduced ovarian size, decreased fecundity, delayed sexual maturation, alterations in plasma sex steroid levels, etc) occurs in mammals, birds and possibly fish. The objective of this study is to determine ovarian cell apoptosis, gonadosomatic index (GSI) and heat shock protein (HSP70) expression during the growth stage of ovarian development in white sucker fish in order to compare samples of fish collected upstream and downstream of a bleached kraft pulp mill in Ontario. Fish for the study were collected in two different years, before and after the pulp mill undertook a number of improvements to eliminate the release of process chemicals. Results showed a 3.4-fold increase in ovarian cell apoptosis in growing white sucker collected four km downstream of the bleached kraft pulp mill in 1996 (before the improvements) compared to fish collected from upstream sources. The elevated ovarian cell apoptosis was associated with significant reduction in gonadosomatic index in fish collected downstream. There were no differences in ovarian cell apoptosis or gonadosomatic index between fish collected upstream and four km downstream of the mill in September 1998 (after the improvements.) Based on the results, it may be concluded that chronic stimulation of ovarian cell apoptosis by certain components of bleached kraft pulp mill effluents represents an important cellular mechanism for reducing the size of ovaries and other related reproductive responses in female fish exposed to these effluents. Although the specific effluent components are not known, the improvements undertaken between 1996 and 1998 resulted in significant enough recovery of these responses to justify the belief in a cause-effect relationship. 32 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  19. Fish Rhabdoviruses

    Kurath, G.; Winton, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many important viral pathogens of fish are members of the family Rhabdoviridae. The viruses in this large group cause significant losses in populations of wild fish as well as among fish reared in aquaculture. Fish rhabdoviruses often have a wide host and geographic range, and infect aquatic animals in both freshwater and seawater. The fish rhabdoviruses comprise a diverse collection of isolates that can be placed in one of two quite different groups: isolates that are members of the established genusNovirhabdovirus, and those that are most similar to members of the genus Vesiculovirus. Because the diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses are important to aquaculture, diagnostic methods for their detection and identification are well established. In addition to regulations designed to reduce the spread of fish viruses, a significant body of research has addressed methods for the control or prevention of diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses, including vaccination. The number of reported fish rhabdoviruses continues to grow as a result of the expansion of aquaculture, the increase in global trade, the development of improved diagnostic methods, and heightened surveillance activities. Fish rhabdoviruses serve as useful components of model systems to study vertebrate virus disease, epidemiology, and immunology.

  20. INDIRECT UPSTREAM EFFECTS OF DAMS: CONSEQUENCES OF MIGRATORY CONSUMER EXTIRPATION IN PUERTO RICO

    EFFIE A. GREATHOUSE; CATHERINE M. PRINGLE; WILLIAM H. MCDOWELL; JEFF G. HOLMQUIST

    2006-01-01

    Large dams degrade the integrity of a wide variety of ecosystems, yet direct downstream effects of dams have received the most attention from ecosystem managers and researchers. We investigated indirect upstream effects of dams resulting from decimation of migratory freshwater shrimp and fish populations in Puerto Rico, USA, in both high- and low-gradient streams. In...

  1. Concentrations and compositions of organochlorine contaminants in sediments, soils, crustaceans, fishes and birds collected from Lake Tai, Hangzhou Bay and Shanghai city region, China

    Nakata, Haruhiko [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: nakata@sci.kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Hirakawa, Yuko [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kawazoe, Masahiro [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555, (Japan); Nakabo, Tetsuji [Kyoto University Museum, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Arizono, Koji [Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Kumamoto Prefectural University, 3-1-100 Tsukide, Kumamoto 862-8502 (Japan); Abe, Shin-Ichi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kitano, Takeshi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Shimada, Hideaki [Faculty of Education, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Watanabe, Izumi [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchuu-city, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Li Weihua [Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, 2140 Xie Tu road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Ding Xucheng [Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, 2140 Xie Tu road, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2005-02-01

    Contamination by persistent organochlorines (OCs), such as DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were examined in sediments, soils, fishes, crustaceans, birds, and aquaculture feed from Lake Tai, Hangzhou Bay, and in the vicinity of Shanghai city in China during 2000 and 2001. OCs were detected in all samples analyzed, and DDT and its metabolites were the predominant contaminants in most sediments, soils and biota. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT and ratio of p,p'-DDT to {sigma}DDTs were significantly higher in marine fishes than those in freshwater fishes. While the use of DDTs has been officially banned in China since 1983, these results indicate a recent input of technical DDTs into the marine environment around Hangzhou Bay. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in fishes collected from Lake Tai and Hangzhou Bay suggests the presence of local sources of HCHs, chlordanes and PCBs at Lake Tai. Higher proportions of penta- and hexa-PCB congeners in fishes at Lake Tai may suggest the use of highly chlorinated PCB product, such as PCB{sub 5}, around this lake. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive study to examine the present status of organochlorine contamination in various environmental media, such as sediments, soils and wildlife, in China. - Elevated concentrations of DDTs were detected in sediments, soils, and wildlife collected from China.

  2. Excreted Thiocyanate Detects Live Reef Fishes Illegally Collected Using Cyanide—A Non-Invasive and Non-Destructive Testing Approach

    Vaz, Marcela C. M.; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A. P.; Rocha, Rui J. M.; Lopes, Isabel; Pereira, Ruth; Duarte, Armando C.; Rubec, Peter J.; Calado, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Cyanide fishing is a method employed to capture marine fish alive on coral reefs. They are shipped to markets for human consumption in Southeast Asia, as well as to supply the marine aquarium trade worldwide. Although several techniques can be used to detect cyanide in reef fish, there is still no testing method that can be used to survey the whole supply chain. Most methods for cyanide detection are time-consuming and require the sacrifice of the sampled fish. Thiocyanate anion (SCN−) is a metabolite produced by the main metabolic pathway for cyanide anion (CN−) detoxification. Our study employed an optical fiber (OF) methodology (analytical time 3.16 µg L−1) of SCN− in seawater. Given that marine fish exposed to cyanide excrete SCN− in the urine, elevated levels of SCN− present in the seawater holding live reef fish indicate that the surveyed specimens were likely exposed to cyanide. In our study, captive-bred clownfish (Amphiprion clarkii) pulse exposed for 60 s to either 12.5 or 25 mg L−1 of CN− excreted up to 6.96±0.03 and 9.84±0.03 µg L−1 of SCN−, respectively, during the 28 days following exposure. No detectable levels of SCN− were recorded in the water holding control organisms not exposed to CN−, or in synthetic seawater lacking fish. While further research is necessary, our methodology can allow a rapid detection of SCN− in the holding water and can be used as a screening tool to indicate if live reef fish were collected with cyanide. PMID:22536375

  3. Analysis of mercury in head hair samples collected from inhabitants of Kuala Juru fishing village, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

    Sarmani, S.; Majid, A.A.; Hamzah, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Fishing is one of the most important industries in Malaysia, providing the people with employment and supplying them with protein from the fish. Fish comprises about 80% of the protein intake of the population. In recent years industrialization and urbanization have encroached into many coastal fishing villages, which in many cases cause water pollution. As a result, the livelihood of small inshore fisherman have been threatened or destroyed. At the same time coastal fishes are contaminated by pollutants from industrial wastes especially the toxic heavy metals. The studies showed that the average mercury levels in commercial marine fishes marketed in Malaysia range from 0.08 - 0.046 mg/kg wet weight. It is apparent that fish is a possible source of mercury exposure to the general population in Malaysia. Per capita fish consumption in Malaysia is 100 g/d/person, and there are efforts by the Malaysian Government to increase fish consumption to 300 g/day/person. 7 refs, 1 tab

  4. Movements of adult Atlantic salmon in relation to a hydroelectric dam and fish ladder

    Gowans, A.R.D.; Priede, I.G.

    1999-01-01

    The movements of adult Atlantic salmon were recorded as they approached, entered and ascended the pool-and-orifice fish ladder at Pitlochry Dam, Scotland. Thirty-nine returning salmon were captured in the River Tummel by rod-and-line angling, radio-tagged and released near where they were caught. The subsequent movements of each fish were then monitored. An electronic fish counter collected additional data on movements of untagged fish past a fixed point in the ladder. Of the 39 fish that were radio-tagged, 29 individuals were recorded approaching and ascending the ladder. The remaining fish either did not approach the dam (three fish), approached the dam after detailed tracking had ended (two fish), were recaptured by anglers (three fish), or the radio tags failed (two fish). Salmon released earlier in the year delayed longer before first approaching the dam. Delays between first approaching the dam and ascent of the ladder were greater for fish that approached the dam earlier. The majority of salmon visited the ladder entrance more than once (maximum 10 visits) before ascending. Having entered, all but four salmon ascended the fish ladder successfully on their first attempt. The four individuals that failed to do so succeeded on their second attempt. The rate at which salmon ascended the ladder was related directly to temperature. The shortest ascent time of a radio-tagged salmon was 5.25 h. Movements of eight of 11 tagged fish through the ladder ceased with the onset of darkness but continued on the following morning. No radio-tagged fish entered the ladder at temperatures below 9 o C. Similarly, few untagged fish were recorded ascending the ladder by the electronic fish counter at water temperatures below 8.5 o C. Records from the fish counter indicated that 92% of upstream movements were made during daylight. (author)

  5. Rooted Rights Systems in Turbulent Water: The Dynamics of Collective Fishing Rights in La Albufera, Valencia, Spain

    Boelens, R.A.; Claudin, V.

    2015-01-01

    Valencia's Albufera Lake is a wetlands area where different sociolegal systems interact. Its El Palmar community is governed by customary laws for fishing and territorial control. These exist alongside, yet in tension with, governmental laws. This article examines the dynamics of fishing rights,

  6. Rooted rights systems in turbulent waters: the dynamics of collective fishing rights in La Albufera, Valencia, Spain

    Boelens, R.; Claudin, V.

    2015-01-01

    Valencia's Albufera Lake is a wetlands area where different sociolegal systems interact. Its El Palmar community is governed by customary laws for fishing and territorial control. These exist alongside, yet in tension with, governmental laws. This article examines the dynamics of fishing rights,

  7. An annotated list of fish parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda) collected from Snappers and Bream (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Caesionidae) in New Caledonia confirms high parasite biodiversity on coral reef fish

    Justine, Jean-Lou; Beveridge, Ian; Boxshall, Geoffrey A; Bray, Rodney A; Miller, Terrence L; Moravec, František; Trilles, Jean-Paul; Whittington, Ian D

    2012-01-01

    Background Coral reefs are areas of maximum biodiversity, but the parasites of coral reef fishes, and especially their species richness, are not well known. Over an 8-year period, parasites were collected from 24 species of Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae and Caesionidae off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Results Host-parasite and parasite-host lists are provided, with a total of 207 host-parasite combinations and 58 parasite species identified at the species level, with 27 new host records. Results ...

  8. Australian experience of fish passage past instream structures

    Lewis, B.

    2008-01-01

    The growth in hydropower has resulted in the construction of various structures across rivers and streams, such as dams and weirs, which may impede essential fish movements and result in local extinctions of some fish species. When it is not practical to build instream structures that provide for fish passage, it may be appropriate to install some type of fishway. Site specific factors such as the fish species present, topography, flow characteristics and cost effectiveness will determine how best to provide for fish passage. The types of fishways suitable at small dams and weirs up to five metres high were described in this paper along with their benefits and effectiveness. The purpose was to provide simple and appropriate solutions that can improve the health of rivers considerably by managing the native aquatic habitat. The upstream passage past obstacles can be provided for through several types of fishways such as pool-type fishways, Denil fish passes, rock ramps, nature-like bypass channels, fish lifts or locks, collection and transportation facilities. In addition to environmental benefits, providing for fish passage can have long term social and economic benefits as well. 17 refs., 3 figs

  9. Flow Structures and Efficiency of Swimming Fish school: Numerical Study

    Yatagai, Yuzuru; Hattori, Yuji

    2013-11-01

    The flow structure and energy-saving mechanism in fish school is numerically investigated by using the volume penalization method. We calculate the various patterns of configuration of fishes and investigate the relation between spatial arrangement and the performance of fish. It is found that the down-stream fish gains a hydrodynamic advantage from the upstream wake shed by the upstream fish. The most efficient configuration is that the downstream fish is placed in the wake. It reduces the drag force of the downstream fish in comparison with that in solo swimming.

  10. Fish assemblages

    McGarvey, Daniel J.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Li, Hiram W.; Li, Judith; Hauer, F. Richard; Lamberti, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Methods to sample fishes in stream ecosystems and to analyze the raw data, focusing primarily on assemblage-level (all fish species combined) analyses, are presented in this chapter. We begin with guidance on sample site selection, permitting for fish collection, and information-gathering steps to be completed prior to conducting fieldwork. Basic sampling methods (visual surveying, electrofishing, and seining) are presented with specific instructions for estimating population sizes via visual, capture-recapture, and depletion surveys, in addition to new guidance on environmental DNA (eDNA) methods. Steps to process fish specimens in the field including the use of anesthesia and preservation of whole specimens or tissue samples (for genetic or stable isotope analysis) are also presented. Data analysis methods include characterization of size-structure within populations, estimation of species richness and diversity, and application of fish functional traits. We conclude with three advanced topics in assemblage-level analysis: multidimensional scaling (MDS), ecological networks, and loop analysis.

  11. Spatial and temporal trends of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in fish fillets and water collected from pool 2 of the Upper Mississippi River.

    Newsted, John L; Holem, Ryan; Hohenstein, Gary; Lange, Cleston; Ellefson, Mark; Reagen, William; Wolf, Susan

    2017-11-01

    In 2011, poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were analyzed in surface water and fish fillet samples taken from Pool 2 of the Upper Mississippi River, a 33-mile stretch inclusive of the Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota (USA) metropolitan area. Approximately 100 each of bluegill, freshwater drum, smallmouth bass, and white bass were sampled within the study area. Surface water samples were also collected from each of the 10 sampling reaches established for the study. Water and fillet samples were analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (C4-C12), perfluorinated sulfonic acids (C4, C6, and C8), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was observed with the greatest frequency in fish fillets and ranged from 3.0 to 760 ng/g wet weight. Mean (geometric) PFOS concentrations in bluegill, freshwater drum, smallmouth bass, and white bass were 20, 28, 29, and 58 ng/g wet weight, respectively. When compared with fish data collected in 2009, a significant reduction (p fish PFOS concentrations are consistent with ongoing efforts to effectively control sources of PFASs to the Mississippi River. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3138-3147. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  12. Fish and substrate data collected in support of the West Hawaii Aquarium Project, 1999 - 2004 (NCEI Accession 0002288)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In response to declines in reef fishes, the Hawaii state legislature created the West Hawaii Regional Fishery Management Area in 1998 to improve fishery resources...

  13. Accuracy of aging ducks in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Waterfowl Parts Collection Survey

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Richkus, Kenneth D.; Rohwer, Frank C.; Cox, Robert R.; Padding, Paul I.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducts an annual Waterfowl Parts Collection Survey to estimate composition of harvested waterfowl by species, sex, and age (i.e., juv or ad). The survey relies on interpretation of duck wings by a group of experienced biologists at annual meetings (hereafter, flyway wingbees). Our objectives were to estimate accuracy of age assignment at flyway wingbees and to explore how accuracy rates may influence bias of age composition estimates. We used banded mallards (Anas platyrhynchos; n = 791), wood ducks (Aix sponsa; n = 242), and blue-winged teal (Anas discors; n = 39) harvested and donated by hunters as our source of birds used in accuracy assessments. We sent wings of donated birds to wingbees after the 2002–2003 and 2003–2004 hunting seasons and compared species, sex, and age determinations made at wingbees with our assessments based on internal and external examination of birds and corresponding banding records. Determinations of species and sex of mallards, wood ducks, and blue-winged teal were accurate (>99%). Accuracy of aging adult mallards increased with harvest date, whereas accuracy of aging juvenile male wood ducks and juvenile blue-winged teal decreased with harvest date. Accuracy rates were highest (96% and 95%) for adult and juvenile mallards, moderate for adult and juvenile wood ducks (92% and 92%), and lowest for adult and juvenile blue-winged teal (84% and 82%). We used these estimates to calculate bias for all possible age compositions (0–100% proportion juv) and determined the range of age compositions estimated with acceptable levels of bias. Comparing these ranges with age compositions estimated from Parts Collection Surveys conducted from 1961 to 2008 revealed that mallard and wood duck age compositions were estimated with insignificant levels of bias in all national surveys. However, 69% of age compositions for blue-winged teal were estimated with an unacceptable level of bias. The low

  14. Contaminants of emerging concern in the Great Lakes Basin: A report on sediment, water, and fish tissue chemistry collected in 2010-2012

    Choy, Steven J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Banda, JoAnn; Bowman, Sarah R.; Brigham, Mark E.; Elliott, Sarah M.; Gefell, Daniel J.; Jankowski, Mark D.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Lee, Kathy E.; Moore, Jeremy N.; Tucker, William A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite being detected at low levels in surface waters and sediments across the United States, contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in the Great Lakes Basin are not well characterized in terms of spatial and temporal occurrence. Additionally, although the detrimental effects of exposure to CECs on fish and wildlife have been documented for many CECs in laboratory studies, we do not adequately understand the implications of the presence of CECs in the environment. Based on limited studies using current environmentally relevant concentrations of chemicals, however, risks to fish and wildlife are evident. As a result, there is an increasing urgency to address data gaps that are vital to resource management decisions. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey, is leading a Great Lakes Basin-wide evaluation of CECs (CEC Project) with the objectives to (a) characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of CECs; (b) evaluate risks to fish and wildlife resources; and (c) develop tools to aid resource managers in detecting, averting, or minimizing the ecological consequences to fish and wildlife that are exposed to CECs. This report addresses objective (a) of the CEC Project, summarizing sediment and water chemistry data collected from 2010 to 2012 and fish liver tissue chemistry data collected in 2012; characterizes the sampling locations with respect to potential sources of CECs in the landscape; and provides an initial interpretation of the variation in CEC concentrations relative to the identified sources. Data collected during the first three years of our study, which included 12 sampling locations and analysis of 134 chemicals, indicate that contaminants were more frequently detected in sediment compared to water. Chemicals classified as alkyphenols, flavors/ fragrances, hormones, PAHs, and sterols had higher average detection frequencies in sediment compared to water, while the opposite was observed for pesticides

  15. Total Mercury and Methylmercury Contamination in Fish from Sites along the Elbe River

    P. Maršálek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate total mercury Hg and methylmercury MeHg contamination in muscle tissues of fish collected in 2002 from the Labe (Elbe river at sites upstream of Pardubice and downstream of Pardubice and Hřensko, and in 2004 from the Labe river upstream and downstream of the Spolana factory in Neratovice, and from the Vltava river downstream of Lenora. Eighty eight fish of the following species were sampled: bream (Abramis brama L., perch (Perca fluviatilis L., chub (Leuciscus cephalus L. and barbel (Barbus barbus L.. Total mercury content in chub, perch and bream was in the range of 0.05 - 1.96 mg kg-1 w.w., 0. 09 - 1.46 mg kg-1 w.w. and 0.35 - 0.82 mg kg-1 w.w., respectively. Methylmercury content in chub, perch and bream was in the range of 0.04 - 2.11 mg kg-1 w.w., 0.1 - 1.73 mg kg-1 w.w. and 0.371 - 0.650 mg kg-1 w.w., respectively. Significant correlation (p p < 0.05 between THg and MeHg contents were found between individual sites. In 2002, for example, the most contaminated fish were found downstream of Pardubice, followed by fish from upstream of Pardubice and from Hřensko. In 2004, fish from downstream and upstream of the Spolana factory in Neratovice were more contaminated than fish from the Vltava river downstream of Lenora. The methylmercury-tototal mercury ratio in muscle tissue was close to 1.0.

  16. Pittsburgh Fish Fry Locations

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Lenten Fish Fry records for the Greater Pittsburgh region. Data is collected before and during the Lenten fish fry season each year by Code for Pittsburgh. Data is...

  17. Inventories and upstream gasoline price dynamics

    Kuper, Gerard H.

    This paper sheds new light on the asymmetric dynamics in upstream U.S. gasoline prices. The model is based on Pindyck's inventory model of commodity price dynamics. We show that asymmetry in gasoline price dynamics is caused by changes in the net marginal convenience yield: higher costs of marketing

  18. Russian upstream joint ventures logging progress

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Occidental Petroleum Corp. has begun exporting oil from Russia as part of an enhanced recovery joint venture in western Siberia. Oxy holds a 50% interest in the joint venture company, Vanyoganneft, and will market the oil. In other activity, two Canadian companies are marking progress with Russian upstream joint ventures

  19. Man-made flows from a fish's perspective: autonomous classification of turbulent fishway flows with field data collected using an artificial lateral line.

    Tuhtan, Jeffrey A; Fuentes-Perez, Juan Francisco; Toming, Gert; Schneider, Matthias; Schwarzenberger, Richard; Schletterer, Martin; Kruusmaa, Maarja

    2018-05-25

    The lateral line system provides fish with advanced mechanoreception over a wide range of flow conditions. Inspired by the abilities of their biological counterparts, artificial lateral lines have been developed and tested exclusively under laboratory settings. Motivated by the lack of flow measurements taken in the field which consider fluid-body interactions, we built a fish-shaped lateral line probe. The device is outfitted with 11 high-speed (2.5 kHz) time-synchronized pressure transducers, and designed to capture and classify flows in fish passage structures. A total of 252 field measurements, each with a sample size of 132 000 discrete sensor readings were recorded in the slots and across the pools of vertical slot fishways. These data were used to estimate the time-averaged flow velocity (R 2   =  0.952), which represents the most common metric to assess fishway flows. The significant contribution of this work is the creation and application of hydrodynamic signatures generated by the spatial distribution of pressure fluctuations on the fish-shaped body. The signatures are based on the collection of the pressure fluctuations' probability distributions, and it is shown that they can be used to automatically classify distinct flow regions within the pools of three different vertical slot fishways. For the first time, field data from operational fishway measurements are sampled and classified using an artificial lateral line, providing a completely new source of bioinspired flow information.

  20. 75 FR 53328 - Proposed Information Collection; OMB Control Number 1018-0093; Federal Fish and Wildlife License...

    2010-08-31

    ... nonform format. (6) FWS Form 3-200-84 (Participation in the Plant Rescue Center Program). Applicants... Rescue Center Program - Application. 3-200-84a/Plant Rescue Program - 70 140 30 minutes......... 70... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R9-IA-2010-N188; 96300-1671-0000-P5...

  1. Summary of total mercury concentrations in fillets of selected sport fishes collected during 2000-2003 from Lake Natoma, Sacramento County, California

    Saiki, Michael K.; Slotton, Darrell G.; May, Thomas W.; Ayers, Shaun M.; Alpers, Charles N.

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes results of total mercury measurements in skinless fillets of sport fishes collected during August 2000, September?October 2002, and July 2003 from Lake Natoma, a small (8,760 acre-feet) afterbay for Folsom Dam on the lower American River. The primary objective of the study was to determine if mercury concentrations in fillets approached or exceeded guidelines for human consumption. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) human-health action level for methylmercury in commercially caught fish is 1.0 ?g/g (microgram per gram); the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human-health criterion for methylmercury residue in fish tissue is 0.30 ?g/g. Wet weight concentrations of total mercury in skinless fillets were as high as 0.19 ?g/g in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), 0.39 ?g/g in redear sunfish (L. microlophus), 1.02 ?g/g in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and 1.89 ?g/g in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Maximum concentrations of mercury in other fish species varied from 0.10 ?g/g in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to 0.56 ?g/g in white catfish (A-meiurus catus). Altogether, 1 of 86 largemouth bass and 11 of 11 channel catfish exceeded the FDA human-health action level. In addition, 1 of 20 redear sunfish, 26 of 86 largemouth bass, 2 of 3 spotted bass (M. punctulatus), 1 of 1 brown bullhead (A. nebulosus), and 1 of 1 white catfish exceeded the USEPA human-health criterion. These results indicate that some fish species inhabiting Lake Natoma contain undesirably high concentrations of mercury in their skinless fillets.

  2. Helminths Parasite Larvae collected from Arabian Gulf Fish. 4. Description of four Larvae including two Metacercarae, one Didymozoid and one Acanthocephalan from Emirati Coasts

    Kardousha, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Four helminth larvae from different fish hosts caught from Emirate coasts are described. Two are metacercariae related to genus Southampton's, type (I) and (II). Type (I) was found encysted in body cavities of the Indian halibut Psettodes erumei and the areolate grouper Epinephelus areolatusu and type (II) in the golden stripped goatfish Mulloides flavolineatus. The third larva is related to Acanthocephala and identified as Serrasentis sagittifer. It was collected from the body cavity of the spotted lizard fish Saurida undosquamius. The fourth larva belongs to the didymozoid trematodes, and was found infecting the kidneys of different hosts, such as Saurida undosquamis, the Jack pomfret Parastromateus niger and mackerel tuna Euthynnus affins. The larva related to Stephanostomum type (I) and type (II) and the dydimozoid type are described for the first time in the Arabian Gulf. (author)

  3. Temperature profiles collected by Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) from Fish Tag data from the Coral Sea, Tasman Sea, and the Indian Oceans from 15 November 2008 to 26 July 2009 (NODC Accession 0067650)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from Fish Tag data from the biologging group at CSIRO, from the Coral Sea, Tasman Sea, and the Indian Oceans from 15 November...

  4. Biodiesel byproduct bioconversion to rhamnolipids: Upstream aspects

    Salazar-Bryam, Ana Maria; Lovaglio, Roberta Barros; Contiero, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on two important aspects of the upstream process: the appropriate use of crude glycerol as a low-cost carbon source, and strain selection. The effect of different crude glycerol concentrations on rhamnolipid biosynthesis by two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (wild type LBI and mutant LBI 2A1) was studied. Finally, the synthesized rhamnolipids were characterized by mass spectrometry. When both strains were compared, 50 g/L was the most favorable concentration for both, but P...

  5. Anatomy of top 100 upstream players

    Burk, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    A brief review is given of a recent survey of the top one hundred upstream oil and gas companies which file financial data with the US Securities and Exchange Commission. The analysis indicates the increasing globalisation of the industry with exploration and development spending increasing dramatically outside the US. To survive, companies must operate as efficient low cost finders and producers of oil and gas and anticipate and meet changing market demands quickly. (UK)

  6. The Giant Mottled Eel, Anguilla marmorata, Uses Blue-Shifted Rod Photoreceptors during Upstream Migration

    Wang, Feng-Yu; Fu, Wen-Chun; Wang, I-Li; Yan, Hong Young; Wang, Tzi-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Catadromous fishes migrate between ocean and freshwater during particular phases of their life cycle. The dramatic environmental changes shape their physiological features, e.g. visual sensitivity, olfactory ability, and salinity tolerance. Anguilla marmorata, a catadromous eel, migrates upstream on dark nights, following the lunar cycle. Such behavior may be correlated with ontogenetic changes in sensory systems. Therefore, this study was designed to identify changes in spectral sensitivity ...

  7. Invasive fish species in the largest lakes of Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and England: the collective U.K. experience

    Winfield, I.J.; Fletcher, J.M.; James, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    An invasive species is defined as an alien (or introduced or non-native) species whose establishment and spread threaten ecosystems, habitats or species with harm. Such threats to UK lake fish communities have long been appreciated and this review assembles case histories, including new data, from the largest lakes of Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and England to examine the hypothesis that at least some of these introductions have become invasive. Loch Lomond in Scotland has experienced s...

  8. Assessment of general health of fishes collected at selected sites in the Great Lakes Basin In 2012

    Mazik, Patricia M.; Braham, Ryan P.; Hahn, Cassidy M.; Blazer, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, there has been a substantive increase in the detection of “emerging contaminants”, defined as a new substance, chemical, or metabolite in the environment; or a legacy substance with a newly expanded distribution, altered release, or a newly recognized effect (such as endocrine disruption). Emerging contaminants include substances such as biogenic hormones (human and animal), brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, plasticizers, current use pesticides, detergents, and nanoparticles. These contaminants are frequently not regulated or inadequately regulated by state or Federal water quality programs. Information about the toxicity of these substances to fish and wildlife resources is generally limited, compared to more highly regulated contaminants, and some classes have been shown to cause affects (for example feminization of male fish, immunomodulation) that are not evaluated via traditional toxicity testing protocols. As a result, these compounds may pose a substantial, but currently poorly documented threat to aquatic ecosystems. Failure to identify and understand the impacts of these emerging contaminants on fish and wildlife resources may result in deleterious impacts to Great Lakes resources that can result in adverse ecological, economic and recreational consequences.

  9. 137Cs And 210Po Dose Assessment Due To Consumption Of Red Sea Coral Reef Fishes Collected From The Local Market (Sudan)

    Hassona, R. K.; Sam, A. K.; Sirelkhatim, D. A.; Osman, O. I.; Larosa, J.

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of Committed Effective Dose (CED) due to consumption of marine fishes (Red Sea area) was performed in 33 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port sudan and classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores. Activity concentrations of 210 Po and 137 Cs were determined and were found to range between 0.25 to 6.42 (carnivores), 0.7-5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/Kg fresh w. for 210 Po and 0.1 to 0.46 (carnivores), 0.09 to 0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09 to 0.3 (herbivores) Bq/Kg fresh w. For 137 Cs which are several times lower than those of 210 Po. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 (μ Sv/y) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, for 137 Cs, this contributes about 0.4% of the total dose. While for 210 Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81 and 4.14 (μ Sv/y) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively which represents 99.6% of the total dose. The results of CED suggest that the dose received by Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fishes is rather small and the contribution of 137 Cs is negligible compared to 210 Po. (Authors)

  10. Assessment of Trace Element Levels in Muscle Tissues of Fish Species Collected from a River, Stream, Lake, and Sea in Sakarya, Turkey

    Tülay Küpeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of some trace and essential elements, including Al, B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Sr, and Zn, were determined in 17 different fish species from Sakarya River, Çark Stream, Sapanca Lake, and Western Black Sea using ICP-OES after microwave (MW digestion procedure. During preparation of samples for analysis, wet and MW digestion methods were also compared. Accuracy of the digestion methods was checked by the analysis of DORM-3 reference material (Fish Protein Certified Reference Material for Trace Metals. Concentrations of trace elements were found as Al: 6.5–48.5, B: 0.06–3.30, Ba: 0.09–2.92, Cr: 0.02–1.64, Cu: 0.13–2.28, Fe: 7.28–39.9, Mn: 0.08–11.4, Ni: 0.01–26.1, Sr: 0.17–13.5, and Zn: 11.5–52.9 µg g−1. The obtained results were compared with other studies published in the literature. Trace element levels in various fish species collected from waters in Sakarya region were found to be below limit values provided by Turkish Food Codex (TFC, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, and World Health Organization (WHO.

  11. Anadromous fish behaviour important for fish passage

    Kynard, B.E.

    1993-01-01

    An understanding of the behavior of target fish species is necessary for proper design, location, and operation of a successful upstream or downstream fishway for anadromous migrants. Important fish behaviors are seasonal and daily timing of migration; rheotaxis and near field behavior; stimulus-response behavior; swimming capability; shoaling behavior; response to physical environmental factors such as illumination, sound, water depth, current velocity, and structure; response to chemicals; and response to biological factors such as competition for space and response to predators. The information on migrant fish behavior is reviewed, using examples from the literature on the behavior of eastern anadromous species, particularly Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and American shad (Alosa sapidissima). 87 refs

  12. Reassessing the ichthyotoxin profile of cultured Prymnesium parvum (golden algae) and comparing it to samples collected from recent freshwater bloom and fish kill events in North America.

    Henrikson, Jon C; Gharfeh, Majed S; Easton, Anne C; Easton, James D; Glenn, Karen L; Shadfan, Miriam; Mooberry, Susan L; Hambright, K David; Cichewicz, Robert H

    2010-06-15

    Within the last two decades, Prymnesium parvum (golden algae) has rapidly spread into inland waterways across the southern portion of North America and this organism has now appeared in more northerly distributed watersheds. In its wake, golden algae blooms have left an alarming trail of ecological devastation, namely massive fish kills, which are threatening the economic and recreational value of freshwater systems throughout the United States. To further understand the nature of this emerging crisis, our group investigated the chemical nature of the toxin(s) produced by P. parvum. We approached the problem using a two-pronged strategy that included analyzing both laboratory-grown golden algae and field-collected samples of P. parvum. Our results demonstrate that there is a striking difference in the toxin profiles for these two systems. An assemblage of potently ichthyotoxic fatty acids consisting primarily of stearidonic acid was identified in P. parvum cultures. While the concentration of the fatty acids alone was sufficient to account for the rapid-onset ichthyotoxic properties of cultured P. parvum, we also detected a second type of highly labile ichthyotoxic substance(s) in laboratory-grown golden algae that remains uncharacterized. In contrast, the amounts of stearidonic acid and its related congeners present in samples from recent bloom and fish kill sites fell well below the limits necessary to induce acute toxicity in fish. However, a highly labile ichthyotoxic substance, which is similar to the one found in laboratory-grown P. parvum cultures, was also detected. We propose that the uncharacterized labile metabolite produced by P. parvum is responsible for golden algae's devastating fish killing effects. Moreover, we have determined that the biologically-relevant ichthyotoxins produced by P. parvum are not the prymnesins as is widely believed. Our results suggest that further intensive efforts will be required to chemically define P. parvum

  13. Assessment of whether upstream passage for Lake Sturgeon is needed at the Pointe du Bois Generating Station (Winnipeg River)

    Pratt, T.

    2010-01-01

    This document reviewed Manitoba Hydro's proposal to modernize the Pointe du Bois Generating Station (GS) on the Winnipeg River, with particular reference to the potential impacts on Lake Sturgeon in Management Unit 5 (MU5) where large numbers of the fish spawn at the base of the falls. The modernization will involve replacing the spillway, dam segments and replacing or repairing the powerhouse. The pros and cons of providing upstream fish passage for Lake Sturgeon and the generating station were outlined. The only spawning area in the MU5 area may be altered considerably due to changes in water flow, depending on the design chosen for modernization. A potential benefit of providing upstream fish passage for Lake Sturgeon would be to increase genetic diversity within the Winnipeg River. Another potential benefit would be to allow Lake Sturgeon, from the relatively dense population below the GS, to move upstream into MU4 where unfilled habitat may be available and Lake Sturgeon abundance is lower. A potential disadvantage of providing fish passage would be the loss of individual Lake Sturgeon from the healthy population in MU5 with no accompanying benefit to MU4. There would be no net gain to MU4 or MU5 if migrating Lake Sturgeon returned to MU5 rather than proceeding upstream. It was concluded that these current gaps in knowledge must be filled in order to fully assess the environmental impacts. 2 figs.

  14. Occurrence and spatial distribution of chemical contaminants in edible fish species collected from UK and proximate marine waters.

    Fernandes, A R; Mortimer, D; Holmes, M; Rose, M; Zhihua, L; Huang, X; Smith, F; Panton, S; Marshall, L

    2018-05-01

    The occurrence of a range of regulated and emerging organic environmental contaminants was investigated in 182 samples of edible marine fish sampled mainly from UK marine regions, but extending northerly to the coast of Norway and south to the Algarve. These species (sprats, mackerel, turbot, halibut, herring, grey mullet, sea bass, grey mullet, sardines, etc.) are among those considered to be at the highest risk of contamination with regulated contaminants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, dioxins), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but the occurrence of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) was also investigated. Sub-sets of samples (50-75) were also analysed for emerging contaminants: polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polybrominated and mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls (PBDD/Fs, PXDD/Fs and PXBs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Contaminant occurrence varied with species and location, but all measured contaminants were detected, with sprats, sea bass, sardines, mackerel, and herring showing higher tissue concentrations. The concentrations of the different contaminants in the various samples were mapped utilising the GPS coordinate data of the capture locations to visualise spatial distribution levels. In terms of catch location, fish sampled from the coasts of southern Britain, north-western France and the Irish Sea appeared to contain proportionately higher levels of some contaminants - e.g. samples from the Irish Sea tended to show higher PCN concentrations, whereas higher levels of PCBs were observed in some fish sampled off the coasts of northern France. Similarly, samples of mullet from the southeast coast of UK showed much higher concentrations of BDE-99 than the other regions. In terms of occurrence trends, PCDD/F and PCB concentrations show a modest decline over the last decade but where limited background data is available for emerging

  15. Meeting the challenge : capturing the upstream

    Bogle, E.W.

    1998-01-01

    The challenge facing the exploration and production sector of the petroleum industry to capture and hold onto the upstream was the main focus of this paper. The exploration and production (E and P) business was described as being highly complex, characterized by constant change and increasing competition. Some of the dynamic changes which have occurred in the Western Canada Basin (WCB) during the last five years and how they relate to the international playing field were reviewed. Significant changes to the production ranking profile as a result of acquisitions, and basin reserve endowment and maturity are the two major factors affecting current and future dynamics of upstream WCB E and P activity. Competitive pressures, contractor relationships, infrastructure access and controls, environmental issues are some of the other factors. Taking these factors into account, Talisman Energy Inc. has used its growth in the WCB to leverage its international activities, diversifying to less mature, but proven hydrocarbon basins. The company's international exploration strategy is designed to be adaptive and flexible and is guided by focus on a limited number of core areas with proven source rock and existing production, achievement of a set production level within a five-year time frame, ensuring strong relationships with host governments and partners, and selecting areas where a multiple of opportunity types are available. In general, for any upstream company it is important to recognize that the more predictable traditional order has given way to a market-driven environment where the rules change almost daily, and success depends on the ability to adapt to change.14 figs

  16. DOWNSTREAM ECOCIDE FROM UPSTREAM WATER PIRACY

    Miah Muhammad Adel

    2012-01-01

    Upstream India and downstream Bangladesh share more than 50 international rivers. India has set up water diversion constructions in more than 50% of these rivers, the largest one being on the Bangladeshâs northwest upon the Ganges River, puts Bangladeshâs Gangetic ecosystem at stake. In some border rivers, India has set up groins on her side of river banks. Also, Indian side pumps Bangladesh river water stealthily from border-rivers. Further, India is constructing another dam and reservoir up...

  17. Canada's upstream petroleum industry : 1997 perspective

    1997-06-01

    A review of the trends and activities in the upstream petroleum industry during 1996 were presented, emphasizing the significance of the industry' contribution to Canada's economy. Among the areas included were highlights of Canada's hydrocarbon reserves, conventional production, frontier production, and non-conventional (oil sands) production. New market opportunities and activities in the pipeline transportation sector were also discussed. Environmental issues including health and safety received due attention. In this regard, the industry's efforts to work with government and other stakeholders to ensure that requirements for land use are balanced with the need to protect wilderness and wildlife habitat, received special mention. 16 figs

  18. Fish Allergy

    ... Cause Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Fish Allergy Fish Allergy Learn about fish allergy, how to read ... that you must avoid both. Allergic Reactions to Fish Finned fish can cause severe and potentially life- ...

  19. Biodiesel byproduct bioconversion to rhamnolipids: Upstream aspects.

    Salazar-Bryam, Ana Maria; Lovaglio, Roberta Barros; Contiero, Jonas

    2017-06-01

    This study focused on two important aspects of the upstream process: the appropriate use of crude glycerol as a low-cost carbon source, and strain selection. The effect of different crude glycerol concentrations on rhamnolipid biosynthesis by two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (wild type LBI and mutant LBI 2A1) was studied. Finally, the synthesized rhamnolipids were characterized by mass spectrometry. When both strains were compared, 50 g/L was the most favorable concentration for both, but P. aeruginosa LBI 2A1 showed an increase in rhamnolipid production (2.55 g/L) of 192% over wild type (1.3 g/L). The higher rhamnolipid production could be related to a possible mechanism developed after the mutation process at high antibiotic concentrations. Mass spectrometry confirmed the glycolipid nature of the produced biosurfactant, and the homologue composition showed a wide mixture of mono and di-rhamnolipids. These results show that high glycerol concentrations can inhibit microbial metabolism, due to osmotic stress, leading to a better understanding of glycerol metabolism towards its optimization in fermentation media. Since P. aeruginosa LBI 2A1 showed higher conversion yields than P. aeruginosa LBI, the use of a mutant strain associated with a low cost carbon source might improve biosurfactant biosynthesis, therefore yielding an important upstream improvement.

  20. Biodiesel byproduct bioconversion to rhamnolipids: Upstream aspects

    Ana Maria Salazar-Bryam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on two important aspects of the upstream process: the appropriate use of crude glycerol as a low-cost carbon source, and strain selection. The effect of different crude glycerol concentrations on rhamnolipid biosynthesis by two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (wild type LBI and mutant LBI 2A1 was studied. Finally, the synthesized rhamnolipids were characterized by mass spectrometry. When both strains were compared, 50 g/L was the most favorable concentration for both, but P. aeruginosa LBI 2A1 showed an increase in rhamnolipid production (2.55 g/L of 192% over wild type (1.3 g/L. The higher rhamnolipid production could be related to a possible mechanism developed after the mutation process at high antibiotic concentrations. Mass spectrometry confirmed the glycolipid nature of the produced biosurfactant, and the homologue composition showed a wide mixture of mono and di-rhamnolipids. These results show that high glycerol concentrations can inhibit microbial metabolism, due to osmotic stress, leading to a better understanding of glycerol metabolism towards its optimization in fermentation media. Since P. aeruginosa LBI 2A1 showed higher conversion yields than P. aeruginosa LBI, the use of a mutant strain associated with a low cost carbon source might improve biosurfactant biosynthesis, therefore yielding an important upstream improvement. Keywords: Biotechnology, Microbiology

  1. Fish fauna of the Brahmaputra River, Bangladesh: richness, threats and conservation needs

    Shams Muhammad Galib

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brahmaputra River is one of the largest rivers in the world as well as in Bangladesh. The present study was carried out for a period of one year from January to December 2013 with a view to assessing the availability of fishes in the river with species emphasis on species richness, existing threats and conservation issues. Daytime and night sampling were carried out in three sites located along the upstream to downstream course of the river on a monthly basis. Three fishing gears including cast net, seine net and drag net and one fishing trap were employed to collect fishes. A total of 67 finfish species including 63 indigenous and 4 exotic/alien species have been recorded belonging to 46 genera, 24 families and 8 orders. Cypriniformes and Cyprinidae were the most dominating order (21 species family (15 species of native fishes. A small portion (2% of native fishes was globally threatened. Over one third of total species (38% were considered threatened to extinct species in Bangladesh. Population trend of over two third of total fish species was Declining in the river. Major threats were alien/invasive species, banned fishing gears and loss of habitats.

  2. Optimum Pathways of Fish Spawning Migrations in Rivers

    McElroy, B. J.; Jacobson, R. B.; Delonay, A.

    2010-12-01

    Many fish species migrate large distances upstream in rivers to spawn. These migrations require energetic expenditures that are inversely related to fecundity of spawners. Here we present the theory necessary to quantify relative energetic requirements of upstream migration pathways and then test the hypothesis that least-cost paths are taken by the federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphyrhyncus Albus), a benthic rheophile, in the lower Missouri River, USA. Total work done by a fish through a migratory path is proportional to the size of the fish, the total drag on the fish, and the distance traversed. Normalizing by the work required to remain stationary at the beginning of a path, relative work expenditure at each point of the path is found to be the cube of the ratio of the velocity along the path to the velocity at the start of the path. This is the velocity of the fish relative to the river flow. A least-cost migratory pathway can be determined from the velocity field in a reach as the path that minimizes a fish's relative work expenditure. We combine location data from pallid sturgeon implanted with telemetric tags and pressure-sensitive data storage tags with depth and velocity data collected with an acoustic Doppler profiler. During spring 2010 individual sturgeon were closely followed as they migrated up the Missouri River to spawn. These show that, within a small margin, pallid sturgeon in the lower Missouri River select least-cost paths as they swim upstream (typical velocities near 1.0 - 1.2 m/s). Within the range of collected data, it is also seen that many alternative paths not selected for migration are two orders of magnitude more energetically expensive (typical velocities near 2.0 - 2.5 m/s). In general these sturgeon migrated along the inner banks of bends avoiding high velocities in the thalweg, crossing the channel where the thalweg crosses in the opposite direction in order to proceed up the inner bank of subsequent bends. Overall, these

  3. CRED Fish Observations from Stereo Video Cameras on a SeaBED AUV collected around Tutuila, American Samoa in 2012

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Black and white imagery were collected using a stereo pair of underwater video cameras mounted on a SeaBED autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and deployed around...

  4. Augmented fish health monitoring

    Michak, P.; Rogers, R.; Amos, K.

    1991-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Historically, all agencies involved with fish health in the Columbia Basin were conducting various levels of fish health monitoring, pathogen screening and collection. The goals of this project were; to identify, develop and implement a standardized level of fish health methodologies, develop a common data collection and reporting format in the area of artificial production, evaluate and monitor water quality, improve communications between agencies and provide annual evaluation of fish health information for production of healthier smolts. This completion report will contain a project evaluation, review of the goals of the project, evaluation of the specific fish health analyses, an overview of highlights of the project and concluding remarks. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  5. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 210}Po dose assessment due to consumption of red sea coral reef fishes collected from the local market (Sudan)

    Hassona, R K; Sam, A K; Sirelkhatim, D A [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum (Sudan); Osman, O I [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan); Larosa, J [Marine Environment Laboratory, IAEA (Monaco)

    2004-12-15

    Assessment of committed effective dose (CED) due to consumption of marine fishes (Red Sea) was performed in 33 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port Sudan and classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores and omnivores. Activity concentration of 2{sup 10P}o and 1{sup 37C}s were determined and were found to range between 0.25 to 6.42 (carnivores), 0.7-5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/Kg fresh w. For {sup 210}Po and 0.1 to 0.46 (carnivores), 0.09 to 0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09 to 0.32 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh w. For 1{sup 37C}s which are several times lower than those of 2{sup 10P}o. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 ({mu}Sv/y) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively for {sup 137}Cs this contributes about 0.4% of the total dose. While for {sup 210}Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81 and 4.14 ({mu}Sv/y) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively which represents 99.6% of the total dose. The results of CED suggest that the dose received by Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fishes is rather small and the contribution of {sup 13}'7Cs is negligible compared to {sup 210}Po.(Author)

  6. 137Cs and 210Po dose assessment due to consumption of red sea coral reef fishes collected from the local market (Sudan)

    Hassona, R. K.; Sam, A. K.; Sirelkhatim, D. A.; Osman, O. I.; Larosa, J.

