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Sample records for first-person account schizophrenia

  1. Using First-Person Accounts To Teach Students about Psychological Disorders.

    Banyard, Victoria L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes instructional use of brief first-person accounts of mental disorders. Explores the benefits of using first-person, autobiographical accounts as required reading in a course on abnormal psychology. Finds that first-person accounts were more helpful in increasing student appreciation of the experience of having a disorder and empathy for…

  2. Consumer perspectives and mental health reform movements in the United States: 30 years of first-person accounts.

    Gumber, Shinakee; Stein, Catherine H

    2013-09-01

    The present qualitative study examined 69 published first-person accounts written by adults diagnosed with schizophrenia from 1979-2010 within the historical context of the four major mental health movements in the United States. Content analysis techniques were used to identify major topics and overarching content categories in the first-person accounts written over the 30-year period. The frequency of topics in each content category was examined as a function of the decade and corresponding mental health movement in which accounts were published. Five overarching content categories emerged reflecting authors' conceptualizations of schizophrenia, their experiences with psychiatric hospitalization, medications, coping with social stigma, and achieving and maintaining valued social roles. Two summary categories emerged reflecting authors explicit views about what helped and what did not help in their experience of living with schizophrenia. With the exception of social stigma, frequency of topics within content categories did not change as a function of decade and corresponding mental health movement. Despite changes in mental health policies, treatment, and systems of care, the overall lack of significant differences in the content of first-person accounts across the 30-year period suggests an enduring nature to the experiences of individuals coping with schizophrenia. Implications of present findings for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Rural Embedded Assistants for Community Health (REACH) network: first-person accounts in a community-university partnership.

    Brown, Louis D; Alter, Theodore R; Brown, Leigh Gordon; Corbin, Marilyn A; Flaherty-Craig, Claire; McPhail, Lindsay G; Nevel, Pauline; Shoop, Kimbra; Sterner, Glenn; Terndrup, Thomas E; Weaver, M Ellen

    2013-03-01

    Community research and action projects undertaken by community-university partnerships can lead to contextually appropriate and sustainable community improvements in rural and urban localities. However, effective implementation is challenging and prone to failure when poorly executed. The current paper seeks to inform rural community-university partnership practice through consideration of first-person accounts from five stakeholders in the Rural Embedded Assistants for Community Health (REACH) Network. The REACH Network is a unique community-university partnership aimed at improving rural health services by identifying, implementing, and evaluating innovative health interventions delivered by local caregivers. The first-person accounts provide an insider's perspective on the nature of collaboration. The unique perspectives identify three critical challenges facing the REACH Network: trust, coordination, and sustainability. Through consideration of the challenges, we identified several strategies for success. We hope readers can learn their own lessons when considering the details of our partnership's efforts to improve the delivery infrastructure for rural healthcare.

  4. Student health professionals' attitudes and experience after watching "Ida's Diary", a first-person account of living with borderline personality disorder: Mixed methods study.

    Dickens, Geoffrey L; Lamont, Emma; Stirling, Fiona J

    2018-06-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of commercial movies in nursing education, or "cinenurducation". There is a need for educational interventions which target mental health nurses' attitudes towards people with borderline personality disorder. To investigate and evaluate the experience and effects of attendance at a screening of the movie Ida's Diary, a first-person account of living with borderline personality disorder. Mixed methods design comprising a within-subjects AB longitudinal survey, and a qualitative analysis of participant-generated data and researcher field notes from a World Café discussion group. One university in Scotland. N = 66 undergraduate and postgraduate mental health nursing and counselling students. Participants completed measures of cognitive and emotional attitudes towards, and knowledge about, people with borderline personality disorder before and after one of two film screenings. We conducted a World Café discussion group after the second screening. Resulting data were subject to a qualitative thematic analysis. Quantitative analysis revealed a five-factor cognitive and a single-factor emotional attitude structure. Cognitive-attitudinal items related to treatment deservingness and value of mixed treatment approaches improved across iterations. Total knowledge score did not change, but one item about borderline personality disorder as a precursor to schizophrenia received considerably more incorrect endorsement post-screening. Qualitative analysis revealed five themes: Facilitation and inhibition of learning; promotion but not satiation of appetite for knowledge; challenging existing understanding; prompting creativity and anxiety; and initiating thinking about the bigger picture. Participants found the film thought provoking; it increased their appetite for knowledge. Findings suggest that screening should be delivered in conjunction with more didactic information about borderline personality disorder. Copyright © 2018

  5. A Teacher's Journey: A First-Person Account of How a Gay, Cambodian Refugee Navigated Myriad Barriers to Become Educated in the United States

    Sam, Kosal; Finley, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Educational institutions, like most social service organizations, need to recognize intersectionality and complexity and move away from monolithic conceptions of homelessness--if they recognize homelessness at all. This first person account of a gay, Cambodian refugee illustrates the enormous complexity schools face in forming institutional…

  6. First-Person Shooters

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Charlton, John P.; Jagger, Richard

    2011-01-01

    "First-Person Shooter computer games are designed to be immersive experiences yet the phenomenon of immersion is little understood. This article surveys theories of immersion in virtual worlds and examines FPS game elements that might contribute to the state. The roles of attention and positive...... feedback in facilitating player immersion in FPS games is explored. In particular, the role of selective attention is highlighted before the article finishes with a discussion on the design of immersion in FPS games using the principles presented here."...

  7. What is it like to be a person with Schizophrenia in the social world? A first-person perspective study on Schizophrenic Dissociality--part 2: methodological issues and empirical findings.

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Ballerini, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This is an empirical study exploring the personal level of experience of social dysfunction in persons with schizophrenia. We adopted a qualitative method of inquiry based on a review of transcripts of individual therapy sessions conducted for 52 persons with chart diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizotypal disorder. In our interviews, the experience of the social world in persons with schizophrenia emerged as an overall crisis of immediate, prepredicative, prereflexive attunement, typically accompanied by feelings of invasiveness and abnormalities in bodily and emotional sensations; a hyperreflexive mode for understanding the intentions of other persons, and a sceptical, aversive and sometimes utopian attitude towards sociality. Social dysfunction in persons with schizophrenia may reflect a disorder of the process of corporeal identification/differentiation that allows both for the intersubjective understanding through body-to-body attunement and for the demarcation between self and other. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Culture and first-person pronouns.

    Na, Jinkyung; Choi, Incheol

    2009-11-01

    Priming research has shown that repeated exposures to first-person singular pronouns (I, my, me, mine) activate an individualistic orientation, whereas first-person plural pronouns (we, our, us, ours) activate a collectivistic orientation. However, little research has been done to explore the opposite direction of influence such that one's cultural orientation determines one's choice between first-person singular versus plural pronouns. The authors conducted three studies to examine the effects of one's cultural orientation on one's use of first-person possessive pronouns. Results show that, compared to their individualistic counterparts, participants who have a collectivistic orientation, chronically or temporarily by priming, preferred to use first-person plural possessive pronouns.

  9. Schizophrenia.

    Kahn, René S; Sommer, Iris E; Murray, Robin M; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Weinberger, Daniel R; Cannon, Tyrone D; O'Donovan, Michael; Correll, Christoph U; Kane, John M; van Os, Jim; Insel, Thomas R

    2015-11-12

    Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder with a heterogeneous genetic and neurobiological background that influences early brain development, and is expressed as a combination of psychotic symptoms - such as hallucinations, delusions and disorganization - and motivational and cognitive dysfunctions. The mean lifetime prevalence of the disorder is just below 1%, but large regional differences in prevalence rates are evident owing to disparities in urbanicity and patterns of immigration. Although gross brain pathology is not a characteristic of schizophrenia, the disorder involves subtle pathological changes in specific neural cell populations and in cell-cell communication. Schizophrenia, as a cognitive and behavioural disorder, is ultimately about how the brain processes information. Indeed, neuroimaging studies have shown that information processing is functionally abnormal in patients with first-episode and chronic schizophrenia. Although pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia can relieve psychotic symptoms, such drugs generally do not lead to substantial improvements in social, cognitive and occupational functioning. Psychosocial interventions such as cognitive-behavioural therapy, cognitive remediation and supported education and employment have added treatment value, but are inconsistently applied. Given that schizophrenia starts many years before a diagnosis is typically made, the identification of individuals at risk and those in the early phases of the disorder, and the exploration of preventive approaches are crucial.

  10. Evidence and First-Person Authority

    Corbí, Josep E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I challlenge David Finkelstein's claim that evidence does not contribute to first-person authority. To this end, I first argue that the phenomenon of first-person authority involves a certain combination of two kinds of authority, namely: an epistemic (insofar as evidence is at issue here) and a practical (insofar as the capacity to shape one's own psychological and dispositions is the central concern) kind of authority. Secondly, I defend the view that gathering evidence plays...

  11. Perceptual instability in schizophrenia: Probing predictive coding accounts of delusions with ambiguous stimuli

    Katharina Schmack

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Our results indicate an association between a weakened effect of sensory predictions in perceptual inference and delusions in schizophrenia. We suggest that attenuated predictive signaling during perceptual inference in schizophrenia may yield the experience of aberrant salience, thereby providing the starting point for the formation of delusions.

  12. Where's the problem? Considering Laing and Esterson's account of schizophrenia, social models of disability, and extended mental disorder.

    Cooper, Rachel

    2017-08-01

    In this article, I compare and evaluate R. D. Laing and A. Esterson's account of schizophrenia as developed in Sanity, Madness and the Family (1964), social models of disability, and accounts of extended mental disorder. These accounts claim that some putative disorders (schizophrenia, disability, certain mental disorders) should not be thought of as reflecting biological or psychological dysfunction within the afflicted individual, but instead as external problems (to be located in the family, or in the material and social environment). In this article, I consider the grounds on which such claims might be supported. I argue that problems should not be located within an individual putative patient in cases where there is some acceptable test environment in which there is no problem. A number of cases where such an argument can show that there is no internal disorder are discussed. I argue, however, that Laing and Esterson's argument-that schizophrenia is not within diagnosed patients-does not work. The problem with their argument is that they fail to show that the diagnosed women in their study function adequately in any environment.

  13. Thematic Reasoning and Theory of Mind. Accounting for Social Inference Difficulties in Schizophrenia

    Rhiannon Corcoran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Corcoran (2000, 2001 has suggested that theory of mind judgements can be arrived at using analogical reasoning skills and she has proposed that this is the route that people with schizophrenia take when they make inferences about others' mental states. Recent work has demonstrated a robust relationship between mental state inference and autobiographical memory, providing initial support for the model. This study examines the model further by exploring the assertion that in schizophrenia the ability to infer the mental states of others also depends upon effective social reasoning in conditional contexts. Method 59 people with a DSM IV diagnosis of schizophrenia and 44 healthy subjects performed four versions of the thematic selection task. The versions varied according to the familiarity and social nature of the material they incorporated. The same subjects also completed the Hinting Task, a measure of theory of mind and tests of intellectual functioning and narrative recall. Results The schizophrenia and the normal control groups differed in their performance on all of the measures except that of intellectual functioning. Explorations within the schizophrenia group indicated that social reasoning was most markedly affected in the patients with negative signs and in those with paranoid delusions while for the hinting task, those with negative signs performed significantly worse than those in remission but this difference seemed to be due to these patients' poorer narrative memory. There was evidence in the schizophrenia data to support the hypothesis of a relationship between theory of mind and social conditional reasoning. Conclusion This work provided further support for the idea that in patients with schizophrenia at least, judgements about the mental states of others are achieved using analogical reasoning.

  14. The motivational landscape of first-person shooter games

    Finnerman, T. (Tomi); Kuoppala, A. (Antti)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this research was to gain better understanding of the motivations to play video games, particularly first-person shooter games. The aim was therefore to produce a motivational landscape that describes and categorizes the main motivations to play first-person shooter games (FPS). The study tries to expand the understanding of mot...

  15. Learning in the light of the first-person approach

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    The intention of this article is to unfold and present the experiential or first-person perspective as a source of the individual's deeper understanding of his/her interplay with a specific context and environment. This perspective will be connected to the concept of the lived body. Embodied...... able to build up well-functioning learning and working communities....

  16. The Immoralist and the Rhetoric of First-Person Narration

    John T. Booker

    1977-09-01

    Full Text Available Gide's The Immoralist , a short first-person novel written at the beginning of the century, has long been seen as an early example of the unreliable narrator. More recently, critical attention has focused on the tensions set up in the work between the carefully drawn formal structure of the narrative and the claim of Michel, the narrator, to tell his story in a direct and simple manner. Of more general interest, however, is the way Michel's narration provides insight into important developments that have taken place in the first-person novel itself in the twentieth century. Cast initially in a very traditional mold, Michel's story breaks down progressively as it moves from events of a more distant past to those much closer in time to his moment of narration. This breakdown of Michel's narrative seems to presage the movement in the first- person novel in France away from the relation of a story as traditionally conceived and towards the increasing importance accorded the present of narration itself. In that sense, The Immoralist is a key, pivotal work in the long line of short first-person works of fiction in France.

  17. The resonating spaces of First-Person Shooter games

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    In previous work I have provided a conceptual framework for the design and analysis of sound in First-Person Shooter games and have suggested that the relationship between player and soundscape in such games may be modeled as an acoustic ecology. This paper develops these ideas further and uses...

  18. The appeal of playing online first person shooter games

    Jansz, J.; Tanis, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    First Person Shooter Games (FPSG) such as Counter Strike are often the subject of public concern. Surprisingly, there is no published research available about playing these games. We conducted an exploratory Internet survey (n 5 751) in order to gather information about who the players of online

  19. The evolution of first person vision methods : a survey

    Betancourt Arango, A.; Morerio, P.; Regazzoni, C.S.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of new wearable technologies, such as action cameras and smart glasses, has increased the interest of computer vision scientists in the first person perspective. Nowadays, this field is attracting attention and investments of companies aiming to develop commercial devices with first

  20. Embracing First-Person Perspectives in Soma-Based Design

    Kristina Höök

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A set of prominent designers embarked on a research journey to explore aesthetics in movement-based design. Here we unpack one of the design sensitivities unique to our practice: a strong first person perspective—where the movements, somatics and aesthetic sensibilities of the designer, design researcher and user are at the forefront. We present an annotated portfolio of design exemplars and a brief introduction to some of the design methods and theory we use, together substantiating and explaining the first-person perspective. At the same time, we show how this felt dimension, despite its subjective nature, is what provides rigor and structure to our design research. Our aim is to assist researchers in soma-based design and designers wanting to consider the multiple facets when designing for the aesthetics of movement. The applications span a large field of designs, including slow introspective, contemplative interactions, arts, dance, health applications, games, work applications and many others.

  1. Parallels between Mindfulness and First-person Research into Consciousness

    Olga MARKIČ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights some of the parallels encountered in the areas of mindfulness and first-person scientific approaches to research into consciousness. It thus considers the possibilities of using mindfulness as a scientific method in the area of cognitive science. We are well aware that both first-person research approaches in cognitive science and mindfulness as a type of Buddhist practice are intertwined with certain conceptual frameworks. This calls for a careful consideration of their individual characteristics, which may gain completely different meanings outside of their primary contexts. Since the concept of mindfulness has been a part of Western thinking for some time now, especially in the area of therapy, we believe it is necessary for a critical reflection on the possibilities of both of these areas to inspire each other. We touch upon some of the important epistemological and methodological questions, and point out some of the problems common to both empirical first-person research and Buddhist methods of contemplation of experience. More specifically, this work examines the problem of limited scope of insight, the subject-object split and excavation fallacy, the problem of researching everyday experience, and the issue of horizon. We also consider the question of research intention in both science and Buddhism. The conclusion gives some suggestions as to how these two areas might mutually benefit one another. We also point out the ethical aspects that Buddhism might contribute to scientific research, and the open-endedness that science could contribute to Buddhism and other spiritual practices.

  2. The acoustic ecology of the First-Person Shooter

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the field of Game Studies by presenting the hypothesis that the player(s) and soundscape(s) in the first-person shooter (FPS) game, and the relationships between them, may be construed as an acoustic ecology. It explores the idea that the single-player FPS game acoustic...... ecology has the basic components of player and soundscape and that the relationships between these two lead to the creation and perception of a variety of spaces within the game world constituting a significant contributing factor to player immersion in that world. Additionally, in a multiplayer FPS game...

  3. Presence and biofeedback in first-person perspective computer games

    Grimshaw-Aagaard, Mark Nicholas

    2019-01-01

    . Following the line taken by presence theorists, I differentiate between immersion, an objective measure such that computer game technology can be less or more immersive, and presence, a subjective, human response to that technology. The third section looks at current possibilities for biofeedback...... in relation to sound design for first-person perspective computer games; in line with the first section, biofeedback devices are treated as an immersive technology. I close the chapter by suggesting ways in which sound design in such games might make use of biofeedback to enhance the perception of presence...

  4. Accountability

    Fielding, Michael; Inglis, Fred

    2017-01-01

    This contribution republishes extracts from two important articles published around 2000 concerning the punitive accountability system suffered by English primary and secondary schools. The first concerns the inspection agency Ofsted, and the second managerialism. Though they do not directly address assessment, they are highly relevant to this…

  5. Appeal of playing online First Person Shooter Games.

    Jansz, Jeroen; Tanis, Martin

    2007-02-01

    First Person Shooter Games (FPSG) such as Counter Strike are often the subject of public concern. Surprisingly, there is no published research available about playing these games. We conducted an exploratory Internet survey (n 5 751) in order to gather information about who the players of online first person shooters are, and why they spend time on playing this particular kind of video game. The results of our survey on the one hand confirmed the stereotype of the gamer as it is often presented in popular media: the players of online FPS were indeed almost exclusively young men (mean age about 18 years) who spend a lot of their leisure time on gaming (about 2.6 h per day). We also found that the most committed gamers, that is, the ones who were members of a (semi)professional clan, scored highest on motives with respect to competition, and challenge in comparison with members of amateur clans and online gamers who had not joined a clan. On the other hand, our results cast doubt on the accuracy of the stereotype. This study showed clearly that online FPSG are not played in isolation. More than 80% of our respondents were member of a clan. Also, the regression analysis showed that the social interaction motive was the strongest predictor of the time actually spend on gaming.

  6. A neuroanatomical account of mental time travelling in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of functional and structural neuroimaging data.

    Fornara, Giorgia Abete; Papagno, Costanza; Berlingeri, Manuela

    2017-09-01

    Mental time travel (MTT) abilities could be particularly compromised in schizophrenic patients due to a deficit of the cognitive processes at the basis of remembering the past and imaging the future: constructive processes, theory of mind and self-awareness. Accordingly, we assumed that the neural circuits typically associated with MTT in healthy people might be partially compromised in chronic schizophrenic patients. To quantitatively and anatomically test our hypothesis, we run two meta-analyses using the Activation Likelihood Estimate method: (i) a neurofunctional meta-analysis on MTT in healthy subjects, (ii) a morphometrical meta-analysis on chronic schizophrenia. The results of the two meta-analyses were overlapped in order to identify the candidate regions involved in MTT deficit in schizophrenia. A significant overlap was found in the vmPFC, in the precuneus, in the hippocampus and in the insular cortex. We assume that MTT deficits in schizophrenic patients may be the results of a complex dysfunctional interaction between the system underlying the creation of self-representation, the constructive system and the salience attribution network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perancangan PC Game First Person Shooter Menggunakan Unreal Development Kit

    Rizka Lukmana Afif

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of hardware increasing rapidly has made game developers take advantage of a variety of new resources that can improve their games. Epic games is a mature game developer who managed to make thousands game and delivered to the hands of gamers . A game engine called Unreal Engine is a big secret behind the success of Epic Games . The game engine is free if you just want to learn or just want to create a personal project and the game is not to be in comercial purposes . It is unfortunate that many students don’t even know of the existence of unreal engine , most of them make use of simpler game engine like game maker , rpg maker , fps creator , and so on. Though unreal engine is superior in any aspect other than the game engine , be it graphics , tools , mechanisms of development , flexible in export-import assets , etc . Based on this information , the author had the idea to make a first person shooter game using the unreal engine as the engine game. Before doing the develpment process, the next step is studying the literature of unreal engine and other supporting software such as 3d studio max to create 3D assets , adobe flash to create the menus , adobe photoshop to create a 2D texture and speedtree assets to create the foliage elements . The next thing is to go into the design phase of scenarios , maps, missions , characters and items that will be placed in the game. The next stage is the development and testing phase to test the game that has finished .The results of the design of this game is the realization of a first person shooter game application using unreal engine with features that can support the player 's interest in playing the game . It’s also introducing unreal engine to students who are interested in designing games.

  8. Exploring rationality in schizophrenia

    Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Owen, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Meth...... differences became non-significant. Conclusions When taking intelligence and neuropsychological performance into account, patients with schizophrenia and controls perform similarly on syllogism tests of rationality.......Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Method...... Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 29 syllogisms that varied in presentation content (ordinary v. unusual) and validity (valid v. invalid). Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence...

  9. The composite first person narrative: Texture, structure, and meaning in writing phenomenological descriptions

    Marcia Stanley Wertz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the use of composite first person narrative interpretive methods, as described by Todres, across a range of phenomena. This methodology introduces texture into the presently understood structures of phenomena and thereby creates new understandings of the phenomenon, bringing about a form of understanding that is relationally alive that contributes to improved caring practices. The method is influenced by the work of Gendlin, Heidegger, van Manen, Gadamer, and Merleau-Ponty. The method's applicability to different research topics is demonstrated through the composite narratives of nursing students learning nursing practice in an accelerated and condensed program, obese female adolescents attempting weight control, chronically ill male parolees, and midlife women experiencing distress during menopause. Within current research, these four phenomena have been predominantly described and understood through quantified articulations that give the reader a structural understanding of the phenomena, but the more embodied or “contextual” human qualities of the phenomena are often not visible. The “what is it like” or the “unsaid” aspects of such human phenomena are not clear to the reader when proxies are used to “account for” a variety of situated conditions. This novel method is employed to re-present narrative data and findings from research through first person accounts that blend the voices of the participants with those of the researcher, emphasizing the connectedness, the “we” among all participants, researchers, and listeners. These re-presentations allow readers to develop more embodied understandings of both the texture and structure of each of the phenomena and illustrate the use of the composite account as a way for researchers to better understand and convey the wholeness of the experience of any phenomenon under inquiry.

  10. The composite first person narrative: Texture, structure, and meaning in writing phenomenological descriptions.

    Wertz, Marcia Stanley; Nosek, Marcianna; McNiesh, Susan; Marlow, Elizabeth

    2011-04-12

    This paper illustrates the use of composite first person narrative interpretive methods, as described by Todres, across a range of phenomena. This methodology introduces texture into the presently understood structures of phenomena and thereby creates new understandings of the phenomenon, bringing about a form of understanding that is relationally alive that contributes to improved caring practices. The method is influenced by the work of Gendlin, Heidegger, van Manen, Gadamer, and Merleau-Ponty. The method's applicability to different research topics is demonstrated through the composite narratives of nursing students learning nursing practice in an accelerated and condensed program, obese female adolescents attempting weight control, chronically ill male parolees, and midlife women experiencing distress during menopause. Within current research, these four phenomena have been predominantly described and understood through quantified articulations that give the reader a structural understanding of the phenomena, but the more embodied or "contextual" human qualities of the phenomena are often not visible. The "what is it like" or the "unsaid" aspects of such human phenomena are not clear to the reader when proxies are used to "account for" a variety of situated conditions. This novel method is employed to re-present narrative data and findings from research through first person accounts that blend the voices of the participants with those of the researcher, emphasizing the connectedness, the "we" among all participants, researchers, and listeners. These re-presentations allow readers to develop more embodied understandings of both the texture and structure of each of the phenomena and illustrate the use of the composite account as a way for researchers to better understand and convey the wholeness of the experience of any phenomenon under inquiry.

  11. Schizophrenia as social discourse: how do people use their diagnosis for social action?

    Haghighat, Rahman

    2008-12-01

    'Schizophrenia' can do things other than diagnose or stigmatize those so defined in that it can serve various forms of social action. Two hundred and fifty-eight randomly selected patients with an experience of schizophrenia and their relatives participated in the study of schizophrenia as social discourse. They used the diagnosis for political struggle and social leverage in such diverse forms as demonstration of the meaning of 'a schizophrenic', discursive intervention for ideological invitation, reclaiming personal worth (revalorization), solidarity with fellow patients and economic compensation. Despite the inherent value of the diagnosis in helping them get the right treatment, participants saw devaluing meaning in various designations for schizophrenia and, given choice, preferred certain formulations of the diagnosis over others in relation to their social discourse. To be effective, treatment models, service delivery and communication with patients must allow, interpret and incorporate their first person accounts (discourse) as a feature of their individuality and uniqueness in the therapeutic process. This is likely to increase their sense of wellbeing, empowerment and cooperation with the treatment.

  12. Rethinking Schizophrenia

    Insel, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    How will we view schizophrenia in 2030? Schizophrenia today is a chronic, frequently disabling mental disorder that affects about one per cent of the world's population. After a century of studying schizophrenia, the cause of the disorder remains unknown. Treatments, especially pharmacological treatments, have been in wide use for nearly half a century, yet there is little evidence that these treatments have substantially improved outcomes for most people with schizophrenia. These current uns...

  13. Academic essay writing in the first person: a guide for undergraduates.

    Hamill, C

    In this article, Conal Hamill aims to contribute to the on-going debate about the appropriate use of first person writing in academic nursing assignments and provide guidance for nursing undergraduates.

  14. Rethinking schizophrenia.

    Insel, Thomas R

    2010-11-11

    How will we view schizophrenia in 2030? Schizophrenia today is a chronic, frequently disabling mental disorder that affects about one per cent of the world's population. After a century of studying schizophrenia, the cause of the disorder remains unknown. Treatments, especially pharmacological treatments, have been in wide use for nearly half a century, yet there is little evidence that these treatments have substantially improved outcomes for most people with schizophrenia. These current unsatisfactory outcomes may change as we approach schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder with psychosis as a late, potentially preventable stage of the illness. This 'rethinking' of schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder, which is profoundly different from the way we have seen this illness for the past century, yields new hope for prevention and cure over the next two decades.

  15. Schizophrenia risk from complex variation of complement component 4

    Sekar, Aswin; Bialas, Allison R.; de Rivera, Heather; Davis, Avery; Hammond, Timothy R.; Kamitaki, Nolan; Tooley, Katherine; Presumey, Jessy; Baum, Matthew; van Doren, Vanessa; Genovese, Giulio; Rose, Samuel A.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Daly, Mark J.; Carroll, Michael C.; Stevens, Beth; McCarroll, Steven A.; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M.; Corvin, Aiden; Walters, James T. R.; Farh, Kai-How; Holmans, Peter A.; Lee, Phil; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A.; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H.; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amin, Farooq; Bacanu, Silviu A.; Begemann, Martin; Belliveau, Richard A.; Bene, Judit; Bergen, Sarah E.; Bevilacqua, Elizabeth; Bigdeli, Tim B.; Black, Donald W.; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Byerley, William; Cahn, Wiepke; Cai, Guiqing; Cairns, Murray J.; Campion, Dominique; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heritable brain illness with unknown pathogenic mechanisms. Schizophrenia's strongest genetic association at a population level involves variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus, but the genes and molecular mechanisms accounting for this have been challenging

  16. Perception of faces in schizophrenia: Subjective (self-report) vs. objective (psychophysics) assessments

    Chen, Yue; Ekstrom, Tor

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Face perception impairment in schizophrenia has been demonstrated, mostly through experimental studies. How this laboratory-defined behavioral impairment is associated with patients’ perceptual experience of various faces in everyday life is however unclear. This question is important because a first-person account of face perception has direct consequences on social functioning of patients. In this study, we adapted and administered a self-reported questionnaire on narrative perceptual experience of faces along with psychophysical assessments of face perception in schizophrenia. Methods The self-reported questionnaire includes six rating items of face-related functioning in everyday life, providing a subjective measure of face perception. The psychophysical assessment determines perceptual threshold for discriminating different facial identities, providing an objective measure of face perception. Results Compared to controls (n=25), patients (n=35) showed significantly lower scores (worse performance) in the subjective assessment and significantly higher thresholds (worse performance) in the objective assessment. The subjective and objective face perception assessments were moderately correlated in controls but not in patients. The subjective face perception assessments were significantly correlated with measurements of a social cognitive ability (Theory of Mind), again in controls but not in patients. Conclusion These results suggest that in schizophrenia the quality of face-related functioning in everyday life is degraded and the role that basic face discrimination capacity plays in face-related everyday functioning is disrupted. PMID:26938027

  17. Perception of faces in schizophrenia: Subjective (self-report) vs. objective (psychophysics) assessments.

    Chen, Yue; Ekstrom, Tor

    2016-05-01

    Face perception impairment in schizophrenia has been demonstrated, mostly through experimental studies. How this laboratory-defined behavioral impairment is associated with patients' perceptual experience of various faces in everyday life is however unclear. This question is important because a first-person account of face perception has direct consequences on social functioning of patients. In this study, we adapted and administered a self-reported questionnaire on narrative perceptual experience of faces along with psychophysical assessments of face perception in schizophrenia. The self-reported questionnaire includes six rating items of face-related functioning in everyday life, providing a subjective measure of face perception. The psychophysical assessment determines perceptual threshold for discriminating different facial identities, providing an objective measure of face perception. Compared to controls (n = 25), patients (n = 35) showed significantly lower scores (worse performance) in the subjective assessment and significantly higher thresholds (worse performance) in the objective assessment. The subjective and objective face perception assessments were moderately correlated in controls but not in patients. The subjective face perception assessments were significantly correlated with measurements of a social cognitive ability (Theory of Mind), again in controls but not in patients. These results suggest that in schizophrenia the quality of face-related functioning in everyday life is degraded and the role that basic face discrimination capacity plays in face-related everyday functioning is disrupted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrating frequency and magnitude information in decision-making in schizophrenia: An account of patient performance on the Iowa Gambling Task.

    Brown, Elliot C; Hack, Samantha M; Gold, James M; Carpenter, William T; Fischer, Bernard A; Prentice, Kristen P; Waltz, James A

    2015-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; Bechara et al., 1994) has frequently been used to assess risky decision making in clinical populations, including patients with schizophrenia (SZ). Poor performance on the IGT is often attributed to reduced sensitivity to punishment, which contrasts with recent findings from reinforcement learning studies in schizophrenia. In order to investigate possible sources of IGT performance deficits in SZ patients, we combined data from the IGT from 59 SZ patients and 43 demographically-matched controls with data from the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART) in the same participants. Our analyses sought to specifically uncover the role of punishment sensitivity and delineate the capacity to integrate frequency and magnitude information in decision-making under risk. Although SZ patients, on average, made more choices from disadvantageous decks than controls did on the IGT, they avoided decks with frequent punishments at a rate similar to controls. Patients also exhibited excessive loss-avoidance behavior on the BART. We argue that, rather than stemming from reduced sensitivity to negative consequences, performance deficits on the IGT in SZ patients are more likely the result of a reinforcement learning deficit, specifically involving the integration of frequencies and magnitudes of rewards and punishments in the trial-by-trial estimation of expected value. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. "Nous" versus "on": Pronouns with First-Person Plural Reference in Synchronous French Chat

    van Compernolle, Remi A.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores variation in the use of the pronouns "nous" and "on" for first-person plural reference in a substantial corpus of French-language Internet chat discourse. The results indicate that "on" is nearly categorically preferred to "nous," which is in line with previous research on informal spoken French. A qualitative analysis of…

  20. Shifting between Third and First Person Points of View in EFL Narratives

    Shokouhi, Hossein; Daram, Mahmood; Sabah, Somayeh

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the difference between points of view in narrating a short story. The EFL learners taking part in the control group were required to recount the events from the third person perspective and the subjects in the experimental group from the first person perspective. The methodological frame of the study was based on Koven's…

  1. DOOM'd to switch: superior cognitive flexibility in players of first person shooter games

    Colzato, L.S.; van Leeuwen, P.J.A.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Hommel, B.

    2010-01-01

    The interest in the influence of videogame experience on our daily life is constantly growing. "First Person Shooter" (FPS) games require players to develop a flexible mindset to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to switch back and forth between different subtasks. This

  2. Hand pose recognition in First Person Vision through graph spectral analysis

    Baydoun, Mohamad; Betancourt, Alejandro; Morerio, Pietro; Marcenaro, Lucio; Rauterberg, Matthias; Regazzoni, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 IEEE. With the growing availability of wearable technology, video recording devices have become so intimately tied to individuals, that they are able to record the movements of users' hands, making hand-based applications one the most explored area in First Person Vision (FPV). In particular,

  3. Convolutional neural networks for detecting and mapping crowds in first person vision applications

    Olier Jauregui, J.S.; Regazzoni, C.S.; Marcenaro, L.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Rojas, I.; Joya, G.

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest on the analysis of First Person Videos in the last few years due to the spread of low-cost wearable devices. Nevertheless, the understanding of the environment surrounding the wearer is a difficult task with many elements involved. In this work, a method for

  4. GPU accelerated left/right hand-segmentation in first person vision

    Betancourt Arango, A.; Marcenaro, L.; Barakova, E.I.; Rauterberg, M.; Regazzoni, C.S.; Hua, G.; Jegou, H.

    2016-01-01

    Wearable cameras allow users to record their daily activities from a user-centered (First Person Vision) perspective. Due to their favourable location, they frequently capture the hands of the user, and may thus represent a promising user-machine interaction tool for different applications. Existent

  5. Inducing and measuring emotion through a multiplayer first-person shooter computer game

    Merkx, P.A.B.; Truong, K.P.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    To develop an annotated database of spontaneous, multimodal, emotional expressions, recordings were made of facial and vocal expressions of emotions while participants were playing a multiplayer first-person shooter (fps) computer game. During a replay of the session, participants scored their own

  6. Childhood Schizophrenia

    ... Trouble sleeping Irritability or depressed mood Lack of motivation Strange behavior Substance use Compared with schizophrenia symptoms ... may neglect personal hygiene or appear to lack emotion ― doesn't make eye contact, doesn't change ...

  7. First-person visualizations of the special and general theory of relativity

    Kraus, U

    2008-01-01

    Visualizations that adopt a first-person point of view allow observation and, in the case of interactive simulations, experimentation with relativistic scenes. This paper gives examples of three types of first-person visualizations: watching objects that move at nearly the speed of light, being a high-speed observer looking at a static environment and having a look-around near a compact object. I illustrate and explain the main aspects of the visual observations, outline their use in teaching relativity and report on teaching experiences. For teaching purposes, our visualization work is available on the website www.spacetimetravel.org and its German counterpart www.tempolimit-lichtgeschwindigkeit.de. This paper assumes some basic knowledge about relativity on the part of the reader. It addresses instructors of physics at the undergraduate and advanced secondary school level as well as their students

  8. Viewpoint Integration for Hand-Based Recognition of Social Interactions from a First-Person View.

    Bambach, Sven; Crandall, David J; Yu, Chen

    2015-11-01

    Wearable devices are becoming part of everyday life, from first-person cameras (GoPro, Google Glass), to smart watches (Apple Watch), to activity trackers (FitBit). These devices are often equipped with advanced sensors that gather data about the wearer and the environment. These sensors enable new ways of recognizing and analyzing the wearer's everyday personal activities, which could be used for intelligent human-computer interfaces and other applications. We explore one possible application by investigating how egocentric video data collected from head-mounted cameras can be used to recognize social activities between two interacting partners (e.g. playing chess or cards). In particular, we demonstrate that just the positions and poses of hands within the first-person view are highly informative for activity recognition, and present a computer vision approach that detects hands to automatically estimate activities. While hand pose detection is imperfect, we show that combining evidence across first-person views from the two social partners significantly improves activity recognition accuracy. This result highlights how integrating weak but complimentary sources of evidence from social partners engaged in the same task can help to recognize the nature of their interaction.

  9. Exploring social cognition in schizophrenia

    Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare social cognition between groups of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to replicate two previous studies using tests of social cognition that may be particularly sensitive to social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Thirty......-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 11 “imaginary conversation (i.e., theory of mind)” items, 10 “psychological understanding” items, and 10 “practical understanding” items. Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting...... nonsignificant. When intelligence and global cognitive functioning is taken into account, schizophrenia patients and healthy controls perform similarly on social cognitive tests. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg...

  10. Spatial Rotation, Aggression, and Gender in First-Person-Shooter Video Games and Their Influence on Math Achievement

    Krone, Beth K.

    2012-01-01

    As shown by the neuropsychological educational approach to the cognitive remediation model, first-person-shooter video game play eliminates gender-related deficits in spatial rotation. Spatial rotation increases academic success and decreases social and economic disparities. Per the general aggression model, first-person-shooter video game play…

  11. Genetics Home Reference: schizophrenia

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Schizophrenia Schizophrenia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Schizophrenia is a brain disorder classified as a psychosis, ...

  12. Playing a first-person shooter video game induces neuroplastic change.

    Wu, Sijing; Cheng, Cho Kin; Feng, Jing; D'Angelo, Lisa; Alain, Claude; Spence, Ian

    2012-06-01

    Playing a first-person shooter (FPS) video game alters the neural processes that support spatial selective attention. Our experiment establishes a causal relationship between playing an FPS game and neuroplastic change. Twenty-five participants completed an attentional visual field task while we measured ERPs before and after playing an FPS video game for a cumulative total of 10 hr. Early visual ERPs sensitive to bottom-up attentional processes were little affected by video game playing for only 10 hr. However, participants who played the FPS video game and also showed the greatest improvement on the attentional visual field task displayed increased amplitudes in the later visual ERPs. These potentials are thought to index top-down enhancement of spatial selective attention via increased inhibition of distractors. Individual variations in learning were observed, and these differences show that not all video game players benefit equally, either behaviorally or in terms of neural change.

  13. DEVELOP-FPS: a First Person Shooter Development Tool for Rule-based Scripts

    Bruno Correia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We present DEVELOP-FPS, a software tool specially designed for the development of First Person Shooter (FPS players controlled by Rule Based Scripts. DEVELOP-FPS may be used by FPS developers to create, debug, maintain and compare rule base player behaviours, providing a set of useful functionalities: i for an easy preparation of the right scenarios for game debugging and testing; ii for controlling the game execution: users can stop and resume the game execution at any instant, monitoring and controlling every player in the game, monitoring the state of each player, their rule base activation, being able to issue commands to control their behaviour; and iii to automatically run a certain number of game executions and collect data in order to evaluate and compare the players performance along a sufficient number of similar experiments.

  14. Anorexia Nervosa and First-Person Perspective: Altruism, Family System, and Body Experience.

    Englebert, Jérôme; Follet, Valérie; Valentiny, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    Based on the case study of Jeanne, the objective of this article is to study patterns of specific subjectivity in anorexic subjects. We seek to identify, in a first-person perspective, the core vulnerability features of anorexic existence, beyond the dimension of food alone. The identification of a psychopathological structure results in a better understanding of Jeanne's clinical situation and helps formulate psychotherapeutic and prophylactic recommendations. We suggest that so-called "denial" is a psychological mechanism that should be reconsidered. Denial is not a mechanism pertaining to anorexic subjects alone, but is also a process encountered both in the patient's family and in the therapeutic environment. Anorexic denial is based on anosognosia and the refusal to see one's own thinness, while other people's denial consists in a widespread inability to perceive the altruism and intersubjective problematic on which the existence of an anorexic subject fundamentally depends. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. DOOM'd to switch: superior cognitive flexibility in players of first person shooter games

    Lorenza S Colzato

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the influence of videogame experience on our daily life is constantly growing. “First Person Shooter” (FPS games require players to develop a flexible mindset to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to switch back and forth between different subtasks. This study investigated whether and to which degree experience with such videogames generalizes to other cognitive control tasks. Video game players (VGPs and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs performed on a task switching paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of cognitive flexibility. As predicted, VGPs showed smaller switching costs (i.e., greater cognitive flexibility than NVGPs. Our findings support the idea that playing FPS games promotes cognitive flexibility.

  16. Dreaming as mind wandering: evidence from functional neuroimaging and first-person content reports.

    Fox, Kieran C R; Nijeboer, Savannah; Solomonova, Elizaveta; Domhoff, G William; Christoff, Kalina

    2013-01-01

    Isolated reports have long suggested a similarity in content and thought processes across mind wandering (MW) during waking, and dream mentation during sleep. This overlap has encouraged speculation that both "daydreaming" and dreaming may engage similar brain mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we systematically examined published first-person experiential reports of MW and dreaming and found many similarities: in both states, content is largely audiovisual and emotional, follows loose narratives tinged with fantasy, is strongly related to current concerns, draws on long-term memory, and simulates social interactions. Both states are also characterized by a relative lack of meta-awareness. To relate first-person reports to neural evidence, we compared meta-analytic data from numerous functional neuroimaging (PET, fMRI) studies of the default mode network (DMN, with high chances of MW) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (with high chances of dreaming). Our findings show large overlaps in activation patterns of cortical regions: similar to MW/DMN activity, dreaming and REM sleep activate regions implicated in self-referential thought and memory, including medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), medial temporal lobe structures, and posterior cingulate. Conversely, in REM sleep numerous PFC executive regions are deactivated, even beyond levels seen during waking MW. We argue that dreaming can be understood as an "intensified" version of waking MW: though the two share many similarities, dreams tend to be longer, more visual and immersive, and to more strongly recruit numerous key hubs of the DMN. Further, whereas MW recruits fewer PFC regions than goal-directed thought, dreaming appears to be characterized by an even deeper quiescence of PFC regions involved in cognitive control and metacognition, with a corresponding lack of insight and meta-awareness. We suggest, then, that dreaming amplifies the same features that distinguish MW from goal-directed waking thought.

  17. [Dissociative identity disorder or schizophrenia?].

    Tschöke, S; Steinert, T

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of dissociative identity disorder in which Schneiderian first rank symptoms were present besides of various states of consciousness. Thus the diagnosis of schizophrenia had to be considered. Formally, the symptoms met ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia. However, taking into account the lack of formal thought disorder and of negative symptoms as well as a typical history of severe and prolonged traumatisation, we did not diagnose a co-morbid schizophrenic disorder. There is good evidence for the existence of psychotic symptoms among patients with dissociative disorders. However, in clinical practice this differential diagnosis is rarely considered.

  18. Large recurrent microdeletions associated with schizophrenia

    Stefansson, H.; Rujescu, D.; Cichon, S.

    2008-01-01

    Reduced fecundity, associated with severe mental disorders, places negative selection pressure on risk alleles and may explain, in part, why common variants have not been found that confer risk of disorders such as autism, schizophrenia and mental retardation. Thus, rare variants may account...... and autism. In a genome-wide search for CNVs associating with schizophrenia, we used a population-based sample to identify de novo CNVs by analysing 9,878 transmissions from parents to offspring. The 66 de novo CNVs identified were tested for association in a sample of 1,433 schizophrenia cases and 33......,250 controls. Three deletions at 1q21.1, 15q11.2 and 15q13.3 showing nominal association with schizophrenia in the first sample (phase I) were followed up in a second sample of 3,285 cases and 7,951 controls (phase II). All three deletions significantly associate with schizophrenia and related psychoses...

  19. First-person and third-person verbs in visual motion-perception regions.

    Papeo, Liuba; Lingnau, Angelika

    2015-02-01

    Verb-related activity is consistently found in the left posterior lateral cortex (PLTC), encompassing also regions that respond to visual-motion perception. Besides motion, those regions appear sensitive to distinctions among the entities beyond motion, including that between first- vs. third-person ("third-person bias"). In two experiments, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we studied whether the implied subject (first/third-person) and/or the semantic content (motor/non-motor) of verbs modulate the neural activity in the left PLTC-regions responsive during basic- and biological-motion perception. In those sites, we found higher activity for verbs than for nouns. This activity was modulated by the person (but not the semantic content) of the verbs, with stronger response to third- than first-person verbs. The third-person bias elicited by verbs supports a role of motion-processing regions in encoding information about the entity beyond (and independently from) motion, and sets in a new light the role of these regions in verb processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impulsivity and related neuropsychological features in regular and addictive first person shooter gaming.

    Metcalf, Olivia; Pammer, Kristen

    2014-03-01

    Putative cyber addictions are of significant interest. There remains little experimental research into excessive use of first person shooter (FPS) games, despite their global popularity. Moreover, the role between excessive gaming and impulsivity remains unclear, with previous research showing conflicting findings. The current study investigated performances on a number of neuropsychological tasks (go/no-go, continuous performance task, Iowa gambling task) and a trait measure of impulsivity for a group of regular FPS gamers (n=25), addicted FPS gamers (n=22), and controls (n=22). Gamers were classified using the Addiction-Engagement Questionnaire. Addicted FPS gamers had significantly higher levels of trait impulsivity on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale compared to controls. Addicted FPS gamers also had significantly higher levels of disinhibition in a go/no-go task and inattention in a continuous performance task compared to controls, whereas the regular FPS gamers had better decision making on the Iowa gambling task compared to controls. The results indicate impulsivity is associated with FPS gaming addiction, comparable to pathological gambling. The relationship between impulsivity and excessive gaming may be unique to the FPS genre. Furthermore, regular FPS gaming may improve decision making ability.

  1. The effects of frame rate and resolution on users playing first person shooter games

    Claypool, Mark; Claypool, Kajal; Damaa, Feissal

    2006-01-01

    The rates and resolutions for frames rendered in a computer game directly impact the player performance, influencing both the overall game playability and the game's enjoyability. Insights into the effects of frame rates and resolutions can guide users in their choice for game settings and new hardware purchases, and inform system designers in their development of new hardware, especially for embedded devices that often must make tradeoffs between resolution and frame rate. While there have been studies detailing the effects of frame rate and resolution on streaming video and other multimedia applications, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies quantifying the effects of frame rate and resolution on user performance for computer games. This paper presents results of a carefully designed user study that measures the impact of frame rate and frame resolution on user performance in a first person shooter game. Contrary to previous results for streaming video, frame rate has a marked impact on both player performance and game enjoyment while resolution has little impact on performance and some impact on enjoyment.

  2. Catching Audiovisual Interactions With a First-Person Fisherman Video Game.

    Sun, Yile; Hickey, Timothy J; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara; Sekuler, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The human brain is excellent at integrating information from different sources across multiple sensory modalities. To examine one particularly important form of multisensory interaction, we manipulated the temporal correlation between visual and auditory stimuli in a first-person fisherman video game. Subjects saw rapidly swimming fish whose size oscillated, either at 6 or 8 Hz. Subjects categorized each fish according to its rate of size oscillation, while trying to ignore a concurrent broadband sound seemingly emitted by the fish. In three experiments, categorization was faster and more accurate when the rate at which a fish oscillated in size matched the rate at which the accompanying, task-irrelevant sound was amplitude modulated. Control conditions showed that the difference between responses to matched and mismatched audiovisual signals reflected a performance gain in the matched condition, rather than a cost from the mismatched condition. The performance advantage with matched audiovisual signals was remarkably robust over changes in task demands between experiments. Performance with matched or unmatched audiovisual signals improved over successive trials at about the same rate, emblematic of perceptual learning in which visual oscillation rate becomes more discriminable with experience. Finally, analysis at the level of individual subjects' performance pointed to differences in the rates at which subjects can extract information from audiovisual stimuli.

  3. First-person perspective effects on theory of mind without self-reference.

    Yuki Otsuka

    Full Text Available This study examined dissociations between brain networks involved in theory of mind, which is needed for guessing others' mental states, and the self, which might constitute the basis for theory of mind's development. We used event-related fMRI to compare a condition that required participants to guess the mental state of a subject featured in first-person perspective sentences (1stPP condition with a third-person perspective sentence condition (3rdPP condition. The caudate nucleus was marginally more activated in the 1stPP than in the 3rdPP condition, while the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC was significantly more activated in the 3rdPP condition as compared to the 1stPP condition. Furthermore, we examined the correlation between activation (signal intensity of the caudate nucleus and left DLPFC with that of the right DLPFC, which is thought to be closely connected with sense of self. We found a significant correlation between caudate nucleus and right DLPFC activation in the 1stPP condition, and between left and right DLPFC activation in the 3rdPP condition. Although theory of mind and the self both appear to recruit the right DLPFC, this region seems to be accessed through the left DLPFC during theory of mind tasks, but through the caudate nucleus when tasks require self reference.

  4. Disrupted Olfactory Integration in Schizophrenia: Functional Connectivity Study.

    Kiparizoska, Sara; Ikuta, Toshikazu

    2017-09-01

    Evidence for olfactory dysfunction in schizophrenia has been firmly established. However, in the typical understanding of schizophrenia, olfaction is not recognized to contribute to or interact with the illness. Despite the solid presence of olfactory dysfunction in schizophrenia, its relation to the rest of the illness remains largely unclear. Here, we aimed to examine functional connectivity of the olfactory bulb, olfactory tract, and piriform cortices and isolate the network that would account for the altered olfaction in schizophrenia. We examined the functional connectivity of these specific olfactory regions in order to isolate other brain regions associated with olfactory processing in schizophrenia. Using the resting state functional MRI data from the Center for Biomedical Research Excellence in Brain Function and Mental Illness, we compared 84 patients of schizophrenia and 90 individuals without schizophrenia. The schizophrenia group showed disconnectivity between the anterior piriform cortex and the nucleus accumbens, between the posterior piriform cortex and the middle frontal gyrus, and between the olfactory tract and the visual cortices. The current results suggest functional disconnectivity of olfactory regions in schizophrenia, which may account for olfactory dysfunction and disrupted integration with other sensory modalities in schizophrenia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  5. Reward system and temporal pole contributions to affective evaluation during a first person shooter video game

    Weber René

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violent content in video games evokes many concerns but there is little research concerning its rewarding aspects. It was demonstrated that playing a video game leads to striatal dopamine release. It is unclear, however, which aspects of the game cause this reward system activation and if violent content contributes to it. We combined functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI with individual affect measures to address the neuronal correlates of violence in a video game. Results Thirteen male German volunteers played a first-person shooter game (Tactical Ops: Assault on Terror during fMRI measurement. We defined success as eliminating opponents, and failure as being eliminated themselves. Affect was measured directly before and after game play using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS. Failure and success events evoked increased activity in visual cortex but only failure decreased activity in orbitofrontal cortex and caudate nucleus. A negative correlation between negative affect and responses to failure was evident in the right temporal pole (rTP. Conclusions The deactivation of the caudate nucleus during failure is in accordance with its role in reward-prediction error: it occurred whenever subject missed an expected reward (being eliminated rather than eliminating the opponent. We found no indication that violence events were directly rewarding for the players. We addressed subjective evaluations of affect change due to gameplay to study the reward system. Subjects reporting greater negative affect after playing the game had less rTP activity associated with failure. The rTP may therefore be involved in evaluating the failure events in a social context, to regulate the players' mood.

  6. Visuospatial viewpoint manipulation during full-body illusion modulates subjective first-person perspective.

    Pfeiffer, Christian; Schmutz, Valentin; Blanke, Olaf

    2014-12-01

    Self-consciousness is based on multisensory signals from the body. In full-body illusion (FBI) experiments, multisensory conflict was used to induce changes in three key aspects of bodily self-consciousness (BSC): self-identification (which body 'I' identify with), self-location (where 'I' am located), and first-person perspective (from where 'I' experience the world; 1PP). Here, we adapted a previous FBI protocol in which visuotactile stroking was administered by a robotic device (tactile stroking) and simultaneously rendered on the back of a virtual body (visual stroking) that participants viewed on a head-mounted display as if filmed from a posterior viewpoint of a camera. We compared the effects of two different visuospatial viewpoints on the FBI and thereby on these key aspects of BSC. During control manipulations, participants saw a no-body object instead of a virtual body (first experiment) or received asynchronous versus synchronous visuotactile stroking (second experiment). Results showed that within-subjects visuospatial viewpoint manipulations affected the subjective 1PP ratings if a virtual body was seen but had no effect for viewing a non-body object. However, visuospatial viewpoint had no effect on self-identification, but depended on the viewed object and visuotactile synchrony. Self-location depended on visuospatial viewpoint (first experiment) and visuotactile synchrony (second experiment). Our results show that the visuospatial viewpoint from which the virtual body is seen during FBIs modulates the subjective 1PP and that such viewpoint manipulations contribute to spatial aspects of BSC. We compare the present data with recent data revealing vestibular contributions to the subjective 1PP and discuss the multisensory nature of BSC and the subjective 1PP.

  7. First-Person Perspective Virtual Body Posture Influences Stress: A Virtual Reality Body Ownership Study

    Bergström, Ilias; Kilteni, Konstantina; Slater, Mel

    2016-01-01

    In immersive virtual reality (IVR) it is possible to replace a person’s real body by a life-sized virtual body that is seen from first person perspective to visually substitute their own. Multisensory feedback from the virtual to the real body (such as the correspondence of touch and also movement) can also be present. Under these conditions participants typically experience a subjective body ownership illusion (BOI) over the virtual body, even though they know that it is not their real one. In most studies and applications the posture of the real and virtual bodies are as similar as possible. Here we were interested in whether the BOI is diminished when there are gross discrepancies between the real and virtual body postures. We also explored whether a comfortable or uncomfortable virtual body posture would induce feelings and physiological responses commensurate with the posture. We carried out an experiment with 31 participants in IVR realized with a wide field-of-view head-mounted display. All participants were comfortably seated. Sixteen of them were embodied in a virtual body designed to be in a comfortable posture, and the remainder in an uncomfortable posture. The results suggest that the uncomfortable body posture led to lesser subjective BOI than the comfortable one, but that participants in the uncomfortable posture experienced greater awareness of their autonomic physiological responses. Moreover their heart rate, heart rate variability, and the number of mistakes in a cognitive task were associated with the strength of their BOI in the uncomfortable posture: greater heart rate, lower heart rate variability and more mistakes were associated with higher levels of the BOI. These findings point in a consistent direction—that the BOI over a body that is in an uncomfortable posture can lead to subjective, physiological and cognitive effects consistent with discomfort that do not occur with the BOI over a body in a comfortable posture. PMID:26828365

  8. Does excessive play of violent first-person-shooter-video-games dampen brain activity in response to emotional stimuli?

    Montag, Christian; Weber, Bernd; Trautner, Peter; Newport, Beate; Markett, Sebastian; Walter, Nora T; Felten, Andrea; Reuter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The present case-control study investigated the processing of emotional pictures in excessive first-person-shooter-video-players and control persons. All participants of the fMRI experiment were confronted with pictures from four categories including pleasant, unpleasant, neutral content and pictures from the first-person-shooter-video-game 'Counterstrike'. Compared to controls, gamers showed a significantly lower activation of the left lateral medial frontal lobe while processing negative emotions. Another interesting finding of the study represents the higher activation of frontal and temporal brain areas in gamers when processing screen-shots from the first-person-shooter-video-game 'Counterstrike'. Higher brain activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex could represent a protection mechanism against experiencing negative emotions by down-regulating limbic brain activity. Due to a frequent confrontation with violent scenes, the first-person-shooter-video-gamers might have habituated to the effects of unpleasant stimuli resulting in lower brain activation. Individual differences in brain activations of the contrast Counterstrike>neutral pictures potentially resemble the activation of action-scripts related to the video-game. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. It's All a Matter of Perspective: Viewing First-Person Video Modeling Examples Promotes Learning of an Assembly Task

    Fiorella, Logan; van Gog, Tamara; Hoogerheide, Vincent; Mayer, Richard E.

    2017-01-01

    The present study tests whether presenting video modeling examples from the learner's (first-person) perspective promotes learning of an assembly task, compared to presenting video examples from a third-person perspective. Across 2 experiments conducted in different labs, university students viewed a video showing how to assemble an 8-component…

  10. Self-disorders and Schizophrenia: A Phenomenological Reappraisal of Poor Insight and Noncompliance

    Henriksen, Mads G.; Parnas, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Poor insight into illness is considered the primary cause of treatment noncompliance in schizophrenia. In this article, we critically discuss the predominant conceptual accounts of poor insight, which consider it as an ineffective self-reflection, caused either by psychological defenses or impaired metacognition. We argue that these accounts are at odds with the phenomenology of schizophrenia, and we propose a novel account of poor insight. We suggest that the reason why schizophrenia patient...

