WorldWideScience

Sample records for first-order k-space method

  1. A general first-order global sensitivity analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chonggang; Gertner, George Zdzislaw

    2008-01-01

    Fourier amplitude sensitivity test (FAST) is one of the most popular global sensitivity analysis techniques. The main mechanism of FAST is to assign each parameter with a characteristic frequency through a search function. Then, for a specific parameter, the variance contribution can be singled out of the model output by the characteristic frequency. Although FAST has been widely applied, there are two limitations: (1) the aliasing effect among parameters by using integer characteristic frequencies and (2) the suitability for only models with independent parameters. In this paper, we synthesize the improvement to overcome the aliasing effect limitation [Tarantola S, Gatelli D, Mara TA. Random balance designs for the estimation of first order global sensitivity indices. Reliab Eng Syst Safety 2006; 91(6):717-27] and the improvement to overcome the independence limitation [Xu C, Gertner G. Extending a global sensitivity analysis technique to models with correlated parameters. Comput Stat Data Anal 2007, accepted for publication]. In this way, FAST can be a general first-order global sensitivity analysis method for linear/nonlinear models with as many correlated/uncorrelated parameters as the user specifies. We apply the general FAST to four test cases with correlated parameters. The results show that the sensitivity indices derived by the general FAST are in good agreement with the sensitivity indices derived by the correlation ratio method, which is a non-parametric method for models with correlated parameters

  2. Recursion method in the k-space representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anlage, S.M.; Smith, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    We show that by using a unitary transformation to k space and the special-k-point method for evaluating Brillouin-zone sums, the recursion method can be very effectively applied to translationally invariant systems. We use this approach to perform recursion calculations for realistic tight-binding Hamiltonians which describe diamond- and zinc-blende-structure semiconductors. Projected densities of states for these Hamiltonians have band gaps and internal van Hove singularities. We calculate coefficients for 63 recursion levels exactly and for about 200 recursion levels to a good approximation. Comparisons are made for materials with different magnitude band gaps (diamond, Si, α-Sn). Comparison is also made between materials with one (e.g., diamond) and two (e.g., GaAs) band gaps. The asymptotic behavior of the recursion coefficients is studied by Fourier analysis. Band gaps in the projected density of states dominate the asymptotic behavior. Perturbation analysis describes the asymptotic behavior rather well. Projected densities of states are calculated using a very simple termination scheme. These densities of states compare favorably with the results of Gilat-Raubenheimer integration

  3. First-order Convex Optimization Methods for Signal and Image Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the use of first-order convex optimization methods applied to problems in signal and image processing. First we make a general introduction to convex optimization, first-order methods and their iteration complexity. Then we look at different techniques, which can...... be used with first-order methods such as smoothing, Lagrange multipliers and proximal gradient methods. We continue by presenting different applications of convex optimization and notable convex formulations with an emphasis on inverse problems and sparse signal processing. We also describe the multiple...

  4. A Simple Method for Estimation of Parameters in First order Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Miklos, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A simple method for estimation of parameters in first order systems with time delays is presented in this paper. The parameter estimation approach is based on a step response for the open loop system. It is shown that the estimation method does not require a complete step response, only a part of...

  5. Probabilistic modelling of combined sewer overflow using the First Order Reliability Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Jensen, Jacob Birk

    2007-01-01

    uncertainties on an application of the commercial urban drainage model MOUSE combined with the probabilistic First Order Reliability Method (FORM). Applying statistical characteristics on several years of rainfall, it is possible to derive a parameterization of the rainfall input and the failure probability...

  6. Reliability Estimation of the Pultrusion Process Using the First-Order Reliability Method (FORM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem C.; Hattel, Jesper H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the reliability estimation of the pultrusion process of a flat plate is analyzed by using the first order reliability method (FORM). The implementation of the numerical process model is validated by comparing the deterministic temperature and cure degree profiles with

  7. Some Uniform Order Block Methods for the Solution of First Order ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and k=2 converges to the exact solutions with the two Numerical examples tested with this approach. Keywords: Uniform order, Block methods, first order odes, initial value problem, self starting and parallel solutions. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, Volume 19 (November, 2011), pp 149 - 154 ...

  8. A Preconditioning Technique for First-Order Primal-Dual Splitting Method in Convex Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a preconditioning technique for the first-order primal-dual splitting method. The primal-dual splitting method offers a very general framework for solving a large class of optimization problems arising in image processing. The key idea of the preconditioning technique is that the constant iterative parameters are updated self-adaptively in the iteration process. We also give a simple and easy way to choose the diagonal preconditioners while the convergence of the iterative algorithm is maintained. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated on an image denoising problem. Numerical results show that the preconditioned iterative algorithm performs better than the original one.

  9. First-order systems of linear partial differential equations: normal forms, canonical systems, transform methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Toparkus

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider first-order systems with constant coefficients for two real-valued functions of two real variables. This is both a problem in itself, as well as an alternative view of the classical linear partial differential equations of second order with constant coefficients. The classification of the systems is done using elementary methods of linear algebra. Each type presents its special canonical form in the associated characteristic coordinate system. Then you can formulate initial value problems in appropriate basic areas, and you can try to achieve a solution of these problems by means of transform methods.

  10. Two methods for a first order hardware gradiometer using two HTS SQUIDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espy, M.A.; Flynn, E.R.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Matlachov, A.

    1998-12-31

    Two different systems for noise cancellation (first order gradiometers) have been developed using two similar high temperature superconducting (HTS) SQUIDs. Analog gradiometry is accomplished in hardware by either (1) subtracting the signals from the sensor and background SQUIDs at a summing amplifier (parallel technique) or (2) converting the inverted background SQUID signal to a magnetic field at the sensor SQUID (series technique). Balance levels achieved are 2000 and 1000 at 20 Hz for the parallel and series methods respectively. The balance level as a function of frequency is also presented. The effect which time delays in the two sets of SQUID electronics have on this balance level is presented and discussed.

  11. Implementation of an optimal first-order method for strongly convex total variation regularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Jørgensen, Jakob Heide; Hansen, Per Christian

    2012-01-01

    We present a practical implementation of an optimal first-order method, due to Nesterov, for large-scale total variation regularization in tomographic reconstruction, image deblurring, etc. The algorithm applies to μ-strongly convex objective functions with L-Lipschitz continuous gradient....... In the framework of Nesterov both μ and L are assumed known—an assumption that is seldom satisfied in practice. We propose to incorporate mechanisms to estimate locally sufficient μ and L during the iterations. The mechanisms also allow for the application to non-strongly convex functions. We discuss...

  12. MR thermometry characterization of a hyperthermia ultrasound array designed using the k-space computational method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hotaik

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ultrasound induced hyperthermia is a useful adjuvant to radiation therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer. A uniform thermal dose (43°C for 30 minutes is required within the targeted cancerous volume for effective therapy. This requires specific ultrasound phased array design and appropriate thermometry method. Inhomogeneous, acoustical, three-dimensional (3D prostate models and economical computational methods provide necessary tools to predict the appropriate shape of hyperthermia phased arrays for better focusing. This research utilizes the k-space computational method and a 3D human prostate model to design an intracavitary ultrasound probe for hyperthermia treatment of prostate cancer. Evaluation of the probe includes ex vivo and in vivo controlled hyperthermia experiments using the noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI thermometry. Methods A 3D acoustical prostate model was created using photographic data from the Visible Human Project®. The k-space computational method was used on this coarse grid and inhomogeneous tissue model to simulate the steady state pressure wavefield of the designed phased array using the linear acoustic wave equation. To ensure the uniformity and spread of the pressure in the length of the array, and the focusing capability in the width of the array, the equally-sized elements of the 4 × 20 elements phased array were 1 × 14 mm. A probe was constructed according to the design in simulation using lead zerconate titanate (PZT-8 ceramic and a Delrin® plastic housing. Noninvasive MRI thermometry and a switching feedback controller were used to accomplish ex vivo and in vivo hyperthermia evaluations of the probe. Results Both exposimetry and k-space simulation results demonstrated acceptable agreement within 9%. With a desired temperature plateau of 43.0°C, ex vivo and in vivo controlled hyperthermia experiments showed that the MRI temperature at the steady state was 42.9 ± 0.38

  13. Reliability Estimation of the Pultrusion Process Using the First-Order Reliability Method (FORM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the reliability estimation of the pultrusion process of a flat plate is analyzed by using the first order reliability method (FORM). The implementation of the numerical process model is validated by comparing the deterministic temperature and cure degree profiles...... with corresponding analyses in the literature. The centerline degree of cure at the exit (CDOCE) being less than a critical value and the maximum composite temperature (Tmax) during the process being greater than a critical temperature are selected as the limit state functions (LSFs) for the FORM. The cumulative...... distribution functions of the CDOCE and Tmax as well as the correlation coefficients are obtained by using the FORM and the results are compared with corresponding Monte-Carlo simulations (MCS). According to the results obtained from the FORM, an increase in the pulling speed yields an increase...

  14. Efficient design of a truss beam by applying first order optimization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorik, Filip

    2013-10-01

    Applications of optimization procedures in structural designs are widely discussed problems, which are caused by currently still-increasing demands on structures. Using of optimization methods in efficient designs passes through great development, especially in duplicate production where even small savings might lead to considerable reduction of total costs. The presented paper deals with application and analysis of the First Order optimization technique, which is implemented in the Design Optimization module that uses the main features of multi-physical FEM program ANSYS, in steel truss-beam design. Constraints of the design are stated by EN 1993 Eurocode 3, for uniform compression forces in compression members and tensile resistance moments in tension members. Furthermore, a minimum frequency of the first natural modal shape of the structure is determined. The aim of the solution is minimizing the weight of the structure by changing members' cross-section properties.

  15. Generalized ensemble method applied to study systems with strong first order transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małolepsza, E.; Kim, J.; Keyes, T.