    2004-12-01

    Assessment of committed effective dose (CED) due to consumption of marine fishes (Red Sea) was performed in 33 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port Sudan and classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores and omnivores. Activity concentration of 2 10P o and 1 37C s were determined and were found to range between 0.25 to 6.42 (carnivores), 0.7-5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/Kg fresh w. For 210 Po and 0.1 to 0.46 (carnivores), 0.09 to 0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09 to 0.32 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh w. For 1 37C s which are several times lower than those of 2 10P o. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 (μSv/y) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively for 137 Cs this contributes about 0.4% of the total dose. While for 210 Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81 and 4.14 (μSv/y) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively which represents 99.6% of the total dose. The results of CED suggest that the dose received by Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fishes is rather small and the contribution of 13 '7Cs is negligible compared to 210 Po.(Author)

  7. Upstream from OPERA: extreme attention to detail

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Two weeks ago, at a seminar held at CERN, the OPERA collaboration revealed their astonishing observation: neutrinos might move faster than light. The finding is currently under scrutiny in the scientific community. While the result downstream at Gran Sasso speaks for itself, upstream at CERN things are no less intriguing, with high-tech GPS systems, novel techniques for accurately measuring the time, and unique ways keeping the initial particle beam stable. Take away one ingredient and the accuracy needed for the final measurement is spoiled.   Underground installations of the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) project. First ingredient: a stable beam CERN produces neutrinos by sending a beam of protons to hit a target. The collisions produce a secondary beam, which mostly consists of pions and kaons that decay in flight within an evacuated tunnel. Their decay products are muons and muon-neutrinos. An absorber stops the pions and kaons that do not decay, while the resulting muons are absorb...

  8. Risk assessment for the reintroduction of anadromous salmonids upstream of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams, Northeastern Washington

    Hardiman, Jill M.; Breyta, Rachel B.; Haskell, Craig A.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Hatten, James R.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2017-09-12

    ), broodstock management and history, and potential constraints (that is, Endangered Species Act [ESA] listing, Evolutionarily Significant Unit concerns, pathogens, and availability). During the workshops, a group of regional fisheries and topic experts subjectively ranked the relative risks of pathogens, genetic effects, predation, and competition to resident fish and reintroduced salmonids. We assessed the pathogen risk of each potential donor for introducing new pathogens and the increased burden to existing pathogens for resident species upstream of the dams. We considered genetic risks to resident and downstream conspecifics and ecological impacts, including competition for food and space, predator-prey interactions, and ecosystem benefits/impacts. Each reintroduced species donor source was ranked based on abundance/viability (demographic risk to source and feasibility of collection), ancestral/genetic similarity (evolutionary similarity to historical populations), local adaptation (geographic proximity/similarity of source conditions to reintroduction conditions), and life history compatibility (including migration; spawn timing; and relative usage of reservoir, main-stem, or tributary habitats) with environmental conditions in the reintroduction area. We synthesized this information by species for all potential donors, in which an overall score and ranking system was established for decision support in donor selection for reintroduction into the upper Columbia River. We also provided information outside the ranking process by:Identifying predator-prey interactions and competition for food and space among species,Developing a decision support framework for donor selection, andProviding decision support for reintroduction strategies.

  9. Upstream passage, spawning, and stock identification of fall chinook in the Snake River, 1992 and 1993. Final report

    Blankenship, H.L.; Mendel, G.W.

    1997-05-01

    This final report of the 3-year study summarizes activities and results for 1993. Study objectives were to: (1) determine the source of losses (or accounting errors) for adult chinook salmon between Ice Harbor Dam (IHR) and Lower Granite Dam (LGR), and upstream of LGR in the Snake River; (2) identify spawning locations upstream of LGR for calibration of aerial redd surveys, redd habitat mapping, carcass recovery for genetic stock profile analysis, and correction of estimated adult/redd ratios; and (3) estimate passage and migration times at Snake River. 200 fall chinook salmon were radio tagged and tracked with aerial, fixed-site, and ground mobile tracking. Fish were released upstream of IHR at Charbonneau Park (CHAR). 190 of the fish were tracked or relocated away from CHAR. 59 fish descended to below IHR without crossing Lower Monumental Dam (LMO). Another 128 salmon passed upstream of LMO without falling back at IHR. Only 80 salmon passed Little Goose Dam (LGO) without falling back at a downstream dam; 66 of these fish passed LGR. Many fish that fell back reascended the dams. A total of 72 salmon released at CHAR passed upstream of LGR, including fish that had fallen back and reascended a dam. Over 80 percent of the salmon that entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery each year had reached LGO before descending to the hatchery. Extensive wandering was documented between LMO and upstream of LGR before salmon entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery or the Tucannon River. In 1993, 41 salmon were found to be of hatchery origin when recovered. These fish entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery with similar movements to unmarked salmon. Each year a few salmon have remained near the hatchery without entering, which suggests the hatchery may have inadequate attraction flows. Fall chinook passed lower Snake River dams in 2-5 days each on average. Median travel times through LMO and LGO were 1.0-1.3 days each, which was slower than for spring chinook or steelhead in 1993. 5 refs., 21 figs., 20 tabs

  10. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs in fish collected from the urban tract of the river Tiber in Rome (Italy

    Roberto Miniero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available European eel and chub samples were analyzed to determine the levels of non-dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (NDL-PCBs, polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs, dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs, and brominated polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs in order to evaluate the extent of contamination of the river Tiber along the urban tract through the city of Rome (Italy. All samples presented detectable levels of the chemicals analyzed, and exhibited species-specific differences in terms of congener composition and total concentrations. On average the European eel presented the highest values. In this species the dioxin-like compound sums (WHO-TEQs exceeded the pertinent maximum levels (MLs. Non-ortho PCBs constituted approximately 80% of WHO-TEQ toxicological potential whereas NDL-PCB and PBDE concentrations appeared to match values determined in other polluted aquatic ecosystems where non-point contamination sources were present. The contamination patterns determined in fish tissues seemed to reflect the impact of generic contamination source(s.

  11. Mercury and other trace elements in Ohio River fish collected near coal-fired power plants: Interspecific patterns and consideration of consumption risks.

    Reash, Robin J; Brown, Lauren; Merritt, Karen

    2015-07-01

    Many coal-fired electric generating facilities in the United States are discharging higher loads of Hg, Se, and other chemicals to receiving streams due to the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) air pollution control units. There are regulatory concerns about the potential increased uptake of these bioaccumulative trace elements into food webs. We evaluated the concentrations of As, total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and Se in Ohio River fish collected proximal to coal-fired power plants, of which 75% operate FGD systems. Fillet samples (n = 50) from 6 fish species representing 3 trophic levels were analyzed. Geometric mean fillet concentrations of THg (wet wt), MeHg (wet wt), and Se (dry wt) in 3 species were 0.136, 0.1181, and 3.19 mg/kg (sauger); 0.123, 0.1013, and 1.56 mg/kg (channel catfish); and 0.127, 0.0914, and 3.30 mg/kg (hybrid striped bass). For all species analyzed, only 3 fillet samples (6% of total) had MeHg concentrations that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human health criterion (0.3 mg/kg wet wt); all of these were freshwater drum aged ≥ 19 y. None of the samples analyzed exceeded the USEPA proposed muscle and whole body Se thresholds for protection against reproductive effects in freshwater fish. All but 8 fillet samples had a total As concentration less than 1.0 mg/kg dry wt. Mean Se health benefit values (HBVSe ) for all species were ≥ 4, indicating that potential Hg-related health risks associated with consumption of Ohio River fish are likely to be offset by adequate Se concentrations. Overall, we observed no measurable evidence of enhanced trace element bioaccumulation associated with proximity to power plant FGD facilities, however, some enhanced bioaccumulation could have occurred in the wastewater mixing zones. Furthermore, available evidence indicates that, due to hydraulic and physical factors, the main stem Ohio River appears to have low net Hg methylation potential. © 2015 SETAC.

  12. Organic, inorganic and total mercury determination in fish by chemical vapor generation with collection on a gold gauze and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Duarte, Fabio Andrei; Bizzi, Cezar Augusto; Goldschmidt Antes, Fabiane; Dressler, Valderi Luiz; Flores, Erico Marlon de Moraes

    2009-01-01

    A method for organic, inorganic and total mercury determination in fish tissue has been developed using chemical vapor generation and collection of mercury vapor on a gold gauze inside a graphite tube and further atomization by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. After drying and cryogenic grinding, potassium bromide and hydrochloric acid solution (1 mol L - 1 KBr in 6 mol L - 1 HCl) was added to the samples. After centrifugation, total mercury was determined in the supernatant. Organomercury compounds were selectively extracted from KBr solution using chloroform and the resultant solution was back extracted with 1% m/v L-cysteine. This solution was used for organic Hg determination. Inorganic Hg remaining in KBr solution was directly determined by chemical vapor generation electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Mercury vapor generation from extracts was performed using 1 mol L - 1 HCl and 2.5% m/v NaBH 4 solutions and a batch chemical vapor generation system. Mercury vapor was collected on the gold gauze heated resistively at 80 deg. C and the atomization temperature was set at 650 deg. C. The selectivity of extraction was evaluated using liquid chromatography coupled to chemical vapor generation and determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The proposed method was applied for mercury analysis in shark, croaker and tuna fish tissues. Certified reference materials were used to check accuracy and the agreement was better than 95%. The characteristic mass was 60 pg and method limits of detection were 5, 1 and 1 ng g - 1 for organic, inorganic and total mercury, respectively. With the proposed method it was possible to analyze up to 2, 2 and 6 samples per hour for organic, inorganic and total Hg determination, respectively.

  13. Water intake fish diversion apparatus

    Taft, E.P. III; Cook, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    A fish diversion apparatus uses a plane screen to divert fish for variety of types of water intakes in order to protect fish from injury and death. The apparatus permits selection of a relatively small screen angle, for example ten degrees, to minimize fish injury. The apparatus permits selection of a high water velocity, for example ten feet per second, to maximize power generation efficiency. The apparatus is especially suitable retrofit to existing water intakes. The apparatus is modular to allow use plural modules in parallel to adjust for water flow conditions. The apparatus has a floor, two opposite side walls, and a roof which define a water flow passage and a plane screen within the passage. The screen is oriented to divert fish into a fish bypass which carries fish to a safe discharge location. The dimensions of the floor, walls, and roof are selected to define the dimensions of the passage and to permit selection of the screen angle. The floor is bi-level with a level upstream of the screen and a level beneath screen selected to provide a uniform flow distribution through the screen. The apparatus may include separation walls to provide a water flow channel between the apparatus and the water intake. Lead walls may be used to adjust water flow conditions into the apparatus. The apparatus features stoplog guides near its upstream and downstream ends to permit the water flow passage to be dewatered. 3 figs

  14. The Feeding Behaviour of Fish from the Upper Lake Baikal Watershed of the Eroo River in Mongolia

    Sudeep Chandra

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The upper Selenge watershed in Mongolia is home to some of the world’s unique fish species. In this study we determined the feeding behaviour of selected fish species collected from the main stream of the Eroo River and two of its upstream tributaries, the Sharlan and Bar Chuluut rivers. Using stable isotope (carbon and nitrogen measurements combined with qualitative and literature information, we determined that taimen ( Hucho taimen and pike ( Esox luceus were the top predators in the Eroo River. They received a substantial amount of their energy from other fish species as well as terrestrial derived sources. Percent presence of biota in lenok ( Brachymystax lenok stomachs demonstrated they eat zoobenthos, invertebrates, fish, and terrestrial rodents. Siberian dace ( Leuciscus baicalensis , a small forage fish collected from the Sharlan and Bar Chuluut rivers demonstrate these fish eat periphyton, zoobenthos and terrestrial invertebrates. In the Bar Chuluut tributary, lenok eat a combination of foods including zoobenthos and other fish species, while arctic grayling ( Thymallus arcticus fed primarily on zoobenthos. Percent frequency analysis showed the two game fish species collected from the Bar Chuluut tributary fed primarily on zoobenthos (85 % for lenok and 80 % for grayling, with 28 families and 10 orders represented in their stomachs. Interviews with families suggested local people fish for a variety of species and that there has been a decline in the catch of taimen and sturgeon ( Acipenser baeri baicalensis over time. Since fishing was poor below highly disturbed areas (e.g. mine sites, local people fished above mine locations or in areas least impacted by these anthropogenic impacts.

  15. Spatial, Temporal, and Dietary Variables Associated with Elevated Mercury Exposure in Peruvian Riverine Communities Upstream and Downstream of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining

    Lauren Wyatt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM is a primary contributor to global mercury and its rapid expansion raises concern for human exposure. Non-occupational exposure risks are presumed to be strongly tied to environmental contamination; however, the relationship between environmental and human mercury exposure, how exposure has changed over time, and risk factors beyond fish consumption are not well understood in ASGM settings. In Peruvian riverine communities (n = 12, where ASGM has increased 4–6 fold over the past decade, we provide a large-scale assessment of the connection between environmental and human mercury exposure by comparing total mercury contents in human hair (2-cm segment, n = 231 to locally caught fish tissue, analyzing temporal exposure in women of child bearing age (WCBA, 15–49 years, n = 46 over one year, and evaluating general mercury exposure risks including fish and non-fish dietary items through household surveys and linear mixed models. Calculations of an individual’s oral reference dose using the total mercury content in locally-sourced fish underestimated the observed mercury exposure for individuals in many communities. This discrepancy was particularly evident in communities upstream of ASGM, where mercury levels in river fish, water, and sediment measurements from a previous study were low, yet hair mercury was chronically elevated. Hair from 86% of individuals and 77% of children exceeded a USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provisional level (1.2 µg/g that could result in child developmental impairment. Chronically elevated mercury exposure was observed in the temporal analysis in WCBA. If the most recent exposure exceeded the USEPA level, there was a 97% probability that the individual exceeded that level 8–10 months of the previous year. Frequent household consumption of some fruits (tomato, banana and grains (quinoa was significantly associated with 29–75% reductions in hair mercury

  16. Spatial, Temporal, and Dietary Variables Associated with Elevated Mercury Exposure in Peruvian Riverine Communities Upstream and Downstream of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining.

    Wyatt, Lauren; Ortiz, Ernesto J; Feingold, Beth; Berky, Axel; Diringer, Sarah; Morales, Ana Maria; Jurado, Elvis Rojas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Pan, William

    2017-12-15

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a primary contributor to global mercury and its rapid expansion raises concern for human exposure. Non-occupational exposure risks are presumed to be strongly tied to environmental contamination; however, the relationship between environmental and human mercury exposure, how exposure has changed over time, and risk factors beyond fish consumption are not well understood in ASGM settings. In Peruvian riverine communities ( n = 12), where ASGM has increased 4-6 fold over the past decade, we provide a large-scale assessment of the connection between environmental and human mercury exposure by comparing total mercury contents in human hair (2-cm segment, n = 231) to locally caught fish tissue, analyzing temporal exposure in women of child bearing age (WCBA, 15-49 years, n = 46) over one year, and evaluating general mercury exposure risks including fish and non-fish dietary items through household surveys and linear mixed models. Calculations of an individual's oral reference dose using the total mercury content in locally-sourced fish underestimated the observed mercury exposure for individuals in many communities. This discrepancy was particularly evident in communities upstream of ASGM, where mercury levels in river fish, water, and sediment measurements from a previous study were low, yet hair mercury was chronically elevated. Hair from 86% of individuals and 77% of children exceeded a USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) provisional level (1.2 µg/g) that could result in child developmental impairment. Chronically elevated mercury exposure was observed in the temporal analysis in WCBA. If the most recent exposure exceeded the USEPA level, there was a 97% probability that the individual exceeded that level 8-10 months of the previous year. Frequent household consumption of some fruits (tomato, banana) and grains (quinoa) was significantly associated with 29-75% reductions in hair mercury. Collectively, these

  17. Upstream petroleum industry flaring guide : review draft

    1999-03-01

    The Alberta requirements and expectations for upstream petroleum flaring are presented. Flaring is associated with a wide range of energy activities including oil and gas well drilling and well completion operations. The guide incorporates the recommendations made to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) in June 1998 by the multi-stakeholder Clean Air Strategic Alliance (CASA) on associated or solution gas flaring. Additional requirements which address flaring issues not covered in the CASA report are also included in this guide. The Guide requires a 15 per cent reduction in solution gas flare volume by the end of year 2000 from the 1996 baseline, and a 25 per cent reduction by the end of 2001. The Guide prescribes new flare performance requirements for all flares, within three years for existing solution gas flares, five years for flares at other existing permanent facilities. It sets personal consultation and public notification requirements for new and existing solution gas batteries, and new sulphur recovery requirements for facilities not covered by existing EUB regulations. The Guide also addresses the question of conflict resolution to deal with flaring concerns, the release of flaring and venting data, the proposed reduction of flare limits, progress towards minimizing requirements for electricity generators using otherwise flared gas, annual reporting to the EUB, and management framework review in 2001

  18. Developmental Origins, Epigenetics, and Equity: Moving Upstream.

    Wallack, Lawrence; Thornburg, Kent

    2016-05-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease and the related science of epigenetics redefines the meaning of what constitutes upstream approaches to significant social and public health problems. An increasingly frequent concept being expressed is "When it comes to your health, your zip code may be more important than your genetic code". Epigenetics explains how the environment-our zip code-literally gets under our skin, creates biological changes that increase our vulnerability for disease, and even children's prospects for social success, over their life course and into future generations. This science requires us to rethink where disease comes from and the best way to promote health. It identifies the most fundamental social equity issue in our society: that initial social and biological disadvantage, established even prior to birth, and linked to the social experience of prior generations, is made worse by adverse environments throughout the life course. But at the same time, it provides hope because it tells us that a concerted focus on using public policy to improve our social, physical, and economic environments can ultimately change our biology and the trajectory of health and social success into future generations.

  19. Moving Upstream in U.S. Hospital Care Toward Investments in Population Health.

    Begun, James W; Potthoff, Sandra

    The root causes for most health outcomes are often collectively referred to as the social determinants of health. Hospitals and health systems now must decide how much to "move upstream," or invest in programs that directly affect the social determinants of health. Moving upstream in healthcare delivery requires an acceptance of responsibility for the health of populations. We examine responses of 950 nonfederal, general hospitals in the United States to the 2015 American Hospital Association Population Health Survey to identify characteristics that distinguish those hospitals that are most aligned with population health and most engaged in addressing social determinants of health. Those "upstream" hospitals are significantly more likely to be large, not-for-profit, metropolitan, teaching-affiliated, and members of systems. Internally, the more upstream hospitals are more likely to organize their population health activities with strong executive-level involvement, full-time-equivalent support, and coordination at the system level.The characteristics differentiating hospitals strongly involved in population health and upstream activity are not unlike those characteristics associated with diffusion of many innovations in hospitals. These hospitals may be the early adopters in a diffusion process that will eventually include most hospitals or, at least, most not-for-profit hospitals. Alternatively, the population health and social determinants movements could be transient or could be limited to a small portion of hospitals such as those identified here, with distinctive patient populations, missions, and resources.

  20. Skelental anomalies in fishes collected from Korangi Creek and back-water of Sandspit along the coast of Karachi (Pakistan)

    Hussain, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Vertebral anomalies have been reported in Liza carinata, Valamugil cunnesiusand Therapon jarbua from Korangi Creek and L. carinata collected frombackwaters of Sandspit. Detail examination of external morphology and X-rays offishes showed kypholordosis and scoliosis in the vertebral column. It is presumed that these effects are results of pollutants in the coastal systems of Korangi Creek and Sandspit backwaters where heavy pollutants and domestic sewage of the Karachi city is discharged untreated. This study suggests the need of effective management measures to save fisheries resources of the creeks and coastal waters

  1. Upstream particles observed in the earth's foreshock region

    Eastman, T.E.; Anderson, R.R.; Frank, L.A.; Parks, G.K.

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of primarily an extensive study of fully three-dimensional plasma data, we describe the interrelationships of the upstream particles and plasma waves observed in the earth's foreshock region. The University of Iowa LEPEDEAs detect ions and electrons from 1 eV to 45 keV over all except approx.2% of the unit sphere. Comparisons are made with high time resolution particle data obtained by the University of California (Berkeley) instruments and plasma wave data collected by the University of Iowa plasma wave instruments on the two ISEE spacecraft. The presence of ion beams or dispersed ion distributions is found to be a sufficient condition for the presence of electrostatic and electromagnetic wave emissions. Detailed correlations of ions with plasma waves down to a tenth of an ion gyroperiod indicate that ion acoustic emission is enhanced when increased anisotropies and gyrophase organization are observed. Time aliasing effects limit the interpretation of velocity distributions taken within the foreshock region. High time resolution correlations between the different instruments, however, demonstrate that time variations of a single isotropic or anisotropic distribution cannot produce the dispersed ion distributions. Detailed analysis of high time resolution data reveals that the upstream particles undergo significant spatial and temporal variations including gyrophase organization. Gyrophase organization comprises groups of ion clusters each one of which includes ions with similar pitch angles that gyrate together about a common guiding center. On the basis of our high time resolution analysis of three-dimensional plasma data combined with magnetic field and plasma wave data, we conclude that (1) ions observed in the foreshock region display gyrophase organization produced by ion clusters with a spatial scale <1 R/sub g/, and (2) dispersed ion distributions are produced primarily by direct sources at or near the bow shock

  2. Monitoring of endangered Roanoke logperch (Percina rex) in Smith River upstream from the Philpott Reservoir on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers property near Martinsville, Virginia

    Roberts, James H.; Angermeier, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to continue annual monitoring of Roanoke logperch (Percina rex), an endangered fish, in the Smith River immediately upstream from Philpott Reservoir. This river reach is owned by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), which must ensure that appropriate actions are undertaken to aid in recovery of logperch. Monitoring of fish abundance and habitat conditions provides a means for assessing the species’ status and its responses to USACE management actions. The Roanoke logperch is a large darter (Percidae: Etheostomatinae) endemic to the Roanoke, Dan, and Nottoway River basins of Virginia and North Carolina, where it occupies third- to sixth-order streams containing relatively silt-free substrate (Jenkins and Burkhead, 1994). Because of its rarity, small range, and vulnerability to siltation, the Roanoke logperch was listed in 1989 as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) (U.S. Federal Register 54:34468-34472). Within the Dan basin, Roanoke logperch have long been known to occupy the Smith River and one of its largest tributaries, Town Creek (Jenkins and Burkhead, 1994). Logperch also recently were discovered in other tributaries of the Dan River, including North Carolina segments of the Mayo River, Cascade Creek, Big Beaver Island Creek, Wolf Island Creek (William Hester, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, personal commun., 2012). Within the Smith River, Roanoke logperch are present both upstream and downstream from Philpott Reservoir, a hydroelectric and water storage project owned and operated by the USACE. Although logperch have not been observed in the reservoir itself, the species is relatively abundant in a free-flowing, ≈ 2.5-km-long segment of Smith River upstream from the reservoir on USACE property (Lahey and Angermeier, 2006). This segment is bounded on the downstream end by the lentic conditions of the reservoir and on the upstream end by White Falls, a natural waterfall that presumably allows fish passage

  3. Developmental stages of fish blood flukes, Cardicola forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae), in their polychaete intermediate hosts collected at Pacific bluefin tuna culture sites in Japan.

    Ogawa, Kazuo; Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Shin, Sang Phil; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Honryo, Tomoki; Sugihara, Yukitaka; Uchida, Hiro'omi

    2017-02-01

    Farming of Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, is a rapidly growing industry in Japan. Aporocotylid blood flukes of the genus Cardicola comprising C. orientalis, C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri are parasites of economic importance for PBT farming. Recently, terebellid polychaetes have been identified as the intermediate hosts for all these parasites. We collected infected polychaetes, Terebella sp., the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis, from ropes and floats attached to tuna cages in Tsushima, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Also, Neoamphitrite vigintipes (formerly as Amphitrite sp. sensu Shirakashi et al., 2016), the intermediate host of C. forsteri, were collected from culture cages in Kushimoto, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. The terebellid intermediate hosts harbored the sporocysts and cercariae in their body cavity. Developmental stages of these blood flukes were molecularly identified using species specific PCR primers. In this paper, we describe the cercaria and sporocyst stages of C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri and compare their morphological characteristics among three Cardicola blood flukes infecting PBT. We also discuss phylogenetic relations of the six genera of the terebellid intermediate hosts (Artacama, Lanassa, Longicarpus, Terebella, Nicolea and Neoamphitrite) of blood flukes infecting marine fishes, based on their morphological characters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  5. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species

  6. Development of a computer-assisted personal interview software system for collection of tribal fish consumption data.

    Kissinger, Lon; Lorenzana, Roseanne; Mittl, Beth; Lasrado, Merwyn; Iwenofu, Samuel; Olivo, Vanessa; Helba, Cynthia; Capoeman, Pauline; Williams, Ann H

    2010-12-01

    The authors developed a computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) seafood consumption survey tool from existing Pacific NW Native American seafood consumption survey methodology. The software runs on readily available hardware and software, and is easily configured for different cultures and seafood resources. The CAPI is used with a booklet of harvest location maps and species and portion size images. The use of a CAPI facilitates tribal administration of seafood consumption surveys, allowing cost-effective collection of scientifically defensible data and tribal management of data and data interpretation. Use of tribal interviewers reduces potential bias and discomfort that may be associated with nontribal interviewers. The CAPI contains a 24-hour recall and food frequency questionnaire, and assesses seasonal seafood consumption and temporal changes in consumption. EPA's methodology for developing ambient water quality criteria for tribes assigns a high priority to local data. The CAPI will satisfy this guidance objective. Survey results will support development of tribal water quality standards on their lands and assessment of seafood consumption-related contaminant risks and nutritional benefits. CAPI advantages over paper surveys include complex question branching without raising respondent burden, more complete interviews due to answer error and range checking, data transcription error elimination, printing and mailing cost elimination, and improved data storage. The survey instrument was pilot tested among the Quinault Nation in 2006. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Reproductive health indicators of fishes from Pennsylvania watersheds: association with chemicals of emerging concern.

    Blazer, V S; Iwanowicz, D D; Walsh, H L; Sperry, A J; Iwanowicz, L R; Alvarez, D A; Brightbill, R A; Smith, G; Foreman, W T; Manning, R

    2014-10-01

    Fishes were collected at 16 sites within the three major river drainages (Delaware, Susquehanna, and Ohio) of Pennsylvania. Three species were evaluated for biomarkers of estrogenic/antiandrogenic exposure, including plasma vitellogenin and testicular oocytes in male fishes. Smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, white sucker Catostomus commersonii, and redhorse sucker Moxostoma species were collected in the summer, a period of low flow and low reproductive activity. Smallmouth bass were the only species in which testicular oocytes were observed; however, measurable concentrations of plasma vitellogenin were found in male bass and white sucker. The percentage of male bass with testicular oocytes ranged from 10 to 100%, with the highest prevalence and severity in bass collected in the Susquehanna drainage. The percentage of males with plasma vitellogenin ranged from 0 to 100% in both bass and sucker. Biological findings were compared with chemical analyses of discrete water samples collected at the time of fish collections. Estrone concentrations correlated with testicular oocytes prevalence and severity and with the percentage of male bass with vitellogenin. No correlations were noted with the percentage of male sucker with vitellogenin and water chemical concentrations. The prevalence and severity of testicular oocytes in bass also correlated with the percent of agricultural land use in the watershed above a site. Two sites within the Susquehanna drainage and one in the Delaware were immediately downstream of wastewater treatment plants to compare results with upstream fish. The percentage of male bass with testicular oocytes was not consistently higher downstream; however, severity did tend to increase downstream.

  8. Biological assessment of aquaculture effects on effluent-receiving streams in Ghana using structural and functional composition of fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages.

    Ansah, Yaw Boamah; Frimpong, Emmanuel A; Amisah, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    Biological assessment of aquatic ecosystems is widely employed as an alternative or complement to chemical and toxicity testing due to numerous advantages of using biota to determine ecosystem condition. These advantages, especially to developing countries, include the relatively low cost and technical requirements. This study was conducted to determine the biological impacts of aquaculture operations on effluent-receiving streams in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. We collected water, fish and benthic macroinvertebrate samples from 12 aquaculture effluent-receiving streams upstream and downstream of fish farms and 12 reference streams between May and August of 2009, and then calculated structural and functional metrics for biotic assemblages. Fish species with non-guarding mode of reproduction were more abundant in reference streams than downstream (P = 0.0214) and upstream (P = 0.0251), and sand-detritus spawning fish were less predominant in reference stream than upstream (P = 0.0222) and marginally less in downstream locations (P = 0.0539). A possible subsidy-stress response of macroinvertebrate family richness and abundance was also observed, with nutrient (nitrogen) augmentation from aquaculture and other farming activities likely. Generally, there were no, or only marginal differences among locations downstream and upstream of fish farms and in reference streams in terms of several other biotic metrics considered. Therefore, the scale of impact in the future will depend not only on the management of nutrient augmentation from pond effluents, but also on the consideration of nutrient discharges from other industries like fruit and vegetable farming within the study area.

  9. Edibility of sport fishes in the Ottawa River near Chalk River Laboratories

    Lee, D.R.; Chaput, T.; Miller, A.; Wills, C.A., E-mail: leed@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    To address the question of edibility of fish in the Ottawa River near Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), 123 game fish were collected for analysis from four locations: Mackey and Rolphton (45 km and 35 km upstream of Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), respectively), the Sandspit (Pointe au Bapteme) and Cotnam Island (1.6 km and 45 km downstream of CRL, respectively). Twenty-six to thirty-six game fish were collected at each location in 2007 and samples of flesh or bone were analyzed. Trap nets were used to collect only the fish required, allowing release of management-sensitive species. The focus was on walleye (Sander vitreus) because they are abundant and popular among anglers. A few northern pike (Esox lucius) and a smaller number of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) were also collected at three of the four sites. Samples of the fish were analyzed for cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr), mercury (Hg), and selected organo-chlorine compounds. Concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in the flesh and {sup 90}Sr in the bones of sport fish were low and similar at all four locations and appear to reflect the global residuals from nuclear weapons testing (primarily in the 1960's) as opposed to releases from CRL. Possible explanations are: 1) Reductions in radionuclide releases from CRL in recent decades and 2) Relatively large foraging ranges of sport fish. Mercury concentrations were elevated in fishes in the Ottawa River and were significantly higher at the Sandspit and Rolphton than at Mackey and Cotnam Island (p<0.001). Mercury concentrations from the four sites are comparable to concentrations in other Ontario and Quebec lakes. It is advisable therefore, that consumers follow the fish consumption guidelines issued by provincial authorities when eating fish from the Ottawa River. Organo-chlorine compounds were not detected in walleye; however, they were detected in all eight of the pike collected at Cotnam Island. The highest organo

  10. Edibility of sport fishes in the Ottawa River near Chalk River Laboratories

    Lee, D.R.; Chaput, T.; Miller, A.; Wills, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    To address the question of edibility of fish in the Ottawa River near Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), 123 game fish were collected for analysis from four locations: Mackey and Rolphton (45 km and 35 km upstream of Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), respectively), the Sandspit (Pointe au Bapteme) and Cotnam Island (1.6 km and 45 km downstream of CRL, respectively). Twenty-six to thirty-six game fish were collected at each location in 2007 and samples of flesh or bone were analyzed. Trap nets were used to collect only the fish required, allowing release of management-sensitive species. The focus was on walleye (Sander vitreus) because they are abundant and popular among anglers. A few northern pike (Esox lucius) and a smaller number of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) were also collected at three of the four sites. Samples of the fish were analyzed for cesium-137 ( 137 Cs), strontium-90 ( 90 Sr), mercury (Hg), and selected organo-chlorine compounds. Concentrations of 137 Cs in the flesh and 90 Sr in the bones of sport fish were low and similar at all four locations and appear to reflect the global residuals from nuclear weapons testing (primarily in the 1960's) as opposed to releases from CRL. Possible explanations are: 1) Reductions in radionuclide releases from CRL in recent decades and 2) Relatively large foraging ranges of sport fish. Mercury concentrations were elevated in fishes in the Ottawa River and were significantly higher at the Sandspit and Rolphton than at Mackey and Cotnam Island (p<0.001). Mercury concentrations from the four sites are comparable to concentrations in other Ontario and Quebec lakes. It is advisable therefore, that consumers follow the fish consumption guidelines issued by provincial authorities when eating fish from the Ottawa River. Organo-chlorine compounds were not detected in walleye; however, they were detected in all eight of the pike collected at Cotnam Island. The highest organo-chlorine concentrations were measured in two

  11. Tissue distribution of organochlorine pesticides in fish collected from the Pearl River Delta, China: Implications for fishery input source and bioaccumulation

    Guo Ying; Meng Xiangzhou; Tang Honglei; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2008-01-01

    Fish tissues from different fishery types (freshwater farmed, seawater farmed and seawater wild) were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), with the aim to further our understanding of bioaccumulation, and reflect the state of different fishery environments. Significantly higher ΣOCP levels were found in seawater farmed fish than others, and among three freshwater farmed species, the lowest levels occurred in filter-feeding fish (bighead carp). Liver contained the highest ΣOCP levels, while no significant differences were found among other tissues. Among DDT components, p,p'-DDT was abundant in seawater fish, while for freshwater fish, p,p'-DDE was the predominant congeners, except for northern snakehead (34% for p,p'-DDE and 30% for p,p'-DDT). The new source of DDTs to freshwater fish ponds was partly attributed to dicofol, whereas sewage discharged from the Pearl River Delta and anti-fouling paint were likely the DDTs sources to seawater farmed fish. - Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in fish tissues was examined to assess input sources and modes of bioaccumulation in the Pearl River Delta, China

  12. Determination of parent and hydroxy PAHs in personal PM{sub 2.5} and urine samples collected during Native American fish smoking activities

    Motorykin, Oleksii [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Schrlau, Jill; Jia, Yuling [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart [Department of Science and Engineering, Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Pendleton, OR 97801 (United States); Harding, Anna [School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Stone, David [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Kile, Molly [School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Sudakin, Daniel [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Massey Simonich, Staci L., E-mail: staci.simonich@orst.edu [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A method was developed for the measurement of 19 parent PAHs (PAHs) and 34 hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs) in urine and personal air samples of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM{sub 2.5}) using GC–MS and validated using NIST SRM 3672 (Organic Contaminants in Smoker's Urine) and SRM 3673 (Organic Contaminants in Nonsmoker's Urine). The method was used to measure PAHs and OH-PAHs in urine and personal PM{sub 2.5} samples collected from the operators of two different fish smoking facilities (tipi and smoke shed) burning two different wood types (alder and apple) on the Confederated Tribes of Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) while they smoked salmon. Urine samples were spiked with β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase to hydrolyze the conjugates of OH-PAHs and the PAHs and OH-PAHs were extracted using Plexa and C18 solid phases, in series. The 34 OH-PAHs were derivatized using MTBSTFA, and the mixture was measured by GC–MS. The personal PM{sub 2.5} samples were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction, derivatized with MTBSTFA and analyzed by GC–MS for PAHs and OH-PAHs. Fourteen isotopically labeled surrogates were added to accurately quantify PAHs and OH-PAHs in the urine and PM{sub 2.5} samples and three isotopically labeled internal standards were used to calculate the recovery of the surrogates. Estimated detection limits in urine ranged from 6.0 to 181 pg/ml for OH-PAHs and from 3.0 to 90 pg/ml for PAHs, and, in PM{sub 2.5}, they ranged from 5.2 to 155 pg/m{sup 3} for OH-PAHs and from 2.5 to 77 pg/m{sup 3} for PAHs. The results showed an increase in OH-PAH concentrations in urine after 6 h of fish smoking and an increase in PAH concentrations in air within each smoking facility. In general, the PAH exposure in the smoke shed was higher than in the tipi and the PAH exposure from burning apple wood was higher than burning alder. - Highlights: • An analytical method was developed for the measurement of 19 PAHs and 34 OH-PAHs.

  13. The giant mottled eel, Anguilla marmorata, uses blue-shifted rod photoreceptors during upstream migration.

    Wang, Feng-Yu; Fu, Wen-Chun; Wang, I-Li; Yan, Hong Young; Wang, Tzi-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Catadromous fishes migrate between ocean and freshwater during particular phases of their life cycle. The dramatic environmental changes shape their physiological features, e.g. visual sensitivity, olfactory ability, and salinity tolerance. Anguilla marmorata, a catadromous eel, migrates upstream on dark nights, following the lunar cycle. Such behavior may be correlated with ontogenetic changes in sensory systems. Therefore, this study was designed to identify changes in spectral sensitivity and opsin gene expression of A. marmorata during upstream migration. Microspectrophotometry analysis revealed that the tropical eel possesses a duplex retina with rod and cone photoreceptors. The λmax of rod cells are 493, 489, and 489 nm in glass, yellow, and wild eels, while those of cone cells are 508, and 517 nm in yellow, and wild eels, respectively. Unlike European and American eels, Asian eels exhibited a blue-shifted pattern of rod photoreceptors during upstream migration. Quantitative gene expression analyses of four cloned opsin genes (Rh1f, Rh1d, Rh2, and SWS2) revealed that Rh1f expression is dominant at all three stages, while Rh1d is expressed only in older yellow eel. Furthermore, sequence comparison and protein modeling studies implied that a blue shift in Rh1d opsin may be induced by two known (N83, S292) and four putative (S124, V189, V286, I290) tuning sites adjacent to the retinal binding sites. Finally, expression of blue-shifted Rh1d opsin resulted in a spectral shift in rod photoreceptors. Our observations indicate that the giant mottled eel is color-blind, and its blue-shifted scotopic vision may influence its upstream migration behavior and habitat choice.

  14. The giant mottled eel, Anguilla marmorata, uses blue-shifted rod photoreceptors during upstream migration.

    Feng-Yu Wang

    Full Text Available Catadromous fishes migrate between ocean and freshwater during particular phases of their life cycle. The dramatic environmental changes shape their physiological features, e.g. visual sensitivity, olfactory ability, and salinity tolerance. Anguilla marmorata, a catadromous eel, migrates upstream on dark nights, following the lunar cycle. Such behavior may be correlated with ontogenetic changes in sensory systems. Therefore, this study was designed to identify changes in spectral sensitivity and opsin gene expression of A. marmorata during upstream migration. Microspectrophotometry analysis revealed that the tropical eel possesses a duplex retina with rod and cone photoreceptors. The λmax of rod cells are 493, 489, and 489 nm in glass, yellow, and wild eels, while those of cone cells are 508, and 517 nm in yellow, and wild eels, respectively. Unlike European and American eels, Asian eels exhibited a blue-shifted pattern of rod photoreceptors during upstream migration. Quantitative gene expression analyses of four cloned opsin genes (Rh1f, Rh1d, Rh2, and SWS2 revealed that Rh1f expression is dominant at all three stages, while Rh1d is expressed only in older yellow eel. Furthermore, sequence comparison and protein modeling studies implied that a blue shift in Rh1d opsin may be induced by two known (N83, S292 and four putative (S124, V189, V286, I290 tuning sites adjacent to the retinal binding sites. Finally, expression of blue-shifted Rh1d opsin resulted in a spectral shift in rod photoreceptors. Our observations indicate that the giant mottled eel is color-blind, and its blue-shifted scotopic vision may influence its upstream migration behavior and habitat choice.

  15. A data-mining framework for exploring the multi-relation between fish species and water quality through self-organizing map.

    Tsai, Wen-Ping; Huang, Shih-Pin; Cheng, Su-Ting; Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Chang, Fi-John

    2017-02-01

    The steep slopes of rivers can easily lead to large variations in river water quality during typhoon seasons in Taiwan, which may poses significant impacts on riverine eco-hydrological environments. This study aims to investigate the relationship between fish communities and water quality by using artificial neural networks (ANNs) for comprehending the upstream eco-hydrological system in northern Taiwan. We collected a total of 276 heterogeneous datasets with 8 water quality parameters and 25 fish species from 10 sampling sites. The self-organizing feature map (SOM) was used to cluster, analyze and visualize the heterogeneous datasets. Furthermore, the structuring index (SI) was adopted to determine the relative importance of each input variable of the SOM and identify the indicator factors. The clustering results showed that the SOM could suitably reflect the spatial characteristics of fishery sampling sites. Besides, the patterns of water quality parameters and fish species could be distinguishably (visually) classified into three eco-water quality groups: 1) typical upstream freshwater fishes that depended the most on dissolved oxygen (DO); 2) typical middle-lower reach riverine freshwater fishes that depended the most on total phosphorus (TP) and ammonia nitrogen; and 3) low lands or pond (reservoirs) freshwater fishes that depended the most on water temperature, suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand. According to the results of the SI, the representative indicators of water quality parameters and fish species consisted of DO, TP and Onychostoma barbatulum. This grouping result suggested that the methodology can be used as a guiding reference to comprehensively relate ecology to water quality. Our methods offer a cost-effective alternative to more traditional methods for identifying key water quality factors relating to fish species. In addition, visualizing the constructed topological maps of the SOM could produce detailed inter-relation between water

  16. Spatial extent and dynamics of dam impacts on tropical island freshwater fish assemblages

    Cooney, Patrick B.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Habitat connectivity is vital to the persistence of migratory fishes. Native tropical island stream fish assemblages composed of diadromous species require intact corridors between ocean and riverine habitats. High dams block fish migration, but low-head artificial barriers are more widespread and are rarely assessed for impacts. Among all 46 drainages in Puerto Rico, we identified and surveyed 335 artificial barriers that hinder fish migration to 74.5% of the upstream habitat. We also surveyed occupancy of native diadromous fishes (Anguillidae, Eleotridae, Gobiidae, and Mugilidae) in 118 river reaches. Occupancy models demonstrated that barriers 2 meters (m) high restricted nongoby fish migration and extirpated those fish upstream of 4-m barriers. Gobies are adapted to climbing and are restricted by 12-m barriers and extirpated upstream of 32-m barriers. Our findings quantitatively illustrate the extensive impact of low-head structures on island stream fauna and provide guidance for natural resource management, habitat restoration, and water development strategies.

  17. An analysis of the tritium content in fish from Upper Three Runs Creek

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    In November of 1988 the F/H-area effluent treatment facility (ETF) began releasing treated waste water to Upper Three Runs Creek. Previous to that time, there has been minimal discharge of plant waste water to this tributary of the Savannah River. The ETF is designed to remove the toxic and radioactive waste materials from the effluent stream and to meet the discharge limits of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The only radioactive nuclide not removed by the process is tritium. Tritium, an isotope of hydrogen, is chemically associated with the water molecules in the waste stream and can not be economically removed at this time. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the concentration of tritium in the stream water and the concentration of tritium in the fish. Fish collections were made at two locations. The most upstream location was 50 meters downstream from the SRS Road C bridge. This is immediately downstream of the effluent discharge pipe from the ETF. The other location was at the bridge of SRS Road A (SC Highway 125). The water is removed from the fish by freeze drying under vacuum. This study suggests that, on the average, the tritium concentration of fish in Upper Three Runs Creek will be in equilibrium with the tritium in the water of the creek. The water in the fish comes into equilibrium with the water in the stream quite rapidly and it is quite likely that any single fish sampled will be higher or lower in tritium content of an integrated water sample, such as those collected by the Environmental Monitoring samplers. Both the time of sampling and the sampling of a sufficient number of fish is important in obtaining an accurate estimate of the average tritium concentration in the tissue water of the fish

  18. Anthropogenic impacts on mercury concentrations and nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios in fish muscle tissue of the Truckee River watershed, Nevada, USA

    Sexauer Gustin, Mae; Saito, Laurel; Peacock, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The lower Truckee River originates at Lake Tahoe, California/Nevada (NV), USA and ends in the terminal water body, Pyramid Lake, NV. The river has minimal anthropogenic inputs of contaminants until it encounters the cities of Reno and Sparks, NV, and receives inflows from Steamboat Creek (SBC). SBC originates at Washoe Lake, NV, where there were approximately six mills that used mercury for gold and silver amalgamation in the late 1800s. Since then, mercury has been distributed down the creek to the Truckee River. In addition, SBC receives agricultural and urban nonpoint source pollution, and treated effluent from the Reno-Sparks water reclamation facility. Fish muscle tissue was collected from different species in SBC and the Truckee River and analyzed for mercury and stable isotopes. Nitrogen (?δ 15 N) and carbon (?δ 13 C) isotopic values in these tissues provide insight as to fish food resources and help to explain their relative Hg concentrations. Mercury concentrations, and ?δ 15 N and ?δ 13 C values in fish muscle from the Truckee River, collected below the SBC confluence, were significantly different than that found in fish collected upstream. Mercury concentrations in fish tissue collected below the confluence for all but three fish sampled were significantly greater (0.1 to 0.65 μg/g wet wt.) than that measured in the tissue collected above the confluence (0.02 to 0.1 μg/g). ?δ 15 N and ?δ 13 C isotopic values of fish muscle collected from the river below the confluence were higher and lower, respectively, than that measured in fish collected up river, most likely reflecting wastewater inputs. The impact of SBC inputs on muscle tissue isotope values declined down river whereas the impact due to Hg inputs showed the opposite trend

  19. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Predator and Bottom-Feeding Fish from Abiquiu and Cochiti Reservoirs in North-Central New Mexico

    G.J. Gonzales, P.R. Fresquez

    2006-03-01

    Concern has existed for years that the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a complex of nuclear weapons research and support facilities, has released polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the environment that may have reached adjacent bodies of water through canyons that connect them. In 1997, we began measuring PCBs in fish in the Rio Grande upstream and downstream of ephemeral streams that cross LANL and later began sampling fish in Abiquiu and Cochiti reservoirs, which are situated on the Rio Chama and Rio Grande upstream and downstream of LANL, respectively. In 2005, six species of fish from Abiquiu and Cochiti reservoirs were collected and the edible portion (fillets) was analyzed for 209 possible PCB congeners. Fish from the reservoirs were last sampled in 2001. Mean total PCB concentrations in fish from Abiquiu Reservoir ({mu} = 2.4 ng/g) were statistically similar ({alpha} = 0.01; P (T{le}t) [range = 0.23-0.71]) to mean total PCB concentrations in fish from Cochiti Reservoir ({mu} = 2.7 ng/g), implying that LANL is not the source of PCBs in fish in Cochiti Reservoir. The levels of PCBs in fish from Cochiti Reservoir generally appear to be declining, at least since 2001, which is when PCB levels might have peaked resulting from storm water runoff after the Cerro Grande Fire. Although a PCB ''fingerprinting'' method can be used to relate PCB ''signatures'' in one area to signatures in another area, this method of implicating the source of PCBs cannot be effectively used for biota because they alter the PCB signature through metabolic processes. Regardless of the source of the PCBs, certain species of fish (catfish and carpsuckers) at both Abiquiu and Cochiti reservoirs continue to harbor levels of PCBs that could be harmful to human health if they are consistently eaten over a long period of time. Bottom-feeding fish (carpsucker and catfish) from Cochiti Reservoir contained statistically higher levels of total PCBs

  20. Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality ...

    Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality, soils and ... Knowledge of irrigation water quality is critical to predicting, managing and reducing salt ... Presence of heavy metals in concentration higher than the recommended ...

  1. A report upon the Grand Coulee Fish Maintenance Project 1939-1947

    Fish, F.F.; Hanavan, Mitchell G.

    1948-01-01

    The construction or Grand Coulee Dam, on the upper Columbia River, involved the loss of 1,140 lineal miles of spawning and rearing stream to the production of anadromous fishes. The fact that the annual value of these fish runs to the nation was estimated at $250,000 justified reasonable expenditures to assure their perpetuation. It was found economically infeasible to safely collect and pass adult fish upstream and fingerling fish downstream at the dam because of the tremendous flow of the river and the 320 foot vertical difference in elevation between forebay and tailrace.The Grand Coulee Fish-Maintenance Project, undertaken by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service in 1939, consisted in relocating the anadroumous runs of the upper Columbia River to four major tributaries entering below the Grand Coulee damsite. These streams were believed capable of supporting several times their existing, badly depleted, run. The plan was predicated upon the assumption that the relocated runs, in conformity with their "homing tendency", would return to the lower tributaries rather than attempt to reach their ancestral spawning grounds above Grand Coulee Dam. This interim report covers the history and accomplishments of the Grand Coulee Fish-Maintenance Project through the initial period of relocating the rune as well as the first four years of the permanent program. Results obtained to date indicate conclusive success in diverting the upper Columbia fish runs into the accessible lower tributaries. The results also indicate, less conclusively, that - in spite of many existing handicaps - the upper Columbia salmon and steelhead runs may be rehabilitated through the integrated program of natural and artificial propagation incorporated in the Grand Coulee Fish-Maintenance Project.

  2. Fish Allergy

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fish Allergy KidsHealth / For Parents / Fish Allergy What's in this ... Print en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the same ...

  3. Intelligent Fish Freshness Assessment

    Hamid Gholam Hosseini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish species identification and automated fish freshness assessment play important roles in fishery industry applications. This paper describes a method based on support vector machines (SVMs to improve the performance of fish identification systems. The result is used for the assessment of fish freshness using artificial neural network (ANN. Identification of the fish species involves processing of the images of fish. The most efficient features were extracted and combined with the down-sampled version of the images to create a 1D input vector. Max-Win algorithm applied to the SVM-based classifiers has enhanced the reliability of sorting to 96.46%. The realisation of Cyranose 320 Electronic nose (E-nose, in order to evaluate the fish freshness in real-time, is experimented. Intelligent processing of the sensor patterns involves the use of a dedicated ANN for each species under study. The best estimation of freshness was provided by the most sensitive sensors. Data was collected from four selected species of fishes over a period of ten days. It was concluded that the performance can be increased using individual trained ANN for each specie. The proposed system has been successful in identifying the number of days after catching the fish with an accuracy of up to 91%.

  4. MMSReefish Study Databases from 1993-1999 field collections (SEC7-95-11 Fish Mortalities From Explosive Removal of Petroleum Platforms)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Impacts of the Explosive Removal of Offshore Oil and Gas Structureson Fish Stocks in the Gulf of MexicoOffshore oil and gas platforms in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM)...

  5. First records of scale deformities in seven freshwater fish species (Actinopterygii: Percidae and Cyprinidae) collected from three ponds in the Czech Republic

    Rutkayová, J.; Jawad, L.; Nebesářová, Jana; Beneš, K.; Petrášková, E.; Näslund, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2016), s. 225-238 ISSN 0137-1592 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : fish * scale abnormality * adverse environment * Cyprinidae * Percidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.670, year: 2016

  6. Concentration, distribution, and translocation of mercury and methylmercury in mine-waste, sediment, soil, water, and fish collected near the Abbadia San Salvatore mercury mine, Monte Amiata district, Italy

    Rimondi, V.; Gray, J.E.; Costagliola, P.; Vaselli, O.; Lattanzi, P.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution and translocation of mercury (Hg) was studied in the Paglia River ecosystem, located downstream from the inactive Abbadia San Salvatore mine (ASSM). The ASSM is part of the Monte Amiata Hg district, Southern Tuscany, Italy, which was one of the world’s largest Hg districts. Concentrations of Hg and methyl-Hg were determined in mine-waste calcine (retorted ore), sediment, water, soil, and freshwater fish collected from the ASSM and the downstream Paglia River. Concentrations of Hg in calcine samples ranged from 25 to 1500 μg/g, all of which exceeded the industrial soil contamination level for Hg of 5 μg/g used in Italy. Stream and lake sediment samples collected downstream from the ASSM ranged in Hg concentration from 0.26 to 15 μg/g, of which more than 50% exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1.06 μg/g, the concentration above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Stream and lake sediment methyl-Hg concentrations showed a significant correlation with TOC indicating considerable methylation and potential bioavailability of Hg. Stream water contained Hg as high as 1400 ng/L, but only one water sample exceeded the 1000 ng/L drinking water Hg standard used in Italy. Concentrations of Hg were elevated in freshwater fish muscle samples and ranged from 0.16 to 1.2 μg/g (wet weight), averaged 0.84 μg/g, and 96% of these exceeded the 0.3 μg/g (methyl-Hg, wet weight) USEPA fish muscle standard recommended to protect human health. Analysis of fish muscle for methyl-Hg confirmed that > 90% of the Hg in these fish is methyl-Hg. Such highly elevated Hg concentrations in fish indicated active methylation, significant bioavailability, and uptake of Hg by fish in the Paglia River ecosystem. Methyl-Hg is highly toxic and the high Hg concentrations in these fish represent a potential pathway of Hg to the human food chain.

  7. Radionuclide and Heavy Metal Concentrations in Fish from the Confluences of Major Canyons That Cross Los Alamos National Laboratory Lands with the Rio Grande

    Kraig, D.H.; Naranjo, L. Jr.; Mullen, M.A.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1999-01-01

    Bottom-feeding fish--catfish, suckers, and carp--that were collected from the confluences of some of the major canyons that cross LANL lands with the Rio Grande (RG) exhibited similar radionuclide (with the exception of 90 Sr), and nonradionuclide concentrations to fish collected upstream of any potential LANL contamination sources. Strontium-90 concentrations in fish from LANL canyons/RG may be associated with LANL operations; however, the concentrations of 90 Sr in fish decrease to background concentrations further downstream of LANL at CR. And, based on the most conservative assumptions (a 95% source term and maximum consumption rate), LANL operations do not result in significant doses to the general public from consuming fish along the length of the RG as it passes through the eastern edge of LANL lands to CR. Moreover, since over 85% of the doses were a result of 90 Sr detected in the muscle plus bone portions of the fish and most of the 90 Sr is associated with the bone, the doses to people that consume only the edible portions of the fish (muscle only), would be significantly lower

  8. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... symptoms are linked to the presence of IgE-antibodies recognizing parvalbumin, the fish panallergen. This view was challenged by results from recent studies as follows. 1. Allergic reactions which are limited to single or several fish species (mono-or oligosensitisations) apply not only to single cases...... but patients with this phenotype constitute an important sub-group among fish-allergic individuals. 2. Newly identified fish allergens, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, are of high relevance as the majority of the fish-allergic individuals seem to develop specific IgE against these proteins. The present...

  9. An annotated list of fish parasites (Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda) collected from Emperors and Emperor Bream (Lethrinidae) in New Caledonia further highlights parasite biodiversity estimates on coral reef fish

    Justine, J.-L.; Beveridge, I.; Boxshall, G.A.; Bray, R. A.; Moravec, František; Whittington, I.D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2691, - (2010), s. 1-40 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : fish * new host records * new geographical records * inventory * biogeography * South Pacific Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.853, year: 2010

  10. Fish ladders: safe fish passage or hotspot for predation?

    Angelo Antonio Agostinho

    Full Text Available Fish ladders are a strategy for conserving biodiversity, as they can provide connectivity between fragmented habitats and reduce predation on shoals that accumulate immediately below dams. Although the impact of predation downstream of reservoirs has been investigated, especially in juvenile salmonids during their downstream movements, nothing is known about predation on Neotropical fish in the attraction and containment areas commonly found in translocation facilities. This study analysed predation in a fish passage system at the Lajeado Dam on the Tocantins River in Brazil. The abundance, distribution, and the permanence (time spent of large predatory fish along the ladder, the injuries imposed by piranhas during passage and the presence of other vertebrate predators were investigated. From December 2002 to October 2003, sampling was conducted in four regions (downstream, along the ladder, in the forebay, and upstream of the reservoir using gillnets, cast nets and counts or visual observations. The captured fish were tagged with thread and beads, and any mutilations were registered. Fish, birds and dolphins were the main predator groups observed, with a predominance of the first two groups. The entrance to the ladder, in the downstream region, was the area with the highest number of large predators and was the only region with relevant non-fish vertebrates. The main predatory fish species were Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hydrolycus armatus, and Serrasalmus rhombeus. Tagged individuals were detected predating along the ladder for up to 90 days. Mutilations caused by Serrasalmus attacks were noted in 36% of species and 4% of individuals at the top of the ladder. Our results suggested that the high density of fish in the restricted ladder environment, which is associated with injuries suffered along the ladder course and the presence of multiple predator groups with different predation strategies, transformed the fish corridor into a hotspot for

  11. Clustering in large networks does not promote upstream reciprocity.

    Naoki Masuda

    Full Text Available Upstream reciprocity (also called generalized reciprocity is a putative mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations with which players help others when they are helped by somebody else. It is a type of indirect reciprocity. Although upstream reciprocity is often observed in experiments, most theories suggest that it is operative only when players form short cycles such as triangles, implying a small population size, or when it is combined with other mechanisms that promote cooperation on their own. An expectation is that real social networks, which are known to be full of triangles and other short cycles, may accommodate upstream reciprocity. In this study, I extend the upstream reciprocity game proposed for a directed cycle by Boyd and Richerson to the case of general networks. The model is not evolutionary and concerns the conditions under which the unanimity of cooperative players is a Nash equilibrium. I show that an abundance of triangles or other short cycles in a network does little to promote upstream reciprocity. Cooperation is less likely for a larger population size even if triangles are abundant in the network. In addition, in contrast to the results for evolutionary social dilemma games on networks, scale-free networks lead to less cooperation than networks with a homogeneous degree distribution.

  12. Valuating Indonesian upstream oil management scenario through system dynamics modelling

    Ketut Gunarta, I.; Putri, F. A.

    2018-04-01

    Under the existing regulation in Constitution Number 22 Year 2001 (UU No 22 Tahun 2001), Production Sharing Contract (PSC) continues to be the scenario in conducting oil and gas upstream mining activities as the previous regulation (UU No. 8 Tahun 1971). Because of the high costs and risks in upstream mining activities, the contractors are dominated by foreign companies, meanwhile National Oil Company (NOC) doesn’t act much. The domination of foreign contractor companies also warned Indonesia in several issues addressing to energy independence and energy security. Therefore, to achieve the goals of energy which is independence and security, there need to be a revision in upstream oil activities regulating scenario. The scenarios will be comparing the current scenario, which is PSC, with the “full concession” scenario for National Oil Company (NOC) in managing oil upstream mining activities. Both scenario will be modelled using System Dynamics methodology and assessed furthermore using financial valuation method of income approach. Under the 2 scenarios, the author will compare which scenario is better for upstream oil management in reaching the goals mentioned before and more profitable in financial aspect. From the simulation, it is gathered that concession scenario offers better option than PSC in reaching energy independence and energy security.

  13. Clustering in large networks does not promote upstream reciprocity.

    Masuda, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Upstream reciprocity (also called generalized reciprocity) is a putative mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations with which players help others when they are helped by somebody else. It is a type of indirect reciprocity. Although upstream reciprocity is often observed in experiments, most theories suggest that it is operative only when players form short cycles such as triangles, implying a small population size, or when it is combined with other mechanisms that promote cooperation on their own. An expectation is that real social networks, which are known to be full of triangles and other short cycles, may accommodate upstream reciprocity. In this study, I extend the upstream reciprocity game proposed for a directed cycle by Boyd and Richerson to the case of general networks. The model is not evolutionary and concerns the conditions under which the unanimity of cooperative players is a Nash equilibrium. I show that an abundance of triangles or other short cycles in a network does little to promote upstream reciprocity. Cooperation is less likely for a larger population size even if triangles are abundant in the network. In addition, in contrast to the results for evolutionary social dilemma games on networks, scale-free networks lead to less cooperation than networks with a homogeneous degree distribution.

  14. Participation costs can suppress the evolution of upstream reciprocity.

    Peña, Jorge; Pestelacci, Enea; Berchtold, André; Tomassini, Marco

    2011-03-21

    Indirect reciprocity, one of the many mechanisms proposed to explain the evolution of cooperation, is the idea that altruistic actions can be rewarded by third parties. Upstream or generalized reciprocity is one type of indirect reciprocity in which individuals help someone if they have been helped by somebody else in the past. Although empirically found to be at work in humans, the evolution of upstream reciprocity is difficult to explain from a theoretical point of view. A recent model of upstream reciprocity, first proposed by Nowak and Roch (2007) and further analyzed by Iwagami and Masuda (2010), shows that while upstream reciprocity alone does not lead to the evolution of cooperation, it can act in tandem with mechanisms such as network reciprocity and increase the total level of cooperativity in the population. We argue, however, that Nowak and Roch's model systematically leads to non-uniform interaction rates, where more cooperative individuals take part in more games than less cooperative ones. As a result, the critical benefit-to-cost ratios derived under this model in previous studies are not invariant with respect to the addition of participation costs. We show that accounting for these costs can hinder and even suppress the evolution of upstream reciprocity, both for populations with non-random encounters and graph-structured populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fish movement in an Atlantic Forest stream

    Rosana Mazzoni

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Given the importance of fish movement to the dynamics and maintenance of stream dwelling fish communities from the Atlantic Forest, we analysed patterns of fish movement in a coastal stream from Southeastern Brazil, using mark-recapture technique. Displacement distance of each species were presented and discussed considering seasonal (rainy and dry and body size patterns. We marked 10 species along the stream and recaptured 440 (34.6% of the 1,270 marked fishes. The species with significant number of upstream moving individuals were Astyanax janeiroensis, Characidium interruptum, Astyanax hastatus, Parotocinclus maculicauda and Awaous tajasica. Only Pimelodella lateristriga presented significant differences between resident and moving individuals. Characidium interruptum and A. tajasica demonstrated greater downstream and upstream movement, respectively, moving up to 2,100 m. Even after controlling for species identity we found no significant correlation between fish length and individual displacement distance. Fishes moved longer distances during the rainy season, in accordance to the breeding season. Patterns of fish movement were in agreement to life-history traits of many of the studied species and can be reflecting specific behaviour and morphologies.

  16. Contamination of freshwater fish from rivers Sava and Danube with polychlorinated biphenyls

    Jankovic, S.; Radicevic, T.; Spiric, A.; Nedeljkovic, M.

    2002-01-01

    During air strikes, in april 1999, Institute of meat hygiene and technology have begun examination of freshwater fish to establish the degree of contamination. The information about damaged industrial facilities and toxic waste that have been spilled were hard to find, and was unofficial and contradicts. Because of that, at the first time we collected samples from different locations, but after first results, we concentrated our attention on locations on river Danube downstream from Pancevo and on river Sava upstream from Belgrade, the locations indicated as environmental 'hot spots'. According to our experience, knowledge, equipment and analytical skills we have chosen to determine the concentrations of PCBs in freshwater fish species, since aquatic fauna might be used as indicator organisms for the evaluation of water pollution. Polychlorinated biphenyls as contaminant of interest, have been chosen because large quantities of PCBs reached the soil and waste and ground waters from damaged transformers and capacitors, where they serve as dielectric fluids. Also, PCBs are highly toxic and due to their liposolubility and persistence, these compounds accumulate through food chain. In 1999, from April to December, we had collected 23 samples of different fish species on river Danube, downstream from Pancevo and 15 samples from locations on river Sava upstream from Belgrade. The concentrations of PCBs (mg/kg fat and mg/kg fresh weight) were expressed as the sum of individual congeners (IUPAC numbers 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180) and as Aroclor 1260 (peaks were identified as a fingerprint pattern by comparison with Aroclor standards). The concentrations of PCBs (mg/kg fat) are determined to evaluate the extent of contamination and concentrations of PCBs (mg/kg fresh weight) indicate daily intake and help us to estimate the risk for human health. Residues of PCBs in the fat extracted from fish sample were analysed according to the USDA Analytical Chemistry Guidebook. Gas

  17. Exploring Social Learning through Upstream Engagement in Science and Technology

    Mortensen, Jonas Egmose

    This discussion paper deliberates on how the concept of social learning can be used for evaluating upstream engagement initiatives in science and technology.  The paper briefly introduces to the concept of upstream engagement and a concrete case, the UK Citizen Science for Sustainability project...... (SuScit), as an outset for discussing how the concept of social learning can be used for analysing and understanding relations between citizen participation, Science and research, and sustainability. A number of relevant research questions and methodological considerations are distilled...

  18. A comparison of visual and collection-based methods for assessing community structure of coral reef fishes in the tropical Eastern Pacific

    Alzate, Adriana; Zapata, Fernando A.; Giraldo, Alan

    Gorgona Island, the major insular area in the Colombian Pacific Ocean, is characterized by a remarkably high biological and ecosystem diversity for this area of the world. Coral reefs are well developed and their fish communities have been described using conventional visual surveys. These methods,

  19. Fish assemblage composition and mapped mesohabitat features over a range of streamflows in the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico, winter 2011-12, summer 2012

    Pearson, Daniel K.; Braun, Christopher L.; Moring, J. Bruce

    2016-01-21

    This report documents differences in the mapped spatial extents and physical characteristics of in-channel fish habitat evaluated at the mesohabitat scale during winter 2011–12 (moderate streamflow) and summer 2012 (low streamflow) at 15 sites on the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico starting about 3 kilometers downstream from Cochiti Dam and ending about 40 kilometers upstream from Elephant Butte Reservoir. The results of mesohabitat mapping, physical characterization, and fish assemblage surveys are summarized from the data that were collected. The report also presents general comparisons of physical mesohabitat data, such as wetted area and substrate type, and biological mesohabitat data, which included fish assemblage composition, species richness, Rio Grande silvery minnow relative abundance, and Rio Grande silvery minnow catch per unit effort.

  20. Sector report: Malaysia. Upstream oil and gas industry

    1997-01-01

    This report is one of a series designed to introduce British exporters to the opportunities offered by the Malaysian market in oil and natural gas. The report includes Malaysia's oil and gas reserves, production, exploration, major profits upstream, production sharing contracts, pipeline construction, operators in production, service sector, and Petronas. (UK)

  1. Collisionless shocks and upstream waves and particles: Introductory remarks

    Kennel, C.F.

    1981-01-01

    We discuss more aspects of collisionless shock theory that might be pertinent to the problem of upstream waves and particles. It is hoped that our qualititive remarks may be a useful guide for the general reader as he goes through the detailed papers to come

  2. Characterization of upstream sequences from the 8S globulin gene ...

    Administrator

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... added recombinant proteins and enzymes for industries. The upstream region ... cost, eukaryotic expression and no endogenous patho- gen pollution, thus it ... developmental process (Santino et al., 1997) which may deplete nutrient ... ideal bioreactors for economic production and storage of value-added ...

  3. Employee assistance programs in the upstream petroleum industry

    Crutcher, R.A.; Yip, R.Y.; Young, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is a descriptive overview of Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) in the upstream Canadian petroleum industry. The authors review current EAP models within the occupational health setting and the Canadian health care context. This article also explores the challenging issues of EAP's emergent functions in workplace substance abuse programs, its changing role in organizational effectiveness and its professional identity

  4. Inlet effect induced ''upstream'' critical heat flux in smooth tubes

    Kitto, J.B. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An unusual form of ''upstream'' critical heat flux (CHF) has been observed and directly linked to the inlet flow pattern during an experimental study of high pressure (17 - 20 MPa) water flowing through a vertical 38.1 mm ID smooth bore tube with uniform axial and nonuniform circumferential heating. These upstream CHF data were characterized by temperature excursions which initially occurred at a relatively fixed axial location in the middle of the test section while the outlet and inlet heated lengths experienced no change. A rifled tube inlet flow conditioner could be substituted for a smooth tube section to generate the desired swirling inlet flow pattern. The upstream CHF data were found to match data from a uniformly heated smooth bore tube when the comparison was made using the peak local heat flux. The mechanism proposed to account for the upstream CHF observations involves the destructive interference between the decaying swirl flow and the secondary circumferential liquid flow field resulting from the one-sided heating

  5. Notes on electropherograms of eye-lens, muscle proteins and zymograms of muscle esterases of fish collected during the first Brazilian expedition to the Antarctica

    Van Ngan Phan

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was carried out on electropherograms of eye-lens, muscle proteins and zymograms of muscle esterases of ten Notothenia larseni, six Notothenia nudifrons and one lanternfish, Electrona antarctica. The fish were collected by the R/V "Prof. W. Besnard" of the Institute of Oceanography, University of São Paulo, during the First Brazilian Expedition to Antarctica. Eye-lens proteins were analysed on cellulose acetate membrane, muscle proteins and esterases on gel of polyaorylamide. Eye-lens proteins showed three types of electropherograms for N. larseni, and two types for N. nudifrons. One of the electropherograms of N. larseni can be readily distinguished from those of N. nudifrons. Electropherograms of muscle proteins of N. larseni and N. nudifrons are very similar and, consist of sixteen to seventeen fractions. Electropherograms of muscle proteins of N. larseni are severely affected by the conservation of the extracts overnight under -20ºC. All N. nudifrons were of the same zymograms of esterases while those of N. larseni varied. Electropherograms of eye-lens and muscle proteins as well as zymograms of esterases of the lanternfish are different from those of nototheniids.Foi realizado um estudo preliminar sobre eletroferogramas de proteínas de cristalino e de músculo esquelético, e zimogramas de esterases de músculo esquelético de dez Notothenia larseni, seis Notothenia nudifrons e de um peixe-lanterna, Electrona antarctica. Os peixes foram coletados pelo N/Oc. "Prof. W. Besnard" do Instituto Oceanográfico da Universidade de São Paulo durante a I Expedição Brasileira à Antártica. As proteinas do cristalino foram analisadas em membranas de acetato de celulose, enquanto que as proteínas e esterases do músculo esquelético, em gel de poliacrilamida. As proteínas do cristalino apresentam três tipos distintos de eletroferogramas para N. larseni, e dois para N. nudifrons. Um dos eletroferogramas de N. larseni, pode ser

  6. Passage of fish larvae and eggs through the Funil, Itutinga and Camargos Reservoirs on the upper Rio Grande (Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Fábio Mineo Suzuki

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the passage of fish eggs and larvae through the Funil, Itutinga and Camargos Reservoirs, located in the upper Rio Grande basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Samples were taken downstream and upstream of the dams using a conical ichthyoplankton net and were collected every two weeks, twice per sampling day, between November 2008 and March 2009. Although eggs and larvae were abundant immediately upstream of the reservoirs, no ichthyoplankton were captured immediately downstream of the dams, possibly indicating that eggs and larvae do not pass through the reservoirs. The arrival of ichthyoplankton in the reservoirs without its effective passage downstream makes the survival of these eggs and larvae unlikely. Furthermore, this lack of downstream movement may compromise the recruitment of species to downstream stretches, especially in the case of the Funil Reservoir (because of the presence of a fish pass in this dam. We emphasize that the fish lift operation at the Funil Dam must be carefully assessed, considering not only its efficiency but also its short- and long-term effects on the recruitment of migratory fish species from the river.

  7. Reservoir stratification affects methylmercury levels in river water, plankton, and fish downstream from Balbina hydroelectric dam, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Kasper, Daniele; Forsberg, Bruce R; Amaral, João H F; Leitão, Rafael P; Py-Daniel, Sarah S; Bastos, Wanderley R; Malm, Olaf

    2014-01-21

    The river downstream from a dam can be more contaminated by mercury than the reservoir itself. However, it is not clear how far the contamination occurs downstream. We investigated the seasonal variation of methylmercury levels in the Balbina reservoir and how they correlated with the levels encountered downstream from the dam. Water, plankton, and fishes were collected upstream and at sites between 0.5 and 250 km downstream from the dam during four expeditions in 2011 and 2012. Variations in thermal stratification of the reservoir influenced the methylmercury levels in the reservoir and in the river downstream. Uniform depth distributions of methylmercury and oxygen encountered in the poorly stratified reservoir during the rainy season collections coincided with uniformly low methylmercury levels along the river downstream from the dam. During dry season collections, the reservoir was strongly stratified, and anoxic hypolimnion water with high methylmercury levels was exported downstream. Methylmercury levels declined gradually to 200 km downstream. In general, the methylmercury levels in plankton and fishes downstream from the dam were higher than those upstream. Higher methylmercury levels observed 200-250 km downstream from the dam during flooding season campaigns may reflect the greater inflow from tributaries and flooding of natural wetlands that occurred at this time.

  8. Micro-PIXE analysis of trace element variation in otoliths from fish collected near acid mine tailings: Potential for monitoring contaminant dispersal

    Saquet, M.; Halden, N.M.; Babaluk, J.; Campbell, J.L.; Nejedly, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Otoliths from fish sampled proximal to acid mine tailings located near Sherridon, Manitoba contain elevated abundances of Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu. Sr is also present in amounts ranging from 250 to 1200 ppm with the actual levels dependent on the lake from which fish were taken. Previous work on analyzing Zn and Mn suggests Zn will typically vary between 50 and ∼100 ppm (in marine and non-marine species) and Mn between 10 and ∼100 ppm. Otoliths analyzed in this study contain up to ∼1000 ppm Zn and up to ∼400 ppm Mn; Fe is present, ranging between 50 and 100 ppm and Cu is typically 40-50 ppm. Water samples showed variation in these elements depending on proximity to the tailings

  9. Spatial patterns of fish communities along two estuarine gradients in southern Florida

    Green, D.P.J.; Trexler, J.C.; Lorenz, J.J.; McIvor, C.C.; Philippi, T.

    2006-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical estuaries, gradients of primary productivity and salinity are generally invoked to explain patterns in community structure and standing crops of fishes. We documented spatial and temporal patterns in fish community structure and standing crops along salinity and nutrient gradients in two subtropical drainages of Everglades National Park, USA. The Shark River drains into the Gulf of Mexico and experiences diurnal tides carrying relatively nutrient enriched waters, while Taylor River is more hydrologically isolated by the oligohaline Florida Bay and experiences no discernable lunar tides. We hypothesized that the more nutrient enriched system would support higher standing crops of fishes in its mangrove zone. We collected 50 species of fish from January 2000 to April 2004 at six sampling sites spanning fresh to brackish salinities in both the Shark and Taylor River drainages. Contrary to expectations, we observed lower standing crops and density of fishes in the more nutrient rich tidal mangrove forest of the Shark River than in the less nutrient rich mangrove habitats bordering the Taylor River. Tidal mangrove habitats in the Shark River were dominated by salt-tolerant fish and displayed lower species richness than mangrove communities in the Taylor River, which included more freshwater taxa and yielded relatively higher richness. These differences were maintained even after controlling for salinity at the time of sampling. Small-scale topographic relief differs between these two systems, possibly created by tidal action in the Shark River. We propose that this difference in topography limits movement of fishes from upstream marshes into the fringing mangrove forest in the Shark River system, but not the Taylor River system. Understanding the influence of habitat structure, including connectivity, on aquatic communities is important to anticipate effects of construction and operational alternatives associated with restoration of the

  10. Spatial and temporal structure of fish assemblages in an ''inverse estuary'', the Sine Saloum system (Senegal)

    Simier, M.; Blanc, L.; Aliaume, C.; Diouf, P. S.; Albaret, J. J.

    2004-01-01

    As a consequence of the Sahelian drought, the Sine Saloum, a large estuarine system located in Senegal (West Africa), has become an "inverse estuary" since the late sixties, i.e. salinity increases upstream and reaches 100 in some places. To study the fish assemblages of such a modified system, a survey was conducted in 1992, collecting fish every two months with a purse seine at eight sites spread over the three main branches of the estuary. A total of 73 species belonging to 35 families were identified. Eight species comprised 97% of the total numbers of fish. The predominant species was a small clupeid, Sardinella maderensis, representing more than half of the total biomass and nearly 70% of the total number of fish. The spatio-temporal structure of the fish assemblages was studied using the STATIS-CoA method, which combines the multitable approach with the correspondence analysis method. Whatever the season, a strong spatial organization of fish assemblages was observed, mainly related to depth and salinity. Three types of assemblages were identified. In shallow water areas, fish assemblages were dominated by Mugilidae, Gerreidae and Cichlidae and were stable with time. In open water areas, large fluctuations in the species composition were observed, due to the occasional presence of large schools of pelagic species: in the southern area, where salinity and water transparency were the lowest, the main species were Ilisha africana, Brachydeuterus auritus and Chloroscombrus chrysurus, associated with a few Sciaenidae and Tetraodontidae, while the poorest areas were characterized by only two dominant species, S. maderensis and Scomberomorus tritor.

  11. Defining fish nursery habitats: an application of otolith elemental fingerprinting in Tampa Bay, Florida

    Ley, Janet A.; McIvor, Carole C.; Peebles, Ernst B; Rolls, Holly; Cooper, Suzanne T.

    2009-01-01

    Fishing in Tampa Bay enhances the quality of life of the area's residents and visitors. However, people's desire to settle along the Bay's shorelines and tributaries has been detrimental to the very habitat believed to be crucial to prime target fishery species. Common snook (Centropomus undecimalis) and red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) are part of the suite of estuarine fishes that 1) are economically or ecologically prominent, and 2) have complex life cycles involving movement between open coastal waters and estuarine nursery habitats, including nursery habitats that are located within upstream, low-salinity portions of the Bay?s tidal tributaries. We are using an emerging microchemical technique -- elemental fingerprinting of fish otoliths -- to determine the degree to which specific estuarine locations contribute to adult fished populations in Tampa Bay. In ongoing monitoring surveys, over 1,000 young-of-the-year common snook and red drum have already been collected from selected Tampa Bay tributaries. Using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), we are currently processing a subsample of these archived otoliths to identify location-specific fingerprints based on elemental microchemistry. We will then analyze older fish from the local fishery in order to match them to their probable nursery areas, as defined by young-of-the-year otoliths. We expect to find that some particularly favorable nursery locations contribute disproportionately to the fished population. In contrast, other nursery areas may be degraded, or act as 'sinks', thereby decreasing their contribution to the fish population. Habitat managers can direct strategic efforts to protect any nursery locations that are found to be of prime importance in contributing to adult stocks.

  12. Environmental Effects of Hydrokinetic Turbines on Fish: Desktop and Laboratory Flume Studies

    Jacobson, Paul T. [Electric Power Research Institute; Amaral, Stephen V. [Alden Research Laboratory; Castro-Santos, Theodore [U.S. Geological Survey; Giza, Dan [Alden Research Laboratory; Haro, Alexander J. [U.S. Geological Survey; Hecker, George [Alden Research Laboratory; McMahon, Brian [Alden Research Laboratory; Perkins, Norman [Alden Research Laboratory; Pioppi, Nick [Alden Research Laboratory

    2012-12-31

    This collection of three reports describes desktop and laboratory flume studies that provide information to support assessment of the potential for injury and mortality of fish that encounter hydrokinetic turbines of various designs installed in tidal and river environments. Behavioral responses to turbine exposure also are investigated to support assessment of the potential for disruptions to upstream and downstream movements of fish. The studies: (1) conducted an assessment of potential injury mechanisms using available data from studies with conventional hydro turbines; (2) developed theoretical models for predicting blade strike probabilities and mortality rates; and (3) performed flume testing with three turbine designs and several fish species and size groups in two laboratory flumes to estimate survival rates and document fish behavior. The project yielded three reports which this document comprises. The three constituent documents are addressed individually below Fish Passage Through Turbines: Application of Conventional Hydropower Data to Hydrokinetic Technologies Fish passing through the blade sweep of a hydrokinetic turbine experience a much less harsh physical environment than do fish entrained through conventional hydro turbines. The design and operation of conventional turbines results in high flow velocities, abrupt changes in flow direction, relatively high runner rotational and blade speeds, rapid and significant changes in pressure, and the need for various structures throughout the turbine passageway that can be impacted by fish. These conditions generally do not occur or are not significant factors for hydrokinetic turbines. Furthermore, compared to conventional hydro turbines, hydrokinetic turbines typically produce relatively minor changes in shear, turbulence, and pressure levels from ambient conditions in the surrounding environment. Injuries and mortality from mechanical injuries will be less as well, mainly due to low rotational speeds and

  13. Biodiversity of arctic marine fishes

    Mecklenburg, Catherine W.; Møller, Peter Rask; Steinke, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Taxonomic and distributional information on each fish species found in arctic marine waters is reviewed, and a list of families and species with commentary on distributional records is presented. The list incorporates results from examination of museum collections of arctic marine fishes dating b...

  14. On-line soft sensing in upstream bioprocessing.

    Randek, Judit; Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik

    2018-02-01

    This review provides an overview and a critical discussion of novel possibilities of applying soft sensors for on-line monitoring and control of industrial bioprocesses. Focus is on bio-product formation in the upstream process but also the integration with other parts of the process is addressed. The term soft sensor is used for the combination of analytical hardware data (from sensors, analytical devices, instruments and actuators) with mathematical models that create new real-time information about the process. In particular, the review assesses these possibilities from an industrial perspective, including sensor performance, information value and production economy. The capabilities of existing analytical on-line techniques are scrutinized in view of their usefulness in soft sensor setups and in relation to typical needs in bioprocessing in general. The review concludes with specific recommendations for further development of soft sensors for the monitoring and control of upstream bioprocessing.

  15. Upstream-downstream cooperation approach in Guanting Reservoir watershed.

    Yang, Zhi-Feng; Zhang, Wen-Guo

    2005-01-01

    A case study is introduced and discussed concerning water dispute of misuse and pollution between up- and down-stream parts. The relations between water usage and local industrial structures are analyzed. Results show it is important to change industrial structures of the target region along with controlling water pollution by technical and engineering methods. Three manners of upstream-downstream cooperation are presented and discussed based on the actual conditions of Guangting Reservoir watershed. Two typical scenarios are supposed and studied along with the local plan on water resources development. The best solution for this cooperation presents a good way to help the upstream developing in a new pattern of eco-economy.

  16. Torque fluctuations caused by upstream mean flow and turbulence

    Farr, T. D.; Hancock, P. E.

    2014-12-01

    A series of studies are in progress investigating the effects of turbine-array-wake interactions for a range of atmospheric boundary layer states by means of the EnFlo meteorological wind tunnel. The small, three-blade model wind turbines drive 4-quadrant motor-generators. Only a single turbine in neutral flow is considered here. The motor-generator current can be measured with adequate sensitivity by means of a current sensor allowing the mean and fluctuating torque to be inferred. Spectra of torque fluctuations and streamwise velocity fluctuations ahead of the rotor, between 0.1 and 2 diameters, show that only the large-scale turbulent motions contribute significantly to the torque fluctuations. Time-lagged cross-correlation between upstream velocity and torque fluctuations are largest over the inner part of the blade. They also show the turbulence to be frozen in behaviour over the 2 diameters upstream of the turbine.

  17. Interaction of in-phase and out-of-phase flexible filament in fish schooling

    Ud Din, Emad; Sung, Hyung

    2011-11-01

    Fish schooling is not merely a social behavior; schooling improves the efficiency of movement within the fluid environment. Inspired by the schooling from a hydrodynamic perspective, a group of aquatic animals is modeled as a collection of individuals arranged in a combination of tandem and side-by-side (diamond) formation. The downstream bodies are strongly influenced by the vortices shed by the upstream body shown by vortex-vortex and vortex-body interactions. Trailing fish takes advantage of this flow pattern for energy economy. To investigate the interactions between flexible bodies and vortices, in the present study three flexible flags in viscous flow are solved by numerical simulation using an improved version of the immersed boundary method for in-phase and out-of-phase filaments. The drag coefficient of the downstream filaments drops even below the value of a single flag. Such drag variations are influenced by the interactions between vortices shed by the upstream flexible body and vortices surrounding the downstream filaments. Interaction of the flexible flags is investigated as a function of the gap distance between flags and different bending coefficients, for in-phase and out-of-phase cases at intermediate Reynolds numbers. This study was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives of NRF/MEST (No. 2011-0000423) of Korea.

  18. Environmental regulatory framework for the upstream petroleum industry

    1996-01-01

    In order to provide its member companies with a useful reference document in environmental analysis and compliance, CAPP compiled a list of Canadian legislation, regulations and guidelines which relate to the upstream petroleum industry. Text of all federal, Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan legislation, regulations, guidelines and related documents were provided. Pending legislation, regulations and government policy have been identified. Annual updates will be provided to all subscribers

  19. Entrepreneurial Leadership in Upstream Oil and Gas Industry

    Kalu, Mona Ukpai

    2015-01-01

    The study examined Entrepreneurial leadership in Upstream Oil and Gas industry and its ability to accelerate innovative energy technology development. The declining deliverability from existing reservoirs and ever increasing demand for energy to fuel growth in many parts of the world is driving oil and gas exploration into more difficult to access reservoirs like bituminous sands and shale gas. Accelerating new innovative technology development to access these new streams of profitable oil an...

  20. Air supersaturation, release of wooden fibres and upstream migration of Atlantic salmon at Rygene power plant in the River Nidelva, Aust Agder county

    Thorstad, Eva B.; Kroglund, Frode; Oekland, Finn; Heggberget, Tor G.

    1997-01-01

    Incidents of dead fish have been reported in connection with a power plant at Rygene on the River Nidelva in the Aust-Agder county, Norway. Air supersaturation has been used in a bypass construction of the power plant tunnel system. In addition, wooden fibres from a fabric have been released into the water of the tunnel. Results from relevant studies concerning air saturation, wooden fibres and upstream migration are summarised in this report. 148 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Fish health and fish quality

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    Aquaculture is an expanding worldwide industry producing an increasing amount of fish every year. The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon many biological and non-biological factors. Infectious diseases are known to cause bleedings and damage of the muscle tissue that may lead to scarring...... are poorly described in fish. The present work in this thesis focused on: 1) examination of potential changes in the quality regarding texture of the muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after previous infection with the bacterial pathogens Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum; 2...... of these studies showed that previous infections by Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum gave rise to subsequent changes regarding textural quality parameters in fresh fish meat, while no differences were seen for cold-smoked meat from the same fish. The texture in previous infected fish was less flaky and less...

  2. DENSITY FLUCTUATIONS UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM OF INTERPLANETARY SHOCKS

    Pitňa, A.; Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Goncharov, O.; Němec, F.; Přech, L. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Chen, C. H. K. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Zastenker, G. N., E-mail: jana.safrankova@mff.cuni.cz [Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, Profsoyuznaya ul. 84/32, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-01

    Interplanetary (IP) shocks as typical large-scale disturbances arising from processes such as stream–stream interactions or Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) launching play a significant role in the energy redistribution, dissipation, particle heating, acceleration, etc. They can change the properties of the turbulent cascade on shorter scales. We focus on changes of the level and spectral properties of ion flux fluctuations upstream and downstream of fast forward oblique shocks. Although the fluctuation level increases by an order of magnitude across the shock, the spectral slope in the magnetohydrodynamic range is conserved. The frequency spectra upstream of IP shocks are the same as those in the solar wind (if not spoiled by foreshock waves). The spectral slopes downstream are roughly proportional to the corresponding slopes upstream, suggesting that the properties of the turbulent cascade are conserved across the shock; thus, the shock does not destroy the shape of the spectrum as turbulence passes through it. Frequency spectra downstream of IP shocks often exhibit “an exponential decay” in the ion kinetic range that was earlier reported at electron scales in the solar wind or at ion scales in the interstellar medium. We suggest that the exponential shape of ion flux spectra in this range is caused by stronger damping of the fluctuations in the downstream region.

  3. Upstream waves simultaneously observed by ISEE and UKS

    Russell, C.T.; Luhmann, J.G.; Elphic, R.C.; Southwood, D.J.; Smith, M.F.; Johnstone, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements obtained in the solar wind by ISEE-2 and the United Kingdom Subsatellite (UKS) have been examined for observations of upstream waves. These data reveal that the waves in the foreshock region are enhanced at all frequencies from at least 0.003 Hz to 0.5 Hz. The wave spectra generally have a spectral peak, but this peak is usually broad and the peak frequency depends on the position of the spacecraft. Generally, the spectra seen at the two spacecraft are most similar at high frequencies and least similar at low frequencies. The geometry of the interaction is displayed in the plane containing the magnetic field, the solar wind velocity, and the spacecraft location. However, this coordinate system does not order all the observed wave properties. It does not clearly explain or order the handedness of the waves, or their direction of propagation. It is clear that the upstream region is inherently three-dimensional. The position-dependent nature of the upstream waves indicates that comparisons between ground-based measurements and in-situ observations must be undertaken with some caution

  4. Fish pelleting

    PUBLICATIONS1

    fish meal pelletizing machine utilized 4kg of ingredients to produce 3.77kg pellets at an effi- ciency of .... Design and fabrication of fish meal pellet processing machine ... 53 ... horsepower for effective torque application on .... two edges were tacked with a spot weld to hold ... then welded on to the shaft making sure that the.

  5. Fish parasites

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  6. Fish reproduction

    Rocha, Maria João; Arukwe, Augustine; Kapoor, B. G

    2008-01-01

    ... of reproductive systems is essential for such studies. Fishes comprise over 28,000 species, with a remarkable variability in morphology, physiology and environmental adaptation. Knowledge on fish reproduction is scattered across numerous sources that shows a dynamic research field. The Editors believe it to be an opportune moment for a...

  7. Monitoring upstream sinkhole development by detailed sonar profiling

    Rigbey, S. [Acres International Ltd., Niagara Falls, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the development and use of a simple sonar system that has been used by engineers for routine monitoring of small sinkholes on the upstream face of a distressed earth dam. Improper construction of the dam led to the development of several sinkholes measuring 10 to 20 m in diameter upstream from the dam which is founded on deep alluvial sands and gravels. The dam has a central core of silt and leakage varies between 200 and 500 l/s, depending on the water level of the reservoir. The main issues with the upstream blanket are: improper fill placement due to the inability to dewater the area properly; omission of a filter material between the blanket and the alluvium foundation; thin placement of fill and runnelling of the blanket prior to impoundment; and, short upstream extent of the blanket. A downstream weighting toe of material was placed to address the seepage and piping that developed immediately following impounding. Other incidents continued over the years, such as downstream sinkholes, slumping of the crest and repairs about 12 years after construction. An inverter filter was also constructed to better control the seepage. Simple bathymetric surveys conducted by sounding the bottom of the reservoir from the ice surface each winter revealed the presence of several large sinkholes. Although infilling programs were conducted, sinkholes redeveloped after each program. The bathymetric surveys were found to be limited in accuracy and repeatability. Therefore, it was not possible to monitor small developments on a yearly basis. A 3-dimensional seepage model was developed to reconcile some of the unexplained piezometric patterns and to better understand the seepage patterns. However, this was also unsuccessful on its own. A trial sonar survey was then undertaken in 2002 by a Vancouver-based sonar company using an Imagenix profiling sonar head. It was successful in locating a small, previously unknown sinkhole measuring a few metres in diameter at

  8. Massachusetts Recreational Fishing Demand Survey

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stated preference choice experiment data were collected in 2012 from Massachuestts saltwater recreational fishermen. Saltwater anglers fishing in Massachusetts (MA)...

  9. Tortugas Reef Fish Census (CRCP)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a long term data set collecting visual census transect data on reef fishes at staions located at Rileys Hump, Tortugas South Ecological Reservee.

  10. Are two systemic fish assemblage sampling programmes on the upper Mississippi River telling us the same thing?

    Dukerschein, J.T.; Bartels, A.D.; Ickes, B.S.; Pearson, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    We applied an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) used on Wisconsin/Minnesota waters of the upper Mississippi River (UMR) to compare data from two systemic sampling programmes. Ability to use data from multiple sampling programmes could extend spatial and temporal coverage of river assessment and monitoring efforts. We normalized for effort and tested fish community data collected by the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program-Great Rivers Ecosystems (EMAP-GRE) 2004–2006 and the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) 1993–2006. Each programme used daytime electrofishing along main channel borders but with some methodological and design differences. EMAP-GRE, designed for baseline and, eventually, compliance monitoring, used a probabilistic, continuous design. LTRMP, designed primarily for baseline and trend monitoring, used a stratified random design in five discrete study reaches. Analysis of similarity indicated no significant difference between EMAP-GRE and LTRMP IBI scores (n=238; Global R= 0.052; significance level=0.972). Both datasets distinguished clear differences only between 'Fair' and 'Poor' condition categories, potentially supporting a 'pass–fail' assessment strategy. Thirteen years of LTRMP data demonstrated stable IBI scores through time in four of five reaches sampled. LTRMP and EMAPGRE IBI scores correlated along the UMR's upstream to downstream gradient (df [3, 25]; F=1.61; p=0.22). A decline in IBI scores from upstream to downstream was consistent with UMR fish community studies and a previous, empirically modelled human disturbance gradient. Comparability between EMAP-GRE (best upstream to downstream coverage) and LTRMP data (best coverage over time and across the floodplain) supports a next step of developing and testing a systemic, multi-metric fish index on the UMR that both approaches could inform.