  11. Risk architecture of schizophrenia: the role of epigenetics.

    Svrakic, Dragan M; Zorumski, Charles F; Svrakic, Nenad M; Zwir, Igor; Cloninger, Claude R

    2013-03-01

    To systematize existing data and review new findings on the cause of schizophrenia and outline an improved mixed model of schizophrenia risk. Multiple and variable genetic and environmental factors interact to influence the risk of schizophrenia. Both rare variants with large effect and common variants with small effect contribute to genetic risk of schizophrenia, with no indication for differential impact on its clinical features. Accumulating evidence supports a genetic architecture of schizophrenia with multiple scenarios, including additive polygenic, heterogeneity, and mixed polygenic-heterogeneity. The epigenetic mechanisms that mediate gene-environment (GxE) interactions provide a framework to incorporate environmental factors into models of schizophrenia risk. Environmental pathogens with small effect on risk have robust effects in the context of family history of schizophrenia. Hence, genetic risk for schizophrenia may be expressed in part as sensitivity to environmental factors. We propose an improved mixed model of schizophrenia risk in which abnormal epigenetic states with large effects are superimposed on a polygenic liability to schizophrenia. This scenario can account for GxE interactions and shared family environment, which in many cases are not explained by a single structural variant of large effect superimposed on polygenes (the traditional mixed model).

  12. SCHIZOPHRENIA: A REVIEW

    Parle Milind; Sharma Kailash

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia continues to be a mysterious disease fascinating the minds of psychiatrists, pharmacologists and neuroscientists all over the world for more than a century. The crucial welfare of the millions afflicted with schizophrenia is at stake. The cause of schizophrenia is not yet identified. However, it appears from the available reports that schizophrenia results from genetic, occupational and environmental risk factors, which act independently or combine synergistically to develop sch...

  13. Dreaming and Schizophrenia.

    Stickney, Jeffrey L.

    Parallels between dream states and schizophrenia suggest that the study of dreams may offer some information about schizophrenia. A major theoretical assumption of the research on dreaming and schizophrenia is that, in schizophrenics, the dream state intrudes on the awake state creating a dreamlike symptomatology. This theory, called the REM…

  14. First episode schizophrenia

    with schizophrenia present clinically with psychotic, negative and cognitive ... changes in their emotions, cognition or behaviour which may indicate a ... contribute 80% to the risk of schizophrenia developing. A number of .... Positive symptoms ... Depression ... treatment of first episode schizophrenia is of critical importance.

  15. The Genetic Subject Reconsidered: An Argument for a First-Person Approach to Patients with Huntington's Disease

    Flaherty, Devin

    2013-01-01

    Recent work in the anthropology of moralities has evidenced two divergent notions of the "subject". One takes the subject, or "self" to be a locus of experience, emotion, and action. The other takes the subject to be a product of contemporary regimes of truth and the occupant of various subject positions which determine her ethical and existential possibilities. These positions can be identified as a "first-person, humanist" and "poststructural" approach respectively. In this essay, I argue t...

  16. Interoception and positive symptoms in Schizophrenia

    Martina Ardizzi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the multifaceted concept of self-disturbance in schizophrenia, adding knowledge about a not yet investigated aspect, which is the interoceptive accuracy. Starting from the assumption that interoceptive accuracy requires an intact sense of self, which otherwise was proved to be altered in schizophrenia, the aim of the present study was to explore interoceptive accuracy in a group of schizophrenia patients, compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, the possible association between interoceptive accuracy and patients’ positive and negative symptomatology was assessed. To pursue these goals, a group of 23 schizophrenia patients and a group of 23 healthy controls performed a heartbeat perception task. Patients’ symptomatology was assessed by means of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Results demonstrated significantly lower interoceptive accuracy in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. This difference was not accounted for participants’ age, BMI, anxiety levels and heart rate. Furthermore, patients’ illness severity, attention and pharmacological treatment did not influence their interoceptive accuracy levels. Interestingly, a strong positive relation between interoceptive accuracy and positive symptoms severity, especially Grandiosity, was found. The present results demonstrate for the first time that interoceptive accuracy is altered in schizophrenia. Furthermore, they prove a specific association between interoceptive accuracy and positive symptomatology, suggesting that the symptom Grandiosity might be protective against an altered basic sense of self in patients characterized by higher sensibility to their inner bodily sensations.

  17. Psychosis among "healthy" siblings of schizophrenia patients

    Partonen Timo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia aggregates in families and accurate diagnoses are essential for genetic studies of schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated whether siblings of patients with schizophrenia can be identified as free of any psychotic disorder using only register information. We also analyzed the emergence of psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia during seven to eleven years of follow-up. Methods A genetically homogenous population isolate in north-eastern Finland having 365 families with 446 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia was initially identified in 1991 using four nationwide registers. Between 1998 and 2002, 124 patients and 183 siblings in 110 families were contacted and interviewed using SCID-I, SCID-II and SANS. We also compared the frequency of mental disorders between siblings and a random population comparison group sample. Results Thirty (16% siblings received a diagnosis of psychotic disorder in the interview. 14 siblings had had psychotic symptoms already before 1991, while 16 developed psychotic symptoms during the follow-up. Over half of the siblings (n = 99, 54% had a lifetime diagnosis of any mental disorder in the interview. Conclusion Register information cannot be used to exclude psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia. The high rate of emergence of new psychotic disorders among initially healthy siblings should be taken into account in genetic analysis.

  18. Occipital bending in schizophrenia.

    Maller, Jerome J; Anderson, Rodney J; Thomson, Richard H; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of occipital bending (an occipital lobe crossing or twisting across the midline) in subjects with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls. Occipital bending prevalence was investigated in 37 patients with schizophrenia and 44 healthy controls. Ratings showed that prevalence was nearly three times higher among schizophrenia patients (13/37 [35.1%]) than in control subjects (6/44 [13.6%]). Furthermore, those with schizophrenia had greater normalized gray matter volume but less white matter volume and had larger brain-to-cranial ratio. The results suggest that occipital bending is more prevalent among schizophrenia patients than healthy subjects and that schizophrenia patients have different gray matter-white matter proportions. Although the cause and clinical ramifications of occipital bending are unclear, the results infer that occipital bending may be a marker of psychiatric illness.

  19. Toxoplasma gondii and schizophrenia

    Mokhtari Mohammadreza; Mokhtari Mojgan

    2006-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies indicate that infectious agents may contribute to some cases of schizophrenia. In animals, infection with Toxoplasma gondii can alter behavior and neurotransmitter function. In humans, acute infection with T. gondii can produce psychotic symptoms similar to those displayed by persons with schizophrenia. Since 1953, a total of 19 studies of T. gondii antibodies in persons with schizophrenia and other severe psychiatric disorders and in controls have been reported; ...

  20. Women and schizophrenia

    Thara, R.; Kamath, Shantha

    2015-01-01

    Women's mental health is closely linked to their status in society. This paper outlines the clinical features of women with schizophrenia and highlights the interpersonal and social ramifications on their lives. There is no significant gender difference in the incidence and prevalence of schizophrenia. There is no clear trend in mortality, although suicides seem to be more in women with schizophrenia. In India, women face a lot of problems, especially in relation to marriage, pregnancy, child...

  1. Biological study in schizophrenia

    Kasai, Kiyoto; Yoshikawa, Akane; Natsubori, Takanobu; Koike, Shinsuke; Nagai, Tatsuya; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Nishimura, Yukika; Iwamoto, Kazuya

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with enormous morbidity, mortality, personal disability, and social cost. Although considerable research on schizophrenia has been performed, the etiology of this disease has not been fully elucidated. In recent years, imaging and genetic technologies have been developed dramatically. Disturbances in glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurotransmission may underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We attempted an integrative review, of studies pertaining to recent advances of schizophrenia research with a focus on neuroimaging and genetic studies. Additionally, we present the preliminary findings of the clinical research in our outpatient unit, specialized for early intervention, at the University of Tokyo Hospital. (author)

  2. The Danish Schizophrenia Registry

    Baandrup, Lone; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Haller, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database: To systematically monitor and improve the quality of treatment and care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. In addition, the database is accessible as a resource for research. Study population: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and receiving mental health care...... to the data for use in specific research projects by applying to the steering committee. Conclusion: The Danish Schizophrenia Registry represents a valuable source of informative data to monitor and improve the quality of care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. However, continuous resources and time...

  3. The cost of schizophrenia in Japan

    Sado M

    2013-05-01

    , the direct cost accounted for a relatively high proportion of the total cost. Furthermore, absolute costs arising from unemployment were larger, while the prevalence rate was smaller, than the corresponding results for depression or anxiety in Japan. Keywords: cost of illness, schizophrenia, societal burden, cost analysis, societal cost

  4. Potential Value of Genomic Copy Number Variations in Schizophrenia

    Chuanjun Zhuo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a devastating neuropsychiatric disorder affecting approximately 1% of the global population, and the disease has imposed a considerable burden on families and society. Although, the exact cause of schizophrenia remains unknown, several lines of scientific evidence have revealed that genetic variants are strongly correlated with the development and early onset of the disease. In fact, the heritability among patients suffering from schizophrenia is as high as 80%. Genomic copy number variations (CNVs are one of the main forms of genomic variations, ubiquitously occurring in the human genome. An increasing number of studies have shown that CNVs account for population diversity and genetically related diseases, including schizophrenia. The last decade has witnessed rapid advances in the development of novel genomic technologies, which have led to the identification of schizophrenia-associated CNVs, insight into the roles of the affected genes in their intervals in schizophrenia, and successful manipulation of the target CNVs. In this review, we focus on the recent discoveries of important CNVs that are associated with schizophrenia and outline the potential values that the study of CNVs will bring to the areas of schizophrenia research, diagnosis, and therapy. Furthermore, with the help of the novel genetic tool known as the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats-associated nuclease 9 (CRISPR/Cas9 system, the pathogenic CNVs as genomic defects could be corrected. In conclusion, the recent novel findings of schizophrenia-associated CNVs offer an exciting opportunity for schizophrenia research to decipher the pathological mechanisms underlying the onset and development of schizophrenia as well as to provide potential clinical applications in genetic counseling, diagnosis, and therapy for this complex mental disease.

  5. Schizophrenia and Metacognition

    Austin, Stephen F.; Mors, Ole; Nordentoft, Merete

    2014-01-01

    tested for relationships between course of illness and levels of specific metacognitions in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. A large cohort of people with first episode psychosis (n = 578) recruited as part the OPUS trial (1998–2000) were tested. Information about course of illness (remitted, episodic...... beliefs may also impact on positive symptoms and course of illness within schizophrenia....

  6. GABAergic Mechanisms in Schizophrenia

    de Jonge, Jeroen C; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking, and impairments in cognitive functioning. Evidence from postmortem studies suggests that alterations in cortical γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurons contribute to the clinical features...... of schizophrenia. In vivo measurement of brain GABA levels using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) offers the possibility to provide more insight into the relationship between problems in GABAergic neurotransmission and clinical symptoms of schizophrenia patients. This study reviews and links alterations...... in the GABA system in postmortem studies, animal models, and human studies in schizophrenia. Converging evidence implicates alterations in both presynaptic and postsynaptic components of GABAergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia, and GABA may thus play an important role in the pathophysiology...

  7. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia

    Joana Vieira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several reviews of the literature support the idea that cognitive deficits observed in a large percentage of patients with schizophrenia are responsible for the cognitive performance deficit and functional disability associated with the disease. The grow- ing importance of neurocognition in Psychiatry, especially with regard to planning strategies and rehabilitative therapies to improve the prognosis of patients contrib- utes to the interest of achieving this literature review on cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia. In this work, drawn from research in the areas of schizophrenia, cog- nition, cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive remediation (2000-2012 through PubMed and The Cochrane Collaboration, it is intended, to describe the types of psychological and behavioral therapies recommended in the treatment of cognitive disabilities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. This review will also highlight the clinical and scientific evidence of each of these therapies, as their effect on cognitive performance, symptoms and functionality in patients with schizophrenia.

  8. Schizophrenia and Suicide

    Ozlem Cetin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is one of the major causes of premature death among patients with schizophrenia. Follow-up studies have estimated that 4-5% of these patients die by suicide. Reducing the high rates of suicide in schizophrenia is possible with understanding of predictive risk factors. Various studies have identified risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia patients. Clinical risk factors include previous suicide attempts, comorbid depression, feelings of hopelessness, concept of insight and substance abuse. Biopsychosocial factors, such as a high intelligence quotient and high level of premorbid functioning, have also been associated with an increased risk of suicide in patients with schizophrenia. The risk of suicide is considered to be highest in the early course of illness. Antipsychotic drugs, in particular clozapine and antidepressants may be helpful in reducing the risk of suicide in schizophrenia.

  9. First Person Victim

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Bruni, Luis Emilio; Khalil, Faysal Fuad

    2010-01-01

    this problem, and to propose a way to structure content, we have developed the Interactive Dramatic Experience Model, which attempts to organize narrative events in a 3D world while keeping the freedom of spatial interactivity. In order to exemplify this model, we have chosen to oppose the classic genre...

  10. Visual masking & schizophrenia

    Michael H. Herzog

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual masking is a frequently used tool in schizophrenia research. Visual masking has a very high sensitivity and specificity and masking paradigms have been proven to be endophenotypes. Whereas masking is a powerful technique to study schizophrenia, the underlying mechanisms are discussed controversially. For example, for more than 25 years, masking deficits of schizophrenia patients were mainly attributed to a deficient magno-cellular system (M-system. Here, we show that there is very little evidence that masking deficits are magno-cellular deficits. We will discuss the magno-cellular and other approaches in detail and highlight their pros and cons.

  11. Process Accounting

    Gilbertson, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Standard utilities can help you collect and interpret your Linux system's process accounting data. Describes the uses of process accounting, standard process accounting commands, and example code that makes use of process accounting utilities.

  12. Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia

    Howes, Oliver D; McCutcheon, Rob; Agid, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research and clinical translation in schizophrenia is limited by inconsistent definitions of treatment resistance and response. To address this issue, the authors evaluated current approaches and then developed consensus criteria and guidelines. METHOD: A systematic review of randomize...

  13. [Risk factors of schizophrenia].

    Suvisaari, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial, neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. Disturbances of brain development begin prenatally, while different environmental insults further affect postnatal brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have succeeded in identifying hundreds of new risk variants for common, multifactorial diseases. In schizophrenia research, GWAS have found several rare copy number variants that considerably increase the risk of schizophrenia, and have shown an association between schizophrenia and the major histocompatibility complex. Research on environmental risk factors in recent years has provided new information particularly on risk factors related to pregnancy and childhood rearing environment. Gene-environment interactions have become a central research topic. There is evidence that genetically susceptible children are more vulnerable to the effects of unstable childhood rearing environment and other environmental risk factors.

  14. Schizophrenia and chromosomal deletions

    Lindsay, E.A.; Baldini, A. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Morris, M. A. [Univ. of Geneva School of Medicine, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    Recent genetic linkage analysis studies have suggested the presence of a schizophrenia locus on the chromosomal region 22q11-q13. Schizophrenia has also been frequently observed in patients affected with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a disorder frequently associated with deletions within 22q11.1. It has been hypothesized that psychosis in VCFS may be due to deletion of the catechol-o-methyl transferase gene. Prompted by these observations, we screened for 22q11 deletions in a population of 100 schizophrenics selected from the Maryland Epidemiological Sample. Our results show that there are schizophrenic patients carrying a deletion of 22q11.1 and a mild VCFS phenotype that might remain unrecognized. These findings should encourage a search for a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene within the deleted region and alert those in clinical practice to the possible presence of a mild VCFS phenotype associated with schizophrenia. 9 refs.

  15. Amygdala Hyperactivity at Rest in Paranoid Individuals With Schizophrenia.

    Pinkham, Amy E; Liu, Peiying; Lu, Hanzhang; Kriegsman, Michael; Simpson, Claire; Tamminga, Carol

    2015-08-01

    The amygdala's role in threat perception suggests that increased activation of this region may be related to paranoid ideation. However, investigations of amygdala function in paranoid individuals with schizophrenia, compared with both healthy individuals and nonparanoid individuals with schizophrenia, have consistently reported reduced task-related activation. The reliance of blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional MRI on a contrast between events and baseline, and the inability to quantitatively measure this baseline, may account for these counterintuitive findings. The present study tested for differences in baseline levels of amygdala activity in paranoid and nonparanoid individuals with schizophrenia using arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI. Resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and task-related activation of the amygdala were measured in 25 healthy individuals, 16 individuals with schizophrenia who were actively paranoid at the time of scanning, and 16 individuals with schizophrenia who were not paranoid. Analysis of relative CBF values extracted from the amygdala bilaterally revealed significantly increased activity in the left amygdala in paranoid patient volunteers compared with healthy comparison subjects and nonparanoid patient volunteers. Increased CBF was also evident in the right amygdala but did not reach the level of statistical significance. Paranoid volunteers also showed significantly decreased task-related activation of the amygdala compared with the two other groups. These findings suggest that amygdala hyperactivation may underlie paranoia in schizophrenia. Additionally, the reported differences between paranoid and nonparanoid patient volunteers emphasize the importance of considering symptom-based subgroups and baseline levels of activity in future investigations of neural activation in schizophrenia.

  16. Elevated gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in chronic schizophrenia.

    Ongür, Dost; Prescot, Andrew P; McCarthy, Julie; Cohen, Bruce M; Renshaw, Perry F

    2010-10-01

    Despite widely replicated abnormalities of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons in schizophrenia postmortem, few studies have measured tissue GABA levels in vivo. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure tissue GABA levels in participants with schizophrenia and healthy control subjects in the anterior cingulate cortex and parieto-occipital cortex. Twenty-one schizophrenia participants effectively treated on a stable medication regimen (mean age 39.0, 14 male) and 19 healthy control subjects (mean age 36.3, 12 male) underwent a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy scan using GABA-selective editing at 4 Tesla after providing informed consent. Data were collected from two 16.7-mL voxels and analyzed using LCModel. We found elevations in GABA/creatine in the schizophrenia group compared with control subjects [F(1,65) = 4.149, p = .046] in both brain areas (15.5% elevation in anterior cingulate cortex, 11.9% in parieto-occipital cortex). We also found a positive correlation between GABA/creatine and glutamate/creatine, which was not accounted for by % GM or brain region. We found elevated GABA/creatinine in participants with chronically treated schizophrenia. Postmortem studies report evidence for dysfunctional GABAergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia. Elevated GABA levels, whether primary to illness or compensatory to another process, may be associated with dysfunctional GABAergic neurotransmission in chronic schizophrenia. Copyright © 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Deste, Giacomo; De Peri, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study is aimed to review the current scientific literature on cognitive remediation in schizophrenia. In particular, the main structured protocols of cognitive remediation developed for schizophrenia are presented and the main results reported in recent meta-analyses are summarized. Possible benefits of cognitive remediation in the early course of schizophrenia and in subjects at risk for psychosis are also discussed. Methods. Electronic search of the relevant studies which appeared in the PubMed database until April 2013 has been performed and all the meta-analyses and review articles on cognitive remediation in schizophrenia have been also taken into account. Results. Numerous intervention programs have been designed, applied, and evaluated, with the objective of improving cognition and social functioning in schizophrenia. Several quantitative reviews have established that cognitive remediation is effective in reducing cognitive deficits and in improving functional outcome of the disorder. Furthermore, the studies available support the usefulness of cognitive remediation when applied in the early course of schizophrenia and even in subjects at risk of the disease. Conclusions. Cognitive remediation is a promising approach to improve real-world functioning in schizophrenia and should be considered a key strategy for early intervention in the psychoses. PMID:24455253

  18. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Hugo Selma Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Neuropsychology has had an explosive grow in the last decades. It contributions to the fields of Psychiatry are growing in an exponential rate. Research related to schizophrenia has bringing new views of the nature of the disease, at the same time offering contradictions and questions pending to resolve. The present article exposes the most relevant discoveries in the neuropshychology of schizophrenia neuroanatomy dysfunctions, development neurofuntionality, alterations in neurotransmitters a...

  19. Finding Genes for Schizophrenia

    Åberg, Karolina

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of our most common psychiatric diseases. It severely affects all aspects of psychological functions and results in loss of contact with reality. No cure exists and the treatments available today produce only partial relief for disease symptoms. The aim of this work is to better understand the etiology of schizophrenia by identification of candidate genes and gene pathways involved in the development of the disease. In a preliminarily study, the effects of medication and g...

  20. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Hugo Selma Sánchez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychology has had an explosive grow in the last decades. It contributions to the fields of Psychiatry are growing in an exponential rate. Research related to schizophrenia has bringing new views of the nature of the disease, at the same time offering contradictions and questions pending to resolve. The present article exposes the most relevant discoveries in the neuropshychology of schizophrenia neuroanatomy dysfunctions, development neurofuntionality, alterations in neurotransmitters and cognitive deficiencies and areas for exploring.

  1. Loss aversion in schizophrenia.

    Trémeau, Fabien; Brady, Melissa; Saccente, Erica; Moreno, Alexis; Epstein, Henry; Citrome, Leslie; Malaspina, Dolores; Javitt, Daniel

    2008-08-01

    Loss aversion in decision-making refers to a higher sensitivity to losses than to gains. Loss aversion is conceived as an affective interference in cognitive processes such as judgment and decision-making. Loss aversion in non-risky choices has not been studied in schizophrenia. Forty-two individuals with schizophrenia and 42 non-patient control subjects, matched by gender and age, were randomized to two different scenarios (a buying scenario and a selling scenario). Subjects were asked to evaluate the price of a decorated mug. Schizophrenia subjects were re-tested four weeks later with the other scenario. Contrary to non-patient controls, schizophrenia subjects did not show loss aversion. In the schizophrenia group, absence of loss aversion was correlated with age, duration of illness, number of months in State hospitals, and poorer performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, but not with current psychopathology and two domains of emotional experience. Absence of loss aversion in schizophrenia represents a deficit in the processing of emotional information during decision-making. It can be interpreted as a lack of integration between the emotional and the cognitive systems, or to a more diffuse and de-differentiated impact of emotional information on decision-making. Future studies should bring more clarity to this question.

  2. Prospective memory in schizophrenia: relationship to medication management skills, neurocognition, and symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia.

    Raskin, Sarah A; Maye, Jacqueline; Rogers, Alexandra; Correll, David; Zamroziewicz, Marta; Kurtz, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    Impaired adherence to medication regimens is a serious concern for individuals with schizophrenia linked to relapse and poorer outcomes. One possible reason for poor adherence to medication is poor ability to remember future intentions, labeled prospective memory skills. It has been demonstrated in several studies that individuals with schizophrenia have impairments in prospective memory that are linked to everyday life skills. However, there have been no studies, to our knowledge, examining the relationship of a clinical measure of prospective memory to medication management skills, a key element of successful adherence. In this Study 41 individuals with schizophrenia and 25 healthy adults were administered a standardized test battery that included measures of prospective memory, medication management skills, neurocognition, and symptoms. Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrated impairments in prospective memory (both time and event-based) relative to healthy controls. Performance on the test of prospective memory was correlated with the standardized measure of medication management in individuals with schizophrenia. Moreover, the test of prospective memory predicted skills in medication adherence even after measures of neurocognition were accounted for. This suggests that prospective memory may play a key role in medication management skills and thus should be a target of cognitive remediation programs.

  3. Modelling the contribution of family history and variation in single nucleotide polymorphisms to risk of schizophrenia

    Agerbo, Esben; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Wiuf, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that having any family member with schizophrenia increases the risk of schizophrenia in the probands. However, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have accounted for little of this variation. The aim of this study was to use a population-based sample to explore...

  4. Effects of Sentence Context on Lexical Ambiguity Resolution in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Andreou, Christina; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Bozikas, Vasilis P.; Giannakou, Maria; Karavatos, Athanasios; Nimatoudis, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that a failure in processing contextual information may account for the heterogeneous clinical manifestations and cognitive impairments observed in schizophrenia. In the domain of language, context processing in schizophrenia has been investigated mostly with single-word semantic priming paradigms; however, natural…

  5. Getting poetic with data: Using poetry to disseminate the first-person voices of parents of children with a disability.

    Carter, Bernie; Sanders, Caroline; Bray, Lucy

    2018-01-01

    This paper considers the limitations of traditional prose-based approaches to research dissemination and explores the potential merits and tensions in adopting a poetic approach to disseminate participants' experiences and perspectives. Drawing on our experience of using I-poetry to create first-person poems from our research data we discuss the attractiveness of the subjective, expressive and relational opportunities of poetry, and its ability to compress experience and create emotional connections and evoke emotion. We also reflect upon and discuss the limitations, challenges and criticisms of the use of research poetry, with a specific focus on the use of data poems and their value in disseminating research findings. Using poetry compelled us to think with our data differently and our poems have generated visceral responses from parents and professionals. Research poetry has value within academic and clinical worlds but its greatest potential perhaps lies in providing a means of disseminating research to the wider range of stakeholders. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Action Video Gaming and Cognitive Control: Playing First Person Shooter Games Is Associated with Improved Action Cascading but Not Inhibition

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2015-01-01

    There is a constantly growing interest in developing efficient methods to enhance cognitive functioning and/or to ameliorate cognitive deficits. One particular line of research focuses on the possibly cognitive enhancing effects that action video game (AVG) playing may have on game players. Interestingly, AVGs, especially first person shooter games, require gamers to develop different action control strategies to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to flexibly adapt their behaviour to the ever-changing context. This study investigated whether and to what extent experience with such videogames is associated with enhanced performance on cognitive control tasks that require similar abilities. Experienced action videogame-players (AVGPs) and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs) performed a stop-change paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of action cascading and response inhibition. Replicating previous findings, AVGPs showed higher efficiency in response execution, but not improved response inhibition (i.e. inhibitory control), as compared to NVGPs. More importantly, compared to NVGPs, AVGPs showed enhanced action cascading processes when an interruption (stop) and a change towards an alternative response were required simultaneously, as well as when such a change had to occur after the completion of the stop process. Our findings suggest that playing AVGs is associated with enhanced action cascading and multi-component behaviour without affecting inhibitory control. PMID:26655929

  7. Action Video Gaming and Cognitive Control: Playing First Person Shooter Games Is Associated with Improved Action Cascading but Not Inhibition.

    Laura Steenbergen

    Full Text Available There is a constantly growing interest in developing efficient methods to enhance cognitive functioning and/or to ameliorate cognitive deficits. One particular line of research focuses on the possibly cognitive enhancing effects that action video game (AVG playing may have on game players. Interestingly, AVGs, especially first person shooter games, require gamers to develop different action control strategies to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to flexibly adapt their behaviour to the ever-changing context. This study investigated whether and to what extent experience with such videogames is associated with enhanced performance on cognitive control tasks that require similar abilities. Experienced action videogame-players (AVGPs and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs performed a stop-change paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of action cascading and response inhibition. Replicating previous findings, AVGPs showed higher efficiency in response execution, but not improved response inhibition (i.e. inhibitory control, as compared to NVGPs. More importantly, compared to NVGPs, AVGPs showed enhanced action cascading processes when an interruption (stop and a change towards an alternative response were required simultaneously, as well as when such a change had to occur after the completion of the stop process. Our findings suggest that playing AVGs is associated with enhanced action cascading and multi-component behaviour without affecting inhibitory control.

  8. Action Video Gaming and Cognitive Control: Playing First Person Shooter Games Is Associated with Improved Action Cascading but Not Inhibition.

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    There is a constantly growing interest in developing efficient methods to enhance cognitive functioning and/or to ameliorate cognitive deficits. One particular line of research focuses on the possibly cognitive enhancing effects that action video game (AVG) playing may have on game players. Interestingly, AVGs, especially first person shooter games, require gamers to develop different action control strategies to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to flexibly adapt their behaviour to the ever-changing context. This study investigated whether and to what extent experience with such videogames is associated with enhanced performance on cognitive control tasks that require similar abilities. Experienced action videogame-players (AVGPs) and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs) performed a stop-change paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of action cascading and response inhibition. Replicating previous findings, AVGPs showed higher efficiency in response execution, but not improved response inhibition (i.e. inhibitory control), as compared to NVGPs. More importantly, compared to NVGPs, AVGPs showed enhanced action cascading processes when an interruption (stop) and a change towards an alternative response were required simultaneously, as well as when such a change had to occur after the completion of the stop process. Our findings suggest that playing AVGs is associated with enhanced action cascading and multi-component behaviour without affecting inhibitory control.

  9. Self construction in schizophrenia: a discourse analysis.

    Meehan, Trudy; MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2008-06-01

    Lysaker and Lysaker (Theory and Psychology, 12(2), 207-220, 2002) employ a dialogical theory of self in their writings on self disruption in schizophrenia. It is argued here that this theory could be enriched by incorporating a discursive and social constructionist model of self. Harr's model enables researchers to use subject positions to identify self construction in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia that the dialogical model, using analysis of narrative, does not as easily recognize. The paper presents a discourse analysis of self construction in eight participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Transcripts from semi-structured interviews are analysed, wherein focus falls on how participants construct self in talk through the use of subject positioning. The findings indicate that Harr's theory of self and the implied method of discourse analysis enables more subtle and nuanced constructions of self to be identified than those highlighted by Lysaker and Lysaker (Theory and Psychology, 12(2), 207-220, 2002). The analysis of subject positions revealed that participants constructed self in the form of Harr's (The singular self: An introduction to the psychology of personhood, 1998, London: Sage) self1, self2, and self3. The findings suggest that there may be constructions of self used by people diagnosed with schizophrenia that are not recognized by the current research methods focusing on narrative. The paper argues for the recognition of these constructions and by implication a model of self that takes into account different levels of visibility of self construction in talk.

  10. Aberrant cerebellar connectivity in motor and association networks in schizophrenia

    Ann K. Shinn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a devastating illness characterized by disturbances in multiple domains. The cerebellum is involved in both motor and non-motor functions, and the cognitive dysmetria and dysmetria of thought models propose that abnormalities of the cerebellum may contribute to schizophrenia signs and symptoms. The cerebellum and cerebral cortex are reciprocally connected via a modular, closed-loop network architecture, but few schizophrenia neuroimaging studies have taken into account the topographical and functional heterogeneity of the cerebellum. In this study, using a previously defined 17-network cerebral cortical parcellation system as the basis for our functional connectivity seeds, we systematically investigated connectivity abnormalities within the cerebellum of 44 schizophrenia patients and 28 healthy control participants. We found selective alterations in cerebro-cerebellar functional connectivity. Specifically, schizophrenia patients showed decreased cerebro-cerebellar functional connectivity in higher level association networks (ventral attention, salience, control, and default mode networks relative to healthy control participants. Schizophrenia patients also showed increased cerebro-cerebellar connectivity in somatomotor and default mode networks, with the latter showing no overlap with the regions found to be hypoconnected within the same default mode network. Finally, we found evidence to suggest that somatomotor and default mode networks may be inappropriately linked in schizophrenia. The relationship of these dysconnectivities to schizophrenia symptoms, such as neurological soft signs and altered sense of agency, is discussed. We conclude that the cerebellum ought to be considered for analysis in all future studies of network abnormalities in SZ, and further suggest the cerebellum as a potential target for further elucidation, and possibly treatment, of the underlying mechanisms and network abnormalities producing symptoms of

  11. Neurodevelopmental correlates in schizophrenia

    Ivković Maja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary aetiopathogenetic considerations, based on neuro-imaging genetic and developmental neurobiology studies, suggest neurodevelopmental origin of schizophrenia. Several lines of evidence including structural abnormalities on in vivo brain imaging, the excess of prenatal and obstetric complications and the association of congenital and minor physical anomalies with schizophrenia, strongly indicate the neurodevelopmental pathogenesis of schizophrenia. On the other hand, controversial concept of psychotic continuum suggests schizophrenia and depression sharing the same genetic contribution to the pathogenesis. If this would be the case, depression could also be considered as neuro developmental disorder. The aims of the study were to investigate the association between: a pregnancy and birth complications (PBC, and b minor physical anomalies (MPA and schizophrenia or depression. Experimental groups consisted of 60 schizophrenic, 28 major depression patients and 30 healthy controls. All patients were diagnosed according to DSM-IV. Schizophrenic group was divided with regard to PANSS score into positive (n=32 and negative form (n=28 subgroups. PBC information were gathered from maternal recall while MPA were examined by using Waldrop scale for adults. The results showed that negative and positive schizophrenic subgroups had significantly more PBC than depressive group (p<0,05, as well than controls (p<0,001; p<0,05; respectively. There was no significant trend for more PBC in negative than in positive subgroup. All schizophrenic patients had higher rates of MPA than depressives (p<0,05. This trend for more MPA was not significant in comparison with healthy controls. These findings suggest that schizophrenia, especially its negative forms, could be considered as a member of the spectrum of neuro developmental disorders, which does not seem to be the case with depression. PBC and MPA could also be valuable in evaluation of risks for

  12. Development and preliminary testing of the Schizophrenia Hope Scale, a brief scale to measure hope in people with schizophrenia.

    Choe, Kwisoon

    2014-06-01

    Hope has received attention as a central component of recovery from mental illness; however, most instruments measuring hope were developed outside the mental health field. To measure the effects of mental health programs on hope in people with schizophrenia, a specialized scale is needed. This study examined the psychometric properties of the newly developed 9-item Schizophrenia Hope Scale (SHS-9) designed to measure hope in individuals with schizophrenia. A descriptive survey design. Participants were recruited from three psychiatric hospitals and two community mental health centers in South Korea. A total of 347 individuals over age 18 with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective, or schizophrenia spectrum disorders (competent to provide written informed consent) participated in this study; 149 (94 men, 55 women) completed a preliminary scale consisting of 40 revised items, and 198 (110 men, 88 women) completed the second scale of 17 items. Scale items were first selected from extensive literature reviews and a qualitative study on hope in people with schizophrenia; the validity and reliability of a preliminary scale was then evaluated by an expert panel and exploratory factor analysis. The remaining 9 items forming the Schizophrenia Hope Scale (SHS-9) were evaluated through confirmatory factor analysis. The SHS-9 demonstrates promising psychometric integrity. The internal consistency alpha coefficient was 0.92 with a score range of 0-18 and a mean total score of 12.06 (SD=4.96), with higher scores indicating higher levels of hope. Convergent validity was established by correlating the SHS-9 to the State-Trait Hope Inventory, r=0.61 (phope accounting for 61.77% of the total item variance. As hope has been shown to facilitate recovery from mental illness, the accurate assessment of hope provided by the short, easy-to-use Schizophrenia Hope Scale (SHS-9) may aid clinicians in improving the quality of life of individuals with schizophrenia. Copyright

  13. Everyday life, schizophrenia and narratives of illness experience

    llen Cristina Ricci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper presents a narrative review of the literature on the everyday life of people diagnosed with the schizophrenia spectrum, from their narratives about the illness experience, published as articles in indexed journals. The narrative reviews start from broad issues with data sources and selection of articles that may contain some bias, seeking to develop a contextual and theoretical theme. Objective: The main objective is to indicate how narrative studies on the everyday life and experience of schizophrenia are presented in the national and international scenario; the most relevant authors; how the everyday life concept is described; type of studies performed and the possible contributions to the health/disease/care in mental health care process. Method: We sought the breadth of the researched material, appropriation, and organization of it. We reported the findings in quantitative terms on the subject to then present an overview of the selected papers. We aimed to know those who present the everyday life experienced by people diagnosed with schizophrenia. Results: Considering the seven databases used during this review, we selected 281 papers, 90% of them were international and just under one-third (82 papers report/describe and value their narrative in the first person about the illness experience. Conclusão: We discuss the relevance and responsibility of mental health research centered on the experience, the current sciences scenario, and the dialogues with singularities, and regarding the different experiences of illness in the Brazilian sociocultural context

  14. Predicting severity of paranoid schizophrenia

    Kolesnichenko Elena Vladimirovna

    2015-01-01

    Clinical symptoms, course and outcomes of paranoid schizophrenia are polymorphic. 206 cases of paranoid schizophrenia were investigated. Clinical predictors were collected from hospital records and interviews. Quantitative assessment of the severity of schizophrenia as special indexes was used. Schizoid, epileptoid, psychasthenic and conformal accentuation of personality in the premorbid, early onset of psychosis, paranoid and hallucinatory-paranoid variants of onset predicted more expressed ...

  15. Taste at first (person) sight: Visual perspective modulates brain activity implicitly associated with viewing unhealthy but not healthy foods.

    Basso, Frédéric; Petit, Olivia; Le Bellu, Sophie; Lahlou, Saadi; Cancel, Aïda; Anton, Jean-Luc

    2018-06-12

    Every day, people are exposed to images of appetizing foods that can lead to high-calorie intake and contribute to overweight and obesity. Research has documented that manipulating the visual perspective from which eating is viewed helps resist temptation by altering the appraisal of unhealthy foods. However, the neural basis of this effect has not yet been examined using neuroimaging methods. Moreover, it is not known whether the benefits of this strategy can be observed when people, especially overweight, are not explicitly asked to imagine themselves eating. Last, it remains to be investigated if visual perspective could be used to promote healthy foods. The present work manipulated camera angles and tested whether visual perspective modulates activity in brain regions associated with taste and reward processing while participants watch videos featuring a hand grasping (unhealthy or healthy) foods from a plate during functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI). The plate was filmed from the perspective of the participant (first-person perspective; 1PP), or from a frontal view as if watching someone else eating (third-person perspective; 3PP). Our findings reveal that merely viewing unhealthy food cues from a 1PP (vs. 3PP) increases activity in brain regions that underlie representations of rewarding (appetitive) experiences (amygdala) and food intake (superior parietal gyrus). Additionally, our results show that ventral striatal activity is positively correlated with body mass index (BMI) during exposure to unhealthy foods from a 1PP (vs. 3PP). These findings suggest that unhealthy foods should be promoted through third-person (video) images to weaken the reward associated with their simulated consumption, especially amongst overweight people. It appears however that, as such, manipulating visual perspective fails to enhance the perception of healthy foods. Their promotion thus requires complementary solutions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Psychiatric family history and schizophrenia risk in Denmark: which mental disorders are relevant?

    Mortensen, P B; Pedersen, M G; Pedersen, C B

    2010-02-01

    A family history of schizophrenia is the strongest single indicator of individual schizophrenia risk. Bipolar affective disorder and schizo-affective disorders have been documented to occur more frequently in parents and siblings of schizophrenia patients, but the familial occurrence of the broader range of mental illnesses and their role as confounders have not been studied in large population-based samples. All people born in Denmark between 1955 and 1991 (1.74 million) were followed for the development of schizophrenia (9324 cases) during 28 million person-years at risk. Information of schizophrenia in cohort members and psychiatric history in parents and siblings was established through linkage with the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Data were analysed using log-linear Poisson regression. Schizophrenia was, as expected, strongly associated with schizophrenia and related disorders among first-degree relatives. However, almost any other psychiatric disorder among first-degree relatives increased the individual's risk of schizophrenia. The population attributable risk associated with psychiatric family history in general was 27.1% whereas family histories including schizophrenia only accounted for 6.0%. The general psychiatric family history was a confounder of the association between schizophrenia and urbanization of place of birth. Clinically diagnosed schizophrenia is associated with a much broader range of mental disorders in first-degree relatives than previously reported. This may suggest risk haplotypes shared across many disorders and/or shared environmental factors clustering in families. Failure to take the broad range of psychiatric family history into account may bias results of all risk-factor studies of schizophrenia.

  17. Schizophrenia and city life.

    Lewis, G; David, A; Andréasson, S; Allebeck, P

    1992-07-18

    Prevalence of schizophrenia and rates of first admission to hospital for this disorder are higher in most modern industrialised cities, and in urban compared with rural areas. The "geographical drift" hypothesis (ie, most schizophrenics tend to drift into city areas because of their illness or its prodrome) has remained largely unchallenged. We have investigated the association between place of upbringing and the incidence of schizophrenia with data from a cohort of 49,191 male Swedish conscripts linked to the Swedish National Register of Psychiatric Care. The incidence of schizophrenia was 1.65 times higher (95% confidence interval 1.19-2.28) among men brought up in cities than in those who had had a rural upbringing. The association persisted despite adjustment for other factors associated with city life such as cannabis use, parental divorce, and family history of psychiatric disorder. This finding cannot be explained by the widely held notion that people with schizophrenia drift into cities at the beginning of their illness. We conclude that undetermined environmental factors found in cities increase the risk of schizophrenia.

  18. Treating schizophrenia during menopause.

    Brzezinski, Amnon; Brzezinski-Sinai, Noa A; Seeman, Mary V

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this review is to examine three questions: What are the risks and benefits of treating women with schizophrenia with hormone therapy (HT) at menopause? Should the antipsychotic regimen be changed at menopause? Do early- and late-onset women with schizophrenia respond differently to HT at menopause? MEDLINE databases for the years 1990 to 2016 were searched using the following interactive terms: schizophrenia, gender, menopause, estrogen, and hormones. The selected articles (62 out of 800 abstracts) were chosen on the basis of their applicability to the objectives of this targeted narrative review. HT during the perimenopause in women with schizophrenia ameliorates psychotic and cognitive symptoms, and may also help affective symptoms. Vasomotor, genitourinary, and sleep symptoms are also reduced. Depending on the woman's age and personal risk factors and antipsychotic side effects, the risk of breast cancer and cardiovascular disease may be increased. Antipsychotic types and doses may need to be adjusted at menopause, as may be the mode of administration. Both HT and changes in antipsychotic management should be considered for women with schizophrenia at menopause. The question about differences in response between early- and late-onset women cannot yet be answered.

  19. The neuroproteomics of schizophrenia.

    English, Jane A

    2011-01-15

    Proteomics is the study of global gene expression of an organ, body system, fluid, or cellular compartment at the protein level. Proteomic findings are reflective of complex gene × environment interactions, and the importance of this is increasingly appreciated in schizophrenia research. In this review, we outline the main proteomic methods available to researchers in this area and summarize, for the first time, the findings of the main quantitative neuroproteomic investigations of schizophrenia brain. Our review of these data revealed 16 gray matter proteins, and eight white matter proteins that were differentially expressed in the same direction in two or more investigations. Pathway analysis identified cellular assembly and organization as particularly disrupted in both gray and white matter, whereas the glycolysis-gluconeogenesis pathway was the major signaling pathway significantly altered in both. Reassuringly, these findings show remarkable convergence with functional pathways and positional candidate genes implicated from genomic studies. The specificity of schizophrenia proteomic findings are also addressed in the context of neuroproteomic investigations of neurodegenerative disorders and bipolar disorder. Finally, we discuss the major challenges in the field of neuroproteomics, such as the need for high throughput validation methods and optimal sample preparation. Future directions in the neuroproteomics of schizophrenia, including the use of blood-based biomarker work, the need to focus on subproteomes, and the increasing use of mass spectrometry-based methods are all discussed. This area of research is still in its infancy and offers huge potential to our understanding of schizophrenia on a cellular level.

  20. Internet accounting

    Pras, Aiko; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Sprenkels, Ron; Parhonyi, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to Internet accounting and discusses the status of related work within the IETF and IRTF, as well as certain research projects. Internet accounting is different from accounting in POTS. To understand Internet accounting, it is important to answer questions like

  1. Mysticism and schizophrenia

    Parnas, Josef; Henriksen, Mads Gram

    2016-01-01

    Mysticism and schizophrenia are different categories of human existence and experience. Nonetheless, they exhibit important phenomenological affinities, which, however, remain largely unaddressed. In this study, we explore structural analogies between key features of mysticism and major clinical......-phenomenological aspects of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders-i.e. attitudes, the nature of experience, and the 'other', mystical or psychotic reality. Not only do these features gravitate around the issue of the basic dimensions of consciousness, they crucially seem to implicate and presuppose a specific alteration...

  2. Social cognition in schizophrenia and healthy aging: differences and similarities.

    Silver, Henry; Bilker, Warren B

    2014-12-01

    Social cognition is impaired in schizophrenia but it is not clear whether this is specific for the illness and whether emotion perception is selectively affected. To study this we examined the perception of emotional and non-emotional clues in facial expressions, a key social cognitive skill, in schizophrenia patients and old healthy individuals using young healthy individuals as reference. Tests of object recognition, visual orientation, psychomotor speed, and working memory were included to allow multivariate analysis taking into account other cognitive functions Schizophrenia patients showed impairments in recognition of identity and emotional facial clues compared to young and old healthy groups. Severity was similar to that for object recognition and visuospatial processing. Older and younger healthy groups did not differ from each other on these tests. Schizophrenia patients and old healthy individuals were similarly impaired in the ability to automatically learn new faces during the testing procedure (measured by the CSTFAC index) compared to young healthy individuals. Social cognition is distinctly impaired in schizophrenia compared to healthy aging. Further study is needed to identify the mechanisms of automatic social cognitive learning impairment in schizophrenia patients and healthy aging individuals and determine whether similar neural systems are affected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. It’s all a matter of perspective : Viewing first-person video modeling examples promotes learning of an assembly task

    Fiorella, Logan; van Gog, T.; Hoogerheide, V.; Mayer, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The present study tests whether presenting video modeling examples from the learner’s (first-person) perspective promotes learning of an assembly task, compared to presenting video examples from a third-person perspective. Across 2 experiments conducted in different labs, university students viewed

  4. Action video gaming and cognitive control: playing first person shooter games is associated with improvement in working memory but not action inhibition

    Colzato, L.S.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Zmigrod, S.; Hommel, B.

    2013-01-01

    The interest in the influence of videogame experience in our daily life is constantly growing. "First Person Shooter" (FPS) games require players to develop a flexible mindset to rapidly react and monitor fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to inhibit erroneous actions. This study

  5. Investigation of cigarette smoking among male schizophrenia patients.

    Jundong Jiang

    Full Text Available Male schizophrenia patients are known to have a heavier smoking pattern compared with the general population. However, the mechanism for this association is not known, though hypothesis that smoking could alleviate symptomatology of schizophrenia and reduce side effects of antipsychotics has been suggested. The aims of this study were to validate the heavier smoking pattern among male schizophrenia patients and to investigate the possible mechanisms for the association. To enhance the reliability of the study, we recruited two large independent samples with 604 and 535 male Chinese schizophrenia patients, and compared their smoking pattern with that of 535 healthy male controls recruited from general population. Validated multiple indicators and multiple causes structure equation model and regression models were used to investigate the association of smoking with factors of schizophrenia symptomatology and with the usage of antipsychotics and their extra-pyramidal side effects (EPS. Schizophrenia patients had significantly heavier smoking pattern compared with healthy controls in our sample (42.4% vs. 16.8%, p<0.001 for current smoking prevalence; 23.5% vs. 43.3%, p<0.001 for smoking cessation rate; 24.5% vs. 3.0%, p<0.001 for heavy smoker proportion. Their smoking status was also found to be consistently and significantly associated with reduced negative factor scores for schizophrenia symptomatology (β = -0.123, p = 0.051 for sample-A; β = -0.103, p = 0.035 for sample-B; β = -0.082, p = 0.017 for the combined sample. However, no significant association was found between smoking and antipsychotics usage or risk of EPS. These results support that smoking is associated with improved negative symptoms, which could account for the heavier smoking pattern among schizophrenia patients.

  6. Temporal structure of consciousness and minimal self in schizophrenia

    Brice eMartin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the minimal self refers to the consciousness of oneself as an immediate subject of experience. According to recent studies, disturbances of the minimal self may be a core feature of schizophrenia. They are emphasized in classical psychiatry literature and in phenomenological work. Impaired minimal self experience may be defined as a distortion of one’s first-person experiential perspective as, for example, an ‘altered presence’ during which the sense of the experienced self (‘mineness’ is subtly affected, or ‘altered sense of demarcation’, i.e. a difficulty discriminating the self from the non-self. Little is known, however, about the cognitive basis of these disturbances. In fact, recent work indicates that disorders of the self are not correlated with cognitive impairments commonly found in schizophrenia such as working-memory and attention disorders. In addition, a major difficulty with exploring the minimal self experimentally lies in its definition as being non self-reflexive, and distinct from the verbalized, explicit awareness of an ‘I’.In this paper we shall discuss the possibility that disturbances of the minimal self observed in patients with schizophrenia are related to alterations in time processing. We shall review the literature on schizophrenia and time processing that lends support to this possibility. In particular we shall discuss the involvement of temporal integration windows on different time scales (implicit time processing as well as duration perception disturbances (explicit time processing in disorders of the minimal self. We argue that a better understanding of the relationship between time and the minimal self as well of issues of embodiment require research that looks more specifically at implicit time processing. Some methodological issues will be discussed.

  7. Does narrative perspective influence readers’ perspective-taking? An empirical study on free indirect discourse, psycho-narration and first-person narration

    Susanna Salem

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is often assumed that narrating a story from the protagonist’s perspective increases the readers’ inclination to take over this perspective. In a questionnaire study, we examined to which degree different textual modes of narration (a increase the degree to which the reader can generally relate to the protagonist (what we will call 'relatedness', (b make the reader prone to imagine the scene from the 'spatial point-of-view 'of the protagonist, and (c enhance the psychological perspective-taking of the reader, measured as 'identification 'with the protagonist. We employed two different types of texts—one literary and one non-literary—and tested them in four different modes of narration: free indirect discourse, psycho-narration, first-person narration and external focalization. In terms of the 'relatedness 'between the reader and protagonist and 'spatial perspective-taking 'the largest differences (descriptively occurred between external focalization and psycho-narration ('p'& .05 for 'relatedness', 'p'& .05 for 'spatial perspective-taking' and between external focalization and first-person narration ('p'& .05 for 'relatedness', for 'spatial perspective-taking p'& .1. 'Identification', measured with items from a questionnaire on reading experience (Appel et al. 2002, was highest for first-person narration. Here, the difference between first-person narration and external focalization turned out significant only after including dispositional empathy, thematic interest for the text and attention during reading as covariates. Results for the other two perspective-taking measures were unaffected by the inclusion of the same covariates. In conclusion, our data show that first-person and psycho-narration increased the tendency to take over the perspective of the protagonist, but FID did not.   This article is part of the special collection: Perspective Taking

  8. Schizophrenia, Sleep and Acupuncture

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2008-01-01

    This book is an introduction for professionals in Western medicine and for acupuncturists on the use of acupuncture in treatment of schizophrenia and sleep disorders. Acupuncture has long been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in mental health and sleep disorders. This book aims to build a

  9. Depression in Kraepelinian schizophrenia

    related problems and poorer social and family relationships, show a lower level of ... Furthermore, suicide terminates the lives of an estimated 10 - 15% ... deterioration of functioning in social, work and self-care domains. .... quality of life in outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders? ... Acta Psychiatr Scand 2002;.

  10. Neural chaos and schizophrenia

    Bob, P.; Chládek, Jan; Šusta, M.; Glaslová, K.; Jagla, F.; Kukleta, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2007), s. 298-305 ISSN 0231-5882 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : EDA * Lyapunov exponent * schizophrenia * chaos Subject RIV: FL - Psychiatry, Sexuology Impact factor: 1.286, year: 2007

  11. Glutamatergic System and Schizophrenia

    Osman Ozdemir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. It has a role several cognitive functions including learning, memory and perception. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is also involved in regulating neuronal migration, synaptogenesis, and the pruning neurons. Glutamatergic exci-totoxicity has been implicated in various neuropsychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidence suggests that glutamatergic dysfunction may contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptor antagonists such as phencyclidine and ketamine can cause both the positive and negative symptoms psychotic symptoms in normal humans, and worsen these symptoms in persons with schizophrenia. Hence, it has been hypotesized that schizophrenia may be associated with decreased NMDA-receptor activity. According to the hypothesis, NMDA reseptor hypofunction can lead to decreased inhibition of glutamatergic neurons and excessive glutamate release. Finally, the reduction of gray matter in several brain regions seen in patients with schizophrenia has been suggested to be the result of neurotoxicity mediated by NMDA receptors. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 394-405

  12. Social cognition in schizophrenia

    Maat, A.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder, incorporating a wide range of symptoms that may occur at certain stages of the disease. The core symptoms can largely be divided into positive symptoms, e.g. hallucinations and delusions, and negative symptoms, e.g. apathia and emotional flattening.

  13. Iconic decay in schizophrenia.

    Hahn, Britta; Kappenman, Emily S; Robinson, Benjamin M; Fuller, Rebecca L; Luck, Steven J; Gold, James M

    2011-09-01

    Working memory impairment is considered a core deficit in schizophrenia, but the precise nature of this deficit has not been determined. Multiple lines of evidence implicate deficits at the encoding stage. During encoding, information is held in a precategorical sensory store termed iconic memory, a literal image of the stimulus with high capacity but rapid decay. Pathologically increased iconic decay could reduce the number of items that can be transferred into working memory before the information is lost and could thus contribute to the working memory deficit seen in the illness. The current study used a partial report procedure to test the hypothesis that patients with schizophrenia (n = 37) display faster iconic memory decay than matched healthy control participants (n = 28). Six letters, arranged in a circle, were presented for 50 ms. Following a variable delay of 0-1000 ms, a central arrow cue indicated the item to be reported. In both patients and control subjects, recall accuracy decreased with increasing cue delay, reflecting decay of the iconic representation of the stimulus array. Patients displayed impaired memory performance across all cue delays, consistent with an impairment in working memory, but the rate of iconic memory decay did not differ between patients and controls. This provides clear evidence against faster loss of iconic memory representations in schizophrenia, ruling out iconic decay as an underlying source of the working memory impairment in this population. Thus, iconic decay rate can be added to a growing list of unimpaired cognitive building blocks in schizophrenia.

  14. Management Accounting

    John Burns; Martin Quinn; Liz Warren; João Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Overview of the BookThe textbook comprises six sections which together represent a comprehensive insight into management accounting - its technical attributes, changeable wider context, and the multiple roles of management accountants. The sections cover: (1) an introduction to management accounting, (2) how organizations account for their costs, (3) the importance of tools and techniques which assist organizational planning and control, (4) the various dimensions of making business decisions...

  15. Accounting standards

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  16. Accounting outsourcing

    Linhartová, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    This thesis gives a complex view on accounting outsourcing, deals with the outsourcing process from its beginning (condition of collaboration, making of contract), through collaboration to its possible ending. This work defines outsourcing, indicates the main advatages, disadvatages and arguments for its using. The main object of thesis is mainly practical side of accounting outsourcing and providing of first quality accounting services.

  17. Early and sustained dynamic intervention in schizophrenia

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Rosenbaum, Bent

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on the Danish National Schizophrenia Project manual for psychodynamic individual psychotherapy with persons in states of schizophrenia. The methods for engaging with and treating a patient with schizophrenia in a supportive, psychodynamic way are described....

  18. Schizophrenia, depression, and sleep disorders: Their traditional oriental medicine equivalents

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Rover, P. de; Staudte, H.; Lim, S.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders can be described and treated from both a Western (allopathic) and an Eastern perspective, which should be taken into account when conducting research. Patients with schizophrenia or depression are likely to be undergoing Western treatment when they are referred to an

  19. A dynamical systems hypothesis of schizophrenia.

    Marco Loh

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a top-down approach to the symptoms of schizophrenia based on a statistical dynamical framework. We show that a reduced depth in the basins of attraction of cortical attractor states destabilizes the activity at the network level due to the constant statistical fluctuations caused by the stochastic spiking of neurons. In integrate-and-fire network simulations, a decrease in the NMDA receptor conductances, which reduces the depth of the attractor basins, decreases the stability of short-term memory states and increases distractibility. The cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia such as distractibility, working memory deficits, or poor attention could be caused by this instability of attractor states in prefrontal cortical networks. Lower firing rates are also produced, and in the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex could account for the negative symptoms, including a reduction of emotions. Decreasing the GABA as well as the NMDA conductances produces not only switches between the attractor states, but also jumps from spontaneous activity into one of the attractors. We relate this to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, including delusions, paranoia, and hallucinations, which may arise because the basins of attraction are shallow and there is instability in temporal lobe semantic memory networks, leading thoughts to move too freely round the attractor energy landscape.