    2015-09-01

    At strong first-order phase transitions, the entropy versus energy or, at constant pressure, enthalpy, exhibits convex behavior, and the statistical temperature curve correspondingly exhibits an S-loop or back-bending. In the canonical and isothermal-isobaric ensembles, with temperature as the control variable, the probability density functions become bimodal with peaks localized outside of the S-loop region. Inside, states are unstable, and as a result simulation of equilibrium phase coexistence becomes impossible. To overcome this problem, a method was proposed by Kim, Keyes and Straub [1], where optimally designed generalized ensemble sampling was combined with replica exchange, and denoted generalized replica exchange method (gREM). This new technique uses parametrized effective sampling weights that lead to a unimodal energy distribution, transforming unstable states into stable ones. In the present study, the gREM, originally developed as a Monte Carlo algorithm, was implemented to work with molecular dynamics in an isobaric ensemble and coded into LAMMPS, a highly optimized open source molecular simulation package. The method is illustrated in a study of the very strong solid/liquid transition in water.

  16. Modified Inverse First Order Reliability Method (I-FORM) for Predicting Extreme Sea States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert-Gallup, Aubrey Celia; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Dallman, Ann Renee; Neary, Vincent Sinclair

    2014-09-01

    Environmental contours describing extreme sea states are generated as the input for numerical or physical model simulation s as a part of the stand ard current practice for designing marine structure s to survive extreme sea states. Such environmental contours are characterized by combinations of significant wave height ( ) and energy period ( ) values calculated for a given recurrence interval using a set of data based on hindcast simulations or buoy observations over a sufficient period of record. The use of the inverse first - order reliability method (IFORM) i s standard design practice for generating environmental contours. In this paper, the traditional appli cation of the IFORM to generating environmental contours representing extreme sea states is described in detail and its merits and drawbacks are assessed. The application of additional methods for analyzing sea state data including the use of principal component analysis (PCA) to create an uncorrelated representation of the data under consideration is proposed. A reexamination of the components of the IFORM application to the problem at hand including the use of new distribution fitting techniques are shown to contribute to the development of more accurate a nd reasonable representations of extreme sea states for use in survivability analysis for marine struc tures. Keywords: In verse FORM, Principal Component Analysis , Environmental Contours, Extreme Sea State Characteri zation, Wave Energy Converters

  17. Sensitivity Weaknesses in Application of some Statistical Distribution in First Order Reliability Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Enevoldsen, I.

    1993-01-01

    It has been observed and shown that in some examples a sensitivity analysis of the first order reliability index results in increasing reliability index, when the standard deviation for a stochastic variable is increased while the expected value is fixed. This unfortunate behaviour can occur when...

  18. An Adaptive Wavelet Method for Semi-Linear First-Order System Least Squares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chegini, N.; Stevenson, R.

    2015-01-01

    We design an adaptive wavelet scheme for solving first-order system least-squares formulations of second-order elliptic PDEs that converge with the best possible rate in linear complexity. A wavelet Riesz basis is constructed for the space H⃗ 0,ΓN(div;Ω) on general polygons. The theoretical findings

  19. Kinetic Analysis of Parallel-Consecutive First-Order Reactions with a Reversible Step: Concentration-Time Integrals Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucientes, A. E.; de la Pena, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    The concentration-time integrals method has been used to solve kinetic equations of parallel-consecutive first-order reactions with a reversible step. This method involves the determination of the area under the curve for the concentration of a given species against time. Computer techniques are used to integrate experimental curves and the method…

  20. Dhage Iteration Method for Nonlinear First Order Hybrid Differential Equations with a Linear Perturbation of Second Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Dhage

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors prove algorithms for the existence and approximation of the solutions for an initial and a periodic boundary value problem of nonlinear first order ordinary hybrid differential equations with a linear perturbation of second type via Dhage iteration method. Examples are furnished to illustrate the hypotheses and main abstract results of this paper.

  1. Dhage Iteration Method for Nonlinear First Order Hybrid Differential Equations with a Linear Perturbation of Second Type

    OpenAIRE

    B.C. Dhage

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the authors prove algorithms for the existence and approximation of the solutions for an initial and a periodic boundary value problem of nonlinear first order ordinary hybrid differential equations with a linear perturbation of second type via Dhage iteration method. Examples are furnished to illustrate the hypotheses and main abstract results of this paper.

  2. Solutions of First-Order Volterra Type Linear Integrodifferential Equations by Collocation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumuyiwa A. Agbolade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical solutions of linear integrodifferential equations of Volterra type have been considered. Power series is used as the basis polynomial to approximate the solution of the problem. Furthermore, standard and Chebyshev-Gauss-Lobatto collocation points were, respectively, chosen to collocate the approximate solution. Numerical experiments are performed on some sample problems already solved by homotopy analysis method and finite difference methods. Comparison of the absolute error is obtained from the present method and those from aforementioned methods. It is also observed that the absolute errors obtained are very low establishing convergence and computational efficiency.

  3. A least-squares finite-element Sn method for solving first-order neutron transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Haitao; Wu Hongchun; Zhou Yongqiang; Cao Liangzhi; Yao Dong; Xian, Chun-Yu

    2007-01-01

    A discrete ordinates finite-element method for solving the two-dimensional first-order neutron transport equation is derived using the least-squares variation. It avoids the singularity in void regions of the method derived from the second-order equation which contains the inversion of the cross-section. Different from using the standard Galerkin variation to the first-order equation, the least-squares variation results in a symmetric matrix, which can be solved easily and effectively. To eliminate the discontinuity of the angular flux on the vacuum boundary in the spherical harmonics method, the angle variable is discretized by the discrete ordinates method. A two-dimensional transport simulation code is developed and applied to some benchmark problems with unstructured geometry. The numerical results verified the validity of this method

  4. Online optimization-based predictive flight control using first-order methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferranti, L.

    2017-01-01

    In fields such as aerospace or automotive, the use of classical control methods such as PID is still significant. The presence of constraints, however, impacts on the performance of these controllers that are usually designed to avoid constraint saturation. MPC techniques are the obvious alternative

  5. A first-order multigrid method for bound-constrained convex optimization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočvara, Michal; Mohammed, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2016), s. 622-644 ISSN 1055-6788 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0671 Grant - others:European Commission - EC(XE) 313781 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : bound-constrained optimization * multigrid methods * linear complementarity problems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.023, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/kocvara-0460326.pdf

  6. Buckling analysis of laminated plates using the extended Kantorovich method and a system of first-order differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhatanadgid, Pairod; Jommalai, Panupan

    2016-01-01

    The extended Kantorovich method using multi-term displacement functions is applied to the buckling problem of laminated plates with various boundary conditions. The out-of-plane displacement of the buckled plate is written as a series of products of functions of parameter x and functions of parameter y. With known functions in parameter x or parameter y, a set of governing equations and a set of boundary conditions are obtained after applying the variational principle to the total potential energy of the system. The higher order differential equations are then transformed into a set of first-order differential equations and solved for the buckling load and mode. Since the governing equations are first-order differential equations, solutions can be obtained analytically with the out-of-plane displacement written in the form of an exponential function. The solutions from the proposed technique are verified with solutions from the literature and FEM solutions. The bucking loads correspond very well to other available solutions in most of the comparisons. The buckling modes also compare very well with the finite element solutions. The proposed solution technique transforms higher-order differential equations to first-order differential equations, and they are analytically solved for out-of-plane displacement in the form of an exponential function. Therefore, the proposed solution technique yields a solution which can be considered as an analytical solution.

  7. Buckling analysis of laminated plates using the extended Kantorovich method and a system of first-order differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhatanadgid, Pairod; Jommalai, Panupan [Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2016-05-15

    The extended Kantorovich method using multi-term displacement functions is applied to the buckling problem of laminated plates with various boundary conditions. The out-of-plane displacement of the buckled plate is written as a series of products of functions of parameter x and functions of parameter y. With known functions in parameter x or parameter y, a set of governing equations and a set of boundary conditions are obtained after applying the variational principle to the total potential energy of the system. The higher order differential equations are then transformed into a set of first-order differential equations and solved for the buckling load and mode. Since the governing equations are first-order differential equations, solutions can be obtained analytically with the out-of-plane displacement written in the form of an exponential function. The solutions from the proposed technique are verified with solutions from the literature and FEM solutions. The bucking loads correspond very well to other available solutions in most of the comparisons. The buckling modes also compare very well with the finite element solutions. The proposed solution technique transforms higher-order differential equations to first-order differential equations, and they are analytically solved for out-of-plane displacement in the form of an exponential function. Therefore, the proposed solution technique yields a solution which can be considered as an analytical solution.

  8. A Fourier-based compressed sensing technique for accelerated CT image reconstruction using first-order methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kihwan; Li, Ruijiang; Nam, Haewon; Xing, Lei

    2014-06-21

    As a solution to iterative CT image reconstruction, first-order methods are prominent for the large-scale capability and the fast convergence rate [Formula: see text]. In practice, the CT system matrix with a large condition number may lead to slow convergence speed despite the theoretically promising upper bound. The aim of this study is to develop a Fourier-based scaling technique to enhance the convergence speed of first-order methods applied to CT image reconstruction. Instead of working in the projection domain, we transform the projection data and construct a data fidelity model in Fourier space. Inspired by the filtered backprojection formalism, the data are appropriately weighted in Fourier space. We formulate an optimization problem based on weighted least-squares in the Fourier space and total-variation (TV) regularization in image space for parallel-beam, fan-beam and cone-beam CT geometry. To achieve the maximum computational speed, the optimization problem is solved using a fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm with backtracking line search and GPU implementation of projection/backprojection. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through a series of digital simulation and experimental phantom studies. The results are compared with the existing TV regularized techniques based on statistics-based weighted least-squares as well as basic algebraic reconstruction technique. The proposed Fourier-based compressed sensing (CS) method significantly improves both the image quality and the convergence rate compared to the existing CS techniques.