  11. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Kern, J. Chris; Ward, David L.; Farr, Ruth A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

    2002-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2000 through March 2001 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E), and Oregon State University (OSU; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 2000 through March 2001 are listed.

  12. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    Ward, David L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    2001-04-01

    We report on our progress from April 1999 through March 2000 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1999 through March 2000 are given.

  13. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    Ward, David L.

    2000-12-01

    The authors report on their progress from April 1998 through March 1999 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report D), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report E), and the University of Idaho (UI; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1998 through March 1999 are given.

  14. Differences in sedge fen vegetation upstream and downstream from a managed impoundment

    Kowalski, Kurt P.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposed the restoration of wetlands impacted by a series of drainage ditches and pools located in an extensive undeveloped peatland in the Seney National Wildlife Refuge, Michigan. This study examined the nature and extent of degradation to the Marsh Creek wetlands caused by alteration of natural hydrology by a water-storage pool (C-3 Pool) that intersects the Marsh Creek channel. We tested the hypothesis that a reduction in moderate-intensity disturbance associated with natural water-level fluctuations below the C-3 dike contributed to lower species richness, reduced floristic quality and a larger tree and shrub component than vegetation upstream from the pool. Wetland plant communities were sampled quantitatively and analyzed for species richness, floristic quality and physiognomy. Aerial photographs, GIS databases and GPS data contributed to the characterization and analysis of the Marsh Creek wetlands. Results showed that there was lower species richness in vegetated areas downstream from the pool, but not the anticipated growth in shrubs. Wetland vegetation upstream and downstream from the pool had similar floristic quality, except for a greater number of weedy taxa above the pool. Seepage through the pool dike and localized ground-water discharge created conditions very similar to those observed around beaver dams in Marsh Creek. In essence, the dike containing the C-3 Pool affected hydrology and wetland plant communities in a manner similar to an enormous beaver dam, except that it did not allow seasonal flooding episodes to occur. Management actions to release water from the pool into the original Marsh Creek channel at certain times and in certain amounts that mimic the natural flow regime would be expected to promote greater plant species richness and minimize the negative impacts of the dike.

  15. How to use Big Data technologies to optimize operations in Upstream Petroleum Industry

    Abdelkader Baaziz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available “Big Data is the oil of the new economy” is the most famous citation during the three last years. It has even been adopted by the World Economic Forum in 2011. In fact, Big Data is like crude! It’s valuable, but if unrefined it cannot be used. It must be broken down, analyzed for it to have value. But what about Big Data generated by the Petroleum Industry and particularly its upstream segment? Upstream is no stranger to Big Data. Understanding and leveraging data in the upstream segment enables firms to remain competitive throughout planning, exploration, delineation, and field development.Oil & Gas Companies conduct advanced geophysics modeling and simulation to support operations where 2D, 3D & 4D Seismic generate significant data during exploration phases. They closely monitor the performance of their operational assets. To do this, they use tens of thousands of data-collecting sensors in subsurface wells and surface facilities to provide continuous and real-time monitoring of assets and environmental conditions. Unfortunately, this information comes in various and increasingly complex forms, making it a challenge to collect, interpret, and leverage the disparate data. As an example, Chevron’s internal IT traffic alone exceeds 1.5 terabytes a day.Big Data technologies integrate common and disparate data sets to deliver the right information at the appropriate time to the correct decision-maker. These capabilities help firms act on large volumes of data, transforming decision-making from reactive to proactive and optimizing all phases of exploration, development and production. Furthermore, Big Data offers multiple opportunities to ensure safer, more responsible operations. Another invaluable effect of that would be shared learning.The aim of this paper is to explain how to use Big Data technologies to optimize operations. How can Big Data help experts to decision-making leading the desired outcomes?Keywords:Big Data; Analytics

  16. Relationships between water temperatures and upstream migration, cold water refuge use, and spawning of adult bull trout from the Lostine River, Oregon, USA

    Howell, P.J.; Dunham, J.B.; Sankovich, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding thermal habitat use by migratory fish has been limited by difficulties in matching fish locations with water temperatures. To describe spatial and temporal patterns of thermal habitat use by migratory adult bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus, that spawn in the Lostine River, Oregon, we employed a combination of archival temperature tags, radio tags, and thermographs. We also compared temperatures of the tagged fish to ambient water temperatures to determine if the fish were using thermal refuges. The timing and temperatures at which fish moved upstream from overwintering areas to spawning locations varied considerably among individuals. The annual maximum 7-day average daily maximum (7DADM) temperatures of tagged fish were 16-18 ??C and potentially as high as 21 ??C. Maximum 7DADM ambient water temperatures within the range of tagged fish during summer were 18-25 ??C. However, there was no evidence of the tagged fish using localized cold water refuges. Tagged fish appeared to spawn at 7DADM temperatures of 7-14 ??C. Maximum 7DADM temperatures of tagged fish and ambient temperatures at the onset of the spawning period in late August were 11-18 ??C. Water temperatures in most of the upper Lostine River used for spawning and rearing appear to be largely natural since there has been little development, whereas downstream reaches used by migratory bull trout are heavily diverted for irrigation. Although the population effects of these temperatures are unknown, summer temperatures and the higher temperatures observed for spawning fish appear to be at or above the upper range of suitability reported for the species. Published 2009. This article is a US Governmentwork and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Status of fish broodstock management and seed production in Bangladesh

    Amin, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    The study was conducted with the broad objectives to assess the existing situation of broodstock management and fish seed production in private fish seed farms in Bangladesh. The data were collected from 100 private hatcheries and 40 nurseries in seven upazilas under four districts. There was no shed in forty hatcheries and the owners faced many problems. Brood fish ponds were found suitable for rearing brood fish. About 66% of the hatchery owners collected brood fish from their own ponds and...

  18. Fish community of a small, temperate, urban river in South Africa ...

    Catches were comprised of indigenous freshwater, marine migrant and alien fishes. Marine migrant fishes, including catadromous species dependent on freshwater for early life-history strategies, were significantly affected by instream barriers which prohibited upstream migration of all species except Anguilla mossambica.

  19. 76 FR 27016 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    2011-05-10

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... increase knowledge of species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and help guide management and... during the species' upstream migration. Captured fish would be transported in a tanker truck and released...

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in upstream riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta, China: An assessment of regional input sources

    Zhang Kai; Liang Bo; Wang Jizhong; Guan Yufeng; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2012-01-01

    Water samples collected from upstream tributaries of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and from locations within the PRD (South China) were analyzed for 27 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Average concentrations (aqueous plus particulate) of total 27 PAHs (Σ 27 PAH), 16 priority PAHs designated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) except naphthalene (Σ 15 PAH), and the seven carcinogenic PAHs (Σ 7 PAH) classified by the USEPA were 260 ± 410, 130 ± 310, and 15 ± 12 ng/L, respectively. Riverine PAHs were predominantly generated from coal and vegetation combustion, coke production, vehicle exhausts, and petroleum residues, accounting for 28%, 25%, 22% and 21%, respectively, on average. Upstream riverine fluxes of Σ 27 PAH and Σ 15 PAH amounted to 38.9 and 12.9 tons/year, respectively. The net contributions of Σ 27 PAH and Σ 15 PAH from sources within the PRD were estimated at 21.4 and 21.0 tons/year, respectively. - Highlights: ► Upstream PAH levels were lower than downstream PAHs and pose low ecological risk. ► Riverine PAHs are predominantly pyrogenic. ► Parent PAHs in Pearl River are mainly derived from within the PRD. ► The 15 priority PAHs were mainly generated within the Pearl River Delta. - The 15 priority PAHs are mainly generated within the PRD while the other 12 PAHs from upstream areas.

  1. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  2. Increased risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among upstream petroleum workers

    Kirkeleit, Jorunn; Riise, Trond; Bjørge, Tone; Moen, Bente E; Bråtveit, Magne; Christiani, David C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate cancer risk, particularly oesophageal cancer, among male upstream petroleum workers offshore potentially exposed to various carcinogenic agents. Methods Using the Norwegian Registry of Employers and Employees, 24 765 male offshore workers registered from 1981 to 2003 was compared with 283 002 male referents from the general working population matched by age and community of residence. The historical cohort was linked to the Cancer Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Results Male offshore workers had excess risk of oesophageal cancer (RR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.8) compared with the reference population. Only the adenocarcinoma type had a significantly increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0 to 7.0), mainly because of an increased risk among upstream operators (RR 4.3, 95% CI 1.3 to 14.5). Upstream operators did not have significant excess of respiratory system or colon cancer or mortality from any other lifestyle-related diseases investigated. Conclusion We found a fourfold excess risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among male workers assumed to have had the most extensive contact with crude oil. Due to the small number of cases, and a lack of detailed data on occupational exposure and lifestyle factors associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, the results must be interpreted with caution. Nevertheless, given the low risk of lifestyle-related cancers and causes of death in this working group, the results add to the observations in other low-powered studies on oesophageal cancer, further suggesting that factors related to the petroleum stream or carcinogenic agents used in the production process might be associated with risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:19858535

  3. Fish mercury concentration in the Alto Pantanal, Brazil: influence of season and water parameters.

    Hylander, L D; Pinto, F N; Guimarães, J R; Meili, M; Oliveira, L J; de Castro e Silva, E

    2000-10-16

    The tropical flood plain Pantanal is one of the world's largest wetlands and a wildlife sanctuary. Mercury (Hg) emissions from some upstream gold mining areas and recent findings of high natural Hg levels in tropical oxisols motivated studies on the Hg cycle in the Pantanal. A survey was made on total Hg in the most consumed piscivorous fish species from rivers and floodplain lakes in the north (Cáceres and Barão de Melgaço) and in the south part of Alto Pantanal (around the confluence of the Cuiabá and Paraguai rivers). Samples were collected in both the rainy and dry seasons (March and August 1998) and included piranha (Serrasalmus spp.), and catfish (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans, pintado, and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, cachara or surubim). There was only a small spatial variation in Hg concentration of the 185 analyzed fish samples from the 200 x 200 km large investigation area, and 90% contained total Hg concentration below the safety limit for regular fish consumption (500 ng g(-1)). Concentration above this limit was found in both Pseudoplatystoma and Serrasalmus samples from the Baia Siá Mariana, the only acid soft-water lake included in this study, during both the rainy and dry seasons. Concentration above this limit was also found in fish outside Baia Siá Mariana during the dry season, especially in Rio Cuiabá in the region of Barão de Melgaço. The seasonal effect may be connected with decreasing water volumes and changing habitat during the dry season. The results indicate that fertile women should restrict their consumption of piscivorous fishes from the Rio Cuiabá basin during the dry season. Measures should be implanted to avoid a further deterioration of fish Hg levels.

  4. POSTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS OF P53: UPSTREAM SIGNALING PATHWAYS.

    ANDERSON,C.W.APPELLA,E.

    2003-10-23

    The p53 tumor suppressor is a tetrameric transcription factor that is posttranslational modified at >20 different sites by phosphorylation, acetylation, or sumoylation in response to various cellular stress conditions. Specific posttranslational modifications, or groups of modifications, that result from the activation of different stress-induced signaling pathways are thought to modulate p53 activity to regulate cell fate by inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or cellular senescence. Here we review recent progress in characterizing the upstream signaling pathways whose activation in response to various genotoxic and non-genotoxic stresses result in p53 posttranslational modifications.

  5. Electromagnetic ion beam instability upstream of the earth's bow shock

    Gary, S.P.; Gosling, J.T.; Forslund, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    The linear theory of the electromagnetic ion beam instability for arbitrary angles of propagation has been studied. The parameters considered in the theory are typical of the solar wind upstream of the earth's bow shock when a 'reflected' proton beam is present. Maximum growth occurs for propagation parallel to the ambient field B, but this instability also displays significant growth at wave-vectors oblique to B, Oblique, unstable modes seem to be the likely source of the compressive magnetic fluctuations recently observed in conjunction with 'diffuse' ion population. An energetic ion beam does not directly give rise to linear growth of either ion acoustic or whistler mode instabilities

  6. Multiple upstream modules regulate zebrafish myf5 expression

    Weng Chih-Wei

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myf5 is one member of the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors, and it functions as a myogenic factor that is important for the specification and differentiation of muscle cells. The expression of myf5 is somite- and stage-dependent during embryogenesis through a delicate regulation. However, this complex regulatory mechanism of myf5 is not clearly understood. Results We isolated a 156-kb bacterial artificial chromosome clone that includes an upstream 80-kb region and a downstream 70-kb region of zebrafish myf5 and generated a transgenic line carrying this 156-kb segment fused to a green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter gene. We find strong GFP expression in the most rostral somite and in the presomitic mesoderm during segmentation stages, similar to endogenous myf5 expression. Later, the GFP signals persist in caudal somites near the tail bud but are down-regulated in the older, rostral somites. During the pharyngula period, we detect GFP signals in pectoral fin buds, dorsal rostral myotomes, hypaxial myotomes, and inferior oblique and superior oblique muscles, a pattern that also corresponds well with endogenous myf5 transcripts. To characterize the specific upstream cis-elements that regulate this complex and dynamic expression pattern, we also generated several transgenic lines that harbor various lengths within the upstream 80-kb segment. We find that (1 the -80 kb/-9977 segment contains a fin and cranial muscle element and a notochord repressor; (2 the -9977/-6213 segment contains a strong repressive element that does not include the notochord-specific repressor; (3 the -6212/-2938 segment contains tissue-specific elements for bone and spinal cord; (4 the -2937/-291 segment contains an eye enhancer, and the -2937/-2457 segment is required for notochord and myocyte expression; and (5 the -290/-1 segment is responsible for basal transcription in somites and the presomitic mesoderm. Conclusion We suggest

  7. Relation of contaminants to fish intersex in riverine sport fishes.

    Grieshaber, Casey A; Penland, Tiffany N; Kwak, Thomas J; Cope, W Gregory; Heise, Ryan J; Law, J Mac; Shea, Damian; Aday, D Derek; Rice, James A; Kullman, Seth W

    2018-06-20

    Endocrine active compounds (EACs) are pollutants that have been recognized as an emerging and widespread threat to aquatic ecosystems globally. Intersex, the presence of female germ cells within a predominantly male gonad, is considered a biomarker of endocrine disruption caused by EACs. We measured a suite of EACs and assessed their associated impacts on fish intersex occurrence and severity in a large, regulated river system in North Carolina and South Carolina, USA. Our specific objective was to determine the relationship of contaminants in water, sediment, and fish tissue with the occurrence and severity of the intersex condition in wild, adult black bass (Micropterus), sunfish (Lepomis), and catfish (Ictaluridae) species at 11 sites located on the Yadkin-Pee Dee River. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ethinylestradiol (EE2), and heavy metals were the most prevalent contaminants that exceeded effect levels for the protection of aquatic organisms. Fish intersex condition was most frequently observed and most severe in black basses and was less frequently detected and less severe in sunfishes and catfishes. The occurrence of the intersex condition in fish showed site-related effects, rather than increasing longitudinal trends from upstream to downstream. Mean black bass and catfish tissue contaminant concentrations were higher than that of sunfish, likely because of the latter's lower trophic position in the food web. Principal component analysis identified waterborne PAHs as the most correlated environmental contaminant with intersex occurrence and severity in black bass and sunfish. As indicated by the intersex condition, EACs have adverse but often variable effects on the health of wild sport fishes in this river, likely due to fluctuations in EAC inputs and the dynamic nature of the riverine system. These findings enhance the understanding of the relationship between contaminants and fish health and provide information to guide ecologically

  8. Can north american fish passage tools work for South american migratory fishes?

    Claudio Rafael Mariano Baigún

    Full Text Available In North America, the Numerical Fish Surrogate (NFS is used to design fish bypass systems for emigrating juvenile salmon as they migrate from hatchery outfalls and rearing habitats to adult habitat in the oceans. The NFS is constructed of three linked modules: 1 a computational fluid dynamics model describes the complex flow fields upstream of dams at a scale sufficiently resolved to analyze, understand and forecast fish movement, 2 a particle tracking model interpolates hydraulic information from the fixed nodes of the computational fluid model mesh to multiple locations relevant to migrating fish, and 3 a behavior model simulates the cognition and behavior of individual fish in response to the fluid dynamics predicted by the computational fluid dynamics model. These three modules together create a virtual reality where virtual fish exhibit realistic dam approach behaviors and can be counted at dam exits in ways similar to the real world. Once calibrated and validated with measured fish movement and passage data, the NFS can accurately predict fish passage proportions with sufficient precision to allow engineers to select one optimum alternative from among many competing structural or operational bypass alternatives. Although South American fish species are different from North American species, it is likely that the basic computational architecture and numerical methods of the NFS can be used for fish conservation in South America. Consequently, the extensive investment made in the creation of the NFS need not be duplicated in South America. However, its use in South America will require that the behavioral response of the continent's unique fishes to hydrodynamic cues must be described, codified and tested before the NFS can be used to conserve fishes by helping design efficient South American bypass systems. To this end, we identify studies that could be used to describe the movement behavior of South American fishes of sufficient detail

  9. ISEE/IMP Observations of simultaneous upstream ion events

    Mitchel, D.G.; Roelof, E.C.; Sanderson, T.R.; Reinhard, R.; Wenzel, K.

    1983-01-01

    Propagation of upstream energetic (50--200 keV) ions is analyzed in sixteen events observed simulataneously by solid state detectors on ISEE 3 at approx.200 R/sub E/ and on IMP 8 at approx.35 R/sub E/ from the earth. Conclusions are based on comparisons of the pitch angle distributions observed at the two spacecraft and transformed into the solar wind frame. They are beamlike at ISEE 3 and are confined to the outward hemisphere. When IMP 8 is furtherest from the bow shock, they are also usually beamlike, or hemispheric. However, when IMP 8 is closer to the bow shock, pancakelike distributions are observed. This systematic variation in the IMP 8 pitch angle distributions delimits a scattering region l< or approx. =14 R/sub E/ upstream of the earth's bow shock (l measured along the interplanetary magnetic field) that dominates ion propagation, influences the global distribution of fluxes in the foreshock, and may play a role in acceleration of the ions. When IMP 8 is beyond lapprox.15 R/sub E/, the propagation appears to be essentially scatter-free between IMP 8 and ISEE 3; this is deduced from the absence of earthward fluxes at IMP 8 as well as the tendency for the spin-averaged fluxes to be comparable at the two spacecraft

  10. EMMPRIN, an upstream regulator of MMPs, in CNS biology.

    Kaushik, Deepak Kumar; Hahn, Jennifer Nancy; Yong, V Wee

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are engaged in pathologies associated with infections, tumors, autoimmune disorders and neurological dysfunctions. With the identification of an upstream regulator of MMPs, EMMPRIN (Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, CD147), it is relevant to address if EMMPRIN plays a role in the pathology of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. This would enable the possibility of a more upstream and effective therapeutic target. Indeed, conditions including gliomas, Alzheimer's disease (AD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and other insults such as hypoxia/ischemia show elevated levels of EMMPRIN which correlate with MMP production. In contrast, given EMMPRIN's role in CNS homeostasis with respect to regulation of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) and interactions with adhesion molecules including integrins, we need to consider that EMMPRIN may also serve important regulatory or protective functions. This review summarizes the current understanding of EMMPRIN's involvement in CNS homeostasis, its possible roles in escalating or reducing neural injury, and the mechanisms of EMMPRIN including and apart from MMP induction. Copyright © 2015 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Alabama ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  12. Maryland ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data...

  13. Hawaii ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this data...

  14. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data...

  15. Louisiana ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and other...

  16. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; Annual Progress Report, April 2007 - March 2008.

    Mallette, Christine [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-07-28

    We report on our progress from April 2007 through March 2008 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report C), and Montana State University (MSU; Report D). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  17. Elements in fish of Malibu Creek and Malibu Lagoon near Los Angeles, California

    Moeller, Anthony; MacNeil, Spencer D.; Ambrose, Richard F.; Que Hee, Shane S

    2003-04-01

    Our aim was to assess whether past discharges from a wastewater treatment plant increased metal pollutant loads in stream mobile species in a one-day baseline sampling study that included a coastal wetland. Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) of two sizes, black bullhead (Ameiurus melas), and crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) were collected from Malibu Creek, and California killifish (Fundulus parvipinnis) of three sizes, as well as arroyo chub (Gila orcutti) were sampled from Malibu Lagoon near Los Angeles, California. Species from each locality were pooled by length, homogenized, digested by microwave wet ashing, and analyzed by simultaneous inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy for 27 elements. Lagoon killifish 2.0-3.5 cm long contained levels of arsenic and lead above the levels for 95% of California fish, the EDL95. Black bullhead upstream of the discharge contained elevated levels of As, Cr and Se. Young mosquitofish <3 cm in length upstream of the discharge differed greatly in the order of abundance of their elements relative to larger mosquitofish and to other species collected. More sampling than this baseline study allowed was needed to determine if the wastewater treatment plant was a pollution source.

  18. Elements in fish of Malibu Creek and Malibu Lagoon near Los Angeles, California

    Moeller, Anthony; MacNeil, Spencer D.; Ambrose, Richard F.; Que Hee, Shane S.

    2003-01-01

    Our aim was to assess whether past discharges from a wastewater treatment plant increased metal pollutant loads in stream mobile species in a one-day baseline sampling study that included a coastal wetland. Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) of two sizes, black bullhead (Ameiurus melas), and crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) were collected from Malibu Creek, and California killifish (Fundulus parvipinnis) of three sizes, as well as arroyo chub (Gila orcutti) were sampled from Malibu Lagoon near Los Angeles, California. Species from each locality were pooled by length, homogenized, digested by microwave wet ashing, and analyzed by simultaneous inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy for 27 elements. Lagoon killifish 2.0-3.5 cm long contained levels of arsenic and lead above the levels for 95% of California fish, the EDL95. Black bullhead upstream of the discharge contained elevated levels of As, Cr and Se. Young mosquitofish <3 cm in length upstream of the discharge differed greatly in the order of abundance of their elements relative to larger mosquitofish and to other species collected. More sampling than this baseline study allowed was needed to determine if the wastewater treatment plant was a pollution source

  19. DNA barcoding and evaluation of genetic diversity in Cyprinidae fish in the midstream of the Yangtze River.

    Shen, Yanjun; Guan, Lihong; Wang, Dengqiang; Gan, Xiaoni

    2016-05-01

    The Yangtze River is the longest river in China and is divided into upstream and mid-downstream regions by the Three Gorges (the natural barriers of the Yangtze River), resulting in a complex distribution of fish. Dramatic changes to habitat environments may ultimately threaten fish survival; thus, it is necessary to evaluate the genetic diversity and propose protective measures. Species identification is the most significant task in many fields of biological research and in conservation efforts. DNA barcoding, which constitutes the analysis of a short fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequence, has been widely used for species identification. In this study, we collected 561 COI barcode sequences from 35 fish from the midstream of the Yangtze River. The intraspecific distances of all species were below 2% (with the exception of Acheilognathus macropterus and Hemibarbus maculatus). Nevertheless, all species could be unambiguously identified from the trees, barcoding gaps and taxonomic resolution ratio values. Furthermore, the COI barcode diversity was found to be low (≤0.5%), with the exception of H. maculatus (0.87%), A. macropterus (2.02%) and Saurogobio dabryi (0.82%). No or few shared haplotypes were detected between the upstream and downstream populations for ten species with overall nucleotide diversities greater than 0.00%, which indicated the likelihood of significant population genetic structuring. Our analyses indicated that DNA barcoding is an effective tool for the identification of cyprinidae fish in the midstream of the Yangtze River. It is vital that some protective measures be taken immediately because of the low COI barcode diversity.

  20. Effect on water resources from upstream water diversion in the Ganges basin.

    Adel, M M

    2001-01-01

    Bangladesh faces at least 30 upstream water diversion constructions of which Farakka Barrage is the major one. The effects of Farakka Barrage on water resources, socioeconomy, and culture have been investigated downstream in the basins of the Ganges and its distributaries. A diversion of up to 60% of the Ganges water over 25 yr has caused (i) reduction of water in surface water resources, (ii) increased dependence on ground water, (iii) destruction of the breeding and raising grounds for 109 species of Gangetic fishes and other aquatic species and amphibians, (iv) increased malnutrition, (v) deficiency in soil organic matter content, (vi) change in the agricultural practices, (vii) eradication of inland navigable routes, (viii) outbreak of waterborne diseases, (ix) loss of professions, and (x) obstruction to religious observances and pastimes. Further, arsenopyrites buried in the prebarrage water table have come in contact with air and formed water-soluble compounds of arsenic. Inadequate recharging of ground water hinders the natural cleansing of arsenic, and threatens about 75,000,000 lives who are likely to use water contaminated with up to 2 mg/L of arsenic. Furthermore, the depletion of surface water resources has caused environmental heating and cooling effects. Apart from these effects, sudden releases of water by the barrage during the flood season cause devestating floods. In consideration of such a heavy toll for the areas downstream, strict international rules have to be laid down to preserve the riparian ecosystems.

  1. Fishing Access Areas

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  2. Fish Karyome: A karyological information network database of Indian Fishes.

    Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Pathak, Ajey Kumar; Pati, Rameshwar; Singh, Shri Prakash; Singh, Mahender; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Kumar, Ravindra

    2012-01-01

    'Fish Karyome', a database on karyological information of Indian fishes have been developed that serves as central source for karyotype data about Indian fishes compiled from the published literature. Fish Karyome has been intended to serve as a liaison tool for the researchers and contains karyological information about 171 out of 2438 finfish species reported in India and is publically available via World Wide Web. The database provides information on chromosome number, morphology, sex chromosomes, karyotype formula and cytogenetic markers etc. Additionally, it also provides the phenotypic information that includes species name, its classification, and locality of sample collection, common name, local name, sex, geographical distribution, and IUCN Red list status. Besides, fish and karyotype images, references for 171 finfish species have been included in the database. Fish Karyome has been developed using SQL Server 2008, a relational database management system, Microsoft's ASP.NET-2008 and Macromedia's FLASH Technology under Windows 7 operating environment. The system also enables users to input new information and images into the database, search and view the information and images of interest using various search options. Fish Karyome has wide range of applications in species characterization and identification, sex determination, chromosomal mapping, karyo-evolution and systematics of fishes.

  3. Catalogue of the type specimens in the fish collection of the National Zoological Museum, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

    Ye, Enqi; Xing, Yingchun; Zhang, Chunguang; Zhao, Yahui

    2015-05-22

    A checklist of type specimens housed in the National Zoological Museum, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, is presented for research and scientific communication. Included are 80 holotypes, 1 lectotype, 1 neotype, 402 paratypes and 17 syntypes of 99 species belonging to 28 families and 12 orders. With 60 species, Cypriniformes has the largest representation. All of the specimens were collected in China and neighboring countries in the past 90 years.

  4. OGJ group weathered tough times upstream and downstream in 1991

    Biggs, J.B.; Price, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    With an upstream sector hit by low oil and gas prices and downstream operations squeezed by weak petroleum demand, 1991, was a tough year for the group of 22 major integrated U.S. companies Oil and Gas Journal tracks. This paper reports that the brief respite caused by the oil price spike in second half 1990 ended abruptly early in first half 1991, and it turned into a year of buckling down for most companies. They shed non-core assets, implemented strategic restructuring moves, and reduced staff. Although low prices slowed overall drilling activity for the group, oil and gas production increased slightly, and most companies reported reserves gains. Recession in the U.S. and Europe depressed demand for the group's fined products enough to pinch downstream earnings even as buoyant Asia-Pacific demand helped jack up world product sales

  5. SAP and life-cycle management in the upstream

    Davis, B.

    1997-01-01

    Business relationships today depend more than ever on changing alliances and partnerships to leverage risk in a commodity market. SAP is a fully integrated, enterprise-wide software system that uses business processes tightly integrated around a common data model to facilitate these business relationships across the oil and gas supply chain. The SAP modules contain the business processes that are needed to handle the logistics and operations maintenance for operating an oil or gas field. Each industry has unique business-process requirements that the core SAP application set may not cover. In the oil and gas business, there are unique financial requirements in the upstream for working in joint ventures. In the downstream business segment, handling bulk hydrocarbons requires additional functionality

  6. Shape and shear guide sperm cells spiraling upstream

    Kantsler, Vasily; Dunkel, Jorn; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2014-11-01

    A major puzzle in biology is how mammalian sperm determine and maintain the correct swimming direction during the various phases of the sexual reproduction process. Currently debated mechanisms for sperm long range travel vary from peristaltic pumping to temperature sensing (thermotaxis) and direct response to fluid flow (rheotaxis), but little is known quantitatively about their relative importance. Here, we report the first quantitative experimental study of mammalian sperm rheotaxis. Using microfluidic devices, we investigate systematically the swimming behavior of human and bull sperm over a wide range of physiologically relevant shear rates and viscosities. Our measurements show that the interplay of fluid shear, steric surface-interactions and chirality of the flagellar beat leads to a stable upstream spiraling motion of sperm cells, thus providing a generic and robust rectification mechanism to support mammalian fertilization. To rationalize these findings, we identify a minimal mathematical model that is capable of describing quantitatively the experimental observations.

  7. Statistical handbook for Canada's upstream petroleum industry: '96 updates

    1997-01-01

    The Statistical Handbook of CAPP is an annual compilation of useful information about the Canadian petroleum and natural gas industry. It has been published since 1955, and is a key source of upstream petroleum statistics. It presents a historical summary of the petroleum industry''s progress and provides detailed statistical information on the production and consumption of petroleum, petroleum products, natural gas and natural gas liquids, imports and exports, land sales, pipelines, reserves, drilling and refinery activities, and prices in Canada. The information, mostly in tabular form, is based on the latest available data (generally up to and including 1996). For the first time in 1997, the Handbook is also made available in CD-ROM format (EXCEL 5.0). Plans are also underway to publish the Handbook on a secure site on the Internet

  8. Interaction of Energetic Particles with Discontinuities Upstream of Strong Shocks

    Malkov, Mikhail; Diamond, Patrick

    2008-11-01

    Acceleration of particles in strong astrophysical shocks is known to be accompanied and promoted by a number of instabilities which are driven by the particles themselves. One of them is an acoustic (also known as Drury's) instability driven by the pressure gradient of accelerated particles upstream. The generated sound waves naturally steepen into shocks thus forming a shocktrain. Similar magnetoacoustic or Alfven type structures may be driven by pick-up ions, for example. We consider the solutions of kinetic equation for accelerated particles within the shocktrain. The accelerated particles are assumed to be coupled to the flow by an intensive pitch-angle scattering on the self-generated Alfven waves. The implications for acceleration and confinement of cosmic rays in this shock environment will be discussed.

  9. From Worker Health To Citizen Health: Moving Upstream

    Sepulveda, Martin-Jose

    2014-01-01

    New rapid growth economies, urbanization, health systems crises and “big data” are causing fundamental changes in social structures and systems including health. These forces for change have significant consequences for occupational and environmental medicine and will challenge the specialty to think beyond workers and workplaces as the principal locus of innovation for health and performance. These trends are placing great emphasis on upstream strategies for addressing the complex systems dynamics of the social determinants of health. The need to engage systems in communities for healthier workforces is a shift in orientation from worker and workplace centric to citizen and community centric. This change for occupational and environmental medicine requires extending systems approaches in the workplace to communities which are systems of systems and which require different skills, data, tools and partnerships. PMID:24284749

  10. Consumer evaluation of fish quality as basis for fish market segmentation

    Verbeke, Wim; Vermeir, Iris; Brunsø, Karen

    2007-01-01

    evaluation: personal relevance attached to fish quality and self-confidence in fish quality evaluation, which allow segmenting the market in four fish consumer segments. The segments are typified as Uninvolved, Uncertain, Self-confident and Connoisseurs, and have distinctive behavioural, attitudinal......This paper focuses on consumer evaluation of fish quality and its association with fish consumption, risk and benefit beliefs and information processing variables. Cross-sectional data were collected from a sample of 429 consumers in March 2003 in Belgium. Two dimensions shape fish quality...... and socio-demographic profiles. The Uninvolved are mainly young males, have the lowest fish consumption level, weakest belief in health benefits from eating fish, and lowest interest in both search and credence information cues. Uncertain fish consumers are mainly females, with a tendency of lower education...

  11. Upstream Disaster Management to Support People Experiencing Homelessness.

    Sundareswaran, Madura; Ghazzawi, Andrea; O'Sullivan, Tracey L

    2015-08-18

    The unique context of day-to-day living for people who are chronically homeless or living with housing insecurity puts them at high risk during community disasters. The impacts of extreme events, such as flooding, storms, riots, and other sources of community disruption, underscore the importance of preparedness efforts and fostering community resilience. This study is part of larger initiative focused on enhancing resilience and preparedness among high risk populations. The purpose of this study was to explore critical issues and strategies to promote resilience and disaster preparedness among people who are homeless in Canada. A sample of interviews (n=21) from key informants across Canada was analyzed to explore existing programs and supports for homeless populations. The data was selected from a larger sample of (n=43) interviews focused on programs and supports for people who are at heightened risk for negative impacts during disasters. Qualitative content analysis was used to extract emergent themes and develop a model of multi-level collaboration to support disaster resilience among people who are homeless. The results indicate there is a need for more upstream continuity planning, collaboration and communication between the emergency management sector and community service organizations that support people who are homeless. Prioritization and investment in the social determinants of health and community supports is necessary to promote resilience among this high-risk population. The findings from this study highlight the importance of acknowledging community support organizations as assets in disaster preparedness. Day-to-day resilience is an ongoing theme for people who are chronically homeless or living with housing insecurity. Upstream investment to build adaptive capacity and collaborate with community organizations is an important strategy to enhance community resilience.

  12. Explosion Clad for Upstream Oil and Gas Equipment

    Banker, John G.; Massarello, Jack; Pauly, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Today's upstream oil and gas facilities frequently involve the combination of high pressures, high temperatures, and highly corrosive environments, requiring equipment that is thick wall, corrosion resistant, and cost effective. When significant concentrations of CO2 and/or H2S and/or chlorides are present, corrosion resistant alloys (CRA) can become the material of choice for separator equipment, piping, related components, and line pipe. They can provide reliable resistance to both corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. For these applications, the more commonly used CRA's are 316L, 317L and duplex stainless steels, alloy 825 and alloy 625, dependent upon the application and the severity of the environment. Titanium is also an exceptional choice from the technical perspective, but is less commonly used except for heat exchangers. Explosion clad offers significant savings by providing a relatively thin corrosion resistant alloy on the surface metallurgically bonded to a thick, lower cost, steel substrate for the pressure containment. Developed and industrialized in the 1960's the explosion cladding technology can be used for cladding the more commonly used nickel based and stainless steel CRA's as well as titanium. It has many years of proven experience as a reliable and highly robust clad manufacturing process. The unique cold welding characteristics of explosion cladding reduce problems of alloy sensitization and dissimilar metal incompatibility. Explosion clad materials have been used extensively in both upstream and downstream oil, gas and petrochemical facilities for well over 40 years. The explosion clad equipment has demonstrated excellent resistance to corrosion, embrittlement and disbonding. Factors critical to insure reliable clad manufacture and equipment design and fabrication are addressed.

  13. Explosion Clad for Upstream Oil and Gas Equipment

    Banker, John G.; Massarello, Jack; Pauly, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Today's upstream oil and gas facilities frequently involve the combination of high pressures, high temperatures, and highly corrosive environments, requiring equipment that is thick wall, corrosion resistant, and cost effective. When significant concentrations of CO 2 and/or H 2 S and/or chlorides are present, corrosion resistant alloys (CRA) can become the material of choice for separator equipment, piping, related components, and line pipe. They can provide reliable resistance to both corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. For these applications, the more commonly used CRA's are 316L, 317L and duplex stainless steels, alloy 825 and alloy 625, dependent upon the application and the severity of the environment. Titanium is also an exceptional choice from the technical perspective, but is less commonly used except for heat exchangers. Explosion clad offers significant savings by providing a relatively thin corrosion resistant alloy on the surface metallurgically bonded to a thick, lower cost, steel substrate for the pressure containment. Developed and industrialized in the 1960's the explosion cladding technology can be used for cladding the more commonly used nickel based and stainless steel CRA's as well as titanium. It has many years of proven experience as a reliable and highly robust clad manufacturing process. The unique cold welding characteristics of explosion cladding reduce problems of alloy sensitization and dissimilar metal incompatibility. Explosion clad materials have been used extensively in both upstream and downstream oil, gas and petrochemical facilities for well over 40 years. The explosion clad equipment has demonstrated excellent resistance to corrosion, embrittlement and disbonding. Factors critical to insure reliable clad manufacture and equipment design and fabrication are addressed.

  14. Intake of mercury through fish consumption

    Sarmani, S.B.; Kiprawi, A.Z.; Ismail, R.B.; Hassan, R.B.; Wood, A.K.; Rahman, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Fish has been known as a source of non-occupational mercury exposure to fish consuming population groups, and this is shown by the high hair mercury levels. In this study, hair samples collected from fishermen and their families, and commercial marine fishes were analyzed for mercury and methylmercury by neutron activation and gas chromatography. The results showed a correlation between hair mercury levels and fish consumption patterns. The levels of mercury found in this study were similar to those reported by other workers for fish consuming population groups worldwide. (author)

  15. THE ACTUAL CONDITIONS OF WETLANDS FROM THE UPSTREAM OF HĂRPĂŞEŞETI RIVER (BAHLUI HYDROGRAPHICAL BASIN

    Gheorghe Romanescu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The Hărpăşeşti river is a right side affluent of the Bahluieţ river. It junctions with the latter in the river-collecting “market” from near Podu Iloaiei. The physico-chemical analysis conducted in the waters and the marshes of the creek relieve an increase of the content of dissolved salts and of the water chemical content as we advance upstream, as a consequence of the fact that these salts are transported from the upstream hydrographical basin. The temperature is higher in the low waters, and the dissolved oxygen has a higher importance in the waters with high depths, lower temperatures and rare aquatic vegetation.

  16. Do bacteria, not fish, produce 'fish kairomone'?

    Ringelberg, J.; Van Gool, E.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-associated chemicals enhance phototactic downward swimming in Daphnia. If perch were treated with the antibiotic ampicillin, this enhancement was significantly decreased. Therefore, not fish, but bacteria associated with fish, seem to produce this kairomone. [KEYWORDS: Diel vertical migration;

  17. Fish assemblage relationships with physical characteristics and presence of dams in three eastern Iowa rivers

    Pierce, Clay; Nicholas L. Ahrens,; Anna K. Loan-Wilsey,; Gregory A. Simmons,; Gregory T. Gelwicks,

    2013-01-01

    Fish assemblages in rivers of the Midwestern United States are an important component of the region's natural resources and biodiversity. We characterized the physical environment and presence of dams in a series of reaches in three eastern Iowa rivers tributary to the Mississippi River and related these characteristics to the fish assemblages present. Some physical characteristics were similar among the 12 study reaches, whereas others differed substantially. We found a total of 68 species across the 12 study reaches; 56 in the Turkey River, 51 in the Maquoketa River and 50 in the Wapsipinicon River. Seventeen species could be described as ‘downstream-distributed’; 15 being found only in the lowest reach of one or more rivers and the other two being found only in the lowest reaches or two or more contiguous reaches including the lowest reach. Two species could be described as ‘upstream-distributed’, being found only in an uppermost reach. Non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination illustrated similarities among reaches, and five physical variables were significantly correlated with assemblage similarities. Catchment area and number of dams between reaches and the Mississippi River were strongly correlated with assemblage similarities, but the directions of their effects were opposite. Catchment area and number of dams were confounded. The collective evidence to date suggests that the pervasiveness of dams on rivers significantly alters fish assemblages, making underlying patterns of species change and relationships with naturally varying and human-influenced physical characteristics along a river's course difficult to discern.

  18. Protocols for collection of streamflow, water-quality, streambed-sediment, periphyton, macroinvertebrate, fish, and habitat data to describe stream quality for the Hydrobiological Monitoring Program, Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery Program, city of Wichita, Kansas

    Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Poulton, Barry C.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    The city of Wichita, Kansas uses the Equus Beds aquifer, one of two sources, for municipal water supply. To meet future water needs, plans for artificial recharge of the aquifer have been implemented in several phases. Phase I of the Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) Program began with injection of water from the Little Arkansas River into the aquifer for storage and subsequent recovery in 2006. Construction of a river intake structure and surface-water treatment plant began as implementation of Phase II of the Equus Beds ASR Program in 2010. An important aspect of the ASR Program is the monitoring of water quality and the effects of recharge activities on stream conditions. Physical, chemical, and biological data provide the basis for an integrated assessment of stream quality. This report describes protocols for collecting streamflow, water-quality, streambed-sediment, periphyton, macroinvertebrate, fish, and habitat data as part of the city of Wichita's hydrobiological monitoring program (HBMP). Following consistent and reliable methods for data collection and processing is imperative for the long-term success of the monitoring program.

  19. Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) telemetry and associated habitat data collected in a geodatabase from the upper Boise River, southwestern Idaho

    MacCoy, Dorene E.; Shephard, Zachary M.; Benjamin, Joseph R.; Vidergar, Dmitri T.; Prisciandaro, Anthony F.

    2017-03-23

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act, are among the more thermally sensitive of coldwater species in North America. The Boise River upstream of Arrowrock Dam in southwestern Idaho (including Arrowrock Reservoir) provides habitat for one of the southernmost populations of bull trout. The presence of the species in Arrowrock Reservoir poses implications for dam and reservoir operations. From 2011 to 2014, the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Geological Survey collected fish telemetry data to improve understanding of bull trout distribution and movement in Arrowrock Reservoir and in the upper Boise River tributaries. The U.S. Geological Survey compiled the telemetry (fish location) data, along with reservoir elevation, river discharge, precipitation, and water-quality data in a geodatabase. The geodatabase includes metadata compliant with Federal Geographic Data Committee content standards. The Bureau of Reclamation plans to incorporate the data in a decision‑support tool for reservoir management.

  20. Umatilla River Fish Passage Operations Project : Annual Progress Report October 2007 - September 2008.

    Bronson, James P.; Loffink, Ken; Duke, Bill

    2008-12-31

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were enumerated at Threemile Dam from June 7, 2007 to August 11, 2008. A total of 3,133 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 1,487 adult, 1,067 jack, and 999 subjack fall Chinook (O. tshawytscha); 5,140 adult and 150 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 2,009 adult, 517 jack, and 128 subjack spring Chinook (O. tshawytscha) were counted. All fish were enumerated at the east bank facility. Of the fish counted, 1,442 summer steelhead and 88 adult and 84 jack spring Chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam. There were 1,497 summer steelhead; 609 adult, 1,018 jack and 979 subjack fall Chinook; 5,036 adult and 144 jack coho; and 1,117 adult, 386 jack and 125 subjack spring Chinook either released at, or allowed to volitionally migrate past, Threemile Dam. Also, 110 summer steelhead; 878 adult and 43 jack fall Chinook; and 560 adult and 28 jack spring Chinook were collected as broodstock for the Umatilla River hatchery program. In addition, there were 241 adult and 15 jack spring Chinook collected at Threemile Dam for outplanting in the South Fork Walla Walla River and Mill Cr, a tributary of the mainstem Walla Walla River. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at river mile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for out-migrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The canal was open for 158 days between February 11, 2008 and July 18, 2008. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 150 days and were trapped 6 days. There were also 2 days when fish were directed into and held in the canal forebay between the time the bypass was closed and the trap opened. An estimated 64 pounds of fish were transported from the Westland trapping facility. Approximately 25.8% of the fish transported were salmonids. In addition, one

  1. Fish irradiation

    Kovacs, J.; Tengumnuay, C.; Juangbhanich, C.

    1970-01-01

    Chub-mackerel was chosen for the study because they are the most common fish in Thailand. Preliminary investigations were conducted to determine the maximum radiation dose of gamma-rays by organoleptic tests. The samples were subjected to radiation at various doses up to 4 Mrad. Many experiments were conducted using other kinds of fish. The results showed that 1 Mrad would be the maximum acceptable dose for fish. Later, the influence of the radiation dose from 0.1-1 Mrad was studied in order to find the optimum acceptable dose for preservation of fish without off-flavour. For this purpose, the Hedonic scale was used. It was found that 0.2 and 0.5 Mrad gave the best result on Chub mackerel. The determinations of optimum dose, organoleptic, microbiological and trimethylamine content changes were done. The results showed that Chub mackerel irradiated at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 Mrad stored at 3 0 C for 71 days were still acceptable, on the contrary the untreated samples were found unacceptable at 14 days. The trimethylamine increment was significantly higher in the untreated samples. At 15 days storage, trimethylamine in the non-irradiated Chub-mackerel was about 10 times higher than the irradiated ones. At 51 and 79 days storage, about 13 times higher in the control samples than the irradiated samples except 0.1 Mrad. Only 2 times higher was found for the 0.1 Mrad. The microbiological results showed that the irradiation above 0.2 Mrad gave favorable extension of shelf-life of fish

  2. 2012 SEAMAP Reef Fish Survey (PC1201, ME70)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives of the 2012 SEAMAP Reef Fish Survey were to collect video data of reef fish on western Gulf of Mexico shelf-edge banks to facilitate assessments of...

  3. 2012 SEAMAP Reef Fish Survey (PC1201, EK60)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives of the 2012 SEAMAP Reef Fish Survey were to collect video data of reef fish on western Gulf of Mexico shelf-edge banks to facilitate assessments of...

  4. 2013 SEAMAP Reef Fish Survey (PC1302, ME70)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives of the 2013 SEAMAP Reef Fish Survey were to collect video data of reef fish on western Gulf of Mexico shelf-edge banks to facilitate assessments of...

  5. 2013 SEAMAP Reef Fish Survey (PC1302, EK60)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives of the 2013 SEAMAP Reef Fish Survey were to collect video data of reef fish on western Gulf of Mexico shelf-edge banks to facilitate assessments of...