  20. Impaired glutathione synthesis in schizophrenia

    Gysin, René; Kraftsik, Rudolf; Sandell, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex multifactorial brain disorder with a genetic component. Convergent evidence has implicated oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) deficits in the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of the present study was to test whether schizophrenia is associated with a deficit...... of GSH synthesis. Cultured skin fibroblasts from schizophrenia patients and control subjects were challenged with oxidative stress, and parameters of the rate-limiting enzyme for the GSH synthesis, the glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), were measured. Stressed cells of patients had a 26% (P = 0.......002) decreased GCL activity as compared with controls. This reduction correlated with a 29% (P schizophrenia in two...

  1. Premorbid self-disorders and lifetime diagnosis in the schizophrenia spectrum

    Parnas, Josef; Carter, John; Frederiksen, Julie E Nordgaard

    2016-01-01

    assessment, we hypothesized that a proxy scale drawn from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) could distinguish those who later developed a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (N = 68) from those who remained healthy (N = 64). The Self-Disorder Scale comprised 32 items whose content suggested......AIM: The notion of a disordered self as a core disturbance of schizophrenia was proposed in many foundational texts. Recent studies, spurred by the development of the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience (EASE), seem to indicate that self-disorders are a specific manifestation of schizophrenia......), the overlap did not account for the Self-Disorder Scale's predictive efficacy. CONCLUSION: The results support the notion of self-disorders as a core vulnerability feature in schizophrenia, detectable premorbidly in those developing later schizophrenia-spectrum disorders....

  2. The "minimal self" in psychopathology: re-examining the self-disorders in the schizophrenia spectrum

    Cermolacce, Michel René Joseph; Naudin, Jean; Parnas, Josef

    2007-01-01

    The notion of minimal, basic, pre-reflective or core self is currently debated in the philosophy of mind, cognitive sciences and developmental psychology. However, it is not clear which experiential features such a self is believed to possess. Studying the schizophrenic experience may help...... exploring the following aspects of the minimal self: the notion of perspective and first person perspective, the 'mineness' of the phenomenal field, the questions of transparency, embodiment of point of view, and the issues of agency and ownership, considered as different and less fundamental than...... the feeling of mineness. Two clinical vignettes of patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia will be presented: the first one, illustrating early illness stages, and the second case, of chronic schizophrenia, symptomatically marked by persistent hallucinations. Through their analysis, we will discuss...

  3. Psychopathology of the bodily self and the brain: the case of schizophrenia.

    Gallese, Vittorio; Ferri, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we review the recent empirical evidence on the neurobiological basis of a minimal notion of the self, the bodily self. We show the relationship between the body, its motor potentialities and the notion of minimal self. We argue that this approach can shed new light onto self-disturbances and social deficits characterizing schizophrenia. We discuss our approach with other views on the neural correlates of self-disturbances in schizophrenia and propose that cognitive neuroscience can today address the classical topics of psychopathology by adding a new level of description, finally enabling the correlation between the first-person experiential aspects of psychiatric diseases and their neurobiological roots. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. On incomprehensibility in schizophrenia

    Henriksen, Mads Gram

    2013-01-01

    the notion of understanding that deems these delusions incomprehensible and to see if it is possible to comprehend these delusions if we apply another notion of understanding. First, I discuss the contemporary schizophrenia definitions and their inherent problems, and I argue that the notion...... of incomprehensibility in these definitions rests heavily on Jaspers’ notions of understanding and empathy. Secondly, I discuss two Wittgensteinian attempts to comprehend bizarre delusions: (a) Campbell’s proposal to conceive delusions as framework propositions and (b) Sass’s suggestion to interpret delusions...... in the light of solipsism. Finally, I discuss the phenomenological conception of schizophrenia, which conceives delusion formation as resulting from alterations of the structure of experiencing and from underlying self-disorders. I argue that although a psychological understanding that seeks to grasp meaning...

  5. Schizophrenia: A Systemic Disorder

    Kirkpatrick, Brian; Miller, Brian; García-Rizo, Clemente; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The concept of schizophrenia that is most widely taught is that it is a disorder in which psychotic symptoms are the main problem, and a dysregulation of dopamine signaling is the main feature of pathophysiology. However, this concept limits clinical assessment, the treatments offered to patients, research, and the development of therapeutics. A more appropriate conceptual model is that: 1) schizophrenia is not a psychotic disorder, but a disorder of essentially every brain function in which psychosis is present; 2) it is not a brain disease, but a disorder with impairments throughout the body; 3) for many patients, neuropsychiatric problems other than psychosis contribute more to impairment in function and quality of life than does psychosis; and, 4) some conditions that are considered to be comorbid are integral parts of the illness. In conclusion, students, patients, and family members should be taught this model, along with its implications for assessment, research, and therapeutics. PMID:23518782

  6. Epigenetic mechanisms in schizophrenia.

    Akbarian, Schahram

    2014-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a major psychiatric disorder that lacks a unifying neuropathology, while currently available pharmacological treatments provide only limited benefits to many patients. This review will discuss how the field of neuroepigenetics could contribute to advancements of the existing knowledge on the neurobiology and treatment of psychosis. Genome-scale mapping of DMA methylation, histone modifications and variants, and chromosomal loopings for promoter-enhancer interactions and other epigenetic determinants of genome organization and function are likely to provide important clues about mechanisms contributing to dysregulated expression of synaptic and metabolic genes in schizophrenia brain, including the potential links to the underlying genetic risk architecture and environmental exposures. In addition, studies in animal models are providing a rapidly increasing list of chromatin-regulatory mechanisms with significant effects on cognition and complex behaviors, thereby pointing to the therapeutic potential of epigenetic drug targets in the nervous system.

  7. [Schizophrenia, environment and epigenetics].

    Must, Anita; Janka, Zoltan; Horvath, Szatmar

    2011-12-01

    Psychotic, cognitive and affective symptoms defining schizophrenia may, though much less severe, manifest themselves in up to 10 to 20% of the general population. What explains the fact that in certain cases the symptoms require even constant medical supervision, while others are capable of living a normal life within social conventions? Which factors lead to the transition of mild, subclinical manifestations and vulnerability indicators towards the outburst of one of the most severe and depriving mental disorders? Genetic susceptibility is undoubtedly crucial. More recent research findings emphasize the modifying effect of specific environmental factors on gene expression. The gene-environment interplay may induce so-called epigenetic alterations which may manifest themselves over several generations. Future integrative, multi-dimensional and flexible schizophrenia research approaches focusing on the identification of neurobiological and cognitive outcomes are much needed to understand disease vulnerability, susceptibility mechanisms, periods and interactions. Research methods may differ, but our aim is common - establishing more effective diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.

  8. Formative feedback from the first-person perspective using Google Glass in a family medicine objective structured clinical examination station in the United States.

    Youm, Julie; Wiechmann, Warren

    2018-01-01

    This case study explored the use of Google Glass in a clinical examination scenario to capture the first-person perspective of a standardized patient as a way to provide formative feedback on students' communication and empathy skills 'through the patient's eyes.' During a 3-year period between 2014 and 2017, third-year students enrolled in a family medicine clerkship participated in a Google Glass station during a summative clinical examination. At this station, standardized patients wore Google Glass to record an encounter focused on communication and empathy skills 'through the patient's eyes.' Students completed an online survey using a 4-point Likert scale about their perspectives on Google Glass as a feedback tool (N= 255). We found that the students' experiences with Google Glass 'through the patient's eyes' were largely positive and that students felt the feedback provided by the Google Glass recording to be helpful. Although a third of the students felt that Google Glass was a distraction, the majority believed that the first-person perspective recordings provided an opportunity for feedback that did not exist before. Continuing exploration of first-person perspective recordings using Google Glass to improve education on communication and empathy skills is warranted.

  9. Token economy for schizophrenia.

    McMonagle, T

    2000-01-01

    A token economy is a behavioural therapy technique in which the desired change is achieved by means of tokens administered for the performance of predefined behaviours according to a program. Though token economy programmes were widespread in the 1970s they became largely restricted to wards where long-stay patients from institutions are prepared for transfer into the community and were particularly aimed at changing negative symptoms of schizophrenia - poor motivation, poor attention and social withdrawal.

  10. MRI anatomy of schizophrenia

    McCarley, Robert William; Wible, Cynthia Gayle; Frumin, Melissa; Hirayasu, Yoshio; Levitt, James Jonathan; Fischer, Iris A.; Shenton, Martha Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data have provided much evidence in support of our current view that schizophrenia is a brain disorder with altered brain structure, and consequently involving more than a simple disturbance in neurotransmission. This review surveys 118 peer–reviewed studies with control group from 1987 to May 1998. Most studies (81%) do not find abnormalities of whole brain/intracranial contents, while lateral ventricle enlargement is reported in 77%, and third ven...

  11. Iconic Decay in Schizophrenia

    Hahn, Britta; Kappenman, Emily S.; Robinson, Benjamin M.; Fuller, Rebecca L.; Luck, Steven J.; Gold, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Working memory impairment is considered a core deficit in schizophrenia, but the precise nature of this deficit has not been determined. Multiple lines of evidence implicate deficits at the encoding stage. During encoding, information is held in a precategorical sensory store termed iconic memory, a literal image of the stimulus with high capacity but rapid decay. Pathologically increased iconic decay could reduce the number of items that can be transferred into working memory before the info...

  12. Advancing paternal age and schizophrenia: the impact of delayed fatherhood.

    Ek, Mats; Wicks, Susanne; Svensson, Anna C; Idring, Selma; Dalman, Christina

    2015-05-01

    It is well known that advancing paternal age is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring, but the mechanism behind this association remains unknown. This study investigates if delayed fatherhood rather than advancing paternal age per se might explain the increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring associated with advancing paternal age. This is a register-based study of the Swedish population looking at people born 1955-1985 who have 1 or 2 siblings (n = 2 589 502). The main analysis investigated whether the association between advancing paternal age and schizophrenia was explained by delayed fatherhood. Possible confounding factors were taken into account. Cox regression was used throughout. In the main analysis the association between advancing paternal age and increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring disappeared after controlling for delayed fatherhood (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.72-1.21 comparing 45+ years old fathers to those 25-29), whereas delayed fatherhood showed an association with increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring comparing 35-39 and 40-44 years old fathers to 25-29 year olds (HR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.18-1.58; HR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.44-2.28, respectively). The results remained when controlling for possible confounders. This study suggests that the association between paternal age and schizophrenia is not due to paternal age per se, but rather to an unknown factor associated with both delayed fatherhood and schizophrenia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN PERSONS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Ottilingam Somasundaram Ravindran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schizophrenia has been called a ‘Life-shortening disease’, because many sufferers die early than general population and suicide accounts for a significant proportion of those dying prematurely. Suicide attempts in schizophrenia has been an intriguing area of research work for mental health professionals. Indian research on suicide attempts in schizophrenia have been few. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the suicidal behaviour in schizophrenia, to compare and study the positive and negative symptoms, depressive symptoms, hopelessness and suicide intent in schizophrenic population with suicide attempt compared to nonattempters, along with socio-demographic parameters. METHODS A sample of 60 consecutive patients attending OPD of a Private tertiary care Hospital in Chennai were selected. Those who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia were screened for the presence of past suicide attempts. They were divided into two groups as suicide attempters and non-attempters, and analysed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS, Beck’s hopelessness scale (BHS, and Suicide intent scale (SIS. RESULTS Among the disorders schizophrenia is rated the second most common reason for suicide attempts (53.3%, especially when associated with positive symptoms, depressive features and significant hopelessness. Demographic parameters like age, sex, educational status, occupation, economic status, and marital status were not found to be significant factors linked to the suicide attempts, however family history of suicide had a significant association in schizophrenic suicide attempts. Suicidal intent severity was medium to high among most of the attempters; poisoning was the commonest method; and were found to be due to positive symptoms and depressive symptoms in the schizophrenic illness course.

  14. Swallowing Disorders in Schizophrenia.

    Kulkarni, Deepika P; Kamath, Vandan D; Stewart, Jonathan T

    2017-08-01

    Disorders of swallowing are poorly characterized but quite common in schizophrenia. They are a source of considerable morbidity and mortality in this population, generally as a result of either acute asphyxia from airway obstruction or more insidious aspiration and pneumonia. The death rate from acute asphyxia may be as high as one hundred times that of the general population. Most swallowing disorders in schizophrenia seem to fall into one of two categories, changes in eating and swallowing due to the illness itself and changes related to psychotropic medications. Behavioral changes related to the illness are poorly understood and often involve eating too quickly or taking inappropriately large boluses of food. Iatrogenic problems are mostly related to drug-induced extrapyramidal side effects, including drug-induced parkinsonism, dystonia, and tardive dyskinesia, but may also include xerostomia, sialorrhea, and changes related to sedation. This paper will provide an overview of common swallowing problems encountered in patients with schizophrenia, their pathophysiology, and management. While there is a scarcity of quality evidence in the literature, a thorough history and examination will generally elucidate the predominant problem or problems, often leading to effective management strategies.

  15. Aging women with schizophrenia.

    Pentland, Wendy; Miscio, Gina; Eastabrook, Shirley; Krupa, Terry

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the aging experiences of women with schizophrenia. The research focused on how participants viewed their own aging with schizophrenia, their perceived worries and concerns and how they were coping with aging with the disorder. Using a qualitative approach, data were collected using multiple in-depth interviews with six participants selected purposefully from the client list of a community mental health center. Interview transcriptions were coded and analyzed according to the study questions using QSR Nudist 4 software. Several categories and sub-categories emerged. These included the improvement in the illness over time; physical and daily living activity limitations; specific positive and negative changes that the women report have accompanied aging; the profound losses experienced by the participants when they were younger as a result of having schizophrenia; and how these losses have affected their present lives in terms of limiting available informal support, creating dependency on formal programs and services, and participants' fears of the future. Based on the study findings, implications for mental health practice and services are considered and suggestions are made to guide future research.

  16. [Psychoeducation in schizophrenia].

    Zapata Ospina, Juan Pablo; Rangel Martínez-Villalba, Andrés Mauricio; García Valencia, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of schizophrenia includes the use of psychotropic drugs, psychotherapy, and psychosocial interventions that include psychoeducation. This strategy has been defined as the delivery of information about the disorder and its treatment in a systematic and structured way. To review the literature on the efficacy of psychoeducation in schizophrenia. A search in PubMed, SciELO, EMBASE and PsycINFO was made with the terms "psychoeducation", "schizophrenia" and "psychosocial intervention". Articles in Spanish and English language were reviewed. Psychoeducation can be applied to patients, family or both, and individually or in groups. The number of sessions can vary. There have been many studies that seek to determine the efficacy of psychoeducation in the clinical course, family dynamics and stigma, with results that favor its implementation, but so far it has not been possible to determine exactly how best to apply psychoeducation, mainly because of the great variability of designs. The studies on psychoeducation have shown efficacy. However, this might be an overestimation, as there is a high risk of bias. Consequently, there is not enough evidence. At least for now, it is reasonable to complement pharmacotherapy with psycoeducation. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Scene construction in schizophrenia.

    Raffard, Stéphane; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Bayard, Sophie; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Van der Linden, Martial

    2010-09-01

    Recent research has revealed that schizophrenia patients are impaired in remembering the past and imagining the future. In this study, we examined patients' ability to engage in scene construction (i.e., the process of mentally generating and maintaining a complex and coherent scene), which is a key part of retrieving past experiences and episodic future thinking. 24 participants with schizophrenia and 25 healthy controls were asked to imagine new fictitious experiences and described their mental representations of the scenes in as much detail as possible. Descriptions were scored according to various dimensions (e.g., sensory details, spatial reference), and participants also provided ratings of their subjective experience when imagining the scenes (e.g., their sense of presence, the perceived similarity of imagined events to past experiences). Imagined scenes contained less phenomenological details (d = 1.11) and were more fragmented (d = 2.81) in schizophrenia patients compared to controls. Furthermore, positive symptoms were positively correlated to the sense of presence (r = .43) and the perceived similarity of imagined events to past episodes (r = .47), whereas negative symptoms were negatively related to the overall richness of the imagined scenes (r = -.43). The results suggest that schizophrenic patients' impairments in remembering the past and imagining the future are, at least in part, due to deficits in the process of scene construction. The relationships between the characteristics of imagined scenes and positive and negative symptoms could be related to reality monitoring deficits and difficulties in strategic retrieval processes, respectively. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Familial Aggregation and Heritability of Schizophrenia and Co-aggregation of Psychiatric Illnesses in Affected Families.

    Chou, I-Jun; Kuo, Chang-Fu; Huang, Yu-Shu; Grainge, Matthew J; Valdes, Ana M; See, Lai-Chu; Yu, Kuang-Hui; Luo, Shue-Fen; Huang, Lu-Shuang; Tseng, Wen-Yi; Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Strong familial aggregation of schizophrenia has been reported but there is uncertainty concerning the degree of genetic contribution to the phenotypic variance of the disease. This study aimed to examine the familial aggregation and heritability of schizophrenia, and the relative risks (RRs) of other psychiatric diseases, in relatives of people with schizophrenia using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database. The study population included individuals with affected first-degree or second-degree relatives identified from all beneficiaries (n = 23 422 955) registered in 2013. Diagnoses of schizophrenia made by psychiatrists were ascertained between January 1, 1996 and December 31, 2013. Having an affected co-twin, first-degree relative, second-degree relative, or spouse was associated with an adjusted RR (95% CI) of 37.86 (30.55-46.92), 6.30 (6.09-6.53), 2.44 (1.91-3.12), and 1.88 (1.64-2.15), respectively. Compared with the general population, individuals with one affected first-degree relative had a RR (95% CI) of 6.00 (5.79-6.22) and those with 2 or more had a RR (95% CI) of 14.66 (13.00-16.53) for schizophrenia. The accountability for the phenotypic variance of schizophrenia was 47.3% for genetic factors, 15.5% for shared environmental factors, and 37.2% for non-shared environmental factors. The RR (95% CI) in individuals with a first-degree relative with schizophrenia was 3.49 (3.34-3.64) for mood disorders and 3.91 (3.35-4.57) for delusional disorders. A family history of schizophrenia is therefore associated with a higher risk of developing schizophrenia, mood disorders, and delusional disorders. Heritability and environmental factors each account for half of the phenotypic variance of schizophrenia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  19. Family intervention for schizophrenia.

    Pharoah, F M; Mari, J J; Streiner, D

    2000-01-01

    It has been showed that people with schizophrenia from families that express high levels of criticism, hostility, or over involvement, have more frequent relapses than people with similar problems from families that tend to be less expressive of their emotions. Psychosocial interventions designed to reduce these levels of expressed emotions within families now exist for mental health workers. These interventions are proposed as adjuncts rather than alternatives to drug treatments, and their main purpose is to decrease the stress within the family and also the rate of relapse. To estimate the effects of family psychosocial interventions in community settings for the care of those with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like conditions compared to standard care. Electronic searches of the Cochrane Library (Issue 2, 1998), the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (June 1998), EMBASE (1981-1995) and MEDLINE (1966-1995) were undertaken and supplemented with reference searching of the identified literature. Randomised or quasi-randomised studies were selected if they focused on families of people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and compared community-orientated family-based psychosocial intervention of more than five sessions to standard care. Data were reliably extracted, and, where appropriate and possible, summated. Peto odds ratios (OR), their 95% confidence intervals (CI) and number needed to treat (NNT) were estimated. The reviewers assume that people who died or dropped out had no improvement and tested the sensitivity of the final results to this assumption. Family intervention may decrease the frequency of relapse (one year OR 0.57 CI 0.4-0.8, NNT 6.5 CI 4-14). The trend over time of this main finding is towards the null and some small but negative studies may not have been identified by the search. Family intervention may decrease hospitalisation and encourage compliance with medication but data are few and equivocal. Family intervention does not

  20. Toxoplasma gondii and schizophrenia: a review of published RCTs.

    Chorlton, Sam D

    2017-07-01

    Over the last 60 years, accumulating evidence has suggested that acute, chronic, and maternal Toxoplasma gondii infections predispose to schizophrenia. More recent evidence suggests that chronically infected patients with schizophrenia present with more severe disease. After acute infection, parasites form walled cysts in the brain, leading to lifelong chronic infection and drug resistance to commonly used antiparasitics. Chronic infection is the most studied and closely linked with development and severity of schizophrenia. There are currently four published randomized controlled trials evaluating antiparasitic drugs, specifically azithromycin, trimethoprim, artemisinin, and artemether, in patients with schizophrenia. No trials have demonstrated a change in psychopathology with adjunctive treatment. Published trials have either selected drugs without evidence against chronic infection or used them at doses too low to reduce brain cyst burden. Furthermore, trials have failed to achieve sufficient power or account for confounders such as previous antipsychotic treatment, sex, age, or rhesus status on antiparasitic effect. There are currently no ongoing trials of anti-Toxoplasma therapy in schizophrenia despite ample evidence to justify further testing.

  1. Prevalence of schizophrenia: recent developments

    The long held view that schizophrenia affects about 1% of the population has been shown to be an overestimate and in fact derived from incorrect data.1 Also, for many years, it was believed that the prevalence of schizophrenia varied little between sites.2,3 It is in fact the case that the estimates of the prevalence of ...

  2. Expression and methylation of BDNF in the human brain in schizophrenia.

    Cheah, Sern-Yih; McLeay, Robert; Wockner, Leesa F; Lawford, Bruce R; Young, Ross McD; Morris, Charles P; Voisey, Joanne

    2017-08-01

    To examine the combined effect of the BDNF Val66Met (rs6265) polymorphism and BDNF DNA methylation on transcriptional regulation of the BDNF gene. DNA methylation profiles were generated for CpG sites proximal to Val66Met, within BDNF promoter I and exon V for prefrontal cortex samples from 25 schizophrenia and 25 control subjects. Val66Met genotypes and BDNF mRNA expression data were generated by transcriptome sequencing. Expression, methylation and genotype data were correlated and examined for association with schizophrenia. There was 43% more of the BDNF V-VIII-IX transcript in schizophrenia samples. BDNF mRNA expression and DNA methylation of seven CpG sites were not associated with schizophrenia after accounting for age and PMI effects. BDNF mRNA expression and DNA methylation were not altered by Val66Met after accounting for age and PMI effects. DNA methylation of one CpG site had a marginally significant positive correlation with mRNA expression in schizophrenia subjects. Schizophrenia risk was not associated with differential BDNF mRNA expression and DNA methylation. A larger age-matched cohort with comprehensive clinical history is required to accurately identify the effects of genotype, mRNA expression and DNA methylation on schizophrenia risk.

  3. Tritium accountancy

    Avenhaus, R.; Spannagel, G.

    1995-01-01

    Conventional accountancy means that for a given material balance area and a given interval of time the tritium balance is established so that at the end of that interval of time the book inventory is compared with the measured inventory. In this way, an optimal effectiveness of accountancy is achieved. However, there are still further objectives of accountancy, namely the timely detection of anomalies as well as the localization of anomalies in a major system. It can be shown that each of these objectives can be optimized only at the expense of the others. Recently, Near-Real-Time Accountancy procedures have been studied; their methodological background as well as their merits will be discussed. (orig.)

  4. [Prevention of schizophrenia: a review].

    Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Research over the years has introduced multiple interventions for schizophrenia. Notwithstanding the nature of intervention pharmacological or psychological a complete cure for the condition remains a much-desired, yet unachieved goal. What is required is an exploration of alternative intervention strategies for treating schizophrenia a preventive approach is such an option. The chronic nature of schizophrenia and its associated disabilities have a tremendously negative affect the quality of life of patients, their families, and communities. Among the preferred approaches to reducing the negative consequences associated with the disorder is the prevention of its emergence. This review aimed to present the available data on the prevention of schizophrenia data that suggest some pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have a potential role in the prevention of schizophrenia. Nonetheless, the findings are restricted to a few sites and are at best preliminary; as such, the findings must be replicated in new studies that include large samples and different settings.

  5. Schizophrenia : Current concepts in aetiology

    P S Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is perhaps the most devastating neuropsychiatric illness. Worldwide, its prevalence rate is about 1%. Schizophrenia is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder involving the interplay of susceptibility genes and environmental factors. There is a wide range of pathologic findings, but there is no specific or diagnostic laboratory abnormality. Till date, the aetiology, neuropathology, and pathophysiology of schizophrenia remain elusive. Over the last forty years, the dopaminergic model has been the leading neurochemical hypothesis of schizophrenia. Yet it remains unlikely that dopaminergic dysfunction, on its own. Glutamatergic models provide an alternate approach for conceptualizing the brain abnormalities associated with schizophrenia. New pharmacological and behavioral approaches aimed at potentiating glutamatergic neurotransmission, offer new hopeforfuture clinical development

  6. Pharmacotherapy of Schizophrenia: Ploypharmacy Approaches

    Fatemeh Rahiminejad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "nSchizophrenia is a debilitating illness, rating as one of the leading causes of lost years of quality of life. The illness imposes a disproportionate burden on patients and their families, healthcare systems and society. Pharmacological management is the cornerstone of treatment of schizophrenia, and antipsychotics, both first generation of antipsychotics and second generation of antipsychotics, are efficacious in reducing levels of psychopathology in acute episodes of schizophrenia. Clearly a need for innovative treatment strategies in schizophrenia that will ensure increased effectiveness against negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction dysfunction. Therefore, in majority of cases polypharmacy is one of the effective approaches. This review focused on polypharmacy in the treatment of schizophrenia and in particular negative symptoms.

  7. Schizophrenia: a review of neuropharmacology.

    Lyne, J; Kelly, B D; O'Connor, W T

    2004-01-01

    The last few decades have seen significant advances in our understanding of the neurochemical basis of schizophrenia. To describe the neurotransmitter systems and nerve circuits implicated in schizophrenia; to compare the neuropharmacology of typical and atypical anti-psychotic agents; and to describe recent developments in the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia. Relevant pharmacological, neurophysiological and psychiatric literature was examined and reviewed. Schizophrenia is associated with abnormalities of multiple neurotransmitter systems, including dopamine, serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate. Typical and atypical antipsychotic agents differ in their receptor-binding affinities, which are related to their differing side-effect profiles. Novel therapeutic strategies include normalisation of synaptic dopamine or serotonin levels, serotonin receptor antagonism and modulation of cerebral protein synthesis. The ideal treatment for schizophrenia may not be a single pharmacological agent but several agents that match the different expressions of the illness, in combination with psycho-social interventions.

  8. Accounting assessment

    Kafka S.М.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The proper evaluation of accounting objects influences essentially upon the reliability of assessing the financial situation of a company. Thus, the problem in accounting estimate is quite relevant. The works of home and foreign scholars on the issues of assessment of accounting objects, regulatory and legal acts of Ukraine controlling the accounting and compiling financial reporting are a methodological basis for the research. The author uses the theoretical methods of cognition (abstraction and generalization, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction and other methods producing conceptual knowledge for the synthesis of theoretical and methodological principles in the evaluation of assets accounting, liabilities and equity. The tabular presentation and information comparison methods are used for analytical researches. The article considers the modern approaches to the issue of evaluation of accounting objects and financial statements items. The expedience to keep records under historical value is proved and the articles of financial statements are to be presented according to the evaluation on the reporting date. In connection with the evaluation the depreciation of fixed assets is considered as a process of systematic return into circulation of the before advanced funds on the purchase (production, improvement of fixed assets and intangible assets by means of including the amount of wear in production costs. Therefore it is proposed to amortize only the actual costs incurred, i.e. not to depreciate the fixed assets received free of charge and surplus valuation of different kinds.

  9. Age of Onset in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: Complex Interactions between Genetic and Environmental Factors.

    Mandelli, Laura; Toscano, Elena; Porcelli, Stefano; Fabbri, Chiara; Serretti, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    In this study we evaluated the role of a candidate gene for major psychosis, Sialyltransferase (ST8SIA2), in the risk to develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorders, taking into account exposure to stressful life events (SLEs). Eight polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested in 94 Schizophreniainpatients and 176 healthy controls. Schizophrenia patients were also evaluated for SLEs in different life periods. None of the SNPs showed association with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, when crossing genetic variants with childhood SLEs, we could observe trends of interaction with age of onset. Though several limitations, our results support a protective role of ST8SIA2 in individuals exposed to moderate childhood stress.

  10. Horticultural therapy for schizophrenia.

    Liu, Yan; Bo, Li; Sampson, Stephanie; Roberts, Samantha; Zhang, Guoyou; Wu, Weiping

    2014-05-19

    Horticultural therapy is defined as the process of utilising fruits, vegetables, flowers and plants facilitated by a trained therapist or healthcare provider, to achieve specific treatment goals or to simply improve a person's well-being. It can be used for therapy or rehabilitation programs for cognitive, physical, social, emotional, and recreational benefits, thus improving the person's body, mind and spirit. Between 5% to 15% of people with schizophrenia continue to experience symptoms in spite of medication, and may also develop undesirable adverse effects, horticultural therapy may be of value for these people. To evaluate the effects of horticultural therapy for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses compared with standard care or other additional psychosocial interventions. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (Janurary 2013) and supplemented this by contacting relevant study authors, and manually searching reference lists. We included one randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing horticultural therapy plus standard care with standard care alone for people with schizophrenia. We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data. For continuous outcomes, we calculated a mean difference (MD) and for binary outcomes we calculated risk ratio (RR), both with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assessed risk of bias and created a 'Summary of findings' table using the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach. We included one single blind study (total n = 24). The overall risk of bias in the study was considered to be unclear although the randomisation was adequate. It compared a package of horticultural therapy which consisted of one hour per day of horticultural activity plus standard care with standard care alone over two weeks (10 consecutive days) with no long-term follow-up. Only two people were lost to follow-up in the study, both in the horticultural therapy group (1 RCT

  11. Linking the Developmental and Degenerative Theories of Schizophrenia: Association Between Infant Development and Adult Cognitive Decline

    Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Isohanni, Matti; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Miettunen, Jouko; Veijola, Juha; Haapea, Marianne; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jones, Peter B.; Murray, Graham K.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative theories may be viewed as incompatible accounts that compete to explain the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, it is possible that neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes could both reflect common underlying causal mechanisms. We hypothesized that cognitive dysfunction would gradually deteriorate over time in schizophrenia and the degree of this deterioration in adulthood would be predicted by an infant measure of neurodevelopment. We a...

  12. EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Gricel eOrellana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The executive function (EF is a set of abilities, which allows us to invoke voluntary control of our behavioral responses. These functions enable human beings to develop and carry out plans, make up analogies, obey social rules, solve problems, adapt to unexpected circumstances, do many tasks simultaneously and locate episodes in time and place. EF includes divided attention and sustained attention, working memory, set-shifting, flexibility, planning and the regulation of goal directed behavior and can be defined as a brain function underlying the human faculty to act or think not only in reaction to external events but also in relation with internal goals and states. EF is mostly associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC. Besides EF, PFC is involved in self-regulation of behavior, i.e. the ability to regulate behavior according to internal goals and constraints, particularly in less structured situations. Self-regulation of behavior is subtended by ventral medial /orbital PFC. Impairment of EF is one of the most commonly observed deficits in schizophrenia through the various disease stages. Impairment in tasks measuring conceptualization, planning, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, ability to solve complex problems and working memory occur in schizophrenia. Disorders detected by executive tests are consistent with evidence from functional neuroimaging, which have shown PFC dysfunction in patients while performing these kinds of tasks. Schizophrenics also exhibit deficit in odor identifying, decision-making and self-regulation of behavior suggesting dysfunction of the orbital PFC. However, impairment in executive tests is explained by dysfunction of prefronto-striato-thalamic, prefronto-parietal and prefronto-temporal neural networks mainly. Disorders in executive functions may be considered central facts with respect to schizophrenia and it has been suggested that negative symptoms may be explained by that executive dysfunction.

  13. MRI anatomy of schizophrenia.

    McCarley, R W; Wible, C G; Frumin, M; Hirayasu, Y; Levitt, J J; Fischer, I A; Shenton, M E

    1999-05-01

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data have provided much evidence in support of our current view that schizophrenia is a brain disorder with altered brain structure, and consequently involving more than a simple disturbance in neurotransmission. This review surveys 118 peer-reviewed studies with control group from 1987 to May 1998. Most studies (81%) do not find abnormalities of whole brain/intracranial contents, while lateral ventricle enlargement is reported in 77%, and third ventricle enlargement in 67%. The temporal lobe was the brain parenchymal region with the most consistently documented abnormalities. Volume decreases were found in 62% of 37 studies of whole temporal lobe, and in 81% of 16 studies of the superior temporal gyrus (and in 100% with gray matter separately evaluated). Fully 77% of the 30 studies of the medial temporal lobe reported volume reduction in one or more of its constituent structures (hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus). Despite evidence for frontal lobe functional abnormalities, structural MRI investigations less consistently found abnormalities, with 55% describing volume reduction. It may be that frontal lobe volume changes are small, and near the threshold for MRI detection. The parietal and occipital lobes were much less studied; about half of the studies showed positive findings. Most studies of cortical gray matter (86%) found volume reductions were not diffuse, but more pronounced in certain areas. About two thirds of the studies of subcortical structures of thalamus, corpus callosum and basal ganglia (which tend to increase volume with typical neuroleptics), show positive findings, as do almost all (91%) studies of cavum septi pellucidi (CSP). Most data were consistent with a developmental model, but growing evidence was compatible also with progressive, neurodegenerative features, suggesting a "two-hit" model of schizophrenia, for which a cellular hypothesis is discussed. The relationship of clinical

  14. A framework for the first-person internal sensation of visual perception in mammals and a comparable circuitry for olfactory perception in Drosophila.

    Vadakkan, Kunjumon I

    2015-01-01

    Perception is a first-person internal sensation induced within the nervous system at the time of arrival of sensory stimuli from objects in the environment. Lack of access to the first-person properties has limited viewing perception as an emergent property and it is currently being studied using third-person observed findings from various levels. One feasible approach to understand its mechanism is to build a hypothesis for the specific conditions and required circuit features of the nodal points where the mechanistic operation of perception take place for one type of sensation in one species and to verify it for the presence of comparable circuit properties for perceiving a different sensation in a different species. The present work explains visual perception in mammalian nervous system from a first-person frame of reference and provides explanations for the homogeneity of perception of visual stimuli above flicker fusion frequency, the perception of objects at locations different from their actual position, the smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements, the perception of object borders, and perception of pressure phosphenes. Using results from temporal resolution studies and the known details of visual cortical circuitry, explanations are provided for (a) the perception of rapidly changing visual stimuli, (b) how the perception of objects occurs in the correct orientation even though, according to the third-person view, activity from the visual stimulus reaches the cortices in an inverted manner and (c) the functional significance of well-conserved columnar organization of the visual cortex. A comparable circuitry detected in a different nervous system in a remote species-the olfactory circuitry of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster-provides an opportunity to explore circuit functions using genetic manipulations, which, along with high-resolution microscopic techniques and lipid membrane interaction studies, will be able to verify the structure

  15. Outpatient management of schizophrenia.

    Martin, R L

    1991-03-01

    As effective antipsychotic pharmacotherapy has become available, patients with schizophrenia are increasingly managed in an outpatient setting by primary care physicians. Pharmacotherapy is generally effective in treating "positive," or psychotic, symptoms and lessening the risks of relapse, but ineffective in improving "negative," or deficit, symptoms. Aggressive attempts to totally control positive symptoms and to ameliorate negative symptoms tend to increase side effects and may be detrimental to the patient. Intensive psychotherapeutic and rehabilitative approaches are generally unproductive. Attempting to obtain a cure is unrealistic. A moderate approach is recommended, taking into consideration the limitations of existing treatments, achieving control of extreme symptoms and minimizing social and occupational limitations.

  16. [Medicamental treatment of schizophrenia].

    Lotstra, F; Lestienne, S; De Nayer, A

    2010-09-01

    Antipsychotics play a key role in biologic therapy of schizophrenia. Following the first-generation neuroleptics, associated with many extrapyramidal side effects (severe dystonias, parkinsonian syndrome, akatisia and late dyskinesia) altering patients' compliance to the treatment, one can now find a new generation of molecules considered as atypical antipsychotics because they rarely cause neurological complications. This propriety provides a better compliance, along with a clear decrease of late dyskinesia risk but the effectiveness compared to ordinary molecules is still questioned. However, some of them can cause an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Some molecules such as benzodiazepines and some antidepressants can also be prescribed to cure schizophrenic patients.

  17. Electroconvulsive therapy for schizophrenia.

    Tharyan, P; Adams, C E

    2005-04-18

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) involves the induction of a seizure for therapeutic purposes by the administration of a variable frequency electrical stimulus shock via electrodes applied to the scalp. The effects of its use in people with schizophrenia are unclear. To determine whether electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) results in clinically meaningful benefit with regard to global improvement, hospitalisation, changes in mental state, behaviour and functioning for people with schizophrenia, and to determine whether variations in the practical administration of ECT influences outcome. We undertook electronic searches of Biological Abstracts (1982-1996), EMBASE (1980-1996), MEDLINE (1966-2004), PsycLIT (1974-1996),SCISEARCH (1996) and the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (July 2004). We also inspected the references of all identified studies and contacted relevant authors. We included all randomised controlled clinical trials that compared ECT with placebo, 'sham ECT', non-pharmacological interventions and antipsychotics and different schedules and methods of administration of ECT for people with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or chronic mental disorder. Working independently, we selected and critically appraised studies, extracted data and analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. Where possible and appropriate we calculated risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) with the number needed to treat (NNT). For continuous data Weighted Mean Differences (WMD) were calculated. We presented scale data for only those tools that had attained pre-specified levels of quality. We also undertook tests for heterogeneity and publication bias. This review includes 26 trials with 50 reports. When ECT is compared with placebo or sham ECT, more people improved in the real ECT group (n=392, 10 RCTs, RR 0.76 random CI 0.59 to 0.98, NNT 6 CI 4 to 12) and though data were heterogeneous (chi-square 17.49 df=9 P=0.04), its impact on variability of data was not

  18. Schizophrenia and violent behavior

    Alexandre Martins Valença

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report the case of a woman who killed a child. After a forensic psychiatric appraisal to evaluate penal responsibility, she was considered not guilty by reason of insanity and mandatorily committed to the central forensic psychiatric hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The patient received a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia, based on DSM-IV-TR. She was not in psychiatric treatment and showed psychotic symptoms before the violent behavior became manifest. The study of motivational factors in homicidal behavior may provide further knowledge for understanding, preventing and treating it in such cases.

  19. Jumping to conclusions in schizophrenia

    Evans SL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Simon L Evans,1 Bruno B Averbeck,2 Nicholas Furl31School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton, East Sussex, UK; 2Laboratory of Neuropsychology, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; 3Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, UKAbstract: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder associated with a variety of symptoms, including hallucinations, delusions, social withdrawal, and cognitive dysfunction. Impairments on decision-making tasks are routinely reported: evidence points to a particular deficit in learning from and revising behavior following feedback. In addition, patients tend to make hasty decisions when probabilistic judgments are required. This is known as “jumping to conclusions” (JTC and has typically been demonstrated by presenting participants with colored beads drawn from one of two “urns” until they claim to be sure which urn the beads are being drawn from (the proportions of colors vary in each urn. Patients tend to make early decisions on this task, and there is evidence to suggest that a hasty decision-making style might be linked to delusion formation and thus be of clinical relevance. Various accounts have been proposed regarding what underlies this behavior. In this review, we briefly introduce the disorder and the decision-making deficits associated with it. We then explore the evidence for each account of JTC in the context of a wider decision-making deficit and then go on to summarize work exploring JTC in healthy controls using pharmacological manipulations and functional imaging. Finally, we assess whether JTC might have a role in therapy.Keywords: ketamine, decision making, delusions, fMRI, urn task

  20. La narrativa estratégica de la guerra contra el terrorismo. Estudio de caso : los videojuegos First Person Shooter como medios de proyección

    Ayala Rico, Juan Nicolàs

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio de caso es identificar las presunciones y la lógica secuencial de la narrativa estratégica de la Guerra contra el Terrorismo en los videojuegos First Person Shooter producidos después de los ataques del 11 de septiembre. Se hará un análisis cualitativo de los contenidos de la narrativa contraterrorista y de la historia presente en los videojuegos seleccionados, con el apoyo de la teoría narrativa de Tzvetan Todorov y los cinco vectores propuestos por Kenneth B...

  1. Embodying Others in Immersive Virtual Reality: Electro-Cortical Signatures of Monitoring the Errors in the Actions of an Avatar Seen from a First-Person Perspective.

    Pavone, Enea Francesco; Tieri, Gaetano; Rizza, Giulia; Tidoni, Emmanuele; Grisoni, Luigi; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2016-01-13

    Brain monitoring of errors in one's own and other's actions is crucial for a variety of processes, ranging from the fine-tuning of motor skill learning to important social functions, such as reading out and anticipating the intentions of others. Here, we combined immersive virtual reality and EEG recording to explore whether embodying the errors of an avatar by seeing it from a first-person perspective may activate the error monitoring system in the brain of an onlooker. We asked healthy participants to observe, from a first- or third-person perspective, an avatar performing a correct or an incorrect reach-to-grasp movement toward one of two virtual mugs placed on a table. At the end of each trial, participants reported verbally how much they embodied the avatar's arm. Ratings were maximal in first-person perspective, indicating that immersive virtual reality can be a powerful tool to induce embodiment of an artificial agent, even through mere visual perception and in the absence of any cross-modal boosting. Observation of erroneous grasping from a first-person perspective enhanced error-related negativity and medial-frontal theta power in the trials where human onlookers embodied the virtual character, hinting at the tight link between early, automatic coding of error detection and sense of embodiment. Error positivity was similar in 1PP and 3PP, suggesting that conscious coding of errors is similar for self and other. Thus, embodiment plays an important role in activating specific components of the action monitoring system when others' errors are coded as if they are one's own errors. Detecting errors in other's actions is crucial for social functions, such as reading out and anticipating the intentions of others. Using immersive virtual reality and EEG recording, we explored how the brain of an onlooker reacted to the errors of an avatar seen from a first-person perspective. We found that mere observation of erroneous actions enhances electrocortical markers of

  2. Why all the confusion? Experimental task explains discrepant semantic priming effects in schizophrenia under “automatic” conditions: evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Kreher, Donna A.; Goff, Donald; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2009-01-01

    The schizophrenia research literature contains many differing accounts of semantic memory function in schizophrenia as assessed through the semantic priming paradigm. Most recently, Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) have been used to demonstrate both increased and decreased semantic priming at a neural level in schizophrenia patients, relative to healthy controls. The present study used ERPs to investigate the role of behavioral task in determining neural semantic priming effects in schizophren...

  3. Schizophrenia on YouTube.

    Nour, Matthew M; Nour, Murraih H; Tsatalou, Olga-Maria; Barrera, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    YouTube ( www.youtube.com ) is the most popular video-sharing Web site on the Internet and is used by medical students as a source of information regarding mental health conditions, including schizophrenia. The accuracy and educational utility of schizophrenia presentations on YouTube are unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the accuracy of depictions of psychosis in the context of a diagnosis of schizophrenia (referred to in this article as "acute schizophrenia") on YouTube and to assess the utility of these videos as educational tools for teaching medical students to recognize the clinical features of acute schizophrenia. YouTube was searched for videos purporting to show acute schizophrenia. Eligible videos were independently rated by two consultant psychiatrists on two separate occasions 22 days apart for diagnostic accuracy, psychopathology, and educational utility. Videos (N=4,200) were assessed against predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The majority were not eligible for further analysis, mostly because they did not claim to show a patient with schizophrenia (74%) or contained duplicated content (11%). Of 35 videos that met the eligibility and adequacy criteria, only 12 accurately depicted acute schizophrenia. Accurate videos were characterized by persecutory delusions (83%), inappropriate affect (75%), and negative symptoms (83%). Despite the fact that 83% of accurate videos were deemed to have good educational utility compared with 15% of inaccurate videos, accurate and inaccurate videos had similar view counts (290,048 versus 186,124). Schizophrenia presentations on YouTube offer a distorted picture of the condition.

  4. Genetic association between the dopamine D1-receptor gene and paranoid schizophrenia in a northern Han Chinese population.

    Yao, Jun; Ding, Mei; Xing, Jiaxin; Xuan, Jinfeng; Pang, Hao; Pan, Yuqing; Wang, Baojie

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission at the D1 receptor in the prefrontal cortex has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Genetic polymorphisms of the dopamine D1-receptor gene have a plausible role in modulating the risk of schizophrenia. To determine the role of DRD1 genetic polymorphisms as a risk factor for schizophrenia, we undertook a case-control study to look for an association between the DRD1 gene and schizophrenia. We genotyped eleven single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the DRD1 gene by deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing involving 173 paranoid schizophrenia patients and 213 unrelated healthy individuals. Statistical analysis was performed to identify the difference of genotype, allele, or haplotype distribution between cases and controls. A significantly lower risk of paranoid schizophrenia was associated with the AG + GG genotype of rs5326 and the AG + GG genotype of rs4532 compared to the AA genotype and the AA genotype, respectively. Distribution of haplotypes was no different between controls and paranoid schizophrenia patients. In the males, the genotype distribution of rs5326 was statistically different between cases and controls. In the females, the genotype distribution of rs4532 was statistically different between cases and controls. However, the aforementioned statistical significances were lost after Bonferroni correction. It is unlikely that DRD1 accounts for a substantial proportion of the genetic risk for schizophrenia. As an important dopaminergic gene, DRD1 may contribute to schizophrenia by interacting with other genes, and further relevant studies are warranted.

  5. Unipolar Depression in Paroxysmal Schizophrenia

    Alexander S. Bobrov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the current study, the clinical characteristics of unipolar depression in the clinical picture of schizophrenia with the paroxysmal type of disease course are presented. Given the concomitant depression with phobic symptoms, the following clinical variants are marked: depression with generalized social phobia and/or anthropophobia and depression with generalized pathological body sensations and hypochondriacal phobias. In other words, we are talking about a necessity to allocate a special type of schizophrenia with affective structure episodes and comorbid neurosis-like symptoms. Information on the basic treatment strategy of schizophrenia with depressive structure episodes and comorbid neurosis-like symptoms in everyday psychiatric practice is also provided.

  6. Schizophrenia: breaking down the barriers.

    Haghighat, R

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the key issues presented during the Fourth International Conference on Schizophrenia, which was held in October 1996 in Vancouver, Canada. The main emphasis was placed on the problem of stigma, loneliness and work as well as on the necessity to further elucidate the physiopathology of schizophrenia. Some of the barriers discussed are unlikely to disappear from human societies in the short term with any possible cure for schizophrenia as they are part of any major long-term illness, of which there is a long and ever increasing list.

  7. Gesture Imitation in Schizophrenia

    Matthews, Natasha; Gold, Brian J.; Sekuler, Robert; Park, Sohee

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) are impaired in their ability to imitate gestures and movements generated by others. This impairment in imitation may be linked to difficulties in generating and maintaining internal representations in working memory (WM). We used a novel quantitative technique to investigate the relationship between WM and imitation ability. SZ outpatients and demographically matched healthy control (HC) participants imitated hand gestures. In Experiment 1, participants imitated single gestures. In Experiment 2, they imitated sequences of 2 gestures, either while viewing the gesture online or after a short delay that forced the use of WM. In Experiment 1, imitation errors were increased in SZ compared with HC. Experiment 2 revealed a significant interaction between imitation ability and WM. SZ produced more errors and required more time to imitate when that imitation depended upon WM compared with HC. Moreover, impaired imitation from WM was significantly correlated with the severity of negative symptoms but not with positive symptoms. In sum, gesture imitation was impaired in schizophrenia, especially when the production of an imitation depended upon WM and when an imitation entailed multiple actions. Such a deficit may have downstream consequences for new skill learning. PMID:21765171

  8. Gesture imitation in schizophrenia.

    Matthews, Natasha; Gold, Brian J; Sekuler, Robert; Park, Sohee

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) are impaired in their ability to imitate gestures and movements generated by others. This impairment in imitation may be linked to difficulties in generating and maintaining internal representations in working memory (WM). We used a novel quantitative technique to investigate the relationship between WM and imitation ability. SZ outpatients and demographically matched healthy control (HC) participants imitated hand gestures. In Experiment 1, participants imitated single gestures. In Experiment 2, they imitated sequences of 2 gestures, either while viewing the gesture online or after a short delay that forced the use of WM. In Experiment 1, imitation errors were increased in SZ compared with HC. Experiment 2 revealed a significant interaction between imitation ability and WM. SZ produced more errors and required more time to imitate when that imitation depended upon WM compared with HC. Moreover, impaired imitation from WM was significantly correlated with the severity of negative symptoms but not with positive symptoms. In sum, gesture imitation was impaired in schizophrenia, especially when the production of an imitation depended upon WM and when an imitation entailed multiple actions. Such a deficit may have downstream consequences for new skill learning.

  9. Psychoeducation for schizophrenia

    Xia, Jun; Merinder, Lars Bertil; Belgamwar, Madhvi R

    2014-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia can be a severe and chronic illness characterised by lack of insight and poor compliance with treatment. Psychoeducational approaches have been developed to increase patients’ knowledge of, and insight into, their illness and its treatment. It is supposed that this increased knowledge and insight will enable people with schizophrenia to cope in a more effective way with their illness, thereby improving prognosis. Objectives To assess the effects of psychoeducational interventions compared with standard levels of knowledge provision. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (February 2010). We updated this search November 2012 and added 27 new trials to the awaiting assessment section. Selection criteria All relevant randomised controlled trials focusing on psychoeducation for schizophrenia and/or related serious mental illnesses involving individuals or groups. We excluded quasi-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors extracted data independently from included papers. We contacted authors of trials for additional and missing data. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of homogeneous dichotomous data. We used a fixed-effects model for heterogeneous dichotomous data. Where possible we also calculated the numbers needed to treat (NNT), as well as weighted means for continuous data. Main results This review includes a total of 5142 participants (mostly inpatients) from 44 trials conducted between 1988 and 2009 (median study duration ~ 12 weeks, risk of bias - moderate). We found that incidences of non-compliance were lower in the psychoeducation group in the short term (n = 1400, RR 0.52 CI 0.40 to 0.67, NNT 11 CI 9 to 16). This finding holds for the medium and long term. Relapse appeared to be lower in psychoeducation group (n = 1214, RR 0.70 CI 0.61 to 0.81, NNT 9 CI 7 to 14) and this also applied to readmission (n = 206, RR 0.71 CI 0.56 to 0

  10. Exploring cognitive complaints in schizophrenia: the subjective scale to investigate cognition in schizophrenia.

    Stip, E; Caron, J; Renaud, S; Pampoulova, T; Lecomte, Y

    2003-01-01

    While it has become commonplace to test the various components of memory in schizophrenia with paper-and-pencil or in-lab tasks, very little data exist on the subjective complaints of patients regarding their memory. Few instruments have been designed to collect systematically the complaints of patients with schizophrenia. We present a work in progress on the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), a 21-item, Likert-type scale that is simple and easy to use. It allows a quantitative approach to the subjective and cognitive dimensions of schizophrenia. Stip constructed the scale based on a questionnaire covering several cognitive domains: memory (working memory, explicit long-term memory), attention (divided, distractibility, alertness, sustained), language, and praxia. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the SSTICS in a population of 114 French-speaking patients in Montreal. Patients were recruited in the community and assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and the Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale (ESRS). Cognition was measured using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) (long-term memory), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (verbal fluency), and Trails A and B. Preliminary analyses showed very good internal consistency for the global score (alpha=0.88), and alphas varying from 0.57 to 0.72 for the subscales. Stability over time was very good. The principal components analysis accounted for a multiple structure. Correlations between subjective scores and objective cognitive assessment were significant for several domains. Validation of the SSTICS needs to be completed through further exploration of the factorial structure and testing of the English version.

  11. An EMG Study of the Lip Muscles during Covert Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia

    Rapin, Lucile; Dohen, Marion; Polosan, Mircea; Perrier, Pascal; Loevenbruck, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: "Auditory verbal hallucinations" (AVHs) are speech perceptions in the absence of external stimulation. According to an influential theoretical account of AVHs in schizophrenia, a deficit in inner-speech monitoring may cause the patients' verbal thoughts to be perceived as external voices. The account is based on a…

  12. AMERICAN ACCOUNTING

    Mihaela Onica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The international Accounting Standards already contribute to the generation of better and more easily comparable financial information on an international level, supporting thus a more effective allocationof the investments resources in the world. Under the circumstances, there occurs the necessity of a consistent application of the standards on a global level. The financial statements are part of thefinancial reporting process. A set of complete financial statements usually includes a balance sheet,a profit and loss account, a report of the financial item change (which can be presented in various ways, for example as a status of the treasury flows and of the funds flows and those notes, as well as those explanatory situations and materials which are part of the financial statements.

  13. Payroll accounting

    Hodžová, Markéta

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Main topic of my thesis is the Payroll Accounting. The work summarizes most of the areas that are related to this topic and the knowledge necessary in calculating the final determination of wages. Beginning the thesis mentions specific chapters from the Labor code which explain the facts about the start, changes and the termination of the employment contract then more detailed description of the arrangements performed outside of the employment contract and then working hours and mini...

  14. Structural brain alterations associated with schizophrenia preceded by conduct disorder: a common and distinct subtype of schizophrenia?

    Schiffer, Boris; Leygraf, Norbert; Müller, Bernhard W; Scherbaum, Norbert; Forsting, Michael; Wiltfang, Jens; Gizewski, Elke R; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2013-09-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) prior to age 15 is a precursor of schizophrenia in a minority of cases and is associated with violent behavior through adulthood, after taking account of substance misuse. The present study used structural magnetic imaging to examine gray matter (GM) volumes among 27 men with schizophrenia preceded by CD (SZ+CD), 23 men with schizophrenia but without CD (SZ-CD), 27 men with CD only (CD), and 25 healthy (H) men. The groups with schizophrenia were similar in terms of age of onset and duration of illness, levels of psychotic symptoms, and medication. The 2 groups with CD were similar as to number of CD symptoms, lifelong aggressive behavior, and number of criminal convictions. Men with SZ+CD, relative to those with SZ-CD, displayed (1) increased GM volumes in the hypothalamus, the left putamen, the right cuneus/precuneus, and the right inferior parietal cortex after controlling for age, alcohol, and drug misuse and (2) decreased GM volumes in the inferior frontal region. Men with SZ+CD (relative to the SZ-CD group) and CD (relative to the H group) displayed increased GM volumes of the hypothalamus and the inferior and superior parietal lobes, which were not associated with substance misuse. Aggressive behavior, both prior to age 15 and lifetime tendency, was positively correlated with the GM volume of the hypothalamus. Thus, among males, SZ+CD represents a distinct subtype of schizophrenia. Although differences in behavior emerge in childhood and remain stable through adulthood, further research is needed to determine whether the differences in GM volumes result from abnormal neural development distinct from that of other males developing schizophrenia.

  15. Excess Early Mortality in Schizophrenia

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often referred to as one of the most severe mental disorders, primarily because of the very high mortality rates of those with the disorder. This article reviews the literature on excess early mortality in persons with schizophrenia and suggests reasons for the high mortality...... as well as possible ways to reduce it. Persons with schizophrenia have an exceptionally short life expectancy. High mortality is found in all age groups, resulting in a life expectancy of approximately 20 years below that of the general population. Evidence suggests that persons with schizophrenia may...... not have seen the same improvement in life expectancy as the general population during the past decades. Thus, the mortality gap not only persists but may actually have increased. The most urgent research agenda concerns primary candidates for modifiable risk factors contributing to this excess mortality...

  16. GWAS, Cytomegalovirus Infection, and Schizophrenia

    Grove, Jakob; Børglum, Anders; Pearce, Brad D

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, good progress has been made in uncovering the genetic underpinnings of schizophrenia. Even so, as a polygenic disorder, schizophrenia has a complex etiology that is far from understood. Meanwhile, data are being collected enabling the study of interactions between genes...... and the environment. A confluence of data from genetic and environmental exposure studies point to the role of infections and immunity in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In a recent study by Børglum et al., a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene CTNNA3 was identified that may provide clues to gene......-environment interactions. The carriers of the minor allele for the SNP had a fivefold risk of later developing schizophrenia if their mothers were CMV positive, while the children not carrying the allele had no excess risk from maternal CMV. In the current paper, we summarize recent advances to clarify a possible...