  9. A Fourier-based compressed sensing technique for accelerated CT image reconstruction using first-order methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kihwan; Li, Ruijiang; Nam, Haewon; Xing, Lei

    2014-01-01

    As a solution to iterative CT image reconstruction, first-order methods are prominent for the large-scale capability and the fast convergence rate O(1/k 2 ). In practice, the CT system matrix with a large condition number may lead to slow convergence speed despite the theoretically promising upper bound. The aim of this study is to develop a Fourier-based scaling technique to enhance the convergence speed of first-order methods applied to CT image reconstruction. Instead of working in the projection domain, we transform the projection data and construct a data fidelity model in Fourier space. Inspired by the filtered backprojection formalism, the data are appropriately weighted in Fourier space. We formulate an optimization problem based on weighted least-squares in the Fourier space and total-variation (TV) regularization in image space for parallel-beam, fan-beam and cone-beam CT geometry. To achieve the maximum computational speed, the optimization problem is solved using a fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm with backtracking line search and GPU implementation of projection/backprojection. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through a series of digital simulation and experimental phantom studies. The results are compared with the existing TV regularized techniques based on statistics-based weighted least-squares as well as basic algebraic reconstruction technique. The proposed Fourier-based compressed sensing (CS) method significantly improves both the image quality and the convergence rate compared to the existing CS techniques. (paper)

  10. First-order inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1991-01-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been reviewed. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result if inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models. (orig.)

  11. First-order inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.; Chicago Univ., IL

    1990-09-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result in inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models. 58 refs., 3 figs

  12. First-order inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, E.W. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-09-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result in inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models. 58 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Probing the A1 to L10 transformation in FeCuPt using the first order reversal curve method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin A. Gilbert

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The A1-L10 phase transformation has been investigated in (001 FeCuPt thin films prepared by atomic-scale multilayer sputtering and rapid thermal annealing (RTA. Traditional x-ray diffraction is not always applicable in generating a true order parameter, due to non-ideal crystallinity of the A1 phase. Using the first-order reversal curve (FORC method, the A1 and L10 phases are deconvoluted into two distinct features in the FORC distribution, whose relative intensities change with the RTA temperature. The L10 ordering takes place via a nucleation-and-growth mode. A magnetization-based phase fraction is extracted, providing a quantitative measure of the L10 phase homogeneity.

  14. An enhanced unified uncertainty analysis approach based on first order reliability method with single-level optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Wen; Chen, Xiaoqian; Huang, Yiyong; Tooren, Michel van

    2013-01-01

    In engineering, there exist both aleatory uncertainties due to the inherent variation of the physical system and its operational environment, and epistemic uncertainties due to lack of knowledge and which can be reduced with the collection of more data. To analyze the uncertain distribution of the system performance under both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties, combined probability and evidence theory can be employed to quantify the compound effects of the mixed uncertainties. The existing First Order Reliability Method (FORM) based Unified Uncertainty Analysis (UUA) approach nests the optimization based interval analysis in the improved Hasofer–Lind–Rackwitz–Fiessler (iHLRF) algorithm based Most Probable Point (MPP) searching procedure, which is computationally inhibitive for complex systems and may encounter convergence problem as well. Therefore, in this paper it is proposed to use general optimization solvers to search MPP in the outer loop and then reformulate the double-loop optimization problem into an equivalent single-level optimization (SLO) problem, so as to simplify the uncertainty analysis process, improve the robustness of the algorithm, and alleviate the computational complexity. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated with two numerical examples and one practical satellite conceptual design problem. -- Highlights: ► Uncertainty analysis under mixed aleatory and epistemic uncertainties is studied. ► A unified uncertainty analysis method is proposed with combined probability and evidence theory. ► The traditional nested analysis method is converted to single level optimization for efficiency. ► The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method are testified with three examples

  15. First-Order Twistor Lifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ascenso Simões

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of twistor methods in the study of Jacobi fields has proved quite fruitful, leading to a series of results. L. Lemaire and J. C. Wood proved several properties of Jacobi fields along harmonic maps from the two-sphere to the complex projective plane and to the three- and four-dimensional spheres, by carefully relating the infinitesimal deformations of the harmonic maps to those of the holomorphic data describing them. In order to advance this programme, we prove a series of relations between infinitesimal properties of the map and those of its twistor lift. Namely, we prove that isotropy and harmonicity to first order of the map correspond to holomorphicity to first order of its lift into the twistor space, relatively to the standard almost complex structures J1 and J2. This is done by obtaining first-order analogues of classical twistorial constructions.

  16. First-Order Twistor Lifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões BrunoAscenso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of twistor methods in the study of Jacobi fields has proved quite fruitful, leading to a series of results. L. Lemaire and J. C. Wood proved several properties of Jacobi fields along harmonic maps from the two-sphere to the complex projective plane and to the three- and four-dimensional spheres, by carefully relating the infinitesimal deformations of the harmonic maps to those of the holomorphic data describing them. In order to advance this programme, we prove a series of relations between infinitesimal properties of the map and those of its twistor lift. Namely, we prove that isotropy and harmonicity to first order of the map correspond to holomorphicity to first order of its lift into the twistor space, relatively to the standard almost complex structures and . This is done by obtaining first-order analogues of classical twistorial constructions.

  17. A method for measuring event-by-event elliptic flow fluctuations with the first-order event plane in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gang; Declan Keane; Aihong Tang; Voloshin, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    A new method is presented for measuring event-by-event fluctuations of elliptic flow (υ 2 ) using first-order event planes. By studying the event-by-event distributions of υ 2 observables and first-order event-plane observables, average flow (υ 2 ) and event-by-event fluctuations with respect to that average can be separately determined, making appropriate allowance for the effects of finite multiplicity. The relation of flow fluctuations to eccentricity fluctuations in the initial-state participant region, as well as detector acceptance effects, are discussed. (authors)

  18. Novel Exponentially Fitted Two-Derivative Runge-Kutta Methods with Equation-Dependent Coefficients for First-Order Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of exponentially fitted two-derivative Runge-Kutta (EFTDRK methods for the numerical solution of first-order differential equations is investigated. The revised EFTDRK methods proposed, with equation-dependent coefficients, take into consideration the errors produced in the internal stages to the update. The local truncation errors and stability of the new methods are analyzed. The numerical results are reported to show the accuracy of the new methods.

  19. Efficient Estimation of Extreme Non-linear Roll Motions using the First-order Reliability Method (FORM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2007-01-01

    frequency domain methods can be applied. To non-linear responses like the roll motion, standard methods like direct time domain simulations are not feasible due to the required computational time. However, the statistical distribution of non-linear ship responses can be estimated very accurately using......-specified specific maximum roll angles. The procedure is computationally very effective and can thus be applied to real-time determination of ship specific combinations of heading and speed to be avoided in the actual sea state....

  20. Probabilistic modelling of overflow, surcharge and flooding in urban drainage using the first-order reliability method and parameterization of local rain series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Willems, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    storm conceptualized to a synthetic rainfall hyetograph by a Gaussian shape with the parameters: rain storm depth, duration and peak intensity. Probability distributions were calibrated for these three parameters and used on the basis of the failure probability estimation, together with a hydrodynamic......, and alternative methods based on random sampling (Monte Carlo Direct Sampling and Importance Sampling). It is concluded that without crucial influence on the modelling accuracy, the First Order Reliability Method is very applicable as an alternative to traditional long-term simulations of urban drainage systems....

  1. Study of the lifetime of the TL peaks of quartz: comparison of the deconvolution using the first order kinetic with the initial rise method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RATOVONJANAHARY, A.J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Quartz is a thermoluminescent material which can be used for dating and/or for dosimetry. This material has been used since 60s for dating samples like pottery, flint, etc., but the method is still subject to some improvement. One of the problem of thermoluminescence dating is the estimation of the lifetime of the ''used peak'' . The application of the glow-curve deconvolution (GCD) technique for the analysis of a composite thermoluminescence glow curve into its individual glow peaks has been applied widely since the 80s. Many functions describing a single glow peak have been proposed. For analysing quartz behaviour, thermoluminescence glow-curve deconvolution (GCD) functions are compared for first order of kinetic. The free parameters of the GCD functions are the maximum peak intensity (I m ) and the maximum peak temperature (T m ), which can be obtained experimentally. The activation energy (E) is the additional free parameter. The lifetime (τ) of each glow peak, which is an important factor for dating, is calculated from these three parameters. For ''used'' ''peak'' lifetime analysis, GCD results are compared to those from initial rise method (IRM). Results vary fairly from method to method. [fr

  2. Vibrational spectroscopic studies, normal co-ordinate analysis, first order hyperpolarizability, HOMO-LUMO of midodrine by using density functional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidha, R; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A; Muthu, S

    2015-01-05

    The FTIR (4000-400 cm(-1)), FT-Raman (4000-100 cm(-1)) and UV-Visible (400-200 nm) spectra of midodrine were recorded in the condensed state. The complete vibrational frequencies, optimized geometry, intensity of vibrational bands and atomic charges were obtained by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) with the help of 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The first order hyperpolarizability (β) and related properties (μ, α and Δα) of this molecular system were calculated by using DFT/6-311++G(d,p) method based on the finite-field approach. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of Normal Co-ordinate Analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force methodology. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. From the recorded UV-Visible spectrum, the electronic properties such as excitation energies, oscillator strength and wavelength are calculated by DFT in water and gas methods using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies confirm that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Besides MEP, NLO and thermodynamic properties were also calculated and interpreted. The electron density-based local reactivity descriptor such as Fukui functions was calculated to explain the chemical selectivity or reactivity site in midodrine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Vibrational spectroscopic studies, normal co-ordinate analysis, first order hyperpolarizability, HOMO-LUMO of midodrine by using density functional methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidha, R.; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A.; Muthu, S.

    2015-01-01

    The FTIR (4000-400 cm-1), FT-Raman (4000-100 cm-1) and UV-Visible (400-200 nm) spectra of midodrine were recorded in the condensed state. The complete vibrational frequencies, optimized geometry, intensity of vibrational bands and atomic charges were obtained by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) with the help of 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The first order hyperpolarizability (β) and related properties (μ, α and Δα) of this molecular system were calculated by using DFT/6-311++G(d,p) method based on the finite-field approach. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of Normal Co-ordinate Analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force methodology. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. From the recorded UV-Visible spectrum, the electronic properties such as excitation energies, oscillator strength and wavelength are calculated by DFT in water and gas methods using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies confirm that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Besides MEP, NLO and thermodynamic properties were also calculated and interpreted. The electron density-based local reactivity descriptor such as Fukui functions was calculated to explain the chemical selectivity or reactivity site in midodrine.