  6. A CUSUM analysis of discharge patterns by a hydroelectric dam and discussion of potential effects on the upstream migration of American eel elvers

    Jessop, B.M.; Harvie, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    American eel elvers are among the diadromous fishes native to the Saint John River in New Brunswick that have been affected by the construction of hydroelectric dams. Before 1980, large numbers of elvers were observed entering the fishway of the Mactaquac Dam in May and June for upstream migration, but their presence abruptly ceased after 1980. A study was conducted to determine why they disappeared at the Mactaquac Dam. A cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis was performed to determine the variability in magnitude, duration, timing, frequency, and rate of change in the daily and seasonal average level of water discharge associated with the installation of the last two of six turbines in late 1979 and early 1980. It is believed that the rapid, short-term fluctuations in water discharge which is characteristic of peaking hydroelectric dam operations, could seriously affect life cycle transitions of diadromous fishes. Upstream and downstream migration of the elvers may be affected along with their abundance, diversity and productivity. Young fish in particular are at higher risk of mortality during high flows, depending on the species. 40 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs

  7. Invasion of parasitic isopods in marine fishes

    Ganapathy Rameshkumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To carry out a detailed three-year observation study on isopod parasites infestation in fish. Methods: Fish samples were collected from different localities in various landing centers along the Tamil Nadu coastal area. The prevalence and mean intensity were calculated. The proximate composition of infestation and uninfestation were studied in different marine fishes. A comparative analysis of bacteria and fungi in the infected and uninfected regions of fishes were analysed. Results: Tweenty six species including 12 genera of isopods (Cymothoidae distributed in 39 species of marine fishes along the Tamil Nadu coast. The isopod parasites were attached in three different microhabitats in host fishes viz. , buccal, branchial and body surfaces. They exhibited host and site specific occurrence. Maximum prevalence 17.11% was recorded in March 2010 and minimum 0.27% in Febuary 2010. The intensity ranged from 1 to 1.7 parasites per fish during the different months from Decmber 2008 to November 2011. There was a decrease in the protein, carbohydrate and lipid content in the infested fishes compared to uninfected fishes. A comparative analysis of bacteria and fungi in the infected and uninfected region of fishes were analysed. It revealed that infected portions had dense bacterial load as observed in the lesions of infected fishes than uninfected fishes. Conclusion: Factors which are able to induce parasitic manifestation are stock quality, stocking density, environmental conditions, biological and physiological characteristics of parasite, zoo technical measures, food quantity, feeding strategies, etc.

  8. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...... biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram......- positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish...

  9. Hindrances to upstream migration of atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in a northern Swedish river caused by a hydroelectric power-station

    Rivinoja, P.; Lundqvist, H.

    2001-01-01

    Many Baltic salmon rivers have lost their natural juvenile production due to human activities blocking or reducing access to their spawning grounds, e.g. damming, power generation, partial hinders, etc.. One such hindrance is a hydroelectric complex located in the lower reaches of River Umeaelven in northern Sweden. Water from the forbay created by the dam Norrfors is directed to the Stornorrfors power-station. At times, 100 per cent of the river is directed to the power-station. Water from the power-station then flows via a tunnel and outlet channel to the river. From the point of the tunnel's discharge into the river, the old river bed acts as a bypass channel directing migrating adult fish to a fish ladder located at the base of the dam. In this study, the effect that an additional turbine, that was installed at the power-station in 1986, had on fish passage run-time was examined. Changes in run-time were compared for two periods 1974-1985 and 1986-1995. In 1997, 55 wild and 25 hatchery salmon were captured in the Umeaelven estuary, radio tagged with uniquely coded tags, and tracked upstream. Both manual and automatic loggers were used to locate fish daily. The main findings show that only 26 per cent of the wild salmon and none of the hatchery salmon found the fish ladder. It is suggested that the salmon followed the main water discharge from the power-station outlet and are thus directed away from the entrance to the bypass channel leading to the fish ladder. Salmon respond by moving upstream or downstream depending on the current flow regimes. The bypass channel consists of partial hinders that may explain why it takes on average 52 days for the salmon to migrate 32 km from the estuary to the fish ladder. Adding a fourth turbine at the power-station did not appear to have changed the timing of the migration or the seasonal distribution of the migrating wild salmon through the fish ladder. There was no significant effect of the fourth turbine on the duration

  10. Cost-efficient remediation of an upstream oilfield battery site

    Siebert, L.D. [Imperial Oil Resources Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Bedard, G.; Pouliot, M.; Soucy, F.; Faucher, C.; Corbin, R. [Biogenie Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    The soil at an oilfield battery site, located 18 kilometres (km) northwest of Devon, Alberta has been contaminated with crude oil and salt, following years of operation. Surrounding the site is flat farmland intended for future agricultural production. A remedial program aimed at complying with Tier I criteria of the Alberta Soil and Water Quality Guidelines for Hydrocarbons at Upstream Oil and Gas Facilities (ASWQG) of Alberta Environment, was developed and implemented. Characterization of the site was carried out in 1997 to delineate a salt plume, followed by a second sampling campaign in 1999, which all together revealed three impacted areas. A supplementary characterization was performed in 2001 by Biogenie in an effort to better determine the nature and level of petroleum contamination and more accurately evaluate the volume of contaminated soil. A three-dimensional Visualization software integrating a Kriging geostatistical model was used for this purpose. The results indicated that an estimated 8,800 cubic metres of contaminated soil would need to be excavated and treated. The next phase involved an evaluation of the various remedial options, which was accomplished using a biotreatability study. The remediation program selected involved the excavation of the contaminated soil and segregation of source material, the ex-situ Biopile treatment of the source material to meet Class II landfill criteria, and the ex-situ Biopile treatment of the contaminated soil followed by its use as backfill on site. The biotreatability study proved to be a strategic tool in the remediation effort. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  11. How will climate change policy affect upstream oil and gas

    Hyndman, R.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation outlined the status of climate change policies in Canada and Alberta for large industry with particular reference to the effect that the policies may have on upstream oil and gas. Global climate change and energy use was outlined along with what actions that should be taken to secure energy supplies and stabilize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. An economic model projection of global carbon dioxide emissions without the Kyoto agreement was presented. Global action on climate change will likely include greater efforts in energy efficiency to slow the growth in demand for energy. However, demand for oil and gas is still likely to increase in the next few decades due to a growing population worldwide. The author emphasized that developing countries should not forgo economic growth to avoid higher energy use. It was argued that Canadian climate change policies are out of line with the global climate change effort because they focus on short-term reductions rather than developing technologies. The policies also divert investment to competing suppliers that do not impose GHG costs, with no global GHG benefit. The author described why Alberta climate change policy rejects the Kyoto target. Natural Resource Canada's approach to large industrial emitters was also discussed along with a proposed policy framework by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) for long term certainty. 2 tabs., 12 figs

  12. Atmospheric emissions from the upstream oil and gas industry

    Taylor, B.G.S.

    1994-01-01

    The results are presented of a study set up to determine the nature and levels of atmospheric emissions resulting from United Kingdom oil and gas exploration and production activities. The study was commissioned by the UK Offshore Operators Association. Emissions by the upstream oil and gas industry of common pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrous oxide, and ozone depletion chemicals were shown in each case to be less than 1% of total UK emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions in the industry arise mainly from production operations with a small but significant contribution from onshore activities. Carbon dioxide is the major component followed in descending order by nitrogen oxides, methane and volatile organic compounds. In 1991, these emissions formed 3.2%, 4.6%, 2.9% and 2.8% of the UK totals respectively; overall this represented only about 3% of UK global warming emissions. The evidence of this study illustrates that the industry, which produces 67% of the UK's primary energy, is successfully managing its operations in an environmentally responsible way. (3 figures, 3 tables) (UK)

  13. Conserved upstream open reading frames in higher plants

    Schultz Carolyn J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upstream open reading frames (uORFs can down-regulate the translation of the main open reading frame (mORF through two broad mechanisms: ribosomal stalling and reducing reinitiation efficiency. In distantly related plants, such as rice and Arabidopsis, it has been found that conserved uORFs are rare in these transcriptomes with approximately 100 loci. It is unclear how prevalent conserved uORFs are in closely related plants. Results We used a homology-based approach to identify conserved uORFs in five cereals (monocots that could potentially regulate translation. Our approach used a modified reciprocal best hit method to identify putative orthologous sequences that were then analysed by a comparative R-nomics program called uORFSCAN to find conserved uORFs. Conclusion This research identified new genes that may be controlled at the level of translation by conserved uORFs. We report that conserved uORFs are rare (

  14. Freshwater fishes of Tsitsikamma National Park

    I.A. Russell

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the distribution and relative abundance of freshwater fishes in the Tsitsikamma National Park. Fish assemblages in six river systems were sampled in 2001, with a total of 323 fish from eight species recorded. Indigenous fish collected included four freshwater species (Pseudobarbus afer, Pseudobarbus tenuis, Sandelia capensis, Anguilla mossambica, three estuarine species (Monodactylus falciformis, Caffrogobius gilchristi, Myxus capensis, and one alien (Micropterus salmoides. One additional indigenous species (Galaxias zebratus and two aliens (Salmo trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss could potentially occur within the park. The topography and locality of the park presents a unique opportunity to meaningfully conserve the endangered P. tenuis as well as other fish characteristic of the eastern reaches of the Cape Floristic Region. Management action is required to minimise opportunities for further establishment and spread of alien fish species and to conserve indigenous fish assemblages within the park.

  15. Concentration of elements in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs from the 2008 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs. Whole-body, fillet, or egg samples of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Ictalurus furcatus, Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), walleye (Sander vitreus), crappie (Pomoxis annularis, Pomoxis nigromaculatus), shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and Missouri saddled darter (Etheostoma tetrazonum) were collected from 23 sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs also were collected from walleye (Sander vitreus) at one of the sites.

  16. Determinants of fish assemblage structure in Northwestern Great Plains streams

    Mullen, J.A.; Bramblett, R.G.; Guy, C.S.; Zale, A.V.; Roberts, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Prairie streams are known for their harsh and stochastic physical conditions, and the fish assemblages therein have been shown to be temporally variable. We assessed the spatial and temporal variation in fish assemblage structure in five intermittent, adventitious northwestern Great Plains streams representing a gradient of watershed areas. Fish assemblages and abiotic conditions varied more spatially than temporally. The most important variables explaining fish assemblage structure were longitudinal position and the proportion of fine substrates. The proportion of fine substrates increased proceeding upstream, approaching 100% in all five streams, and species richness declined upstream with increasing fine substrates. High levels of fine substrate in the upper reaches appeared to limit the distribution of obligate lithophilic fish species to reaches further downstream. Species richness and substrates were similar among all five streams at the lowermost and uppermost sites. However, in the middle reaches, species richness increased, the amount of fine substrate decreased, and connectivity increased as watershed area increased. Season and some dimensions of habitat (including thalweg depth, absolute distance to the main-stem river, and watershed size) were not essential in explaining the variation in fish assemblages. Fish species richness varied more temporally than overall fish assemblage structure did because common species were consistently abundant across seasons, whereas rare species were sometimes absent or perhaps not detected by sampling. The similarity in our results among five streams varying in watershed size and those from other studies supports the generalization that spatial variation exceeds temporal variation in the fish assemblages of prairie and warmwater streams. Furthermore, given longitudinal position, substrate, and stream size, general predictions regarding fish assemblage structure and function in prairie streams are possible. ?? American

  17. Fish gelatin.

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fish Immunoglobulins

    Sara Mashoof; Michael F. Criscitiello

    2016-01-01

    The B cell receptor and secreted antibody are at the nexus of humoral adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize what is known of the immunoglobulin genes of jawed cartilaginous and bony fishes. We focus on what has been learned from genomic or cDNA sequence data, but where appropriate draw upon protein, immunization, affinity and structural studies. Work from major aquatic model organisms and less studied comparative species are both included to define what is the rule for an immunoglob...

  19. Fish cognition

    Bshary, Redouan; Brown, Culum

    2017-01-01

    The central nervous system, and the brain in particular, is one of the most remarkable products of evolution. This system allows an individual to acquire, process, store and act on information gathered from the environment. The resulting flexibility in behavior beyond genetically coded strategies is a prime adaptation in animals. The field of animal cognition examines the underlying processes and mechanisms. Fishes are a particularly interesting group of vertebrates to study cognition for two...

  20. Fish hemoglobins

    Souza,P.C. de; Bonilla-Rodriguez,G.O.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta) and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemica...

  1. Suspended sediments from upstream tributaries as the source of downstream river sites

    Haddadchi, Arman; Olley, Jon

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the efficiency with which sediment eroded from different sources is transported to the catchment outlet is a key knowledge gap that is critical to our ability to accurately target and prioritise management actions to reduce sediment delivery. Sediment fingerprinting has proven to be an efficient approach to determine the sources of sediment. This study examines the suspended sediment sources from Emu Creek catchment, south eastern Queensland, Australia. In addition to collect suspended sediments from different sites of the streams after the confluence of tributaries and outlet of the catchment, time integrated suspended samples from upper tributaries were used as the source of sediment, instead of using hillslope and channel bank samples. Totally, 35 time-integrated samplers were used to compute the contribution of suspended sediments from different upstream waterways to the downstream sediment sites. Three size fractions of materials including fine sand (63-210 μm), silt (10-63 μm) and fine silt and clay (<10 μm) were used to find the effect of particle size on the contribution of upper sediments as the sources of sediment after river confluences. And then samples were analysed by ICP-MS and -OES to find 41 sediment fingerprints. According to the results of Student's T-distribution mixing model, small creeks in the middle and lower part of the catchment were major source in different size fractions, especially in silt (10-63 μm) samples. Gowrie Creek as covers southern-upstream part of the catchment was a major contributor at the outlet of the catchment in finest size fraction (<10 μm) Large differences between the contributions of suspended sediments from upper tributaries in different size fractions necessitate the selection of appropriate size fraction on sediment tracing in the catchment and also major effect of particle size on the movement and deposition of sediments.

  2. Fish hemoglobins

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  3. Evaluation of factors affecting collection efficiency estimates of chinook salmon and steelhead smolts at McNary Dam, 1989. Final report

    Stuehrenberg, L.; Smith, D.; Johnson, O.W.

    1995-10-01

    Populations of salmonid smolts migrating through the hydropower system on the Columbia River incur some rate of mortality at each dam. To set priorities on options to minimize losses and provide safe passage of the smolts at dams, estimates of smolt survival at each dam are necessary. Two methods have been developed to obtain these survival estimates: the direct and the indirect method. With the indirect method, a test group of fish is released upstream and a-control group is released downstream from the area of interest. With the direct method, a single release of fish above the area of interest is used, with subsequent recovery below the area of interest. In 1988, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) began a 2-year study at McNary Dam to address possible sources of variation associated with the direct method of obtaining survival estimates. Five study objectives were established to determine whether (1) fish from the Columbia and Snake Rivers mixed as they migrated to McNary Dam (release-location tests); (2) collection rates for Columbia and Snake River stocks were the same (river-of-origin tests); (3) test-group release timing influenced recovery rates (time-of-release tests); (4) a collection-rate bias existed from use of test fish previously guided and collected at the recovery site (tests of previously guided fish); and (5) recovery rates obtained with PIT-tagged fish were comparable to those previously obtained with freeze-branded fish (PIT-tag vs. freeze-brand technology)

  4. "Upstream Thinking": the catchment management approach of a water provider

    Grand-Clement, E.; Ross, M.; Smith, D.; Anderson, K.; Luscombe, D.; Le Feuvre, N.; Brazier, R. E.

    2012-04-01

    Human activities have large impacts on water quality and provision. Water companies throughout the UK are faced with the consequences of poor land management and need to find appropriate solutions to decreasing water quality. This is particularly true in the South West of England, where 93% of the drinking water is sourced from rivers and reservoirs: large areas of drained peatlands (i.e. Exmoor and Dartmoor National Parks) are responsible for a significant input of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) discolouring the water, whilst poorly managed farming activities can lead to diffuse pollution. Alongside the direct environmental implications, poor water quality is partly increasing water treatment costs and will drive significant future investment in additional water treatment, with further repercussions on customers. This highlights the need for water companies throughout the UK, and further afield, to be more involved in catchment management. "Upstream Thinking" is South West Water's (SWW) approach to catchment management, where working with stakeholders to improve water quality upstream aims to avoid increasingly costly solutions downstream. This approach has led the company to invest in two major areas of work: (1) The Farmland programme where problematic farm management practices and potential solutions are identified, typically 40% of the required investment is then offered in exchange for a legal undertaking to maintain the new farm assets in good condition for 25 years; (2) The Mires programme which involves heavy investment in peatland restoration through the blocking of open ditches in order to improve water storage and quality in the long term. From these two projects, it has been clear that stakeholder involvement of groups such as local farmers, the Westcountry Rivers Trust, the Exmoor National Park Authority, the Environment Agency, Natural England and the Exmoor Society is essential, first because it draws in catchment improvement expertise which is not

  5. Geological nominations at UNESCO World Heritage, an upstream struggle

    Olive-Garcia, Cécile; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Using my 10 years experience in setting up and defending a UNESCO world Heritage Geological nomination, this presentation aims to give a personal insight into this international process and the differential use of science, subjective perception (aesthetic and 'naturality'), and politics. At this point in the process, new protocols have been tested in order to improve the dialogue, accountability and transparency between the different stake-holders. These are, the State parties, the IUCN, the scientific community, and UNESCO itself. Our proposal is the Chaîne des Puys-Limagne fault ensemble, which combines tectonic, geomorphological evolution and volcanology. The project's essence is a conjunction of inseparable geological features and processes, set in the context of plate tectonics. This very unicit yof diverse forms and processes creates the value of the site. However, it is just this that has caused a problem, as the advisory body has a categorical approach of nominations that separates items to assess them in an unconnected manner.From the start we proposed a combined approach, where a property is seen in its entirety, and the constituent elements seen as interlinked elements reflecting the joint underlying phenomena. At this point, our project has received the first ever open review by an independent technical mission (jointly set up by IUCN, UNESCO and the State party). The subsequent report was broadly supportive of the project's approach and of the value of the ensemble of features. The UNESCO committee in 2016, re-referred the nomination, acknowledging the potential Outstanding Universal Value of the site and requesting the parties to continue the upstream process (e.g. collaborative work), notably on the recommendations and conclusions of the Independent Technical mission report. Meetings are continuing, and I shall provide you with the hot-off-the-press news as this ground breaking nomination progresses.

  6. Oman: Current status, upstream and export developments, investment opportunities

    Skeet, I.

    1994-01-01

    Oil production in Oman has consistently increased since 1980 to reach its current level of ca 800,000 bbl/d. Reserves total ca 5 billion bbl and gas reserves are over 20 trillion ft 3 , of which a third is being dedicated for export. The main operator is Petroleum Development Oman (PDO), which is 60% owned by the Omani government. Some production areas are taken up by other companies under production sharing contracts. Gas is used for local industrial purposes and a third of gas reserves are being dedicated to a liquefied natural gas export scheme planned to be on-stream by 2000. The government has been seeking foreign investment and increasing private-sector participation, an example being a Belgian-Omani consortium to construct a 100-MW gas-fired power station. However, opportunities for investing in the upstream oil/gas sector are limited since most prospective areas have already been taken up. The economic, political, and social problems which may affect future investment are discussed. Oman is essentially a one-resource economy and declines in oil prices have led to widening government deficits. Social expectations created by the oil-financed welfare state make it difficult for government expenditures to be cut back. There is lack of public debate in the state-controlled media and no public participation in policy and decision making. There is a perception of widening corruption in government and a nascent movement toward a more rigid Islamic view of society. Controls are needed to maintain a reasonable balance between oil revenues and public expenditures, while pressures from an increasingly literate and numerous population will demand changes to the traditional autocratic system of government. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Predicting functional upstream open reading frames in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Kristiansson Erik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some upstream open reading frames (uORFs regulate gene expression (i.e., they are functional and can play key roles in keeping organisms healthy. However, how uORFs are involved in gene regulation is not yet fully understood. In order to get a complete view of how uORFs are involved in gene regulation, it is expected that a large number of experimentally verified functional uORFs are needed. Unfortunately, wet-experiments to verify that uORFs are functional are expensive. Results In this paper, a new computational approach to predicting functional uORFs in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is presented. Our approach is based on inductive logic programming and makes use of a novel combination of knowledge about biological conservation, Gene Ontology annotations and genes' responses to different conditions. Our method results in a set of simple and informative hypotheses with an estimated sensitivity of 76%. The hypotheses predict 301 further genes to have 398 novel functional uORFs. Three (RPC11, TPK1, and FOL1 of these 301 genes have been hypothesised, following wet-experiments, by a related study to have functional uORFs. A comparison with another related study suggests that eleven of the predicted functional uORFs from genes LDB17, HEM3, CIN8, BCK2, PMC1, FAS1, APP1, ACC1, CKA2, SUR1, and ATH1 are strong candidates for wet-lab experimental studies. Conclusions Learning based prediction of functional uORFs can be done with a high sensitivity. The predictions made in this study can serve as a list of candidates for subsequent wet-lab verification and might help to elucidate the regulatory roles of uORFs.

  8. Invasion versus isolation: trade-offs in managing native salmonids with barriers to upstream movement.

    Fausch, Kurt D; Rieman, Bruce E; Dunham, Jason B; Young, Michael K; Peterson, Douglas P

    2009-08-01

    Conservation biologists often face the trade-off that increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes to reduce extinction risk of native species can foster invasion by non-native species that enter via the corridors created, which can then increase extinction risk. This dilemma is acute for stream fishes, especially native salmonids, because their populations are frequently relegated to fragments of headwater habitat threatened by invasion from downstream by 3 cosmopolitan non-native salmonids. Managers often block these upstream invasions with movement barriers, but isolation of native salmonids in small headwater streams can increase the threat of local extinction. We propose a conceptual framework to address this worldwide problem that focuses on 4 main questions. First, are populations of conservation value present (considering evolutionary legacies, ecological functions, and socioeconomic benefits as distinct values)? Second, are populations vulnerable to invasion and displacement by non-native salmonids? Third, would these populations be threatened with local extinction if isolated with barriers? And, fourth, how should management be prioritized among multiple populations? We also developed a conceptual model of the joint trade-off of invasion and isolation threats that considers the opportunities for managers to make strategic decisions. We illustrated use of this framework in an analysis of the invasion-isolation trade-off for native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) in 2 contrasting basins in western North America where invasion and isolation are either present and strong or farther away and apparently weak. These cases demonstrate that decisions to install or remove barriers to conserve native salmonids are often complex and depend on conservation values, environmental context (which influences the threat of invasion and isolation), and additional socioeconomic factors. Explicit analysis with tools such as those we propose can help managers make

  9. Innovation and performance: The case of the upstream petroleum sector

    Persaud, A. C. Jai

    This thesis investigates innovation in the upstream crude oil and natural gas sector, a strategic part of the Canadian economy and a vital industry for North American energy trade and security. Significant interest exists in understanding innovation in this sector from a private and public policy perspective. Interest in the sector has intensified recently due to concerns about world oil supply, Canada's oil sands development, and the potential that Canada may become an "energy superpower." The study examines the factors that drive companies involved in exploration, development, and production in the upstream petroleum sector to innovate and the impact of their innovation activities through major technologies on their performance. The thesis focuses on process innovation, which involves the adoption of new or significantly improved production processes, and is distinct from product innovation, which is based on the development and commercialization of a product with improved product characteristics to deliver new services to the consumer. The thesis provides a comprehensive review of the literature and develops an investigative model framework to examine the drivers of innovation and the impact of innovation on performance in the upstream petroleum sector. The research employs a survey questionnaire that was developed to obtain data and information, which was missing in the literature or not publicly available to test key relationships of innovation and performance indicators. In addition to the survey questionnaire, a number of knowledgeable experts in the industry were also interviewed. A total of 68 respondents completed the survey questionnaire, accounting for 40 percent of the firms in the industry. This percentage goes up to over 50 percent when account is taken of extremely small firms who could not fill out the survey. Further, the 68 respondents account for most of the industry revenues, production, and employment. The respondents include most of the key

  10. Effects of historical lead–zinc mining on riffle-dwelling benthic fish and crayfish in the Big River of southeastern Missouri, USA

    Allert, A.L.; DiStefano, R.J.; Fairchild, J.F.; Schmitt, C.J.; McKee, M.J.; Girondo, J.A.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.

    2013-01-01

    The Big River (BGR) drains much of the Old Lead Belt mining district (OLB) in southeastern Missouri, USA, which was historically among the largest producers of lead–zinc (Pb–Zn) ore in the world. We sampled benthic fish and crayfish in riffle habitats at eight sites in the BGR and conducted 56-day in situ exposures to the woodland crayfish (Orconectes hylas) and golden crayfish (Orconectes luteus) in cages at four sites affected to differing degrees by mining. Densities of fish and crayfish, physical habitat and water quality, and the survival and growth of caged crayfish were examined at sites with no known upstream mining activities (i.e., reference sites) and at sites downstream of mining areas (i.e., mining and downstream sites). Lead, zinc, and cadmium were analyzed in surface and pore water, sediment, detritus, fish, crayfish, and other benthic macro-invertebrates. Metals concentrations in all materials analyzed were greater at mining and downstream sites than at reference sites. Ten species of fish and four species of crayfish were collected. Fish and crayfish densities were significantly greater at reference than mining or downstream sites, and densities were greater at downstream than mining sites. Survival of caged crayfish was significantly lower at mining sites than reference sites; downstream sites were not tested. Chronic toxic-unit scores and sediment probable effects quotients indicated significant risk of toxicity to fish and crayfish, and metals concentrations in crayfish were sufficiently high to represent a risk to wildlife at mining and downstream sites. Collectively, the results provided direct evidence that metals associated with historical mining activities in the OLB continue to affect aquatic life in the BGR.

  11. Analysis of key thresholds leading to upstream dependencies in global transboundary water bodies

    Munia, Hafsa Ahmed; Guillaume, Joseph; Kummu, Matti; Mirumachi, Naho; Wada, Yoshihide

    2017-04-01

    Transboundary water bodies supply 60% of global fresh water flow and are home to about 1/3 of the world's population; creating hydrological, social and economic interdependencies between countries. Trade-offs between water users are delimited by certain thresholds, that, when crossed, result in changes in system behavior, often related to undesirable impacts. A wide variety of thresholds are potentially related to water availability and scarcity. Scarcity can occur because of the country's own water use, and that is potentially intensified by upstream water use. In general, increased water scarcity escalates the reliance on shared water resources, which increases interdependencies between riparian states. In this paper the upstream dependencies of global transboundary river basins are examined at the scale of sub-basin areas. We aim to assess how upstream water withdrawals cause changes in the scarcity categories, such that crossing thresholds is interpreted in terms of downstream dependency on upstream water availability. The thresholds are defined for different types of water availability on which a sub-basin relies: - reliable local runoff (available even in a dry year), - less reliable local water (available in the wet year), - reliable dry year inflows from possible upstream area, and - less reliable wet year inflows from upstream. Possible upstream withdrawals reduce available water downstream, influencing the latter two water availabilities. Upstream dependencies have then been categorized by comparing a sub-basin's scarcity category across different water availability types. When population (or water consumption) grows, the sub-basin satisfies its needs using less reliable water. Thus, the factors affecting the type of water availability being used are different not only for each type of dependency category, but also possibly for every sub- basin. Our results show that, in the case of stress (impacts from high use of water), in 104 (12%) sub- basins out of

  12. Design of extended length submerged traveling screen and submerged bar screen fish guidance equipment

    Bardy, D.; Lindstrom, M.; Fechner, D.

    1991-01-01

    The hydropower projects on the Snake and lower Columbia Rivers in the Pacific Northwest are unique because these rivers are also the spawning grounds for migratory salmon. The salmon swim upstream from the ocean, lay their eggs, and die. The newly hatched fingerlings must then make their way past the hydroelectric dams to the ocean. Two separate bypass systems are needed, one to pass the adult fish going upstream, and one to pass the fingerlings going downstream. This paper addresses the design considerations for two of the components of the downstream migrant fish passage facilities, the extended Submerged Traveling Screen and Submerged Bar Screen

  13. Fish farmers' perceptions of constraints affecting aquaculture ...

    The study focused on fish farmers' perceptions of constraints affecting aquaculture development in Akwa-Ibom State of Nigeria. Random sampling procedure was used to select 120 respondents from whom primary data was collected. Data analysis was with the aid of descriptive statistics. Results show that fish farming ...

  14. Upper Caraş River (Danube watershed fish populations fragmentation – technical rehabilitation proposal

    Voicu Răzvan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a technical solution for fish movement based on the flow of water over a spill threshold. Such barriers are common in the Danube system. The proposed system has a range of operating components which are easily detachable from the spill threshold, are resistant to corrosion and will not harm the fish. In fact, if designed to complement swimming abilities of target fish, it should provide adequate passage for both adults and juveniles. If implemented correctly, the design may offer a solution to help displaced fish recolonize upstream habitats.

  15. Fish Tales

    McLerran, L.

    2010-01-01

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not

  16. Fish Tales

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical

  17. Suspended-sediment loads, reservoir sediment trap efficiency, and upstream and downstream channel stability for Kanopolis and Tuttle Creek Lakes, Kansas, 2008-10

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous streamflow and turbidity data collected from October 1, 2008, to September 30, 2010, at streamgage sites upstream and downstream from Kanopolis and Tuttle Creek Lakes, Kansas, were used to compute the total suspended-sediment load delivered to and released from each reservoir as well as the sediment trap efficiency for each reservoir. Ongoing sedimentation is decreasing the ability of the reservoirs to serve several purposes including flood control, water supply, and recreation. River channel stability upstream and downstream from the reservoirs was assessed using historical streamgage information. For Kanopolis Lake, the total 2-year inflow suspended-sediment load was computed to be 600 million pounds. Most of the suspended-sediment load was delivered during short-term, high-discharge periods. The total 2-year outflow suspended-sediment load was computed to be 31 million pounds. Sediment trap efficiency for the reservoir was estimated to be 95 percent. The mean annual suspended-sediment yield from the upstream basin was estimated to be 129,000 pounds per square mile per year. No pronounced changes in channel width were evident at five streamgage sites located upstream from the reservoir. At the Ellsworth streamgage site, located upstream from the reservoir, long-term channel-bed aggradation was followed by a period of stability. Current (2010) conditions at five streamgages located upstream from the reservoir were typified by channel-bed stability. At the Langley streamgage site, located immediately downstream from the reservoir, the channel bed degraded 6.15 feet from 1948 to 2010. For Tuttle Creek Lake, the total 2-year inflow suspended-sediment load was computed to be 13.3 billion pounds. Most of the suspended-sediment load was delivered during short-term, high-discharge periods. The total 2-year outflow suspended-sediment load was computed to be 327 million pounds. Sediment trap efficiency for the reservoir was estimated to be 98 percent. The mean

  18. SOME PARASITIC WORMS IN FRESHWATER FISHES AND FISH ...

    and on the other hand to forms in freshwater fishes of the Indo-Malaysian region, it would ... about 25 p.m in total length, of which the sickle-shaped terminal structure .... The ejaculatory duct is short and runs from the genital ...... This larva appears to be very common in C. gariepinus collected ..... Onderstepoort J. vet. Sci.

  19. Lindane residues in fish inhabiting Nigerian rivers

    Okereke, G.U.; Dje, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis for residues of lindane in fish collected from various rivers close to rice agroecosystems showed that the concentrations of lindane ranged from none detectable to 3.4 mg kg -1 . Fish from rivers where strict regulations prohibits its use had no detectable lindane residues while appreciable amounts of lindane were found in fish were such restriction was not enforced with the variation attributed to the extent of use of lindane in the area of contamination. The investigation confirms that the use of lindane in rice production in Nigeria can cause the contamination of fish in nearby rivers. (author). 16 refs, 2 tab

  20. Fishing activities

    Oberle, Ferdinand; Puig, Pere; Martin, Jacobo; Micallef, Aaron; Krastel, Sebastian; Savini, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Unlike the major anthropogenic changes that terrestrial and coastal habitats underwent during the last centuries such as deforestation, river engineering, agricultural practices or urbanism, those occurring underwater are veiled from our eyes and have continued nearly unnoticed. Only recent advances in remote sensing and deep marine sampling technologies have revealed the extent and magnitude of the anthropogenic impacts to the seafloor. In particular, bottom trawling, a fishing technique consisting of dragging a net and fishing gear over the seafloor to capture bottom-dwelling living resources has gained attention among the scientific community, policy makers and the general public due to its destructive effects on the seabed. Trawling gear produces acute impacts on biota and the physical substratum of the seafloor by disrupting the sediment column structure, overturning boulders, resuspending sediments and imprinting deep scars on muddy bottoms. Also, the repetitive passage of trawling gear over the same areas creates long-lasting, cumulative impacts that modify the cohesiveness and texture of sediments. It can be asserted nowadays that due to its recurrence, mobility and wide geographical extent, industrial trawling has become a major force driving seafloor change and affecting not only its physical integrity on short spatial scales but also imprinting measurable modifications to the geomorphology of entire continental margins.

  1. Air supersaturation, release of wooden fibres and upstream migration of Atlantic salmon at Rygene power plant in the River Nidelva, Aust Agder county; Vurdering av luftovermetning, trefiberutslipp og oppvandring av laks ved Rygene kraftverk i Nidelva, Aust-Agder

    Thorstad, Eva B.; Kroglund, Frode; Oekland, Finn; Heggberget, Tor G.

    1997-12-31

    Incidents of dead fish have been reported in connection with a power plant at Rygene on the River Nidelva in the Aust-Agder county, Norway. Air supersaturation has been used in a bypass construction of the power plant tunnel system. In addition, wooden fibres from a fabric have been released into the water of the tunnel. Results from relevant studies concerning air saturation, wooden fibres and upstream migration are summarised in this report. 148 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Marine Fish Hybridization

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  3. Fish tapeworm infection

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  4. Fish passage mitigation of impacts from hydroelectric power projects in the United States

    Cada, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Obstruction of fish movements by dams continues to be the major environmental issue facing the hydropower industry in the US. Dams block upstream migrations, which can cut off adult fish form their historical spawning grounds and severely curtail reproduction. Conversely, downstream-migrating fish may be entrained into the turbine intake flow and suffer turbine-passage injury or mortality. Hydroelectric projects can interfere with the migrations of a wide variety of fish. Maintenance, restoration or enhancement of populations of these species may require the construction of facilities to allow for upstream and downstream fish passage. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), by law, must give fish and wildlife resources equal consideration with power production in its licensing decisions, must be satisfied that a project is consistent with comprehensive plans for a waterway (including fisheries management plans), and must consider all federal and state resource agency terms and conditions for the protection of fish and wildlife. As a consequence, FERC often requires fish passage mitigation measures as a condition of the hydropower license when such measures are deemed necessary for the protection of fish. Much of the recent research and development efforts of the US Department of Energy's Hydropower Program have focused on the mitigation of impacts to upstream and downstream fish passage. This paper descries three components of that effort: (1) a survey of environmental mitigation measures at hydropower sites across the country; (2) a critical review of the effectiveness of fish passage mitigation measures at 16 case study sites; and (3) ongoing efforts to develop new turbine designs that minimize turbine-passage mortality

  5. Fish consumption behavior and fish farming attitude in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA

    Abdul Qader Khan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore fish consumption behavior and fish farming attitude of the Saudi households in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. The survey was conducted in Sharurah town situated in Najran province. The data were collected through a well-structured questionnaire from 100 respondents residing in the province. Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used to see the significant and non-significant impact of the two variables. The results showed that majority (37% of the respondents fell in the age group of 25–34 and majority (35% of the respondents have high level of education i.e. up to university level. The results also depicted that majority (31% of the people consume fish and were aware of the nutritional value of fish. However, majority (85% of the respondents were not satisfied by the fish price. The results further indicated that none of the respondent was engaged in fish farming activity i.e. they had no fish farms at their homes. Furthermore, majority (83% respondents had no intentions to start fish farming at their homes in future. The study concludes that fish consumption and preference is high in the study area and people prefer fish more than chicken and meat for consumption purposes because of their knowledge regarding the nutritional value of fish. However, the age and educational level have negative impact on the respondent’s opinion about fish price in the study area. The study recommends that proper policies should be formulated to educate people about fish farming (aquaponics and its importance through fisheries extension services to enhance the interest of people in fish farming. Keywords: Fish consumption, Fish farming, Attitude, Intentions, Saudi Arabia, Aquaponics

  6. Marianas Boat Fishing Cost Earnings Study 2011

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the boat based fishing in the Mariana Archipelago fielded in 2011. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel...

  7. Reef Fish of Navassa Island 2004

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This record refers to reef fish data collected on the 2004 cruise to Navassa Island National Wildlife Refuge. The random point count method (Bohnsack-Bannerot 1986)...

  8. Hawaii Charter Fishing Cost Earnings Survey 2012

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the main Hawaiian Island Charter fishing fleet in 2012. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel...

  9. The Effects of Agricultural Land-use on Stream Fish and Invertebrate Communities and Food-web Structure.

    North, C. A.; Fischer, R. U.

    2005-05-01

    Incorporating knowledge of the surrounding landscape can further the understanding of stream processes. This is particularly true in areas like the Midwest where human alteration of the landscape, such as conversion of natural cover types into cultivated row crops, is widespread. When assessing stream health, the composition and structure of biological communities themselves often are the best indicators of water quality. Previous work in Hurricane Creek (Coles and Cumberland Counties, IL) demonstrated significant differences in water chemistry and community metabolism between sites subject to differing intensities of farming in the upstream watershed. Our objective was to examine differences in fish and invertebrate communities at four sites along the stream representing varying degrees of agricultural land-use. Fish were sampled using electroseining techniques and invertebrates were collected using the 20-jab method in each of four seasons. Sites were compared using fish and invertebrate community metrics, including indices of biotic integrity (IBI, MBI). Stable isotope analyses were also performed to quantify differences in food-web structure in streams draining watersheds characterized by different degrees of agricultural land-use. This study improves understanding of how landscape alteration impacts stream biota and will facilitate more informed decisions concerning stream rehabilitation.

  10. Investigation of biological condition of fish species in lower Ogun ...

    The study was carried out to investigate the biological condition of fish species in lower Ogun River wetlands. A total of 175 individual fish belonging to 10 species were collected from artisanal fishermen using different types of fishing gears. Two biological indices; condition factor “K” and growth exponent “b” obtained from ...

  11. Contaminants in popular farmed fish consumed in The Netherlands and their levels in fish feedContaminants in popular farmed fish consumed in The Netherlands and their levels in fish feed

    Leeuwen, van S.; Velzen, van M.; Swart, K.; Veen, van der I.; Traag, W.A.; Spanjer, M.; Scholten, J.; Rijn, van H.

    2008-01-01

    Investigated is a wide range of pollutants in the top five consumed fish in the Netherlands (salmon, trout, tilapia, pangasius and shrimps). Farmed fish samples were collected from different sources (supermarkets, fish stores, markets and suppliers for restaurants) and analysed for PCDD/Fs, PCBs,

  12. Ecological assessment of fish biodiversity in relation to hydrological ...

    This research analysed the fish species diversity; ecological distribution and abundance in relation to hydrological variables of Ogun coastal water. Fish species were collected with the use of graded gillnet bimonthly for six-months. Correlation analysis between fish species richness with the hydrological attributes showed ...

  13. Marine soundscape shaped by fishing activity.

    Coquereau, Laura; Lossent, Julie; Grall, Jacques; Chauvaud, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Marine communities face anthropogenic pressures that degrade ecosystems. Because underwater soundscapes carry information about habitat quality, we explored whether destructive impacts of fishing could be evaluated via the soundscape. Maerl beds are recognized as biodiversity hotspots and they experience major worldwide degradation owing to fishing. We collected field acoustic recordings in maerl beds exposed to different fishing practices. We found that unfished maerl beds were threefold louder and exhibited sound frequencies more diversified than those recorded in fished maerl beds. Analyses of associated fauna samples indicated that snapping shrimps provided a major contribution to the maerl bed soundscape. Moreover, sea urchins and squat lobsters most likely contributed to differences between the soundscapes of unfished and fished maerl beds. Our results supported the idea that the soundscape can provide valuable information on maerl bed ecosystem health related to fishing activity.

  14. Comparative studies of metals in fish organs, sediments and water from Nigerian fresh water fish ponds

    Ipinmoroti, K.O.; Oshodi, A.A.; Owolabi, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Fish samples (Illisha africana) were collected from six man-made fish pond in Edo and Ondo states, Nigeria. Some organs of the fish sediment and water from the fish habitat were analysed for Cd, Pb, Hg, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu and Cr, Physico-chemical properties of water samples from the ponds were also re-corded. The concentration of the metals varied in the sediment water as well as in different organs of the fish. However, chromium was absent in all the samples. The descending order of metal concentration in fish organs was: gills intestine, head and muscle. To avoid harmful accumulation of these metals in the human system, the gills and the intestine should preferably be discarded while processing fish for consumption. The head with a relatively high concentration of calcium might be useful in feed formulation. (author)

  15. Fish welfare: Fish capacity to experience pain

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Teleost fish possess similar nociceptive processing systems to those found in terrestrial vertebrates. It means that they react to potential painful stimuli in a similar manner as mammals and birds. However, the welfare of fish has been the focus of less research than that of higher vertebrates. Humans may affect the welfare of fish through fisheries, aquaculture and a number of other activities. There is scientific evidence to support the assumption that fish have the capacity to experience pain because they possess functional nociceptors, endogenous opioids and opioid receptors, brain structures involved in pain processing and pathways leading from nociceptors to higher brain structures. Also, it is well documented that some anaesthetics and analgesics may reduce nociceptive responses in fish. Behavioural indicators in fish such as lip-rubbing and rocking behaviours are the best proof that fish react to potential painful stimuli. This paper is an overview of some scientific evidence on fish capacity to experience pain.

  16. Fish for Feed vs Fish for Food

    Allan, Geoff L.

    2004-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food producing industry sector in the world. Demand for feed ingredients, particularly for preferred protein sources such as fishmeal, fish oil and ‘trash fish’, has also increased, raising questions about sustainability and uses of fish for aquaculture feeds or directly as human food. Approximately 30 million metric tonnes (MMT) of fish from capture fisheries are used each year to produce fishmeal and fish oil. The species used are not usually consumed dire...

  17. Fish Marketing of Ribbon Fish (Trichiurus sp. in Nusantara Fishing Port (NFPat Palabuhanratu, West Java

    Nur Bambang Azis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to study the marketing process of ribbon fish (Trichiurus sp., including the marketing margin, marketing agencies, traders and marketing channels The research was carried out for 3 mo in Nusantara Fishing Port (NFP, Palabuhanratu, Sukabumi, West Java. A case study was used in this research. A purposive sampling method was used to collect data from 55 respondents of fish marketing, consisting of fishermen, agents, traders, and retailers, who were involved in the marketing of ribbon fish in NFP Palabuhanratu. The result of the research showed that ribbon fish production in Palabuhanratu fluctuated from year to year. There are two types of ribbon fish marketing, i.e. type one is from fishermen to retailers, and type two is indirect marketing from fisherman to consumers through intermediate traders (exporters. The greatest marketing margin was obtained from the first type, while the smallest marketing margin was obtained from type two. The form of the market was considered to be oligopsony market. Fisherman’s share is greatest in the collectors and the smallest share is on retailers. Marketing process in traders is efficient due to its lowest margin and highest fisherman’s share.

  18. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products.

    Gram, L; Huss, H H

    1996-11-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram-positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish is well understood, much less is known about spoilage of lightly preserved fish products. It is concluded that the spoilage is probably caused by lactic acid bacteria, certain psychotrophic Enterobacteriaceae and/or Photobacterium phosphoreum. However, more work is needed in this area.

  19. Fishing Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transplants

    Hong, Yunhan

    2011-01-01

    Fish has been the subject of various research fields, ranging from ecology, evolution, physiology and toxicology to aquaculture. In the past decades fish has attracted considerable attention for functional genomics, cancer biology and developmental genetics, in particular nuclear transfer for understanding of cytoplasmic-nuclear relationship. This special issue reports on recent progress made in fish stem cells and nuclear transfer.

  20. Optimum swimming pathways of fish spawning migrations in rivers

    McElroy, Brandon; DeLonay, Aaron; Jacobson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Fishes that swim upstream in rivers to spawn must navigate complex fluvial velocity fields to arrive at their ultimate locations. One hypothesis with substantial implications is that fish traverse pathways that minimize their energy expenditure during migration. Here we present the methodological and theoretical developments necessary to test this and similar hypotheses. First, a cost function is derived for upstream migration that relates work done by a fish to swimming drag. The energetic cost scales with the cube of a fish's relative velocity integrated along its path. By normalizing to the energy requirements of holding a position in the slowest waters at the path's origin, a cost function is derived that depends only on the physical environment and not on specifics of individual fish. Then, as an example, we demonstrate the analysis of a migration pathway of a telemetrically tracked pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Missouri River (USA). The actual pathway cost is lower than 105 random paths through the surveyed reach and is consistent with the optimization hypothesis. The implication—subject to more extensive validation—is that reproductive success in managed rivers could be increased through manipulation of reservoir releases or channel morphology to increase abundance of lower-cost migration pathways.

  1. Fish length, water temperature, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen data collected from Strawberry Creek, Redwood National Park, California from 2012-02-12 to 2016-02-25 (NCEI Accession 0148460)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been several recent efforts to restore Strawberry Creek including reed canary grass removal, riparian plantings, increasing fish passage at the County...

  2. Data collected to determine the relationship between coral reef health, alien algae, and fish biomass at sites on Oahu and the Big Island, Hawaii, during 2004 - 2005 (NODC Accession 0002619)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data in this set come from two studies: "Ability of protected reefs to resist alien algae" and "How many fish does it take to keep the alien algae out?" Both are...

  3. Oceanographic profile plankton, Temperature Salinity and other measurements collected using bottle from VICTORIA 1 FISHING BOAT), ALEJERO HUMBOLDT and other platforms in the South Pacific, Coastal S Pacific and other locations from 1980 to 1982 (NODC Accession 0002083)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity and other measurements found in dataset OSD taken from the VICTORIA 1(FISHING BOAT), ALEJERO HUMBOLDT and other platforms in the South...