  17. Neural complexity, dissociation, and schizophrenia

    Bob, P.; Šusta, M.; Chládek, Jan; Glaslová, K.; Fedor-Ferybergh, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 10 (2007), HY1-5 ISSN 1234-1010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : neural complexity * dissociation * schizophrenia Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.607, year: 2007

  18. Management of treatment resistant schizophrenia

    Adele

    Whilst gains have been made in recent years in the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia, a number of ... pharmacotherapy to include psychological and occupational ... outcome studies suggesting that only 20-30% of people with.

  19. Schizophrenia and second language acquisition.

    Bersudsky, Yuly; Fine, Jonathan; Gorjaltsan, Igor; Chen, Osnat; Walters, Joel

    2005-05-01

    Language acquisition involves brain processes that can be affected by lesions or dysfunctions in several brain systems and second language acquisition may depend on different brain substrates than first language acquisition in childhood. A total of 16 Russian immigrants to Israel, 8 diagnosed schizophrenics and 8 healthy immigrants, were compared. The primary data for this study were collected via sociolinguistic interviews. The two groups use language and learn language in very much the same way. Only exophoric reference and blocking revealed meaningful differences between the schizophrenics and healthy counterparts. This does not mean of course that schizophrenia does not induce language abnormalities. Our study focuses on those aspects of language that are typically difficult to acquire in second language acquisition. Despite the cognitive compromises in schizophrenia and the manifest atypicalities in language of speakers with schizophrenia, the process of acquiring a second language seems relatively unaffected by schizophrenia.

  20. Spouse with schizophrenia and risk of dementia.

    Rohde, Christopher; Agerbo, Esben; Nielsen, Philip Rising

    2016-12-01

    Increased prevalence of lifestyle risk factors or shared etiology may underlie the association between schizophrenia and the subsequent risk of dementia. We explored the association between having a spouse with schizophrenia and the risk of dementia. We found a positive relationship between having a spouse with schizophrenia and vascular dementia in individuals without a mental disorder themselves but no association between having a spouse with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's dementia. As spouses share environmental risk factors and lifestyle, this might suggest that the excess risk of dementia in probands with schizophrenia could be ascribed to the unhealthy living environment among individuals with schizophrenia.

  1. Schizophrenia patients differentiation based on MR vascular perfusion and volumetric imaging

    Spanier, A. B.; Joskowicz, L.; Moshel, S.; Israeli, D.

    2015-03-01

    Candecomp/Parafac Decomposition (CPD) has emerged as a framework for modeling N-way arrays (higher-order matrices). CPD is naturally well suited for the analysis of data sets comprised of observations of a function of multiple discrete indices. In this study we evaluate the prospects of using CPD for modeling MRI brain properties (i.e. brain volume and gray-level) for schizophrenia diagnosis. Taking into account that 3D imaging data consists of millions of pixels per patient, the diagnosis of a schizophrenia patient based on pixel analysis constitutes a methodological challenge (e.g. multiple comparison problem). We show that the CPD could potentially be used as a dimensionality redaction method and as a discriminator between schizophrenia patients and match control, using the gradient of pre- and post Gd-T1-weighted MRI data, which is strongly correlated with cerebral blood perfusion. Our approach was tested on 68 MRI scans: 40 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 28 matched controls. The CPD subject's scores exhibit statistically significant result (P schizophrenia with MRI, the results suggest that the CPD could potentially be used to discriminate between schizophrenia patients and matched control. In addition, the CPD model suggests for brain regions that might exhibit abnormalities in schizophrenia patients for future research.

  2. The relation between maternal schizophrenia and low birth weight is modified by paternal age.

    Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Tang, Chao-Hsuin; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2010-06-01

    Paternal characteristics have never been considered in the relation between maternal schizophrenia and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of our study was to consider different paternal ages while investigating the relation between maternal schizophrenia and low birth weight (LBW), using a nationwide population-based dataset. Our study used data from the 2001 to 2003 Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Dataset and birth certificate registry. A total of 543 394 singleton live births were included. We performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to explore the relation between maternal schizophrenia and the risk of LBW, taking different paternal age groups into account (aged 29 years or younger, 30 to 39 years, and 40 years and older), and after adjusting for other characteristics of infant, mother, and father as well as the difference between the parent's ages. Mothers with schizophrenia had a higher percentage of LBW infants than mothers who did not (11.8%, compared with 6.8%). For infants whose mothers had schizophrenia, the adjusted odds ratios of LBW were 1.47 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.27, P paternal age groups of 30 to 39 years and 40 years or older, respectively. However, maternal schizophrenia was not a significant predictor of LBW for infants whose fathers were aged 29 years and younger. The relation between LBW and maternal schizophrenia is modified by paternal age. More attention should be paid to the interaction of paternal characteristics and maternal psychiatric disorders in producing adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  3. Genetic risk for schizophrenia, obstetric complications, and adolescent school outcome: evidence for gene-environment interaction.

    Forsyth, Jennifer K; Ellman, Lauren M; Tanskanen, Antti; Mustonen, Ulla; Huttunen, Matti O; Suvisaari, Jaana; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2013-09-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) and hypoxia are among the environmental factors most reliably associated with schizophrenia; however, the nature of this relationship is unclear and both gene-environment interaction and gene-environment covariation models have been proposed as explanations. High-risk (HR) designs that explore whether obstetric complications differentially predict outcomes in offspring at low risk (LR) vs HR for schizophrenia, while accounting for differences in rates of maternal risk factors, may shed light on this question. This study used prospectively obtained data to examine relationships between LBW and hypoxia on school outcome at age 15-16 years in a Finnish sample of 1070 offspring at LR for schizophrenia and 373 offspring at HR for schizophrenia, based on parental psychiatric history. Controlling for offspring sex, maternal smoking, social support, parity, age, and number of prenatal care visits, HR offspring performed worse than LR offspring across academic, nonacademic, and physical education domains. LBW predicted poorer academic and physical education performance in HR offspring, but not in LR offspring, and this association was similar for offspring of fathers vs mothers with schizophrenia. Hypoxia predicted poorer physical education score across risk groups. Rates of LBW and hypoxia were similar for LR and HR offspring and for offspring of fathers vs mothers with schizophrenia. Results support the hypothesis that genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia confers augmented vulnerability of the developing brain to the effects of obstetric complications, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms.

  4. Schizophrenia: Hope on the Horizon

    Sullivan, Patrick F.

    2015-01-01

    Editor?s Note: In July 2014, an international consortium of schizophrenia researchers co-founded by the author mounted the largest biological experiment in the history of psychiatry and found eighty new regions in the genome associated with the illness. With many more avenues for exploring the biological underpinnings of schizophrenia now available to neuroscientists, hope may be on the way for the estimated 2.4 million Americans and 1 in 100 people worldwide affected by the illness, one in w...

  5. Cognitive behaviour therapy for schizophrenia

    Addington, Jean; Lecomte, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the major and potentially severe mental illnesses. Even with best practices, there are limitations to the effectiveness of treatments that include medications for this disorder. Relapse rates are high and often those with the illness remain symptomatic and functionally impaired. All the evidence suggests that individuals with schizophrenia do best with a combination of pharmacological and psychosocial intervention. One psychosocial treatment that has received much atte...

  6. Towards a geography of schizophrenia

    Frith, Ch.

    1996-01-01

    The schizophrenia is one of the more severe and the more frequent mental diseases. It cannot be explained by a structural anomaly of the brain but by a cerebral functioning disorder. With the imagery (NMR imaging, positron computed tomography) the searchers have particularly studied two sorts of schizophrenia: the lack of will and the pseudo hallucinations. In these two cases, an alteration of the affected cerebral areas activity compared with healthy persons is observed. (O.M.)

  7. Insight in schizophrenia: a review.

    Dam, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    The issue of insight in schizophrenia must be assumed to be one of the most important aspects of the clinical examination. Comprehensive studies have shown that between 50% and 80% of all patients suffering from schizophrenia do not believe that they have a disorder. In recent years, poor insight in schizophrenia has been the subject of increasing interest, as manifested in a number of studies discussed in the present review. Some of these studies focus on insight correlated to various parameters such as psychopathology, neuropsychology, clinical relevance and compliance. Other studies refer to more theoretical implications, among these the issue of defining the concept of insight: whether insight can be seen as a "primary" phenomenon in schizophrenia, and whether insight may be graduated, dimensioned or increased. Several authors have developed rating scales in an attempt to obtain a measure for the degree or dimension of insight. Here, the range of parameters employed gives an excellent impression of the complexity of the concept of insight. In the concluding discussion, a phenomenological aspect is brought in, in an attempt to place the concept of insight in relation to disturbances of the self in schizophrenia and to primary symptoms in schizophrenia, amongst these autism.

  8. Theories of schizophrenia: a genetic-inflammatory-vascular synthesis

    Gottesman Irving I

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia, a relatively common psychiatric syndrome, affects virtually all brain functions yet has eluded explanation for more than 100 years. Whether by developmental and/or degenerative processes, abnormalities of neurons and their synaptic connections have been the recent focus of attention. However, our inability to fathom the pathophysiology of schizophrenia forces us to challenge our theoretical models and beliefs. A search for a more satisfying model to explain aspects of schizophrenia uncovers clues pointing to genetically mediated CNS microvascular inflammatory disease. Discussion A vascular component to a theory of schizophrenia posits that the physiologic abnormalities leading to illness involve disruption of the exquisitely precise regulation of the delivery of energy and oxygen required for normal brain function. The theory further proposes that abnormalities of CNS metabolism arise because genetically modulated inflammatory reactions damage the microvascular system of the brain in reaction to environmental agents, including infections, hypoxia, and physical trauma. Damage may accumulate with repeated exposure to triggering agents resulting in exacerbation and deterioration, or healing with their removal. There are clear examples of genetic polymorphisms in inflammatory regulators leading to exaggerated inflammatory responses. There is also ample evidence that inflammatory vascular disease of the brain can lead to psychosis, often waxing and waning, and exhibiting a fluctuating course, as seen in schizophrenia. Disturbances of CNS blood flow have repeatedly been observed in people with schizophrenia using old and new technologies. To account for the myriad of behavioral and other curious findings in schizophrenia such as minor physical anomalies, or reported decreased rates of rheumatoid arthritis and highly visible nail fold capillaries, we would have to evoke a process that is systemic such as the vascular

  9. Infrastrukturel Accountability

    Ubbesen, Morten Bonde

    Hvordan redegør man troværdigt for noget så diffust som en hel nations udledning af drivhusgasser? Det undersøger denne afhandling i et etnografisk studie af hvordan Danmarks drivhusgasregnskab udarbejdes, rapporteres og kontrolleres. Studiet trækker på begreber og forståelser fra 'Science & Tech...... & Technology Studies', og bidrager med begrebet 'infrastrukturel accountability' til nye måder at forstå og tænke om det arbejde, hvormed højt specialiserede praksisser dokumenterer og redegør for kvaliteten af deres arbejde....

  10. [Cognitive remediation and work outcome in schizophrenia].

    Franck, N

    2014-06-01

    Recovery is partly defined by the patients' capacity to work, since doing well in a job favors hope and responsibilities' taking. Diminished job placement or tenure is linked with cognitive disorders, which impact directly and indirectly (through negative symptoms) functional outcomes. Attention, executive functions and working memory disorders can result in an alteration of the ability to manage the tasks required in the workplace. Executive function, working memory and social cognition disorders may also have an impact on behavior in relationships. Cognitive disorders do not automatically directly contribute to vocational outcome, yet their effects may be mediated by other variables such as symptoms, metacognition, social skills and intrinsic motivation. Then, since all these dimensions have to be taken into account, reducing the impact of cognitive troubles becomes a major challenge for the care of schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation is the more effective therapeutic tool to reduce cognitive dysfunctions. It rests in particular on the development of new strategies that allow taking concrete situations into account more efficiently. Cognitive remediation reduces the detrimental consequences of cognitive disorders and permits their compensation. It has emerged as an effective treatment, that improves not only cognitive abilities but also functioning, as it has been shown by numerous randomized controlled studies and several meta-analyses. The present article considers the effects on cognitive remediation on work function in schizophrenia. Several randomized controlled trials that compared supported employment alone versus supported employment associated with cognitive remediation showed significant improvement of employment rates in the latter condition. These results favor the use of cognitive remediation before job placement. The specific needs of the occupation that will be provided and the cognitive profile of the user should be taken into account. Copyright

  11. Self-disorders and schizophrenia: a phenomenological reappraisal of poor insight and noncompliance.

    Henriksen, Mads G; Parnas, Josef

    2014-05-01

    Poor insight into illness is considered the primary cause of treatment noncompliance in schizophrenia. In this article, we critically discuss the predominant conceptual accounts of poor insight, which consider it as an ineffective self-reflection, caused either by psychological defenses or impaired metacognition. We argue that these accounts are at odds with the phenomenology of schizophrenia, and we propose a novel account of poor insight. We suggest that the reason why schizophrenia patients have no or only partial insight and consequently do not comply with treatment is rooted in the nature of their anomalous self-experiences (ie, self- disorders) and the related articulation of their psychotic symptoms. We argue that self-disorders destabilize the patients' experiential framework, thereby weakening their basic sense of reality (natural attitude) and enabling another sense of reality (solipsistic attitude) to emerge and coexist. This coexistence of attitudes, which Bleuler termed "double bookkeeping," is, in our view, central to understanding what poor insight in schizophrenia really is. We suggest that our phenomenologically informed account of poor insight may have important implications for early intervention, psychoeducation, and psychotherapy for schizophrenia.

  12. Mismatch negativity in chronic schizophrenia and first-episode schizophrenia.

    Salisbury, Dean F; Shenton, Martha E; Griggs, Carlye B; Bonner-Jackson, Aaron; McCarley, Robert W

    2002-08-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related brain potential that is sensitive to stimulus deviation from a repetitive pattern. The MMN is thought primarily to reflect the activity of sensory memory, with, at most, moderate influences of higher-level cognitive processes, such as attention. The MMN is reported to be reduced in patients with chronic schizophrenia. However, it is unknown whether MMN is reduced in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (at first hospitalization). Subject groups comprised patients with chronic schizophrenia (n = 16) and older control subjects (n = 13), and patients with first-episode schizophrenia (n = 21) and younger control subjects (n = 27). The MMN was visualized by subtracting the averaged event-related brain potential to standard tones (1 kHz [95% of all tones]) from the event-related brain potential to pitch-deviant tones (1.2 kHz [5% of all tones]). The MMN voltage was the mean voltage from 100 to 200 milliseconds. Pitch-deviant MMN was reduced by approximately 47% in patients with chronic illness along the sagittal midline relative to controls. The MMN was not reduced in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. All 4 groups showed approximately 64% larger MMN to pitch-deviant tones over the right hemisphere compared with the left hemisphere. The pitch-deviant MMN reductions present in patients with chronic schizophrenia are not present at first hospitalization. The sensory, echoic memory functions indexed by MMN seem unaffected early in the schizophrenia disease process. Reductions in MMN amplitude may develop over time and index the progression of the disorder, although that can only be definitively determined by longitudinal assessments.

  13. The associations between multisensory temporal processing and symptoms of schizophrenia.

    Stevenson, Ryan A; Park, Sohee; Cochran, Channing; McIntosh, Lindsey G; Noel, Jean-Paul; Barense, Morgan D; Ferber, Susanne; Wallace, Mark T

    2017-01-01

    Recent neurobiological accounts of schizophrenia have included an emphasis on changes in sensory processing. These sensory and perceptual deficits can have a cascading effect onto higher-level cognitive processes and clinical symptoms. One form of sensory dysfunction that has been consistently observed in schizophrenia is altered temporal processing. In this study, we investigated temporal processing within and across the auditory and visual modalities in individuals with schizophrenia (SCZ) and age-matched healthy controls. Individuals with SCZ showed auditory and visual temporal processing abnormalities, as well as multisensory temporal processing dysfunction that extended beyond that attributable to unisensory processing dysfunction. Most importantly, these multisensory temporal deficits were associated with the severity of hallucinations. This link between atypical multisensory temporal perception and clinical symptomatology suggests that clinical symptoms of schizophrenia may be at least partly a result of cascading effects from (multi)sensory disturbances. These results are discussed in terms of underlying neural bases and the possible implications for remediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Alterations of cortical GABA neurons and network oscillations in schizophrenia.

    Gonzalez-Burgos, Guillermo; Hashimoto, Takanori; Lewis, David A

    2010-08-01

    The hypothesis that alterations of cortical inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons are a central element in the pathology of schizophrenia has emerged from a series of postmortem studies. How such abnormalities may contribute to the clinical features of schizophrenia has been substantially informed by a convergence with basic neuroscience studies revealing complex details of GABA neuron function in the healthy brain. Importantly, activity of the parvalbumin-containing class of GABA neurons has been linked to the production of cortical network oscillations. Furthermore, growing knowledge supports the concept that gamma band oscillations (30-80 Hz) are an essential mechanism for cortical information transmission and processing. Herein we review recent studies further indicating that inhibition from parvalbumin-positive GABA neurons is necessary to produce gamma oscillations in cortical circuits; provide an update on postmortem studies documenting that deficits in the expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase67, which accounts for most GABA synthesis in the cortex, are widely observed in schizophrenia; and describe studies using novel, noninvasive approaches directly assessing potential relations between alterations in GABA, oscillations, and cognitive function in schizophrenia.

  15. Functional hierarchy underlies preferential connectivity disturbances in schizophrenia.

    Yang, Genevieve J; Murray, John D; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Glahn, David C; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Repovs, Grega; Krystal, John H; Anticevic, Alan

    2016-01-12

    Schizophrenia may involve an elevated excitation/inhibition (E/I) ratio in cortical microcircuits. It remains unknown how this regulatory disturbance maps onto neuroimaging findings. To address this issue, we implemented E/I perturbations within a neural model of large-scale functional connectivity, which predicted hyperconnectivity following E/I elevation. To test predictions, we examined resting-state functional MRI in 161 schizophrenia patients and 164 healthy subjects. As predicted, patients exhibited elevated functional connectivity that correlated with symptom levels, and was most prominent in association cortices, such as the fronto-parietal control network. This pattern was absent in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 73). To account for the pattern observed in schizophrenia, we integrated neurobiologically plausible, hierarchical differences in association vs. sensory recurrent neuronal dynamics into our model. This in silico architecture revealed preferential vulnerability of association networks to E/I imbalance, which we verified empirically. Reported effects implicate widespread microcircuit E/I imbalance as a parsimonious mechanism for emergent inhomogeneous dysconnectivity in schizophrenia.

  16. Longer you play, the more hostile you feel: examination of first person shooter video games and aggression during video game play.

    Barlett, Christopher P; Harris, Richard J; Baldassaro, Ross

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of video game play on aggression. Using the General Aggression Model, as applied to video games by Anderson and Bushman, [2002] this study measured physiological arousal, state hostility, and how aggressively participants would respond to three hypothetical scenarios. In addition, this study measured each of these variables multiple times to gauge how aggression would change with increased video game play. Results showed a significant increase from baseline in hostility and aggression (based on two of the three story stems), which is consistent with the General Aggression Model. This study adds to the existing literature on video games and aggression by showing that increased play of a violent first person shooter video game can significantly increase aggression from baseline. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. A conceptual framework for the design and analysis of first-person shooter audio and its potential use for game engines

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Schott, Gareth

    2007-01-01

    We introduce and describe a new conceptual framework for the design and analysis of audio for immersive first-person shooter games, and discuss its potential implications for the development of the audio component of game engines. The framework was created in order to illustrate and acknowledge...... the direct role of in-game audio in shaping player-player interactions and in creating a sense of immersion in the game world. Furthermore, it is argued that the relationship between player and sound is best conceptualized theoretically as an acoustic ecology. Current game engines are capable of game world...... spatiality through acoustic shading, but the ideas presented here provide a framework to explore other immersive possibilities for game audio through realtime synthesis....

  18. A Danish Twin Study of Schizophrenia Liability

    Kläning, Ulla; Trumbetta, Susan L; Gottesman, Irving I

    2016-01-01

    whether variance in schizophrenia liability attributable to environmental factors may have decreased with successive cohorts exposed to improvements in public health. ICD-10 diagnoses were determined by clinical interview. Although the best-fitting, most parsimonious biometric model of schizophrenia...

  19. Researchers Find a Mechanism for Schizophrenia

    ... issue Health Capsule Researchers Find a Mechanism for Schizophrenia En español Send us your comments Scientists uncovered a mechanism behind genetic variations previously linked to schizophrenia. The findings may lead to new clinical approaches. ...

  20. Family Matters: imaging the vulnerability for schizophrenia

    Leeuw, M. de

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder that is characterized by impairments in the fronto-striatal network underlying cognitive deficits. Subjects who are at increased familial risk such as siblings and offspring of schizophrenia patients, also show cognitive impairments

  1. Energy accountancy

    Boer, G.A. de.

    1981-01-01

    G.A. de Boer reacts to recently published criticism of his contribution to a report entitled 'Commentaar op het boek 'Tussen Kernenergie en Kolen. Een Analyse' van ir. J.W. Storm van Leeuwen' (Commentary on the book 'Nuclear Energy versus Coal. An Analysis by ir. J.W. Storm van Leeuwen), published by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. The contribution (Appendix B) deals with energy analyses. He justifies his arguments for using energy accountancy for assessing different methods of producing electricity, and explains that it is simply an alternative to purely economic methods. The energy conversion yield (ratio of energy produced to energy required) is tabulated for different sources. De Boer emphasises that his article purposely discusses among other things, definitions, forms of energy, the limits of the systems, the conversion of money into energy and the definition of the energy yield at length, in order to prevent misunderstandings. (C.F.)

  2. Design Accountability

    Koskinen, Ilpo; Krogh, Peter

    2015-01-01

    When design research builds on design practice, it may contribute to both theory and practice of design in ways richer than research that treats design as a topic. Such research, however, faces several tensions that it has to negotiate successfully in order not to lose its character as research....... This paper looks at constructive design research which takes the entanglement of theory and practice as its hallmark, and uses it as a test case in exploring how design researchers can work with theory, methodology, and practice without losing their identity as design researchers. The crux of practice based...... design research is that where classical research is interested in singling out a particular aspect and exploring it in depth, design practice is characterized by balancing numerous concerns in a heterogenous and occasionally paradoxical product. It is on this basis the notion of design accountability...

  3. Medial frontal GABA is lower in older schizophrenia: a MEGA-PRESS with macromolecule suppression study.

    Rowland, L M; Krause, B W; Wijtenburg, S A; McMahon, R P; Chiappelli, J; Nugent, K L; Nisonger, S J; Korenic, S A; Kochunov, P; Hong, L E

    2016-02-01

    Gamma-butyric acid (GABA) dysfunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its cognitive deficits. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to test the hypothesis that older participants with schizophrenia have lower anterior cingulate GABA levels compared with older control participants. One-hundred forty-five participants completed this study. For detection of GABA, spectra were acquired from the medial frontal/anterior cingulate cortex using a macromolecule-suppressed MEGA-PRESS sequence. Patients were evaluated for psychopathology and all participants completed neuropsychological tests of working memory, processing speed and functional capacity. GABA levels were significantly lower in the older participants with schizophrenia (n=31) compared with the older control (n=37) group (P=0.003) but not between the younger control (n=40) and schizophrenia (n=29) groups (P=0.994). Age strongly predicted GABA levels in the schizophrenia group accounting for 42% of the variance, but the effect of age was less in the control group accounting for 5.7% of the variance. GABA levels were specifically related to working memory but not processing speed performance, functional capacity, or positive or negative symptom severity. This is the largest MRS study of GABA in schizophrenia and the first to examine GABA without macromolecule contamination, a potentially significant issue in previous studies. GABA levels more rapidly declined with advancing age in the schizophrenia compared with the control group. Interventions targeted at halting the decline or increasing GABA levels may improve functional outcomes and quality of life as patients with schizophrenia age.

  4. Validation of the Persian version of the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Mazhari, Shahrzad; Parvaresh, Nooshin; Eslami Shahrbabaki, Mahin; Sadeghi, Mohammad M; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Keefe, Richard S E

    2014-02-01

    The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) is designed for assessment of cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. Versions of the BACS in English and other languages have been shown to be as sensitive to cognitive dysfunction as a standard test battery, with the advantage of brief administration and scoring time. The present study aimed to test the concurrent validity of the Persian version of the BACS (Persian-BACS). A group of 50 patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and a group of 50 healthy controls received the Persian-BACS in a first session, and in a second session a standard neurocognitive battery. Cronbach's alpha for the Persian-BACS was 0.74. All the Persian-BACS subscales were significantly correlated with the corresponding standard neurocognitive subscales and the Pearson correlation of the composite scores from the two instruments was 0.71. Moreover, a one-factor solution was found that accounted for 67.9% of the variance. Finally, the Persian-BACS demonstrated high ability to discriminate patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls. Good psychometric properties of the Persian-BACS suggest that it is a useful tool for assessing cognition in schizophrenic patients with Persian as their primary language. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  5. Psychosis among "healthy" siblings of schizophrenia patients

    Arajärvi, Ritva; Ukkola, Jonna; Haukka, Jari; Suvisaari, Jaana; Hintikka, Jukka; Partonen, Timo; Lönnqvist, Jouko

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Schizophrenia aggregates in families and accurate diagnoses are essential for genetic studies of schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated whether siblings of patients with schizophrenia can be identified as free of any psychotic disorder using only register information. We also analyzed the emergence of psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia during seven to eleven years of follow-up. Methods A genetically homogenous population isolate in no...

  6. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes in relat...... than imprison, individuals with schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that greater alertness is needed in the judicial system for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia....

  7. Out of touch with reality? Social perception in first-episode schizophrenia.

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J H; Salone, Anatolia; Ferri, Francesca; De Berardis, Domenico; Romani, Gian Luca; Ferro, Filippo M; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-04-01

    Social dysfunction has been recognized as an elementary feature of schizophrenia, but it remains a crucial issue whether social deficits in schizophrenia concern the inter-subjective domain or primarily have their roots in disturbances of self-experience. Social perception comprises vicarious processes grounding an experiential inter-relationship with others as well as self-regulation processes allowing to maintain a coherent sense of self. The present study investigated whether the functional neural basis underlying these processes is altered in first-episode schizophrenia (FES). Twenty-four FES patients and 22 healthy control participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a social perception task requiring them to watch videos depicting other individuals' inanimate and animate/social tactile stimulations, and a tactile localizer condition. Activation in ventral premotor cortex for observed bodily tactile stimulations was reduced in the FES group and negatively correlated with self-experience disturbances. Moreover, FES patients showed aberrant differential activation in posterior insula for first-person tactile experiences and observed affective tactile stimulations. These findings suggest that social perception in FES at a pre-reflective level is characterized by disturbances of self-experience, including impaired multisensory representations and self-other distinction. However, the results also show that social perception in FES involves more complex alterations of neural activation at multiple processing levels.

  8. Molecular Imaging in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    Klein, H.C.; Doorduin, J.; van Berckel, B.N.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we aim to shed light on the schizophrenia spectrum disorders using molecular imaging. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders consist primarily of the disorders with full-blown psychosis in their course and are grouped in the DSM-IV category of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.

  9. Long-term Risk of Dementia in Persons With Schizophrenia: A Danish Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Ribe, Anette Riisgaard; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Charles, Morten; Katon, Wayne; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Davydow, Dimitry; Chwastiak, Lydia; Cerimele, Joseph M; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2015-11-01

    Although schizophrenia is associated with several age-related disorders and considerable cognitive impairment, it remains unclear whether the risk of dementia is higher among persons with schizophrenia compared with those without schizophrenia. To determine the risk of dementia among persons with schizophrenia compared with those without schizophrenia in a large nationwide cohort study with up to 18 years of follow-up, taking age and established risk factors for dementia into account. This population-based cohort study of more than 2.8 million persons aged 50 years or older used individual data from 6 nationwide registers in Denmark. A total of 20 683 individuals had schizophrenia. Follow-up started on January 1, 1995, and ended on January 1, 2013. Analysis was conducted from January 1, 2015, to April 30, 2015. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and cumulative incidence proportions (CIPs) of dementia for persons with schizophrenia compared with persons without schizophrenia. During 18 years of follow-up, 136 012 individuals, including 944 individuals with a history of schizophrenia, developed dementia. Schizophrenia was associated with a more than 2-fold higher risk of all-cause dementia (IRR, 2.13; 95% CI, 2.00-2.27) after adjusting for age, sex, and calendar period. The estimates (reported as IRR; 95% CI) did not change substantially when adjusting for medical comorbidities, such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus (2.01; 1.89-2.15) but decreased slightly when adjusting for substance abuse (1.71; 1.60-1.82). The association between schizophrenia and dementia risk was stable when evaluated in subgroups characterized by demographics and comorbidities, although the IRR was higher among individuals younger than 65 years (3.77; 3.29-4.33), men (2.38; 2.13-2.66), individuals living with a partner (3.16; 2.71-3.69), those without cerebrovascular disease (2.23; 2.08-2.39), and those without substance abuse (1.96; 1.82-2.11). The CIPs (95% CIs) of developing

  10. Drama therapy for schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses.

    Ruddy, R A; Dent-Brown, K

    2007-01-24

    Medication is the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses, but many people continue to experience symptoms in spite of medication (Johnstone 1998). In addition to medication, creative therapies, such as drama therapy may prove beneficial. Drama therapy is a form of treatment that encourages spontaneity and creativity. It can promote emotional expression, but does not necessarily require the participant to have insight into their condition or psychological-mindset. To review the effects of drama therapy and related approaches as an adjunctive treatment for schizophrenia compared with standard care and other psychosocial interventions. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (October 2006), hand searched reference lists, hand searched Dramatherapy (the journal of the British Association of Dramatherapists) and Arts in Psychotherapy and contacted relevant authors. We included all randomised controlled trials that compared drama therapy, psychodrama and related approaches with standard care or other psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia. We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data from the studies. We excluded data where more than 50% of participants in any group were lost to follow up. For continuous outcomes we calculated a weighted mean difference and its 95% confidence interval. For binary outcomes we calculated a fixed effects risk ratio (RR), its 95% confidence interval (CI) and a number needed to treat (NNT). The search identified 183 references but only five studies (total n=210) met the inclusion criteria. All of the studies were on inpatient populations and compared the intervention with standard inpatient care. One study had drama therapy as the intervention, one had role-playing, one had a social drama group and two used psychodrama. Two of the included studies were Chinese and it is difficult to know whether psychodrama and indeed inpatient psychiatric care in China is comparable with the

  11. Cognitive functioning and insight in schizophrenia and in schizoaffective disorder.

    Birindelli, Nadia; Montemagni, Cristiana; Crivelli, Barbara; Bava, Irene; Mancini, Irene; Rocca, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cognitive functioning and insight of illness in two groups of patients during their stable phases, one with schizophrenia and one with schizoaffective disorder. We recruited 104 consecutive outpatients, 64 with schizophrenia, 40 with schizoaffective disorder, in the period between July 2010 and July 2011. They all fulfilled formal Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Psychiatric assessment included the Clinical Global Impression Scale-Severity (CGI-S), the Positive and Negative Sindrome Scale (PANSS), the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Insight of illness was evaluated using SUMD. Neuropsychological assessment included Winsconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Stroop Test and Trail Making Test (TMT). Differences between the groups were tested using Chi-square test for categorical variables and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for continuous variables. All variables significantly different between the two groups of subjects were subsequently analysed using a logistic regression with a backward stepwise procedure using diagnosis (schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder) as dependent variable. After backward selection of variables, four variables predicted a schizoaffective disorder diagnosis: marital status, a higher number of admission, better attentive functions and awareness of specific signs or symptoms of disease. The prediction model accounted for 55% of the variance of schizoaffective disorder diagnosis. With replication, our findings would allow higher diagnostic accuracy and have an impact on clinical decision making, in light of an amelioration of vocational functioning.

  12. Understanding Autism in Schizophrenia

    Arnaldo Ballerini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person’s being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The “condition of possibility” of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as “loss” and “void.” I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this “void.”

  13. [Chronical care of schizophrenia].

    Lustygier, V

    2010-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disease leading to many deficits that needs a broad range of therapeutic interventions. The recent data raises the importance of the cognitive revalidation even though other interventions are also necessary in the treatment. The asylums of the former century have experienced a slow and continuous process of patient's deinstitutionalization. The global knowledge of the disorder having progressed, new multidisciplinary and multidimensional models of managing are now proposed. The psychiatric rehabilitation is one of those models having as goal the global taking charge of the disease, from the managing of the symptoms to the return to a life with good quality. The great specificity of this rehabilitation work is that it's multidisciplinary and involves a strong collaboration between the medical and the psychosocial intervening party's around a common therapeutic project. This model brings up the notion of recovery witch is, not the cure but, the experience that a patient acquires as he accepts the situation and as he recovers the feeling of being able to get going again.

  14. [Fratricide and Schizophrenia].

    Rezende Leal, Juliana; Martins Valença, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Fratricide is the killing of one's own bother. It's a type of homicide rarely seen on psychiatric practice. This is still a theme which is poorly studied, and not well understood by the scientific literature. To report a case of a men, with paranoid schizophrenia that murdered his own bother and had a psychiatric forensic evaluation to establish his penal responsibility. A psychiatric interview was carried out and the psychiatric diagnosis was established based on the interview and analysis of forensic and medical records, using the DSM-IV-TR criteria. Literature review was held about the theme. The examinee was considered not guilty by reason of insanity, due to the presence of a mental disorder that affected her entire understanding and volition of the practiced act. The study of such cases may illustrate and identify motivating factors related to homicidal behavior in individuals with severe mental disorders. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding autism in schizophrenia.

    Ballerini, Arnaldo

    2012-01-01

    Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person's being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The "condition of possibility" of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as "loss" and "void." I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this "void."

  16. Predicting risk and the emergence of schizophrenia.

    Clarke, Mary C

    2012-09-01

    This article gives an overview of genetic and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia. The presence of certain molecular, biological, and psychosocial factors at certain points in the life span, has been linked to later development of schizophrenia. All need to be considered in the context of schizophrenia as a lifelong brain disorder. Research interest in schizophrenia is shifting to late childhood\\/early adolescence for screening and preventative measures. This article discusses those environmental risk factors for schizophrenia for which there is the largest evidence base.

  17. Christianity and Schizophrenia Redux: An Empirical Study.

    Kéri, Szabolcs; Kelemen, Oguz

    2016-04-09

    This paper explores the relationship among schizophrenia, spirituality, and Christian religiosity. We interviewed 120 patients with schizophrenia and 120 control individuals (74.2 % of individuals with self-reported Christian religions). Patients with schizophrenia showed increases in positive spirituality and decreases in positive congregational support, as measured by the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality. There was no significant difference in Christian religiosity. Higher positive spirituality was predicted by more severe self-disorder, perceptual disorder, and positive clinical symptoms. Schizophrenia patients with religious delusions did not exhibit enhanced Christian beliefs and rituals. These results do not confirm the hypothesis of general hyper-religiosity in schizophrenia.

  18. Exploring social cognition in schizophrenia

    Revsbech, R.; Mortensen, E. L.; Nordgaard, J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare social cognition between groups of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to replicate two previous studies using tests of social cognition that may be particularly sensitive to social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Thirty......-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 11 “imaginary conversation (i.e., theory of mind)” items, 10 “psychological understanding” items, and 10 “practical understanding” items. Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting...... for intelligence and neuropsychological test performance. Healthy controls performed better than patients on all types of social cognitive tests, particularly on “psychological understanding.” However, after adjusting for intelligence and neuropsychological test performance, all group differences became...

  19. [Decision-making and schizophrenia].

    Adida, M; Maurel, M; Kaladjian, A; Fakra, E; Lazerges, P; Da Fonseca, D; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Azorin, J-M

    2011-12-01

    Abnormalities involving the prefrontal cortex (PFC) have long been postulated to underpin the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Investigations of PFC integrity have focused mainly on the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) and abnormalities in this region have been extensively documented. However, defects in schizophrenia may extend to other prefrontal regions, including the ventromedial PFC (VMPFC), and evidence of VMPFC abnormalities comes from neuropathological, structural and functional studies. Patients with acquired brain injury to the VMPFC display profound disruption of social behaviour and poor judgment in their personal lives. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was developed to assess decision-making in these neurological cases : it presents a series of 100 choices from four card decks that differ in the distribution of rewarding and punishing outcomes. Whilst healthy volunteers gradually develop a preference for the two "safe" decks over the course of the task, patients with VMPFC lesions maintain a preference for the two "risky" decks which are associated with high reinforcement in the short term, but significant long-term debt. Interestingly, damage to VMPFC may cause both poor performance on the IGT and lack of insight concerning the acquired personality modification. Recently, our group reported a trait-related decisionmaking impairment in the three phases of bipolar disorder. In a PET study, VMPFC dysfunction was shown in bipolar manic patients impaired on a decision-making task and an association between decision-making cognition and lack of insight was described in mania. A quantitative association between grey matter volume of VMPFC and memory impairment was previously reported in schizophrenia. Research suggests that lack of insight is a prevalent feature in schizophrenia patients, like auditory hallucinations, paranoid or bizarre delusions, and disorganized speech and thinking. Because schizophrenia is associated with significant social or occupational

  20. Do schizophrenia patients age early?

    Shivakumar, Venkataram; Kalmady, Sunil V; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Ravi, Vasanthapuram; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2014-08-01

    The etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia is poorly understood. Within the proposed "neurodegeneration paradigm", observations have been put forth for "accelerated aging" in this disorder. This proposition is largely based on the neuroscience research that demonstrates progressive changes in brain as well as other systemic abnormalities supportive of faster aging process in patients with this disorder. In this review, we have summarized the literature related to the concept of early aging in schizophrenia. These studies include P300 abnormalities & visual motion discrimination, neuroimaging findings, telomere dynamics as well as neuropathology of related brain regions. We also propose a role of vitamin D, neuroimmunological changes and elevated oxidative stress as well as mitochondrial dysfunction in addition to the above factors with 'vitamin-D deficiency' as the central paradox. Put together, the evidence supporting early aging in schizophrenia is compelling and this requires further systematic studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Schizophrenia as a human process.

    Corradi, Richard B

    2011-01-01

    The patient with schizophrenia often appears to be living in an alien world, one of strange voices, bizarre beliefs, and disorganized speech and behavior. It is difficult to empathize with someone suffering from symptoms so remote from one's ordinary experience. However, examination of the disorder reveals not only symptoms of the psychosis itself but also an intensely human struggle against the disintegration of personality it can produce. Furthermore, examination of the individual's attempts to cope with a devastating psychotic process reveals familiar psychodynamic processes and defense mechanisms, however unsuccessful they may be. Knowing that behind the seemingly alien diagnostic features of schizophrenia is a person attempting to preserve his or her self-identity puts a human face on the illness. This article utilizes clinical material to describe some of the psychodynamic processes of schizophrenia. Its purpose is to facilitate understanding of an illness that requires comprehensive biopsychosocial treatment in which a therapeutic doctor-patient relationship is as necessary as antipsychotic medication.

  2. Resting EEG deficits in accused murderers with schizophrenia.

    Schug, Robert A; Yang, Yaling; Raine, Adrian; Han, Chenbo; Liu, Jianghong; Li, Liejia

    2011-10-31

    Empirical evidence continues to suggest a biologically distinct violent subtype of schizophrenia. The present study examined whether murderers with schizophrenia would demonstrate resting EEG deficits distinguishing them from both non-violent schizophrenia patients and murderers without schizophrenia. Resting EEG data were collected from five diagnostic groups (normal controls, non-murderers with schizophrenia, murderers with schizophrenia, murderers without schizophrenia, and murderers with psychiatric conditions other than schizophrenia) at a brain hospital in Nanjing, China. Murderers with schizophrenia were characterized by increased left-hemispheric fast-wave EEG activity relative to non-violent schizophrenia patients, while non-violent schizophrenia patients instead demonstrated increased diffuse slow-wave activity compared to all other groups. Results are discussed within the framework of a proposed left-hemispheric over-processing hypothesis specific to violent individuals with schizophrenia, involving left hemispheric hyperarousal deficits, which may lead to a homicidally violent schizophrenia outcome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Schizophrenia: Hope on the Horizon.

    Sullivan, Patrick F

    2015-01-01

    In July 2014, an international consortium of schizophrenia researchers co-founded by the author mounted the largest biological experiment in the history of psychiatry and found eighty new regions in the genome associated with the illness. With many more avenues for exploring the biological underpinnings of schizophrenia now available to neuroscientists, hope may be on the way for the estimated 2.4 million Americans and 1 in 100 people worldwide affected by the illness, one in which drugs have limited impact and there is no known cure.

  4. Schizophrenia: management and family burden.

    Sebit, M B

    2007-01-01

    To explore schizophrenia with respect to its management, causes, risk factors as well as the impact it has in families regarding the burden and social networks support. Desk literature reviews. The findings are that patients with schizophrenia typically have great difficulty following a medication regimen, but they also have the greatest potential for benefiting from adherence. As with other chronic diseases that lack a definitive cure, the individual's service/recovery plan must include treatment interventions directed towards decreasing manifestations of the illness, rehabilitative services, enhancing adaptive skills, and social support mobilization aimed at optimizing function and quality of life. Finally, this paper is not exhaustive, but a pointer for further readings.

  5. Where now for schizophrenia research?

    Nutt, David J; Need, Anna C

    2014-08-01

    Schizophrenia continues to pose a serious challenge to neuroscience and psychiatry as well as to health care systems and to the patients and families who suffer this terrible and disabling illness. Major developments in the past few months in both genetics and drug development oblige us to consider novel drug discovery tactics for future schizophrenia research. Here we review what we consider to be the key issues and some suggested solutions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Urbanization and traffic related exposures as risk factors for Schizophrenia

    Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2006-01-01

    : The geographical distance from place of residence to nearest major road had a significant effect. The highest risk was found in children living 500-1000 metres from nearest major road (RR=1.30 (95% Confidence Interval: 1.17-1.44). However, when we accounted for the degree of urbanization, the geographical distance...... that traffic related exposures affect schizophrenia risk and that this potential effect is responsible for the urban-rural differences. The geographical distance from place of residence to nearest major road was used as a proxy variable for traffic related exposures. We used a large population-based sample......BACKGROUND: Urban birth or upbringing increase schizophrenia risk. Though unknown, the causes of these urban-rural differences have been hypothesized to include, e.g., infections, diet, toxic exposures, social class, or an artefact due to selective migration. METHODS: We investigated the hypothesis...

  7. Intersubjectivity and Psychopathology in the Schizophrenia Spectrum: Complicated We, Compensatory Strategies, and Self-Disorders.

    Henriksen, Mads Gram; Nilsson, Lars Siersbæk

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies in phenomenological psychopathology emphasize the importance of intersubjectivity for our understanding of schizophrenia. Yet, the central role of the "we" in social experience and engagement is largely absent from this literature. Our study explores the relation between psychopathology and intersubjectivity in the schizophrenia spectrum through the prism of the "we." First, we explore the role of intersubjectivity in the current schizophrenia spectrum definitions and discuss the main contemporary research trends. Second, we recollect some of the classical accounts of schizophrenia, which offer a different perspective on the pervasive and often persistent intersubjective difficulties in these conditions. Third, capitalizing on recent advances in collective intentionality studies, we present and discuss a conceptual framework of the "we" and of how the "we" may be disrupted in schizophrenia. Through this framework and with the use of clinical vignettes, we elicit 3 compensatory strategies, which, we suggest, reflect a fragile sense of "we" in the schizophrenia spectrum, i.e. (i) positive withdrawal, (ii) imposing a goal-oriented, spatiotemporal structure on intersubjective engagement, and (iii) preferring social activities with a clear attribution of social roles and rules. Finally, we discuss the relation between anomalous self-experiences (i.e. self-disorders) and the complicated "we." © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Emotional intelligence and non-social cognition in schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder.

    Frajo-Apor, B; Kemmler, G; Pardeller, S; Plass, T; Mühlbacher, M; Welte, A-S; Fleischhacker, W W; Hofer, A

    2017-01-01

    The different patterns of Emotional Intelligence (EI) deficits in schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder are are not yet well understood. This study compares EI levels among these groups and highlights the potential impact of non-social cognition on EI. Fifty-eight schizophrenia and 60 bipolar outpatients were investigated using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Analyses of covariance were performed with adjustment for the BACS composite score. Compared to bipolar subjects, schizophrenia patients showed significantly lower levels in both EI and non-social cognition. After adjustment for the BACS composite score, the difference in EI was lost. The mediation analysis revealed that differences between schizophrenia and bipolar patients in strategic EI are almost fully attributable to the mediating effect of non-social cognition. Our findings suggest that in both schizophrenia and bipolar patients EI is strongly influenced by non-social cognitive functioning. This has to be taken into account when interpreting MSCEIT data in comparative studies in serious mental illness and emphasizes the importance of cognitive remediation.

  9. Self-reported motivation to smoke in schizophrenia is related to antipsychotic drug treatment.

    Barr, Alasdair M; Procyshyn, Ric M; Hui, Philip; Johnson, Joy L; Honer, William G

    2008-03-01

    The prevalence of smoking in schizophrenia has reliably been reported as being higher than for any other psychiatric disorder. While a number of theories have been proposed to account for such high rates of smoking, little is known about the subjective motivation for why schizophrenia patients smoke in comparison with those without the disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare smoking motivation in control subjects and schizophrenia patients, and determine if factors such as type of medication or access to cigarettes could contribute to self-reported motivation for smoking. We assessed motivation to smoke in 61 schizophrenia inpatients and 33 non-psychiatric health worker controls at a tertiary care psychiatric facility in a cross-sectional study. Nicotine dependency and smoking behavior were evaluated using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence and a validated questionnaire that assesses motivation for smoking along seven different dimensions. Schizophrenia patients reported a stronger motivation to smoke than controls for reasons related to pleasure from the act of smoking, as well as a need for psychomotor stimulation. Scores on both these factors were significantly associated with daily antipsychotic drug dose. The sedative and anxiolytic effects of smoking were related to anticholinergic load of psychiatric medications. The findings highlight important differences in self-reported motivation to smoke between schizophrenia patients and normals. Antipsychotic drugs may also influence aspects of motivation to smoke.

  10. Gene-environment interaction and covariation in schizophrenia: the role of obstetric complications.

    Mittal, Vijay A; Ellman, Lauren M; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2008-11-01

    While genetic factors account for a significant proportion of liability to schizophrenia, a body of evidence attests to a significant environmental contribution. Understanding the mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors coalesce in influencing schizophrenia is critical for elucidating the pathways underlying psychotic illness and for developing primary prevention strategies. Although obstetric complications (OCs) remain among the most well-documented environmental indicators of risk for schizophrenia, the pathogenic role they play in the etiology of schizophrenia continues to remain poorly understood. A question of major importance is do these factors result from a genetic diathesis to schizophrenia (as in gene-environment covariation), act additively or interactively with predisposing genes for the disorder in influencing disease risk, or independently cause disease onset? In this review, we evaluate 3 classes of OCs commonly related to schizophrenia including hypoxia-associated OCs, maternal infection during pregnancy, and maternal stress during pregnancy. In addition, we discuss several mechanisms by which OCs impact on genetically susceptible brain regions, increasing constitutional vulnerability to neuromaturational events and stressors later in life (ie, adolescence), which may in turn contribute to triggering psychosis.

  11. Social function in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: Associations with personality, symptoms and neurocognition

    Lysaker Paul H

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has indicated that stable individual differences in personality exist among persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders predating illness onset that are linked to symptoms and self appraised quality of life. Less is known about how closely individual differences in personality are uniquely related to levels of social relationships, a domain of dysfunction in schizophrenia more often linked in the literature with symptoms and neurocognitive deficits. This study tested the hypothesis that trait levels of personality as defined using the five-factor model of personality would be linked to social function in schizophrenia. Methods A self-report measure of the five factor model of personality was gathered along with ratings of social function, symptoms and assessments of neurocognition for 65 participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Results Univariate correlations and stepwise multiple regression indicated that frequency of social interaction was predicted by higher levels of the trait of Agreeableness, fewer negative symptoms, better verbal memory and at the trend level, lesser Neuroticism (R2 = .42, p 2 = .67, p Conclusions Taken together, the findings of this study suggest that person-centered variables such as personality, may account for some of the broad differences seen in outcome in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including social outcomes. One interpretation of the results of this study is that differences in personality combine with symptoms and neurocognitive deficits to affect how persons with schizophrenia are able to form and sustain social connections with others.

  12. Neural Substrates of Auditory Emotion Recognition Deficits in Schizophrenia.

    Kantrowitz, Joshua T; Hoptman, Matthew J; Leitman, David I; Moreno-Ortega, Marta; Lehrfeld, Jonathan M; Dias, Elisa; Sehatpour, Pejman; Laukka, Petri; Silipo, Gail; Javitt, Daniel C

    2015-11-04

    Deficits in auditory emotion recognition (AER) are a core feature of schizophrenia and a key component of social cognitive impairment. AER deficits are tied behaviorally to impaired ability to interpret tonal ("prosodic") features of speech that normally convey emotion, such as modulations in base pitch (F0M) and pitch variability (F0SD). These modulations can be recreated using synthetic frequency modulated (FM) tones that mimic the prosodic contours of specific emotional stimuli. The present study investigates neural mechanisms underlying impaired AER using a combined event-related potential/resting-state functional connectivity (rsfMRI) approach in 84 schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder patients and 66 healthy comparison subjects. Mismatch negativity (MMN) to FM tones was assessed in 43 patients/36 controls. rsfMRI between auditory cortex and medial temporal (insula) regions was assessed in 55 patients/51 controls. The relationship between AER, MMN to FM tones, and rsfMRI was assessed in the subset who performed all assessments (14 patients, 21 controls). As predicted, patients showed robust reductions in MMN across FM stimulus type (p = 0.005), particularly to modulations in F0M, along with impairments in AER and FM tone discrimination. MMN source analysis indicated dipoles in both auditory cortex and anterior insula, whereas rsfMRI analyses showed reduced auditory-insula connectivity. MMN to FM tones and functional connectivity together accounted for ∼50% of the variance in AER performance across individuals. These findings demonstrate that impaired preattentive processing of tonal information and reduced auditory-insula connectivity are critical determinants of social cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, and thus represent key targets for future research and clinical intervention. Schizophrenia patients show deficits in the ability to infer emotion based upon tone of voice [auditory emotion recognition (AER)] that drive impairments in social cognition

  13. Modelling approaches - The case of schizophrenia : the case of schizophrenia

    Heeg, Bart M.S.; Damen, Joep; Buskens, Erik; Caleo, Sue; de Charro, F.; van Hout, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic disease characterized by periods of relative stability interrupted by acute episodes (or relapses). The course of the disease may vary considerably between patients. Patient histories show considerable inter- and even intra-individual variability. We provide a critical

  14. [The fragmentation of representational space in schizophrenia].

    Plagnol, A; Oïta, M; Montreuil, M; Granger, B; Lubart, T

    2003-01-01

    compatible with numerous etiological factors. Multiple clinical forms can be differentiated in accordance with the persistence of parasitic areas, the degree of fragmentation, and the formation of sutures. We use this approach to account for an empirical study concerning the analysis of analogical representations in schizophrenia. We used the Parallel Visual Information Processing Test (PVIPT) which assesses the analysis of interfering visual information. Subjects were asked to connect several small geometric figures printed on a transparency. The transparency was displayed above four photographs which were the interfering material. Then, subjects completed three tasks concerning the photographs: a recognition task, a recall task, and an affective qualification task. Using a case-by-case study, this test allows us to access the defense processes of the subjects, which is not possible with the usual methods in cognitive psychopathology. Twelve clinically-stable schizophrenic subjects participated in the study which also included a self-assessment of alexithymia by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. We obtained 2 main results: (a) creation of items in recall or false recognition by 8 subjects, and (b) lack of the usual -negative correlations between the alexithymia score and the recall, recognition and affective qualification scores in the PVIPT. These 2 results contrast with what has been previously observed for alexithymia using the same methodology. The result (a) confirms an interfering activation in schizophrenic memory, which can be interpreted in our framework as indicative of parasitic areas. The creation of items suggests the formation of sutures between the semantic content of photographs and some delusional fragments. The result (b) suggests that the apparent alexithymia in schizophrenia is a defense against interfering activation in parasitic areas. We underline the interest of individual protocols to exhibit the dynamic interplay between an interfering activity in

  15. Action video gaming and cognitive control: playing first person shooter games is associated with improvement in working memory but not action inhibition.

    Colzato, Lorenza S; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Zmigrod, Sharon; Hommel, Bernhard

    2013-03-01

    The interest in the influence of videogame experience in our daily life is constantly growing. "First Person Shooter" (FPS) games require players to develop a flexible mindset to rapidly react and monitor fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to inhibit erroneous actions. This study investigated whether and to which degree experience with such videogames generalizes to other cognitive control tasks. Experienced video game players (VGPs) and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs) performed on a N-back task and a stop-signal paradigm that provide a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of the monitoring and updating of working memory (WM) and response inhibition (an index of behavioral impulsivity), respectively. VGPs were faster and more accurate in the monitoring and updating of WM than NVGPs, which were faster in reacting to go signals, but showed comparable stopping performance. Our findings support the idea that playing FPS games is associated with enhanced flexible updating of task-relevant information without affecting impulsivity.