  4. Evaluating the effect of sampling and spatial correlation on ground-water travel time uncertainty coupling geostatistical, stochastic, and first order, second moment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, R.W.; LaVenue, A.M.; McNeish, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Ground-water travel time predictions at potential high-level waste repositories are subject to a degree of uncertainty due to the scale of averaging incorporated in conceptual models of the ground-water flow regime as well as the lack of data on the spatial variability of the hydrogeologic parameters. The present study describes the effect of limited observations of a spatially correlated permeability field on the predicted ground-water travel time uncertainty. Varying permeability correlation lengths have been used to investigate the importance of this geostatistical property on the tails of the travel time distribution. This study uses both geostatistical and differential analysis techniques. Following the generation of a spatially correlated permeability field which is considered reality, semivariogram analyses are performed upon small random subsets of the generated field to determine the geostatistical properties of the field represented by the observations. Kriging is then employed to generate a kriged permeability field and the corresponding standard deviation of the estimated field conditioned by the limited observations. Using both the real and kriged fields, the ground-water flow regime is simulated and ground-water travel paths and travel times are determined for various starting points. These results are used to define the ground-water travel time uncertainty due to path variability. The variance of the ground-water travel time along particular paths due to the variance of the permeability field estimated using kriging is then calculated using the first order, second moment method. The uncertainties in predicted travel time due to path and parameter uncertainties are then combined into a single distribution

  5. Magnetocaloric materials and first order phase transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves Bez, Henrique

    of the properties of such materials.The experimental characterization of these materials is done through various different methods, such as X-ray diffraction, magnetometry, calorimetry, direct measurements of entropy change, capacitance dilatometry, scanning electron microscopy,energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry...... shows a paradoxical behavior; the material shows features of both a first order phase transition and of a second order one. Identities as shift of the heat capacity peak and an asymmetric growth of of the entropy change with magnetic field would describe this material transition as a first order one...... temperature and field independent is exaggerated and perhaps cannot be taken.A series of La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hz with slightly changes in the composition is also evaluated here. This material may present a second order phase transition for large content of Mn and Si, which will become a first order one as the Mn...

  6. First-Order Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...

  7. First-order partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Rhee, Hyun-Ku; Amundson, Neal R

    2001-01-01

    This first volume of a highly regarded two-volume text is fully usable on its own. After going over some of the preliminaries, the authors discuss mathematical models that yield first-order partial differential equations; motivations, classifications, and some methods of solution; linear and semilinear equations; chromatographic equations with finite rate expressions; homogeneous and nonhomogeneous quasilinear equations; formation and propagation of shocks; conservation equations, weak solutions, and shock layers; nonlinear equations; and variational problems. Exercises appear at the end of mo

  8. Novel SVPWM based on first order equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Mansour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available PWM plays an important role in generating sinusoidal waveform for variable voltage variable frequency drives (VVVFD's with a minimum harmonic level. PWM techniques have many methods in implementation ranging from a relatively simple method such as modulating sine wave to the advanced Space Vector PWM technique SVPWM. The SVPWM has a dense calculation that requires considerable processor time for execution. The proposed technique requires simple calculations and can be implemented using simple microcontrollers. The calculations of the proposed SVPWM are based on first order equations rather than trigonometric functions requiring either huge lookup tables for fetching or too many instruction cycles for calculation on a digital controller.

  9. Calculation of a pressurized-water reactor and a boiling-water reactor fuel rod cluster using the finite element method with first order triangular elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhold, U.; Schmidt, F.A.R.

    1975-07-01

    The FEM-2D programme was used to solve the two-dimensional, time-independent diffusion equation in multi-group form. FEM-2D stands for Finite Element Method two-dimensional Diffusion. Triangular elements with linear flow statement were chosen to describe the given geometrical figure - a pressurized-water reactor (PWR) type Biblis and a boiling-water reactor fuel rod cluster with 5 x 5 fuel rods. Calculations were performed with 301 and 1,204 elements in the pressurized-water reactor, and the boiling-water reactor fuel rod cluster with 900 or 1,296 elements. Calculations with FEM-2D with triangular elements of the 2nd order and calculations of the KWK with the computer programmes MEDIUM and EXTERMINATOR for the PWR or PDQ for the BWR fuel rod cluster were available for comparison. The results were most satisfactory. (orig./LH) [de

  10. Fast MR image reconstruction for partially parallel imaging with arbitrary k-space trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaojing; Chen, Yunmei; Lin, Wei; Huang, Feng

    2011-03-01

    Both acquisition and reconstruction speed are crucial for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in clinical applications. In this paper, we present a fast reconstruction algorithm for SENSE in partially parallel MR imaging with arbitrary k-space trajectories. The proposed method is a combination of variable splitting, the classical penalty technique and the optimal gradient method. Variable splitting and the penalty technique reformulate the SENSE model with sparsity regularization as an unconstrained minimization problem, which can be solved by alternating two simple minimizations: One is the total variation and wavelet based denoising that can be quickly solved by several recent numerical methods, whereas the other one involves a linear inversion which is solved by the optimal first order gradient method in our algorithm to significantly improve the performance. Comparisons with several recent parallel imaging algorithms indicate that the proposed method significantly improves the computation efficiency and achieves state-of-the-art reconstruction quality.

  11. New gaussian points for the solution of first order ordinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New gaussian points for the solution of first order ordinary differential equations. ... Science World Journal ... In this paper, a new set of Gaussian points has been proposed and used as collocation points for the construction of block numerical methods for the solution of first order IVP through transformation within the step ...

  12. An Adequate First Order Logic of Intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaochen, Zhou; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    1998-01-01

    This paper introduces left and right neighbourhoods as primitive interval modalities to define other unary and binary modalities of intervals in a first order logic with interval length. A complete first order logic for the neighbourhood modalities is presented. It is demonstrated how the logic can...... support formal specification and verification of liveness and fairness, and also of various notions of real analysis....

  13. Chemical Dosing and First-Order Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladky, Paul W.

    2011-01-01

    College students encounter a variety of first-order phenomena in their mathematics and science courses. Introductory chemistry textbooks that discuss first-order processes, usually in conjunction with chemical kinetics or radioactive decay, stop at single, discrete dose events. Although single-dose situations are important, multiple-dose events,…

  14. A singular K-space model for fast reconstruction of magnetic resonance images from undersampled data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianhua; Mou, Zhiying; Qin, Binjie; Li, Wanqing; Ogunbona, Philip; Robini, Marc C; Zhu, Yuemin

    2017-12-09

    Reconstructing magnetic resonance images from undersampled k-space data is a challenging problem. This paper introduces a novel method of image reconstruction from undersampled k-space data based on the concept of singularizing operators and a novel singular k-space model. Exploring the sparsity of an image in the k-space, the singular k-space model (SKM) is proposed in terms of the k-space functions of a singularizing operator. The singularizing operator is constructed by combining basic difference operators. An algorithm is developed to reliably estimate the model parameters from undersampled k-space data. The estimated parameters are then used to recover the missing k-space data through the model, subsequently achieving high-quality reconstruction of the image using inverse Fourier transform. Experiments on physical phantom and real brain MR images have shown that the proposed SKM method constantly outperforms the popular total variation (TV) and the classical zero-filling (ZF) methods regardless of the undersampling rates, the noise levels, and the image structures. For the same objective quality of the reconstructed images, the proposed method requires much less k-space data than the TV method. The SKM method is an effective method for fast MRI reconstruction from the undersampled k-space data. Graphical abstract Two Real Images and their sparsified images by singularizing operator.

  15. FOLE: The First-order Logical Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kent, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the first-order logical environment FOLE. Institutions in general, and logical environments in particular, give equivalent heterogeneous and homogeneous representations for logical systems. As such, they offer a rigorous and principled approach to distributed interoperable information systems via system consequence. Since FOLE is a particular logical environment, this provides a rigorous and principled approach to distributed interoperable first-order information systems....

  16. Comparison of first order analysis and Monte Carlo methods in evaluating groundwater model uncertainty: a case study from an iron ore mine in the Pilbara Region of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmani, G.; Matta, J.

    2012-04-01

    The expansion of mining in the Pilbara region of Western Australia is resulting in the need to develop better water strategies to make below water table resources accessible, manage surplus water and deal with water demands for processing ore and construction. In all these instances, understanding the local and regional hydrogeology is fundamental to allow sustainable mining; minimising the impacts to the environment. An understanding of the uncertainties of the hydrogeology is necessary to quantify the risks and make objective decisions rather than relying on subjective judgements. The aim of this paper is to review some of the methods proposed by the published literature and find approaches that can be practically implemented in an attempt to estimate model uncertainties. In particular, this paper adopts two general probabilistic approaches that address the parametric uncertainty estimation and its propagation in predictive scenarios: the first order analysis and Monte Carlo simulations. A case example application of the two techniques is also presented for the dewatering strategy of a large below water table open cut iron ore mine in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. This study demonstrates the weakness of the deterministic approach, as the coefficients of variation of some model parameters were greater than 1.0; and suggests a review of the model calibration method and conceptualisation. The uncertainty propagation into predictive scenarios was calculated assuming the parameters with a coefficient of variation higher than 0.25 as deterministic, due to computational difficulties to achieve an accurate result with the Monte Carlo method. The conclusion of this case study was that the first order analysis appears to be a successful and simple tool when the coefficients of variation of calibrated parameters are less than 0.25.