  4. Benefits of fish passage and protection measures at hydroelectric projects

    Cada, G.F.; Jones, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Hydropower Program is engaged in a multi-year study of the costs and benefits of environmental mitigation measures at nonfederal hydroelectric power plants. An initial report (Volume 1) reviewed and surveyed the status of mitigation methods for fish passage, instream flows, and water quality; this paper focuses on the fish passage/protection aspects of the study. Fish ladders were found to be the most common means of passing fish upstream; elevators/lifts were less common, but their use appears to be increasing. A variety of mitigative measures is employed to prevent fish from being drawn into turbine intakes, including spill flows, narrow-mesh intake screens, angled bar racks, and lightor sound-based guidance measures. Performance monitoring and detailed, quantifiable performance criteria were frequently lacking at non-federal hydroelectric projects. Volume 2 considers the benefits and costs of fish passage and protection measures, as illustrated by case studies for which performance monitoring has been conducted. The report estimates the effectiveness of particular measures, the consequent impacts on the fish populations that are being maintained or restored, and the resulting use and non-use values of the maintained or restored fish populations

  5. Fish-biological investigations at Gylling Naes 1975

    Hoffmann, E.

    1976-08-01

    The purpose of fish-biological studies accomplished by the Danish Institute for Fisheries and Marine Research was to collect statistical information about industrial and leisure fishing in the Gylling Naes area, to map the quantitative spreading of some chosen fish species in this area and to evaluate the potential changes in fish biology due to thermal water pollution, Thermal pollution can be expected, if the planned nuclear power plant at Gylling Naes were to be built. (EG)

  6. Upstream petroleum industry financial conditions and distribution of industry generated revenue

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A review of profitability of Canada's upstream petroleum industry and of the direct fiscal burden (all payments to governments) on the industry was presented based on a study conducted during June-September 1996. Information was collected from 200 companies that represent over 90 per cent of the total oil and gas production revenue and most of the refining and fuel sales. Part 2 of the review examined taxes and other payments to government by 58 companies. It was concluded that the Canadian oil and gas industry is a major contributor of taxes to all three levels of government. While the industry has made concerted efforts to reduce its controllable costs and increase its profitability, it is claimed that Canadian petroleum industry profit margins are extremely low. A plea was made to all levels of governments to consider the highly competitive nature of the industry, the constantly changing market forces, shifts in world politics, regulatory trends, currency values and technology that affect the industry, and the high risks inherent in exploration and development prior to establishing ever-increasing claims on the industry's dwindling profits. 22 tabs., 17 figs

  7. Technology strategy in the upstream petroleum supply chain

    Bret-Rouzaut, N.; Thom, M.

    2005-03-01

    This study focuses on technology activities in the upstream oil and gas industry. Data from the period 1984 to 2002 is studied for evidence. The objectives are to describe technology strategies within this sector and to develop an understanding of how technology-related tasks and the control of technology are distributed throughout the supply chain. Frameworks for decision-making around technology strategy are presented. Firms that operate internationally and with the widest range of technological capabilities (so technology strategy is not modified strongly by any specialisation) are studied. These firms are large, private international oil companies and large integrated service and supply companies. Technology has different and distinct capabilities; it is a response to growth opportunities, it is a way to lower costs and it can lower the risks of certain business activities. Firms engage in Research and Development (R and D) to provide new technology. However, R and D is risky due to its typically long payback period and during this time many changes to forecasts and unforeseen paths may arise. These unforeseen circumstances provide unexpected benefits or expenses. In the context of this report, technology is defined as something that gives the user competitive advantage. Evidence points to having access to technology as a source of competitive advantage but oil companies and their suppliers have very different competitive objectives and strategies around technology. The former compete over the acquisition, exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas; competition is based on having some lead-time and/or cost advantage in terms of integrating the best technologies into any project. The later compete for the supply of products and services; competition is based on their technology content, quality and price. The international oil companies (IOCs), who are the traditional big spenders on technology, have reduced their technological activities

  8. Fish under exercise

    Palstra, A.P.; Planas, J.V.

    2011-01-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish

  9. Persistence and stability of fish community structure in a southwest New York stream

    Hansen, Michael J.; Ramm, Carl W.

    1994-01-01

    We used multivariate and nonparametric statistics to examine persistence and stability of fish species in the upper 43 km of French Creek, New York. Species occurred in upstream and downstream groups in 1937 that persisted in 1979. However, the downstream group expanded its range in the drainage from 1937 to 1979 at the expense of the upstream group. A dam prevented further upstream expansion of the downstream group. Ranks of species abundances were stable, as tests of group similarity were significant. The abundances and distributions of benthic species were stable across seven sampling dates in 1980 despite several floods and repeated removals by sampling that could have altered community structure. We conclude that the fish community in French Creek persisted and was stable over the 42-yr interval, 1937-1979, and that abundances of benthic species were stable in summer 1980.

  10. Meet the surrogate fish

    Johnson, Bob; Neitzel, Duane; Moxon, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    This article gives details of the US Department of Energy's innovative research into the development of a sensor system that will work as a surrogate fish to provide information to aid the design of fish-friendly turbines for hydroelectric power plants. The selection of the dams for the testing of sensor fish, the release and recovery of the sensor fish, the recording of the physical forces exerted on fish as they pass through the turbines, and use of the information gathered to build more sensor fish are discussed. Fish investigations conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are briefly described. (UK)

  11. Plastic fish

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  12. Energetic particle diffusion coefficients upstream of quasi-parallel interplanetary shocks

    Tan, L. C.; Mason, G. M.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.

    1989-01-01

    The properties of about 30 to 130-keV/e protons and alpha particles upstream of six quasi-parallel interplanetary shocks that passed by the ISEE 3 spacecraft during 1978-1979 were analyzed, and the values for the upstream energegic particle diffusion coefficient, kappa, in these six events were deduced for a number of energies and upstream positions. These observations were compared with predictions of Lee's (1983) theory of shock acceleration. It was found that the observations verified the prediction of the A/Q dependence (where A and Q are the particle atomic mass and ionization state, respectively) of kappa for alpha and proton particles upstream of the quasi-parallel shocks.

  13. Low power consumption O-band VCSEL sources for upstream channels in PON systems

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental validation of a low power optical network unit employing vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers as upstream sources for passive optical networks with an increased power budget, enabling even larger splitting ratios....

  14. Three Kinds of Fish

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2012-01-01

    There are three kinds of fish. Fish you were given, fish you bought and fish you lease. This might sound a bit odd, but it is nevertheless the basis for the activities of Danish commercial fishers since the introduction of transferable fishing concessions (TFCs) in 2007. In the current 2012 reform...... of market based systems are wild speculation, concentration and monopolization of fishing access and subsequent leasing with fishing communities and new entrants very likely being worse off (see for example the chapter “From fishing rights to financial derivatives” is this volume or Olson 2011; Sumaila 2010...... will examine five Danish fishing operations and discuss how they have reacted in different ways to the newly introduced system of transferable fishing concessions. By introducing TFCs as a solution to fleet overcapacity, the EU Commission will also be introducing a system where buying, selling and leasing...

  15. Heavy metal contamination of water and fish in peri-urban dams ...

    Heavy metals were measured in water, sediment and fish in dams located downstream of effluent discharge zones in Bulawayo and were compared to those in a pristine upstream dam. Water conductivity indicated pollution of downstream dams. Levels of lead (0.13 – 0.28 ppm) and cadmium (0.02 – 0.06 ppm) in water from ...

  16. Fish species, Fish biomass, Fishery survey, invertebrate species, and other variables collected from midwater net tows, and bottom trawl observations using net, trawl, and other instruments from the Arctic Ocean, and Beaufort Sea from August 6, 2008 to August 21, 2008 (NODC Accession 0112823)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Alaska Fisheries Science Center's Status of Stocks and Multispecies Assessment (SSMA) Programs Fishery Interaction Team (FIT) conducted a fish survey in the...

  17. Umatilla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Bronson, James P. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Department of Natural Resources, Pendleton, OR); Duke, Bill B. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Pendleton, OR)

    2004-03-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were enumerated at Threemile Dam from August 17, 2002 to September 29, 2003. A total of 3,080 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 1716 adult, 617 jack, and 1,709 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawytscha); 3,820 adult and 971 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 3,607 adult and 135 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) were counted. All fish were enumerated at the east bank facility. Of the fish counted, 6 summer steelhead and 330 adult and 49 jack spring chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam. There were 2,882 summer steelhead; 1161 adult, 509 jack and 1,546 subjack fall chinook; 3,704 adult and 915 jack coho; and 2,406 adult and 31 jack spring chinook either released at, or allowed to volitionally migrate past, Threemile Dam. Also, 109 summer steelhead; 532 adult and 32 jack fall chinook; and 560 adult and 28 jack spring chinook were collected for brood. In addition, 282 spring chinook were collected for the outplanting efforts in the Walla Walla Basin. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at rivermile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The canal was open for 159 days between January 27 and July 4, 2003. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 145 days and were trapped 11 days. An estimated 205 pounds of juvenile fish were transported from Westland to the Umatilla River boat ramp (RM 0.5). Approximately 82% of the juveniles transported were salmonids. No steelhead kelts were hauled from Westland this year. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass was opened on September 16, 2002. and continued until November 1, 2002. The bypass was reopened March 3, 2003 and ran until July 3, 2003. The juvenile trap was operated by the Umatilla Passage Evaluation

  18. The Distribution and Flux of Fish in the Forebay of The Dalles Dam in 2003

    Faber, Derrek M.; Hanks, Michael E.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Skalski, John R.; Dillingham, Peter W.

    2005-04-29

    movement of smolt-sized fish in the forebay from fixed-point samples appeared to be in a circular pattern, with fish moving with the flow and channel upstream of the powerhouse, and upstream at points near the powerhouse. The rate of fish movement (flux) was greatest at the east end of the powerhouse and on the upstream-north side of the channel.

  19. Fatty acid profile of fish scale of Catla catla | Prabu | African Journal ...

    Fish scales are useful to ichthyologists for the purposes of classification, identification, age determination and history study. The fatty acid profile of the hexane extracts of the fresh water fish scale of Catla catla were analyzed by gas chromatography. Fish scales were collected from a local fish market, Chidambaram. The fatty ...

  20. Fish species diversity and conservation in Beijing and adjacent areas

    Chunguang Zhang; Yahui Zhao; Yingchun Xing; Ruilu Guo; Qing Zhang; Yun Feng; Enyuan Fan

    2011-01-01

    Based on field surveys between 2002 and 2010, and fish collections in the National Zoological Museum, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, a total of 93 wild fish species including 12 in-troduced species had been recorded in Beijing and adjacent areas. Eighty five of these species, including some migratory and estuarine fishes, are native to the region. Only 43 native wild species were collected in our field work from 2002 to 2010. Compared with the historical records, nearly 50...

  1. A recommended approach to the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) for the upstream oil and gas industry : 2002 : CAC emissions

    2003-04-01

    The National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) is a database of annual releases to air, water, land and off-site transfers of 273 specified pollutants. Environment Canada requires that the NPRI be reported annually. Criteria Air Contaminants (CAC) had to be reported for the first time in 2002. Air pollutants that contribute to the formation of ground level ozone and smog are included in the definition of CAC, along with any eye or respiratory irritants to both humans and animals. The substances of special interest to the petroleum industry are: oxides of nitrogen, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, total particulate matter, and particulate matters. This guide is intended to provide member companies of Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), operating upstream oil and gas facilities, with readily available data to determine the amount of CAC emissions released from their processes and equipment. Companies using these guidelines will be able to compare the performance of various upstream oil and gas companies more readily because the data is consistent. The scope of the project was described in section 1, and the sources of CAC emissions were identified in section 2. The reporting threshold was discussed in section 3. Data required for collection was outlined in section 4. Section 5 outlines how CAC emission quantities are determined. Calculation examples were provided in section 6 and definitions provided in section 7. 11 tabs., 1 fig

  2. Fish distribution studies near N Reactor, Summer 1983

    Dauble, D.D.; Page, T.L.

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes field studies that were initiated in July 1983 to provide estimates of the relative distribution of late-summer outmigrant juvenile salmonids and juvenile resident fish upstream of the N Reactor 009 Outfall. Chinook salmon are among the fish species most sensitive to thermal effects, and impacts to the juvenile outmigrant populations are of particular concern to state and federal regulatory and fisheries management agencies. Therefore, the distribution studies were conducted from late July through September, a period when high ambient river temperatures and low river flows make these salmonid populations most susceptible to thermal effects. In addition, data were not available on the spatial distribution of outmigrant juvenile chinook salmon in late summer. Information on the relative distribution of resident fish populations was also gathered. Previous studies of midstream distribution of juvenile resident fish were limited to a description of ichthyoplankton populations (Beak Consultants, Inc. 1980 Page et al. 1982), and no data were available on vertical or horizontal distribution of juvenile resident fish species near N Reactor. Relative densities and spatial distribution estimates of juvenile salmonid and resident fish species will be used in conjunction with laboratory thermal effects studies (Neitzel et al. 1984) and with plume characterization studies (Ecker et al. 1983) to assess potential impacts of thermal discharge on fish populations near N Reactor.

  3. Evaluation of Fish Passage Conditions for Juvenile Salmonids Using Sensor Fish at Detroit Dam, Oregon

    Duncan, Joanne P.

    2010-01-01

    Fish passage conditions through two spillways at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions through Spillbay 3 and Spillbay 6 at 1.5- and 3.5-ft gate openings, identifying potential fish injury regions of the routes. The study was performed in July 2009, concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish and live fish were deployed at elevations approximately 3 ft above structure at depths determined using a computational fluid dynamics model. Data collected were analyzed to estimate (1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision and shear events by passage route sub-regions; (2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and (3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates.

  4. Moving electronic medical records upstream: incorporating social determinants of health.

    Gottlieb, Laura M; Tirozzi, Karen J; Manchanda, Rishi; Burns, Abby R; Sandel, Megan T

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge of the biological pathways and mechanisms connecting social factors with health has increased exponentially over the past 25 years, yet in most clinical settings, screening and intervention around social determinants of health are not part of standard clinical care. Electronic medical records provide new opportunities for assessing and managing social needs in clinical settings, particularly those serving vulnerable populations. To illustrate the feasibility of capturing information and promoting interventions related to social determinants of health in electronic medical records. Three case studies were examined in which electronic medical records have been used to collect data and address social determinants of health in clinical settings. From these case studies, we identified multiple functions that electronic medical records can perform to facilitate the integration of social determinants of health into clinical systems, including screening, triaging, referring, tracking, and data sharing. If barriers related to incentives, training, and privacy can be overcome, electronic medical record systems can improve the integration of social determinants of health into healthcare delivery systems. More evidence is needed to evaluate the impact of such integration on health care outcomes before widespread adoption can be recommended. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Potentially toxic metals in rivers upstream of Pantanal Norte

    Geizibel Campos de Magalhães

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cuiabá (CBA and São Lourenço (SL rivers are considered strategic once they integrate regions, which are economically, socially and environmentally relevant for Brazil and the world. However, several activities developed in their watersheds may represent sources of metals and be a threat to the environmental quality. Thus, in this study we evaluated the spatial and temporal variability of potentially toxic metals in water and sediment and the relationship of their concentration with water quality parameters. Surface water samples were collected monthly in 15 points and bottom sediment in nine points distributed throughout both rivers from August 2012 to July 2013. Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn were determined in water by inducted coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and in sediment by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Fe, Mn, Pb and Cr had high concentrations in water and sediment but only Pb and Cr represent environmental risk. Fe and Mn were in higher concentrations in at the upper points of SL River and Cu and Pb in the urban area of both rivers. Temporally, the metal concentrations were associated with precipitation variation. The observed correlations amongst metal concentrations indicate common sources. Thus, the metals occurrence and concentrations in water and sediment of both rivers showed a natural contribution, as a reflex of soil type associated to the region's precipitation regimen as well as the anthropic contribution due to agricultural and cattle breeding activities, and disposal of untreated urban effluents.

  6. Mercury and stable isotope signatures in caged marine fish and fish feeds

    Onsanit, Sarayut; Chen, Min; Ke, Caihuan [State Key Laboratory for Marine Environmental Science, College of Oceanography and Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang, Wen-Xiong [State Key Laboratory for Marine Environmental Science, College of Oceanography and Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury concentrations in caged fish were closely related to Hg concentrations in fish feeds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The trophic transfer factor of methylmercury was dependent on fish feeds, and was the highest for fish fed on pellet feeds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fish farming may be a good way of reducing the human exposure to Hg because Hg levels can be carefully controlled. - Abstract: Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in four species of marine caged carnivorous fish, one species of herbivorous fish and three types of fish feeds (dried pellet feed, forage fish and fish viscera), collected from five cage sites in the rural areas along Fujian coastline, China. For the carnivorous fish, the concentrations of THg and MeHg ranged from 0.03 to 0.31 {mu}g/g and from 0.02 to 0.30 {mu}g/g on wet weight basis, respectively. The concentrations were lower for the herbivorous fish with both within the range of 0.01-0.03 {mu}g/g. Out of the three tested fish feeds, tuna viscera contained the highest level of mercury (0.20 {mu}g/g THg and 0.13 {mu}g/g MeHg), with pellet feed containing the lowest level (0.05 {mu}g/g THg and 0.01 {mu}g/g MeHg). The calculated trophic transfer factor of MeHg was the highest (12-64) for fish fed on pellet feeds, and was the lowest for fish fed on tuna viscera. A significant relationship was found between Hg concentrations in caged fish and in fish feeds, thus Hg was primarily accumulated from the diet. Furthermore, the stable isotope {delta}{sup 15}N was positively correlated with the Hg concentration in two caged sites, indicating that {delta}{sup 15}N may be a suitable tool for tracking mercury in caged fish. We conclude that fish farming may be a good way of reducing the human exposure to Hg because mercury levels can be carefully controlled in such farming systems.

  7. Mercury and stable isotope signatures in caged marine fish and fish feeds

    Onsanit, Sarayut; Chen, Min; Ke, Caihuan; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mercury concentrations in caged fish were closely related to Hg concentrations in fish feeds. ► The trophic transfer factor of methylmercury was dependent on fish feeds, and was the highest for fish fed on pellet feeds. ► Fish farming may be a good way of reducing the human exposure to Hg because Hg levels can be carefully controlled. - Abstract: Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in four species of marine caged carnivorous fish, one species of herbivorous fish and three types of fish feeds (dried pellet feed, forage fish and fish viscera), collected from five cage sites in the rural areas along Fujian coastline, China. For the carnivorous fish, the concentrations of THg and MeHg ranged from 0.03 to 0.31 μg/g and from 0.02 to 0.30 μg/g on wet weight basis, respectively. The concentrations were lower for the herbivorous fish with both within the range of 0.01–0.03 μg/g. Out of the three tested fish feeds, tuna viscera contained the highest level of mercury (0.20 μg/g THg and 0.13 μg/g MeHg), with pellet feed containing the lowest level (0.05 μg/g THg and 0.01 μg/g MeHg). The calculated trophic transfer factor of MeHg was the highest (12–64) for fish fed on pellet feeds, and was the lowest for fish fed on tuna viscera. A significant relationship was found between Hg concentrations in caged fish and in fish feeds, thus Hg was primarily accumulated from the diet. Furthermore, the stable isotope δ 15 N was positively correlated with the Hg concentration in two caged sites, indicating that δ 15 N may be a suitable tool for tracking mercury in caged fish. We conclude that fish farming may be a good way of reducing the human exposure to Hg because mercury levels can be carefully controlled in such farming systems.

  8. Water Stress in Global Transboundary River Basins: Significance of Upstream Water Use on Downstream Stress

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka,M.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analyzed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world's transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. Wefound that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.

  9. Fish otolith geochemistry, environmental conditions and human occupation at Lake Mungo, Australia

    Long, Kelsie; Stern, Nicola; Williams, Ian S.; Kinsley, Les; Wood, Rachel; Sporcic, Katarina; Smith, Tegan; Fallon, Stewart; Kokkonen, Harri; Moffat, Ian; Grün, Rainer

    2014-03-01

    Fish otoliths from the Willandra Lakes Region World Heritage Area (south-western New South Wales, Australia) have been analysed for oxygen isotopes and trace elements using in situ techniques, and dated by radiocarbon. The study focused on the lunettes of Lake Mungo, an overflow lake that only filled during flooding events and emptied by evaporation, and Lake Mulurulu, which was part of the running Willandra Creek system. Samples were collected from two different contexts: from hearths directly associated with human activity, and isolated surface finds. AMS radiocarbon dating constrains the human activity documented by five different hearths to a time span of less than 240 years around 19,350 cal. BP. These hearths were constructed in aeolian sediments with alternating clay and sand layers, indicative of fluctuating lake levels and occasional drying out. The geochemistry of the otoliths confirms this scenario, with shifts in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca marking the entry of the fish into Lake Mungo several years before their death, and a subsequent increase in the δ18O by ˜4‰ indicating increasing evaporation of the lake. During sustained lake-full conditions there are considerably fewer traces of human presence. It seems that the evaporating Lake Mungo attracted people to harvest fish that might have become sluggish through oxygen starvation in an increasingly saline water body (easy prey hypothesis). In contrast, surface finds have a much wider range in radiocarbon age as a result of reworking, and do not necessarily indicate evaporative conditions, as shown by comparison with otoliths from upstream Lake Mulurulu.

  10. Fish population and habitat analysis in Buck Creek, Washington, prior to recolonization by anadromous salmonids after the removal of Condit Dam

    Allen, M. Brady; Burkhardt, Jeanette; Munz, Carrie; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the physical and biotic conditions in the part of Buck Creek, Washington, potentially accessible to anadromous fishes. This creek is a major tributary to the White Salmon River upstream of Condit Dam, which was breached in October 2011. Habitat and fish populations were characterized in four stream reaches. Reach breaks were based on stream gradient, water withdrawals, and fish barriers. Buck Creek generally was confined, with a single straight channel and low sinuosity. Boulders and cobble were the dominant stream substrate, with limited gravel available for spawning. Large-cobble riffles were 83 percent of the available fish habitat. Pools, comprising 15 percent of the surface area, mostly were formed by bedrock with little instream cover and low complexity. Instream wood averaged 6—10 pieces per 100 meters, 80 percent of which was less than 50 centimeters in diameter. Water temperature in Buck Creek rarely exceeded 16 degrees Celsius and did so for only 1 day at river kilometer (rkm) 3 and 11 days at rkm 0.2 in late July and early August 2009. The maximum temperature recorded was 17.2 degrees Celsius at rkm 0.2 on August 2, 2009. Minimum summer discharge in Buck Creek was 3.3 cubic feet per second downstream of an irrigation diversion (rkm 3.1) and 7.7 cubic feet per second at its confluence with the White Salmon River. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was the dominant fish species in all reaches. The abundance of age-1 or older rainbow trout was similar between reaches. However, in 2009 and 2010, the greatest abundance of age-0 rainbow trout (8 fish per meter) was in the most downstream reach. These analyses in Buck Creek are important for understanding the factors that may limit fish abundance and productivity, and they will help identify and prioritize potential restoration actions. The data collected constitute baseline information of pre-dam removal conditions that will allow assessment of changes in fish populations now that Condit Dam has

  11. Estimating movement and survival rates of a small saltwater fish using autonomous antenna receiver arrays and passive integrated transponder tags

    Rudershausen, Paul J.; Buckel, Jeffery A.; Dubreuil, Todd; O'Donnell, Matthew J.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Poland, Steven J.; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of small (12.5 mm long) passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and custom detection antennas for obtaining fine-scale movement and demographic data of mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus in a salt marsh creek. Apparent survival and detection probability were estimated using a Cormack Jolly Seber (CJS) model fitted to detection data collected by an array of 3 vertical antennas from November 2010 to March 2011 and by a single horizontal antenna from April to August 2011. Movement of mummichogs was monitored during the period when the array of vertical antennas was used. Antenna performance was examined in situ using tags placed in wooden dowels (drones) and in live mummichogs. Of the 44 tagged fish, 42 were resighted over the 9 mo monitoring period. The in situ detection probabilities of the drone and live mummichogs were high (~80-100%) when the ambient water depth was less than ~0.8 m. Upstream and downstream movement of mummichogs was related to hourly water depth and direction of tidal current in a way that maximized time periods over which mummichogs utilized the intertidal vegetated marsh. Apparent survival was lower during periods of colder water temperatures in December 2010 and early January 2011 (median estimate of daily apparent survival = 0.979) than during other periods of the study (median estimate of daily apparent survival = 0.992). During late fall and winter, temperature had a positive effect on the CJS detection probability of a tagged mummichog, likely due to greater fish activity over warmer periods. During the spring and summer, this pattern reversed possibly due to mummichogs having reduced activity during the hottest periods. This study demonstrates the utility of PIT tags and continuously operating autonomous detection systems for tracking fish at fine temporal scales, and improving estimates of demographic parameters in salt marsh creeks that are difficult or impractical to sample with active fishing gear.

  12. What determines fresh fish consumption in Croatia?

    Tomić, Marina; Matulić, Daniel; Jelić, Margareta

    2016-11-01

    Although fresh fish is widely available, consumption still remains below the recommended intake levels among the majority of European consumers. The economic crisis affects consumer food behaviour, therefore fresh fish is perceived as healthy but expensive food product. The aim of this study was to determine the factors influencing fresh fish consumption using an expanded Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) as a theoretical framework. The survey was conducted on a heterogeneous sample of 1151 Croatian fresh fish consumers. The study investigated the relationship between attitudes, perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, moral obligation, involvement in health, availability, intention and consumption of fresh fish. Structural Equation Modeling by Partial Least Squares was used to analyse the collected data. The results indicated that attitudes are the strongest positive predictor of the intention to consume fresh fish. Other significant predictors of the intention to consume fresh fish were perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, health involvement and moral obligation. The intention to consume fresh fish showed a strong positive correlation with behaviour. This survey provides valuable information for food marketing professionals and for the food industry in general. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Emulation and Calibration of the SALT Read-out Chip for the Upstream Tracker for Modernised LHCb Detector

    Dendek, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb is one of the four major experiments currently operating at CERN. The main reason for constructing the LHCb forward spectrometer was a precise measurement of the CP violation in heavy quarks section as well as search for a New Physics. To obtain interesting results, the LHCb is mainly focused on study of B meson decays. Unfortunately, due to the present data acquisition architecture, the LHCb experiment is statistically limited for collecting such events. This fact led the LHCb Collaboration to decide to perform far-reaching upgrade. Key part of this upgrade will be replacement of the TT detector. To perform this action, it was requited to design new tracking detector with entirely new front-end electronics. This detector will be called the Upstream Tracker (UT) and the read-out chip — SALT. This note presents an overall discussion on SALT chip. In particular, the emulation process of the SALT data preformed via the software written by the author.

  14. Upstream pressure variations associated with the bow shock and their effects on the magnetosphere

    Fairfield, D.H.; Baumjohann, W.; Paschmann, G.; Luehr, H.; Sibeck, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic field enhancements and depressions on the time scales of minutes were frequently observed simultaneously by the AMPTE CCE, GOES 5, and GOES 6 spacecraft in the subsolar magnetosphere. The source of these perturbations has been detected in the high time resolution AMPTE IRM measurements of the kinetic pressure of the solar wind upstream of the bow shock. It is argued that these upstream pressure variations are not inherent in the solar wind but rather are associated with the bow shock. This conclusion follows from the facts that (1) the upstream field strength and the density associated with the perturbations are highly correlated with each other whereas these quantities tend to be anticorrelated in the undisturbed solar wind, and (2) the upstream perturbations occur within the foreshock or at its boundary. The results imply a mode of interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere whereby density changes produced in the foreshock subsequently convect through the bow shock and impinge on the magnetosphere. Also velocity decreases deep within the foreshock sometimes reach many tens of kilometers per second and may be associated with further pressure variations as a changing interplanetary field direction changes the foreshock geometry. Upstream pressure perturbations should create significant effects on the magnetopause and at the foot of nearby field lines that lead to the polar cusp ionosphere

  15. Spatial distribution of upstream magnetospheric ≥50 keV ions

    G. C. Anagnostopoulos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We present for the first time a statistical study of \\geq50 keV ion events of a magnetospheric origin upstream from Earth's bow shock. The statistical analysis of the 50-220 keV ion events observed by the IMP-8 spacecraft shows: (1 a dawn-dusk asymmetry in ion distributions, with most events and lower intensities upstream from the quasi-parallel pre-dawn side (4 LT-6 LT of the bow shock, (2 highest ion fluxes upstream from the nose/dusk side of the bow shock under an almost radial interplanetary magnetic field (IMF configuration, and (3 a positive correlation of the ion intensities with the solar wind speed and the index of geomagnetic index Kp, with an average solar wind speed as high as 620 km s-1 and values of the index Kp > 2. The statistical results are consistent with (1 preferential leakage of ~50 keV magnetospheric ions from the dusk magnetopause, (2 nearly scatter free motion of ~50 keV ions within the magnetosheath, and (3 final escape of magnetospheric ions from the quasi-parallel dawn side of the bow shock. An additional statistical analysis of higher energy (290-500 keV upstream ion events also shows a dawn-dusk asymmetry in the occurrence frequency of these events, with the occurrence frequency ranging between ~16%-~34% in the upstream region.Key words. Interplanetary physics (energetic particles; planetary bow shocks

  16. Spatial distribution of upstream magnetospheric ≥50 keV ions

    G. Kaliabetsos

    Full Text Available We present for the first time a statistical study of geq50 keV ion events of a magnetospheric origin upstream from Earth's bow shock. The statistical analysis of the 50-220 keV ion events observed by the IMP-8 spacecraft shows: (1 a dawn-dusk asymmetry in ion distributions, with most events and lower intensities upstream from the quasi-parallel pre-dawn side (4 LT-6 LT of the bow shock, (2 highest ion fluxes upstream from the nose/dusk side of the bow shock under an almost radial interplanetary magnetic field (IMF configuration, and (3 a positive correlation of the ion intensities with the solar wind speed and the index of geomagnetic index Kp, with an average solar wind speed as high as 620 km s-1 and values of the index Kp > 2. The statistical results are consistent with (1 preferential leakage of ~50 keV magnetospheric ions from the dusk magnetopause, (2 nearly scatter free motion of ~50 keV ions within the magnetosheath, and (3 final escape of magnetospheric ions from the quasi-parallel dawn side of the bow shock. An additional statistical analysis of higher energy (290-500 keV upstream ion events also shows a dawn-dusk asymmetry in the occurrence frequency of these events, with the occurrence frequency ranging between ~16%-~34% in the upstream region.Key words. Interplanetary physics (energetic particles; planetary bow shocks

  17. Evaluation of Application Space Expansion for the Sensor Fish

    DeRolph, Christopher R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevelhimer, Mark S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed an instrument known as the sensor fish that can be released into downstream passage routes at hydropower facilities to collect data on the physical conditions that a fish might be exposed to during passage through a turbine. The US Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Program sees value in expanding the sensor fish application space beyond large Kaplan turbines in the northwest United States to evaluate conditions to which a greater variety of fish species are exposed. Development of fish-friendly turbines requires an understanding of both physical passage conditions and biological responses to those conditions. Expanding the use of sensor fish into other application spaces will add to the knowledge base of physical passage conditions and could also enhance the use of sensor fish as a site-specific tool in mitigating potential impacts to fish populations from hydropower. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) National Hydropower Assessment Program (NHAAP) database contains hydropower facility characteristics that, along with national fish distribution data, were used to evaluate potential interactions between fish species and project characteristics related to downstream passage issues. ORNL developed rankings for the turbine types in the NHAAP database in terms of their potential to impact fish through injury or mortality during downstream turbine passage. National-scale fish distributions for 31 key migratory species were spatially intersected with hydropower plant locations to identify facilities where turbines with a high threat to fish injury or mortality overlap with the potential range of a sensitive fish species. A dataset was produced that identifies hydropower facilities where deployment of the sensor fish technology might be beneficial in addressing issues related to downstream fish passage. The dataset can be queried to target specific geographic regions, fish species, license expiration

  18. Investigation of the tritium content in surface water, bottom sediments (zoobenthos), macrophytes, and fish in the mid-stream region of the Yenisei River (Siberia, Russia).

    Bondareva, Lydia; Schultz, Michael K

    2015-11-01

    The potential sources of tritium input to the Yenisei River ecosystem are derived from local operations of nuclear facilities of the Mining and Chemical Combine operated by the state-owned Rosatom corporation and from sources derived from global weapons testing fallout and nuclear power. The background tritium concentrations in zoobenthos, bottom sediments, relevant commercial fish species, and widespread endogenous aquatic plants have been obtained for the first time in this region. Our results demonstrate that the major input term of tritium to this region of the Yenisei is derived from nearby mining operations of Rosatom, with tritium concentrations in aquatic plants marginally exceeding the observed background values obtained from upstream control sample collection sites.

  19. Hawaiian Fish Distributors Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is proprietary sales data from one Kona-based fish dealer for August 1986 to Decemeber 1988. Fishing was generally around Kona. This is Dealer Data and is...

  20. Fishing fleet profiling methodology

    Ferraris, Jocelyne

    2002-01-01

    A fishing fleet profile aims tho assist in understanding the complexity and structure of fisheries from a technical and socio-economic point of view, or from the point of view of fishing strategies...

  1. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  2. Scorpion fish sting

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002849.htm Scorpion fish sting To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scorpion fish are members of the family Scorpaenidae, which includes ...

  3. Fish population dynamics

    Gulland, J. A

    1977-01-01

    This book describes how the dynamics of fish populations can be analysed in terms of the factors affecting their rates of growth, mortality and reproduction, with particular emphasis on the effects of fishing...

  4. Distribution patterns of fish assemblages in an Eastern Mediterranean intermittent river

    Vardakas L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution patterns of fish assemblages within streams can provide insights for river type classifications and may warrant specific conservation actions. However, there is limited knowledge of how fish assemblages assort along a longitudinal axis in Mediterranean intermittent streams. Patterns in spatial and temporal distribution of fish communities were analysed in a Mediterranean intermittent river (Evrotas River located in Southern Greece, hosting three endemic range restricted species of high conservation concern, during the period 2007−2009, with 80% of the river’s total length desiccating in the 2007 and 2008 droughts. The general trend was an increase in fish density and species richness along an upstream-downstream gradient. Fish assemblages from upstream to downstream were characterized by a decrease of the most rheophilic species (Squalius keadicus and an increase of the most stagnophilic species (Tropidophoxinellus spartiaticus. Three river segments, characterized by a high degree of homogeneity were delineated. Habitat and environmental preferences for the studied fish species were identified, with elevation and low flowing habitats being the most important environmental factors affecting fish distribution patterns. The current study provides evidence that even in an intermittent river an assemblage pattern following a longitudinal gradient can be identified, mainly due to the lack of instream barriers that allows recolonization after flow resumption.

  5. Review of mitigation methods for fish passage, instream flows, and water quality

    Railsback, S.F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on current environmental mitigation practices at nonfederal hydropower projects. Information was obtained from project operators on dissolved oxygen (DO) mitigation, instream flows, upstream fish passage facilities, and downstream fish passage facilities. The most common method for DO mitigation is the use of spill flows, which are costly because of lost power generation. DO concentrations are commonly monitored, but biological effects of DO mitigation are not. At many projects, instream flow requirements have been set without reference to formalized methods. About half of the projects with instream flow requirements monitor flow rates, but few monitor fish populations to verify that instream flows are effective. Angled bar racks are the most commonly used downstream fish passage devices and fish ladders are the most commonly used upstream fish passage devices. Fish passage rates or populations have been monitored to verify the effectiveness of passage mitigation at few projects. This analysis is the first phase of an evaluation of the costs, benefits, and effectiveness of mitigation measures

  6. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabd...

  7. Comparação da eficiência de dois métodos de coleta de peixes em igarapés de terra firme da Amazônia Central Comparison of the efficiency of two fish collecting methods in small forest streams in Central Amazon

    Odirlene Marinho Ribeiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Em estudos sobre distribuição espacial, alimentação e estrutura de comunidades de espécies de peixes de pequeno porte em igarapés, são aplicados alguns métodos de coleta específicos para esses ambientes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal comparar dois métodos de coleta, um ativo (puçá e peneira e outro passivo (armadilhas. A coleta com puçá foi mais eficiente, tanto em número de espécies registradas, quanto em número de indivíduos capturados. Houve uma taxa de escape aparentemente elevada nas armadilhas, assim como a predação de parte dos peixes capturados por jejus (Erythrinus erythrinus dentro das armadilhas, o que pode ter contribuído para a menor eficiência desse método. A baixa similaridade entre os pares de amostras coletadas com os dois métodos em cada igarapé indica a necessidade de utilizar diferentes métodos de coleta para assegurar a efetividade das amostragens. Entretanto, o menor impacto ao ambiente causado com o uso de armadilhas pode ser especialmente conveniente para estudos em Unidades de Conservação, desde que o esforço de coleta seja adequadamente dimensionado.Studies of spatial distribution, feeding habits and community structure of small size fish species in forest streams usually employ some specific collecting methods related to the size and structural characteristics of these aquatic environments. This study aimed to compare the efficiency of two fishing methods, one active (hand net and sieve and one passive (minnow traps. Collecting with hand nets yielded a higher number of fish species and individuals. There was apparently a high escape rate in the minnow traps, as well as some losses of collected specimens by predation inside the traps by the carnivorous Erythrinus erythrinus, that may have resulted in the lesser efficiency of the passive fishing method. The low similarity values observed in the samples obtained with the two fishing methods at each stream indicate that is

  8. Otolith Length-Fish Length Relationships of Eleven US Arctic Fish Species and Their Application to Ice Seal Diet Studies

    Walker, K. L.; Norcross, B.

    2016-02-01

    The Arctic ecosystem has moved into the spotlight of scientific research in recent years due to increased climate change and oil and gas exploration. Arctic fishes and Arctic marine mammals represent key parts of this ecosystem, with fish being a common part of ice seal diets in the Arctic. Determining sizes of fish consumed by ice seals is difficult because otoliths are often the only part left of the fish after digestion. Otolith length is known to be positively related to fish length. By developing species-specific otolith-body morphometric relationships for Arctic marine fishes, fish length can be determined for fish prey found in seal stomachs. Fish were collected during ice free months in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas 2009 - 2014, and the most prevalent species captured were chosen for analysis. Otoliths from eleven fish species from seven families were measured. All species had strong linear relationships between otolith length and fish total length. Nine species had coefficient of determination values over 0.75, indicating that most of the variability in the otolith to fish length relationship was explained by the linear regression. These relationships will be applied to otoliths found in stomachs of three species of ice seals (spotted Phoca largha, ringed Pusa hispida, and bearded Erignathus barbatus) and used to estimate fish total length at time of consumption. Fish lengths can in turn be used to calculate fish weight, enabling further investigation into ice seal energetic demands. This application will aid in understanding how ice seals interact with fish communities in the US Arctic and directly contribute to diet comparisons among and within ice seal species. A better understanding of predator-prey interactions in the US Arctic will aid in predicting how ice seal and fish species will adapt to a changing Arctic.

  9. Strategic human resources study of the upstream petroleum industry : the decade ahead

    2003-10-01

    This report presents the results of a 10 month study of the human resources issues in Canada's upstream petroleum industry. The study identifies workforce demographics, skills, and supply and demand. It also discusses the impact of technology and other key challenges facing human resources issues. The upstream petroleum industry includes exploration and production, service industries, pipeline transmission, natural gas processing, and heavy oil and bitumen extracting and upgrading. The study defined four regions in Canada: Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, the oil sands, the north, and the east coast. The main influences on the management practices within the upstream petroleum industry are: globalization; cyclical economic conditions; operational excellence business models; government regulatory requirements; stakeholder expectations for involvement; technological advances; changing demographics, and workplace skills. The study also presented suggestions for changes in best practices to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of product and service delivery. refs., tabs., figs

  10. Ion acceleration at the earth's bow shock: A review of observations in the upstream region

    Gosling, J.T.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    Positive ions are accelerated at or near the earth's bow shock and propagate into the upstream region. Two distinctly different population of these ions, distinguished by their greatly different spectral and angular widths, can be identified there. The type of ion population observed in the upstream region is strongly correlated with the presence or absence of long-period compresive waves in the solar wind. Very few ions are accelerated in the vicinity of the shock to energies much above about 100 keV. It is not yet clear whether the most energetic ions (i.e. those near 100 keV) are accelerated at the shock or in the broad disturbed region upstream from the shock. In either case stochastic acceleration by turbulent electrostatic fields seems to be the most viable candidate for the acceleration of the most energetic particles

  11. Wake flow behaviour behind a smaller cylinder oscillating in the wake of an upstream stationary cylinder

    Gao, Yangyang; Sun, Zhilin [Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Tan, Danielle S [Maritime Research Centre, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Yu, Dingyong [College of Engineering, Ocean University of China, 266100 (China); Tan, Soon Keat, E-mail: yygao@zju.edu.cn [Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2014-04-01

    The flow patterns around a cylinder oscillating freely in the wake of a larger cylinder upstream were investigated using the particle image velocimetry technique. The upstream cylinder was fixed at both ends while the downstream smaller cylinder was held by springs such that it was free to oscillate in the transverse direction. The flow patterns, amplitudes of oscillation and vortex shedding frequencies were compared with those of a single cylinder. In the presence of the upstream cylinder, the three parameters characterizing the oscillation response of the smaller cylinder—amplitude of oscillation, vortex shedding frequency and Reynolds stresses—were greatly reduced. While their magnitude increased with gap ratio, these three parameters were still smaller than the corresponding magnitudes for a single oscillating cylinder. The peak values of turbulence statistics such as Reynolds shear stress and normal stress behind the oscillating downstream cylinder were similarly reduced, and increased with gap ratios. (paper)

  12. Observations of two distinct populations of bow shock ions in the upstream solar wind

    Gosling, J.T.; Asbridge, J.; Bame, S.J.; Paschmann, G.; Sckopke, N.

    1978-01-01

    Observations upstream of the earth's bow shock with the LASL/MPI fast plasma experiments on ISEE 1 and 2 reveal the presence of two distinct and mutually exclusive populations of low energy (< or approx. =40keV) ions apparently accelerated at the bow shock. The first of these, the ''reflected'' population, is characterized by 1) sharply peaked spectra seldom extending much above approx. 10 keV/ion and 2) relatively collimated flow coming from the direction of the shock. On the other hand, the ''diffuse'' ions are distinguished by relatively flat energy spectra above approx. 10 keV and broad angular distributions. They are by far the most commonly observed upstream ion event. A close causal association is suggested between the diffuse ion population in the upstream solar wind and energetic plasma ions observed within the magnetosheath

  13. Ion acceleration at the earth's bow shock: a review of observations in the upstream region

    Gosling, J.T.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    Positive ions are accelerated at or near the earth's bow shock and propagate into the upstream region. Two distinctly different populations of these ions, distinguished by their greatly different spectral and angular widths, can be identified there. The type of ion population observed in the upstream region is strongly correlated with the presence or absence of long-period compressive waves in the solar wind. Very few ions are accelerated in the vicinity of the shock to energies much above about 100 keV. It is not yet clear whether the most energetic ions (i.e., those near 100 keV) are accelerated at the shock or in broad disturbed region upstream from the shock. In either case stochastic acceleration by turbulent electrostatic fields seems to be the most viable candidate for the acceleration of the most energetic particles

  14. Fish eye optics

    Hudec, R.; Michalova, S.

    2017-07-01

    We report on small student (high—school) project of the Czech Academy of Sciences dealing with animal (fish) eyes and possible application in science and technology. Albeit most fishes have refractive eyes, the recent discoveries confirm that some fishes have reflective eyes with strange arrangements as well.