  16. First rank symptoms for schizophrenia.

    Soares-Weiser, Karla; Maayan, Nicola; Bergman, Hanna; Davenport, Clare; Kirkham, Amanda J; Grabowski, Sarah; Adams, Clive E

    2015-01-25

    Early and accurate diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia may have long-term advantages for the patient; the longer psychosis goes untreated the more severe the repercussions for relapse and recovery. If the correct diagnosis is not schizophrenia, but another psychotic disorder with some symptoms similar to schizophrenia, appropriate treatment might be delayed, with possible severe repercussions for the person involved and their family. There is widespread uncertainty about the diagnostic accuracy of First Rank Symptoms (FRS); we examined whether they are a useful diagnostic tool to differentiate schizophrenia from other psychotic disorders. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of one or multiple FRS for diagnosing schizophrenia, verified by clinical history and examination by a qualified professional (e.g. psychiatrists, nurses, social workers), with or without the use of operational criteria and checklists, in people thought to have non-organic psychotic symptoms. We conducted searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycInfo using OvidSP in April, June, July 2011 and December 2012. We also searched MEDION in December 2013. We selected studies that consecutively enrolled or randomly selected adults and adolescents with symptoms of psychosis, and assessed the diagnostic accuracy of FRS for schizophrenia compared to history and clinical examination performed by a qualified professional, which may or may not involve the use of symptom checklists or based on operational criteria such as ICD and DSM. Two review authors independently screened all references for inclusion. Risk of bias in included studies were assessed using the QUADAS-2 instrument. We recorded the number of true positives (TP), true negatives (TN), false positives (FP), and false negatives (FN) for constructing a 2 x 2 table for each study or derived 2 x 2 data from reported summary statistics such as sensitivity, specificity, and/or likelihood ratios. We included 21 studies with a total of 6253 participants

  17. Dysconnection topography in schizophrenia revealed with state-space analysis of EEG.

    Jalili, Mahdi; Lavoie, Suzie; Deppen, Patricia; Meuli, Reto; Do, Kim Q; Cuénod, Michel; Hasler, Martin; De Feo, Oscar; Knyazeva, Maria G

    2007-10-24

    The dysconnection hypothesis has been proposed to account for pathophysiological mechanisms underlying schizophrenia. Widespread structural changes suggesting abnormal connectivity in schizophrenia have been imaged. A functional counterpart of the structural maps would be the EEG synchronization maps. However, due to the limits of currently used bivariate methods, functional correlates of dysconnection are limited to the isolated measurements of synchronization between preselected pairs of EEG signals. To reveal a whole-head synchronization topography in schizophrenia, we applied a new method of multivariate synchronization analysis called S-estimator to the resting dense-array (128 channels) EEG obtained from 14 patients and 14 controls. This method determines synchronization from the embedding dimension in a state-space domain based on the theoretical consequence of the cooperative behavior of simultaneous time series-the shrinking of the state-space embedding dimension. The S-estimator imaging revealed a specific synchronization landscape in schizophrenia patients. Its main features included bilaterally increased synchronization over temporal brain regions and decreased synchronization over the postcentral/parietal region neighboring the midline. The synchronization topography was stable over the course of several months and correlated with the severity of schizophrenia symptoms. In particular, direct correlations linked positive, negative, and general psychopathological symptoms to the hyper-synchronized temporal clusters over both hemispheres. Along with these correlations, general psychopathological symptoms inversely correlated within the hypo-synchronized postcentral midline region. While being similar to the structural maps of cortical changes in schizophrenia, the S-maps go beyond the topography limits, demonstrating a novel aspect of the abnormalities of functional cooperation: namely, regionally reduced or enhanced connectivity. The new method of

  18. Dysconnection topography in schizophrenia revealed with state-space analysis of EEG.

    Mahdi Jalili

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The dysconnection hypothesis has been proposed to account for pathophysiological mechanisms underlying schizophrenia. Widespread structural changes suggesting abnormal connectivity in schizophrenia have been imaged. A functional counterpart of the structural maps would be the EEG synchronization maps. However, due to the limits of currently used bivariate methods, functional correlates of dysconnection are limited to the isolated measurements of synchronization between preselected pairs of EEG signals.To reveal a whole-head synchronization topography in schizophrenia, we applied a new method of multivariate synchronization analysis called S-estimator to the resting dense-array (128 channels EEG obtained from 14 patients and 14 controls. This method determines synchronization from the embedding dimension in a state-space domain based on the theoretical consequence of the cooperative behavior of simultaneous time series-the shrinking of the state-space embedding dimension. The S-estimator imaging revealed a specific synchronization landscape in schizophrenia patients. Its main features included bilaterally increased synchronization over temporal brain regions and decreased synchronization over the postcentral/parietal region neighboring the midline. The synchronization topography was stable over the course of several months and correlated with the severity of schizophrenia symptoms. In particular, direct correlations linked positive, negative, and general psychopathological symptoms to the hyper-synchronized temporal clusters over both hemispheres. Along with these correlations, general psychopathological symptoms inversely correlated within the hypo-synchronized postcentral midline region. While being similar to the structural maps of cortical changes in schizophrenia, the S-maps go beyond the topography limits, demonstrating a novel aspect of the abnormalities of functional cooperation: namely, regionally reduced or enhanced connectivity.The new

  19. Benefits and limits of anticholinergic use in schizophrenia: focusing on its effect on cognitive function.

    Ogino, Shin; Miyamoto, Seiya; Miyake, Nobumi; Yamaguchi, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    All currently available antipsychotic drugs are the dopamine D2 receptor antagonists and are capable of producing extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS). Anticholinergic drugs are primarily used to treat EPS or prevent EPS induced by antipsychotics in the treatment of psychosis and schizophrenia. However, they can cause a variety of distressing peripheral side-effects (e.g. dry mouth, urinary disturbances, and constipation) and central adverse effects (e.g. cognitive impairment, worsening of tardive dyskinesia, and delirium). Disturbances in cognitive abilities are cardinal features of schizophrenia from its earliest phases and account for much of the functional disability associated with the illness. It is likely that long-term concomitant administration of anticholinergics exacerbates the underlying cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia and subsequently affects patients' quality of life. Thus, current treatment guidelines for schizophrenia generally do not recommend the prophylactic and long-term use of anticholinergics. However, the high use of long-term anticholinergic drugs with antipsychotics has been identified as an important issue in the treatment of schizophrenia in several countries. To assess the benefits and limits of anticholinergic use in psychosis and schizophrenia, this article will provide a brief review of the pharmacology and clinical profiles of anticholinergic drugs and will focus on their effects on cognitive function in schizophrenia, particularly during the course of the early phase of the illness. In addition, we will address the effects of discontinuation of anticholinergics on cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia and provide a strategy for adjunctive anticholinergic use in patients treated with long-acting injectable antipsychotics. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  20. Hypothesis: grandiosity and guilt cause paranoia; paranoid schizophrenia is a psychotic mood disorder; a review.

    Lake, Charles Raymond

    2008-11-01

    Delusional paranoia has been associated with severe mental illness for over a century. Kraepelin introduced a disorder called "paranoid depression," but "paranoid" became linked to schizophrenia, not to mood disorders. Paranoid remains the most common subtype of schizophrenia, but some of these cases, as Kraepelin initially implied, may be unrecognized psychotic mood disorders, so the relationship of paranoid schizophrenia to psychotic bipolar disorder warrants reevaluation. To address whether paranoia associates more with schizophrenia or mood disorders, a selected literature is reviewed and 11 cases are summarized. Comparative clinical and recent molecular genetic data find phenotypic and genotypic commonalities between patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder lending support to the idea that paranoid schizophrenia could be the same disorder as psychotic bipolar disorder. A selected clinical literature finds no symptom, course, or characteristic traditionally considered diagnostic of schizophrenia that cannot be accounted for by psychotic bipolar disorder patients. For example, it is hypothesized here that 2 common mood-based symptoms, grandiosity and guilt, may underlie functional paranoia. Mania explains paranoia when there are grandiose delusions that one's possessions are so valuable that others will kill for them. Similarly, depression explains paranoia when delusional guilt convinces patients that they deserve punishment. In both cases, fear becomes the overwhelming emotion but patient and physician focus on the paranoia rather than on underlying mood symptoms can cause misdiagnoses. This study uses a clinical, case-based, hypothesis generation approach that warrants follow-up with a larger representative sample of psychotic patients followed prospectively to determine the degree to which the clinical course observed herein is typical of all such patients. Differential diagnoses, nomenclature, and treatment implications are

  1. Zuclopenthixol dihydrochloride for schizophrenia.

    Bryan, Edward J; Purcell, Marie Ann; Kumar, Ajit

    2017-11-16

    Oral zuclopenthixol dihydrochloride (Clopixol) is an anti-psychotic treatment for people with psychotic symptoms, especially those with schizophrenia. It is associated with neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a prolongation of the QTc interval, extra-pyramidal reactions, venous thromboembolism and may modify insulin and glucose responses. To determine the effects of zuclopenthixol dihydrochloride for treatment of schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (latest search 09 June 2015). There were no language, date, document type, or publication status limitations for inclusion of records in the register. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on zuclopenthixol dihydrochloride for schizophrenia. We included trials meeting our inclusion criteria and reporting useable data. We extracted data independently. For binary outcomes, we calculated risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we estimated the mean difference (MD) between groups and its 95% CI. We employed a random-effect model for analyses. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and created 'Summary of findings' tables using GRADE. We included 20 trials, randomising 1850 participants. Data were reported for 12 comparisons, predominantly for the short term (up to 12 weeks) and inpatient populations. Overall risk of bias for included studies was low to unclear.Data were unavailable for many of our pre-stated outcomes of interest. No data were available, across all comparisons, for death, duration of stay in hospital and general functioning.Zuclopenthixol dihydrochloride versus: 1. placeboMovement disorders (EPSEs) were similar between groups (1 RCT, n = 28, RR 6.07 95% CI 0.86 to 43.04 very low-quality evidence). There was no clear difference in numbers leaving the study early (2 RCTs, n = 100, RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.01 to 6.60, very low-quality evidence). 2. chlorpromazineNo clear differences were found for

  2. Trends in standardized mortality among individuals with schizophrenia, 1993–2012: a population-based, repeated cross-sectional study

    Gatov, Evgenia; Rosella, Laura; Chiu, Maria; Kurdyak, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examined mortality time trends and premature mortality among individuals with and without schizophrenia over a 20-year period. METHODS: In this population-based, repeated cross-sectional study, we identified all individual deaths that occurred in Ontario between 1993 and 2012 in persons aged 15 and over. We plotted overall and cause-specific age- and sex-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs), stratified all-cause ASMR trends by sociodemographic characteristics, and analyzed premature mortality using years of potential life lost. Additionally, we calculated mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using negative binomial regression with adjustment for age, sex, income, rurality and year of death. RESULTS: We identified 31 349 deaths among persons with schizophrenia, and 1 589 902 deaths among those without schizophrenia. Mortality rates among people with schizophrenia were 3 times higher than among those without schizophrenia (adjusted MRR 3.12, 95% confidence interval 3.06–3.17). All-cause ASMRs in both groups declined in parallel over the study period, by about 35%, and were higher for men, for those with low income and for rural dwellers. The absolute ASMR difference also declined throughout the study period (from 16.15 to 10.49 deaths per 1000 persons). Cause-specific ASMRs were greater among those with schizophrenia, with circulatory conditions accounting for most deaths between 1993 and 2012, whereas neoplasms became the leading cause of death for those without schizophrenia after 2005. Individuals with schizophrenia also died, on average, 8 years younger than those without schizophrenia, losing more potential years of life. INTERPRETATION: Although mortality rates among people with schizophrenia have declined over the past 2 decades, specialized approaches may be required to close the persistent 3-fold relative mortality gap with the general population. PMID:28923795

  3. Trends in standardized mortality among individuals with schizophrenia, 1993-2012: a population-based, repeated cross-sectional study.

    Gatov, Evgenia; Rosella, Laura; Chiu, Maria; Kurdyak, Paul A

    2017-09-18

    We examined mortality time trends and premature mortality among individuals with and without schizophrenia over a 20-year period. In this population-based, repeated cross-sectional study, we identified all individual deaths that occurred in Ontario between 1993 and 2012 in persons aged 15 and over. We plotted overall and cause-specific age- and sex-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs), stratified all-cause ASMR trends by sociodemographic characteristics, and analyzed premature mortality using years of potential life lost. Additionally, we calculated mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using negative binomial regression with adjustment for age, sex, income, rurality and year of death. We identified 31 349 deaths among persons with schizophrenia, and 1 589 902 deaths among those without schizophrenia. Mortality rates among people with schizophrenia were 3 times higher than among those without schizophrenia (adjusted MRR 3.12, 95% confidence interval 3.06-3.17). All-cause ASMRs in both groups declined in parallel over the study period, by about 35%, and were higher for men, for those with low income and for rural dwellers. The absolute ASMR difference also declined throughout the study period (from 16.15 to 10.49 deaths per 1000 persons). Cause-specific ASMRs were greater among those with schizophrenia, with circulatory conditions accounting for most deaths between 1993 and 2012, whereas neoplasms became the leading cause of death for those without schizophrenia after 2005. Individuals with schizophrenia also died, on average, 8 years younger than those without schizophrenia, losing more potential years of life. Although mortality rates among people with schizophrenia have declined over the past 2 decades, specialized approaches may be required to close the persistent 3-fold relative mortality gap with the general population. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  4. nAChR dysfunction as a common substrate for schizophrenia and comorbid nicotine addiction: current trends and perspectives

    Parikh, Vinay; Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Gould, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of tobacco use in the population with schizophrenia is enormously high. Moreover, nicotine dependence is found to be associated with symptom severity and poor outcome in patients with schizophrenia. The neurobiological mechanisms that explain schizophrenia-nicotine dependence comorbidity are not known. This study systematically reviews the evidence highlighting the contribution of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) to nicotine abuse in schizophrenia. Methods Electronic data bases (Medline, Google Scholar, and Web of Science) were searched using the selected key words that match the aims set forth for this review. A total of 275 articles were used for the qualitative synthesis of this review. Results Substantial evidence from preclinical and clinical studies indicated that dysregulation of α7 and β2-subunit containing nAChRs account for the cognitive and affective symptoms of schizophrenia and nicotine use may represent a strategy to remediate these symptoms. Additionally, recent meta-analyses proposed that early tobacco use may itself increase the risk of developing schizophrenia. Genetic studies demonstrating that nAChR dysfunction that may act as a shared vulnerability factor for comorbid tobacco dependence and schizophrenia were found to support this view. The development of nAChR modulators was considered an effective therapeutic strategy to ameliorate psychiatric symptoms and to promote smoking cessation in schizophrenia patients. Conclusions The relationship between schizophrenia and smoking is complex. While the debate for the self-medication versus addiction vulnerability hypothesis continues, it is widely accepted that a dysfunction in the central nAChRs represent a common substrate for various symptoms of schizophrenia and comorbid nicotine dependence. PMID:26803692

  5. Why all the confusion? Experimental task explains discrepant semantic priming effects in schizophrenia under "automatic" conditions: evidence from Event-Related Potentials.

    Kreher, Donna A; Goff, Donald; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2009-06-01

    The schizophrenia research literature contains many differing accounts of semantic memory function in schizophrenia as assessed through the semantic priming paradigm. Most recently, Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) have been used to demonstrate both increased and decreased semantic priming at a neural level in schizophrenia patients, relative to healthy controls. The present study used ERPs to investigate the role of behavioral task in determining neural semantic priming effects in schizophrenia. The same schizophrenia patients and healthy controls completed two experiments in which word stimuli were identical, and the time between the onset of prime and target remained constant at 350 ms: in the first, participants monitored for words within a particular semantic category that appeared only in filler items (implicit task); in the second, participants explicitly rated the relatedness of word-pairs (explicit task). In the explicit task, schizophrenia patients showed reduced direct and indirect semantic priming in comparison with healthy controls. In contrast, in the implicit task, schizophrenia patients showed normal or, in positively thought-disordered patients, increased direct and indirect N400 priming effects compared with healthy controls. These data confirm that, although schizophrenia patients with positive thought disorder may show an abnormally increased automatic spreading activation, the introduction of semantic decision-making can result in abnormally reduced semantic priming in schizophrenia, even when other experimental conditions bias toward automatic processing.

  6. [Cognitive remediation and cognitive assistive technologies in schizophrenia].

    Sablier, J; Stip, E; Franck, N

    2009-04-01

    motivate the patient to participate. Finally, long-term effects must be assessed in order to verify whether reinforcement is needed. Following these steps, most of the studies show an improvement in the well-being of patients with schizophrenia. These recommendations are also suitable for the cognitive remediation programs, as for treatments with cognitive assistive devices. An important hurdle facing the advance of cognitive assistive technology programs is that different research groups work individually without a coordinated effort to improve and validate the existing programs. Schizophrenia treatments must take into account not only patients' symptoms, but also the associated cognitive deficits which constitute an important factor in their social problems. It has been shown that several cognitive remediation programs are efficient in schizophrenia. New technologies complement the benefits of such programs, and support pharmacological treatments and psychotherapies.

  7. Somatic diseases in patients with schizophrenia in general practice: their prevalence and health care

    Meyboom-de Jong Betty

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia patients frequently develop somatic co-morbidity. Core tasks for GPs are the prevention and diagnosis of somatic diseases and the provision of care for patients with chronic diseases. Schizophrenia patients experience difficulties in recognizing and coping with their physical problems; however GPs have neither specific management policies nor guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of somatic co-morbidity in schizophrenia patients. This paper systematically reviews the prevalence and treatment of somatic co-morbidity in schizophrenia patients in general practice. Methods The MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO data-bases and the Cochrane Library were searched and original research articles on somatic diseases of schizophrenia patients and their treatment in the primary care setting were selected. Results The results of this search show that the incidence of a wide range of diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, coronary heart diseases, and COPD is significantly higher in schizophrenia patients than in the normal population. The health of schizophrenic patients is less than optimal in several areas, partly due to their inadequate help-seeking behaviour. Current GP management of such patients appears not to take this fact into account. However, when schizophrenic patients seek the GP's help, they value the care provided. Conclusion Schizophrenia patients are at risk of undetected somatic co-morbidity. They present physical complaints at a late, more serious stage. GPs should take this into account by adopting proactive behaviour. The development of a set of guidelines with a clear description of the GP's responsibilities would facilitate the desired changes in the management of somatic diseases in these patients.

  8. Somatic diseases in patients with schizophrenia in general practice: their prevalence and health care.

    Oud, Marian J T; Meyboom-de Jong, Betty

    2009-05-09

    Schizophrenia patients frequently develop somatic co-morbidity. Core tasks for GPs are the prevention and diagnosis of somatic diseases and the provision of care for patients with chronic diseases. Schizophrenia patients experience difficulties in recognizing and coping with their physical problems; however GPs have neither specific management policies nor guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of somatic co-morbidity in schizophrenia patients. This paper systematically reviews the prevalence and treatment of somatic co-morbidity in schizophrenia patients in general practice. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO data-bases and the Cochrane Library were searched and original research articles on somatic diseases of schizophrenia patients and their treatment in the primary care setting were selected. The results of this search show that the incidence of a wide range of diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, coronary heart diseases, and COPD is significantly higher in schizophrenia patients than in the normal population. The health of schizophrenic patients is less than optimal in several areas, partly due to their inadequate help-seeking behaviour. Current GP management of such patients appears not to take this fact into account. However, when schizophrenic patients seek the GP's help, they value the care provided. Schizophrenia patients are at risk of undetected somatic co-morbidity. They present physical complaints at a late, more serious stage. GPs should take this into account by adopting proactive behaviour. The development of a set of guidelines with a clear description of the GP's responsibilities would facilitate the desired changes in the management of somatic diseases in these patients.

  9. Imaging dopamine transmission in schizophrenia

    Laruelle, M.

    1998-01-01

    Over the last ten years, several positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon computerized tomography (SPECT) studies of the dopamine (DA) system in patients with schizophrenia were performed to test the hypothesis that DA hyperactivity is associated with this illness. In this paper are reviewed the results of fifteen brain imaging studies comparing indices of DA function in drug naive or drug free patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls: thirteen studies included measurements of Da D 2 receptor density, two studies compared amphetamine-induced DA release, and two studies measured DOPA decarboxylase activity, an enzyme involved in DA synthesis. It was conducted a meta-analysis of the studies measuring D 2 receptor density parameters, under the assumption that all tracers labeled the same population of D 2 receptors. This analysis revealed that, compared to healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia present a significant but mild elevation of D 2 receptor density parameters and a significant larger variability of these indices. It was found no statistical evidence that studies performed with radiolabeled butyrophenones detected a larger increase in D 2 receptor density parameters than studies performed with other radioligands, such as benzamides. Studies of presynaptic activity revealed an increase in DA transmission response to amphetamine challenge, and an increase in DOPA decarboxylase activity. Together, these data are compatible with both pre- and post-synaptic alterations of DA transmission in schizophrenia. Future studies should aim at a better characterization of these alterations, and at defining their role in the pathophysiology of the illness

  10. Second Language Acquisition and Schizophrenia

    Dugan, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder that results in language-related symptoms at various discourse levels, ranging from semantics (e.g. inventing words and producing nonsensical strands of similar-sounding words) to pragmatics and higher-level functioning (e.g. too little or too much information given to interlocutors, and tangential…

  11. [Theory of mind in schizophrenia].

    Bonshtein, Udi

    2006-12-01

    The term "theory of mind" (ToM) refers to the capacity to infer one's own and other persons' mental states (e.g. their beliefs, feelings, intentions or knowledge). It was found that children in the autistic spectrum have deficits in ToM. One of the suggestions was that unlike autistic people, ToM skills are normally developed in schizophrenia patients, but "lost" in the first psychotic episode. The deficit may disappear on remission from the acute phase, as described in some studies. A substantial body of research has highlighted the impaired ToM in schizophrenia. There is good empirical evidence that ToM is specifically impaired in schizophrenia and that many psychotic symptoms--for instance, delusions of alien control and persecution, the presence of thought and language disorganization, and other behavioral symptoms--may best be understood in light of a disturbed capacity in patients to relate their own intentions to executing behavior, and to monitor others' intentions. However, it is still under debate how an impaired ToM in schizophrenia is associated with other aspects of cognition, how the impairment fluctuates with acuity or chronicity of the schizophrenic disorder, and if it is a state or trate marker. The paper reviews the current literature and suggests potential implications and future research areas.

  12. Glutamate and GABA in schizophrenia

    Marsman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by a loss of brain tissue, which may represent an ongoing pathophysiological process. Possible mechanisms that may be involved are the glutamatergic and GABAergic (gamma-aminobutyric acid) systems. Particularly hypofunction of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type of

  13. Imbalanced Kynurenine Pathway in Schizophrenia

    Magdalena E. Kegel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest a role for kynurenic acid (KYNA in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. It has been proposed that increased brain KYNA levels in schizophrenia result from a pathological shift in the kynurenine pathway toward enhanced KYNA formation, away from the other branch of the pathway leading to quinolinic acid (QUIN. Here we investigate the levels of QUIN in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and relate those to CSF levels of KYNA and other kynurenine metabolites from the same individuals. CSF QUIN levels from stable outpatients treated with olanzapine (n = 22 and those of controls (n = 26 were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. No difference in CSF QUIN levels between patients and controls was observed (20.6 ± 1.5 nM vs. 18.2 ± 1.1 nM, P = 0.36. CSF QUIN was positively correlated to CSF kynurenine and CSF KYNA in patients but not in controls. The CSF QUIN/KYNA ratio was lower in patients than in controls ( P = 0.027. In summary, the present study offers support for an over-activated and imbalanced kynurenine pathway, favoring the production of KYNA over QUIN in patients with schizophrenia.

  14. Recent advances in understanding schizophrenia.

    Haller, Chiara S; Padmanabhan, Jaya L; Lizano, Paulo; Torous, John; Keshavan, Matcheri

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly disabling disorder whose causes remain to be better understood, and treatments have to be improved. However, several recent advances have been made in diagnosis, etiopathology, and treatment. Whereas reliability of diagnosis has improved with operational criteria, including Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (DSM) Fifth Edition, validity of the disease boundaries remains unclear because of substantive overlaps with other psychotic disorders. Recent emphasis on dimensional approaches and translational bio-behavioral research domain criteria may eventually help move toward a neuroscience-based definition of schizophrenia. The etiology of schizophrenia is now thought to be multifactorial, with multiple small-effect and fewer large-effect susceptibility genes interacting with several environmental factors. These factors may lead to developmentally mediated alterations in neuroplasticity, manifesting in a cascade of neurotransmitter and circuit dysfunctions and impaired connectivity with an onset around early adolescence. Such etiopathological understanding has motivated a renewed search for novel pharmacological as well as psychotherapeutic targets. Addressing the core features of the illness, such as cognitive deficits and negative symptoms, and developing hypothesis-driven early interventions and preventive strategies are high-priority goals for the field. Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic mental disorder and is among the most disabling disorders in all of medicine. It is estimated by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) that 2.4 million people over the age of 18 in the US suffer from schizophrenia. This illness typically begins in adolescence and derails the formative goals of school, family, and work, leading to considerable suffering and disability and reduced life expectancy by about 20 years. Treatment outcomes are variable, and some people are successfully treated and reintegrated (i.e. go back to work

  15. Cost of schizophrenia in England.

    Mangalore, Roshni; Knapp, Martin

    2007-03-01

    Despite the wide-ranging financial and social burdens associated with schizophrenia, there have been few cost-of-illness studies of this illness in the UK. To provide up-to-date, prevalence based estimate of all costs associated with schizophrenia for England. A bottom-up approach was adopted. Separate cost estimates were made for people living in private households, institutions, prisons and for those who are homeless. The costs included related to: health and social care, informal care, private expenditures, lost productivity, premature mortality, criminal justice services and other public expenditures such as those by the social security system. Data came from many sources, including the UK-SCAP (Schizophrenia Care and Assessment Program) survey, Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys, Department of Health and government publications. The estimated total societal cost of schizophrenia was 6.7 billion pounds in 2004/05. The direct cost of treatment and care that falls on the public purse was about 2 billion pounds; the burden of indirect costs to the society was huge, amounting to nearly 4.7 billion pounds. Cost of informal care and private expenditures borne by families was 615 million pounds. The cost of lost productivity due to unemployment, absence from work and premature mortality of patients was 3.4 billion pounds. The cost of lost productivity of carers was 32 million pounds. Estimated cost to the criminal justice system was about 1 million pounds. It is estimated that about 570 million pounds will be paid out in benefit payments and the cost of administration associated with this is about 14 million pounds. It is difficult to compare estimates from previous cost-of-illness studies due to differences in the methods, scope of analyses and the range of costs covered. Costs estimated in this study are detailed, cover a comprehensive list of relevant items and allow for different levels of disaggregation. The main limitation of the study is that data came from a

  16. Problem solving skills for schizophrenia.

    Xia, J; Li, Chunbo

    2007-04-18

    The severe and long-lasting symptoms of schizophrenia are often the cause of severe disability. Environmental stress such as life events and the practical problems people face in their daily can worsen the symptoms of schizophrenia. Deficits in problem solving skills in people with schizophrenia affect their independent and interpersonal functioning and impair their quality of life. As a result, therapies such as problem solving therapy have been developed to improve problem solving skills for people with schizophrenia. To review the effectiveness of problem solving therapy compared with other comparable therapies or routine care for those with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (September 2006), which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We inspected references of all identified studies for further trials. We included all clinical randomised trials comparing problem solving therapy with other comparable therapies or routine care. We extracted data independently. For homogenous dichotomous data we calculated random effects, relative risk (RR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) and, where appropriate, numbers needed to treat (NNT) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) using a random effects statistical model. We included only three small trials (n=52) that evaluated problem solving versus routine care, coping skills training or non-specific interaction. Inadequate reporting of data rendered many outcomes unusable. We were unable to undertake meta-analysis. Overall results were limited and inconclusive with no significant differences between treatment groups for hospital admission, mental state, behaviour, social skills or leaving the study early. No data were presented for global state, quality of life or satisfaction. We found insufficient evidence to confirm or refute the benefits of problem solving therapy as an additional

  17. Heterogeneity of schizophrenia: Genetic and symptomatic factors.

    Takahashi, Sakae

    2013-10-01

    Schizophrenia may have etiological heterogeneity, and may reflect common symptomatology caused by many genetic and environmental factors. In this review, we show the potential existence of heterogeneity in schizophrenia based on the results of our previous studies. In our study of the NOTCH4 gene, there were no significant associations between any single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of NOTCH4 and schizophrenia. However, exploratory analyses suggested that the SNP, rs3134928 may be associated with early-onset schizophrenia, and that rs387071 may be associated with schizophrenia characterized by negative symptoms. In our highly familial schizophrenia study, the African-American cohort without environmental exposure showed a possible linkage at marker 8p23.1 in the dominant model and in the European-American cohort, a marker at 22q13.32 showed a probable linkage in the recessive model. In the less familial schizophrenia families, these linkages were not shown. Based on our eye movement study, a putative subtype of schizophrenia with severe symptoms related to excitement/hostility, negative symptoms and disorganization may be associated with chromosome 22q11. We consider that a sample stratification approach may clarify the heterogeneity of schizophrenia. Therefore, this approach may lead to a more straightforward way of identifying susceptibility genes of schizophrenia. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Correlates of Quality of Life Among Jordanian Patients With Schizophrenia.

    Rayan, Ahmad; Obiedate, Khaldoon

    Addressing the quality of life (QOL) of patients with schizophrenia is of special importance in the Arab world, where little knowledge is available about their well-being, and most of them experience stigma and living in poverty. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of sociodemographic characteristics, severity of depressive symptoms, and various aspects of public stigma against mental illness, with QOL among Jordanian patients with schizophrenia. In this descriptive correlational study, 160 Jordanian outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia completed measures of demographic characteristics, perceived public stigma against mental illness, severity of depression, and QOL. Participants had poor QOL. Age, marital status, relapse, education level, stigma against mental illness, and severity of depression were significantly associated with QOL among Jordanian patients with schizophrenia. Data analysis revealed that the severity of depression accounted for an additional 27% of the variance above and beyond the 36.7% accounted for by age of the participants and perceived public stigma against mental illness. Health care professionals should develop culturally competent nursing practice considering the specific factors associated with QOL among Arab patients with schizophrenia.

  19. Impaired reward responsiveness in schizophrenia.

    Taylor, Nicholas; Hollis, Jeffrey P; Corcoran, Sarah; Gross, Robin; Cuthbert, Bruce; Swails, Lisette W; Duncan, Erica

    2018-03-08

    Anhedonia is a core negative symptom of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients report largely intact pleasure in consuming rewards, but have impairments in generating motivated behavior to pursue rewards, and show reduced fMRI activation of the reward pathway during presentation of rewarded stimuli. A computer based task measuring the development of a response bias in favor of rewarded stimuli permits assessment of reward-induced motivation. We hypothesized that subjects with schizophrenia would be impaired on this task. 58 schizophrenia subjects (SCZ) and 52 healthy controls (CON) were studied with a signal detection task to assess reward responsiveness. In multiple trials over three blocks subjects were asked to correctly identify two stimuli that were paired with unequal chance of monetary reward. The critical outcome variable was response bias, the development of a greater percent correct identification of the stimulus that was rewarded more often. An ANOVA on response bias with Block as a repeated-measures factor and Diagnosis as a between-group factor indicated that SCZ subjects achieved a lower bias to rewarded stimuli than CON subjects (F(1,105)=8.82, p=0.004, η 2 =0.078). Post hoc tests indicated that SCZ subjects had significantly impaired bias in Block 1 (p=0.002) and Block 2 (p=0.05), indicating that SCZ were slower to achieve normal levels of bias during the session. SCZ subjects were slower to develop response bias to rewarded stimuli than CON subjects. This finding is consonant with the hypothesis that people with schizophrenia have a blunted capacity to modify behavior in response to reward. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Friendship in people with schizophrenia: a survey.

    Harley, Ellen Wan-Yuk; Boardman, Jed; Craig, Tom

    2012-08-01

    To explore the quantitative and qualitative aspects of friendship in people with schizophrenia. To examine emotional and behavioural commitment, experiences of stigma, and the impact of illness factors that may affect the making and keeping of friends. The difference in the perception between the researcher and participants of the presence of problems in friendships was also investigated. The size and quality of the social networks of 137 people with established schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, aged 18-65 in one geographical area of southeast England was ascertained using a semi-structured interview. Qualitative aspects of friendship were measured using objective, pre-determined, investigator-rated criteria. The mean number of friends reported by respondents was 1.57. Men were less likely to report friendships than women (29 vs. 53%, χ (2) = 13.51, df 1, p friendships was generally good. Emotional commitment to friendship and mistrust were more important than current clinical state in determining whether or not the participant has friends. Most of those without friends did not see the lack of friendship as a problem. The researcher was up to three times more likely to report a problem than the participant. The friendship network size was found to be small but the quality of friendship mostly positive and highly valued. The majority of friendships were with other service users made during attendances at day hospitals and drop-in centres thus underscoring the importance of this service provision. Psychosocial intervention programmes need to take into account psychological factors that impact upon friendship.

  1. Rorschach Measures of Cognition Relate to Everyday and Social Functioning in Schizophrenia

    Moore, Raeanne C.; Viglione, Donald J.; Rosenfarb, Irwin S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Mausbach, Brent T.

    2013-01-01

    Neurocognitive impairment and negative symptoms contribute to functional disability in people with schizophrenia. Yet, a high level of unexplained variability remains after accounting for the role of these factors. This study examined the role of thought disorder, psychological complexity, and interpersonal representations, as measured by the…

  2. Influence of contact with schizophrenia on implicit attitudes towards schizophrenia patients held by clinical residents

    Omori Ataru

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with schizophrenia and their families have suffered greatly from stigmatizing effects. Although many efforts have been made to eradicate both prejudice and stigma, they still prevail even among medical professionals, and little is known about how contact with schizophrenia patients affects their attitudes towards schizophrenia. Methods We assessed the impact of the renaming of the Japanese term for schizophrenia on clinical residents and also evaluated the influence of contact with schizophrenia patients on attitudes toward schizophrenia by comparing the attitudes toward schizophrenia before and after a one-month clinical training period in psychiatry. Fifty-one clinical residents participated. Their attitudes toward schizophrenia were assessed twice, before and one month after clinical training in psychiatry using the Implicit Association Test (IAT as well as Link’s devaluation-discrimination scale. Results The old term for schizophrenia, “Seishin-Bunretsu-Byo”, was more congruent with criminal than the new term for schizophrenia, “Togo-Shitcho-Sho”, before clinical training. However, quite opposite to our expectation, after clinical training the new term had become even more congruent with criminal than the old term. There was no significant correlation between Link's scale and IAT effect. Conclusions Renaming the Japanese term for schizophrenia still reduced the negative images of schizophrenia among clinical residents. However, contact with schizophrenia patients unexpectedly changed clinical residents’ attitudes towards schizophrenia negatively. Our results might contribute to an understanding of the formation of negative attitudes about schizophrenia and assist in developing appropriate clinical training in psychiatry that could reduce prejudice and stigma concerning schizophrenia.

  3. The schizophrenia risk gene ZNF804A influences the antipsychotic response of positive schizophrenia symptoms

    Mössner, R; Schumacher, A; Wagner, M; Lennertz, L; Steinbrecher, A; Quednow, Boris B; Rujescu, D; Rietschel, M; Maier, W

    2012-01-01

    Genetic factors determining the response to antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia are poorly understood. A new schizophrenia susceptibility gene, the zinc-finger gene ZNF804A, has recently been identified. To assess the pharmacogenetic importance of this gene, we treated 144 schizophrenia patients and assessed the response of positive and negative symptoms by PANSS. Patients homozygous for the ZNF804A risk allele for schizophrenia (rs1344706 AA) showed poorer improvement of positive sympto...

  4. Observational study of outpatients with schizophrenia in the Middle ...

    Observational study of outpatients with schizophrenia in the Middle East and Africa — 3- and 6-month efficacy and safety results. The Intercontinental Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes Study.

  5. Reliability of clinical ICD-10 schizophrenia diagnoses

    Jakobsen, Klaus D; Frederiksen, Julie N; Hansen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Concern has been expressed as to the reliability of clinical ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia. This study was designed to assess the diagnostic reliability of the clinical ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia in a random sample of Danish in- and outpatients with a history of psychosis. A sample...... value (87%) of ICD-10 schizophrenia and an overall good agreement between clinical and OPCRIT-derived diagnoses (kappa=0.60). An even higher positive predictive value was obtained when diagnoses were amalgamated into a diagnostic entity of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (98%). Near perfect agreement...... was seen between OPCRIT-derived ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnoses (kappa=0.87). Thus, this study demonstrates high reliability of the clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia and even more so of the diagnosis of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder....

  6. Bleuler and the neurobiology of schizophrenia.

    Heckers, Stephan

    2011-11-01

    Schizophrenia remains a major challenge for psychiatry. One hundred years after the publication of Eugen Bleuler's monograph, we are still debating the nosology and mechanisms of schizophrenia. We have stalled in the development of more effective treatments, after success with the introduction of antipsychotic medication. Cure and prevention remain in the distance. This article reviews the importance of Bleuler's monograph for the neuroscientific exploration of schizophrenia. While Bleuler assumed that schizophrenia has a neural basis, he remained agnostic on possible mechanisms and skeptical about the value of pathological diagnosis. He preferred psychological understanding over neural explanation. He gave hope by making schizophrenia dimensional and less predictive of course and outcome. To make progress now, we need to redefine schizophrenia at the level of the brain.

  7. Febrile seizures and risk of schizophrenia

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Christensen, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Febrile seizure is a benign condition for most children, but experiments in animals and neuroimaging studies in humans suggest that some febrile seizures may damage the hippocampus, a brain area of possible importance in schizophrenia. METHODS: A population-based cohort of all children...... with schizophrenia. A history of febrile seizures was associated with a 44% increased risk of schizophrenia [relative risk (RR)=1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.95] after adjusting for confounding factors. The association between febrile seizures and schizophrenia remained virtually unchanged when...... restricting the analyses to people with no history of epilepsy. A history of both febrile seizures and epilepsy was associated with a 204% increased risk of schizophrenia (RR=3.04; 95% CI, 1.36-6.79) as compared with people with no such history. CONCLUSIONS: We found a slightly increased risk of schizophrenia...

  8. Mosaic Turner syndrome associated with schizophrenia.

    Jung, Sook Young; Park, Joo Won; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jun, Yong Hoon; Lee, Jeong Seop; Lee, Ji Eun

    2014-03-01

    Turner syndrome is a sex-chromosome disorder; occurring in 1 in 2,500 female births. There are sporadic few case reports of concomitant Turner syndrome with schizophrenia worldwide. Most Turner females had a 45,X monosomy, whereas the majority of comorbidity between Turner syndrome and schizophrenia had a mosaic karyotype (45,X/46,XX). We present a case of a 21-year-old woman with Turner syndrome, mosaic karyotype (45,X/46,XX), showing mental retardation, hypothyroidism, and schizophrenia. HOPA gene within Xq13 is related to mental retardation, hypothyroidism, and schizophrenia. Our case may be a potential clue which supports the hypothesis for involvement of genes on X chromosome in development of schizophrenia. Further studies including comorbid cases reports are need in order to discern the cause of schizophrenia in patients having Turner syndrome.

  9. ACCOUNTING AND AUDIT OPERATIONS ON CURRENT ACCOUNT

    Koblyanska Olena

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The article is devoted to theoretical, methodical and practical issues of accounting and auditing of operations on the current account. The purpose of the study is to deepen and consolidate the theoretical and practical knowledge of the issues of accounting and auditing of operations on the current account, identify practical problems with the implementation of the methodology and organization of accounting and auditing of operations on the current account and develop recommendations for the elimination of deficiencies and improve the accounting and auditing. Results. The issue of the relevance of proper accounting and audit of transactions on the current account in the bank is considered. The research of typical operations on the current account was carried out with using of the method of their reflection in the account on practical examples. Features of the audit of transactions on the current account are examined, the procedure for its implementation is presented, and types of abuses and violations that occur while performing operations on the current account are identified. The legal regulation of accounting, analysis and control of operations with cash on current accounts is considered. The problem issues related to the organization and conducting of the audit of funds in the accounts of the bank are analyzed, as well as the directions of their solution are determined. The proposals for determining the sequence of actions of the auditor during the check of cash flow on accounts in the bank are provided. Conclusions. The questions about theoretical, methodological and practical issues of accounting and auditing of operations on the current account in the bank. A study of typical operations with cash on the current account was carried out with the use of the method of their reflection in the accounts and the features of the auditing of cash on the account.

  10. Bleuler and the Neurobiology of Schizophrenia

    Heckers, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia remains a major challenge for psychiatry. One hundred years after the publication of Eugen Bleuler’s monograph, we are still debating the nosology and mechanisms of schizophrenia. We have stalled in the development of more effective treatments, after success with the introduction of antipsychotic medication. Cure and prevention remain in the distance. This article reviews the importance of Bleuler’s monograph for the neuroscientific exploration of schizophrenia. While Bleuler as...

  11. Neurodevelopment, GABA System Dysfunction, and Schizophrenia

    Schmidt, Martin J; Mirnics, Karoly

    2014-01-01

    The origins of schizophrenia have eluded clinicians and researchers since Kraepelin and Bleuler began documenting their findings. However, large clinical research efforts in recent decades have identified numerous genetic and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia. The combined data strongly support the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia and underscore the importance of the common converging effects of diverse insults. In this review, we discuss the evidence that genetic and...

  12. Risk factors for development of schizophrenia

    Dunglová, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe disease. There is a complicity of genetic and environmental factors in schizophrenia onset. Factors with probable influence on development of schizophrenia are rate of urbanization, geographic location, migration, month of birth, maternal nutrition during pregnancy and birth complications, stress during pregnancy, length of lactation period, prenatal and postnatal infection exposure, exposure to a cat during childhood or cannabis abuse. Until now the information on t...

  13. Heritability of Schizophrenia and Schizophrenia Spectrum Based on the Nationwide Danish Twin Register

    Hilker, Rikke; Helenius, Dorte; Fagerlund, Birgitte

    2018-01-01

    sample. The estimated 79% heritability of SZ is congruent with previous reports and indicates a substantial genetic risk. The high genetic risk also applies to a broader phenotype of SZ spectrum disorders. The low concordance rate of 33% in monozygotic twins demonstrates that illness vulnerability......BACKGROUND: Twin studies have provided evidence that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to schizophrenia (SZ) risk. Heritability estimates of SZ in twin samples have varied methodologically. This study provides updated heritability estimates based on nationwide twin data...... the heritability of SZ to be 79%. When expanding illness outcome to include SZ spectrum disorders, the heritability estimate was almost similar (73%). CONCLUSIONS: The key strength of this study is the application of a novel statistical method accounting for censoring in the follow-up period to a nationwide twin...

  14. Superior intellectual ability in schizophrenia: neuropsychological characteristics.

    MacCabe, James H; Brébion, Gildas; Reichenberg, Abraham; Ganguly, Taposhri; McKenna, Peter J; Murray, Robin M; David, Anthony S

    2012-03-01

    It has been suggested that neurocognitive impairment is a core deficit in schizophrenia. However, it appears that some patients with schizophrenia have intelligence quotients (IQs) in the superior range. In this study, we sought out schizophrenia patients with an estimated premorbid Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of at least 115 and studied their neuropsychological profile. Thirty-four patients meeting diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV), with mean estimated premorbid IQ of 120, were recruited and divided into two subgroups, according to whether or not their IQ had declined by at least 10 points from their premorbid estimate. Their performance on an extensive neuropsychological battery was compared with that of 19 IQ-matched healthy controls and a group of 16 "typical" schizophrenia patients with estimated premorbid IQ Schizophrenia patients whose estimated premorbid and current IQ both lay in the superior range were statistically indistinguishable from IQ-matched healthy controls on all neurocognitive tests. However, their profile of relative performance in subtests was similar to that of typical schizophrenia patients. Patients with superior premorbid IQ and evidence of intellectual deterioration had intermediate scores. Our results confirm the existence of patients meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia who have markedly superior premorbid intellectual level and appear to be free of gross neuropsychological deficits. We discuss the implications of these findings for the primacy of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

  15. The biochemical womb of schizophrenia: A review.

    Gaur, N; Gautam, S; Gaur, M; Sharma, P; Dadheech, G; Mishra, S

    2008-10-01

    The conclusive identification of specific etiological factors or pathogenic processes in the illness of schizophrenia has remained elusive despite great technological progress. The convergence of state-of-art scientific studies in molecular genetics, molecular neuropathophysiology, in vivo brain imaging and psychopharmacology, however, indicates that we may be coming much closer to understanding the genesis of schizophrenia. In near future, the diagnosis and assessment of schizophrenia using biochemical markers may become a "dream come true" for the medical community as well as for the general population. An understanding of the biochemistry/ visa vis pathophysiology of schizophrenia is essential to the discovery of preventive measures and therapeutic intervention.

  16. Wellness within illness: happiness in schizophrenia.

    Palmer, Barton W; Martin, Averria Sirkin; Depp, Colin A; Glorioso, Danielle K; Jeste, Dilip V

    2014-10-01

    Schizophrenia is typically a chronic disorder and among the most severe forms of serious mental illnesses in terms of adverse impact on quality of life. Yet, there have been suggestions that some people with schizophrenia can experience an overall sense of happiness in their lives. We investigated happiness among 72 outpatients with non-remitted chronic schizophrenia with a mean duration of illness of 24.4 years, and 64 healthy comparison subjects (HCs). Despite continued treatment with antipsychotic medications, the individuals with schizophrenia manifested a mild to moderate level of psychopathology. People with schizophrenia reported lower mean levels of happiness than HCs, but there was substantial heterogeneity within the schizophrenia group. Level of happiness in persons with schizophrenia was significantly correlated with higher mental health-related quality of life, and several positive psychosocial factors (lower perceived stress, and higher levels of resilience, optimism, and personal mastery). However, level of happiness was not related to sociodemographic characteristics, duration of illness, severity of positive or negative symptoms, physical function, medical comorbidity, or cognitive functioning. Except for an absence of an association with resilience, the pattern of correlations of happiness with other variables seen among HCs was similar to that in individuals with schizophrenia. Although happiness may be harder to achieve in the context of a serious mental illness, it nonetheless appears to be a viable treatment goal in schizophrenia. Psychotherapies targeting positive coping factors such as resilience, optimism, and personal mastery warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. A review of schizophrenia research in malaysia.

    Chee, K Y; Salina, A A

    2014-08-01

    Research in schizophrenia has advanced tremendously. One hundred and seventy five articles related to Schizophrenia were found from a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. This project aims to examine published research articles, in local and international journals in order to provide a glimpse of the research interest in Malaysia with regards to schizophrenia. Single case study, case series report, reviews and registry reports were not included in this review. Medication trial, unless it concerned a wider scope of psychopharmacology was also excluded from this review. A total of 105 articles were included in this review. Despite numerous genetics studies conducted and published, a definitive conclusion on the aetiology or mechanism underlying schizophrenia remains elusive. The National Mental Health - Schizophrenia Registry (NMHR) proved to be an important platform for many studies and publications. Studies stemmed from NMHR have provided significant insight into the baseline characteristic of patients with schizophrenia, pathway to care, and outcomes of the illness. International and regional collaborations have also encouraged important work involving stigma and discrimination in schizophrenia. Ministry of Health's hospitals (MOH) are the main research sites in the country with regards to schizophrenia research. Numbers of schizophrenia research are still low in relation to the number of universities and hospitals in the country. Some of the weaknesses include duplication of studies, over-emphasising clinical trials and ignoring basic clinical research, and the lack of publications in international and regional journals.

  18. Neurodevelopment, GABA System Dysfunction, and Schizophrenia

    Schmidt, Martin J; Mirnics, Karoly

    2015-01-01

    The origins of schizophrenia have eluded clinicians and researchers since Kraepelin and Bleuler began documenting their findings. However, large clinical research efforts in recent decades have identified numerous genetic and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia. The combined data strongly support the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia and underscore the importance of the common converging effects of diverse insults. In this review, we discuss the evidence that genetic and environmental risk factors that predispose to schizophrenia disrupt the development and normal functioning of the GABAergic system. PMID:24759129

  19. Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders

    Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2013-01-01

    The DSM-5 list of diagnoses concerning schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders is expected to be revised and graduated from mild to severe. The proposed changes for the diagnosis of schizophrenia affect demands for characteristic symptoms, clarify relation to pervasive developmental...... diagnostic reliability and validity, but it is estimated to exclude about 2 % of patients currently diagnosed with DSM-IV schizophrenia from fulfilling criteria for DSM-5 schizophrenia. It might generate a problem for future young patients if the changes concerning demands on characteristic symptoms turn out...

  20. Neurodevelopment, GABA system dysfunction, and schizophrenia.

    Schmidt, Martin J; Mirnics, Karoly

    2015-01-01

    The origins of schizophrenia have eluded clinicians and researchers since Kraepelin and Bleuler began documenting their findings. However, large clinical research efforts in recent decades have identified numerous genetic and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia. The combined data strongly support the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia and underscore the importance of the common converging effects of diverse insults. In this review, we discuss the evidence that genetic and environmental risk factors that predispose to schizophrenia disrupt the development and normal functioning of the GABAergic system.

  1. ACCOUNTING HARMONIZATION AND HISTORICAL COST ACCOUNTING

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a huge interest in accounting harmonization and historical costs accounting, in what they offer us. In this article, different valuation models are discussed. Although one notices the movement from historical cost accounting to fair value accounting, each one has its advantages.

  2. Subjective qualities of memories associated with the picture superiority effect in schizophrenia.

    Huron, Caroline; Danion, Jean-Marie; Rizzo, Lydia; Killofer, Valérie; Damiens, Annabelle

    2003-02-01

    Patients with schizophrenia (n = 24) matched with 24 normal subjects were presented with both words and pictures. On a recognition memory task, they were asked to give remember, know, or guess responses to items that were recognized on the basis of conscious recollection, familiarity, or guessing, respectively. Compared with normal subjects, patients exhibited a lower picture superiority effect selectively related to remember responses. Unlike normal subjects, they did not exhibit any word superiority effect in relation to guess responses; this explains why the overall picture superiority effect appeared to be intact. These results emphasize the need to take into account the subjective states of awareness when analyzing memory impairments in schizophrenia.

  3. Duplications of the Neuropeptide Receptor VIPR2 Confer Significant Risk for Schizophrenia

    Vacic, Vladimir; McCarthy, Shane; Malhotra, Dheeraj; Murray, Fiona; Chou, Hsun-Hua; Peoples, Aine; Makarov, Vladimir; Yoon, Seungtai; Bhandari, Abhishek; Corominas, Roser; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.; Krastoshevsky, Olga; Krause, Verena; Larach-Walters, Verónica; Welsh, David K.

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED PMID:21346763 Rare copy number variants (CNVs) play a prominent role in the etiology of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders 1 . Substantial risk for schizophrenia is conferred by large (>500 kb) CNVs at several loci, including microdeletions at 1q21.1 2 , 3q29 3 , 15q13.3 2 and 22q11.2 4 and microduplication at 16p11.2 5 . However, these CNVs collectively account for a small fraction (2-4%) of cases, and the relevant ...

  4. Computational study of NMDA conductance and cortical oscillations in schizophrenia

    Kubra eKomek Kirli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor hypofunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The illness is also characterized by gamma oscillatory disturbances, which can be evaluated with precise frequency specificity employing auditory cortical entrainment paradigms. This computational study investigates how synaptic NMDA hypofunction may give rise to network level oscillatory deficits as indexed by entrainment paradigms. We developed a computational model of a local cortical circuit with pyramidal cells and fast-spiking interneurons (FSI, incorporating NMDA, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic (AMPA, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA synaptic kinetics. We evaluated the effects of varying NMDA conductance on FSIs and pyramidal cells, as well as AMPA to NMDA ratio. We also examined the differential effects across a broad range of entrainment frequencies as a function of NMDA conductance. Varying NMDA conductance onto FSIs revealed an inverted-U relation with network gamma whereas NMDA conductance onto the pyramidal cells had a more monotonic relationship. Varying NMDA vs. AMPA conductance onto FSIs demonstrated the necessity of AMPA in the generation of gamma while NMDA receptors had a modulatory role. Finally, reducing NMDA conductance onto FSI and varying the stimulus input frequency reproduced the specific reductions in gamma range (~40 Hz as observed in schizophrenia studies. Our computational study showed that reductions in NMDA conductance onto FSIs can reproduce similar disturbances in entrainment to periodic stimuli within the gamma range as reported in schizophrenia studies. These findings provide a mechanistic account of how specific cellular level disturbances can give rise to circuitry level pathophysiologic disturbance in schizophrenia.

  5. Geographical and seasonal correlation of multiple sclerosis to sporadic schizophrenia

    Fritzsche Markus

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clusters by season and locality reveal a striking epidemiological overlap between sporadic schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis (MS. As the birth excesses of those individuals who later in life develop schizophrenia mirror the seasonal distribution of Ixodid ticks, a meta analysis has been performed between all neuropsychiatric birth excesses including MS and the epidemiology of spirochaetal infectious diseases. Results The prevalence of MS and schizophrenic birth excesses entirely spares the tropical belt where human treponematoses are endemic, whereas in more temperate climates infection rates of Borrelia garinii in ticks collected from seabirds match the global geographic distribution of MS. If the seasonal fluctuations of Lyme borreliosis in Europe are taken into account, the birth excesses of MS and those of schizophrenia are nine months apart, reflecting the activity of Ixodes ricinus at the time of embryonic implantation and birth. In America, this nine months' shift between MS and schizophrenic births is also reflected by the periodicity of Borrelia burgdorferi transmitting Ixodes pacificus ticks along the West Coast and the periodicity of Ixodes scapularis along the East Coast. With respect to Ixodid tick activity, amongst the neuropsychiatric birth excesses only amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS shows a similar seasonal trend. Conclusion It cannot be excluded at present that maternal infection by Borrelia burgdorferi poses a risk to the unborn. The seasonal and geographical overlap between schizophrenia, MS and neuroborreliosis rather emphasises a causal relation that derives from exposure to a flagellar virulence factor at conception and delivery. It is hoped that the pathogenic correlation of spirochaetal virulence to temperature and heat shock proteins (HSP might encourage a new direction of research in molecular epidemiology.

  6. Aberrant Network Activity in Schizophrenia.

    Hunt, Mark J; Kopell, Nancy J; Traub, Roger D; Whittington, Miles A

    2017-06-01

    Brain dynamic changes associated with schizophrenia are largely equivocal, with interpretation complicated by many factors, such as the presence of therapeutic agents and the complex nature of the syndrome itself. Evidence for a brain-wide change in individual network oscillations, shared by all patients, is largely equivocal, but stronger for lower (delta) than for higher (gamma) bands. However, region-specific changes in rhythms across multiple, interdependent, nested frequencies may correlate better with pathology. Changes in synaptic excitation and inhibition in schizophrenia disrupt delta rhythm-mediated cortico-cortical communication, while enhancing thalamocortical communication in this frequency band. The contrasting relationships between delta and higher frequencies in thalamus and cortex generate frequency mismatches in inter-regional connectivity, leading to a disruption in temporal communication between higher-order brain regions associated with mental time travel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Proprioceptive information processing in schizophrenia

    Arnfred, Sidse M H

    of the left somatosensory cortex and it was suggested to be in accordance with two theories of schizophrenic information processing: the theory of deficiency of corollary discharge and the theory of weakening of the influence of past regularities. No gating deficiency was observed and the imprecision...... Rado (1890-1972) suggested that one of two un-reducible deficits in schizophrenia was a disorder of proprioception. Exploration of proprioceptive information processing is possible through the measurement of evoked and event related potentials. Event related EEG can be analyzed as conventional time...... and amplitude attenuation was not a general phenomenon across the entire brain response. Summing up, in support of Rado's hypothesis, schizophrenia spectrum patients demonstrated abnormalities in proprioceptive information processing. Future work needs to extend the findings in larger un-medicated, non...

  8. Neurodevelopmental risk factors in schizophrenia

    Lobato M.I.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review environmental and neurodevelopmental risk factors for schizophrenic disorders, with emphasis on minor physical anomalies, particularly craniofacial anomalies and dermatoglyphic variations. The high prevalence of these anomalies among schizophrenic subjects supports the neurodevelopmental theory of the etiology of schizophrenia, since they suggest either genetically or epigenetically controlled faulty embryonic development of structures of ectodermal origin like brain and skin. This may disturb neurodevelopment that in turn may cause these subjects to be at increased risk for the development of schizophrenia and related disorders. The precise confirmation of this theory, at least in some cases, will provide further understanding of these illnesses, allowing easy and inexpensive identification of subjects at risk and providing guidelines for the development of new pharmacological interventions for early treatment and even for primary prevention of the illness.

  9. Gender identity disorder and schizophrenia: neurodevelopmental disorders with common causal mechanisms?

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID), recently renamed gender dysphoria (GD), is a rare condition characterized by an incongruity between gender identity and biological sex. Clinical evidence suggests that schizophrenia occurs in patients with GID at rates higher than in the general population and that patients with GID may have schizophrenia-like personality traits. Conversely, patients with schizophrenia may experience alterations in gender identity and gender role perception. Neurobiological research, including brain imaging and studies of finger length ratio and handedness, suggests that both these disorders are associated with altered cerebral sexual dimorphism and changes in cerebral lateralization. Various mechanisms, such as Toxoplasma infection, reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), early childhood adversity, and links with autism spectrum disorders, may account for some of this overlap. The implications of this association for further research are discussed.

  10. Gender Identity Disorder and Schizophrenia: Neurodevelopmental Disorders with Common Causal Mechanisms?

    Ravi Philip Rajkumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender identity disorder (GID, recently renamed gender dysphoria (GD, is a rare condition characterized by an incongruity between gender identity and biological sex. Clinical evidence suggests that schizophrenia occurs in patients with GID at rates higher than in the general population and that patients with GID may have schizophrenia-like personality traits. Conversely, patients with schizophrenia may experience alterations in gender identity and gender role perception. Neurobiological research, including brain imaging and studies of finger length ratio and handedness, suggests that both these disorders are associated with altered cerebral sexual dimorphism and changes in cerebral lateralization. Various mechanisms, such as Toxoplasma infection, reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, early childhood adversity, and links with autism spectrum disorders, may account for some of this overlap. The implications of this association for further research are discussed.

  11. Social Responsibility of Accounting

    JINNAI, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Historical and theoretical inquiries into the function of accounting have provided fruitful insights into social responsibility of accounting, which is, and should be, based on accounts kept through everyday accounting activities. However, at the current stage of capitalist accounting, keeping accounts is often regarded as merely a preparatory process for creating financial statements at the end of an accounting period. Thus, discussions on the social responsibility of accounting tend to conc...

  12. Lexical analysis in schizophrenia: how emotion and social word use informs our understanding of clinical presentation.