  17. The first order fuzzy predicate logic (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Y.M.

    1986-01-01

    Some analysis tools of fuzzy measures, Sugeno's integrals, etc. are introduced into the semantic of the first order predicate logic to explain the concept of fuzzy quantifiers. The truth value of a fuzzy quantification proposition is represented by Sugeno's integral. With this framework, several important notions of formation rules, fuzzy valutions and fuzzy validity are discussed

  18. First-Order Logic According to Harrison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Alexander Birch; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    We present a certified declarative first-order prover with equality based on John Harrison’s Handbook of Practical Logic and Automated Reasoning, Cambridge University Press, 2009. ML code reflection is used such that the entire prover can be executed within Isabelle as a very simple interactive...

  19. A definability theorem for first order logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butz, C.; Moerdijk, I.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we will present a definability theorem for first order logic This theorem is very easy to state and its proof only uses elementary tools To explain the theorem let us first observe that if M is a model of a theory T in a language L then clearly any definable subset S M ie a subset S

  20. Enhanced Sensitivity to Detection Nanomolar Level of Cu2+Compared to Spectrophotometry Method by Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles: Design of Sensor Assisted by Exploiting First-order Data with Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Zolaikha; Ghavami, Raouf

    2018-02-15

    A simple, sensitive and efficient colorimetric assay platform for the determination of Cu 2+ was proposed with the aim of developing sensitive detection based on the aggregation of AuNPs in presence of a histamine H2-receptor antagonist (famotidine, FAM) as recognition site. This study is the first to demonstrate that the molar extinction coefficients of the complexes formed by FAM and Cu 2+ are very low (by analyzing the chemometrics methods on the first order data arising from different metal to ligand ratio method), leading to the undesirable sensitivity of FAM-based assays. To resolve the problem of low sensitivity, the colorimetry method based on the Cu 2+ -induced aggregation of AuNPs functionalized with FAM was introduced. This procedure is accompanied by a color change from bright red to blue which can be observed with the naked eyes. Detection sensitivity obtained by the developed method increased about 100 fold compared with the spectrophotometry method. This sensor exhibited a good linear relation between the absorbance ratios at 670 to 520nm (A 670 / 520 ) and the concentration in the range 2-110nM with LOD=0.76nM. The satisfactory analytical performance of the proposed sensor facilitates the development of simple and affordable UV-Vis chemosensors for environmental applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Enhanced Sensitivity to Detection Nanomolar Level of Cu2 + Compared to Spectrophotometry Method by Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles: Design of Sensor Assisted by Exploiting First-order Data with Chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Zolaikha; Ghavami, Raouf

    2018-02-01

    A simple, sensitive and efficient colorimetric assay platform for the determination of Cu2 + was proposed with the aim of developing sensitive detection based on the aggregation of AuNPs in presence of a histamine H2-receptor antagonist (famotidine, FAM) as recognition site. This study is the first to demonstrate that the molar extinction coefficients of the complexes formed by FAM and Cu2 + are very low (by analyzing the chemometrics methods on the first order data arising from different metal to ligand ratio method), leading to the undesirable sensitivity of FAM-based assays. To resolve the problem of low sensitivity, the colorimetry method based on the Cu2 +-induced aggregation of AuNPs functionalized with FAM was introduced. This procedure is accompanied by a color change from bright red to blue which can be observed with the naked eyes. Detection sensitivity obtained by the developed method increased about 100 fold compared with the spectrophotometry method. This sensor exhibited a good linear relation between the absorbance ratios at 670 to 520 nm (A670/520) and the concentration in the range 2-110 nM with LOD = 0.76 nM. The satisfactory analytical performance of the proposed sensor facilitates the development of simple and affordable UV-Vis chemosensors for environmental applications.

  2. First-order partial differential equations in classical dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B. R.

    2009-12-01

    Carathèodory's classic work on the calculus of variations explores in depth the connection between ordinary differential equations and first-order partial differential equations. The n second-order ordinary differential equations of a classical dynamical system reduce to a single first-order differential equation in 2n independent variables. The general solution of first-order partial differential equations touches on many concepts central to graduate-level courses in analytical dynamics including the Hamiltonian, Lagrange and Poisson brackets, and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. For all but the simplest dynamical systems the solution requires one or more of these techniques. Three elementary dynamical problems (uniform acceleration, harmonic motion, and cyclotron motion) can be solved directly from the appropriate first-order partial differential equation without the use of advanced methods. The process offers an unusual perspective on classical dynamics, which is readily accessible to intermediate students who are not yet fully conversant with advanced approaches.

  3. First order formalism for quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiser, M.; Holman, R.; Neto, N.P.

    1987-05-01

    We develop a first order formalism for the quantization of gravity. We take as canonical variables both the induced metric and the extrinsic curvature of the (d - 1) -dimensional hypersurfaces obtained by the foliation of the d - dimensional spacetime. After solving the constraint algebra we use the Dirac formalism to quantize the theory and obtain a new representation for the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, defined in the functional space of the extrinsic curvature. We also show how to obtain several different representations of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation by considering actions differing by a total divergence. In particular, the intrinsic and extrinsic time approaches appear in a natural way, as do equivalent representations obtained by functional Fourier transforms of appropriate variables. We conclude with some remarks about the construction of the Hilbert space within the first order formalism. 10 refs

  4. Spectroscopic studies (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible), normal co-ordinate analysis, first-order hyperpolarizability and HOMO, LUMO studies of 3,4-dichlorobenzophenone by using Density Functional Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Prasad, K; Samatha, K; Jagadeeswara Rao, D; Santhamma, C; Muthu, S; Mark Heron, B

    2015-01-01

    The vibrational frequencies of 3,4-dichlorobenzophenone (DCLBP) were obtained from the FT-IR and Raman spectral data, and evaluated based on the Density Functional Theory using the standard method B3LYP with 6-311+G(d,p) as the basis set. On the basis of potential energy distribution together with the normal-co-ordinate analysis and following the scaled quantum mechanical force methodology, the assignments for the various frequencies were described. The values of the electric dipole moment (μ) and the first-order hyperpolarizability (β) of the molecule were computed. The UV-absorption spectrum was also recorded to study the electronic transitions. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The NBO analysis, to study the intramolecular hyperconjugative interactions, was carried out. Mulliken's net charges were evaluated. The MEP and thermodynamic properties were also calculated. The electron density-based local reactivity descriptor, such as Fukui functions, was calculated to explain the chemical selectivity or reactivity site in 3,4-dichlorobenzophenone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quadratic gravity in first order formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Enrique; Anero, Jesus; Gonzalez-Martin, Sergio, E-mail: enrique.alvarez@uam.es, E-mail: jesusanero@gmail.com, E-mail: sergio.gonzalez.martin@uam.es [Departamento de Física Teórica and Instituto de Física Teórica (IFT-UAM/CSIC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-10-01

    We consider the most general action for gravity which is quadratic in curvature. In this case first order and second order formalisms are not equivalent. This framework is a good candidate for a unitary and renormalizable theory of the gravitational field; in particular, there are no propagators falling down faster than 1/ p {sup 2}. The drawback is of course that the parameter space of the theory is too big, so that in many cases will be far away from a theory of gravity alone. In order to analyze this issue, the interaction between external sources was examined in some detail. We find that this interaction is conveyed mainly by propagation of the three-index connection field. At any rate the theory as it stands is in the conformal invariant phase; only when Weyl invariance is broken through the coupling to matter can an Einstein-Hilbert term (and its corresponding Planck mass scale) be generated by quantum corrections.

  6. Holographic equipartition from first order action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingbo

    2017-12-01

    Recently, the idea that gravity is emergent has attract many people's attention. The "Emergent Gravity Paradigm" is a program that develop this idea from the thermodynamical point of view. It expresses the Einstein equation in the language of thermodynamics. A key equation in this paradigm is the holographic equipartition which says that, in all static spacetimes, the degrees of freedom on the boundary equal those in the bulk. And the time evolution of spacetime is drove by the departure from the holographic equipartition. In this paper, we get the holographic equipartition and its generalization from the first order formalism, that is, the connection and its conjugate momentum are considered to be the canonical variables. The final results have similar structure as those from the metric formalism. It gives another proof of holographic equipartition.

  7. Student understanding of first order RC filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Pieter; Van den Bossche, Johan; De Cock, Mieke

    2017-12-01

    A series of interviews with second year electronics engineering students showed several problems with understanding first-order RC filters. To better explore how widespread these problems are, a questionnaire was administered to over 150 students in Belgium. One question asked to rank the output voltage of a low-pass filter with an AC or DC input signal while a second asked to rank the output voltages of a high-pass filter with doubled or halved resistor and capacitor values. In addition to a discussion of the rankings and students' consistency, the results are compared to the most common reasoning patterns students used to explain their rankings. Despite lecture and laboratory instruction, students not only rarely recognize the circuits as filters, but also fail to correctly apply Kirchhoff's laws and Ohm's law to arrive at a correct answer.

  8. An improved solution of first order kinetics for biochemical oxygen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper evaluated selected Biochemical Oxygen Demand first order kinetics methods. Domesticinstitutional wastewaters were collected twice in a month for three months from the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife waste stabilization ponds. Biochemical Oxygen Demand concentrations at different days were determined ...

  9. Hopf bifurcation formula for first order differential-delay equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Richard; Verdugo, Anael

    2007-09-01

    This work presents an explicit formula for determining the radius of a limit cycle which is born in a Hopf bifurcation in a class of first order constant coefficient differential-delay equations. The derivation is accomplished using Lindstedt's perturbation method.

  10. Multidimensional first-order dominance comparisons of population wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Thomas Channing; Siersbæk, Nikolaj; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    In this paper, we convey the concept of first-order dominance (FOD) with particular focus on applications to multidimensional population welfare comparisons. We give an account of the fundamental equivalent definitions of FOD, illustrated with simple numerical examples. An implementable method...... for detecting dominances is explained along with a bootstrapping procedure that yields additional information relative to what can be obtained from dominance comparisons alone. We discuss strengths and weaknesses of FOD, compared to other multidimensional population comparison concepts, and describe practical...

  11. Full k-space visualization of photoelectron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denlinger, J.D.; Rotenberg, E.; Kevan, S.D.; Tonner, B.P.