  15. The accumulation study of 90Sr in fish from a fishpond of northern Taiwan

    Lee, Pi-Fen; Wang, Jeng-Jong; Huang, Ju-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Three kinds of fish from a natural fishpond in the north of Taiwan were collected and analyzed in this study. The three species were non-predatory Ctenopharyn odon idellus, predatory Aristichthys nobilis and predatory Mylopharyngodon piceus. The activity concentrations of 90 Sr in bone and edible flesh of fish, as well as in water and soil of fishpond were measured by using the radiochemical analysis. Additionally, the concentration of stable calcium in fish bone, [Ca] bone , and that of stable strontium in fish bone, [Sr] bone , were measured by ICP-AES. From the results, the concentration factors of 90 Sr, CF( 90 Sr), in fish bone was no statistic difference between non-predatory and predatory fish. Besides, the accumulation of 90 Sr in the non-predatory fish remarkably decreased with increasing the fish weight. As for the predatory fish, they both showed no statistically significant correlations between the 90 Sr activity concentration and the fish weight. Regarding the activity concentrations of 90 Sr in fish bone, all the fish were observed positively correlated with the measured [Sr] bone . - Highlights: • There was no difference in CF( 90 Sr) between non-predatory and predatory fish. • The 90 Sr in non-predatory fish bone decreased with increasing fish weight. • There was no correlation between 90 Sr in predatory fish bone and the fish weight. • The 90 Sr in fish bone increased with the increase of [Sr] bone

  16. Perfluoroalkyl substances and fish consumption.

    Christensen, Krista Y; Raymond, Michelle; Blackowicz, Michael; Liu, Yangyang; Thompson, Brooke A; Anderson, Henry A; Turyk, Mary

    2017-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are an emerging class of contaminants. Certain PFAS are regulated or voluntarily limited due to concern about environmental persistence and adverse health effects, including thyroid disease and dyslipidemia. The major source of PFAS exposure in the general population is thought to be consumption of seafood. In this analysis we examine PFAS levels and their determinants, as well as associations between PFAS levels and self-reported fish and shellfish consumption, using a representative sample of the U.S. Data on PFAS levels and self-reported fish consumption over the past 30 days were collected from the 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, and 2013-2014 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Twelve different PFAS were measured in serum samples from participants. Ordinary least squares regression models were used to identify factors (demographic characteristics and fish consumption habits) associated with serum PFAS concentrations. Additional models were further adjusted for other potential exposures including military service and consumption of ready-to-eat and fast foods. Seven PFAS were detected in at least 30% of participants and were examined in subsequent analyses (PFDA, PFOA, PFOS, PFHxS, MPAH, PFNA, PFUA). The PFAS with the highest concentrations were PFOS, followed by PFOA, PFHxS and PFNA (medians of 8.3, 2.7, 1.5 and 1.0ng/mL). Fish consumption was generally low, with a median of 1.2 fish meals and 0.14 shellfish meals, reported over the past 30 days. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, total fish consumption was associated with reduced MPAH, and with elevated PFDE, PFNA and PFuDA. Shellfish consumption was associated with elevations of all PFAS examined except MPAH. Certain specific fish and shellfish types were also associated with specific PFAS. Adjustment for additional exposure variables resulted in little to no change in effect estimates for seafood variables. PFAS are emerging

  17. Willingness of upstream and downstream resource managers to engage in compensation schemes for environmental services

    Chapika Sangkapitux

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Providing compensation for agricultural conservation practices adopted by upstream farmers is still an alien concept in the Thai political context. The governance of common-pool natural resources, such as forest and water, has traditionally been under the control of powerful government line agencies, while the contribution of local communities to natural resource conservation have been hardly recognized by policy-makers. Drawing on a case study in Mae Sa watershed, Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand, this paper discusses the potential of developing compensation schemes in a socio-political context where upland farmers – mostly belonging to ethnic minority groups – tend to be considered a threat to the natural resource base rather than providers of environmental services. Based on data obtained from 371 households in the upstream communities and 151 households in the downstream communities of the watershed, upstream resource managers’ willingness to accept compensation for the conservation measures and downstream resource managers’ willingness to pay for water resource improvements were estimated through the use of choice experiments. Results from the study suggest that downstream resource managers would be willing to provide on average nearly 1% of their annual income for a substantial improvement of the quantity and quality of water resources, which could be achieved by compensating upstream farmers’ change of their agricultural systems towards more environment-friendly practices. Both willingness to pay of downstream respondents and willingness of upstream resource managers to accept compensation were positively correlated with age, education, participation in environmental conservation activities and previous experiences with droughts and/or erosion. The paper concludes that there is a clear potential for establishing compensation schemes for provision of environmental services in northern Thai watersheds. The important policy

  18. Invasion and Colonisation of a Tropical Stream by an Exotic Loricariid Fish: Indices of Gradual Displacement of the Native Common Pleco (Hypostomus punctatus) by the Red Fin Dwarf Pleco (Parotocinclus maculicauda) over Fifteen Years.

    Mazzoni, Rosana; Costa da Silva, Raquel; Pinto, Míriam Plaza

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of invasive species represents a major threat to the integrity of stream-dwelling fish populations worldwide, and this issue is receiving increasing attention from scientists, in particular because of potential impact on biodiversity. In this study, we analysed the dispersal of an exotic loricariid fish the red fin dwarf pleco (Parotocinclus maculicauda) in a stream of the Atlantic Forest biome in coastal south-eastern Brazil and evaluated the effects of this invasion on the native loricariid common pleco (Hypostomus punctatus). Specimens were collected at eight sites located along the course of the stream over a 15-year period. The distribution and density of the two species were determined by the Successive Removal Method. The introduction of P. maculicauda occurred in the medium sector of the stream, and during the course of the study, the species dispersed to new sites further upstream. By the end of the study, it was found at all points upstream from the original site. Hypostomus punctatus was registered at all sample sites both before and after the introduction of P. maculicauda, but its density decreased at all upstream sites after the arrival of the exotic species. Our analysis shows that colonisation by P. maculicauda seems to have a negative effect on H. punctatus densities. The maintenance of H. punctatus densities at the sites not colonised by P. maculicauda reinforces the conclusion that the colonisation of the stream by the exotic species had deleterious effects on the density of the resident H. punctatus populations, either by direct or indirect action.

  19. Invasion and Colonisation of a Tropical Stream by an Exotic Loricariid Fish: Indices of Gradual Displacement of the Native Common Pleco (Hypostomus punctatus by the Red Fin Dwarf Pleco (Parotocinclus maculicauda over Fifteen Years.

    Rosana Mazzoni

    Full Text Available The introduction of invasive species represents a major threat to the integrity of stream-dwelling fish populations worldwide, and this issue is receiving increasing attention from scientists, in particular because of potential impact on biodiversity. In this study, we analysed the dispersal of an exotic loricariid fish the red fin dwarf pleco (Parotocinclus maculicauda in a stream of the Atlantic Forest biome in coastal south-eastern Brazil and evaluated the effects of this invasion on the native loricariid common pleco (Hypostomus punctatus. Specimens were collected at eight sites located along the course of the stream over a 15-year period. The distribution and density of the two species were determined by the Successive Removal Method. The introduction of P. maculicauda occurred in the medium sector of the stream, and during the course of the study, the species dispersed to new sites further upstream. By the end of the study, it was found at all points upstream from the original site. Hypostomus punctatus was registered at all sample sites both before and after the introduction of P. maculicauda, but its density decreased at all upstream sites after the arrival of the exotic species. Our analysis shows that colonisation by P. maculicauda seems to have a negative effect on H. punctatus densities. The maintenance of H. punctatus densities at the sites not colonised by P. maculicauda reinforces the conclusion that the colonisation of the stream by the exotic species had deleterious effects on the density of the resident H. punctatus populations, either by direct or indirect action.

  20. Fuel properties of biodiesel produced from the crude fish oil from the soapstock of marine fish

    Lin, Cherng-Yuan; Li, Rong-Ji [Department of Marine Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean, University, Keelung 20224 (China)

    2009-01-15

    The soapstock of a mixture of marine fish was used as the raw material to produce the biodiesel in this study. The soapstock was collected from discarded fish products. Crude fish oil was squeezed from the soapstock of the fish and refined by a series of processes. The refined fish oil was transesterified to produce biodiesel. The fuel properties of the biodiesel were analyzed. The experimental results showed that oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitic acid (C16:0) were the two major components of the marine fish-oil biodiesel. The biodiesel from the mixed marine fish oil contained a significantly greater amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids than did the biodiesel from waste cooking oil. In addition, the marine fish-oil biodiesel contained as high as 37.07 wt.% saturated fatty acids and 37.3 wt.% long chain fatty acids in the range between C20 and C22. Moreover, the marine fish-oil biodiesel appeared to have a larger acid number, a greater increase in the rate of peroxidization with the increase in the time that it was stored, greater kinematic viscosity, higher heating value, higher cetane index, more carbon residue, and a lower peroxide value, flash point, and distillation temperature than those of waste cooking-oil biodiesel. (author)

  1. Fishing drives declines in fish parasite diversity and has variable effects on parasite abundance.

    Wood, Chelsea L; Sandin, Stuart A; Zgliczynski, Brian; Guerra, Ana Sofía; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2014-07-01

    Despite the ubiquity and ecological importance of parasites, relatively few studies have assessed their response to anthropogenic environmental change. Heuristic models have predicted both increases and decreases in parasite abundance in response to human disturbance, with empirical support for both. However, most studies focus on one or a few selected parasite species. Here, we assess the abundance of parasites of seven species of coral reef fishes collected from three fished and three unfished islands of the Line Islands archipelago in the central equatorial Pacific. Because we chose fish hosts that spanned different trophic levels, taxonomic groups, and body sizes, we were able to compare parasite responses across a broad cross section of the total parasite community in the presence and absence of fishing, a major human impact on marine ecosystems. We found that overall parasite species richness was substantially depressed on fished islands, but that the response of parasite abundance varied among parasite taxa: directly transmitted parasites were significantly more abundant on fished than on unfished islands, while the reverse was true for trophically transmitted parasites. This probably arises because trophically transmitted parasites require multiple host species, some of which are the top predators most sensitive to fishing impacts. The increase in directly transmitted parasites appeared to be due to fishing-driven compensatory increases in the abundance of their hosts. Together, these results provide support for the predictions of both heuristic models, and indicate that the direction of fishing's impact on parasite abundance is mediated by parasite traits, notably parasite transmission strategies.

  2. San Joaquin River Up-Stream DO TMDL Project Task 4: MonitoringStudy Interim Task Report #3

    Stringfellow, William; Borglin, Sharon; Dahlgren, Randy; Hanlon,Jeremy; Graham, Justin; Burks, Remie; Hutchinson, Kathleen

    2007-03-30

    The purpose of the Dissolved Oxygen Total Maximum Daily LoadProject (DO TMDLProject) is to provide a comprehensive understanding ofthe sources and fate of oxygen consuming materials in the San JoaquinRiver (SJR) watershed between Channel Point and Lander Avenue (upstreamSJR). When completed, this study will provide the stakeholders anunderstanding of the baseline conditions of the basin, provide input foran allocation decision, and provide the stakeholders with a tool formeasuring the impact of any waterquality management program that may beimplemented as part of the DO TMDL process. Previous studies haveidentified algal biomass as the most significant oxygen-demandingsubstance in the DO TMDL Project study-area between of Channel Point andLander Ave onthe SJR. Other oxygen-demanding substances found in theupstream SJR include ammonia and organic carbon from sources other thanalgae. The DO TMDL Project study-area contains municipalities, dairies,wetlands, cattle ranching, irrigated agriculture, and industries thatcould potentially contribute biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to the SJR.This study is designed to discriminate between algal BOD and othersources of BOD throughout the entire upstream SJR watershed. Algalbiomass is not a conserved substance, but grows and decays in the SJR;hence, characterization of oxygen-demanding substances in the SJR isinherently complicated and requires an integrated effort of extensivemonitoring, scientific study, and modeling. In order to achieve projectobjectives, project activities were divided into a number of Tasks withspecific goals and objectives. In this report, we present the results ofmonitoring and research conducted under Task 4 of the DO TMDL Project.The major objective of Task 4 is to collect sufficient hydrologic (flow)and water quality (WQ) data to characterize the loading of algae, otheroxygen-demanding materials, and nutrients fromindividual tributaries andsub-watersheds of the upstream SJR between Mossdale and

  3. Analysis of an upstream weighted collocation approximation to the transport equation

    Shapiro, A.; Pinder, G.F.

    1981-01-01

    The numerical behavior of a modified orthogonal collocation method, as applied to the transport equations, can be examined through the use of a Fourier series analysis. The necessity of such a study becomes apparent in the analysis of several techniques which emulate classical upstream weighting schemes. These techniques are employed in orthogonal collocation and other numerical methods as a means of handling parabolic partial differential equations with significant first-order terms. Divergent behavior can be shown to exist in one upstream weighting method applied to orthogonal collocation

  4. A scheme for regulating toxic substances to water quality of Chamsil upstream water system

    Kim, Kang Suk; Kim, Jee Hoon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study asserts to reflect a concept of toxicity thoroughly in the present water quality concept. It presents an appropriate solution to control toxic substances flowing into the Chamsil upstream water system. Although a regulation of toxic substances into major rivers in Korea other than Han river is also required urgently, it will be studied in future. It is expected that this study on Chamsil upstream would be a cornerstone for establishing a national regulation policy of toxic substances into water system. 28 refs., 1 fig., 36 tabs.

  5. Method and system for control of upstream flowfields of vehicle in supersonic or hypersonic atmospheric flight

    Daso, Endwell O. (Inventor); Pritchett, II, Victor E. (Inventor); Wang, Ten-See (Inventor); Farr, Rebecca Ann (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The upstream flowfield of a vehicle traveling in supersonic or hypersonic atmospheric flight is actively controlled using attribute(s) experienced by the vehicle. Sensed attribute(s) include pressure along the vehicle's outer mold line, temperature along the vehicle's outer mold line, heat flux along the vehicle's outer mold line, and/or local acceleration response of the vehicle. A non-heated, non-plasma-producing gas is injected into an upstream flowfield of the vehicle from at least one surface location along the vehicle's outer mold line. The pressure of the gas so-injected is adjusted based on the attribute(s) so-sensed.

  6. The WW domain protein Kibra acts upstream of Hippo in Drosophila

    Baumgartner, Roland; Poernbacher, Ingrid; Buser, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    inactivating the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie is well established, much less is known about the upstream events that regulate Hippo signaling activity. The FERM domain proteins Expanded and Merlin appear to represent two different signaling branches that feed into the Hippo pathway. Signaling...... by the atypical cadherin Fat may act via Expanded, but how Merlin is regulated has remained elusive. Here, we show that the WW domain protein Kibra is a Hippo signaling component upstream of Hippo and Merlin. Kibra acts synergistically with Expanded, and it physically interacts with Merlin. Thus, Kibra...

  7. HRGFish: A database of hypoxia responsive genes in fishes

    Rashid, Iliyas; Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Srivastava, Prachi; Kumar, Ravindra; Pathak, Ajey Kumar; Singh, Mahender; Kushwaha, Basdeo

    2017-02-01

    Several studies have highlighted the changes in the gene expression due to the hypoxia response in fishes, but the systematic organization of the information and the analytical platform for such genes are lacking. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop a database of hypoxia responsive genes in fishes (HRGFish), integrated with analytical tools, using LAMPP technology. Genes reported in hypoxia response for fishes were compiled through literature survey and the database presently covers 818 gene sequences and 35 gene types from 38 fishes. The upstream fragments (3,000 bp), covered in this database, enables to compute CG dinucleotides frequencies, motif finding of the hypoxia response element, identification of CpG island and mapping with the reference promoter of zebrafish. The database also includes functional annotation of genes and provides tools for analyzing sequences and designing primers for selected gene fragments. This may be the first database on the hypoxia response genes in fishes that provides a workbench to the scientific community involved in studying the evolution and ecological adaptation of the fish species in relation to hypoxia.

  8. Technical Suitability and Static Stability of Sungkur Fishing Boats for Fish and Shrimp Catching

    Rusmilyansari; Rosadi, E.; Iriansyah

    2017-10-01

    Sungkur fishing gear is operated actively on one the side of fishing boat, which requires technical suitability and fishing gear stability to ensure success in fish catching. This is a case study which aimed to analyze some technical issues related to the boat, boat’s hydrostatic parameters, and the boat’s stability. The data were collected though observation, measuring the boat to obtain the offset table. The data were analyzed numerically and descriptively. The data were processed with technical formula, Microsoft Office’s Excel software, graphic display, minitab, statistical data processing, and maxsurf program. The research results showed that: (1) the sungkur fishing boat dimensional ratio L/B (6.47 - 7.00); L/D (10.90 - 11.20) and B/D (1.60 - 1.668) is within the range value of Indonesian fishing boats suitable to operate the fishing gear by towing or dragging. However, during fish catching operation, there have been problems in a hydrodynamic force due to the fishing gear movement, which affect the fish catching efficiency. (2) The boat’s coefficient of fineness is in the fine type shape; the displacement on each waterline has increased; the loads of the boat are getting larger following the increase of waterline from one to five; this is also shown from the increasing midship area value. Ton per centimeter immersion to change wl 1 by 1 cm needs 0.04 tons of weight. (3) Sungkur fishing boat have a good static stability, which is proven by the positive value of angle of maximum GZ by 79.1 - 83.6. In other words, the boat has the ability to return to its original position after tilting; however, stability dynamics happens because fishing gear operation are located on just one side of boat.

  9. Contamination with heavy metals and bacteria in some local and imported fish and fish products

    Salem, S.B.; El-Dashlout, A.A.; El-Schiwee, M.A.; EL-Shourbagy, G.A.; Ibrahim, R.E.

    2004-01-01

    Some local and imported fish and fish products sold in retail markets of three cities at Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, were examined against heavy metals contamination (i.e. Pb, Cd and Hg) and the presence of some specific groups of bacteria. The results showed that concentrations of Pb in fresh and frozen fish, salted and smoked fish and canned fish samples were lower than the permissible limits recommended by the Egyptian Organization 1993 (1.0 mg/kg). On the other hand, all the tested fish and fish products of collected samples showed levels of Cd (0.29-0.41 mg/kg) higher than the permissible limit (0.10 mg/kg) recommended by the Egyptian Organization. Such limits should be re-considered because the limit determined by WHO (1992) was 0.5 mg/kg. Mercury level in fresh mullet was equal or lower (0.46-0.50 mg/kg) than the limit of Egyptian Organization (0.50 mg/kg) while other fresh and frozen fish, salted and smoked fish samples had higher Hg than the allowance. In most cases, imported canned products of sardine, mackerel and tuna had higher Pb, Cd and Hg concentrations than that found in the local ones. Among fresh fish samples, such as mackarona, contained the highest total bacterial count, while mullet was the lowest. Considering salted and smoked fish, heavy salted mullet had the highest total bacterial count, while the lowest number was recorded in salted sardine. Smoked herring showed lowest total bacterial count than salted samples. Generally, no correlation was observed between fish species or consumption place and the contamination with heavy metals and bacteria

  10. Turbine related fish mortality

    Eicher, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to assess the factors affecting turbine-related fish mortality. The mechanics of fish passage through a turbine is outlined, and various turbine related stresses are described, including pressure and shear effects, hydraulic head, turbine efficiency, and tailwater level. The methodologies used in determining the effects of fish passage are evaluated. The necessity of adequate controls in each test is noted. It is concluded that mortality is the result of several factors such as hardiness of study fish, fish size, concentrations of dissolved gases, and amounts of cavitation. Comparisons between Francis and Kaplan turbines indicate little difference in percent mortality. 27 refs., 5 figs

  11. Parasites of fish larvae: do they follow metabolic energetic laws?

    Muñoz, Gabriela; Landaeta, Mauricio F; Palacios-Fuentes, Pamela; George-Nascimento, Mario

    2015-11-01

    Eumetazoan parasites in fish larvae normally exhibit large body sizes relative to their hosts. This observation raises a question about the potential effects that parasites might have on small fish. We indirectly evaluated this question using energetic metabolic laws based on body volume and the parasite densities. We compared the biovolume as well as the numeric and volumetric densities of parasites over the host body volume of larval and juvenile-adult fish and the average of these parasitological descriptors for castrator parasites and the parasites found in the fish studied here. We collected 5266 fish larvae using nearshore zooplankton sampling and 1556 juveniles and adult fish from intertidal rocky pools in central Chile. We considered only the parasitized hosts: 482 fish larvae and 629 juvenile-adult fish. We obtained 31 fish species; 14 species were in both plankton and intertidal zones. Fish larvae exhibited a significantly smaller biovolume but larger numeric and volumetric densities of parasites than juvenile-adult fish. Therefore, fish larvae showed a large proportion of parasite biovolume per unit of body host (cm(3)). However, the general scaling of parasitological descriptors and host body volume were similar between larvae and juvenile-adult fish. The ratio between the biovolume of parasites and the host body volume in fish larvae was similar to the proportion observed in castrator parasites. Furthermore, the ratios were different from those of juvenile-adult fish, which suggests that the presence of parasites implies a high energetic cost for fish larvae that would diminish the fitness of these small hosts.

  12. Pattern variation of fish fingerling abundance in the Na Thap Tidal river of Southern Thailand: 2005-2015

    Donroman, T.; Chesoh, S.; Lim, A.

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the variation patterns of fish fingerling abundance based on month, year and sampling site. Monthly collecting data set of the Na Thap tidal river of southern Thailand, were obtained from June 2005 to October 2015. The square root transformation was employed for maintaining the fingerling data normality. Factor analysis was applied for clustering number of fingerling species and multiple linear regression was used to examine the association between fingerling density and year, month and site. Results from factor analysis classified fingerling into 3 factors based on saline preference; saline water, freshwater and ubiquitous species. The results showed a statistically high significant relation between fingerling density, month, year and site. Abundance of saline water and ubiquitous fingerling density showed similar pattern. Downstream site presented highest fingerling density whereas almost of freshwater fingerling occurred in upstream. This finding confirmed that factor analysis and the general linear regression method can be used as an effective tool for predicting and monitoring wild fingerling density in order to sustain fish stock management.

  13. Trading-off fish biodiversity, food security, and hydropower in the Mekong River Basin.

    Ziv, Guy; Baran, Eric; Nam, So; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Levin, Simon A

    2012-04-10

    The Mekong River Basin, site of the biggest inland fishery in the world, is undergoing massive hydropower development. Planned dams will block critical fish migration routes between the river's downstream floodplains and upstream tributaries. Here we estimate fish biomass and biodiversity losses in numerous damming scenarios using a simple ecological model of fish migration. Our framework allows detailing trade-offs between dam locations, power production, and impacts on fish resources. We find that the completion of 78 dams on tributaries, which have not previously been subject to strategic analysis, would have catastrophic impacts on fish productivity and biodiversity. Our results argue for reassessment of several dams planned, and call for a new regional agreement on tributary development of the Mekong River Basin.

  14. Fish allergy: in review.

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  15. Do Fish Resist?

    Dinesh Joseph Wadiwel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of scientific studies on the question of whether fish feel pain. Some have suggested that some fish indeed do feel pain and that this has significant welfare implications (2003. Others have argued that fish do not have the brain development necessary to feel pain. In terms of number of animals killed, the slaughter of sea animals for human consumption significantly exceeds that of any land animals that we use for food, and sea animal slaughter practices frequently lack any basic welfare protections. If fish can be shown to feel pain—or more importantly, if humans can agree that fish feel pain—then this would place a significant question mark over many contemporary fishing practices.  This article substitutes the question 'Do Fish Feel Pain?' with an alternative: 'Do Fish Resist?' It explores the conceptual problems of understanding fish resistance, and the politics of epistemology that surrounds and seeks to develop a conceptual framework for understanding fish resistance to human capture by exploring the development of fishing technologies - the hook, the net and contemporary aquaculture.

  16. Consumer perception versus scientific evidence of farmed and wild fish

    Verbeke, Wim; Sioen, Isabelle; Brunsø, Karen

    2007-01-01

    . Primary data were collected through a consumer survey (April 2003) and focus group discussions (May 2004) with Belgian consumers. The majority of the consumer sample reported no perceived differences between farmed versus wild fish. However, mean perception scores were slightly in favour of wild fish......The increasing number of marketable fish being supplied from aquaculture is a response to the increasing demand for healthy food and is filling the gap left by depleting natural fish stocks. Little is known about the awareness and perception of the consumer in terms of farmed fish versus fish from...... capture fisheries. The consumer's subjective point of view is of overriding importance for the production system and product acceptance as well as for future market success. In this paper consumer perception in Belgium is explored and compared against scientific evidence of farmed versus wild fish...

  17. Entrainment of ichthyoplankton and larval fishes during cooling water withdrawal

    McFarlane, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Plantonic fish eggs and larvae are entrained into the Savannah River Plant (SRP) pumping system as Savannah River water is withdrawn for cooling purposes. The American shad contributed 96% of the planktonic fish eggs collected in the Savannah River. Eggs were rare in plankton samples from the intake canals and were assumed to have settled to the bottom as current velocity was reduced in the canal entrance. An estimated 72 million fish eggs were transported past the intake canals. Assuming ''worst case conditions,'' 6.8 million eggs (9.5%) could have been lost due to entrainment. Blueback herring comprised nearly one-half of the 216 million fish larvae susceptible to impact. Spotted sucker and black crappie were also common among the 22 species of fish larvae collected. An estimated 19.6 million (9.1%) fish larvae could have been entrained under ''worst case conditions''

  18. African Fish Biodiversity, Fishbase and Fishculture

    Boden, G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, about 28 600 fish species are considered valid, whilst the total number is estimated at 30 000 to 35 000. For Africa, about 3 000 valid fresh- and brackish water species are currently recognized. Conserving the biodiversity of these fishes and at the same time managing their exploitation in a sustainable way is a difficult exercise. In sub-Saharan Africa, the importance of aquaculture is not very high. Nonetheless, 18 different species are used commercially, of which six have a non-African origin. Documenting and characterizing the ichthyodiversity is vital for conservation and sustainable development purposes. The presence of a large collection, a specialised library and a considerable know-how in the Africa Museum has led to various revisions, checklists, species (redescriptions and regional guides. All the information on African fishes is currently being entered in FishBase, a huge freely accessible database with information on the taxonomy, ecology and various other aspects of the biology of fishes, based on scientific publications and reviewed by specialists. FishBase also includes high quality tools for applied research on fishes, such as a disease wizard, biogeography tools, trophic pyramids, and the species invasiveness tool.

  19. PROMoter uPstream Transcripts share characteristics with mRNAs and are produced upstream of all three major types of mammalian promoters

    Preker, Pascal; Almvig, Kristina; Christensen, Marianne S

    2011-01-01

    RNAs, PROMPTs are largely nuclear and rapidly turned over by the RNA exosome. PROMPT-transcribing DNA is occupied by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) complexes with serine 2 phosphorylated C-terminal domains (CTDs), mimicking that of the associated genic region. Thus, the inefficient elongation capacity of PROMPT...... transcription cannot solely be assigned to poor CTD phosphorylation. Conditions that reduce gene transcription increase RNAPII occupancy of the upstream PROMPT region, suggesting that they reside in a common transcription compartment. Surprisingly, gene promoters that are actively transcribed by RNAPI...

  20. Influence of Upstream and Downstream Compressor Stators on Rotor Exit Flow Field

    Nicole L. Key

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements acquired at the rotor exit plane illuminate the interaction of the rotor with the upstream vane row and the downstream vane row. The relative phase of the upstream and downstream vane rows is adjusted using vane clocking so that the effect of the upstream propagating potential field from the downstream stator can be distinguished from the effects associated with the wakes shed from the upstream stator. Unsteady absolute flow angle information shows that the downstream potential field causes the absolute flow angle to increase in the vicinity of the downstream stator leading edge. The presence of Stator 1 wake is also detected at this measurement plane using unsteady total pressure data. The rotor wakes are measured at different circumferential locations across the vane passage, and the influence of Stator 1 wake on the suction side of the rotor wake is evident. Also, the influence of the downstream stator is detected on the pressure side of the rotor wake for a particular clocking configuration. Understanding the role of the surrounding vane rows on rotor wake development will lead to improved comparison between experimental data and results from computational models.

  1. Enhancer elements upstream of the SHOX gene are active in the developing limb.

    Durand, Claudia; Bangs, Fiona; Signolet, Jason; Decker, Eva; Tickle, Cheryll; Rappold, Gudrun

    2010-05-01

    Léri-Weill Dyschondrosteosis (LWD) is a dominant skeletal disorder characterized by short stature and distinct bone anomalies. SHOX gene mutations and deletions of regulatory elements downstream of SHOX resulting in haploinsufficiency have been found in patients with LWD. SHOX encodes a homeodomain transcription factor and is known to be expressed in the developing limb. We have now analyzed the regulatory significance of the region upstream of the SHOX gene. By comparative genomic analyses, we identified several conserved non-coding elements, which subsequently were tested in an in ovo enhancer assay in both chicken limb bud and cornea, where SHOX is also expressed. In this assay, we found three enhancers to be active in the developing chicken limb, but none were functional in the developing cornea. A screening of 60 LWD patients with an intact SHOX coding and downstream region did not yield any deletion of the upstream enhancer region. Thus, we speculate that SHOX upstream deletions occur at a lower frequency because of the structural organization of this genomic region and/or that SHOX upstream deletions may cause a phenotype that differs from the one observed in LWD.

  2. Canadian upstream oil and gas industry profitability: Historical review and future perspectives [with executive summary

    1991-09-01

    The profitability of the Canadian upstream oil and gas industry is examined by analyzing return on equity and return on capital invested. By all measures and interpretations, the upstream industry has been unprofitable since the mid-1980s; returns generated are far below the industry's own historical cost of capital, and are inadequate relative to other sectors of the Canadian economy and to international oil and gas companies. This poor profitability is attributed to such factors as: overly optimistic price forecasts and healthy cash flows generated in the early 1980s, which led to excess capital spending; poor returns on capital reflective of the physical limitations of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin; high capital and operating costs; and a high royalty burden imposed by provincial governments. The consequences of low profitability include inadequate returns to equity investors, a drop in spending on upstream services such as drilling and exploration, a reduced ability of the industry to generate employment, and an adverse effect on the economy of Alberta. Forecasts indicate that the upstream sector is extremely vulnerable to a scenario of relatively flat prices due to high and increasing operating costs and depletion charges, and the significant royalty payments that still are in effect. Little scope is foreseen for industry profitability to return to acceptable levels over the first half of the 1990s. Reduced royalties have the potential to make a significant contribution to improved profitability. 52 figs., 40 tabs

  3. Multispacecraft observations of energetic ions upstream and downstream of the bow shock

    Scholer, M.; Mobius, E.; Kistler, L.M.; Klecker, B.; Ipavich, F.M.; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park)

    1989-01-01

    We present simultaneous measurements of energetic protons and alpha particles inside and outside of the magnetopause, immediately upstream, and downstream as well as further upstream of the bow shock. A comparison between the intensity at the bow shock and further upstream results in an e-folding distance at 30 keV of similar to 6.2 R/sub E/. After transformation of the angular distribution into the solar wind frame a diffusion coefficeint of κ/sub parallel/similar to 3 R/sub E/ is obtained from the anisotropy and the intensity gradient. Immediately downstream of the bow shock the anisotropy in the shock frame is directed toward the magnetopause. After transformation into the plasma rest frame the distribution is isotropic. The intensity in the magnetosheath just outside the magnetopause is smaller than the intensity behind the bow shock. Thus, in the magnetosheath there is no gradient or streaming in the upstream direction. The spectra, intensities, and relative abundances in the magnetosheath and inside the magnetosphere are totally different. These observations are consistent with first order Fermi acceleration at the bow shock and subsequent downstream convection, and exclude a magnetospheric source for these particles. Copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  4. Water stress in global transboundary river basins : Significance of upstream water use on downstream stress

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H A; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka, M.; Wada, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341387819; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analysed in many of these international river basins, this has

  5. Restructuring: new relationships between the oil companies and the upstream oil firms

    Barreau, S.

    2001-11-01

    Since the 1986 oil shock, international oil companies have focused on their base competencies, concentrating on activities viewed as their core businesses and steadily increasing the number of tasks to be subcontracted to the upstream oil and gas service sector. The upstream oil and gas service companies had to be restructured to face this new challenge. The strategies they launched at the end of the 80's were varied. Some firms became largely integrated (Schlumberger, Baker Hughes, Halliburton) whereas other firms chose to broaden their range of services. However generally, they opted for external investment which led to an important wave of mergers and acquisitions. The first part characterizes the upstream oil and gas sector by introducing the main oil and gas service firms and their recent strategic evolution. This concludes with both an economic valuation and a typology of attempted growth strategies. To illustrate this, a matrix has been created to characterise the dynamic paths of the oil and gas service firms. The purpose of the second part is to consider the economic theories related to industrial strategies. The strategies of innovation, market protection, vertical integration and diversification have been studied to illustrate the main conclusion which is that the aim of all these strategies was to change the relationships between the oil companies and the upstream oil and gas service firms. (author)

  6. The upstream escape of energized solar wind protons from the bow shock

    Greenstadt, E.W.

    1975-01-01

    Recently, there have been some systematic observations of backstreaming protons at the Earth's bow shock with parallel velocity components and total energies much too high to be associated with the usual long-period upstream waves or to be produced by Sonnerup's simple reflection process (Lin et al., 1974), and these protons (30-100keV) were attributed to some unknown acceleration mechanism in the upstream region. The observations of Lof et al. involved protons in high pitch angle, and, although their reasons for favoring an upstream acceleration were quite different, it may seem intuitive that high pitch angle particles would have difficulty escaping the shock, especially at large field-normal angles. Such an inference would superficially support the notion of energization outside the bow shock. It seems worthwhile therefore to examine the extent to which the geometry of individual particle motion alone might select among reflected particles those that can escape upstream and those that cannot. In this paper the geometry of escape is described and some simple numerical examples are worked out for a few special cases. It is found that protons with rather high energies and pitch angles can escape the shock at only marginally quasi-parallel field orientations (i.e., thetasub(nB) approximately 50 0 ), even if they have quite moderate speeds parallel to B. (Auth.)

  7. Effects on the upstream flood inundation caused from the operation of Chao Phraya Dam

    Sutham Visutimeteegorn

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available During the flooding events, the operation of Chao Phraya Dam to control downstream water discharge is one of the causes of the inundation occuring over the upstream area. The purposes of this research are to study the effects of the operation of Chao Phraya Dam upon the upstream flood inundation and to find out the new measures of the flood mitigation in the upstream areas of Chao Phraya Dam by using a hydrodynamic model. The results show that Manning's n in the Chao Phraya River and its tributaries is 0.030-0.035 in the main channels and 0.050-0.070 in the flood plain areas. The backwater due to the operation of the Chao Praya dam affects as far as 110 kilometers upstream. New methods of water diversion can mitigate the flood inundation without the effect on the floating rice fields. The construction of reservoirs in the Upper Sakaekang River Basin and the Upper Yom River Basin will mitigate the flood not only in their own basins but also in the Lower Chao Phraya River Basin. The coordinated operation of the Chao Phraya Dam, the regulators and the upper basin reservoirs will efficiently mitigate the flood inundation.

  8. Deletion of SNURF/SNRPN U1B and U1B* upstream exons in a ...

    RESEARCH ARTICLE. Deletion of SNURF/SNRPN U1B and U1B* upstream exons in a child ... whereby genes are expressed in a parent-of-origin dependent manner. One of the ... lity, neurodevelopmental delay, features of attention deficit hyperactivity .... Received 16 December 2015; accepted 8 January 2016. Unedited ...

  9. ENHANCING THE ROLE OF STAKEHOLDERS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF UPSTREAM CILIWUNG WATERSHED

    Iis Alviya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholders have a ver y important role interm of the management of upstream watershed. Thus, the common understanding on the existence and role of stakeholders is an important factor in order to achieve good governance of watershed management, leading to the attainment of environmental, social and economic benefits. This paper aims to analyse the role, interests, and cooperation among stakeholders and its relationship with the condition of upper Ciliwung watershed. Stakeholder analysis was used in this study to identify stakeholders, to categorize them, and to investigate the relationship between stakeholders. The analysis showed the lack of cooperation among stakeholders both between key stakeholders with primar y stakeholders. This resulted in lack of communities' understanding on the benefits and the importance of conservation activities in the upstream Ciliwung watershed. Meanwhile, the cooperation between key stakeholders and supporting stakeholders, especially the providers of funds, was relatively better/stronger. This can be seen from a better management of inter-agency cooperation in the upstream Ciliwung watershed, although the effort was tend to be project-oriented. Therefore, communication forum need to be established, to taking role for synchronizing , collaborating and coordinating stakeholders' efforts, so that the management programs of upstream Ciliwung watershed can be integrated.

  10. Implications of Upstream Flow Availability for Watershed Surface Water Supply Across the Conterminous United States

    Kai Duan; Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell; Steven G. McNulty; Yang Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Although it is well established that the availability of upstream flow (AUF) affects downstream water supply, its significance has not been rigorously categorized and quantified at fine resolutions. This study aims to fill this gap by providing a nationwide inventory of AUF and local water resource, and assessing their roles in securing water supply across the 2,099 8-...

  11. Sodium Pick-Up Ion Observations in the Solar Wind Upstream of Mercury

    Jasinski, J. M.; Raines, J. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Regoli, L. R.; Murphy, N.

    2018-05-01

    We present the first observations of sodium pick-up ions upstream of Mercury’s magnetosphere. From these observations we infer properties of Mercury’s sodium exosphere and implications for the solar wind interaction with Mercury’s magnetosphere.

  12. Coordination in the upstream supply chain of the Dutch railway sector : a research agenda

    Schlicher, L.P.J.; Slikker, M.; van Houtum, G.J.J.A.N.; Pombo, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a research agenda which identifies three research directions for the upstream supply chain of the Dutch railway sector. The first research direction focusses on coordination of spare parts with criticality differences and related allocations of potential cost savings

  13. Research on performance of upstream pumping mechanical seal with different deep spiral groove

    Wang, Q; Chen, H L; Liu, T; Liu, Y H; Liu, Z B; Liu, D H

    2012-01-01

    As one new type of mechanical seal, Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal has been widely used in fluid machinery. In this paper, structure of spiral groove is innovatively optimized to improve performance of Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal with Spiral Groove: keeping the dam zone and the weir zone not changed, changing the bottom shape of spiral groove only, substituting different deep spiral groove for equal deep spiral groove. The simulation on Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal with different deep spiral grooves is done using FVM method. According to calculation, the performances of opening force and pressure distribution on seals face are obtained. Five types of spiral grooves are analyzed, namely equal deep spiral groove, circumferential convergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove, circumferential divergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove, radial convergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove and radial divergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove. This paper works on twenty-five working conditions. The results indicate the performances of circumferential divergent 2-ladder different deep spiral groove are better than the others, with more opening force and better stabilization, while with the same leakage. The outcome provides theoretical support for application of Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal with circumferential convergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove.

  14. Research on performance of upstream pumping mechanical seal with different deep spiral groove

    Wang, Q.; Chen, H. L.; Liu, T.; Liu, Y. H.; Liu, Z. B.; Liu, D. H.

    2012-11-01

    As one new type of mechanical seal, Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal has been widely used in fluid machinery. In this paper, structure of spiral groove is innovatively optimized to improve performance of Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal with Spiral Groove: keeping the dam zone and the weir zone not changed, changing the bottom shape of spiral groove only, substituting different deep spiral groove for equal deep spiral groove. The simulation on Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal with different deep spiral grooves is done using FVM method. According to calculation, the performances of opening force and pressure distribution on seals face are obtained. Five types of spiral grooves are analyzed, namely equal deep spiral groove, circumferential convergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove, circumferential divergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove, radial convergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove and radial divergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove. This paper works on twenty-five working conditions. The results indicate the performances of circumferential divergent 2-ladder different deep spiral groove are better than the others, with more opening force and better stabilization, while with the same leakage. The outcome provides theoretical support for application of Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal with circumferential convergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove.

  15. Upstream pumping of radial lip seals by tangentially deforming, rough seal surfaces

    Bavel, van P.G.M.; Ruijl, T.A.M.; Leeuwen, van H.J.; Muijderman, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper aims at a theoretical explanation of the following two experimental observations of radial lip seals: fluid film formation and upstream pumping action. The origins of these observations are still poorly understood. A hydrodynamic analysis is presented for the fully flooded contact zone of

  16. Exploring Patterns of Upstream Internationalization: The Role of Home-region ‘Stickiness’

    A.R. Muller (Allan); R.J.M. van Tulder (Rob)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractRecent work has emphasized the importance of regional strategies downstream, adding new depth to the debate on ‘globalization’. This paper adds to the debate by exploring the regional dimension upstream for a sample of Triad-based Fortune 500 firms. We find support for our hypothesis

  17. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector...

  18. Columbia River ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this...

  19. Western Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and anadromous fish species in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  20. Health effects of fish and fish oils

    Chandra, Ranjit Kumar

    1989-01-01

    .... Based on epidemiologic data, it has been suggested that a fish-containing diet is beneficial in the prevention and management of a variety of disorders including coronary heart disease, hypertension, and psoriasis...

  1. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for estuarine, benthic, and pelagic fish in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  2. Fish elevator and method of elevating fish

    Truebe, J.; Drooker, M.S.

    1984-02-14

    A means and method are disclosed for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprise a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water. 6 figs.

  3. Fish elevator and method of elevating fish

    Truebe, Jonathan; Drooker, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    A means and method for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprises a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water.

  4. Muscle dynamics in fish during steady swimming

    Shadwick, RE; Steffensen, JF; Katz, SL

    1998-01-01

    SYNOPSIS. Recent research in fish locomotion has been dominated by an interest in the dynamic mechanical properties of the swimming musculature. Prior observations have indicated that waves of muscle activation travel along the body of an undulating fish faster than the resulting waves of muscular...... position in swimming fish. Quantification of muscle contractile properties in cyclic contractions relies on in vitro experiments using strain and activation data collected in vivo. In this paper we discuss the relation between these parameters and body kinematics. Using videoradiographic data from swimming...... constant cross-section of red muscle along much of the body suggests that positive power for swimming is generated fairly uniformly along the length of the fish....

  5. Relationship between mercury levels in hair and fish consumption in a population living near a hydroelectric tropical dam.

    Marrugo-Negrete, José Luis; Ruiz-Guzmán, Javier Alonso; Díez, Sergi

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations were assessed in human hair samples (n = 76) and fish muscle (n = 33) collected at Urrá dam, upstream Sinú river, northwestern Colombia. Based on interviews with study participants, weekly intakes of total mercury (WIT-Hg) and methylmercury (WIMeHg) by fish consumption were also estimated. T-Hg concentrations in hair samples ranged from 0.40 to 24.56 μg/g dw. The highest concentrations were recorded in children (CH) (2-15 years old, n = 24) with significant differences (p < 0.05) with respect to women of childbearing age (WCHA) (16-49 years old, n = 29) and the rest of the population (RP) (n = 23), which were not significantly different. The highest T-Hg concentrations in muscle tissue were recorded in the carnivorous fish (0.65-2.25 μg/g wet weight, ww), with significant differences (p < 0.05) compared to non-carnivorous fish (0.16-0.54 μg/g ww). WIT-Hg recorded the highest values in CH (2.18-50.41 μg/kg/week), with significant differences (p < 0.05) with respect to WCHA (2.02-23.54 μg/kg/week) and RP (1.09-24.71 μg/kg/week), which were not significantly different. Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between weekly fish consumption and hair T-Hg in CH (r = 0.37, p < 0.05) and WCHA (r = 0.44, p < 0.05). This association was also observed with the number of days per week with fish consumption in CH (r = 0.37, p < 0.05) and WCHA (r = 0.45, p < 0.05). These results suggest that Hg exposure in people inhabiting the Urrá dam should be carefully monitored, particularly in vulnerable groups such as CH and WCHA.

  6. Effects of dredging and macrophyte management on the fish species composition in an old Neotropical reservoir

    André Luiz Henríques Esguícero

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim: As part of the remodeling of an almost century-old dam, in the Rio Jacaré-Guaçu, the dredging and management of macrophytes were carried out in the Gavião Peixoto Reservoir (São Paulo State, Brazil. Data for the reservoir and a river stretch upstream the reservoir were compared, for evaluating the effects of the management procedures. Methods The fish fauna and physical and chemical factors were studied during five years, before (2005-2006 and after the recovery procedures (2007-2009, once a year, during the rainy season. Fishes were caught by gill nets, 10 m long and 1.5, 4, and 6 cm-mesh between adjacent knots. Results After the management procedures, the values of pH and dissolved oxygen increased in the reservoir, whereas conductivity decreased, bringing them closer to those of the upstream stretch. Species richness, diversity, and Catch per Unit Effort in number and biomass, increased in the reservoir after the management. Conclusions After the recovery procedures, the composition of the fish fauna in the reservoir was similar to that of the upstream stretch. The dredging and management of macrophytes in the reservoir benefited the fish fauna diversity, through improvement in water quality and space expansion.

  7. Upstream ORF affects MYCN translation depending on exon 1b alternative splicing

    Besançon, Roger; Puisieux, Alain; Valsesia-Wittmann, Sandrine; Locher, Clara; Delloye-Bourgeois, Céline; Furhman, Lydie; Tutrone, Giovani; Bertrand, Christophe; Jallas, Anne-Catherine; Garin, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The MYCN gene is transcribed into two major mRNAs: one full-length (MYCN) and one exon 1b-spliced (MYCN Δ1b ) mRNA. But nothing is known about their respective ability to translate the MYCN protein. Plasmids were prepared to enable translation from the upstream (uORF) and major ORF of the two MYCN transcripts. Translation was studied after transfection in neuroblastoma SH-EP cell line. Impact of the upstream AUG on translation was evaluated after directed mutagenesis. Functional study with the two MYCN mRNAs was conducted by a cell viability assay. Existence of a new protein encoded by the MYCN Δ1b uORF was explored by designing a rabbit polyclonal antibody against a specific epitope of this protein. Both are translated, but higher levels of protein were seen with MYCN Δ1b mRNA. An upstream ORF was shown to have positive cis-regulatory activity on translation from MYCN but not from MYCN Δ1b mRNA. In transfected SH-EP neuroblastoma cells, high MYCN dosage obtained with MYCN Δ1b mRNA translation induces an antiapoptotic effect after serum deprivation that was not observed with low MYCN expression obtained with MYCN mRNA. Here, we showed that MYCNOT: MYCN Overlap Transcript, a new protein of unknown function is translated from the upstream AUG of MYCN Δ1b mRNA. Existence of upstream ORF in MYCN transcripts leads to a new level of MYCN regulation. The resulting MYCN dosage has a weak but significant anti-apoptotic activity after intrinsic apoptosis induction

  8. Upstream structural management measures for an urban area flooding in Turkey

    Akyurek, Z.; Bozoğlu, B.; Sürer, S.; Mumcu, H.

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, flooding has become an increasing concern across many parts of the world of both the general public and their governments. The climate change inducing more intense rainfall events occurring in short period of time lead flooding in rural and urban areas. In this study the flood modelling in an urbanized area, namely Samsun-Terme in Blacksea region of Turkey is performed. MIKE21 with flexible grid is used in 2-dimensional shallow water flow modelling. 1 × 1000-1 scaled maps with the buildings for the urbanized area and 1 × 5000-1 scaled maps for the rural parts are used to obtain DTM needed in the flood modelling. The bathymetry of the river is obtained from additional surveys. The main river passing through the urbanized area has a capacity of 500 m3 s-1 according to the design discharge obtained by simple ungauged discharge estimation depending on catchment area only. The upstream structural base precautions against flooding are modelled. The effect of four main upstream catchments on the flooding in the downstream urban area are modelled as different scenarios. It is observed that if the flow from the upstream catchments can be retarded through a detention pond constructed in one of the upstream catchments, estimated Q100 flood can be conveyed by the river without overtopping from the river channel. The operation of the upstream detention ponds and the scenarios to convey Q500 without causing flooding are also presented. Structural management measures to address changes in flood characteristics in water management planning are discussed.