    Minor, Kyle S; Bonfils, Kelsey A; Luther, Lauren; Firmin, Ruth L; Kukla, Marina; MacLain, Victoria R; Buck, Benjamin; Lysaker, Paul H; Salyers, Michelle P

    2015-05-01

    The words people use convey important information about internal states, feelings, and views of the world around them. Lexical analysis is a fast, reliable method of assessing word use that has shown promise for linking speech content, particularly in emotion and social categories, with psychopathological symptoms. However, few studies have utilized lexical analysis instruments to assess speech in schizophrenia. In this exploratory study, we investigated whether positive emotion, negative emotion, and social word use was associated with schizophrenia symptoms, metacognition, and general functioning in a schizophrenia cohort. Forty-six participants generated speech during a semi-structured interview, and word use categories were assessed using a validated lexical analysis measure. Trained research staff completed symptom, metacognition, and functioning ratings using semi-structured interviews. Word use categories significantly predicted all variables of interest, accounting for 28% of the variance in symptoms and 16% of the variance in metacognition and general functioning. Anger words, a subcategory of negative emotion, significantly predicted greater symptoms and lower functioning. Social words significantly predicted greater metacognition. These findings indicate that lexical analysis instruments have the potential to play a vital role in psychosocial assessments of schizophrenia. Future research should replicate these findings and examine the relationship between word use and additional clinical variables across the schizophrenia-spectrum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quality of life in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: The impact of symptomatic remission and resilience.

    Hofer, A; Mizuno, Y; Wartelsteiner, F; Wolfgang Fleischhacker, W; Frajo-Apor, B; Kemmler, G; Mimura, M; Pardeller, S; Sondermann, C; Suzuki, T; Welte, A; Uchida, H

    2017-10-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is significantly affected in individuals with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder (BD-I). The current study investigated whether symptomatic remission and resilience might differently impact HRQOL in these patients. Fifty-two patients with schizophrenia and 60 patients suffering from BD-I from outpatient mental health services as well as 77 healthy control subjects from the general community were included into a cross-sectional study. HRQOL and resilience were assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF and the Resilience Scale. In patients, psychopathology was quantified by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale or the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Young Mania Rating Scale, respectively. Notably, both patient groups showed lower HRQOL and resilience compared to control subjects, non-remitted patients indicated lower HRQOL than remitted ones. The effect of remission on HRQOL was significantly larger in patients with BD-I than in those with schizophrenia but did not explain the difference in HRQOL between groups. Resilience predicted HRQOL in all three groups. When accounting for the effect of resilience among remitted patients, only the difference in HRQOL between schizophrenia patients and control subjects was significant. These findings demonstrate the impact of symptomatic remission and resilience on HRQOL of both patients suffering from schizophrenia and BD-I and indicate that these factors are especially relevant for HRQOL of patients with BD-I. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Narrative incoherence in schizophrenia: the absent agent-protagonist and the collapse of internal dialogue.

    Lysaker, Paul H; Wickett, Amanda M; Wilke, Neil; Lysaker, John

    2003-01-01

    It is widely known that people with schizophrenia have difficulty telling a coherent story of their lives and that this is linked to impoverished function. But what specifically has gone wrong in the narratives in schizophrenia? Is it the case that some elements of narrative remain intact in schizophrenia while others are uniquely affected? To address these questions, we qualitatively analyze the personal narratives of three persons with schizophrenia, which have emerged in psychotherapy. Based on this analysis we suggest that narratives in schizophrenia uniquely fail to situate agency within the narrator resulting in a story that is missing an agent-protagonist. While the narratives we present contain coherent accounts of how others are connected to one another, they fail to evolve into a story about the self as an agent that others could associate with the narrator. We speculate that this may reflect neuro-cognitively based difficulties maintaining the internal dialogue that propels agency as well as fears that any emergent subjectivity may be appropriated or objectified by others. Implications for psychotherapy are discussed.

  15. Is There an Association between Advanced Paternal Age and Endophenotype Deficit Levels in Schizophrenia?

    Tsuang, Debby; Esterberg, Michelle; Braff, David; Calkins, Monica; Cadenhead, Kristin; Dobie, Dorcas; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F.; Greenwood, Tiffany; Gur, Raquel; Gur, Ruben; Horan, William; Lazzeroni, Laura C.; Light, Gregory A.; Millard, Steven P.; Olincy, Ann; Nuechterlein, Keith; Seidman, Larry; Siever, Larry; Silverman, Jeremy; Stone, William; Sprock, Joyce; Sugar, Catherine; Swerdlow, Neal; Tsuang, Ming; Turetsky, Bruce; Radant, Allen

    2014-01-01

    The children of older fathers have increased risks of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and among those who develop these disorders, those with older fathers present with more severe clinical symptoms. However, the influence of advanced paternal age on other important domains related to schizophrenia, such as quantitative endophenotype deficit levels, remains unknown. This study investigated the associations between paternal age and level of endophenotypic impairment in a well-characterized family-based sample from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS). All families included at least one affected subject and one unaffected sibling. Subjects met criteria for schizophrenia (probands; n = 293) or were unaffected first-degree siblings of those probands (n = 382). Paternal age at the time of subjects’ birth was documented. Subjects completed a comprehensive clinical assessment and a battery of tests that measured 16 endophenotypes. After controlling for covariates, potential paternal age–endophenotype associations were analyzed using one model that included probands alone and a second model that included both probands and unaffected siblings. Endophenotype deficits in the Identical Pairs version of the 4-digit Continuous Performance Test and in the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery verbal memory test showed significant associations with paternal age. However, after correcting for multiple comparisons, no endophenotype was significantly associated with paternal age. These findings suggest that factors other than advanced paternal age at birth may account for endophenotypic deficit levels in schizophrenia. PMID:24523888

  16. Is there an association between advanced paternal age and endophenotype deficit levels in schizophrenia?

    Tsuang, Debby; Esterberg, Michelle; Braff, David; Calkins, Monica; Cadenhead, Kristin; Dobie, Dorcas; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Greenwood, Tiffany; Gur, Raquel; Gur, Ruben; Horan, William; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Light, Gregory A; Millard, Steven P; Olincy, Ann; Nuechterlein, Keith; Seidman, Larry; Siever, Larry; Silverman, Jeremy; Stone, William; Sprock, Joyce; Sugar, Catherine; Swerdlow, Neal; Tsuang, Ming; Turetsky, Bruce; Radant, Allen

    2014-01-01

    The children of older fathers have increased risks of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and among those who develop these disorders, those with older fathers present with more severe clinical symptoms. However, the influence of advanced paternal age on other important domains related to schizophrenia, such as quantitative endophenotype deficit levels, remains unknown. This study investigated the associations between paternal age and level of endophenotypic impairment in a well-characterized family-based sample from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS). All families included at least one affected subject and one unaffected sibling. Subjects met criteria for schizophrenia (probands; n = 293) or were unaffected first-degree siblings of those probands (n = 382). Paternal age at the time of subjects' birth was documented. Subjects completed a comprehensive clinical assessment and a battery of tests that measured 16 endophenotypes. After controlling for covariates, potential paternal age-endophenotype associations were analyzed using one model that included probands alone and a second model that included both probands and unaffected siblings. Endophenotype deficits in the Identical Pairs version of the 4-digit Continuous Performance Test and in the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery verbal memory test showed significant associations with paternal age. However, after correcting for multiple comparisons, no endophenotype was significantly associated with paternal age. These findings suggest that factors other than advanced paternal age at birth may account for endophenotypic deficit levels in schizophrenia.

  17. Is there an association between advanced paternal age and endophenotype deficit levels in schizophrenia?

    Debby Tsuang

    Full Text Available The children of older fathers have increased risks of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and among those who develop these disorders, those with older fathers present with more severe clinical symptoms. However, the influence of advanced paternal age on other important domains related to schizophrenia, such as quantitative endophenotype deficit levels, remains unknown. This study investigated the associations between paternal age and level of endophenotypic impairment in a well-characterized family-based sample from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS. All families included at least one affected subject and one unaffected sibling. Subjects met criteria for schizophrenia (probands; n = 293 or were unaffected first-degree siblings of those probands (n = 382. Paternal age at the time of subjects' birth was documented. Subjects completed a comprehensive clinical assessment and a battery of tests that measured 16 endophenotypes. After controlling for covariates, potential paternal age-endophenotype associations were analyzed using one model that included probands alone and a second model that included both probands and unaffected siblings. Endophenotype deficits in the Identical Pairs version of the 4-digit Continuous Performance Test and in the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery verbal memory test showed significant associations with paternal age. However, after correcting for multiple comparisons, no endophenotype was significantly associated with paternal age. These findings suggest that factors other than advanced paternal age at birth may account for endophenotypic deficit levels in schizophrenia.

  18. Sexual obsessions and suicidal behaviors in patients with mood disorders, panic disorder and schizophrenia

    Dell’Osso Liliana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The topic of sexual obsessions as a psychiatric symptom has not been well investigated. The aim of this study was twofold: 1 to explore the presence of sexual obsessions in patients with mood disorders (n=156, panic disorder (n=54 and schizophrenia (n=79, with respect to non-psychiatric subjects (n=100; 2 to investigate the relationship between sexual obsessions and suicidal behaviors, taking into account socio-demographic variables ad mental disorders. Methods 289 psychiatric patients with mood disorders, panic disorder or schizophrenia, were recruited at the Italian University departments of psychiatry along with 100 non-psychiatric subjects, who presented for a routine eye exam at the ophthalmology department of the same Universities. The assessments included: the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, the Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Self-Report (OBS-SR, for sexual obsession, and the Mood Spectrum-Self Report lifetime version (MOODS-SR. Suicidality was assessed by means of 6 items of the MOODS-SR. Results Sexual obsessions were more frequent in schizophrenia (54.4%, followed by mood disorders (35.9%. Among schizophrenia patients, males reported more sexual obsessions than females (P Conclusions Special attention should be given to investigate and establish effective strategies of treatment for sexual obsessions, especially those with comorbid mood disorders or schizophrenia.

  19. Executive functioning in schizophrenia: Unique and shared variance with measures of fluid intelligence.

    Martin, A K; Mowry, B; Reutens, D; Robinson, G A

    2015-10-01

    Patients with schizophrenia often display deficits on tasks thought to measure "executive" processes. Recently, it has been suggested that reductions in fluid intelligence test performance entirely explain deficits reported for patients with focal frontal lesions on classical executive tasks. For patients with schizophrenia, it is unclear whether deficits on executive tasks are entirely accountable by fluid intelligence and representative of a common general process or best accounted for by distinct contributions to the cognitive profile of schizophrenia. In the current study, 50 patients with schizophrenia and 50 age, sex and premorbid intelligence matched controls were assessed using a broad neuropsychological battery, including tasks considered sensitive to executive abilities, namely the Hayling Sentence Completion Test (HSCT), word fluency, Stroop test, digit-span backwards, and spatial working memory. Fluid intelligence was measured using both the Matrix reasoning subtest from the Weschler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) and a composite score derived from a number of cognitive tests. Patients with schizophrenia were impaired on all cognitive measures compared with controls, except smell identification and the optimal betting and risk-taking measures from the Cambridge Gambling Task. After introducing fluid intelligence as a covariate, significant differences remained for HSCT suppression errors, and classical executive function tests such as the Stroop test and semantic/phonemic word fluency, regardless of which fluid intelligence measure was included. Fluid intelligence does not entirely explain impaired performance on all tests considered as reflecting "executive" processes. For schizophrenia, these measures should remain part of a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment alongside a measure of fluid intelligence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Social skills programmes for schizophrenia.

    Almerie, Muhammad Qutayba; Okba Al Marhi, Muhammad; Jawoosh, Muhammad; Alsabbagh, Mohamad; Matar, Hosam E; Maayan, Nicola; Bergman, Hanna

    2015-06-09

    Social skills programmes (SSP) are treatment strategies aimed at enhancing the social performance and reducing the distress and difficulty experienced by people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and can be incorporated as part of the rehabilitation package for people with schizophrenia. The primary objective is to investigate the effects of social skills training programmes, compared to standard care, for people with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (November 2006 and December 2011) which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and registries of clinical trials. We inspected references of all identified studies for further trials.A further search for studies has been conducted by the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group in 2015, 37 citations have been found and are currently being assessed by review authors. We included all relevant randomised controlled trials for social skills programmes versus standard care involving people with serious mental illnesses. We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated risk ratios (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD) and 95% CIs. We included 13 randomised trials (975 participants). These evaluated social skills programmes versus standard care, or discussion group. We found evidence in favour of social skills programmes compared to standard care on all measures of social functioning. We also found that rates of relapse and rehospitalisation were lower for social skills compared to standard care (relapse: 2 RCTs, n = 263, RR 0.52 CI 0.34 to 0.79, very low quality evidence), (rehospitalisation: 1 RCT, n = 143, RR 0.53 CI 0.30 to 0.93, very low quality evidence) and participants' mental state results (1 RCT, n = 91, MD -4.01 CI -7.52 to -0.50, very low quality evidence) were better in the group receiving social skill programmes

  1. Family therapy for schizophrenia: cultural challenges and ...

    Family therapy is an effective, evidence based intervention for schizophrenia. This literature review explores the impact of culture on family therapy as a treatment model for schizophrenia and examines how cultural beliefs impact on access to care. Although there is a good deal of evidence to suggest that certain principles ...

  2. Construct Validity of Neuropsychological Tests in Schizophrenia.

    Allen, Daniel N.; Aldarondo, Felito; Goldstein, Gerald; Huegel, Stephen G.; Gilbertson, Mark; van Kammen, Daniel P.

    1998-01-01

    The construct validity of neuropsychological tests in patients with schizophrenia was studied with 39 patients who were evaluated with a battery of six tests assessing attention, memory, and abstract reasoning abilities. Results support the construct validity of the neuropsychological tests in patients with schizophrenia. (SLD)

  3. Understanding the Executive Functioning Heterogeneity in Schizophrenia

    Raffard, Stephane; Bayard, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by heterogeneous brain abnormalities involving cerebral regions implied in the executive functioning. The dysexecutive syndrome is one of the most prominent and functionally cognitive features of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, it is not clear to what extend executive deficits are heterogeneous in schizophrenia…

  4. Cannabis use and cognition in schizophrenia

    Else-Marie Løberg

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available People with schizophrenia frequently report cannabis use, and cannabis may be a risk factor for schizophrenia, mediated through effects on brain function and biochemistry. Thus, it is conceivable that cannabis may also influence cognitive functioning in this patients group. We report data from our own laboratory on the use of cannabis by schizophrenia patients, and review the existing literature on the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia and related psychosis. Of the 23 studies that were found, 14 reported that the cannabis users had better cognitive performance than the schizophrenia non-users. Eight studies reported no or minimal differences in cognitive performance in the two groups, but only one study reported better cognitive performance in the schizophrenia non-user group. Our own results confirm the overall impression from the literature review of better cognitive performance in the cannabis user group. These paradoxical findings may have several explanations, which are discussed. We suggest that cannabis causes a transient cognitive breakdown enabling the development of psychosis, imitating the typical cognitive vulnerability seen in schizophrenia. This is further supported by an earlier age of onset and fewer neurological soft signs in the cannabis-related schizophrenia group, suggesting an alternative pathway to psychosis.

  5. Depression in Kraepelinian schizophrenia | Naude | South African ...

    Objective. Depressive symptoms are prevalent, underrecognised and clinically important in patients suffering from schizophrenia. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenia patients are associated with distinct morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms in a ...

  6. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24 of thes...

  7. The personal impact of schizophrenia in Europe

    Thornicroft, Graham; Tansella, Michele; Becker, Thomas; Knapp, Martin; Leese, Morven; Schene, Aart; Vazquez-Barquero, José Luis

    2004-01-01

    The personal impact of schizophrenia is poorly described in the scientific literature. The European Psychiatric Set-vices: Inputs Linked to Outcome Domains and Needs (EPSILON) study compared representative treated prevalence cohorts of patients with schizophrenia in five European countries, to

  8. Accounting Fundamentals for Non-Accountants

    The purpose of this module is to provide an introduction and overview of accounting fundamentals for non-accountants. The module also covers important topics such as communication, internal controls, documentation and recordkeeping.

  9. DO ACCOUNTING PRACTITIONERS USE ACCOUNTING RESEARCH RESULTS?

    ALINA BEATTRICE VLADU

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey designed to explore if accounting practitioners are using as a reference point in their daily activities the opinions of academia. Since accounting research comprises various trends of research the earnings management research field is used as illustrative case. Among our respondents were accounting professional, members of professional bodies as the Chamber of Financial Auditors or Romania and also Body of Expert and Licensed Accountants...

  10. ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS USED FOR ACCOUNTING SERVICES PROVIDERS

    ŢOGOE GRETI DANIELA; AVRAM MARIOARA; AVRAM COSTIN DANIEL

    2014-01-01

    The theme of our research is the ways of keeping accounting entities that are the object of the provision of services in the accounting profession. This paper aims to achieve a parallel between the ways of organizing financial records - accounting provided by freelancers and companies with activity in the financial - accounting. The first step in our scientific research is to establish objectives chosen area of scientific knowledge. Our scientific approach seeks to explain thr...

  11. Common variants conferring risk of schizophrenia

    Stefansson, Hreinn; Ophoff, Roel A; Steinberg, Stacy

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex disorder, caused by both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. Research on pathogenesis has traditionally focused on neurotransmitter systems in the brain, particularly those involving dopamine. Schizophrenia has been considered a separate disease...... conform to classical nosological disease boundaries. Certain CNVs confer not only high relative risk of schizophrenia but also of other psychiatric disorders. The structural variations associated with schizophrenia can involve several genes and the phenotypic syndromes, or the 'genomic disorders', have.......2. Our findings implicating the MHC region are consistent with an immune component to schizophrenia risk, whereas the association with NRGN and TCF4 points to perturbation of pathways involved in brain development, memory and cognition....

  12. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes...... in relation to the different periods in the patients' lives: not yet known to the psychiatric hospital system, known to the system but not yet diagnosed with schizophrenia, and after being diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: Information from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register was correlated...... with data from the Danish National Crime Register. RESULTS: One of the more prominent findings was that 16% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia receive a prison sentence or a suspended prison sentence, despite the fact that Denmark is a co-signatory of the European Prison Rules and should treat, rather...

  13. Glutamate in schizophrenia: clinical and research implications.

    Goff, D C; Wine, L

    1997-10-30

    The excitatory amino acids, glutamate and aspartate, are of interest to schizophrenia research because of their roles in neurodevelopment, neurotoxicity and neurotransmission. Recent evidence suggests that densities of glutamatergic receptors and the ratios of subunits composing these receptors may be altered in schizophrenia, although it is unclear whether these changes are primary or compensatory. Agents acting at the phencyclidine binding site of the NMDA receptor produce symptoms of schizophrenia in normal subjects, and precipitate relapse in patients with schizophrenia. The improvement of negative symptoms with agents acting at the glycine modulatory site of the NMDA receptor, as well as preliminary evidence that clozapine may differ from conventional neuroleptic agents in its effects on glutamatergic systems, suggest that clinical implications may follow from this model. While geriatric patients may be at increased risk for glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity, very little is known about the specific relevance of this model to geriatric patients with schizophrenia.

  14. The Role of Inflammation in Schizophrenia

    Norbert eMüller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractHigh levels of pro-inflammatory substances such as cytokines have been described in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenia patients. Animal models of schizophrenia show that under certain conditions an immune disturbance during early life, such as an infection-triggered immune activation, might trigger lifelong increased immune reactivity. A large epidemiological study clearly demonstrated that severe infections and autoimmune disorders are risk factors for schizophrenia. Genetic studies have shown a strong signal for schizophrenia on chromosome 6p22.1, in a region related to the human leucocyte antigen (HLA system and other immune functions. Another line of evidence demonstrates that chronic (disstress is associated with immune activation. The vulnerability-stress-inflammation model of schizophrenia includes the contribution of stress on the basis of increased genetic vulnerability for the pathogenesis

  15. Parental psychiatric hospitalisation and offspring schizophrenia

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2009-01-01

    The risk of schizophrenia has been linked with a family history of schizophrenia and less strongly with other psychiatric disorders in family members. Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register, we studied the relationship between offspring risk...... of schizophrenia and a range of psychotic and non-psychotic psychiatric diagnoses in parents. Psychiatric admission data after 1969 were available for 7047 cohort members born between 1959 and 1961, and for 7006 mothers and 6993 fathers. Univariate analysis showed that neurosis, alcohol and substance dependence...... in both parents were associated with elevated risk of offspring schizophrenia; in addition, maternal schizophrenia, affective disorder and personality disorder were associated with elevated risk. Controlling for parental age, parental social status, and parental psychiatric co-diagnosis, offspring risk...

  16. Variations in the Incidence of Schizophrenia: Data Versus Dogma

    McGrath, John J

    2006-01-01

    The schizophrenia research community has shared a belief that the incidence of schizophrenia shows little variation. This belief is related to the dogma that schizophrenia affects all individuals equally, regardless of sex, race, or nationality. However, there is now robust evidence that the incidence of schizophrenia is characterized by substantial variability. There is prominent variation in the incidence of schizophrenia between sites. The incidence of schizophrenia is significantly higher in males than in females (male:female ratio = 1.4). Migrants and those living in urban areas have a higher incidence of schizophrenia. The incidence of schizophrenia has fluctuations across time. In addition, the prevalence of schizophrenia is also characterized by prominent variation. The realization that schizophrenia is characterized by rich and informative gradients will serve as a catalyst for future research. PMID:16135560

  17. Systematic Prioritization and Integrative Analysis of Copy Number Variations in Schizophrenia Reveal Key Schizophrenia Susceptibility Genes

    Luo, Xiongjian; Huang, Liang; Han, Leng; Luo, Zhenwu; Hu, Fang; Tieu, Roger; Gan, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a common mental disorder with high heritability and strong genetic heterogeneity. Common disease-common variants hypothesis predicts that schizophrenia is attributable in part to common genetic variants. However, recent studies have clearly demonstrated that copy number variations (CNVs) also play pivotal roles in schizophrenia susceptibility and explain a proportion of missing heritability. Though numerous CNVs have been identified, many of the regions affected by CNVs show poor overlapping among different studies, and it is not known whether the genes disrupted by CNVs contribute to the risk of schizophrenia. By using cumulative scoring, we systematically prioritized the genes affected by CNVs in schizophrenia. We identified 8 top genes that are frequently disrupted by CNVs, including NRXN1, CHRNA7, BCL9, CYFIP1, GJA8, NDE1, SNAP29, and GJA5. Integration of genes affected by CNVs with known schizophrenia susceptibility genes (from previous genetic linkage and association studies) reveals that many genes disrupted by CNVs are also associated with schizophrenia. Further protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis indicates that protein products of genes affected by CNVs frequently interact with known schizophrenia-associated proteins. Finally, systematic integration of CNVs prioritization data with genetic association and PPI data identifies key schizophrenia candidate genes. Our results provide a global overview of genes impacted by CNVs in schizophrenia and reveal a densely interconnected molecular network of de novo CNVs in schizophrenia. Though the prioritized top genes represent promising schizophrenia risk genes, further work with different prioritization methods and independent samples is needed to confirm these findings. Nevertheless, the identified key candidate genes may have important roles in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and further functional characterization of these genes may provide pivotal targets for future therapeutics and

  18. Safeguards Accountability Network accountability and materials management

    Carnival, G.J.; Meredith, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    The Safeguards Accountability Network (SAN) is a computerized on-line accountability system for the safeguards accountability control of nuclear materials inventories at Rocky Flats Plant. SAN is a dedicated accountability system utilizing source documents filled out on the shop floor as its base. The system incorporates double entry accounting and is developed around the Material Balance Area (MBA) concept. MBA custodians enter transaction information from source documents prepared by personnel in the process areas directly into the SAN system. This provides a somewhat near-real time perpetual inventory system which has limited interaction with MBA custodians. MBA custodians are permitted to inquire into the system and status items on inventory. They are also responsible for the accuracy of the accountability information used as input to the system for their MBA. Monthly audits by the Nuclear Materials Control group assure the timeliness and accuracy of SAN accountability information

  19. Local Kernel for Brains Classification in Schizophrenia

    Castellani, U.; Rossato, E.; Murino, V.; Bellani, M.; Rambaldelli, G.; Tansella, M.; Brambilla, P.

    In this paper a novel framework for brain classification is proposed in the context of mental health research. A learning by example method is introduced by combining local measurements with non linear Support Vector Machine. Instead of considering a voxel-by-voxel comparison between patients and controls, we focus on landmark points which are characterized by local region descriptors, namely Scale Invariance Feature Transform (SIFT). Then, matching is obtained by introducing the local kernel for which the samples are represented by unordered set of features. Moreover, a new weighting approach is proposed to take into account the discriminative relevance of the detected groups of features. Experiments have been performed including a set of 54 patients with schizophrenia and 54 normal controls on which region of interest (ROI) have been manually traced by experts. Preliminary results on Dorso-lateral PreFrontal Cortex (DLPFC) region are promising since up to 75% of successful classification rate has been obtained with this technique and the performance has improved up to 85% when the subjects have been stratified by sex.

  20. Schizophrenia and Violence: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Fazel, Seena; Gulati, Gautam; Linsell, Louise; Geddes, John R.; Grann, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Schizophrenia is a lifelong, severe psychotic condition. One in 100 people will have at least one episode of schizophrenia during their lifetime. Symptoms include delusions (for example, patients believe that someone is plotting against them) and hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that are not there). In men, schizophrenia usually starts in the late teens or early 20s; women tend to develop schizophrenia a little later. The causes of schizophrenia include gen...

  1. Social cognition in schizophrenia: cognitive and affective factors.

    Ziv, Ido; Leiser, David; Levine, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Social cognition refers to how people conceive, perceive, and draw inferences about mental and emotional states of others in the social world. Previous studies suggest that the concept of social cognition involves several abilities, including those related to affect and cognition. The present study analyses the deficits of individuals with schizophrenia in two areas of social cognition: Theory of Mind (ToM) and emotion recognition and processing. Examining the impairment of these abilities in patients with schizophrenia has the potential to elucidate the neurophysiological regions involved in social cognition and may also have the potential to aid rehabilitation. Two experiments were conducted. Both included the same five tasks: first- and second-level false-belief ToM tasks, emotion inferencing, understanding of irony, and matrix reasoning (a WAIS-R subtest). The matrix reasoning task was administered to evaluate and control for the association of the other tasks with analytic reasoning skills. Experiment 1 involved factor analysis of the task performance of 75 healthy participants. Experiment 2 compared 30 patients with schizophrenia to an equal number of matched controls. Results. (1) The five tasks were clearly divided into two factors corresponding to the two areas of social cognition, ToM and emotion recognition and processing. (2) Schizophrenics' performance was impaired on all tasks, particularly on those loading heavily on the analytic component (matrix reasoning and second-order ToM). (3) Matrix reasoning, second-level ToM (ToM2), and irony were found to distinguish patients from controls, even when all other tasks that revealed significant impairment in the patients' performance were taken into account. The two areas of social cognition examined are related to distinct factors. The mechanism for answering ToM questions (especially ToM2) depends on analytic reasoning capabilities, but the difficulties they present to individuals with schizophrenia are due

  2. [Epigenetics of schizophrenia: a review].

    Rivollier, F; Lotersztajn, L; Chaumette, B; Krebs, M-O; Kebir, O

    2014-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a frequent and disabling disease associated with heterogeneous psychiatric phenotypes. It emerges during childhood, adolescence or young adulthood and has dramatic consequences for the affected individuals, causing considerable familial and social burden, as well as increasing health expenses. Although some progress has been made in the understanding of their physiopathology, many questions remain unsolved, and the disease is still poorly understood. The prevailing hypothesis regarding psychotic disorders proposes that a combination of genetic and/or environmental factors, during critical periods of brain development increases the risk for these illnesses. Epigenetic regulations, such as DNA methylation, can mediate gene x environment interactions at the level of the genome and may provide a potential substrate to explain the variability in symptom severity and family heritability. Initially, epigenetics was used to design mitotic and meiotic changes in gene transcription that could not be attributed to genetic mutations. It referred later to changes in the epigenome not transmitted through the germline. Thus, epigenetics refers to a wide range of molecular mechanisms including DNA methylation of cytosine residues in CpG dinucleotides and post-translational histone modifications. These mechanisms alter the way the transcriptional factors bind the DNA, modulating its expression. Prenatal and postnatal environmental factors may affect these epigenetics factors, having responsability in long-term DNA transcription, and influencing the development of psychiatric disorders. The object of this review is to present the state of knowledge in epigenetics of schizophrenia, outlining the most recent findings in the matter. We did so using Pubmed, researching words such as 'epigenetics', 'epigenetic', 'schizophrenia', 'psychosis', 'psychiatric'. This review summarizes evidences mostly for two epigenetic mechanisms: DNA methylation and post

  3. CHANGES IN VALUES OF CHOLESTEROL AND TRYGLICERIDES AFTER WEIGHT LOSS DURING TREATMENT WITH ARIPIPRAZOLE IN A PATIENT WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA - Case report

    Uzun, Suzana; Kozumplik, Oliver; Sedić, Biserka

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome can contribute to significant morbidity and premature mortality and should be accounted for in the treatment of mental disorders. Patients with schizophrenia are at risk of undetected somatic comorbidity. Patients with schizophrenia have metabolically unfavorable body composition, comprising abdominal obesity, high fat percentage and low muscle mass, leading to increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Smoking, poor diet, reduced physical activity and a...

  4. Loneliness and related factors among people with schizophrenia in Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    Shioda, A; Tadaka, E; Okochi, A

    2016-08-01

    centres in urban areas. The self-administered questionnaires included questions on loneliness, demographic characteristics, individual factors including self-efficacy for community life and self-esteem, and environmental factors including social isolation, community integration and service use. Results The study results indicated that people diagnosed with schizophrenia in Japan experience higher levels of loneliness, corroborating results from other countries. Multiple regression analysis showed that a lower level of self-efficacy for community life, self-esteem, community integration and social isolation predicted a higher level of loneliness, accounting for 55.3% of variance. Implications for Practice Public health nurses in mental health care in Japan can work with individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and communities using the technique to assist them with continuous activity and cooperating with community resources and educational institutions in order to decrease and prevent loneliness. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS USED FOR ACCOUNTING SERVICES PROVIDERS

    ŢOGOE GRETI DANIELA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The theme of our research is the ways of keeping accounting entities that are the object of the provision of services in the accounting profession. This paper aims to achieve a parallel between the ways of organizing financial records - accounting provided by freelancers and companies with activity in the financial - accounting. The first step in our scientific research is to establish objectives chosen area of scientific knowledge. Our scientific approach seeks to explain through a thorough and detailed approach as different sides (conceptual and practical looking projections of accounting issues related to regulatory developments and practices in the field. This paper addresses various concepts, accounting treatments, and books and accounting documents used both freelancers in providing accounting services and legal persons authorized accounting profession. In terms of methodology and research perspective, the whole scientific approach combined with quantitative and qualitative research theoretical perspective (descriptive-conceptual with practice perspective (empirical analyzing the main contributions of various authors (Romanian and foreign to knowledge in the field. Following the survey believe that the amendments to the national legislation will support entities providing accounting services, by cutting red tape on Administrative Burdens, and consequently will increase profitability and increase service quality.

  6. Varieties of Self Disorder: A Bio-Pheno-Social Model of Schizophrenia.

    Sass, Louis; Borda, Juan P; Madeira, Luis; Pienkos, Elizabeth; Nelson, Barnaby

    2018-02-05

    The self-disorder model offers a unifying way of conceptualizing schizophrenia's highly diverse symptoms (positive, negative, disorganized), of capturing their distinctive bizarreness, and of conceiving their longitudinal development. These symptoms are viewed as differing manifestations of an underlying disorder of ipseity or core-self: hyper-reflexivity/diminished-self-presence with accompanying disturbances of "grip" or "hold" on reality. Recent revision to this phenomenological theory, in particular distinguishing primary-vs-secondary factors, offers a bio-pheno-social model that is consistent with recent empirical findings and offers several advantages: (1) It helps account for the temporal variations of the symptoms or syndrome, including longitudinal progression, but also the shorter-term, situationally reactive, and sometimes defensive or quasi-intentional variability of symptom-expression that can occur in schizophrenia (consistent with understanding some aspects of ipseity-disturbance as dynamic and mutable, involving shifting attitudes or experiential orientations). (2) It accommodates the overlapping of some key schizophrenic symptoms with certain nonschizophrenic conditions involving dissociation (depersonalization, derealization), including depersonalization disorder and panic disorder, thereby acknowledging both shared and distinguishing symptoms. (3) It integrates recent neurocognitive and neurobiological as well as psychosocial (eg, influence of trauma and culture) findings into a coherent but multi-factorial neuropsychological account. An adequate model of schizophrenia will postulate shared disturbances of core-self experiences that nevertheless can follow several distinct pathways and occur in various forms. Such a model is preferable to uni-dimensional alternatives-whether of schizophrenia or ipseity-disturbance-given its ability to account for distinctive yet varying experiential and neurocognitive abnormalities found in research on

  7. The "Insight Paradox" in Schizophrenia: Magnitude, Moderators and Mediators of the Association Between Insight and Depression.

    Belvederi Murri, Martino; Amore, Mario; Calcagno, Pietro; Respino, Matteo; Marozzi, Valentina; Masotti, Mattia; Bugliani, Michele; Innamorati, Marco; Pompili, Maurizio; Galderisi, Silvana; Maj, Mario

    2016-09-01

    The so-called "insight paradox" posits that among patients with schizophrenia higher levels of insight are associated with increased levels of depression. Although different studies examined this issue, only few took in account potential confounders or factors that could influence this association. In a sample of clinically stable patients with schizophrenia, insight and depression were evaluated using the Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. Other rating scales were used to assess the severity of psychotic symptoms, extrapyramidal symptoms, hopelessness, internalized stigma, self-esteem, and service engagement. Regression models were used to estimate the magnitude of the association between insight and depression while accounting for the role of confounders. Putative psychological and sociodemographic factors that could act as mediators and moderators were examined using the PROCESS macro. By accounting for the role of confounding factors, the strength of the association between insight into symptoms and depression increased from 13% to 25% explained covariance. Patients with lower socioeconomic status (F = 8.5, P = .04), more severe illness (F = 4.8, P = .03) and lower levels of service engagement (F = 4.7, P = .03) displayed the strongest association between insight and depression. Lastly, hopelessness, internalized stigma and perceived discrimination acted as significant mediators. The relationship between insight and depression should be considered a well established phenomenon among patients with schizophrenia: it seems stronger than previously reported especially among patients with lower socioeconomic status, severe illness and poor engagement with services. These findings may have relevant implications for the promotion of insight among patients with schizophrenia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved

  8. Language Disorder In Schizophrenia Patient: A Case Study Of Five Schizophrenia Paranoid Patients In Simeulue District Hospital

    Kurnia, Beby Febri

    2015-01-01

    Language disorder in schizophrenia patients is an acquired language disorder due to thought disorder. This analysis analyzed language disorder in schizophrenia paranoid patients in Simeulue District Hospital. The objective of this analysis were: (1) to find out the types of schizophrenic speech found in schizophrenia paranoid patients, (2) to find out the most dominant type of schizophrenia speech found in schizophrenia paranoid patients, and (3) to find out which patient has most severe lang...

  9. Association of adoptive child's thought disorders and schizophrenia spectrum disorders with their genetic liability for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, season of birth and parental Communication Deviance.

    Roisko, Riikka; Wahlberg, Karl-Erik; Hakko, Helinä; Tienari, Pekka

    2015-04-30

    Joint effects of genotype and the environment have turned out to be significant in the development of psychotic disorders. The purpose of the present study was to assess the association of an adoptive child׳s thought and schizophrenia spectrum disorders with genetic and environmental risk indicators and their interactions. A subgroup of the total sample used in the Finnish Adoptive Family Study was considered in the present study. The subjects were 125 adoptees at a high (n=53) or low (n=72) genetic risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and their adoptive parents. The risk factors evaluated were the adoptive child's genetic risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, winter or spring birth and parental Communication Deviance (CD). Thought disorders in the adoptees were assessed using the Thought Disorder Index and diagnoses were made according to DSM-III-R criteria. The adoptive child׳s Thought Disorder Index was only associated with parental Communication Deviance. The adoptive child's heightened genetic risk or winter or spring birth or parental CD or their interactions did not predict the adoptee's schizophrenia spectrum disorder. The results suggest that studies taking several risk indicators and their interactions into account may change views on the mutual significance of well-known risk factors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Association between variations in the disrupted in schizophrenia 1 gene and schizophrenia: A meta-analysis.

    Xu, Yiliang; Ren, Jun; Ye, Haihong

    2018-04-20

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder. Genetic and functional studies have strongly implicated the disrupted in schizophrenia 1 gene (DISC1) as a candidate susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Moreover, recent association studies have indicated that several DISC1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with schizophrenia. However, the association is hardly replicate in different ethnic group. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of the association between DISC1 SNPs and schizophrenia in which the samples were divided into subgroups according to ethnicity. Both rs3738401 and rs821616 showed not significantly association with schizophrenia in the Caucasian, Asian, Japanese or Han Chinese populations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy: population based cohort study

    Qin, Ping; Xu, Huylan; Laursen, Thomas Munk

    2005-01-01

    .20) in people with a history of epilepsy. The effect of epilepsy was the same in men and in women and increased with age. Family history of psychosis and a family history of epilepsy were significant risk factors for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis, and the effect of epilepsy, both in cases......OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether age at onset of epilepsy, type of epilepsy, family history of psychosis, or family history of epilepsy affect the risk of schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy. DESIGN: Comparison of population based data. SETTING: Danish...... and families, was greater among people with no family history of psychosis. In addition, the increased risk for schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis did not differ by type of epilepsy but increased with increasing number of admissions to hospital and, particularly, was significantly greater for people...

  12. The personal, societal, and economic burden of schizophrenia in the People's Republic of China: implications for antipsychotic therapy.

    Montgomery, William; Liu, Li; Stensland, Michael D; Xue, Hai Bo; Treuer, Tamas; Ascher-Svanum, Haya

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the personal, societal, and economic burden attributable to schizophrenia in the People's Republic of China and highlights the potential for effective outpatient treatment to reduce this burden given recent changes in the Chinese health care system. The importance of effective antipsychotic therapy in reducing the burden of schizophrenia is also examined. Published research on the burden, disability, management, and economic costs of schizophrenia in the People's Republic of China was examined in the context of the larger body of global research. Research written in English or Chinese and published before June 2012 was identified using PubMed, CNKI, and Wanfang Med database searches. The contribution of effective antipsychotic therapy in reducing the risk for relapse and hospitalization and improving patients' functioning is described. Schizophrenia imposes a substantial burden on Chinese society, with indirect costs accounting for the majority of the total cost. Functional impairment is high, leading to lost wages and work impairment. In the People's Republic of China, schizophrenia is the most common diagnosis among hospitalized psychiatric patients. Ongoing changes in the Chinese health care system may reduce some barriers to effective relapse prevention in schizophrenia and potentially reduce hospitalizations. The use of antipsychotics for acute episodes and maintenance treatment has been shown to decrease symptom severity and reduce the risk for relapse and hospitalization. However, discontinuing antipsychotic medication appears common and is a strong predictor of relapse. Cost-effectiveness research in the People's Republic of China is needed to examine the potential gains from improved outpatient antipsychotic treatment. Schizophrenia is a very costly mental illness in terms of personal, economic, and societal burden, both in the People's Republic of China and globally. When treated effectively, patients tend to persist longer with

  13. Biological aspects of cannabis consumption in schizophrenia

    Serban Ionela Lacramioara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia and psychotic disorders are major health issues with particular implications for both the individual and the medical system. Epidemiological data show a more frequent consumption of drugs in schizophrenic patients when compared to the general population. Studies have shown that the abuse of substances is the most common comorbidity associated with schizophrenia. Among illicit substances, cannabis is the most commonly encountered among patients with schizophrenia. Similar clinical features of schizophrenia and cannabis consumption could be explained by some common neurobiological implications. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor stimulation is associated with psychotic-type phenomena and schizophrenia and NMDA receptors are involved in the clinical effects of cannabis consumption. Thus, the CB1 receptors that are spread mainly at the level of the NMDA secretory neurons are activated by tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of cannabis. Moreover, cannabis abuse in association with other factors may contribute in triggering schizophrenia. Therefore, patients diagnosed with schizophrenia that abuse substances such as cannabis could represent a special category of patients that require a complex therapeutic approach, especially considering the multiple problems implicated, such as reduced compliance with treatment, unfavorable evolution and prognosis with multiple relapses and frequent hospitalizations.

  14. Conflict adaptation in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia.

    Abrahamse, Elger; Ruitenberg, Marit; Boddewyn, Sarah; Oreel, Edith; de Schryver, Maarten; Morrens, Manuel; van Dijck, Jean-Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Cognitive control impairments may contribute strongly to the overall cognitive deficits observed in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. In the current study we explore a specific cognitive control function referred to as conflict adaptation. Previous studies on conflict adaptation in schizophrenia showed equivocal results, and, moreover, were plagued by confounded research designs. Here we assessed for the first time conflict adaptation in schizophrenia with a design that avoided the major confounds of feature integration and stimulus-response contingency learning. Sixteen patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and sixteen healthy, matched controls performed a vocal Stroop task to determine the congruency sequence effect - a marker of conflict adaptation. A reliable congruency sequence effect was observed for both healthy controls and patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. These findings indicate that schizophrenia is not necessarily accompanied by impaired conflict adaptation. As schizophrenia has been related to abnormal functioning in core conflict adaptation areas such as anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, further research is required to better understand the precise impact of such abnormal brain functioning at the behavioral level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Emotion recognition in Chinese people with schizophrenia.

    Chan, Chetwyn C H; Wong, Raymond; Wang, Kai; Lee, Tatia M C

    2008-01-15

    This study examined whether people with paranoid or nonparanoid schizophrenia would show emotion-recognition deficits, both facial and prosodic. Furthermore, this study examined the neuropsychological predictors of emotion-recognition ability in people with schizophrenia. Participants comprised 86 people, of whom: 43 were people diagnosed with schizophrenia and 43 were controls. The 43 clinical participants were placed in either the paranoid group (n=19) or the nonparanoid group (n=24). Each participant was administered the Facial Emotion Recognition task and the Prosodic Recognition task, together with other neuropsychological measures of attention and visual perception. People suffering from nonparanoid schizophrenia were found to have deficits in both facial and prosodic emotion recognition, after correction for the differences in the intelligence and depression scores between the two groups. Furthermore, spatial perception was observed to be the best predictor of facial emotion identification in individuals with nonparanoid schizophrenia, whereas attentional processing control predicted both prosodic emotion identification and discrimination in nonparanoid schizophrenia patients. Our findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia in remission may still suffer from impairment of certain aspects of emotion recognition.

  16. [Schizophrenia and modern culture: reasons for insanity].

    Pérez-Álvarez, Marino

    2012-02-01

    After pointing out the uncertainty and confusion to which neurobiological research has led schizophrenia, as shown and acknowledged in recent reviews, we offer seven reasons for reconsidering schizophrenia a disorder of the self, rather than of the brain. The first reason starts out conceiving schizophrenia as a disorder of the self, in the perspective of current phenomenology. The second relates the fact of its recent origin (as of 1750) with the particular configuration of the modern self and with the great transformation of the community into a society of individuals (industrialization, urbanization). The third reason emphasizes the affinity between schizophrenia and adolescence, a critical age in the formation of the self, which started to be problematic at the end of the 18th century. The fourth is the better prognosis of schizophrenia in developing countries, in comparison to developed countries, which probably has to do with the process of modernization (which still maintains community structures in less developed countries). The fifth is the high incidence of schizophrenia among immigrants, as a fact to be explained in terms of a socio-evolutionary model. The sixth reason reviews the genetic legend of schizophrenia, and how epigenetics gives protagonism back to the environment. The seventh and last reason refers to the reconsideration of psychological therapy as the possible treatment of choice and not merely an adjunct to medication, as it is known that, for patients, interpersonal chemistry is more important than neurochemistry.

  17. Schizophrenia, vitamin D, and brain development.

    Mackay-Sim, Alan; Féron, François; Eyles, Darryl; Burne, Thomas; McGrath, John

    2004-01-01

    Schizophrenia research is invigorated at present by the recent discovery of several plausible candidate susceptibility genes identified from genetic linkage and gene expression studies of brains from persons with schizophrenia. It is a current challenge to reconcile this gathering evidence for specific candidate susceptibility genes with the "neurodevelopmental hypothesis," which posits that schizophrenia arises from gene-environment interactions that disrupt brain development. We make the case here that schizophrenia may result not from numerous genes of small effect, but a few genes of transcriptional regulation acting during brain development. In particular we propose that low vitamin D during brain development interacts with susceptibility genes to alter the trajectory of brain development, probably by epigenetic regulation that alters gene expression throughout adult life. Vitamin D is an attractive "environmental" candidate because it appears to explain several key epidemiological features of schizophrenia. Vitamin D is an attractive "genetic" candidate because its nuclear hormone receptor regulates gene expression and nervous system development. The polygenic quality of schizophrenia, with linkage to many genes of small effect, maybe brought together via this "vitamin D hypothesis." We also discuss the possibility of a broader set of environmental and genetic factors interacting via the nuclear hormone receptors to affect the development of the brain leading to schizophrenia.

  18. Biosocial characteristics of patients with paranoid schizophrenia

    Gergana K. Panayotova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is known as a complex disorder that combines both genetic and environmental factors. Different genes have been tested as candidates for association with schizophrenia and different environmental factors have been examined in many studies on epidemiology of schizophrenia. Specific environmental factors, such as nonspecific stress, mental and physical abuse, maternal diet during pregnancy, drug use, living in an urban setting, migration, seasonal effects on birth and exposure to infections, have been discussed as possible risk for schizophrenia. The present preliminary study is focused on the relations between biological and social characteristics of patients with paranoid schizophrenia with different cognitive levels, emotional and creative styles. Descriptive statistics, the Student's t-test and SPSS software, were used to analyse the relations mentioned. Differences between sexes and these concerning age of individuals (risk level of inheritance, ABO blood group distribution, triggering factors, aggressive behavior, single or multiple suicide attempts, levels of education and creative talents were indicated and discussed. The study identifies important trends and discuses essential biosocial relations in context of the knowledge for schizophrenia in Bulgaria. Future comparative investigations, including genetic markers and psychogenetic approaches, should be used in complex, in order to characterize the reasons for developing paranoid schizophrenia and the possible relations between biological, psychological and social factors better.

  19. Treatment of substance use disorders in schizophrenia.

    Bennett, Melanie E; Bradshaw, Kristen R; Catalano, Lauren T

    2017-07-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) represent a great barrier to functional recovery for individuals with schizophrenia. It is important to use research on treatment of SUDs in schizophrenia to guide treatment recommendations and program planning. We review studies of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions to treat SUDs in individuals with schizophrenia. The criteria used to select studies for inclusion are (1) the percentage of the sample with a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis is at least 25%; (2) participants have a comorbid SUD or problem use of substances; (3) an intervention for SUD is provided; (4) a substance use-related outcome is measured; and (5) the study design enabled examination of pre-post outcome measures including open label trials, nonrandomized evaluations (quasi-experimental designs, nonrandom assignment to groups), or randomized controlled trials. There are few psychopharmacology outcomes studies. Most have examined use of antipsychotic medications to treat SUDs in schizophrenia. Several trials have yielded positive findings for naltrexone in reducing drinking compared to placebo in this population. Motivational and cognitive-behavioral interventions are associated with decreased substance use in several trials. Treatment for SUDs is feasible within a range of settings and acceptable to many individuals with schizophrenia. All individuals with schizophrenia should be offered brief or more extended psychosocial interventions that incorporate discussion of personal reasons to change and training in cognitive-behavioral strategies to reduce use, cope with cravings and stress, and avoid relapse. Future research must include larger samples, longitudinal designs, and similar outcome measures across studies.

  20. Traditional Market Accounting: Management or Financial Accounting?

    Wiyarni, Wiyarni

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the area of accounting in traditional market. There are two areas of accounting: management and financial accounting. Some of traditional market traders have prepared financial notes, whereas some of them do not. Their financial notes usually consist of receivables, payables, customer orders, inventories, sales and cost price, and salary expenses. The purpose of these financial notes is usually for decision making. It is very rare for the traditional ma...

  1. Differential effects of common variants in SCN2A on general cognitive ability, brain physiology, and messenger RNA expression in schizophrenia cases and control individuals.

    Dickinson, Dwight; Straub, Richard E; Trampush, Joey W; Gao, Yuan; Feng, Ningping; Xie, Bin; Shin, Joo Heon; Lim, Hun Ki; Ursini, Gianluca; Bigos, Kristin L; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Hashimoto, Ryota; Takeda, Masatoshi; Baum, Graham L; Rujescu, Dan; Callicott, Joseph H; Hyde, Thomas M; Berman, Karen F; Kleinman, Joel E; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2014-06-01

    One approach to understanding the genetic complexity of schizophrenia is to study associated behavioral and biological phenotypes that may be more directly linked to genetic variation. To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with general cognitive ability (g) in people with schizophrenia and control individuals. Genomewide association study, followed by analyses in unaffected siblings and independent schizophrenia samples, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of brain physiology in vivo, and RNA sequencing in postmortem brain samples. The discovery cohort and unaffected siblings were participants in the National Institute of Mental Health Clinical Brain Disorders Branch schizophrenia genetics studies. Additional schizophrenia cohorts were from psychiatric treatment settings in the United States, Japan, and Germany. The discovery cohort comprised 339 with schizophrenia and 363 community control participants. Follow-up analyses studied 147 unaffected siblings of the schizophrenia cases and independent schizophrenia samples including a total of an additional 668 participants. Imaging analyses included 87 schizophrenia cases and 397 control individuals. Brain tissue samples were available for 64 cases and 61 control individuals. We studied genomewide association with g, by group, in the discovery cohort. We used selected genotypes to test specific associations in unaffected siblings and independent schizophrenia samples. Imaging analyses focused on activation in the prefrontal cortex during working memory. Brain tissue studies yielded messenger RNA expression levels for RefSeq transcripts. The schizophrenia discovery cohort showed genomewide-significant association of g with polymorphisms in sodium channel gene SCN2A, accounting for 10.4% of g variance (rs10174400, P = 9.27 × 10(-10)). Control individuals showed a trend for g/genotype association with reversed allelic directionality. The genotype-by-group interaction was also genomewide

  2. ABACC's nuclear accounting area

    Nicolas, Ruben O.

    2001-01-01

    The functions and activities of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) accounting area is outlined together with a detailed description of the nuclear accounting system used by the bilateral organization

  3. Vitamin D in schizophrenia: a clinical review.

    Chiang, Mathew; Natarajan, Radhika; Fan, Xiaoduo

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin D (vitD) is known for its essential role in calcium homeostasis and bone health. VitD is made endogenously in the skin from UVB radiation from sunlight. VitD is now considered as a potent neurosteroid hormone, critical to brain development and normal brain function, and is known for its anti-inflammatory property affecting various aspects of human health. VitD ligand-receptor, a receptor that mediates much of vitD's biological actions, has been found throughout the body including the central nervous system. VitD deficiency is common in patients with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a debilitating chronic mental illness characterised by positive symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions, and negative symptoms including flat affect and lack of motivation. Several environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, such as season of birth, latitude and migration, have been linked to vitD deficiency. Recent studies have suggested a potential role of vitD in the development of schizophrenia. For example, neonatal vitD status is associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia in later life obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia and cardiovascular disease, which are commonly seen in patients with schizophrenia. It has been well established that vitD deficiency is related to these metabolic problems. The biological mechanism is most likely related to vitD's action on the regulation of inflammatory and immunological processes, consequently affecting the manifestation of clinical symptoms and treatment response of schizophrenia. Potential benefits of vitD supplementation to improve schizophrenia symptoms as well as physical health in patients with schizophrenia should be further explored in future studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Vitamin supplementation in the treatment of schizophrenia.

    Brown, Hannah E; Roffman, Joshua L

    2014-07-01

    This article reviews the current literature addressing the treatment of schizophrenia with vitamin supplementation. It describes the important roles that vitamins play in normal metabolism, and reviews the evidence pertaining to vitamin deficiency and supplementation in patients with schizophrenia. There is mounting evidence suggesting that vitamin supplementation, in particular with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin D, may be important in treatment within certain subgroups of patients. There is a need for larger randomized controlled trials, and further studies examining the incidence of schizophrenia in countries with poor prenatal care and malnutrition, as well as in countries that have adopted mandatory folic acid fortification of grain products, are recommended.

  5. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module -

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  6. Income inequality and schizophrenia: increased schizophrenia incidence in countries with high levels of income inequality.

    Burns, Jonathan K; Tomita, Andrew; Kapadia, Amy S

    2014-03-01

    Income inequality is associated with numerous negative health outcomes. There is evidence that ecological-level socio-environmental factors may increase risk for schizophrenia. The aim was to investigate whether measures of income inequality are associated with incidence of schizophrenia at the country level. We conducted a systematic review of incidence rates for schizophrenia, reported between 1975 and 2011. For each country, national measures of income inequality (Gini coefficient) along with covariate risk factors for schizophrenia were obtained. Multi-level mixed-effects Poisson regression was performed to investigate the relationship between Gini coefficients and incidence rates of schizophrenia controlling for covariates. One hundred and seven incidence rates (from 26 countries) were included. Mean incidence of schizophrenia was 18.50 per 100,000 (SD = 11.9; range = 1.7-67). There was a significant positive relationship between incidence rate of schizophrenia and Gini coefficient (β = 1.02; Z = 2.28; p = .02; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.03). Countries characterized by a large rich-poor gap may be at increased risk of schizophrenia. We suggest that income inequality impacts negatively on social cohesion, eroding social capital, and that chronic stress associated with living in highly disparate societies places individuals at risk of schizophrenia.

  7. Canadian Practice Guidelines for Comprehensive Community Treatment for Schizophrenia and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

    Addington, Donald; Anderson, Elizabeth; Kelly, Martina; Lesage, Alain; Summerville, Chris

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this review is to identify the features and components of a comprehensive system of services for people living with schizophrenia. A comprehensive system was conceived as one that served the full range of people with schizophrenia and was designed with consideration of the incidence and prevalence of schizophrenia. The system should provide access to the full range of evidence-based services, should be recovery oriented, and should provide patient-centred care. A systematic search was conducted for published guidelines for schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The guidelines were rated by at least 2 raters, and recommendations adopted were primarily drawn from the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (2014) Guideline on Psychosis and Schizophrenia in adults and the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network guidelines on management of schizophrenia. The recommendations adapted for Canada cover the range of services required to provide comprehensive services. Comprehensive services for people with schizophrenia can be organized and delivered to improve the quality of life of people with schizophrenia and their carers. The services need to be organized in a system that provides access to those who need them.

  8. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in schizophrenia.

    Zaman, Rashid; Thind, Dilraj; Kocmur, Marga

    2008-11-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive and painless way of stimulating the neural tissue (cerebral cortex, spinal roots, and cranial and peripheral nerves). The first attempts at stimulating the neural tissue date back to 1896 by d'Arsonval; however, it was successfully carried out by Barker and colleagues in Sheffield, UK, in 1985. It soon became a useful tool in neuroscience for neurophysiologists and neurologists and psychiatrists. The original single-pulse TMS, largely used as an investigative tool, was further refined and developed in the early 1990s into what is known as repetitive TMS (rTMS), having a frequency range of 1-60 Hz. The stimulation by both TMS and rTMS of various cortical regions displayed alteration of movement, mood, and behavior, leading researchers to investigate a number of psychiatric and neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as to explore its therapeutic potential. There is now a large amount of literature on the use of TMS/rTMS in depression; however, its use in schizophrenia, both as an investigative and certainly as a therapeutic tool is relatively recent with a limited but increasing number of publications. In this article, we will outline the principles of TMS/rTMS and critically review their use in schizophrenia both as investigative and potential therapeutic tools.