    1997-01-01

    The development of photoelectron holography has promoted the need for larger photoelectron diffraction data sets in order to improve the quality of real-space reconstructed images (by suppressing transformational artifacts and distortions). The two main experimental and theoretical approaches to holography, the transform of angular distribution patterns for a coarse selection of energies or the transform of energy-scanned profiles for several directions, represent two limits to k-space sampling. The high brightness of third-generation soft x-ray synchrotron sources provides the opportunity to rapidly measure large high-density x-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) data sets with approximately uniform k-space sampling. In this abstract, the authors present such a photoelectron data set acquired for Cu 3p emission from Cu(001). Cu(001) is one of the most well-studied systems for understanding photoelectron diffraction structure and for testing photoelectron holography methods. Cu(001) was chosen for this study in part due to the relatively inert and unreconstructed clean surface, and it served to calibrate and fine-tune the operation of a new synchrotron beamline, electron spectrometer and sample goniometer. In addition to Cu, similar open-quotes volumeclose quotes XPD data sets have been acquired for bulk and surface core-level emission from W(110), from reconstructed Si(100) and Si(111) surfaces, and from the adsorbate system of c(2x2) Mn/Ni(100)

  12. Thyroid nodule recognition in computed tomography using first order statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenxian; Liu, Chenbin; Xia, Shunren; Shao, Dangdang; Chen, Yihong; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Zhiping

    2017-06-02

    Computed tomography (CT) is one of the popular tools for early detection of thyroid nodule. The pixel intensity of thyroid in CT image is very important information to distinguish nodule from normal thyroid tissue. The pixel intensity in normal thyroid tissues is homogeneous and smooth. In the benign or malignant nodules, the pixel intensity is heterogeneous. Several studies have shown that the first order features in ultrasound image can be used as imaging biomarkers in nodule recognition. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of utilizing the first order texture features to identify nodule from normal thyroid tissue in CT image. A total of 284 thyroid CT images from 113 patients were collected in this study. We used 150 healthy controlled thyroid CT images from 55 patients and 134 nodule images (50 malignant and 84 benign nodules) from 58 patients who have undergone thyroid surgery. The final diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examinations. In the presented method, first, regions of interest (ROIs) from axial non-enhancement CT images were delineated manually by a radiologist. Second, average, median, and wiener filter were applied to reduce photon noise before feature extraction. The first-order texture features, including entropy, uniformity, average intensity, standard deviation, kurtosis and skewness were calculated from each ROI. Third, support vector machine analysis was applied for classification. Several statistical values were calculated to evaluate the performance of the presented method, which includes accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and area of under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The entropy, uniformity, mean intensity, standard deviation, skewness (P < 0.05), except kurtosis (P = 0.104) of thyroid tissue with nodules have a significant difference from those of normal thyroid tissue. The optimal classification was obtained from the presented

  13. Deduction Beyond First-Order Logic (Dagstuhl Seminar 17371)

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchette, Jasmin Christian; Fuhs, Carsten; Sofronie-Stokkermans, Viorica; Tinelli, Cesare

    2018-01-01

    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 17371 "Deduction Beyond First-Order Logic." Much research in the past two decades was dedicated to automating first-order logic with equality. However, applications often need reasoning beyond this logic. This includes genuinely higher-order reasoning, reasoning in theories that are not finitely axiomatisable in first-order logic (such as those including transitive closure operators or standard arithmetic on integers o...

  14. Structural Optimization based on the Concept of First Order Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinji, Nishiwaki; Hidekazu, Nishigaki; Yasuaki, Tsurumi; Yoshio, Kojima; Noboru, Kikuchi

    2002-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) has been successfully utilized in mechanical industries such as the automotive industry. It is, however, difficult for most mechanical design engineers to directly use CAE due to the sophisticated nature of the operations involved. In order to mitigate this problem, a new type of CAE, First Order Analysis (FOA) has been proposed. This paper presents the outcome of research concerning the development of a structural topology optimization methodology within FOA. This optimization method is constructed based on discrete and function-oriented elements such as beam and panel elements, and sequential convex programming. In addition, examples are provided to show the utility of the methodology presented here for mechanical design engineers

  15. Molecular structure, spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR, UV) studies and first-order molecular hyperpolarizabilities of 1,2-bis(3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzylidene)hydrazine by density functional method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, N.; Sundaraganesan, N.; Jayabharathi, J.

    2010-07-01

    Quantum chemical calculations of energies, geometrical structure and vibrational wavenumbers of 1,2-bis(3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzylidene)hydrazine [vanillin azine (VA)] were carried out by using density functional (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-31G(d) as basis set. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained by DFT calculations are in good agreement with single crystal XRD data. The vibrational spectral data obtained from solid phase FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra are assigned based on the results of the theoretical calculations. The observed spectra are found to be in good agreement with calculated values. The electric dipole moment ( μ) and the first hyperpolarizability ( β) values of the investigated molecule have been computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculation results also show that the VA molecule might have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non-zero values. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of VA was also reported. The energy and oscillator strength calculated by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) results complements with the experimental findings. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The theoretical NMR chemical shifts complement with experimentally measured ones.

  16. Numerical integrators for Stiff and Stiff oscillatory First Order initial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerical integrators for Stiff and Stiff oscillatory First Order initial value problems. ... Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... In this paper, efforts are geared towards the numerical solution of the first order initial value problem (I.V.P) of the form Y\\' = F(X,Y), X∈[ a, b] , Y(a) = Y0, where Y\\' is the total ...

  17. Fuzzy Reasoning Based on First-Order Modal Logic,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Xiaoru; Zhang, Z.; Sui, Y.; Huang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    As an extension of traditional modal logics, this paper proposes a fuzzy first-order modal logic based on believable degree, and gives out a description of the fuzzy first-order modal logic based on constant domain semantics. In order to make the reasoning procedure between the fuzzy assertions

  18. Aspects of calculating first-order reversal curve distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heslop, David; Muxworthy, Adrian R.

    2005-01-01

    The recent development of first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams has allowed the detailed investigation of coercivity spectra, interactions, and domain states of fine particle magnetic systems. However, calculation of a FORC distribution from the measured magnetisation data using a second-order trend surface fitted in a piecewise manner (J. Appl. Phys. (1999) 6660; J. Geophys. Res. 105 (2000) 28461) can be a time consuming task and it is not yet clear what criteria are suitable for selecting the level of smoothing that should be applied to the data. Here the convolution method of Savitzky and Golay (Anal. Chem. 36 (1964) 1627) is adapted to a two-dimensional form and is found to accelerate the calculation of a FORC distribution substantially (by a factor of ∼500), producing results that are identical to those obtained with the existing method. To provide a quantitative measure of the deviation of a smoothed FORC diagram from the measured magnetisation data we present a simple method that allows reconstruction of the smoothed FORCs and an assessment of the signal-to-noise ratio of the data. Finally, a methodology based on spatial autocorrelation (Biometrika (1950) 17) is employed to determine the level of smoothing which can be performed before the smoothing process distorts the representation of the FORC distribution. In numerical tests this method appears to be highly effective in selecting smoothing levels that remove a substantial proportion of the noise contribution from the data without unduly affecting the form of the FORC distribution

  19. General solution for first order elliptic systems in the plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mshimba, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that a system of 2n real-valued partial differential equations of first order, which under certain assumptions can be transformed to the so-called 'complex normal form', admits a general solution. 15 refs

  20. Practical Markov Logic Containing First-Order Quantifiers With Application to Identity Uncertainty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Culotta, Aron; McCallum, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    .... In this paper, we present approximate inference and training methods that incrementally instantiate portions of the network as needed to enable first-order existential and universal quantifiers in Markov logic networks...

  1. High-Density Quantum Sensing with Dissipative First Order Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Meghana; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Weimer, Hendrik

    2018-04-01

    The sensing of external fields using quantum systems is a prime example of an emergent quantum technology. Generically, the sensitivity of a quantum sensor consisting of N independent particles is proportional to √{N }. However, interactions invariably occurring at high densities lead to a breakdown of the assumption of independence between the particles, posing a severe challenge for quantum sensors operating at the nanoscale. Here, we show that interactions in quantum sensors can be transformed from a nuisance into an advantage when strong interactions trigger a dissipative phase transition in an open quantum system. We demonstrate this behavior by analyzing dissipative quantum sensors based upon nitrogen-vacancy defect centers in diamond. Using both a variational method and a numerical simulation of the master equation describing the open quantum many-body system, we establish the existence of a dissipative first order transition that can be used for quantum sensing. We investigate the properties of this phase transition for two- and three-dimensional setups, demonstrating that the transition can be observed using current experimental technology. Finally, we show that quantum sensors based on dissipative phase transitions are particularly robust against imperfections such as disorder or decoherence, with the sensitivity of the sensor not being limited by the T2 coherence time of the device. Our results can readily be applied to other applications in quantum sensing and quantum metrology where interactions are currently a limiting factor.

  2. Geometry of Lagrangian first-order classical field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverria-Enriquez, A.; Munoz-Lecanda, M.C.; Roman-Roy, N.

    1996-01-01

    We construct a lagrangian geometric formulation for first-order field theories using the canonical structures of first-order jet bundles, which are taken as the phase spaces of the systems in consideration. First of all, we construct all the geometric structures associated with a first-order jet bundle and, using them, we develop the lagrangian formalism, defining the canonical forms associated with a lagrangian density and the density of lagrangian energy, obtaining the Euler-Lagrange equations in two equivalent ways: as the result of a variational problem and developing the jet field formalism (which is a formulation more similar to the case of mechanical systems). A statement and proof of Noether's theorem is also given, using the latter formalism. Finally, some classical examples are briefly studied. (orig.)

  3. Formalization of the Resolution Calculus for First-Order Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichtkrull, Anders

    2016-01-01

    A formalization in Isabelle/HOL of the resolution calculus for first-order logic is presented. Its soundness and completeness are formally proven using the substitution lemma, semantic trees, Herbrand’s theorem, and the lifting lemma. In contrast to previous formalizations of resolution, it consi......A formalization in Isabelle/HOL of the resolution calculus for first-order logic is presented. Its soundness and completeness are formally proven using the substitution lemma, semantic trees, Herbrand’s theorem, and the lifting lemma. In contrast to previous formalizations of resolution...