  9. Modeling the fish community population dynamics and forecasting the eradication success of an exotic fish from an alpine stream

    Laplanche, Christophe; Elger, Arnaud; Santoul, Frédéric; Thiede, Gary P.; Budy, Phaedra

    2018-01-01

    Management actions aimed at eradicating exotic fish species from riverine ecosystems can be better informed by forecasting abilities of mechanistic models. We illustrate this point with an example of the Logan River, Utah, originally populated with endemic cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii utah), which compete with exotic brown trout (Salmo trutta). The coexistence equilibrium was disrupted by a large scale, experimental removal of the exotic species in 2009–2011 (on average, 8.2% of the stock each year), followed by an increase in the density of the native species. We built a spatially-explicit, reaction-diffusion model encompassing four key processes: population growth in heterogeneous habitat, competition, dispersal, and a management action. We calibrated the model with detailed long-term monitoring data (2001–2016) collected along the 35.4-km long river main channel. Our model, although simple, did a remarkable job reproducing the system steady state prior to the management action. Insights gained from the model independent predictions are consistent with available knowledge and indicate that the exotic species is more competitive; however, the native species still occupies more favorable habitat upstream. Dynamic runs of the model also recreated the observed increase of the native species following the management action. The model can simulate two possible distinct long-term outcomes: recovery or eradication of the exotic species. The processing of available knowledge using Bayesian methods allowed us to conclude that the chance for eradication of the invader was low at the beginning of the experimental removal (0.7% in 2009) and increased (20.5% in 2016) by using more recent monitoring data. We show that accessible mathematical and numerical tools can provide highly informative insights for managers (e.g., outcome of their conservation actions), identify knowledge gaps, and provide testable theory for researchers.

  10. Geochemistry of Mercury and other trace elements in fluvial tailings upstream of Daguerre Point Dam, Yuba River, California, August 2001

    Hunerlach, Michael P.; Alpers, Charles N.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Taylor, Howard E.; DeWild, John F.

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize the particle-size distribution and the concentrations of total mercury (HgT), methylmercury (MeHg), and other constituents in sediments trapped behind Daguerre Point Dam, a 28-foot-high structure on the lower Yuba River in California. The results of the study will assist other agencies in evaluating potential environmental impacts from mobilization of sediments if Daguerre Point Dam is modified or removed to improve the passage of anadromous fish. Methylmercury is of particular concern owing to its toxicity and propensity to bioaccumulate. A limited amount of recent work on hydraulic and dredge tailings in other watersheds has indicated that mercury and MeHg concentrations may be elevated in the fine-grained fractions of placer mining debris, particularly clay and silt. Mercury associated with tailings from placer gold mines is a source of continued contamination in Sierra Nevada watersheds and downstream water bodies, including the Sacramento?San Joaquin Delta and the San Francisco Bay of northern California. Churn drilling was used to recover sediments and heavy minerals at 5-foot intervals from six locations upstream of Daguerre Point Dam. Maximum depth of penetration ranged from 17.5 to 35 feet below land surface, resulting in 31 discreet drilled intervals. Drilling in permeable, unconsolidated sediments below the streambed of the Yuba River released a significant volume of water along with the sediment, which complicated the sampling and characterization effort. Overflow of a silty fraction sampled at the drill site contained suspended sediment consisting predominantly of silt and clay, with HgT concentration ranging from 33 to 1,100 ng/g (nanogram per gram) dry weight. A sandy fraction, collected after sieving sediment through a 2-millimeter vibratory screen, contained from 14 to 82 percent sand and 1 to 29 percent silt plus clay, and had HgT concentrations ranging from 6.8 to 81 ng/g dry weight. A clay-silt fraction

  11. Downstream passage of fish larvae and eggs through a small-sized reservoir, Mucuri river, Brazil

    Paulo S. Pompeu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In South America, one important symptom of the failure of fish passages to sustain fish migratory recruitment is the inability of eggs and larvae to reach the nurseries. This is especially so when the breeding areas are located upstream of a reservoir, and the floodplain is downstream of the dam. Therefore, the transport of fish larvae and eggs across reservoir barriers is a key factor in the development of effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we evaluate the potential for migratory fish larvae and egg transportation across a small size reservoir in eastern Brazil. We sampled fish daily between 15th October 2002 and 15th February 2003 (spawning period in the Mucuri River, immediately upstream of the reservoir and downstream of the Santa Clara Power Plant dam. Our study was the first to indicate the possibility of successful larval passage through the reservoir of a hydroelectric reservoir and dam in South America, and showed that the passage of migratory fish larvae was associated significantly with residence time of water in the reservoir. The relatively short water residence time and elevated turbidity of the Santa Clara's reservoir waters during the rainy season certainly contributed to the successful passage, and can be considered as key factors for a priori evaluations of the feasibility of a downstream larval passage.

  12. Statistical assessment of fish behavior from split-beam hydro-acoustic sampling

    McKinstry, Craig A.; Simmons, Mary Ann; Simmons, Carver S.; Johnson, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Statistical methods are presented for using echo-traces from split-beam hydro-acoustic sampling to assess fish behavior in response to a stimulus. The data presented are from a study designed to assess the response of free-ranging, lake-resident fish, primarily kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to high intensity strobe lights, and was conducted at Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River in Northern Washington State. The lights were deployed immediately upstream from the turbine intakes, in a region exposed to daily alternating periods of high and low flows. The study design included five down-looking split-beam transducers positioned in a line at incremental distances upstream from the strobe lights, and treatments applied in randomized pseudo-replicate blocks. Statistical methods included the use of odds-ratios from fitted loglinear models. Fish-track velocity vectors were modeled using circular probability distributions. Both analyses are depicted graphically. Study results suggest large increases of fish activity in the presence of the strobe lights, most notably at night and during periods of low flow. The lights also induced notable bimodality in the angular distributions of the fish track velocity vectors. Statistical/SUMmaries are presented along with interpretations on fish behavior

  13. SELECTION OF KURAU FISHING TECHNOLOGY UNITS Eleutheronema tetradactylum WHICH COMPETITIVE AND SUSTAINABLE

    Muhammad Natsir Kholis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly fishing technology unit is needed in sustainable fisheries management. The purpose of this study was to determine the fishing technology unit of kurau competitive and sustainable. Data collection was carried out from July to September 2016 in the Coastal Pambang of Bengkalis District of Riau Province, by using the survey method. The analytical data method used is scoring the biological, technical and socioeconomic aspects the fishing technology unit of kurau. Results of research show that combined analysis of biological, technical and socioeconomic aspects have the value of the VA fishing line function (2.48 is higher than the other three fishing gear. Thus, the fishing line is a selected fishing technology unit of kurau competitive and sustainable in the Coastal Pambang Bengkalis District. Keywords: competitive,coastal pambang, fishing technology, kurau fish,sustainable fishing

  14. Upstream oil and gas industry options paper : report of the upstream oil and gas working group of the Industry Issues Table to the National Climate Change Secretariat

    1999-09-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) has coordinated the efforts of the upstream oil and natural gas industry to draft a foundation paper to provide data on industry greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and actions. This paper is a technical piece targeted at government officials and stakeholders involved in the National Climate Change Secretariat process. The paper also outlines the context for considering policies aimed at reducing oil and gas industry emissions on climate change. The 6 key messages that CAPP wanted to emphasize in this paper were: (1) Canada's situation is very different from that of the U.S. and most other industrial countries, (2) GHG emissions are primarily an end-use consumption issue, (3) the climate change issue and the Kyoto Protocol present a major uncertainty that could undermine Canadian oil and natural gas development opportunities, (4) Canada should not be penalised by its growth of oil and natural gas resources, (5) the ability to reduce emissions by changing production technology is limited because large reductions in Canadian upstream emissions would only mean a shift of production to other countries which would not help to reduce global emissions, and (6) Canada should focus on promoting cost-effective action, research and development and international flexibility, and ensure that recognition is given to those companies that reduce emissions. tabs., figs

  15. A Study of Fish Lice (Argulus Sp. Infection in Freshwater Food Fish

    Aalberg K.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Argulus sp., commonly referred to as fish lice, are crustacean ectoparasites of fishes. The hematophagous parasites attach to and feed off the integument of their hosts. Outbreaks of epizootics have been reported worldwide, causing mass mortalities and having serious economic implications for fish farms and culture efforts. Argulus fish lice may also serve as vectors of infectious diseases and as intermediate hosts of other parasites. Two native European species, A. foliaceus and A. coregoni, as well as the invasive Japanese fish louse A. japonicus, have previously been recorded in Slovakia. This study investigated samples collected at fish farms and culture sites of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., Pike-perch (Sander lucioperca L. and Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis M. in Eastern Slovakia, as well as samples collected from live fish imported to the Slovak Republic. A quantitative description of the of Argulus sp. was recorded from each locality. Samples from Common carp were identified as the invasive A. japonicus, and samples from Pike-perch and Brook trout were identified as A. foliaceus. Evidence of a mixed infection of Pike-perch with both A. foliaceus and A. japonicus was found in samples from Zemplínska Šírava, which was substantiated by electron microscopic examination. Morphometric characteristics were measured and averages and ranges produced for each species and sex.

  16. Adoption Of Improved Fish Technologies Among Fish Farmers In ...

    A shortfall exists between fish supply and fish demand in the country despite the introduction of improved technology to fish farmers. This led to huge wage bill on the importation of fish to meet the protein need of the ever increasing population. This prompted this study with focus on adoption of improved fish technologies ...

  17. Challenges of transferring models of fish abundance between coral reefs.

    Sequeira, Ana M M; Mellin, Camille; Lozano-Montes, Hector M; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Vanderklift, Mathew A; Haywood, Michael D E; Babcock, Russell C; Caley, M Julian

    2018-01-01

    Reliable abundance estimates for species are fundamental in ecology, fisheries, and conservation. Consequently, predictive models able to provide reliable estimates for un- or poorly-surveyed locations would prove a valuable tool for management. Based on commonly used environmental and physical predictors, we developed predictive models of total fish abundance and of abundance by fish family for ten representative taxonomic families for the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) using multiple temporal scenarios. We then tested if models developed for the GBR (reference system) could predict fish abundances at Ningaloo Reef (NR; target system), i.e., if these GBR models could be successfully transferred to NR. Models of abundance by fish family resulted in improved performance (e.g., 44.1% fish abundance (9% fish species richness from the GBR to NR, transferability for these fish abundance models was poor. When compared with observations of fish abundance collected in NR, our transferability results had low validation scores ( R 2   0.05). High spatio-temporal variability of patterns in fish abundance at the family and population levels in both reef systems likely affected the transferability of these models. Inclusion of additional predictors with potential direct effects on abundance, such as local fishing effort or topographic complexity, may improve transferability of fish abundance models. However, observations of these local-scale predictors are often not available, and might thereby hinder studies on model transferability and its usefulness for conservation planning and management.

  18. FISHING ACTIVITIES AND FISHERMEN INCOME IN RANAU LAKE, SOUTH SUMATRA

    Dina Muthmainah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish resources contribute to the socio-economic development for people who live surrounding the waters. The fishermen of Ranau Lake, South Ogan Komering Ulu Regency, South Sumatra Province and West Lampung Regency, Lampung Province are the prime stakeholder and direct interest in fish resources, because they depend on it for their livelihoods or they are directly involved in its exploitation in some ways. However, to well manage these resources, it needs data and information about fish utilization and fishing activity. The objectives of this work are to assess fishing activities such as the fishing craft and gears, catch composition, fish yield, catch per unit of effort (CPUE and to estimate the fihermen income with economical parameter such as cost and price. Field surveys were conducted from February to November 2014. Fishing activities data were collected from field survey and interview. The results showed that fish resources utilization in Ranau Lake was categorized as traditional and small scale fisheries using different selective fishing gears such gillnet, harpoon, net trap and basket trap with the fish catch in average of 696.66 g/day; 205.03 g/day; 1.584.06 g/day and 123.67 g/day, respectively. Fisherman income (IDR 2,163,300 means the fishermen in Ranau Lake reach standard Indonesian welfare.

  19. Acute Upper Thermal Limits of Three Aquatic Invasive Invertebrates: Hot Water Treatment to Prevent Upstream Transport of Invasive Species

    Beyer, Jessica; Moy, Philip; de Stasio, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Transport of aquatic invasive species (AIS) by boats traveling up rivers and streams is an important mechanism of secondary spread of AIS into watersheds. Because physical barriers to AIS movement also prevent navigation, alternate methods for preventing spread are necessary while allowing upstream navigation. One promising approach is to lift boats over physical barriers and then use hot water immersion to kill AIS attached to the hull, motor, or fishing gear. However, few data have been published on the acute upper thermal tolerance limits of potential invaders treated in this manner. To test the potential effectiveness of this approach for a planned boat lift on the Fox River of northeastern WI, USA, acute upper thermal limits were determined for three AIS, adult zebra mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha), quagga mussels ( Dreissena rostriformis bugensis), and spiny water fleas ( Bythotrephes longimanus) from the local area employing temperatures from 32 to 54°C and immersion times from 1 to 20 min. Mortality was determined after immersion followed by a 20-min recovery period. Immersion at 43°C for at least 5 min was required to ensure 100% mortality for all three species, but due to variability in the response by Bythotrephes a 10 min immersion would be more reliable. Overall there were no significant differences between the three species in acute upper thermal limits. Heated water can be an efficient, environmentally sound, and cost effective method of controlling AIS potentially transferred by boats, and our results should have both specific and wide-ranging applications in the prevention of the spread of aquatic invasive species.

  20. The effect of monsoon variability on fish landing in the Sadeng Fishing Port of Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Subarna, D.

    2018-03-01

    The volume of landing fish of the Sadeng Fishing Port within certain months showed an increase from year to year, especially during June, July and August (JJA). While in other months the fish production was low. The purpose of this research was to understand the influence of monsoon variability on fish landing in the Sadeng Fishing Port. Data were analyzed descriptively as spatial and temporal catch. Data were namely catch fish production collected from fishing port, while satellite and HYCOM model during 2011–2012 period were selected. The wind data, sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a were analyzed from ASCAT and MODIS sensors during the Southeast Monsoon. The result showed the wind from the southeasterly provide wind stress at sea level and caused Ekman Transport to move away water mass from the sea shore. The lost water mass in the ocean surface was replaced by cold water from deeper layer which was rich in nutrients. The distribution of chlorophyll-a during the Southeast Monsoon was relatively higher in the southern coast of Java than during the Northwest monsoon. The SST showed approximately 25.3 °C. The abundance of nutrients indicated by the distribution of chlorophyll-a around the coast during the Southeast Monsoon, will enhance the arrival of larger fish. Thus, it can be understood that during June, July, and August the catch production is higher than the other months.

  1. Trawl catch composition during different fishing intensity periods in two Mediterranean demersal fishing grounds

    Pilar Sánchez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in two fishing grounds on the Mediterranean continental shelf: one in the Adriatic Sea and one in the Catalan Sea. Samplings on board otter trawlers were performed from November 2002 to December 2003 in the Catalan Sea and from February 2003 to January 2004 in the Adriatic Sea. The Adriatic fishing ground was affected by high fishing intensity from January to June, while the Catalan area was highly exploited from September to February. Fishing activity in the Adriatic area was closed for 45 days, and 62 days in the Catalan area; both periods were in summer. Totals of 92 and 88 species were collected in the Adriatic and Catalan fishing grounds respectively. The species composition of the retained and discarded fractions showed close agreement between the two areas. Mullus barbatus showed very low discard rates in both areas, as well as Loligo vulgaris in the Catalan Sea and Merluccius merluccius in the Adriatic Sea. In both fishing grounds Squilla mantis showed high catch rates with low discards, except in March in the Catalan area. In the Adriatic Sea Liocarcinus depurator was characterized by large discard fractions. In both fishing grounds the retained fraction was slightly higher in the high fishing intensity periods than in the low intensity ones (Adriatic Sea: 0.613 vs 0.524; Catalan Sea: 0.597 vs 0.539, even though the Kruskall Wallis test revealed significant differences (p

  2. Trace elements in two marine fish cultured in fish cages in Fujian province, China

    Onsanit, Sarayut; Ke Caihuan; Wang Xinhong; Wang Kejian; Wang Wenxiong

    2010-01-01

    Two cultured marine fish, the Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus) and red seabream (Pagrus major) were collected from eight fish cage sites along the coast of Fujian province in China. The concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn in their muscle, stomach and liver tissue were quantified. The risk of these trace elements to humans through fish consumption was then assessed. The highest concentrations of As, Cd, Se and Zn in fish feed from fish cages were found in Dongshan Station. Moreover, the As levels in the muscles of both species at all sites were generally higher than China's national standard (>1.0 μg/g). Trace element concentrations in two marine fish followed the order of livers > stomachs > muscles. Although the As levels in two marine caged fish exceeded the permissible standards, the estimated daily intake of As did not exceed the reference dose guideline established by US EPA. For other trace elements examined in this study, their concentrations did not exceed the permissible concentrations of the international standards. - As levels in two marine caged fish from China exceeded the permissible standards, whereas the levels of others trace elements did not exceed the permissible concentrations.

  3. Fish assemblages in the Upper Esopus Creek, NY: Current status, variability, and controlling factors

    Baldigo, Barry P.; George, Scott D.; Keller, Walter T

    2015-01-01

    The Upper Esopus Creek receives water diversions from a neighboring basin through the Shandaken Tunnel (the portal) from the Schoharie Reservoir. Although the portal is closed during floods, mean flows and turbidity of portal waters are generally greater than in Esopus Creek above their confluence. These conditions could potentially affect local fish assemblages, yet such effects have not been assessed in this highly regulated stream. We studied water quality, hydrology, temperature, and fish assemblages at 18 sites in the Upper Esopus Creek during 2009–2011 to characterize the effects of the portal input on resident-fish assemblages and to document the status of the fishery resource. In general, fish-community richness increased by 2–3 species at mainstem sites near the portal, and median density and biomass of fish communities at sites downstream of the portal were significantly lower than they were at sites upstream of the portal. Median densities of Salmo trutta (Brown Trout) and all trout species were significantly lower than at mainstem sites downstream from the portal—25.1 fish/0.1 ha and 148.9 fish/0.1 ha, respectively—than at mainstem sites upstream from the portal—68.8 fish/0.1 ha and 357.7 fish/0.1 ha, respectively—yet median biomass for Brown Trout and all trout did not differ between sites from both reaches. The median density of young-of-year Brown Trout at downstream sites (9.3 fish/0.1 ha) was significantly lower than at upstream sites (33.9 fish/0.1 ha). Waters from the portal appeared to adversely affect the density and biomass of young-of-year Brown Trout, but lower temperatures and increased flows also improved habitat quality for mature trout at downstream sites during summer. These findings, and those from companion studies, indicate that moderately turbid waters from the portal had few if any adverse impacts on trout populations and overall fish communities in the Upper Esopus Creek during this study.

  4. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    Airaksinen, Riikka, E-mail: Riikka.Airaksinen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Mannio, Jaakko [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  5. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune; Mannio, Jaakko; Hallikainen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) (ΣOTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of ΣOTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day -1 , which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day -1 set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the ΣOTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  6. Improved intake design for downstream migrating fish at hydropower plants

    Mih, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on hydroelectric power projects on the Columbia River which provided low-cost electricity to the Pacific Northwest. However, they are detrimental to anadromous fisheries resources. Anadromous fish are migratory. They begin their life in shallow mountain streams. After several months, they migrate to the ocean, where the fish grow to maturity before their return migration. Remarkably, most anadromous fish return to spawn in their natal streams. At dams, the upstream migration of grown salmon and steelhead is accomplished through fishways. The downstream migration of juveniles remains a serious problem. Juvenile fish follow the water flow during their sea-ward migration. When passing through a turbine, fish can be severely injured due to the sudden pressure drop, high velocity shear zones, and rotating turbine blades. Stunned fish that survive the gauntlet of the turbine are easy prey for sea gulls and squawfish in the tailrace of the powerhouse. Fish mortality per turbine passage is estimated at 15 percent. With nine hydropower projected on the main steam of the Columbia River, their combined mortality is very serious. The historical Columbia River anadromous run of about 12 million fish has declined to 2.5 million in recent years. Modern high-output hydraulic turbines are designed to be placed at a lower elevation to minimize cavitation damage to turbine blades. The modern design trend of deep intake submergence has caused parallel and unsteady vortex flow patterns in the forebay, resulting in a decrease in the guiding efficiency of the screens, such as at Bonneville Second Powerhouse and at Rocky Reach Project

  7. Immunostimulants in fish diets

    Gannam, A.L.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Various immunostimulants and their methods of application in fish culture are examined in this review. Important variables such as life stage and innate disease resistance of the fish; immunostimulant used, its structure and mode of action; and the fish's environment are discussed. Conflicting results have been published about the efficacy of immunostimulants in fish diets. Some researchers have had positive responses demonstrated as increased fish survival, others have not. Generally, immunostimulants enhance individual components of the non-specific immune response but that does not always translate into increased fish survival. In addition, immunostimulants fed at too high a dose or for too long can be immunosuppressive. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com ].

  8. Vaccination in Fish

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    vaccines have reduced the need for usage of antibiotics with more than 99 % since the 1980s. Fish can be vaccinated by three different administration routes: injection, immersion and oral vaccination. Injection vaccination (intraperitoneal injection of vaccine) is the most time consuming and labor...... intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...... respond to vaccination by increasing the specific antibody titer and by activating the cellular responses. My talk will cover vaccination methods in fish, immune responses and some adverse effect of oil-adjuvanted vaccines in fish with reference to our work in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....

  9. Methodological issues affecting the study of fish parasites. III. Effect of fish preservation method

    Kvach, Yuriy; Ondračková, Markéta; Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 3 (2018), s. 213-224 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : flounder Paralichthys-olivaceus * Neoheterobothrium-hirame * community structure * infection levels * Baltic sea * Odontobutidae * ectoparasites * Perciformes * collection * ecology * Parasite community * Preservation methods * Perca fluviatilis * Rhodeus amarus * Methodology * Parasitological examination Subject RIV: GL - Fish ing OBOR OECD: Fish ery Impact factor: 1.549, year: 2016

  10. From Fishing to Fish Processing: Separation of Fish from Crustaceans in the Norway Lobster-Directed Multispecies Trawl Fishery Improves Seafood Quality.

    Junita D Karlsen

    Full Text Available Fishing gears have negative impacts on seafood quality, especially on fish in the mixed trawl fishery targeting Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus. In this fishery, which is worth about €80 millions in Denmark alone, the quality of fish can be significantly improved by simple gear changes. A trawl codend divided into an upper and lower codend was designed to separate fish from Norway lobster during the fishing process by encourage fish to swim into the upper codend by using a frame at the entrance of the lower codend. Separate codends for fish and Norway lobster in the same gear provide the opportunity to selectively reduce small low-value fish, which will reduce catch weight and sorting time onboard the vessel. For this horizontally divided test codend and a standard codend, in which the catch was mixed, quality assessments were performed on the same batches of fish during three steps of the value chain: i aboard the fishing vessel; ii at the Fishermen's Collection Central, and iii in the production plant. Four species of fish and fillets from fish caught in the upper codend of the test codend were of significantly better quality for several of the assessed parameters compared with those caught in the standard codend: i newly caught fish showed significantly less scale loss and discolourations and had significantly better texture; ii landed fish had significantly better skin appearance and texture and significantly fewer discolourations; and iii fillets showed significantly fewer blood spots and had significantly better texture. There were no differences in injuries for newly caught fish or gaping and bruises for fillets between the test and standard codends. The decrease in catch-related damages in the test codend is explained by little contact between fish and animals with hard or spiny surfaces due to successful separation of fish and Norway lobster into the upper and lower codends, respectively, and by lower catch weight in the upper

  11. Fishing site mapping using local knowledge provides accurate and ...

    Accurate fishing ground maps are necessary for fisheries monitoring. In Velondriake locally managed marine area (LMMA) we observed that the nomenclature of shared fishing sites (FS) is villages dependent. Additionally, the level of illiteracy makes data collection more complicated, leading to data collectors improvising ...

  12. Statistical Modelling of Fishing Activities in the North Atlantic

    Fernández, C.; Ley, E.; Steel, M.F.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of modeling daily catches of fishing boats in the Grand Bank fishing grounds. We have data on catches per species for a number of vessels collected by the European Union in the context of the North Atlantic Fisheries Organization. Many variables can be thought to

  13. From Farming to Fishing: Marine Resource Conservation and a New ...

    This paper examines the arrival of a new group of fishermen on the Kenyan coast and what this has meant for the state of fishery resources. It reviews four subject areas: access and the number of fishermen; the fishermen's identity; the choice of fishing gear; and the fishing grounds selected. Data were collected from a small ...

  14. Economics of fish farming in Ibadan Metropolis | Yusuf | Nigerian ...

    The study assesses the economics of fish farming in Ibadan Metropolis. The data for the study were collected from 50 fish farmers with the aid of structured questionnaires. The data were analyses using descriptive, gross margin and regression techniques. The study revealed that most farmers had secondary education and ...

  15. Fresh fish ( Clarias gariepinus ) marketing system in major towns of ...

    This study was carried out to investigate marketing system, market channel, nature of costs, market margins and the factors determining the marketing profit of fresh fish (Clarias gariepinus) in major towns in Ibarapa Zone, Oyo state. Data were collected through the use of questionnaire administered to the fish traders.

  16. Fish Diversity in Relation to Aquatic Macrophytes and ...

    An investigation of fish diversity in relation to aquatic macrophytes and physicochemical parameters of Ona Lake in Asaba was carried out within a period of eighteen months. Fish samples were collected fortnightly from three sampling sites using cast, gill and trigger nets. Aquatic macrophytes found in close association with ...

  17. Migratory Fishes of South America: Biology, Fisheries, and ...

    2004-01-01

    Jan 1, 2004 ... Fish species that migrate within the great rivers of South America support important local fisheries but are little known outside their native range. This book represents the first collection of the work of local scientific experts on these remarkable fish. The authors cover the Upper Paraná, Paraguay-Paraná, ...

  18. Status of Coral Reef Fish Communities within the Mombasa Marine ...

    The abundance, trophic composition and diversity of fish were investigated in the Mombasa Marine Protected Area (MPA) on the Kenya coast over a period of four years (2004-2007) sixteen years after its establishment to determine its effectiveness. Fish monitoring data collected using belt transects revealed significant ...

  19. SOLUTION FOR ICHTHYOFAUNA MIGRATION UPSTREAM- DOWNSTREAM OF THE TWO SPILLWAYS LOCATED NEAR MANASTUR DAM ON THE SOMESUL MIC RIVER IN THE CLUJ NAPOCA CITY (ROMÂNIA

    Razvan VOICU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal connectivity represent the way in which organisms move the energy and material exchanges located throughout the water. Fragmentation the longitudinal connectivity of watercourses caused by dams or other hydrotechnical constructions represent a major impact on sediment transport, hydrological regime, downstream moving and biota migration. The hydromorphological elements (river continuity, as well as chemical, biological, physicochemical elements characterize the ecological status of rivers.Migratory fish species: nase (Chondrostoma nasus - protected by Bern Convention - Appendix III and barbel (Barbus barbus - rare species, protected Habitats Directive (Annex V, annex 4A of Low nr.462 and Red List of RBDD are blocked but the Hydrotechnical constructions (discharge sills, dams etc located across the watercourse Somes Mic River. One of the important think of this system is the gravitational fall of water. This solution will lead to the restoration of the longitudinal connection of the Someşul Mic River in the Manastur neighborhood. România is part of the European Union and it has the obligation to implement the provisions of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, transposed into Romanian legislation by the Water Law 107/1996 as supplemented and amended (Act 310/2004. This engineering solution for fish fauna migration upstream – downstream of the spillways supports the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, transposed into Romanian legislation by the Water Law 107/1996 as supplemented and amended (Act 310/2004.

  20. Bioaccumulation of selenium from coal fly ash and associated environmental hazards in a freshwater fish community

    Besser, J.; Giesy, J.; Brown, R.; Herdt, T.; Dawson, G.

    1995-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of Se by fish from Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake, Michigan, which receive inputs of Se from a coal fly-ash disposal facility, was studied to assess potential hazards of Se toxicity to fish and wildlife. Se concentrations in fish from sites receiving Se inputs from fly ash disposal ponds were significantly greater than concentrations in fish from upstream sites, which were near normal background concentrations. Se bioaccumulation differed substantially among fish species, especially in the most contaminated site, where whole-body Se concentrations for the five species analyzed ranged from 1.4 to 3.8 microg/g (wet wt.). The top predator in the community, northern pike (Esox lucius), had Se concentrations less than those in likely prey species. Among lower-order consumers, Se concentrations were greater in limnetic species (spottail shiner, Notropis hudsonius, and yellow perch, Perca flavescens), than in benthic species (white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, and rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris). Se concentrations in tissues of fish from the lower Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake approached, but did not exceed lowest observable effect concentrations (LOAECs) for Se in tissues of sensitive fish species. However, Se concentrations in several fish species exceeded LOAECs for dietary Se exposure of sensitive species of birds and mammals, suggesting that consumption of fish in these areas may pose a hazard to piscivorous wildlife

  1. Fish and hydroelectricity

    Zorpette, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the problems that hydroelectric plants have regarding fish populations. The utilities that operate these plants are finding that accommodating migrating fish presents unique engineering challenges, not the least of which involves designing and building systems to protect fish species whose migratory behavior remains something of a mystery. Where such systems cannot be built, the status of hydroelectric dams may be in doubt, as is now the case with several dams in the United States. A further twist in some regions in the possibility that certain migratory fish will be declared threatened or endangered-a development that could wreak havoc on the hydroelectric energy supply in those regions

  2. Of Fish and Micrornas

    Bela-Ong, Dennis; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    Fish is an important small vertebrate multidisciplinary model for investigating various aspects of reproduction, development, disease (immunology, toxicology, carcinogenesis), and aging. It is also an important model for comparative and evolutionary studies because it represents the lower...... to the mechanisms of control of gene expression, impacting a broad range of biological processes. Thus far, >25, 000 miRNA sequences have been identified in 193 species, including fish. In fish, the interest on miRNAs started with the analysis of their expression and function during embryonic development. In our...... selection markers to identify disease-resistant fish....

  3. 78 FR 10200 - Proposed Information Collection; Captive Wildlife Safety Act

    2013-02-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-HQ-LE-2013-N020; FF09L00200-FX-LE12200900000] Proposed Information Collection; Captive Wildlife Safety Act AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) will ask the...

  4. Linking the Taiwan Fish Database to the Global Database

    Kwang-Tsao Shao

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Under the support of the National Digital Archive Program (NDAP, basic species information about most Taiwanese fishes, including their morphology, ecology, distribution, specimens with photos, and literatures have been compiled into the "Fish Database of Taiwan" (http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw. We expect that the all Taiwanese fish species databank (RSD, with 2800+ species, and the digital "Fish Fauna of Taiwan" will be completed in 2007. Underwater ecological photos and video images for all 2,800+ fishes are quite difficult to achieve but will be collected continuously in the future. In the last year of NDAP, we have successfully integrated all fish specimen data deposited at 7 different institutes in Taiwan as well as their collection maps on the Google Map and Google Earth. Further, the database also provides the pronunciation of Latin scientific names and transliteration of Chinese common names by referring to the Romanization system for all Taiwanese fishes (2,902 species in 292 families so far. The Taiwanese fish species checklist with Chinese common/vernacular names and specimen data has been updated periodically and provided to the global FishBase as well as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF through the national portal of the Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility (TaiBIF. Thus, Taiwanese fish data can be queried and browsed on the WWW. For contributing to the "Barcode of Life" and "All Fishes" international projects, alcohol-preserved specimens of more than 1,800 species and cryobanking tissues of 800 species have been accumulated at RCBAS in the past two years. Through this close collaboration between local and global databases, "The Fish Database of Taiwan" now attracts more than 250,000 visitors and achieves 5 million hits per month. We believe that this local database is becoming an important resource for education, research, conservation, and sustainable use of fish in Taiwan.

  5. Passive appendages improve the maneuverability of fish-like robots

    Pollard, Beau; Tallapragada, Phanindra

    2017-11-01

    It is known that the passive mechanics of fish appendages play a role in the high efficiency of their swimming. A well known example of this is the experimental demonstration that a dead fish could swim upstream. However little is known about the role if any of passive deformations of a fish-like body that could aid in its maneuverability. Part of the difficulty investigating this lies in clearly separating the role of actuated body deformations and passive deformations in response to the fluid structure interaction. In this paper we compare the maneuverability of several fish shaped robotic models that possess varying numbers of passive appendages with a fish shaped robot that has no appendages. All the robots are propelled by the oscillations of an internal momentum wheel thereby eliminating any active deformations of the body. Our experiments clearly reveal the significant improvement in maneuverability of robots with passive appendages. In the broader context of swimming robots our experiments show that passive mechanisms could be useful to provide mechanical feedback that can help maneuverability and obstacle avoidance along with propulsive efficiency. This work was partly supported by a Grant from the NSF CMMI 1563315.

  6. Blockage of migration routes by dam construction: can migratory fish find alternative routes?

    Rosimeire Ribeiro Antonio

    Full Text Available The present study explored the interaction between the upriver migration of fish and the blockage of their migration routes by dam construction. Specifically, we studied (i the capacity of migratory fish to locate alternative routes in the presence of an obstacle, and (ii the behavior of the fish after they were artificially transferred to the reservoir. With the use of the mark-recapture technique (tagging, the study was carried out near Porto Primavera Dam (UHE Engenheiro Sérgio Motta between 1994 and 1999, a period prior to the closure of the floodgates and the installation and operation of the fish pass facilities. The fish were caught in the dam forebay downstream, marked with LEA type tags, and released upstream (5113 individuals; 14 species and downstream (1491; 12 from the dam. The recaptures were carried out by local professional and amateur fishermen. A total of 188 individuals (2.8% were recaptured, mostly the curimba Prochilodus lineatus. Nearly half of the recaptures downstream occurred in tributaries, especially in the Paranapanema River, indicating that in the presence of an obstacle the fish are able to locate alternative migration routes. The remainder stayed in the main channel of the Paraná River, at a mean distance of less than 50 km from the release point. Of the fish released upriver from the dam, approximately half were recaptured downriver. Although the river was only partly dammed, the movement of the fish downriver suggests that they became disoriented after being transferred. Those that remained upriver avoided the reservoir and moved, rather rapidly, toward the lotic stretches farther upstream. From these results it is clear that, in the course of the decision process in installing fish passes, it is necessary to take into account the existence of spawning and nursery areas downriver and upriver from the reservoir.

  7. Fish silage as feed ingredient for fish and livestock

    Rurangwa, E.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Poelman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present report analyses through a literature review the potential of fish silage to valorise fish processing by-products into economically relevant protein sources for fish and livestock feed production in East Africa.

  8. Fish-allergic patients may be able to eat fish.

    Mourad, Ahmad A; Bahna, Sami L

    2015-03-01

    Reported fish allergy prevalence varies widely, with an estimated prevalence of 0.2% in the general population. Sensitization to fish can occur by ingestion, skin contact or inhalation. The manifestations can be IgE or non-IgE mediated. Several fish allergens have been identified, with parvalbumins being the major allergen in various species. Allergenicity varies among fish species and is affected by processing or preparation methods. Adverse reactions after eating fish are often claimed to be 'allergy' but could be a reaction to hidden food allergen, fish parasite, fish toxins or histamine in spoiled fish. Identifying such causes would allow free consumption of fish. Correct diagnosis of fish allergy, including the specific species, might provide the patient with safe alternatives. Patients have been generally advised for strict universal avoidance of fish. However, testing with various fish species or preparations might identify one or more forms that can be tolerated.

  9. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Areas Protected From Fishing

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Designated Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) areas where fishing or the use of fishing gears has been restricted or modified in order to minimize the adverse effects of...

  10. Fish Marketing of Ribbon Fish (Trichiurus sp.) in Nusantara Fishing Port (NFP)at Palabuhanratu, West Java

    Bambang, Azis Nur

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this research is to study the marketing process of ribbon fish (Trichiurus sp.), including the marketing margin, marketing agencies, traders and marketing channels The research was carried out for 3 mo in Nusantara Fishing Port (NFP), Palabuhanratu, Sukabumi, West Java. A case study was used in this research. A purposive sampling method was used to collect data from 55 respondents of fish marketing, consisting of fishermen, agents, traders, and retailers, who were involved in the marketing of ribbon fish in NFP Palabuhanratu. The result of the research showed that ribbon fish production in Palabuhanratu fluctuated from year to year. There are two types of ribbon fish marketing, i.e. type one is from fishermen to retailers, and type two is indirect marketing from fisherman to consumers through intermediate traders (exporters). The greatest marketing margin was obtained from the first type, while the smallest marketing margin was obtained from type two. The form of the market was considered to be oligopsony market. Fisherman's share is greatest in the collectors and the smallest share is on retailers. Marketing process in traders is efficient due to its lowest margin and highest fisherman's share.

  11. Identification of the first PAR1 deletion encompassing upstream SHOX enhancers in a family with idiopathic short stature.

    Benito-Sanz, Sara; Aza-Carmona, Miriam; Rodríguez-Estevez, Amaya; Rica-Etxebarria, Ixaso; Gracia, Ricardo; Campos-Barros, Angel; Heath, Karen E

    2012-01-01

    Short stature homeobox-containing gene, MIM 312865 (SHOX) is located within the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) of the sex chromosomes. Mutations in SHOX or its downstream transcriptional regulatory elements represent the underlying molecular defect in ~60% of Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) and ~5-15% of idiopathic short stature (ISS) patients. Recently, three novel enhancer elements have been identified upstream of SHOX but to date, no PAR1 deletions upstream of SHOX have been observed that only encompass these enhancers in LWD or ISS patients. We set out to search for genetic alterations of the upstream SHOX regulatory elements in 63 LWD and 100 ISS patients with no known alteration in SHOX or the downstream enhancer regions using a specifically designed MLPA assay, which covers the PAR1 upstream of SHOX. An upstream SHOX deletion was identified in an ISS proband and her affected father. The deletion was confirmed and delimited by array-CGH, to extend ~286 kb. The deletion included two of the upstream SHOX enhancers without affecting SHOX. The 13.3-year-old proband had proportionate short stature with normal GH and IGF-I levels. In conclusion, we have identified the first PAR1 deletion encompassing only the upstream SHOX transcription regulatory elements in a family with ISS. The loss of these elements may result in SHOX haploinsufficiency because of decreased SHOX transcription. Therefore, this upstream region should be included in the routine analysis of PAR1 in patients with LWD, LMD and ISS.

  12. Growth of plume ''resident'' fishes in Lake Michigan

    Spigarelli, S.A.; Smith, D.W.

    1974-01-01

    Brown trout, rainbow trout, and chinook salmon were collected from the Point Beach thermal discharge area, tagged with commercial dart tags and temperature-sensitive tags, and released back into the discharge area. RNA and DNA analyses were performed on epaxial muscle samples taken from each tagged fish recaptured in the plume area and from control fish. A table is presented to show mean weights, condition factors, and RNA-DNA ratios for each group of fish. Results indicated that the fish did not experience any severe growth abnormalities as a result of their residence in the thermal plume area

  13. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized for...

  14. Evaluation of the Biological Effects of the Northwest Power Conservation Council's Mainstem Amendment on the Fisheries Upstream and Downstream of Libby Dam, Montana, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Sylvester, Ryan; Stephens, Brian; Tohtz, Joel [Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks

    2009-04-03

    A new project began in 2005 to monitor the biological and physical effects of improved operations of Hungry Horse and Libby Dams, Montana, called for by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC) Mainstem Amendment. This operating strategy was designed to benefit resident fish impacted by hydropower and flood control operations. Under the new operating guidelines, July through September reservoir drafts will be limited to 10 feet from full pool during the highest 80% of water supply years and 20 feet from full pool during the lowest 20% of water supply (drought) years. Limits were also established on how rapidly discharge from the dams can be increased or decreased depending on the season. The NPCC also directed the federal agencies that operate Libby and Hungry Horse Dams to implement a new flood control strategy (VARQ) and directed Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks to evaluate biological responses to this operating strategy. The Mainstem Amendment operating strategy has not been fully implemented at the Montana dams as of June 2008 but the strategy will be implemented in 2009. This report highlights the monitoring methods used to monitor the effects of the Mainstem Amendment operations on fishes, habitat, and aquatic invertebrates upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. We also present initial assessments of data and the effects of various operating strategies on physical and biological components of the systems upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. Annual electrofishing surveys in the Kootenai River and selected tributaries, along with gill net surveys in the reservoir, are being used to quantify the impacts of dam operations on fish populations upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. Scales and otoliths are being used to determine the age structure and growth of focal species. Annual population estimates and tagging experiments provide estimates of survival and growth in the mainstem Kootenai River and selected tributaries. Radio telemetry will be used to

  15. Delta /sup 13/C fractionation in Tarbela dam fish

    Latif, Z.; Sajjad, M.I.; Bilal, R.; Tasneem, M.A.; Khan, I.H.; Ali, M.

    1998-01-01

    The paper focuses on the study of naturally occurring /sup 13/C fractionation in Tarbela dam fish. Craig noted that gamma /sup 13/C values for animal tissues fall in the range as their food supply. DeNiro and Epstein demonstrated clearly that the carbon isotope composition of an animal greatly depends on its diet. The above mentioned statements were observed while studying the isotopic composition of carbon in different parts of the fish. Living fish was purchased from the Haripur side of the Tarbela lake. Different portions were separated and fish diet was collected from the fish stomach. Samples were dried in the oven at 40-50 deg. C for five days. Ground, homogenized and ignited with research grade oxygen at 900-1000 deg. C. CO and CO /sub 2/ were produced and CO was converted to CO/sub 2/ by circulation over CuO gauge furnace at 900 deg. C. CO/sub 2/ was purified using 70 deg. C slush and analyzed on Varian Mat (GD-150) mass spectrometer for gamma /sup 13/C measurements. The results show that fish flesh sup/13 C value is nearly similar to fish diet gamma /sup 13/C. gamma /sup 13/C values to different parts of the fish departed from that of the diet in the sequence: fish swim bladder (-22.04) >ribs (2-22.26)>skin (122.91)>diet (123.22)>flesh (-23.40)> vertebral column (-24.07). It is concluded that diet is easily metabolized in the fish flesh and skin tissues through blood streams without causing any pronounced fractionation. Fractionation was observed in the fish endo skeleton system due to which fish ribs become enriched in gamma /sup 13/C than vertebral column. Fractionation was also detected in visceral muscles (swim bladder) of the fish as comparison with somatic axial trunk muscle (fish flesh). (author)

  16. Wind Predictions Upstream Wind Turbines from a LiDAR Database

    Soledad Le Clainche

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new method to predict the wind velocity upstream a horizontal axis wind turbine from a set of light detection and ranging (LiDAR measurements. The method uses higher order dynamic mode decomposition (HODMD to construct a reduced order model (ROM that can be extrapolated in space. LiDAR measurements have been carried out upstream a wind turbine at six different planes perpendicular to the wind turbine axis. This new HODMD-based ROM predicts with high accuracy the wind velocity during a timespan of 24 h in a plane of measurements that is more than 225 m far away from the wind turbine. Moreover, the technique introduced is general and obtained with an almost negligible computational cost. This fact makes it possible to extend its application to both vertical axis wind turbines and real-time operation.

  17. Independents in European Gas Markets after liberalisation - downstream integration of upstream oil and gas companies

    Eikeland, Per Ove

    2005-01-01

    A central objective of gas market liberalisation in Europe in the 1990s was to increase competition by opening end-use markets for independent suppliers. Upstream oil and gas companies in Europe reacted to this opportunity by announcing strategies to integrate forward in European gas markets. By late 2004, however, upstream companies still recorded generally weak downstream strategy implementation in Europe. The article concludes that this general implementation gap should be explained by political failure in EU member states to abolish gas market barriers to entry for independents. Variation between companies in degree of implementation should be explained by variation in conditions in the companies' home markets / wider business spheres and internal company factors. (Author)

  18. Technological acceleration and organizational transformations in the upstream oil and gas industry

    Isabelle, M.

    2000-12-01

    The upstream oil and gas industry experienced a dramatic technological acceleration in the early 1970's. The relationships between the agents in this industry have themselves undergone deep changes since that date. This thesis shows that a tight link exists between the technological acceleration and the organizational transformations in the upstream oil and gas industry. In a first part, it focuses on the economic theory's developments concerning industrial organization. In a second part, it applies these developments to three types of relations: those between the owner-states of hydrocarbon resources and the international petroleum companies; those between the international petroleum companies and their subcontractors; and finally those between the international petroleum companies themselves. (author)

  19. Essential roles of caspases and their upstream regulators in rotenone-induced apoptosis

    Lee Jihjong; Huang, M.-S.; Yang, I-C.; Lai, T.-C.; Wang, J.-L.; Pang, V.F.; Hsiao, M.; Kuo, M.Y.P.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether caspases and their upstream regulators are involved in rotenone-induced cytotoxicity. Rotenone significantly inhibited the proliferation of oral cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner compared to normal oral mucosal fibroblasts. Flow cytometric analysis of DNA content showed that rotenone treatment induced apoptosis following G2/M arrest. Western blotting showed activation of both the caspase-8 and caspase-9 pathways, which differed from previous studies conducted in other cell types. Furthermore, p53 protein and its downstream pro-apoptotic target, Bax, were induced in SAS cells after treatment with rotenone. Rotenone-induced apoptosis was inhibited by antioxidants (glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, and tiron). In conclusion, our results demonstrate significant involvement of caspases and their upstream regulators in rotenone-induced cytotoxicity

  20. An upstream activation element exerting differential transcriptional activation on an archaeal promoter

    Peng, Nan; Xia, Qiu; Chen, Zhengjun

    2009-01-01

    S gene encoding an arabinose binding protein was characterized using an Sulfolobus islandicus reporter gene system. The minimal active araS promoter (P(araS)) was found to be 59 nucleotides long and harboured four promoter elements: an ara-box, an upstream transcription factor B-responsive element (BRE......), a TATA-box and a proximal promoter element, each of which contained important nucleotides that either greatly decreased or completely abolished promoter activity upon mutagenesis. The basal araS promoter was virtually inactive due to intrinsically weak BRE element, and the upstream activating sequence...... (UAS) ara-box activated the basal promoter by recruiting transcription factor B to its BRE. While this UAS ensured a general expression from an inactive or weak basal promoter in the presence of other tested carbon resources, it exhibited a strong arabinose-responsive transcriptional activation. To our...