  9. Grief and mourning in schizophrenia.

    Wittmann, Daniela; Keshavan, Matcheri

    2007-01-01

    Depression and suicidality after first episode of psychosis are well-documented responses in patients with schizophrenia (Addington, Williams, Young, & Addington, 2004). The understanding of depression and suicidality has been increasingly refined through careful study. Researchers have identified a number of factors that may cause depression such as insight into the illness, feelings of loss and inferiority about the illness as a damaging life event, hopelessness about having a viable future with the illness and mourning for losses engendered by the illness. The authors argue that grief and mourning are not just an occasional reaction to the diagnosis of schizophrenia, but are a necessary part of coming to terms with having the illness. They offer three case examples, each of which illuminates a distinct way in which psychosis and mourning may be related--psychosis as a loss of former identity, psychosis as offering meaning and transformation, and psychosis as a way of coping with the inability to mourn. In their view, recovery depends on mourning illness-related losses, developing personal meaning for the illness, and moving forward with "usable insight" and new identity (Lewis, 2004) that reflects a new understanding of one's strengths and limitations with the illness.

  10. Emotional Intelligence deficits in schizophrenia: The impact of non-social cognition.

    Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Pardeller, Silvia; Kemmler, Georg; Welte, Anna-Sophia; Hofer, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) revealed significant performance deficits across all areas of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. However, none of these studies has investigated a potential influence of non-social cognition on these findings. 56 schizophrenia outpatients and 84 control subjects were investigated using the MSCEIT and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Analyses of covariance were performed with adjustment for the BACS composite score and education. To investigate this issue in more detail, a mediation analysis was conducted. Patients showed significantly lower EI and non-social cognition levels compared to healthy controls. After adjustment for BACS composite score and education, only the group difference in the "managing emotions" branch and thus in the "strategic" EI part of the MSCEIT remained statistically significant, whereas for all other MSCEIT branches (perceiving, using, understanding emotions) statistical significance was lost. The mediation analysis revealed that the difference between schizophrenia patients and controls regarding the MSCEIT total score was almost fully attributable to the mediating effect of non-social cognition. Our findings suggest that in schizophrenia patients EI is largely influenced by non-social cognitive functioning. Only the "managing emotions" branch was found to be independent of non-social cognition. Consequently, non-social cognitive performance was mainly responsible for the observed differences in EI between schizophrenia patients and controls. This has to be taken into account when interpreting MSCEIT data in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Relevance of a subjective quality of life questionnaire for long-term homeless persons with schizophrenia.

    Girard, V; Tinland, A; Bonin, J P; Olive, F; Poule, J; Lancon, C; Apostolidis, T; Rowe, M; Greacen, T; Simeoni, M C

    2017-02-17

    Increasing numbers of programs are addressing the specific needs of homeless people with schizophrenia in terms of access to housing, healthcare, basic human rights and other domains. Although quality of life scales are being used to evaluate such programs, few instruments have been validated for people with schizophrenia and none for people with schizophrenia who experience major social problems such as homelessness. The aim of the present study was to validate the French version of the S-QoL a self-administered, subjective quality of life questionnaire specific to schizophrenia for people with schizophrenia who are homeless. In a two-step process, the S-QoL was first administered to two independent convenience samples of long-term homeless people with schizophrenia in Marseille, France. The objective of the first step was to analyse the psychometric properties of the S-QoL. The objective of the second step was to examine, through qualitative interviews with members of the population in question, the relevance and acceptability of the principle quality of life indicators used in the S-QoL instrument. Although the psychometric characteristics of the S-QoL were found to be globally satisfactory, from the point of view of the people being interviewed, acceptability was poor. Respondents frequently interrupted participation complaining that questionnaire items did not take into account the specific context of life on the streets. Less intrusive questions, more readily understandable vocabulary and greater relevance to subjects' living conditions are needed to improve the S-QoL questionnaire for this population. A modular questionnaire with context specific sections or specific quality of life instruments for socially excluded populations may well be the way forward.

  12. Impaired Expected Value Computations Coupled With Overreliance on Stimulus-Response Learning in Schizophrenia.

    Hernaus, Dennis; Gold, James M; Waltz, James A; Frank, Michael J

    2018-04-03

    While many have emphasized impaired reward prediction error signaling in schizophrenia, multiple studies suggest that some decision-making deficits may arise from overreliance on stimulus-response systems together with a compromised ability to represent expected value. Guided by computational frameworks, we formulated and tested two scenarios in which maladaptive representations of expected value should be most evident, thereby delineating conditions that may evoke decision-making impairments in schizophrenia. In a modified reinforcement learning paradigm, 42 medicated people with schizophrenia and 36 healthy volunteers learned to select the most frequently rewarded option in a 75-25 pair: once when presented with a more deterministic (90-10) pair and once when presented with a more probabilistic (60-40) pair. Novel and old combinations of choice options were presented in a subsequent transfer phase. Computational modeling was employed to elucidate contributions from stimulus-response systems (actor-critic) and expected value (Q-learning). People with schizophrenia showed robust performance impairments with increasing value difference between two competing options, which strongly correlated with decreased contributions from expected value-based learning (Q-learning). Moreover, a subtle yet consistent contextual choice bias for the probabilistic 75 option was present in people with schizophrenia, which could be accounted for by a context-dependent reward prediction error in the actor-critic. We provide evidence that decision-making impairments in schizophrenia increase monotonically with demands placed on expected value computations. A contextual choice bias is consistent with overreliance on stimulus-response learning, which may signify a deficit secondary to the maladaptive representation of expected value. These results shed new light on conditions under which decision-making impairments may arise. Copyright © 2018 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by

  13. Altered cortical expression of GABA-related genes in schizophrenia: illness progression vs developmental disturbance.

    Hoftman, Gil D; Volk, David W; Bazmi, H Holly; Li, Siyu; Sampson, Allan R; Lewis, David A

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder with altered expression of GABA-related genes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, whether these gene expression abnormalities reflect disturbances in postnatal developmental processes before clinical onset or arise as a consequence of clinical illness remains unclear. Expression levels for 7 GABA-related transcripts (vesicular GABA transporter [vGAT], GABA membrane transporter [GAT1], GABAA receptor subunit α1 [GABRA1] [novel in human and monkey cohorts], glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 [GAD67], parvalbumin, calretinin, and somatostatin [previously reported in human cohort, but not in monkey cohort]) were quantified in the PFC from 42 matched pairs of schizophrenia and comparison subjects and from 49 rhesus monkeys ranging in age from 1 week postnatal to adulthood. Levels of vGAT and GABRA1, but not of GAT1, messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were lower in the PFC of the schizophrenia subjects. As previously reported, levels of GAD67, parvalbumin, and somatostatin, but not of calretinin, mRNAs were also lower in these subjects. Neither illness duration nor age accounted for the levels of the transcripts with altered expression in schizophrenia. In monkey PFC, developmental changes in expression levels of many of these transcripts were in the opposite direction of the changes observed in schizophrenia. For example, mRNA levels for vGAT, GABRA1, GAD67, and parvalbumin all increased with age. Together with published reports, these findings support the interpretation that the altered expression of GABA-related transcripts in schizophrenia reflects a blunting of normal postnatal development changes, but they cannot exclude a decline during the early stages of clinical illness. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. How "accountable" are accountable care organizations?

    Addicott, Rachael; Shortell, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of accountable care organizations (ACOs) in the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was intended to support both cost savings and high-quality care. However, a key challenge will be to ensure that governance and accountability mechanisms are sufficient to support those twin ambitions. This exploratory study considers how recently developed ACOs have established governance structures and accountability mechanisms, particularly focusing on attempts at collaborative accountability and shared governance arrangements. Four case studies of ACOs across the United States were undertaken, with data collected throughout 2012. These involved 34 semistructured interviews with ACO administrative and clinical leaders, observation of nine meetings, and a review of documentary materials from each ACO. We identified very few examples of physicians being held to account as a collective and therefore only limited evidence of collaborative accountability impacting on behavior change. However, ACO leaders do have many mechanisms available to stimulate change across physicians. The challenge is to determine governance structure(s) and accountability mechanisms that facilitate the most effective combination of approaches, measures, incentives, and sanctions to achieve the goals of more accountable care. Accountability structures and processes will need to be tailored to local membership composition, historical evolution, and current stage of development. There are also some common lessons to be drawn. Shared goals and incentives should be reflected through performance criteria. It is important to align measures and thresholds across payers to ensure ACOs are not unnecessarily burdened or compromised by reporting on different and potentially disjointed measures. Finally, emphasis needs to be placed on the importance of credible, transparent data. This exploratory study provides early evidence regarding how ACOs are establishing their governance and accountability arrangements and

  15. A Harmonious Accounting Duo?

    Schapperle, Robert F.; Hardiman, Patrick F.

    1992-01-01

    Accountants have urged "harmonization" of standards between the Governmental Accounting Standards Board and the Financial Accounting Standards Board, recommending similar reporting of like transactions. However, varying display of similar accounting events does not necessarily indicate disharmony. The potential for problems because of…

  16. Antipsychotic medication non-adherence among schizophrenia ...

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... in reducing psychotic symptoms, preventing psychotic relapses and improving ... poverty, lack of family supports, duration of illness and stigma, ... schizophrenia at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital from April to May 2014.

  17. Alterations of the occipital lobe in schizophrenia.

    Tohid, Hassaan; Faizan, Muhammad; Faizan, Uzma

    2015-07-01

    The relationship of the occipital lobe of the brain with schizophrenia is not commonly studied; however, this topic is considered an essential subject matter among clinicians and scientists. We conducted this systematic review to elaborate the relationship in depth. We found that most schizophrenic patients show normal occipital anatomy and physiology, a minority showed dwindled values, and some demonstrated augmented function and structure. The findings are laborious to incorporate within single disease models that present the involvement of the occipital lobe in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia progresses clinically in the mid-twenties and thirties and its prognosis is inadequate. Changes in the volume, the gray matter, and the white matter in the occipital lobe are quite evident; however, the mechanism behind this involvement is not yet fully understood. Therefore, we recommend further research to explore the occipital lobe functions and volumes across the different stages of schizophrenia.

  18. Intersubjectivity and Psychopathology in the Schizophrenia Spectrum

    Henriksen, Mads Gram; Nilsson, Lars Siersbæk

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies in phenomenological psychopathology emphasize the importance of intersubjectivity for our understanding of schizophrenia. Yet, the central role of the "we" in social experience and engagement is largely absent from this literature. Our study explores the relation between psychopath......Recent studies in phenomenological psychopathology emphasize the importance of intersubjectivity for our understanding of schizophrenia. Yet, the central role of the "we" in social experience and engagement is largely absent from this literature. Our study explores the relation between...... in schizophrenia. Through this framework and with the use of clinical vignettes, we elicit 3 compensatory strategies, which, we suggest, reflect a fragile sense of "we" in the schizophrenia spectrum, i.e. (i) positive withdrawal, (ii) imposing a goal-oriented, spatiotemporal structure on intersubjective engagement......, and (iii) preferring social activities with a clear attribution of social roles and rules. Finally, we discuss the relation between anomalous self-experiences (i.e. self-disorders) and the complicated "we."...

  19. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TOBACCO DEPENDENCE AND SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Wayan Widhidewi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco dependence in schizophrenia patients is a problem that got more concern, withfew treatment options. Peoples with schizophrenia have a prevalence rate of cigarettesmoking two until four times higher than the general population. Consequently, patientsalso have a lower smoking quit rate than the general population. Tobacco dependence inthis population may complicate symptoms and also has adverse physiological effects onpatients. Besides that, patients with schizophrenia tend to smoke more heavily thansmokers in general population. This can increased smoking-related morbidity andmortality and impose a significant financial burden on patients. Recent studiesdemonstrated that patients with schizophrenia smoke before the onset of the illness andalso start smoking earlier than the average population. Patients become psychotic earlierthan patients who do not smoke, and require higher dose of anti-psychotic medications.

  20. Exploring a lay Gestalt of schizophrenia?

    Petersen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent continental-phenomenological psychiatry emphasizes pragmatics or social and contextual inappropriateness as a core disorder of schizophrenia, which is potentially relevant to early identification and treatment. Objective: However, there are hardly any studies that examine the b...

  1. Self-disorders and the Schizophrenia Spectrum

    Nordgaard, Julie; Parnas, Josef

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Self-disorders (SD) have been described as a core feature of schizophrenia both in classical and recent psychopathological literature. However, the specificity of SD for the schizophrenia spectrum disorders has never been demonstrated in a diagnostically heterogeneous sample, nor has...... the concurrent validity of SD been examined. AIM: (1) To examine the specificity of Examination of Anomalous Self-Experiences (EASE) measured SD to the schizophrenia spectrum disorder in first contact inpatients, (2) to explore the internal consistency and factorial structure of the EASE, (3) to assess...... the concurrent validity of SD by exploring correlations between SD and the canonical psychopathological dimensions of schizophrenia, (4) to explore relations of SD to intelligence, sociodemographic, and extrinsic illness characteristics. METHODS: A total of 100 consecutive first admission patients underwent...

  2. TRANSSEXUALISM AND SCHIZOPHRENIA: A CASE REPORT

    Bhargava, Subhash C.; Sethi, Sujata

    2002-01-01

    Delusion of sex change is not uncommon as a pan] of the schizophrenic illness. But the coexistence of gender identity disorder (GID) and schizophrenia is rare and show differential response to treatment with antipsychotics.

  3. Disruption of Conscious Access in Schizophrenia.

    Berkovitch, Lucie; Dehaene, Stanislas; Gaillard, Raphaël

    2017-11-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe and complex psychiatric disorder resulting in delusions, hallucinations, and cognitive impairments. Across a variety of paradigms, an elevated threshold for conscious perception has been repeatedly observed in persons with schizophrenia. Remarkably, even subtle measures of subliminal processing appear to be preserved. We argue here that the dissociation between impaired conscious access and intact unconscious processing may be due to a specific disruption of top-down attentional amplification. This proposal is compatible with the neurophysiological disturbances observed in schizophrenia, including dysconnectivity, abnormal neural oscillations, and glutamatergic and cholinergic dysregulation. Therefore, placing impaired conscious access as a central feature of schizophrenia can help researchers develop a coherent and parsimonious pathophysiological framework of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The temporal relationship between schizophrenia and crime

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the temporal relationship between illness onset and the possible beginning of a criminal career among people with schizophrenia, even though criminality, especially violent criminality, has been shown to be more common among people with schizophrenia than among...... people in general. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse the temporal relationship between registered crime and contact to the psychiatric hospital system. METHOD: This is a register-based study merging data on the psychiatric career with criminal records. RESULTS: Among the males with schizophrenia......, 37% started a criminal career and 13% had committed first violent crime before first contact with the psychiatric hospital system. CONCLUSION: The criminality committed before first contact to the psychiatric hospital system is substantial, especially among males with schizophrenia....

  5. Premorbid neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorder

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    in adolescence, the aim of the present prospective study was to examine whether low scores on Coding is associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The 12 subtests of the WISC were administered to 311 children and adolescents with a mean age of 15.1 years (range: 8 to 20 years...... was 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-1.00) (p = .022), and the risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder decreased by 3% (95% CI 6 to 0%). The Coding deficit on the WISC may indicate deficits in perceptual motor speed or in working memory processing speed in young individuals who later develop schizophrenia, schizotypal...... personality disorder, or other disorders within the schizophrenia spectrum....

  6. Smoking in Schizophrenia: an Updated Review.

    Šagud, Marina; Vuksan-Ćusa, Bjanka; Jakšić, Nenad; Mihaljević-Peleš, Alma; Rojnić Kuzman, Martina; Pivac, Nela

    2018-06-01

    Patients with schizophrenia continue to have the highest rate of both smoking and heavy nicotine dependence. The interaction between smoking and schizophrenia is complex. There is evidence of the shared genetic background. Recent preclinical and clinical research has further investigated self-medication hypothesis, given that nicotine might alleviate cortical dysfunction. While prior research indicated some favorable effects of smoking on cognitive performance, particulatly on attention/vigilance, recent studies did not confirm those findings. Lower severity of negative symptoms in smokers was not confirmed across studies. Cigarette smoking decreases clozapine and olanzapine concentrations. There is no consistent evidence of favorable effects of nicotine on symptoms in schizophrenia, but the evidence of detrimental effects of smoking on general health is highly consistent. Smoking cessation should be a priority in patients with schizophrenia.

  7. The relevance of motivation in schizophrenia

    Paulet Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lately there is a growing interest in the negative symptoms in schizophrenia and their mechanisms of action, with special focus on the motivation process. The lack of motivation is increasingly recognized to be a very important impediment to positive management in schizophrenic pathology. In this mini-review, we described the current understanding of the nature and causes of the specific motivational deficits in schizophrenia in order to find better management strategies for this heterogeneous disorder. All the data and theories presented here clearly demonstrate that amotivation is a fundamental aspect of the negative symptomatology in schizophrenia and could represent a useful factor in understanding and improving the mechanisms and further management of schizophrenia.

  8. Emotion regulation strategies in Patients with schizophrenia

    van der Meer, Lisette; van't Wout, Mascha; Aleman, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients might experience difficulties in applying two widely used emotion regulation strategies, reappraisal and suppression. We investigated the relationships among emotion regulation strategies, alexithymia (i.e. inability to identify and verbalize feelings) and the role of

  9. Factors associated with relapse in schizophrenia

    increases the economic burden on health care systems because of its associated morbidity .... Depression in schizophrenia has been associated with higher rates of relapse ... The researchers approached the psychiatric nursing staff of mental.

  10. Telepsychiatry and carer education for schizophrenia.

    Haley, C

    2011-01-01

    Despite the scientific evidence, most families of people with schizophrenia in Europe never receive a carer education programme. We evaluated whether a carer education course delivered by telepsychiatry was as effective as a carer education course delivered in situ.

  11. Epidemiology and risk factors of schizophrenia.

    Janoutová, Jana; Janácková, Petra; Serý, Omar; Zeman, Tomás; Ambroz, Petr; Kovalová, Martina; Varechová, Katerina; Hosák, Ladislav; Jirík, Vitezslav; Janout, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that affects approximately one percent of the general population. The pathogenesis of schizophrenia is influenced by many risk factors, both environmental and genetic. The environmental factors include the date of birth, place of birth and seasonal effects, infectious diseases, complications during pregnancy and delivery, substance abuse and stress. At the present time, in addition to environmental factors, genetic factors are assumed to play a role in the development of the schizophrenia. The heritability of schizo- phrenia is up to 80%. If one parent suffers from the condition, the probability that it will be passed down to the offspring is 13%. If it is present in both parents, the risk is more than 20%. The opinions are varied as to the risk factors affecting the development of schizophrenia. Knowing these factors may greatly contribute to prevention of the condition.

  12. Alterations of the occipital lobe in schizophrenia

    Tohid, Hassaan; Faizan, Muhammad; Faizan, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    The relationship of the occipital lobe of the brain with schizophrenia is not commonly studied; however, this topic is considered an essential subject matter among clinicians and scientists. We conducted this systematic review to elaborate the relationship in depth. We found that most schizophrenic patients show normal occipital anatomy and physiology, a minority showed dwindled values, and some demonstrated augmented function and structure. The findings are laborious to incorporate within single disease models that present the involvement of the occipital lobe in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia progresses clinically in the mid-twenties and thirties and its prognosis is inadequate. Changes in the volume, the gray matter, and the white matter in the occipital lobe are quite evident; however, the mechanism behind this involvement is not yet fully understood. Therefore, we recommend further research to explore the occipital lobe functions and volumes across the different stages of schizophrenia. PMID:26166588

  13. Subjective experience and suicidal ideation in schizophrenia

    Skodlar, Borut; Tomori, Martina; Parnas, Josef

    2008-01-01

    ideation and intentions, followed by a qualitative phenomenological analysis of the material. Solitude with inability to participate in human interactions and feelings of inferiority were found to be the main sources of suicidal ideation. These experiences seem to resemble ordinary depressive reactions......Suicidal ideation and behavior are a frequent complication of schizophrenia. Although a number of risk factors have been identified, specific features of suicidality in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. In this study, 19 patients with schizophrenia were interviewed in depth on their suicidal......, yet we found them to be reflective of a more basic self-alienation and incapacity for immersion in the shared world. Ignoring this experiential level of patients' disturbances may lead to trivialization (and misjudgment) of the experiences at the root of suicidality in schizophrenia....

  14. Exploring self-defining memories in schizophrenia.

    Raffard, Stéphane; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Lardi, Claudia; Bayard, Sophie; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Van Der Linden, Martial

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that patients with schizophrenia are impaired in recalling specific events from their personal past. However, the relationship between autobiographical memory impairments and disturbance of the sense of identity in schizophrenia has not been investigated in detail. In this study the authors investigated schizophrenic patients' ability to recall self-defining memories; that is, memories that play an important role in building and maintaining the self-concept. Results showed that patients recalled as many specific self-defining memories as healthy participants. However, patients with schizophrenia exhibited an abnormal reminiscence bump and reported different types of thematic content (i.e., they recalled less memories about past achievements and more memories regarding hospitalisation and stigmatisation of illness). Furthermore, the findings suggest that impairments in extracting meaning from personal memories could represent a core disturbance of autobiographical memory in patients with schizophrenia.

  15. Rethinking schizophrenia in the context of normal neurodevelopment

    Catts, Vibeke S.; Fung, Samantha J.; Long, Leonora E.; Joshi, Dipesh; Vercammen, Ans; Allen, Katherine M.; Fillman, Stu G.; Rothmond, Debora A.; Sinclair, Duncan; Tiwari, Yash; Tsai, Shan-Yuan; Weickert, Thomas W.; Shannon Weickert, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    The schizophrenia brain is differentiated from the normal brain by subtle changes, with significant overlap in measures between normal and disease states. For the past 25 years, schizophrenia has increasingly been considered a neurodevelopmental disorder. This frame of reference challenges biological researchers to consider how pathological changes identified in adult brain tissue can be accounted for by aberrant developmental processes occurring during fetal, childhood, or adolescent periods. To place schizophrenia neuropathology in a neurodevelopmental context requires solid, scrutinized evidence of changes occurring during normal development of the human brain, particularly in the cortex; however, too often data on normative developmental change are selectively referenced. This paper focuses on the development of the prefrontal cortex and charts major molecular, cellular, and behavioral events on a similar time line. We first consider the time at which human cognitive abilities such as selective attention, working memory, and inhibitory control mature, emphasizing that attainment of full adult potential is a process requiring decades. We review the timing of neurogenesis, neuronal migration, white matter changes (myelination), and synapse development. We consider how molecular changes in neurotransmitter signaling pathways are altered throughout life and how they may be concomitant with cellular and cognitive changes. We end with a consideration of how the response to drugs of abuse changes with age. We conclude that the concepts around the timing of cortical neuronal migration, interneuron maturation, and synaptic regression in humans may need revision and include greater emphasis on the protracted and dynamic changes occurring in adolescence. Updating our current understanding of post-natal neurodevelopment should aid researchers in interpreting gray matter changes and derailed neurodevelopmental processes that could underlie emergence of psychosis. PMID

  16. No Evidence That Schizophrenia Candidate Genes Are More Associated With Schizophrenia Than Noncandidate Genes.

    Johnson, Emma C; Border, Richard; Melroy-Greif, Whitney E; de Leeuw, Christiaan A; Ehringer, Marissa A; Keller, Matthew C

    2017-11-15

    A recent analysis of 25 historical candidate gene polymorphisms for schizophrenia in the largest genome-wide association study conducted to date suggested that these commonly studied variants were no more associated with the disorder than would be expected by chance. However, the same study identified other variants within those candidate genes that demonstrated genome-wide significant associations with schizophrenia. As such, it is possible that variants within historic schizophrenia candidate genes are associated with schizophrenia at levels above those expected by chance, even if the most-studied specific polymorphisms are not. The present study used association statistics from the largest schizophrenia genome-wide association study conducted to date as input to a gene set analysis to investigate whether variants within schizophrenia candidate genes are enriched for association with schizophrenia. As a group, variants in the most-studied candidate genes were no more associated with schizophrenia than were variants in control sets of noncandidate genes. While a small subset of candidate genes did appear to be significantly associated with schizophrenia, these genes were not particularly noteworthy given the large number of more strongly associated noncandidate genes. The history of schizophrenia research should serve as a cautionary tale to candidate gene investigators examining other phenotypes: our findings indicate that the most investigated candidate gene hypotheses of schizophrenia are not well supported by genome-wide association studies, and it is likely that this will be the case for other complex traits as well. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Belief revision and delusions: how do patients with schizophrenia take advice?

    Mariia Kaliuzhna

    Full Text Available The dominant cognitive model that accounts for the persistence of delusional beliefs in schizophrenia postulates that patients suffer from a general deficit in belief revision. It is generally assumed that this deficit is a consequence of impaired reasoning skills. However, the possibility that such inflexibility affects the entire system of a patient's beliefs has rarely been empirically tested. Using delusion-neutral material in a well-documented advice-taking task, the present study reports that patients with schizophrenia: 1 revise their beliefs, 2 take into account socially provided information to do so, 3 are not overconfident about their judgments, and 4 show less egocentric advice-discounting than controls. This study thus shows that delusional patients' difficulty in revising beliefs is more selective than had been previously assumed. The specificities of the task and the implications for a theory of delusion formation are discussed.

  18. Belief revision and delusions: how do patients with schizophrenia take advice?

    Kaliuzhna, Mariia; Chambon, Valérian; Franck, Nicolas; Testud, Bérangère; Van der Henst, Jean-Baptiste

    2012-01-01

    The dominant cognitive model that accounts for the persistence of delusional beliefs in schizophrenia postulates that patients suffer from a general deficit in belief revision. It is generally assumed that this deficit is a consequence of impaired reasoning skills. However, the possibility that such inflexibility affects the entire system of a patient's beliefs has rarely been empirically tested. Using delusion-neutral material in a well-documented advice-taking task, the present study reports that patients with schizophrenia: 1) revise their beliefs, 2) take into account socially provided information to do so, 3) are not overconfident about their judgments, and 4) show less egocentric advice-discounting than controls. This study thus shows that delusional patients' difficulty in revising beliefs is more selective than had been previously assumed. The specificities of the task and the implications for a theory of delusion formation are discussed.

  19. [Schizophrenia and cortical GABA neurotransmission].

    Hashimoto, Takanori; Matsubara, Takuro; Lewis, David A

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia show disturbances in a number of brain functions that regulate cognitive, affective, motor, and sensory processing. The cognitive deficits associated with dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex result, at least in part, from abnormalities in GABA neurotransmission, as reflected in a specific pattern of altered expression of GABA-related molecules. First, mRNA levels for the 67-kilodalton isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67), an enzyme principally responsible for GABA synthesis, and the GABA membrane transporter GAT1, which regulates the reuptake of synaptically released GABA, are decreased in a subset of GABA neurons. Second, affected GABA neurons include those that express the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV), because PV mRNA levels are decreased in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia and GAD67 mRNA is undetectable in almost half of PV-containing neurons. These changes are accompanied by decreased GAT1 expression in the presynaptic terminals of PV-containing neurons and by increased postsynaptic GABA-A receptor alpha2 subunit expression at the axon initial segments of pyramidal neurons. These findings indicate decreased GABA synthesis/release by PV-containing GABA neurons and compensatory changes at synapses formed by these neurons. Third, another subset of GABA neurons that express the neuropeptide somatostatin (SST) also appear to be affected because their specific markers, SST and neuropeptide Y mRNAs, are decreased in a manner highly correlated with the decreases in GAD67 mRNA. Finally, mRNA levels for GABA-A receptor subunits for synaptic (alpha1 and gamma2) and extra-synaptic (delta) receptors are decreased, indicating alterations in both synaptic and extra-synaptic GABA neurotransmission. Together, this pattern of changes indicates that the altered GABA neurotransmission is specific to PV-containing and SST-containing GABA neuron subsets and involves both synaptic and extra

  20. Emotion in Schizophrenia: Where Feeling Meets Thinking

    Kring, Ann M.; Caponigro, Janelle M.

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of the nature of emotional difficulties in schizophrenia has been greatly enhanced by translational research over the past two decades. By incorporating methods and theories from affective science, researchers have been able to discover that people with schizophrenia exhibit very few outward displays of emotion but report experiencing strong feelings in the presence of emotionally evocative stimuli or events. Recent behavioral, psychophysiological, and brain imaging research...

  1. [Negative symptoms, emotion and cognition in schizophrenia].

    Fakra, E; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J-M; Adida, M

    2015-12-01

    For a long time, treatment of schizophrenia has been essentially focussed on positive symptoms managing. Yet, even if these symptoms are the most noticeable, negative symptoms are more enduring, resistant to pharmacological treatment and associated with a worse prognosis. In the two last decades, attention has shift towards cognitive deficit, as this deficit is most robustly associated to functional outcome. But it appears that the modest improvement in cognition, obtained in schizophrenia through pharmacological treatment or, more purposely, by cognitive enhancement therapy, has only lead to limited amelioration of functional outcome. Authors have claimed that pure cognitive processes, such as those evaluated and trained in lots of these programs, may be too distant from real-life conditions, as the latter are largely based on social interactions. Consequently, the field of social cognition, at the interface of cognition and emotion, has emerged. In a first part of this article we examined the links, in schizophrenia, between negative symptoms, cognition and emotions from a therapeutic standpoint. Nonetheless, investigation of emotion in schizophrenia may also hold relevant premises for understanding the physiopathology of this disorder. In a second part, we propose to illustrate this research by relying on the heuristic value of an elementary marker of social cognition, facial affect recognition. Facial affect recognition has been repeatedly reported to be impaired in schizophrenia and some authors have argued that this deficit could constitute an endophenotype of the illness. We here examined how facial affect processing has been used to explore broader emotion dysfunction in schizophrenia, through behavioural and imaging studies. In particular, fMRI paradigms using facial affect have shown particular patterns of amygdala engagement in schizophrenia, suggesting an intact potential to elicit the limbic system which may however not be advantageous. Finally, we

  2. New Targets for Prevention of Schizophrenia

    Seidman, Larry J; Nordentoft, Merete

    2015-01-01

    A number of influences have converged that make this Special Theme Issue timely: "A New Direction: Considering Developmentally Sensitive Targets for Very Early Intervention in Schizophrenia". These factors include: 1. the substantial knowledge about premorbid developmental vulnerabilities...... to psychosis, especially regarding schizophrenia; 2. the promising results emerging from interventions during the clinical high-risk (CHR) phase of psychosis and; 3. the recognition that the CHR period is a relatively late phase of developmental derailment. These factors have together led to a perspective...

  3. Inhibitory Interneurons, Oxidative Stress, and Schizophrenia

    Sullivan, Elyse M.; O’Donnell, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Translational studies are becoming more common in schizophrenia research. The past couple of decades witnessed the emergence of novel ideas regarding schizophrenia pathophysiology that originated from both human and animal studies. The findings that glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid transmission are affected in the disease led to the hypothesis of altered inhibitory neurotransmission as critical for cognitive deficits and to an exploration of novel therapeutic approaches aimed at restorin...

  4. Identifying Gene-Environment Interactions in Schizophrenia

    van Os, Jim; Rutten, Bart P; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen considerable progress in epidemiological and molecular genetic research into environmental and genetic factors in schizophrenia, but methodological uncertainties remain with regard to validating environmental exposures, and the population risk conferred by individual...... of G × E in schizophrenia. While such investigations are now well underway, new challenges emerge for G × E research from late-breaking evidence that genetic variation and environmental exposures are, to a significant degree, shared across a range of psychiatric disorders, with potential overlap...

  5. The relevance of motivation in schizophrenia

    Paulet Manuel; Ciobica Alin; Cojocaru Sabina; Popescu Radu; Timofte Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Lately there is a growing interest in the negative symptoms in schizophrenia and their mechanisms of action, with special focus on the motivation process. The lack of motivation is increasingly recognized to be a very important impediment to positive management in schizophrenic pathology. In this mini-review, we described the current understanding of the nature and causes of the specific motivational deficits in schizophrenia in order to find better managem...

  6. LIVING WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA IN INDIA: GENDER PERSPECTIVES

    Loganathan, Santosh; Murthy, Srinivasa

    2011-01-01

    There are a number of factors that influence stigma in schizophrenia and it is important to understand them to successfully treat the illness. Gender-based stigma and how it is affected by culture is yet to be studied. This study explores gender issues from a socio-cultural perspective related to stigma among people in India suffering from schizophrenia. Stigma experiences were assessed by conducting individual interviews and the narratives were used as a qualitative measure. Men with schizop...

  7. Proteomics as a Tool for Understanding Schizophrenia

    Martins-de-Souza, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is likely to be a multifactorial disorder, consequence of alterations in gene and protein expression since the neurodevelopment that together to environmental factors will trigger the establishment of the disease. In the post-genomic era, proteomics has emerged as a promising strategy for revealing disease and treatment biomarkers as well as a tool for the comprehension of the mechanisms of schizophrenia pathobiology. Here, there is a discussion of the potential pathways and str...

  8. STUDY OF SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Jagadeesan Madras Sundararajan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schizophrenia is a major mental illness whose sufferers have been found to have lesser longevity than general population. The most common cause for premature death in schizophrenia is suicide. There are very few Indian studies on suicide in persons suffering from schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the frequency of suicide attempt in schizophrenia to compare and study the clinical and sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters and non-attempters in schizophrenia and to analyse and study the various risk factors of suicide attempts in persons suffering from schizophrenia. METHODS A sample of 100 consecutive patients attending review OPD of a government tertiary care hospital in Chennai were selected. Those who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia were screened for past suicide attempts. They were divided into two groups as suicide attempters and non-attempters and analysed using the SAPS (Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms, SANS (Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, Calgary depression scale, and Beck’s suicide intent scale. RESULTS People suffering from schizophrenia are at a high risk for making suicidal attempts (27% especially when the illness is acute and severe in early stages when accompanied by depressive symptoms. Demographic profile such as age, sex, education, occupation, socio-economic status, marital status, and family type were not significantly related to suicide attempts. Family history of suicide was a significant factor in patients with suicide attempts. Majority of the attempts were of medium-to-high intent, hanging being the commonest method, and were attributed to most commonly delusions and depressive symptoms.

  9. Schizophrenia masquerading as Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Jegan Yogaratnam; Rajesh Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Dissociative symptoms can dominate the clinical picture in many psychiatric conditions and possess a huge challenge to the clinicians in management. We present a case report of a female with a strong family history of schizophrenia who initially presented with features suggestive of dissociative identity disorder, which is itself a rare clinical entity, was later diagnosed to have schizophrenia. Authors would like to emphasise that clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for schizoph...

  10. The Burden of Schizophrenia on Caregivers

    Filiz Adana; Hulya Arslantas

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers’ burden in schizophrenia is a complex concept often with negative connotations. The concept refers to the impact of having a schizophrenia patient in the family including emotional, psychological, physical, economic distress and feelings of shame, embarrassment, guilt, and self-blame expe-rienced by the caregivers. There are objective and subjective aspects of care-givers’ burden. The objective burden refers to observed and verifiable impact of the diseased person in the family suc...

  11. Suicide in the Early Stage of Schizophrenia

    Ventriglio, Antonio; Gentile, Alessandro; Bonfitto, Iris; Stella, Eleonora; Mari, Massimo; Steardo, Luca; Bellomo, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a relevant leading cause of death among patients affected by schizophrenia. Even if suicidal ideation may be present in different stages of disease, some differences have been described between the risk of suicide in patients experiencing first episode of psychosis and those with long-term schizophrenia. It is particularly higher during the first year of illness and reaches a steady decline over the following years. Suicidal ideation and attempts may also be common among subjects w...

  12. Patterns of Dysmorphic Features in Schizophrenia

    Scutt, L.E.; Chow, E.W.C.; Weksberg, R.; Honer, W.G.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Congenital dysmorphic features are prevalent in schizophrenia and may reflect underlying neurodevelopmental abnormalities. A cluster analysis approach delineating patterns of dysmorphic features has been used in genetics to classify individuals into more etiologically homogeneous subgroups. In the present study, this approach was applied to schizophrenia, using a sample with a suspected genetic syndrome as a testable model. Subjects (n = 159) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were ascertained from chronic patient populations (random, n=123) or referred with possible 22q11 deletion syndrome (referred, n = 36). All subjects were evaluated for presence or absence of 70 reliably assessed dysmorphic features, which were used in a three-step cluster analysis. The analysis produced four major clusters with different patterns of dysmorphic features. Significant between-cluster differences were found for rates of 37 dysmorphic features (P dysmorphic features (P = 0.0001), and validating features not used in the cluster analysis: mild mental retardation (P = 0.001) and congenital heart defects (P = 0.002). Two clusters (1 and 4) appeared to represent more developmental subgroups of schizophrenia with elevated rates of dysmorphic features and validating features. Cluster 1 (n = 27) comprised mostly referred subjects. Cluster 4 (n= 18) had a different pattern of dysmorphic features; one subject had a mosaic Turner syndrome variant. Two other clusters had lower rates and patterns of features consistent with those found in previous studies of schizophrenia. Delineating patterns of dysmorphic features may help identify subgroups that could represent neurodevelopmental forms of schizophrenia with more homogeneous origins. PMID:11803519

  13. The genetic validation of heterogeneity in schizophrenia

    Moritani Makiko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Schizophrenia is a heritable disorder, however clear genetic architecture has not been detected. To overcome this state of uncertainty, the SZGene database has been established by including all published case-control genetic association studies appearing in peer-reviewed journals. In the current study, we aimed to determine if genetic variants strongly suggested by SZGene are associated with risk of schizophrenia in our case-control samples of Japanese ancestry. In addition, by employing the additive model for aggregating the effect of seven variants, we aimed to verify the genetic heterogeneity of schizophrenia diagnosed by an operative diagnostic manual, the DSM-IV. Methods Each positively suggested genetic polymorphism was ranked according to its p-value, then the seven top-ranked variants (p Results No statistically significant deviation between cases and controls was observed in the genetic risk-index derived from all seven variants on the top-ranked polymorphisms. In fact, the average risk-index score in the schizophrenia group (6.5+/-1.57 was slightly lower than among controls (6.6+/-1.39. Conclusion The current work illustrates the difficulty in identifying universal and definitive risk-conferring polymorphisms for schizophrenia. Our employed number of samples was small, so we can not preclude the possibility that some or all of these variants are minor risk factors for schizophrenia in the Japanese population. It is also important to aggregate the updated positive variants in the SZGene database when the replication work is conducted.

  14. Paranoid schizophrenia versus schizoaffective disorder: Neuropsychological aspects

    Leposavić Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neuropsychological aspects of paranoid schizophrenia have still not been examined enough. These disorders are usually not studied separately, but are included in the studies about schizophrenic patients with positive symptoms. Despite the fact that schizophrenia represents a heterogeneous group of mental disorders, usually it is not separated from schizoaffective disorder in neuropsychological researches. Objective. The essence of this research is to evaluate cognitive functioning of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder by applying neuropsychological tests. Methods. The research included 91 subjects, right handed, from 30 to 53 years old, who were classified into three groups: inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia in remission (n=31, inpatients with schizoaffective disorder in remission (n=30 and healthy subjects (n=30. Results. Both groups of patients showed poorer achievements than healthy subjects in most of the applied tests. Patients with schizoaffective disorder showed global loss of intellectual efficiency, executive dysfunction and compromised visual-construction organization. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed partial loss of intellectual efficiency with verbal IQ and executive functions preserved. Conclusion. In the remission phase, patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed cognitive disorders in moderate degree, but when it comes to patients with schizoaffective disorder, more massive cognitive deficits were registered.

  15. Altered intrinsic and extrinsic connectivity in schizophrenia.

    Zhou, Yuan; Zeidman, Peter; Wu, Shihao; Razi, Adeel; Chen, Cheng; Yang, Liuqing; Zou, Jilin; Wang, Gaohua; Wang, Huiling; Friston, Karl J

    2018-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by functional dysconnectivity among distributed brain regions. However, it is unclear how causal influences among large-scale brain networks are disrupted in schizophrenia. In this study, we used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to assess the hypothesis that there is aberrant directed (effective) connectivity within and between three key large-scale brain networks (the dorsal attention network, the salience network and the default mode network) in schizophrenia during a working memory task. Functional MRI data during an n-back task from 40 patients with schizophrenia and 62 healthy controls were analyzed. Using hierarchical modeling of between-subject effects in DCM with Parametric Empirical Bayes, we found that intrinsic (within-region) and extrinsic (between-region) effective connectivity involving prefrontal regions were abnormal in schizophrenia. Specifically, in patients (i) inhibitory self-connections in prefrontal regions of the dorsal attention network were decreased across task conditions; (ii) extrinsic connectivity between regions of the default mode network was increased; specifically, from posterior cingulate cortex to the medial prefrontal cortex; (iii) between-network extrinsic connections involving the prefrontal cortex were altered; (iv) connections within networks and between networks were correlated with the severity of clinical symptoms and impaired cognition beyond working memory. In short, this study revealed the predominance of reduced synaptic efficacy of prefrontal efferents and afferents in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  16. Cognition in schizophrenia: Past, present, and future

    Michael F. Green

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia Research: Cognition will serve an important function – a place where interests converge and investigators can learn about the recent developments in this area. This new journal will provide rapid dissemination of information to people who will make good use of it. In this initial article, we comment globally on the study of cognition in schizophrenia: how we got here, where we are, and where we are going. The goal of this first article is to place the study of cognition in schizophrenia within a historical and scientific context. In a field as richly textured as ours it is impossible to hit all the important areas, and we hope the reader will forgive our omissions. Phrased in cognitive terms, our limited presentation of the past is a matter of selective memory, the present is a matter of selective attention, and the future is a matter of selective prospection. This broad introduction emphasizes that cognition in schizophrenia provides clues to pathophysiology, treatment, and outcome. In fact, the study of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia has become wholly intertwined with the study of schizophrenia itself.

  17. Attribution bias and social anxiety in schizophrenia

    Amelie M. Achim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia have produced mixed results, whereas such biases have been more consistently reported in people with anxiety disorders. Anxiety comorbidities are frequent in schizophrenia, in particular social anxiety disorder, which could influence their patterns of attribution biases. The objective of the present study was thus to determine if individuals with schizophrenia and a comorbid social anxiety disorder (SZ+ show distinct attribution biases as compared with individuals with schizophrenia without social anxiety (SZ− and healthy controls. Attribution biases were assessed with the Internal, Personal, and Situational Attributions Questionnaire in 41 individual with schizophrenia and 41 healthy controls. Results revealed the lack of the normal externalizing bias in SZ+, whereas SZ− did not significantly differ from healthy controls on this dimension. The personalizing bias was not influenced by social anxiety but was in contrast linked with delusions, with a greater personalizing bias in individuals with current delusions. Future studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia should carefully document symptom presentation, including social anxiety.

  18. Illness perspectives of Thais diagnosed with schizophrenia.

    Sanseeha, Ladda; Chontawan, Ratanawadee; Sethabouppha, Hunsa; Disayavanish, Chamlong; Turale, Sue

    2009-09-01

    This study explored the perceptions of 18 people diagnosed with schizophrenia from 1-10 years to uncover how they perceived themselves and their illness. It also involved 12 family members who added their perceptions. The data were collected using in-depth interviews, reflective journaling, and observations. The data were analyzed through the lens of Heidegger's hermeneutic phenomenology. Four themes emerged: perceptions of mental illness, perceptions of the causes of illness, perceptions of discrimination, and attempting to live with schizophrenia. The findings included strong underlying cultural and spiritual beliefs, and attitudes unique to the Thai participants, including the causation of schizophrenia by supernatural powers, black magic, and bad karma stemming from past deeds. Understanding the perceptions of the participants might help health-care providers to be more sensitive to those living with schizophrenia in Thailand and elsewhere. In particular, the findings could be useful in informing psychiatric careproviders about developing better caring systems for clients diagnosed with schizophrenia. This should help the sufferers of schizophrenia to live their lives to their own satisfaction and as normally as possible.

  19. Emotion in Schizophrenia: Where Feeling Meets Thinking.

    Kring, Ann M; Caponigro, Janelle M

    2010-08-01

    Our understanding of the nature of emotional difficulties in schizophrenia has been greatly enhanced by translational research over the past two decades. By incorporating methods and theories from affective science, researchers have been able to discover that people with schizophrenia exhibit very few outward displays of emotion but report experiencing strong feelings in the presence of emotionally evocative stimuli or events. Recent behavioral, psychophysiological, and brain imaging research has pointed to the importance of considering the time course of emotion in schizophrenia. This work has shown that people with schizophrenia have the ability to experience emotion in the moment; however, they appear to have difficulties when anticipating future pleasurable experiences, and this perhaps affects their motivation to have such experiences. While advancements in our understanding of emotional experience and expression in individuals with schizophrenia have been made, these developments have led to a new collection of research questions directed at understanding the time course of emotion in schizophrenia, including the role of memory and anticipation in motivated behavior, translating laboratory findings to the development of new assessment tools and new treatments targeting emotional impairments in people with this disorder.

  20. Altered brain arginine metabolism in schizophrenia.

    Liu, P; Jing, Y; Collie, N D; Dean, B; Bilkey, D K; Zhang, H

    2016-08-16

    Previous research implicates altered metabolism of l-arginine, a versatile amino acid with a number of bioactive metabolites, in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The present study, for we believe the first time, systematically compared the metabolic profile of l-arginine in the frontal cortex (Brodmann's area 8) obtained post-mortem from schizophrenic individuals and age- and gender-matched non-psychiatric controls (n=20 per group). The enzyme assays revealed no change in total nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, but significantly increased arginase activity in the schizophrenia group. Western blot showed reduced endothelial NOS protein expression and increased arginase II protein level in the disease group. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric assays confirmed significantly reduced levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), but increased agmatine concentration and glutamate/GABA ratio in the schizophrenia cases. Regression analysis indicated positive correlations between arginase activity and the age of disease onset and between l-ornithine level and the duration of illness. Moreover, cluster analyses revealed that l-arginine and its main metabolites l-citrulline, l-ornithine and agmatine formed distinct groups, which were altered in the schizophrenia group. The present study provides further evidence of altered brain arginine metabolism in schizophrenia, which enhances our understanding of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and may lead to the future development of novel preventions and/or therapeutics for the disease.

  1. Thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    Smith, Matthew J; Wang, Lei; Cronenwett, Will; Mamah, Daniel; Barch, Deanna M; Csernansky, John G

    2011-03-01

    Biomarkers are needed that can distinguish between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder to inform the ongoing debate over the diagnostic boundary between these two disorders. Neuromorphometric abnormalities of the thalamus have been reported in individuals with schizophrenia and linked to core features of the disorder, but have not been similarly investigated in individuals with schizoaffective disorder. In this study, we examine whether individuals with schizoaffective disorder have a pattern of thalamic deformation that is similar or different to the pattern found in individuals with schizophrenia. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were collected from individuals with schizophrenia (n = 47), individuals with schizoaffective disorder (n = 15), and controls (n = 42). Large-deformation, high-dimensional brain mapping was used to obtain three-dimensional surfaces of the thalamus. Multiple analyses of variance were used to test for group differences in volume and measures of surface shape. Individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder have similar thalamic volumes. Thalamic surface shape deformation associated with schizophrenia suggests selective involvement of the anterior and posterior thalamus, while deformations in mediodorsal and ventrolateral regions were observed in both groups. Schizoaffective disorder had distinct deformations in medial and lateral thalamic regions. Abnormalities distinct to schizoaffective disorder suggest involvement of the central and ventroposterior medial thalamus which may be involved in mood circuitry, dorsolateral nucleus which is involved in recall processing, and the lateral geniculate nucleus which is involved in visual processing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Paranoid Schizophrenia versus Schizoaffective Disorder: Neuropsychological Aspects.

    Leposavić, Ljubica; Leposavić, Ivana; Šaula-Marojević, Bijana; Gavrilović, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological aspects of paranoid schizophrenia have still not been examined enough.These disorders are usually not studied separately, but are included in the studies about schizophrenic patients with positive symptoms. Despite the fact that schizophrenia represents a heterogeneous group of mental disorders, usually it is not separated from schizoaffective disorder in neuropsychological researches. The essence of this research is to evaluate cognitive functioning of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder by applying neuropsychological tests. The research included 91 subjects, right handed, from 30 to 53 years old, who were classified into three groups: inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia in remission (n=31), inpatients with schizoaffective disorder in remission (n=30) and healthy subjects (n=30). Both groups of patients showed poorer achievements than healthy subjects in most of the applied tests. Patients with schizoaffective disorder showed global loss of intellectual efficiency, executive dysfunction and compromised visual-construction organization. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed partial loss of intellectual efficiency with verbal IQ and executive functions preserved. In the remission phase, patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed cognitive disorders in moderate degree, but when it comes to patients with schizoaffective disorder, more massive cognitive, deficits were registered.

  3. Neuropharmacology of altered brain oscillations in schizophrenia.

    Koch, Michael; Schmiedt-Fehr, Christina; Mathes, Birgit

    2016-05-01

    Impairments in spatial and temporal integration of brain network activity are a core feature of schizophrenia. Neural network oscillatory activity is considered to be fundamentally important in coordinating neural activity throughout the brain. Hence, exploration of brain oscillations has become an indispensible tool to study the neural basis of mental illnesses. However, most of the studies in schizophrenia include medicated patients. This implicates the question to what extent are changes in the electrophysiological parameters genuine illness effects, genuine drug effects or a mixture of both. We here provide a short overview of the neuropharmacology of brain oscillations with respect to schizophrenia. The core assumption of the so-called "pharmaco-EEG" approach is that drug effects on mental and cognitive functions are reflected in changes in quantitative EEG parameters. Hence, clinical efficacy of drugs might be predicted on the basis of the neuropharmacology of electrophysiological measures, such as brain oscillations. Vice versa, knowledge of drug effects on brain oscillations can be of essence in understanding schizophrenia. However, the current literature lacks systematic findings, because of at least two problems. First, the pharmacology of most antipsychotic drugs is complex including interactions with several transmitter receptors. Second, the neuropathology of schizophrenia still has no pathognomonic signature. Even though it is presently not possible to clearly dissociate drug- and illness effects in neural oscillations, this review emphasizes future studies to foster the understanding of this relationship in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF THE ACCOUNTING PROFESSION IN MARYLAND (ABSTRACT

    Jerome DeRidder

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Double entry bookkeeping began in fifteenth century Italy. It developed into a fully integrated accounting system in England during the Industrial Revolution. The English system was transferred to America in the early 1880’s by accountants who were sent to America to represent investors in England.The first professional accounting society began in New York in 1886 as the American Association of Public Accountants. It established the requirement for the first Certified Public Accounting Examination (CPA in 1896 .Maryland established the accounting profession with the certification requirement in 1901. Max Tecichman was the first person to pass the CPA exam in Maryland.Max Tecichman is considered the founder of the accounting profession in Maryland. He founded the Association of Public Accountants and was its first president. Since then, the profession in Maryland has expanded rapidly in response to the needs of business. By 1998 it had over 10,000 members to serve the needs of commerce and society within the state and encompassed areas such as tax, ethics, education and public service.

  5. Safeguards Accountability Network accountability and materials management

    Carnival, G.J.; Meredith, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    The Safeguards Accountability Network (SAN) is an on-line accountability system used by Rocky Flats Plant to provide accountability control of its nuclear material inventory. The system is also used to monitor and evaluate the use of the nuclear material inventory against programmatic objectives for materials management. The SAN system utilizes two Harris 800 Computers as central processing units. Enhancement plans are currently being formulated to provide automated data collection from process operations on the shop floor and from non-destructive analysis safeguards instrumentation. SAN, discussed in this paper, is an excellent system for basic accountability control of nuclear materials inventories and is a quite useful tool in evaluating the efficient use of nuclear materials inventories at Rocky Flats Plant

  6. New Horizons For Accounting: Social Accounting

    Ertuna, Özer

    2012-01-01

    Currently financial accounting function is going through an accelerated transformation. In this transformation the area of interest of the accounting function is expanding to serve the information needs of a greater number of interest groups’ wider spectrum of interests with financial, economic, social and environmental data related to the performance of companies. This transformation is initiated by the developments in stakeholder, corporate social responsibility, sustainability and environm...

  7. Economic burden of schizophrenia: empirical analyses from a survey in Thailand.

    Phanthunane, Pudtan; Whiteford, Harvey; Vos, Theo; Bertram, Melanie

    2012-03-01

    Evidence consistently indicates that schizophrenia is a costly disease although it is not a high prevalence disorder. There are a few studies in developing countries but no study in Thailand reporting the cost of schizophrenia from a societal perspective. Health policy makers need to be aware of the cost of health care for people with schizophrenia as well as the economic burden on patients and families. This study aims to provide a detailed breakdown of the costs attributed to schizophrenia including the consumption of public health care resources by people with schizophrenia and the negative consequences on patients and families due to productivity losses. Data from a survey conducted in 2008 among people in treatment for schizophrenia were used to estimate annual medical costs for treatment including outpatient services, hospitalization and patient travel. Indirect costs were estimated for reported productivity losses of patients and families. Uncertainty analysis was performed using Monte Carlo simulation methods. We tested the sensitivity of varying assumptions about market wages to estimate productivity losses. All cost estimates are adjusted to 2008 using the Consumer Price Index and reported in Thai baht (THB). The average annual exchange rate of Thai baths to one US dollar was 33.5 in 2008. The annual overall cost of schizophrenia was estimated to be THB 87 000 (USD 2600) (95% CI: 83 000, 92 000) per person or THB 31 000 million (USD 925 million) (95% CI: 26 000, 37 000) for the entire population with schizophrenia in Thailand. Indirect costs due to high unemployment, absenteeism and presenteeism of patients and families accounted for 61% of the total economic burden of schizophrenia. The largest component of direct medical cost was for hospitalizations (50%), followed by outpatient services and drug costs. Sensitivity analyses suggest that using labor force survey and socioeconomic status survey provided similar results, while lost productivity when the

  8. Molecular Risk Factors for Schizophrenia.

    Modai, Shira; Shomron, Noam

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex and strongly heritable mental disorder, which is also associated with developmental-environmental triggers. As opposed to most diagnosable diseases (yet similar to other mental disorders), SZ diagnosis is commonly based on psychiatric evaluations. Recently, large-scale genetic and epigenetic approaches have been applied to SZ research with the goal of potentially improving diagnosis. Increased computational analyses and applied statistical algorithms may shed some light on the complex genetic and epigenetic pathways contributing to SZ pathogenesis. This review discusses the latest advances in molecular risk factors and diagnostics for SZ. Approaches such as these may lead to a more accurate definition of SZ and assist in creating extended and reliable clinical diagnoses with the potential for personalized treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Apoptotic engulfment pathway and schizophrenia.

    Chen, Xiangning

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Apoptosis has been speculated to be involved in schizophrenia. In a previously study, we reported the association of the MEGF10 gene with the disease. In this study, we followed the apoptotic engulfment pathway involving the MEGF10, GULP1, ABCA1 and ABCA7 genes and tested their association with the disease. METHODOLOGY\\/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten, eleven and five SNPs were genotyped in the GULP1, ABCA1 and ABCA7 genes respectively for the ISHDSF and ICCSS samples. In all 3 genes, we observed nominally significant associations. Rs2004888 at GULP1 was significant in both ISHDSF and ICCSS samples (p = 0.0083 and 0.0437 respectively). We sought replication in independent samples for this marker and found highly significant association (p = 0.0003) in 3 Caucasian replication samples. But it was not significant in the 2 Chinese replication samples. In addition, we found a significant 2-marker (rs2242436 * rs3858075) interaction between the ABCA1 and ABCA7 genes in the ISHDSF sample (p = 0.0022) and a 3-marker interaction (rs246896 * rs4522565 * rs3858075) amongst the MEGF10, GULP1 and ABCA1 genes in the ICCSS sample (p = 0.0120). Rs3858075 in the ABCA1 gene was involved in both 2- and 3-marker interactions in the two samples. CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: From these data, we concluded that the GULP1 gene and the apoptotic engulfment pathway are involved in schizophrenia in subjects of European ancestry and multiple genes in the pathway may interactively increase the risks to the disease.