  4. Accelerated MRI thermometry by direct estimation of temperature from undersampled k-space data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Pooja; Grissom, William A

    2015-05-01

    Acceleration of magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry is desirable for several applications of MR-guided focused ultrasound, such as those requiring greater volume coverage, higher spatial resolution, or higher frame rates. We propose and validate a constrained reconstruction method that estimates focal temperature changes directly from k-space without spatial or temporal regularization. A model comprising fully-sampled baseline images is fit to undersampled k-space data, which removes aliased temperature maps from the solution space. Reconstructed temperature maps are compared to maps reconstructed using parallel imaging (iterative self-consistent parallel imaging reconstruction [SPIRiT]) and conventional hybrid thermometry, and temporally constrained reconstruction thermometry. Temporal step response simulations demonstrate finer temporal resolution and lower error in 4×-undersampled radial k-space reconstructions compared to temporally constrained reconstruction. Simulations show that the k-space method can achieve higher accelerations with multiple receive coils. Phantom heating experiments further demonstrate the algorithm's advantage over reconstructions relying on parallel imaging alone to overcome undersampling artifacts. In vivo model error comparisons show the algorithm achieves low temperature error at higher acceleration factors (up to 32× with a radial trajectory) than compared reconstructions. High acceleration factors can be achieved using the proposed temperature reconstruction algorithm, without sacrificing temporal resolution or accuracy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. First-Order Hybrid Logic: Introduction and Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2014-01-01

    . For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...

  6. Supercooling across first-order phase transitions in vortex matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Hysteresis in cycling through first-order phase transitions in vortex matter, akin to the well-studied phenomenon of supercooling of water, has been discussed in literature. Hysteresis can be seen while varying either temperature T or magnetic field H (and thus the density of vortices). Our recent work on phase ...

  7. Code Generation for a Simple First-Order Prover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Halkjær From, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We present Standard ML code generation in Isabelle/HOL of a sound and complete prover for first-order logic, taking formalizations by Tom Ridge and others as the starting point. We also define a set of so-called unfolding rules and show how to use these as a simple prover, with the aim of using...

  8. Formalization of the Resolution Calculus for First-Order Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichtkrull, Anders

    2018-01-01

    I present a formalization in Isabelle/HOL of the resolution calculus for first-order logic with formal soundness and completeness proofs. To prove the calculus sound, I use the substitution lemma, and to prove it complete, I use Herbrand interpretations and semantic trees. The correspondence...

  9. The Resolution Calculus for First-Order Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichtkrull, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This theory is a formalization of the resolution calculus for first-order logic. It is proven sound and complete. The soundness proof uses the substitution lemma, which shows a correspondence between substitutions and updates to an environment. The completeness proof uses semantic trees, i.e. trees...

  10. First-order quantum phase transition in a finite system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.

    2006-01-01

    The dynamics at the critical point of a general first-order quantum phase transition in a finite system is examined from an algebraic perspective. Suitable Hamiltonians are constructed whose spectra exhibit coexistence of states corresponding to two degenerate minima in the energy surface separated by an arbitrary barrier. Explicit expressions are derived for wave functions and observables at the critical point

  11. First order normalization in the perturbed restricted three–body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper performs the first order normalization that will be employed in the study of the nonlinear stability of triangular points of the perturbed restricted three – body problem with variable mass. The problem is perturbed in the sense that small perturbations are given in the coriolis and centrifugal forces. It is with variable ...

  12. A controllability test for general first-order representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Helmke; J. Rosenthal; J.M. Schumacher (Hans)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we derive a new controllability rank test for general first-order representations. The criterion generalizes the well-known controllability rank test for linear input-state systems as well as a controllability rank test by Mertzios et al. for descriptor systems.

  13. First-order chemistry in the surface-flux layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Andersen, C.E.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    1997-01-01

    of a characteristic turbulent time scale and the scalar mean lifetime. We show that if we use only first-order closure and neglect the effect of the Damkohler ratio on the turbulent diffusivity we obtain another analytic solution for the profiles of the flux and the mean concentration which, from an experimental...

  14. Studies on magnetic-field-induced first-order transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cause these show phase coexistence. 2. Supercooling. Following the standard treatment of supercooling across a first-order transition we considered the case when both T and density are varied to cross the phase boundary [4]. The spinodal or limit for supercooling T∗ is the limit above which the supercooled state sits in a ...

  15. First order magneto-structural transition in functional magnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The key features of this magneto-structural transition are phase-coexistence and metastability. This generality is highlighted with experimental results obtained in a particular class of materials. A generalized framework of disorder influenced first order phase transition is introduced to understand the interesting experimental ...

  16. Multidimensional First-Order Dominance Comparisons of Population Wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Nikolaj; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave; Arndt, Thomas Channing

    2017-01-01

    This chapter conveys the concept of first-order dominance (FOD) with particular focus on applications to multidimensional population welfare comparisons. It gives an account of the fundamental equivalent definitions of FOD both in the one-dimensional and multidimensional setting, illustrated...

  17. First order magneto-structural phase transition and associated multi-functional properties in magnetic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Sindhunil Barman

    2013-01-01

    We show that the first order magneto-structural phase transitions observed in various classes of magnetic solids are often accompanied by useful multi-functional properties, namely giant magneto-resistance, magneto-caloric effect and magneto-striction. We highlight various characteristic features associated with a disorder influenced first order phase transition namely supercooling, superheating, phase-coexistence and metastability, in several magnetic materials and discuss how a proper understanding of the transition process can help in fine tuning of the accompanied functional properties. Magneto-elastic coupling is a key element in this first order phase transition, and methods need to be explored for maximizing the contributions from both the lattice and the magnetic degree of freedom while simultaneously minimizing the thermomagnetic hysteresis loss. An analogy is also drawn with the first order phase transition observed in dielectric materials and vortex matter of type-II superconductors. (topical review)

  18. First order magneto-structural phase transition and associated multi-functional properties in magnetic solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sindhunil Barman

    2013-05-08

    We show that the first order magneto-structural phase transitions observed in various classes of magnetic solids are often accompanied by useful multi-functional properties, namely giant magneto-resistance, magneto-caloric effect and magneto-striction. We highlight various characteristic features associated with a disorder influenced first order phase transition namely supercooling, superheating, phase-coexistence and metastability, in several magnetic materials and discuss how a proper understanding of the transition process can help in fine tuning of the accompanied functional properties. Magneto-elastic coupling is a key element in this first order phase transition, and methods need to be explored for maximizing the contributions from both the lattice and the magnetic degree of freedom while simultaneously minimizing the thermomagnetic hysteresis loss. An analogy is also drawn with the first order phase transition observed in dielectric materials and vortex matter of type-II superconductors.

  19. Gravitational radiation from first-order phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child, Hillary L.; Giblin, John T. Jr.

    2012-01-01

    It is believed that first-order phase transitions at or around the GUT scale will produce high-frequency gravitational radiation. This radiation is a consequence of the collisions and coalescence of multiple bubbles during the transition. We employ high-resolution lattice simulations to numerically evolve a system of bubbles using only scalar fields, track the anisotropic stress during the process and evolve the metric perturbations associated with gravitational radiation. Although the radiation produced during the bubble collisions has previously been estimated, we find that the coalescence phase enhances this radiation even in the absence of a coupled fluid or turbulence. We comment on how these simulations scale and propose that the same enhancement should be found at the Electroweak scale; this modification should make direct detection of a first-order electroweak phase transition easier

  20. First-order error budgeting for LUVOIR mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsey, Paul A.; Knight, J. Scott; Feinberg, Lee D.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Shaklan, Stuart B.

    2017-09-01

    Future large astronomical telescopes in space will have architectures that will have complex and demanding requirements to meet the science goals. The Large UV/Optical/IR Surveyor (LUVOIR) mission concept being assessed by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center is expected to be 9 to 15 meters in diameter, have a segmented primary mirror and be diffraction limited at a wavelength of 500 nanometers. The optical stability is expected to be in the picometer range for minutes to hours. Architecture studies to support the NASA Science and Technology Definition teams (STDTs) are underway to evaluate systems performance improvements to meet the science goals. To help define the technology needs and assess performance, a first order error budget has been developed. Like the JWST error budget, the error budget includes the active, adaptive and passive elements in spatial and temporal domains. JWST performance is scaled using first order approximations where appropriate and includes technical advances in telescope control.

  1. General and specific consciousness: a first-order representationalist approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neil; Mashour, George A.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that a complete theory of consciousness should explain general consciousness (what makes a state conscious at all) and specific consciousness (what gives a conscious state its particular phenomenal quality). We defend first-order representationalism, which argues that consciousness consists of sensory representations directly available to the subject for action selection, belief formation, planning, etc. We provide a neuroscientific framework for this primarily philosophical theory, according to which neural correlates of general consciousness include prefrontal cortex, posterior parietal cortex, and non-specific thalamic nuclei, while neural correlates of specific consciousness include sensory cortex and specific thalamic nuclei. We suggest that recent data support first-order representationalism over biological theory, higher-order representationalism, recurrent processing theory, information integration theory, and global workspace theory. PMID:23882231

  2. Energy Budget of Cosmological First-order Phase Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa, Jose R; No, Jose M; Servant, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    The study of the hydrodynamics of bubble growth in first-order phase transitions is very relevant for electroweak baryogenesis, as the baryon asymmetry depends sensitively on the bubble wall velocity, and also for predicting the size of the gravity wave signal resulting from bubble collisions, which depends on both the bubble wall velocity and the plasma fluid velocity. We perform such study in different bubble expansion regimes, namely deflagrations, detonations, hybrids (steady states) and runaway solutions (accelerating wall), without relying on a specific particle physics model. We compute the efficiency of the transfer of vacuum energy to the bubble wall and the plasma in all regimes. We clarify the condition determining the runaway regime and stress that in most models of strong first-order phase transitions this will modify expectations for the gravity wave signal. Indeed, in this case, most of the kinetic energy is concentrated in the wall and almost no turbulent fluid motions are expected since the s...