  10. Accounting as Myth Maker

    Kathy Rudkin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Accounting is not only a technical apparatus, but also manifests a societal dimension. Thispaper proposes that accounting is a protean and complex form of myth making, and as suchforms a cohesive tenet in societies. It is argued that there are intrinsic parallels between thetheoretical attributes of myth and accounting practice, and that these mythicalcharacteristics sustain the existence and acceptance of accounting and its consequences insocieties over time. A theoretical exploration of accounting as a form of myth revealsaccounting as pluralistic and culturally sensitive. Such an analysis challenges theoreticalexplanations of accounting that are presented as a “grand narrative” universalunderstanding of accounting. Manifestations of the attributes of myth are described in thecalculus and artefacts of accounting practice to demonstrate how accounting stories andbeliefs are used as a form of myth by individuals to inform and construe their worldpicture.

  11. Accountability in Health Care

    Vrangbæk, Karsten; Byrkjeflot, Haldor

    2016-01-01

    The debate on accountability within the public sector has been lively in the past decade. Significant progress has been made in developing conceptual frameworks and typologies for characterizing different features and functions of accountability. However, there is a lack of sector specific...... adjustment of such frameworks. In this article we present a framework for analyzing accountability within health care. The paper makes use of the concept of "accountability regime" to signify the combination of different accountability forms, directions and functions at any given point in time. We show...... that reforms can introduce new forms of accountability, change existing accountability relations or change the relative importance of different accountability forms. They may also change the dominant direction and shift the balance between different functions of accountability. We further suggest...

  12. Neurophysiological Distinction between Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder

    Mathalon, Daniel H.; Hoffman, Ralph E.; Watson, Todd D.; Miller, Ryan M.; Roach, Brian J.; Ford, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Schizoaffective disorder (SA) is distinguished from schizophrenia (SZ) based on the presence of prominent mood symptoms over the illness course. Despite this clinical distinction, SA and SZ patients are often combined in research studies, in part because data supporting a distinct pathophysiological boundary between the disorders are lacking. Indeed, few studies have addressed whether neurobiological abnormalities associated with SZ, such as the widely replicated reduction and delay of the P300 event-related potential (ERP), are also present in SA. Scalp EEG was acquired from patients with DSM-IV SA (n = 15) or SZ (n = 22), as well as healthy controls (HC; n = 22) to assess the P300 elicited by infrequent target (15%) and task-irrelevant distractor (15%) stimuli in separate auditory and visual ”oddball” tasks. P300 amplitude was reduced and delayed in SZ, relative to HC, consistent with prior studies. These SZ abnormalities did not interact with stimulus type (target vs. task-irrelevant distractor) or modality (auditory vs. visual). Across sensory modality and stimulus type, SA patients exhibited normal P300 amplitudes (significantly larger than SZ patients and indistinguishable from HC). However, P300 latency and reaction time were both equivalently delayed in SZ and SA patients, relative to HC. P300 differences between SA and SZ patients could not be accounted for by variation in symptom severity, socio-economic status, education, or illness duration. Although both groups show similar deficits in processing speed, SA patients do not exhibit the P300 amplitude deficits evident in SZ, consistent with an underlying pathophysiological boundary between these disorders. PMID:20140266

  13. Role of 108 schizophrenia-associated loci in modulating psychopathological dimensions in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Fabbri, Chiara; Serretti, Alessandro

    2017-10-01

    The Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) identified 108 loci associated with schizophrenia, but their role in modulating specific psychopathological dimensions of the disease is unknown. This study investigated which symptom dimensions may be affected by these loci in schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Positive, negative and depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, cognition, violent behaviors, quality of life, and early onset were investigated in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using the clinical antipsychotic trials of intervention effectiveness (CATIE) and systematic treatment enhancement program for bipolar disorder (STEP-BD) studies. Individual loci were investigated, then genes within 50 Kbp from polymorphisms with p schizophrenia-associated variant (rs75059851) may modulate negative symptoms. Multi-locus models may provide interesting insights about the biological mechanisms that mediate psychopathological dimensions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Theory of Mind intervention for outpatients with schizophrenia.

    Bechi, Margherita; Spangaro, Marco; Bosia, Marta; Zanoletti, Andrea; Fresi, Francesco; Buonocore, Mariachiara; Cocchi, Federica; Guglielmino, Carmelo; Smeraldi, Enrico; Cavallaro, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Social disability is one of the critical areas known to be a predictor of daily functioning in schizophrenia. Recent studies showed that impairments in Theory of Mind (ToM) contribute to real-world social functioning and are more strongly associated with community outcomes than other neuropsychological domains of cognition. Several experiments revealed an improving potential of social cognition targeted training, particularly through introduction of verbalisation and explicit manipulation of information about others' mental states. Based on these data, we evaluated longitudinally, with a controlled trial, the feasibility and efficacy of ToM training and the possible influences of daily functioning and IQ on the enhancement of ToM abilities. Thirty outpatients with schizophrenia were recruited and randomly allocated to two groups: ToM Intervention (ToMI), based on verbalisation of selected comic strips representing ToM scenarios, or active control group (ACG). Results showed a significant improvement of ToM abilities among subjects allocated to ToMI compared to ACG, confirming the hypothesis of the enhancing potential of training methods targeting ToM functions. Moreover, we observed no influences of neuropsychological and functional variables on ToM improvement. Development of future studies should take into account possible effects of ToM training on functional outcome, according to the strong associations between ToM abilities and real-world social functioning.

  15. Harmonisation of agricultural accounting

    Jaroslav Sedláček

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the accounting of the biological assets. There are described two approaches: Czech and international. The International Accounting Standards are emulative of more authentic presentment of economic processes in agricultural activities than Czech accounting legislation. From the comparison the both approaches accrued some differences, which can influent the financial statements of enterprises. The causation of main difference appears an application of fair value, which is prescribed for biological assets in international accounting standards. In international accounting standards is preferred principle of fair and true view, while in Czech accounting is preferred prudence principle.

  16. How connected are people with schizophrenia? Cell phone, computer, email, and social media use.

    Miller, Brian J; Stewart, Adriana; Schrimsher, John; Peeples, Dale; Buckley, Peter F

    2015-02-28

    Technologies such as Internet based social media network (SMN) websites are becoming an important part of many adult lives; however, less is known about their use in patients with schizophrenia. We need to determine (1) how "connected" are patients with schizophrenia?, (2) do these technologies interfere with the patient׳s illness?, and (3) do patients envision these technologies being involved in their treatment? We recruited 80 inpatients and outpatients age 18-70 with schizophrenia to complete a brief survey on the prevalence and frequency of cell phone, text messaging, computer, email, and SMN use, and associated attitudes. 56% of subjects use text messaging, 48% have an email account, and 27% of subjects use SMN sites daily, with Facebook being the most popular. Many current users agreed that these technologies help them interact/socialize more, expressed interest in receiving text messages from their doctors, and disagreed that these technologies make symptoms worse. These preliminary findings should be investigated in larger samples, but suggest that these technologies afford a unique opportunity to engage and improve treatment for some patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Combined neurocognitive and metacognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia: Effects on bias against disconfirmatory evidence.

    Buonocore, M; Bosia, M; Riccaboni, R; Bechi, M; Spangaro, M; Piantanida, M; Cocchi, F; Guglielmino, C; Bianchi, L; Smeraldi, E; Cavallaro, R

    2015-07-01

    A Metacognitive Training for Schizophrenia patients (MCT) was developed to target the cognitive biases that characterize the illness. Results suggest positive MCT effects encompassing several aspects of psychopathology and subjective well-being. There are still open questions concerning the effect on different cognitive biases and the interplay between them and both psychopathology and neurocognition. Specifically, the bias against disconfirmatory evidence (BADE) has never been tested in previous trials on MCT. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of MCT combined with a cognitive remediation therapy (CACR) in schizophrenia and its effect on BADE. Moreover, we investigated the relationships between BADE and both neuropsychology and psychopathology, taking into account mutual influences on the degree of improvement. Fifty-seven schizophrenia outpatients were randomly assigned to CACR + control group or MCT+CACR and assessed at baseline and after treatment for psychopathology, neurocognition and BADE. After MCT+CACR patients showed significantly greater improvements on BADE. Although BADE baseline performances correlated with several cognitive domains, no association was found between BADE improvement and neurocognitive nor psychopathological measures. This study enlightened for the first time the efficacy of MCT+CACR on BADE in schizophrenia, suggesting the importance to develop a more specific intervention tailored on individual needs of patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Duplications of the neuropeptide receptor gene VIPR2 confer significant risk for schizophrenia.

    Vacic, Vladimir

    2011-03-24

    Rare copy number variants (CNVs) have a prominent role in the aetiology of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Substantial risk for schizophrenia is conferred by large (>500-kilobase) CNVs at several loci, including microdeletions at 1q21.1 (ref. 2), 3q29 (ref. 3), 15q13.3 (ref. 2) and 22q11.2 (ref. 4) and microduplication at 16p11.2 (ref. 5). However, these CNVs collectively account for a small fraction (2-4%) of cases, and the relevant genes and neurobiological mechanisms are not well understood. Here we performed a large two-stage genome-wide scan of rare CNVs and report the significant association of copy number gains at chromosome 7q36.3 with schizophrenia. Microduplications with variable breakpoints occurred within a 362-kilobase region and were detected in 29 of 8,290 (0.35%) patients versus 2 of 7,431 (0.03%) controls in the combined sample. All duplications overlapped or were located within 89 kilobases upstream of the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor gene VIPR2. VIPR2 transcription and cyclic-AMP signalling were significantly increased in cultured lymphocytes from patients with microduplications of 7q36.3. These findings implicate altered vasoactive intestinal peptide signalling in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and indicate the VPAC2 receptor as a potential target for the development of new antipsychotic drugs.

  19. Incentive motivation deficits in schizophrenia reflect effort computation impairments during cost-benefit decision-making.

    Fervaha, Gagan; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2013-11-01

    Motivational impairments are a core feature of schizophrenia and although there are numerous reports studying this feature using clinical rating scales, objective behavioural assessments are lacking. Here, we use a translational paradigm to measure incentive motivation in individuals with schizophrenia. Sixteen stable outpatients with schizophrenia and sixteen matched healthy controls completed a modified version of the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task that accounts for differences in motoric ability. Briefly, subjects were presented with a series of trials where they may choose to expend a greater amount of effort for a larger monetary reward versus less effort for a smaller reward. Additionally, the probability of receiving money for a given trial was varied at 12%, 50% and 88%. Clinical and other reward-related variables were also evaluated. Patients opted to expend greater effort significantly less than controls for trials of high, but uncertain (i.e. 50% and 88% probability) incentive value, which was related to amotivation and neurocognitive deficits. Other abnormalities were also noted but were related to different clinical variables such as impulsivity (low reward and 12% probability). These motivational deficits were not due to group differences in reward learning, reward valuation or hedonic capacity. Our findings offer novel support for incentive motivation deficits in schizophrenia. Clinical amotivation is associated with impairments in the computation of effort during cost-benefit decision-making. This objective translational paradigm may guide future investigations of the neural circuitry underlying these motivational impairments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. COMPUTER-ASSISTED ACCOUNTING

    SORIN-CIPRIAN TEIUŞAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available What is computer-assisted accounting? Where is the place and what is the role of the computer in the financial-accounting activity? What is the position and importance of the computer in the accountant’s activity? All these are questions that require scientific research in order to find the answers. The paper approaches the issue of the support granted to the accountant to organize and manage the accounting activity by the computer. Starting from the notions of accounting and computer, the concept of computer-assisted accounting is introduced, it has a general character and it refers to the accounting performed with the help of the computer or using the computer to automate the procedures performed by the person who is doing the accounting activity; this is a concept used to define the computer applications of the accounting activity. The arguments regarding the use of the computer to assist accounting targets the accounting informatization, the automating of the financial-accounting activities and the endowment with modern technology of the contemporary accounting.

  1. Schizophrenia

    ... Updated by: Fred K. Berger, MD, addiction and forensic psychiatrist, Scripps Memorial Hospital, La Jolla, CA. Also ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  2. Schizophrenia

    ... Library Public Policy Research Find Support Free Support 24/7 Text NAMI to 741741 Find Help Living with ... 6264 Press & Media In A Crisis? Stay Connected facebook twitter Instagram tumblr youtube Discussion Groups Terms of ...

  3. Schizophrenia

    ... normally. A person may seem depressed and withdrawn. Cognitive symptoms affect the thought process. These include trouble using information, making decisions, and paying attention. No one is sure what ...

  4. Schizophrenia as a self-disorder due to perceptual incoherence

    Postmes, L.; Sno, H. N.; Goedhart, S.; van der Stel, J.; Heering, H. D.; de Haan, L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the potential relationship between multisensory disintegration and self-disorders in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Sensory processing impairments affecting multisensory integration have been demonstrated in schizophrenia. From a developmental perspective

  5. Normal brain activation in schizophrenia patients during associative emotional learning

    Swart, Marte; Liemburg, Edith Jantine; Kortekaas, Rudie; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Aleman, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Emotional deficits are among the core features of schizophrenia and both associative emotional learning and the related ability to verbalize emotions can be reduced. We investigated whether schizophrenia patients demonstrated impaired function of limbic and prefrontal areas during associative

  6. Clinical implication of smoking among patients with schizophrenia at ...

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if cigarette smoking in schizophrenia is associated with increased disability ... Cite as: Aguocha C, Uwakwe R, Olose E, Amadi K, Onyeama G, Duru C. Clinical ..... addiction and schizophrenia.

  7. Mutated Genes in Schizophrenia Map to Brain Networks

    ... Matters NIH Research Matters August 12, 2013 Mutated Genes in Schizophrenia Map to Brain Networks Schizophrenia networks ... have a high number of spontaneous mutations in genes that form a network in the front region ...

  8. Genetic correlation between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and schizophrenia

    McLaughlin, Russell L; Schijven, Dick; van Rheenen, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown higher-than-expected rates of schizophrenia in relatives of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), suggesting an aetiological relationship between the diseases. Here, we investigate the genetic relationship between ALS and schizophrenia using genome...

  9. Use of the word schizophrenia in Portuguese newspapers.

    Rodrigues-Silva, Nuno; Falcão de Almeida, Telma; Araújo, Filipa; Molodynski, Andrew; Venâncio, Ângela; Bouça, Jorge

    2017-10-01

    Stigmatizing references to schizophrenia have a negative impact on self-esteem, deter treatment seeking and diminish the effectiveness of treatment. To analyze the reporting of schizophrenia in Portuguese newspapers. We analyzed five high circulation Portuguese newspapers between 2007 and 2013. We selected all news containing the word "esquizofrenia" (schizophrenia). Several variables were collected. About 1058 news items contained the word schizophrenia. Schizophrenia was mentioned metaphorically in 40% of the cases and in the context of Crime in 22%. When used in a Criminal context, schizophrenia was mostly attributed to people who were the perpetrators of the crime (93%). When used metaphorically, schizophrenia had a negative connotation in 90% of cases. We found an increasing reporting of schizophrenia in the criminal news and serious crimes. Our results suggest the media has an active role promoting stigma, as well as passively broadcasting and thus passing on prejudices.

  10. Hyperglycemia and diabetes in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders

    Cohen, D; Stolk, RP; Grobbee, DE; Gispen-De Wied, CC

    OBJECTIVE - Pharmacoepidemiological studies have shown an increased prevalence of diabetes in patients with schizophrenia. To address this issue, we decided to assess glucose metabolism in a population of patients With schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Oral

  11. Accountability: A Mosaic Image

    Turner, Teri

    1977-01-01

    The problems involved in definition, implementation and control of accountability processes are discussed. It is stated that "...emotional involvement in accountability is one of the most difficult aspects to deal with, the chief emotion being fear". (Author/RW)

  12. Keeping Books of Account

    2009-01-01

    Books of account are a record of a company’s income and spending. These records may be kept in paper or electronic form. The books of account contain the information for preparing the company’s annual financial statements.

  13. Culture and Accounting Practices

    Carataș Maria Alina

    2017-01-01

    Besides the financial statements, rules, and calculations, the accounting also impliesprofessional reasoning, and the organizational culture promoted within the firm influences theaccounting decisions. We analyzed and identified several of accounting policies determined by thecorporate governance and organizational culture influence.

  14. Making Collaborative Innovation Accountable

    Sørensen, Eva

    The public sector is increasingly expected to be innovative, but the prize for a more innovative public sector might be that it becomes difficult to hold public authorities to account for their actions. The article explores the tensions between innovative and accountable governance, describes...... the foundation for these tensions in different accountability models, and suggest directions to take in analyzing the accountability of collaborative innovation processes....

  15. TIME MANAGEMENT FOR ACCOUNTANTS

    Cristina Elena BIGIOI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Time is money. Every accountant knows that. In our country, the taxes are changing frequently. The accountants have to update their fiscal knowledge. The purpose of the article is to find how the accountants manage their time, taking into consideration the number of fiscal declarations and the fiscal changes. In this article we present some ways to improve time management for accountants.

  16. Accounting Applications---Introduction

    Joshua Ronen

    1980-01-01

    Introduction to special issue on accounting applications. By publishing these papers together in one issue of Management Science we wish to accomplish the dual purpose of exposing management scientists to the application of their discipline to important accounting problems and of allowing management scientists and accountants to interact in areas of research and problem-solving, thus stimulating the interest of readers who are concerned with the problems of accounting.

  17. Autoimmune diseases and infections as risk factors for schizophrenia

    Benros, Michael E; Mortensen, Preben B; Eaton, William W

    2012-01-01

    Immunological hypotheses have become increasingly prominent when studying the etiology of schizophrenia. Autoimmune diseases, and especially the number of infections requiring hospitalization, have been identified as significant risk factors for schizophrenia in a dose-response relationship, whic...... diseases and infections should be considered in the treatment of individuals with schizophrenia symptoms, and further research is needed of the immune system's possible contributing pathogenic factors in the etiology of schizophrenia....

  18. Visualization analysis of author collaborations in schizophrenia research

    Wu, Ying; Duan, Zhiguang

    2015-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness that levies a heavy medical toll and cost burden throughout the world. Scientific collaborations are necessary for progress in psychiatric research. However, there have been few publications on scientific collaborations in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of author collaborations in schizophrenia research. Methods This study used 58,107 records on schizophrenia from 2003 to 2012 which were downloaded from S...

  19. Genome-wide association study of clinical dimensions of schizophrenia

    Fanous, Ayman H; Zhou, Baiyu; Aggen, Steven H

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sources of evidence suggest that genetic factors influence variation in clinical features of schizophrenia. The authors present the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of dimensional symptom scores among individuals with schizophrenia.......Multiple sources of evidence suggest that genetic factors influence variation in clinical features of schizophrenia. The authors present the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of dimensional symptom scores among individuals with schizophrenia....

  20. In Vivo Measurements of Glutamate, GABA, and NAAG in Schizophrenia

    Rowland, Laura M.; Kontson, Kimberly; West, Jeffrey; Edden, Richard A.; Zhu, He; Wijtenburg, S. Andrea; Holcomb, Henry H.; Barker, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    The major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), respectively, are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG), a neuropeptide that modulates the Glu system, may also be altered in schizophrenia. This study investigated GABA, Glu + glutamine (Glx), and NAAG levels in younger and older subjects with schizophrenia. Forty-one subjects, 21 with chronic schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls, partic...

  1. Cash Advance Accounting: Accounting Regulations and Practices

    Aristita Rotila

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known the fact that often the entities offer to staff or third parties certain amounts of money, in order to make payments for the entities, such sums being registered differently in the accounting as cash advances. In the case in which the advances are offered in a foreign currency, there is the problem of the exchange rate used when justifying the advance, for the conversion in lei of payments that were carried out. In this article we wanted to signal the effect that the exchange rate, used in the assessment for reflecting in the accounting operations concerning cash advance reimbursements in a foreign currency, has on the information presented in the financial statement. Therewith, we signal some aspects from the content of the accounting regulations, with reference at defining the cash advances, meaning, and the presentation in the balance sheet of cash advances, which, in our opinion, impose clarifications.

  2. Attention in schizophrenia and in epileptic psychosis

    I.C.J Kairalla

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive behavior of human beings is usually supported by rapid monitoring of outstanding events in the environment. Some investigators have suggested that a primary attention deficit might trigger symptoms of schizophrenia. In addition, researchers have long discussed the relationship between schizophrenia and the schizophrenia-like psychosis of epilepsy (SLPE. On the basis of these considerations, the objective of the present study was to investigate attention performance of patients with both disorders. Patient age was 18 to 60 years, and all patients had received formal schooling for at least four years. Patients were excluded if they had any systemic disease with neurologic or psychiatric comorbidity, or a history of brain surgery. The computer-assisted TAVIS-2R test was applied to all patients and to a control group to evaluate and discriminate between selective, alternating and sustained attention. The TAVIS-2R test is divided into three parts: one for selective attention (5 min, the second for alternating attention (5 min, and the third for the evaluation of vigilance or sustained attention (10 min. The same computer software was used for statistical analysis of reaction time, omission errors, and commission errors. The sample consisted of 36 patients with schizophrenia, 28 with interictal SLPE, and 47 healthy controls. The results of the selective attention tests for both patient groups were significantly lower than that for controls. The patients with schizophrenia and SLPE performed differently in the alternating and sustained attention tests: patients with SLPE had alternating attention deficits, whereas patients with schizophrenia showed deficits in sustained attention. These quantitative results confirmed the qualitative clinical observations for both patient groups, that is, that patients with schizophrenia had difficulties in focusing attention, whereas those with epilepsy showed perseveration in attention focus.

  3. Cognition-Emotion Dysinteraction in Schizophrenia

    Alan eAnticevic

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Evolving theories of schizophrenia emphasize a ‘disconnection’ in distributed fronto-striatal-limbic neural systems, which may give rise to breakdowns in cognition and emotional function. We discuss these diverse domains of function from the perspective of disrupted neural circuits involved in ‘cold’ cognitive vs. ‘hot’ affective operations and the interplay between these processes. We focus on three research areas that highlight cognition-emotion dysinteractions in schizophrenia: First, we discuss the role of cognitive deficits in the ‘maintenance’ of emotional information. We review recent evidence suggesting that motivational abnormalities in schizophrenia may in part arise due to a disrupted ability to ‘maintain’ affective information over time. Here, dysfunction in a prototypical ‘cold’ cognitive operation may result in ‘affective’ deficits in schizophrenia. Second, we discuss abnormalities in the detection and ascription of salience, manifest as excessive processing of non-emotional stimuli and inappropriate distractibility. We review emerging evidence suggesting deficits in some, but not other, specific emotional processes in schizophrenia – namely an intact ability to perceive emotion ‘in the moment’ but poor prospective valuation of stimuli and heightened reactivity to stimuli that ought to be filtered. Third, we discuss abnormalities in learning mechanisms that may give rise to delusions, the fixed, false and often emotionally charged beliefs that accompany psychosis. We discuss the role of affect in aberrant belief formation, mostly ignored by current theoretical models. Together, we attempt to provide a consilient overview for how breakdowns in neural systems underlying affect and cognition in psychosis interact across symptom domains. We conclude with a brief treatment of the neurobiology of schizophrenia and the need to close our explanatory gap between cellular-level hypotheses and complex

  4. [Theory of mind in schizophrenia spectrum disorders].

    Bora, Emre

    2009-01-01

    To review studies that investigated theory of mind (ToM) deficits in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. After a thorough literature search, 71 studies were included in this review. Data regarding the relationship between ToM, and other cognitive skills, symptoms, and the impact of the state of illness were reviewed. ToM instruments used in schizophrenia spectrum disorders have some major psychometric limitations; however, previous research was still able to provide some important findings regarding mentalizing impairments in schizophrenia. While ToM deficits are more pronounced in the acute phase of illness, it seems to persist during periods of remission. There is also evidence of ToM deficits in the healthy relatives of schizophrenics, patients with delusional disorder and bipolar disorder (BD), and individuals with high schizotypy scores. ToM dysfunction might be secondary to other cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia that have a good prognosis, asymptomatic schizophrenia, delusional disorder, and BD. Other cognitive deficits do not seem to explain ToM dysfunction in patients with psychosis and severe negative symptoms. These findings support the contribution of impairment in both domain-general and domain-specific mechanisms to ToM deficits in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. ToM deficits may be important for understanding poor social functioning and poor insight in psychotic disorders. While ToM is influenced by state variables, it might be an endophenotype of schizophrenia; however, ToM is likely to be an indicator of other frontal lobe-related endophenotypes. Longitudinal studies conducted with high-risk individuals are particularly important.

  5. Designing account management organizations

    Hart, van der H.W.C.; Kempeners, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Organizational structures of account management systems are one of the most interesting and controversial parts of account management systems, because of the variety of organizational options that are available. The main focus is on the organization of account management systems and particularly on

  6. Lo Strategic Management Accounting

    G. INVERNIZZI

    2005-01-01

    Il saggio indaga gli aggregati informativi e gli elementi che compongono lo strategic management accounting. Sono quindi analizzate le funzioni svolte nei diversi stadi del processo di gestione strategica osservando il suo ruolo all’interno del management accounting. Infine sono approfonditi i rapporti fra i livelli della gestione strategica e lo strategic management accounting.

  7. Automated Accounting. Instructor Guide.

    Moses, Duane R.

    This curriculum guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting College Edition Version 2.0 software in their accounting programs. The module consists of four units containing assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting. The first…

  8. Intelligent Accountability in Education

    O'Neill, Onora

    2013-01-01

    Systems of accountability are "second order" ways of using evidence of the standard to which "first order" tasks are carried out for a great variety of purposes. However, more accountability is not always better, and processes of holding to account can impose high costs without securing substantial benefits. At their worst,…

  9. The Accounting Capstone Problem

    Elrod, Henry; Norris, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Capstone courses in accounting programs bring students experiences integrating across the curriculum (University of Washington, 2005) and offer unique (Sanyal, 2003) and transformative experiences (Sill, Harward, & Cooper, 2009). Students take many accounting courses without preparing complete sets of financial statements. Accountants not only…

  10. Implementing Replacement Cost Accounting

    1976-12-01

    cost accounting Clickener, John Ross Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School http://hdl.handle.net/10945/17810 Downloaded from NPS Archive...Calhoun IMPLEMENTING REPLACEMENT COST ACCOUNTING John Ross CHckener NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS IMPLEMENTING REPLACEMENT COST ...Implementing Replacement Cost Accounting 7. AUTHORS John Ross Clickener READ INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 9. TYRE OF

  11. Managerial Accounting. Study Guide.

    Plachta, Leonard E.

    This self-instructional study guide is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course in managerial accounting. The study guide is intended for use by students in conjuction with a separate textbook, Horngren's "Accounting for Management Control: An Introduction," and a workbook, Curry's "Student Guide to Accounting for Management…

  12. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for schizophrenia: a critical evaluation of its theoretical framework from a clinical-phenomenological perspective

    Skodlar, Borut; Henriksen, Mads Gram; Sass, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has played an increasingly important role in psychotherapy for schizophrenia since the 1990s, but it has also encountered many theoretical and practical limitations. For example, methodologically rigorous meta-analyses have recently found only modest...... and self-awareness frequently reported by schizophrenia patients and systematically studied in phenomenological psychopathology from the beginning of the 20th century. Results: We argue that a strong theoretical emphasis on cognitive appraisals with only subsidiary attention devoted to affective...... and behavioral processes - as is characteristic of many forms of CBT - cannot satisfactorily account for the complex subjective experiences of schizophrenia patients. We further argue that certain theoretical strategies widely employed in CBT to explore and explain mental disorders, which involve atomization and...

  13. [Interest of a new instrument to assess cognition in schizophrenia: The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS)].

    Bralet, M C; Navarre, M; Eskenazi, A M; Lucas-Ross, M; Falissard, B

    2008-12-01

    administered the standard battery of cognitive tests including: the Rey Auditory-Verbal learning test, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, third edition, subtests (Digit inverse sequencing, Digit Symbol-Coding), the Trail-Making A, Verbal Fluency (Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Category Instances), and the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (128 card version). The factor structure of the French BACS A Version was determined by performing a principal components analysis with oblique rotation. The relationship between the French BACS sub-scores and the standard battery sub-scores was determined by calculating Pearson's correlations among the sub-scores, with a level of significance of alphacognitive performance, which accounted for the greatest amount of variance. The BACS thus permits an assessment of overall cognitive function as a global score, more than some individual specific cognitive domains. The sub-scores from the French BACS A Version were strongly correlated with the standard battery corresponding sub-scores. We observed significant correlations for all the subtests evaluating: verbal memory (Pearson=0.83; pinformation processing (Pearson=0.69; pcognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia as a standard battery of tests that required over 2h to complete. Moreover, these results demonstrate that the BACS, the global score of which may be the most powerful indicator of functional outcome, can also be a good neuropsychological instrument for assessing global cognition in patients with schizophrenia.

  14. Schizophrenia/first episode psychosis in children and adolescents

    Childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) is diagnosed before the age of 13 years, and early onset schizophrenia (EOS) is diagnosed before the age of 18 years. EOS is considered extremely rare and its prevalence in comparison to the worldwide prevalence of schizophrenia (1%) has not adequately been studied. Patients ...

  15. Strong family history and early onset of schizophrenia: about 2 ...

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychotic disorder and high genetic loading is associated with early onset of the disease. The outcome of schizophrenia has also been linked with the age of onset as well as the presence of family history of the disease. Therefore families with patients with early onset Schizophrenia are ...

  16. Neuregulin-1 genotypes and eye movements in schizophrenia

    Haraldsson, H.M.; Ettinger, U.; Magnusdottir, B.B.

    2010-01-01

    Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) is a putative susceptibility gene for schizophrenia but the neurocognitive processes that may involve NRG-1 in schizophrenia are unknown. Deficits in antisaccade (AS) and smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) are promising endophenotypes, which may be associated with brain...... findings of impaired AS and SPEM performance in schizophrenia patients (all P eye movement variables...

  17. Epidemiology of Schizophrenia: Review of Findings and Myths

    Messias, Erick; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Eaton, William W.

    2007-01-01

    By describing patterns of disease distribution within populations, identifying risk factors, and finding associations, epidemiological studies have contributed to our current understanding of schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age and the association with auto-immune diseases are some of the newly described epidemiological finding in schizophrenia epidemiology, shaping our current definition of schizophrenia. Though early intervention strategies have gained momentum, primary prevention of schiz...

  18. The Responsibilities of Accountants

    Ronald F Duska

    2005-01-01

    An accountant is a good accountant if in practicing his craft he is superb in handling the numbers. But a good accountant in handling the numbers can use that skill to misstate earnings to cover a multitude of problems with a company's books while staying within the law. So, the notion of a moral or ethical accountant is not the same as the notion of a good accountant. Our general principle would be that to be ethical a person has a responsibility to fulfil one's role or roles, as long as tha...

  19. Nuclear fuel lease accounting

    Danielson, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The subject of nuclear fuel lease accounting is a controversial one that has received much attention over the years. This has occurred during a period when increasing numbers of utilities, seeking alternatives to traditional financing methods, have turned to leasing their nuclear fuel inventories. The purpose of this paper is to examine the current accounting treatment of nuclear fuel leases as prescribed by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC's) Uniform System of Accounts. Cost accounting for leased nuclear fuel during the fuel cycle is also discussed

  20. Handwriting Movement Analyses for Monitoring Drug-Induced Motor Side Effects in Schizophrenia Patients Treated with Risperidone

    Caligiuri, Michael P.; Teulings, Hans-Leo; Dean, Charles E.; Niculescu, Alexander B.; Lohr, James

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that nearly 60% of schizophrenia (SZ) patients treated with conventional antipsychotic drugs develop extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) such as parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia. Although the prevalence of EPS has decreased due to the newer antipsychotics, EPS continue to limit the effectiveness of these medicines. Ongoing monitoring of EPS is likely to improve treatment outcome or compliance and reduce the frequency of re-hospitalization. A quantitative analysis of handwriting kinematics was used to evaluate effects of antipsychotic medication type and dose in schizophrenia patients. Twenty-seven schizophrenia patients treated with risperidone, six schizophrenia patients who received no antipsychotic medication and 46 healthy comparison participants were enrolled. Participants performed a 20-minute handwriting task consisting of loops of various sizes and a sentence. Data were captured and analyzed using MovAlyzeR software. Results indicated that risperidone-treated participants exhibited significantly more dysfluent handwriting movements than either healthy or untreated SZ participants. Risperidone-treated participants exhibited lower movement velocities during production of simple loops compared to unmedicated patients. Handwriting dysfluency during sentence writing increased with dose. A 3-factor model consisting of kinematic variables derived from sentence writing accounted for 83% (r = .91) of the variability in medication dose. In contrast, we found no association between observer-based EPS severity ratings and medication dose. These findings support the importance of handwriting-based measures to monitor EPS in medicated schizophrenia patients. PMID:19692133

  1. Updating the mild encephalitis hypothesis of schizophrenia.

    Bechter, K

    2013-04-05

    Schizophrenia seems to be a heterogeneous disorder. Emerging evidence indicates that low level neuroinflammation (LLNI) may not occur infrequently. Many infectious agents with low overall pathogenicity are risk factors for psychoses including schizophrenia and for autoimmune disorders. According to the mild encephalitis (ME) hypothesis, LLNI represents the core pathogenetic mechanism in a schizophrenia subgroup that has syndromal overlap with other psychiatric disorders. ME may be triggered by infections, autoimmunity, toxicity, or trauma. A 'late hit' and gene-environment interaction are required to explain major findings about schizophrenia, and both aspects would be consistent with the ME hypothesis. Schizophrenia risk genes stay rather constant within populations despite a resulting low number of progeny; this may result from advantages associated with risk genes, e.g., an improved immune response, which may act protectively within changing environments, although they are associated with the disadvantage of increased susceptibility to psychotic disorders. Specific schizophrenic symptoms may arise with instances of LLNI when certain brain functional systems are involved, in addition to being shaped by pre-existing liability factors. Prodrome phase and the transition to a diseased status may be related to LLNI processes emerging and varying over time. The variability in the course of schizophrenia resembles the varying courses of autoimmune disorders, which result from three required factors: genes, the environment, and the immune system. Preliminary criteria for subgrouping neurodevelopmental, genetic, ME, and other types of schizophrenias are provided. A rare example of ME schizophrenia may be observed in Borna disease virus infection. Neurodevelopmental schizophrenia due to early infections has been estimated by others to explain approximately 30% of cases, but the underlying pathomechanisms of transition to disease remain in question. LLNI (e.g. from

  2. [Influence of paternal age in schizophrenia].

    Hubert, A; Szöke, A; Leboyer, M; Schürhoff, F

    2011-06-01

    Schizophrenia is an aetiologically heterogeneous syndrome, with a strong genetic component. Despite a reduced fertility in this disorder, its prevalence is maintained and could be explained by de novo genetic mutations. Advanced paternal age (APA) is a major source of new mutations in human beings and could thus be associated with an increased risk of developing schizophrenia in offspring. New mutations related to APA have been implicated as a cause of sporadic cases in several autosomal dominant diseases and also in neurodevelopmental diseases, autism, intellectual disabilities, and social functioning. The aim of the present study was to summarize the results of studies investigating the role of APA, and to discuss some interpretations. All relevant studies were identified through the National Library of Medicine (PubMed(®) database). Keywords used for research were "age" and "schizophrenia" linked to "paternal or father". We have identified and analysed eight cohort studies, five case-control studies, two meta-analyses, and one review concerning different father's mutations potentially transmitted, two studies comparing paternal age at conception between sporadic versus familial cases of schizophrenia. All studies selected have been published between 2000 and 2009. After controlling for several confounding factors including maternal age, the relative risk of schizophrenia increased from 1.84 to 4.62 in offspring of fathers with an older age of fatherhood. Mother's age showed no significant effects after adjusting for paternal age. There was a significant association between paternal age and risk of developing schizophrenia, there was a weaker association with psychosis. The results of these different studies are confirmed by two recent meta-analyses which found an increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring of fathers older than 35 years. Two main hypotheses could explain these results. The first one is based on the presence of new mutations in the

  3. The image of accountants

    Baldvinsdottir, Gudrun; Burns, John; Nørreklit, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The aim of this paper is to investigate the extent to which a profound change in the image of accountants can be seen in the discourse used in accounting software adverts that have appeared in the professional publications of the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants over the last...... four decades. Design/methodology/approach - Methodologically, the paper draws from Barthes' work on the rhetoric of images and Giddens' work on modernity. By looking at accounting software adverts, an attempt is made to investigate the image of the accountant produced by the discourse of the adverts......, and whether the image produced reflects a wide social change in society. Findings - It was found that in the 1970s and the 1980s the accountant was constructed as a responsible and rational person. In the 1990s, the accountant was presented as an instructed action man. However, in a recent advert...

  4. Cost accounting at GKSS

    Hinz, R.

    1979-01-01

    The GKSS has a cost accounting system comprising cost type, cost centre and cost unit accounting which permits of a comprehensive and detailed supervision of the accural of costs and use of funds, makes price setting for outside orders possible and provides the necessary data for decision-making and planning. It fulfills the requirement for an ordered accounting system; it is therefore guaranteed that there exists between financial accounts department and cost accounting a proper demarcation and transition, that costs are accounted fully only on the basis of vouchers and only once, evaluation and distribution are unified and the principle of causation is observed. Two employees are engaged in costs and services accounting. Although we strive to effect adaptations as swiftly as possible, and constantly to adapt refinements and supplementary processes for the improvement of the system, this can only occur within the scope of, and with the exactitude necessary for the required information. (author)

  5. PARADIGM OF ACCOUNTING CHANGE

    Constanta Iacob

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The words and phrases swop with each other and the apparent stability of a word’s meaning sometimes change in time. This explains why the generic term of accounting is used when referring to the qualities attributed to accounting,but also when it comes to organizing financial accounting function within the entity, and when referring concretely to keeping a double record with its specific means, methods and tools specific, respectively seen as a technical accounting.Speaking about the qualities of accounting, but also about the organizational form it takes, we note that there is a manifold meaning of the word accounting, which is why the purpose of this article is to demonstrate that the paradigm shift aimed at a new set of rules and if the rules changes, then we can change the very purpose of accounting.

  6. Schizophrenia, substance abuse, and violent crime.

    Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Hjern, Anders; Grann, Martin; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2009-05-20

    Persons with schizophrenia are thought to be at increased risk of committing violent crime 4 to 6 times the level of general population individuals without this disorder. However, risk estimates vary substantially across studies, and considerable uncertainty exists as to what mediates this elevated risk. Despite this uncertainty, current guidelines recommend that violence risk assessment should be conducted for all patients with schizophrenia. To determine the risk of violent crime among patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia and the role of substance abuse in mediating this risk. Longitudinal designs were used to link data from nationwide Swedish registers of hospital admissions and criminal convictions in 1973-2006. Risk of violent crime in patients after diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 8003) was compared with that among general population controls (n = 80 025). Potential confounders (age, sex, income, and marital and immigrant status) and mediators (substance abuse comorbidity) were measured at baseline. To study familial confounding, we also investigated risk of violence among unaffected siblings (n = 8123) of patients with schizophrenia. Information on treatment was not available. Violent crime (any criminal conviction for homicide, assault, robbery, arson, any sexual offense, illegal threats, or intimidation). In patients with schizophrenia, 1054 (13.2%) had at least 1 violent offense compared with 4276 (5.3%) of general population controls (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-2.2). The risk was mostly confined to patients with substance abuse comorbidity (of whom 27.6% committed an offense), yielding an increased risk of violent crime among such patients (adjusted OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 3.9-5.0), whereas the risk increase was small in schizophrenia patients without substance abuse comorbidity (8.5% of whom had at least 1 violent offense; adjusted OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.4; Pgenetic or early environmental) confounding of the

  7. A review of reward processing and motivational impairment in schizophrenia.

    Strauss, Gregory P; Waltz, James A; Gold, James M

    2014-03-01

    This article reviews and synthesizes research on reward processing in schizophrenia, which has begun to provide important insights into the cognitive and neural mechanisms associated with motivational impairments. Aberrant cortical-striatal interactions may be involved with multiple reward processing abnormalities, including: (1) dopamine-mediated basal ganglia systems that support reinforcement learning and the ability to predict cues that lead to rewarding outcomes; (2) orbitofrontal cortex-driven deficits in generating, updating, and maintaining value representations; (3) aberrant effort-value computations, which may be mediated by disrupted anterior cingulate cortex and midbrain dopamine functioning; and (4) altered activation of the prefrontal cortex, which is important for generating exploratory behaviors in environments where reward outcomes are uncertain. It will be important for psychosocial interventions targeting negative symptoms to account for abnormalities in each of these reward processes, which may also have important interactions; suggestions for novel behavioral intervention strategies that make use of external cues, reinforcers, and mobile technology are discussed.

  8. Criterion and construct validity of the CogState Schizophrenia Battery in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

    Taisuke Yoshida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The CogState Schizophrenia Battery (CSB, a computerized cognitive battery, covers all the same cognitive domains as the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery but is briefer to conduct. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the criterion and construct validity of the Japanese language version of the CSB (CSB-J in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty Japanese patients with schizophrenia and 40 Japanese healthy controls with matching age, gender, and premorbid intelligence quotient were enrolled. The CSB-J and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Japanese-language version (BACS-J were performed once. The structure of the CSB-J was also evaluated by a factor analysis. Similar to the BACS-J, the CSB-J was sensitive to cognitive impairment in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between the CSB-J composite score and the BACS-J composite score. A factor analysis showed a three-factor model consisting of memory, speed, and social cognition factors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggests that the CSB-J is a useful and rapid automatically administered computerized battery for assessing broad cognitive domains in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

  9. Attention to gaze and emotion in schizophrenia.

    Schwartz, Barbara L; Vaidya, Chandan J; Howard, James H; Deutsch, Stephen I

    2010-11-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have difficulty interpreting social and emotional cues such as facial expression, gaze direction, body position, and voice intonation. Nonverbal cues are powerful social signals but are often processed implicitly, outside the focus of attention. The aim of this research was to assess implicit processing of social cues in individuals with schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and matched controls performed a primary task of word classification with social cues in the background. Participants were asked to classify target words (LEFT/RIGHT) by pressing a key that corresponded to the word, in the context of facial expressions with eye gaze averted to the left or right. Although facial expression and gaze direction were irrelevant to the task, these facial cues influenced word classification performance. Participants were slower to classify target words (e.g., LEFT) that were incongruent to gaze direction (e.g., eyes averted to the right) compared to target words (e.g., LEFT) that were congruent to gaze direction (e.g., eyes averted to the left), but this only occurred for expressions of fear. This pattern did not differ for patients and controls. The results showed that threat-related signals capture the attention of individuals with schizophrenia. These data suggest that implicit processing of eye gaze and fearful expressions is intact in schizophrenia. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Enhanced facilitation of spatial attention in schizophrenia.

    Spencer, Kevin M; Nestor, Paul G; Valdman, Olga; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    While attentional functions are usually found to be impaired in schizophrenia, a review of the literature on the orienting of spatial attention in schizophrenia suggested that voluntary attentional orienting in response to a valid cue might be paradoxically enhanced. We tested this hypothesis with orienting tasks involving the cued detection of a laterally presented target stimulus. Subjects were chronic schizophrenia patients (SZ) and matched healthy control subjects (HC). In Experiment 1 (15 SZ, 16 HC), cues were endogenous (arrows) and could be valid (100% predictive) or neutral with respect to the subsequent target position. In Experiment 2 (16 SZ, 16 HC), subjects performed a standard orienting task with unpredictive exogenous cues (brightening of the target boxes). In Experiment 1, SZ showed a larger attentional facilitation effect on reaction time than HC. In Experiment 2, no clear sign of enhanced attentional facilitation was found in SZ. The voluntary, facilitatory shifting of spatial attention may be relatively enhanced in individuals with schizophrenia in comparison to healthy individuals. This effect bears resemblance to other relative enhancements of information processing in schizophrenia such as saccade speed and semantic priming. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Smoking in schizophrenia -- all is not biological.

    Srinivasan, T N; Thara, R

    2002-07-01

    High rate of tobacco smoking reported in schizophrenia has been related to the effect of nicotine on the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Nicotine is said to alleviate psychotic symptoms in some patients. The relationship between smoking and psychiatric status may not be simply a biological one as several sociocultural and economic factors could influence smoking behaviour. In this study in India on 286 urban male outpatients with schizophrenia, only 38% were found to be current smokers. This was significantly more than in other psychiatric patients studied (major affective disorders and non-psychotic disorders) but not medically ill controls and not higher than the rates for the general male population in India. Smokeless use of tobacco was infrequent in the study population. More than half of the patients did not experience any positive effects due to smoking. Lack of economic independence and restrictions imposed by the family appeared to be crucial factors that controlled the prevalence of smoking among schizophrenia patients. As smoking is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, there is a serious need to review the neurobiological issue of smoking in schizophrenia considering the influence culture and social practices could have upon the behaviour.

  12. Impaired strategic decision making in schizophrenia.

    Kim, Hyojin; Lee, Daeyeol; Shin, Young-Min; Chey, Jeanyung

    2007-11-14

    Adaptive decision making in dynamic social settings requires frequent re-evaluation of choice outcomes and revision of strategies. This requires an array of multiple cognitive abilities, such as working memory and response inhibition. Thus, the disruption of such abilities in schizophrenia can have significant implications for social dysfunctions in affected patients. In the present study, 20 schizophrenia patients and 20 control subjects completed two computerized binary decision-making tasks. In the first task, the participants played a competitive zero-sum game against a computer in which the predictable choice behavior was penalized and the optimal strategy was to choose the two targets stochastically. In the second task, the expected payoffs of the two targets were fixed and unaffected by the subject's choices, so the optimal strategy was to choose the target with the higher expected payoff exclusively. The schizophrenia patients earned significantly less money during the first task, even though their overall choice probabilities were not significantly different from the control subjects. This was mostly because patients were impaired in integrating the outcomes of their previous choices appropriately in order to maintain the optimal strategy. During the second task, the choices of patients and control subjects displayed more similar patterns. This study elucidated the specific components in strategic decision making that are impaired in schizophrenia. The deficit, which can be characterized as strategic stiffness, may have implications for the poor social adjustment in schizophrenia patients.

  13. [Schizophrenia and Liver Transplantation: Case Report].

    Diana, Restrepo B; Marle, Duque G; Carlos, Cardeño C

    2012-09-01

    Liver transplantation is a treatment available for many patients with liver cirrhosis who find in this treatment a way to improve life expectancy and quality of life. Paranoid schizophrenia affects 1% of the general population, produces psychotic symptoms, and runs a chronic course in some cases with significant deterioration in all areas of life. To discuss the case of a patient with liver cirrhosis diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia during the evaluation protocol for liver transplantation. Case report. We report the case of a 47-year-old woman with liver cirrhosis whose only alternative to improve life expectancy and quality of life was access to liver transplantation. During routine evaluations the liaison psychiatrist observed first-order psychotic symptoms and documented a life story that confirmed the presence of paranoid schizophrenia. Paranoid schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder common in the general population that can be a part of the medical comorbidities of patients requiring liver transplantation and is not an absolute contraindication to its completion. We are unaware of similar cases of liver transplantation in patients with schizophrenia in our country. We believe this is a big step on the road to overcome the stigma that mental illness imposes on patients. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients

    Surekha Kumari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is limited information from India on subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare patterns of subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted at the OPD level, and follow-up was done at the Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Sciences (RINPAS during the period May 2008 to November 2008. Tools utilized were sociodemographic data sheet, Family Burden Interview Schedule developed by Pai and R. L. Kapur (1981. The sample comprised of 50 samples of spouses (25 male and 25 female spouses of schizophrenia patients. Results: The findings suggest that both the groups, viz., male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients, showed moderate level of subjective burden, i.e., 13 (52% and 15 (60% male and female spouses, respectively, which was statistically found to be insignificant. Conclusion : No significant difference was found between male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients with regard to the level of subjective burden.

  15. Caregivers in schizophrenia: A cross Cultural Perspective.

    Talwar, Prashant; Matheiken, Shevonne Tresa

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia not only influences the lives of those affected but also those around them, especially the caregivers. This study examines the different determinants that are likely to contribute to the caregivers' perception of burden of care across different countries namely Malaysia and India, using the burden assessment schedule. The goals for this study were, to study the psychosocial and demographic aspects of patients suffering from schizophrenia, to study the levels of perceived burden of the Malaysian and Indian families caring for a relative with schizophrenia, and to study the determinants that contributes to the caregivers' perception of burden of care. The study was conducted in private hospitals, both in Malaysia as well as Mangalore after obtaining the necessary approval. 50 schizophrenia patients and their caregivers in Malaysia and India were chosen using the purposive sampling technique. The inclusion criteria were a minimum of 5 years since diagnosis of schizophrenia. Although the Indian caregivers perceived difficulties in several areas such as finance, family relationship, well-being and health, they still perceived burden to be lesser compared to Malaysian counterpart. Intensified community based care can reduce burden.

  16. Music-evoked emotions in schizophrenia.

    Abe, Daijyu; Arai, Makoto; Itokawa, Masanari

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies have reported that people with schizophrenia have impaired musical abilities. Here we developed a simple music-based assay to assess patient's ability to associate a minor chord with sadness. We further characterize correlations between impaired musical responses and psychiatric symptoms. We exposed participants sequentially to two sets of sound stimuli, first a C-major progression and chord, and second a C-minor progression and chord. Participants were asked which stimulus they associated with sadness, the first set, the second set, or neither. The severity of psychiatric symptoms was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Study participants were 29 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 29 healthy volunteers matched in age, gender and musical background. 37.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]:19.1-56.7) of patients with schizophrenia associated the minor chord set as sad, compared with 97.9% (95%CI: 89.5-103.6) of controls. Four patients were diagnosed with treatment-resistant schizophrenia, and all four failed to associate the minor chord with sadness. Patients who did not recognize minor chords as sad had significantly higher scores on all PANSS subscales. A simple test allows music-evoked emotions to be assessed in schizophrenia patient, and may show potential relationships between music-evoked emotions and psychiatric symptoms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Memory systems in schizophrenia: Modularity is preserved but deficits are generalized.

    Haut, Kristen M; Karlsgodt, Katherine H; Bilder, Robert M; Congdon, Eliza; Freimer, Nelson B; London, Edythe D; Sabb, Fred W; Ventura, Joseph; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2015-10-01

    Schizophrenia patients exhibit impaired working and episodic memory, but this may represent generalized impairment across memory modalities or performance deficits restricted to particular memory systems in subgroups of patients. Furthermore, it is unclear whether deficits are unique from those associated with other disorders. Healthy controls (n=1101) and patients with schizophrenia (n=58), bipolar disorder (n=49) and attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (n=46) performed 18 tasks addressing primarily verbal and spatial episodic and working memory. Effect sizes for group contrasts were compared across tasks and the consistency of subjects' distributional positions across memory domains was measured. Schizophrenia patients performed poorly relative to the other groups on every test. While low to moderate correlation was found between memory domains (r=.320), supporting modularity of these systems, there was limited agreement between measures regarding each individual's task performance (ICC=.292) and in identifying those individuals falling into the lowest quintile (kappa=0.259). A general ability factor accounted for nearly all of the group differences in performance and agreement across measures in classifying low performers. Pathophysiological processes involved in schizophrenia appear to act primarily on general abilities required in all tasks rather than on specific abilities within different memory domains and modalities. These effects represent a general shift in the overall distribution of general ability (i.e., each case functioning at a lower level than they would have if not for the illness), rather than presence of a generally low-performing subgroup of patients. There is little evidence that memory impairments in schizophrenia are shared with bipolar disorder and ADHD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Neuroanatomical heterogeneity of schizophrenia revealed by semi-supervised machine learning methods.

    Honnorat, Nicolas; Dong, Aoyan; Meisenzahl-Lechner, Eva; Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Davatzikos, Christos

    2017-12-20

    Schizophrenia is associated with heterogeneous clinical symptoms and neuroanatomical alterations. In this work, we aim to disentangle the patterns of neuroanatomical alterations underlying a heterogeneous population of patients using a semi-supervised clustering method. We apply this strategy to a cohort of patients with schizophrenia of varying extends of disease duration, and we describe the neuroanatomical, demographic and clinical characteristics of the subtypes discovered. We analyze the neuroanatomical heterogeneity of 157 patients diagnosed with Schizophrenia, relative to a control population of 169 subjects, using a machine learning method called CHIMERA. CHIMERA clusters the differences between patients and a demographically-matched population of healthy subjects, rather than clustering patients themselves, thereby specifically assessing disease-related neuroanatomical alterations. Voxel-Based Morphometry was conducted to visualize the neuroanatomical patterns associated with each group. The clinical presentation and the demographics of the groups were then investigated. Three subgroups were identified. The first two differed substantially, in that one involved predominantly temporal-thalamic-peri-Sylvian regions, whereas the other involved predominantly frontal regions and the thalamus. Both subtypes included primarily male patients. The third pattern was a mix of these two and presented milder neuroanatomic alterations and comprised a comparable number of men and women. VBM and statistical analyses suggest that these groups could correspond to different neuroanatomical dimensions of schizophrenia. Our analysis suggests that schizophrenia presents distinct neuroanatomical variants. This variability points to the need for a dimensional neuroanatomical approach using data-driven, mathematically principled multivariate pattern analysis methods, and should be taken into account in clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Positron emission tomography assessment of cerebral glucose metabolic rates in autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia.

    Mitelman, Serge A; Bralet, Marie-Cecile; Mehmet Haznedar, M; Hollander, Eric; Shihabuddin, Lina; Hazlett, Erin A; Buchsbaum, Monte S

    2018-04-01

    Several models have been proposed to account for observed overlaps in clinical features and genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. This study assessed similarities and differences in topological patterns and vectors of glucose metabolism in both disorders in reference to these models. Co-registered 18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET and MRI scans were obtained in 41 schizophrenia, 25 ASD, and 55 healthy control subjects. AFNI was used to map cortical and subcortical regions of interest. Metabolic rates were compared between three diagnostic groups using univariate and multivariate repeated-measures ANOVA. Compared to controls, metabolic rates in schizophrenia subjects were decreased in the frontal lobe, anterior cingulate, superior temporal gyrus, amygdala and medial thalamic nuclei; rates were increased in the occipital cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia and lateral thalamic nuclei. In ASD subjects metabolic rates were decreased in the parietal lobe, frontal premotor and eye-fields areas, and amygdala; rates were increased in the posterior cingulate, occipital cortex, hippocampus and basal ganglia. In relation to controls, subjects with ASD and schizophrenia showed opposite changes in metabolic rates in the primary motor and somatosensory cortex, anterior cingulate and hypothalamus; similar changes were found in prefrontal and occipital cortices, inferior parietal lobule, amygdala, hippocampus, and basal ganglia. Schizophrenia and ASD appear to be associated with a similar pattern of metabolic abnormalities in the social brain. Divergent maladaptive trade-offs, as postulated by the diametrical hypothesis of their evolutionary relationship, may involve a more circumscribed set of anterior cingulate, motor and somatosensory regions and the specific cognitive functions they subserve.

  20. Thought disorder in schizophrenia: impairment in contextual processing via integrative failures in cognition.

    Patniyot, Nicholas S

    2011-10-01

    Formal thought disorder is a critical dysfunction in schizophrenia whose cause remains uncertain, but whose explanation may greatly further our understanding of the disease. Thought disorder in patients with schizophrenia has been hypothesized to involve a disturbance in the internal representation of context. Positive symptoms of schizophrenia attributable to thought disorder display a lack of organization that may be accounted for by an absence of normal contextual processing occurring within the operations of the executive system. But the precise nature and pervasiveness of the deficient cognitive operation remain undistinguished. It is proposed here that the assimilatory functions of the brain appear to lack the ability to perform a particular type of integrative operation when presented with heterogeneous information. This deficit involves committing cognitive misattributions through a confusion of mental terms via a process in thought analogous to a linguistic failure to correctly interpret deictic referents. Both proposed deficits in mental deixis and analogous "metarepresentational" deficits in schizophrenia potentially involve a failure to draw information for a conclusion from a separate framework of relations in integrative fashion. These deficits appear to involve a failure to take an interpreted piece of information as an output from a particular mental task and incorporate it into a new operational scheme, and a central attribute to the deficit is that there is a loss of an effective or adequate integration of separate strata of information. Potential neurobiological correlates to such a system based on current knowledge about schizophrenia neurocircuitry, as well as implications for testing, are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.