  3. Displacement Convexity for First-Order Mean-Field Games

    KAUST Repository

    Seneci, Tommaso

    2018-05-01

    In this thesis, we consider the planning problem for first-order mean-field games (MFG). These games degenerate into optimal transport when there is no coupling between players. Our aim is to extend the concept of displacement convexity from optimal transport to MFGs. This extension gives new estimates for solutions of MFGs. First, we introduce the Monge-Kantorovich problem and examine related results on rearrangement maps. Next, we present the concept of displacement convexity. Then, we derive first-order MFGs, which are given by a system of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation coupled with a transport equation. Finally, we identify a large class of functions, that depend on solutions of MFGs, which are convex in time. Among these, we find several norms. This convexity gives bounds for the density of solutions of the planning problem.

  4. TIC in the teaching of the first order differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón-Leal, Olga Lucy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research has been proposed to evaluate the relationships between the elements involved in the learning process of first order differential equations before and after the incorporation of technological tools of helping a descriptive study design where the importance of technology in the classroom is determined and how this can generate a change of attitude in students continues. The sample consisted of 40 students aged between 18-23 years. The collection instrument for information consisted of an attitude scale was applied at the beginning and end of the experiment results show that the use of the TIC as a mediator instrument produces a change of positive and favorable attitudes towards applications of differential equations of first order to support the acquisition of knowledge, achieving stimulate students' creativity and contributing to the design of new methodological strategies in the field of Higher Education.

  5. Black holes and first order flows in supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianopoli, L; Trigiante, M; Ferrara, S

    2011-01-01

    We review the description of static, spherically symmetric, asymptotically- flat black holes in four dimensional supergravity in terms of an autonomous Hamiltonian system. A special role in this analysis is played by the so called fake superpotenti alW, which is identified with a particular solution to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. This function defines a first order, gradient-flow, description of the radial flow of the scalar fields, coupled to the solution, and of the red-shift factor. Identifying W with the Liapunovs function, we can make the general statement that critical points of W are asymptotically stable equilibrium points of the corresponding first order dynamical system (in the sense of Liapunov). Such equilibrium points way only exist f or extremal regular solutions and define their near horizon behavior. Thus the fake superpotential provides an alternative characterization of the attractor phenomenon. We focus on extremal black holes and deduce very general properties of the fake superp otential...

  6. A First-Order One-Pass CPS Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Nielsen, Lasse Reichstein

    2001-01-01

    We present a new transformation of λ-terms into continuation-passing style (CPS). This transformation operates in one pass and is both compositional and first-order. Previous CPS transformations only enjoyed two out of the three properties of being first-order, one-pass, and compositional......, but the new transformation enjoys all three properties. It is proved correct directly by structural induction over source terms instead of indirectly with a colon translation, as in Plotkin's original proof. Similarly, it makes it possible to reason about CPS-transformed terms by structural induction over...... source terms, directly.The new CPS transformation connects separately published approaches to the CPS transformation. It has already been used to state a new and simpler correctness proof of a direct-style transformation, and to develop a new and simpler CPS transformation of control-flow information....

  7. A First-Order One-Pass CPS Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Nielsen, Lasse Reichstein

    2003-01-01

    We present a new transformation of λ-terms into continuation-passing style (CPS). This transformation operates in one pass and is both compositional and first-order. Previous CPS transformations only enjoyed two out of the three properties of being first-order, one-pass, and compositional......, but the new transformation enjoys all three properties. It is proved correct directly by structural induction over source terms instead of indirectly with a colon translation, as in Plotkin's original proof. Similarly, it makes it possible to reason about CPS-transformed terms by structural induction over...... source terms, directly.The new CPS transformation connects separately published approaches to the CPS transformation. It has already been used to state a new and simpler correctness proof of a direct-style transformation, and to develop a new and simpler CPS transformation of control-flow information....

  8. A First-Order One-Pass CPS Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Nielsen, Lasse Reichstein

    2002-01-01

    We present a new transformation of call-by-value lambdaterms into continuation-passing style (CPS). This transformation operates in one pass and is both compositional and first-order. Because it operates in one pass, it directly yields compact CPS programs that are comparable to what one would...... write by hand. Because it is compositional, it allows proofs by structural induction. Because it is first-order, reasoning about it does not require the use of a logical relation. This new CPS transformation connects two separate lines of research. It has already been used to state a new and simpler...... correctness proof of a direct-style transformation, and to develop a new and simpler CPS transformation of control-flow information....

  9. Gravitational radiation from first-order phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Child, Hillary L.; Giblin, John T. Jr., E-mail: childh@kenyon.edu, E-mail: giblinj@kenyon.edu [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, 201 North College Road, Gambier, OH 43022 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    It is believed that first-order phase transitions at or around the GUT scale will produce high-frequency gravitational radiation. This radiation is a consequence of the collisions and coalescence of multiple bubbles during the transition. We employ high-resolution lattice simulations to numerically evolve a system of bubbles using only scalar fields, track the anisotropic stress during the process and evolve the metric perturbations associated with gravitational radiation. Although the radiation produced during the bubble collisions has previously been estimated, we find that the coalescence phase enhances this radiation even in the absence of a coupled fluid or turbulence. We comment on how these simulations scale and propose that the same enhancement should be found at the Electroweak scale; this modification should make direct detection of a first-order electroweak phase transition easier.

  10. Nucleation of relativistic first-order phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csernai, L.P.; Kapusta, J.I.

    1992-01-01

    The authors apply the general formalism of Langer to compute the nucleation rate for systems of relativistic particles with zero or small baryon number density and which undergo first-order phase transitions. In particular, the pre-exponential factor is computed and it is proportional to the viscosity. The initial growth rate of a critical size bubble or droplet is limited by the ability of dissipative processes to transport latent heat away from the surface. 30 refs., 4 figs

  11. Multidimensional First-Order Dominance Comparisons of Population Wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Nikolaj; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave; Arndt, Thomas Channing

    2017-01-01

    This chapter conveys the concept of first-order dominance (FOD) with particular focus on applications to multidimensional population welfare comparisons. It gives an account of the fundamental equivalent definitions of FOD both in the one-dimensional and multidimensional setting, illustrated...... and weaknesses of FOD compared to other multidimensional population comparison concepts, and describes practical tools that enable the reader to easily use it....

  12. Robust stabilizing first-order controllers for a class of time delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadaoui, Karim; Testouri, Sana; Benrejeb, Mohamed

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, stabilizing regions of a first-order controller for an all poles system with time delay are computed via parametric methods. First, the admissible ranges of one of the controller's parameters are obtained. Then, for a fixed value of this parameter, stabilizing regions in the remaining two parameters are determined using the D-decomposition method. Phase and gain margin specifications are then included in the design. Finally, robust stabilizing first-order controllers are determined for uncertain plants with an interval type uncertainty in the coefficients. Examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A hierarchical classification of first-order recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabessa, Jérémie; Vill, Alessandro E P

    2010-12-31

    We provide a decidable hierarchical classification of first-order recurrent neural networks made up of McCulloch and Pitts cells. This classification is achieved by proving an equivalence result between such neural networks and deterministic Büuchi automata, and then translating the Wadge classification theory from the abstract machine to the neural network context. The obtained hierarchy of neural networks is proved to have width 2 and height omega + 1, and a decidability procedure of this hierarchy is provided. Notably, this classification is shown to be intimately related to the attractive properties of the considered networks.

  14. Temporal aggregation in first order cointegrated vector autoregressive models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour, Lisbeth Funding; Milhøj, Anders

    We study aggregation - or sample frequencies - of time series, e.g. aggregation from weekly to monthly or quarterly time series. Aggregation usually gives shorter time series but spurious phenomena, in e.g. daily observations, can on the other hand be avoided. An important issue is the effect of ...... of aggregation on the adjustment coefficient in cointegrated systems. We study only first order vector autoregressive processes for n dimensional time series Xt, and we illustrate the theory by a two dimensional and a four dimensional model for prices of various grades of gasoline...

  15. Temporal aggregation in first order cointegrated vector autoregressive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Lisbeth Funding; Milhøj, Anders

    2006-01-01

    We study aggregation - or sample frequencies - of time series, e.g. aggregation from weekly to monthly or quarterly time series. Aggregation usually gives shorter time series but spurious phenomena, in e.g. daily observations, can on the other hand be avoided. An important issue is the effect of ...... of aggregation on the adjustment coefficient in cointegrated systems. We study only first order vector autoregressive processes for n dimensional time series Xt, and we illustrate the theory by a two dimensional and a four dimensional model for prices of various grades of gasoline....

  16. First Order Description of Black Holes in Moduli Space

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianopoli, Laura; Orazi, Emanuele; Trigiante, Mario

    2007-01-01

    We show that the second order field equations characterizing extremal solutions for spherically symmetric, stationary black holes are in fact implied by a system of first order equations given in terms of a prepotential W. This confirms and generalizes the results in hep-th/0702088. When the black holes are solutions of extended supergravities we are able to find an explicit expression for the prepotentials which reproduce all the attractors of the four dimensional N>2 theories. We discuss a possible extension of our considerations to the non extremal case.

  17. Perturbative calculations with the first order form of gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, F. T.; McKeon, D. G. C.

    2015-05-01

    The first- and second-order forms of gauge theories are classically equivalent; we consider the consequence of quantizing the first-order form using the Faddeev-Popov approach. Both the Yang-Mills and the Einstein-Hilbert actions are considered. An advantage of this approach is that the interaction vertices are quite simple, being independent of momenta. However, it is necessary to consider the propagator for two fields (including a mixed propagator). We derive the Feynman rules for both models and consider the one-loop correction for the thermal energy momentum tensor.

  18. Multilevel solvers of first-order system least-squares for Stokes equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Chen-Yao G. [National Chung Cheng Univ., Chia-Yi (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1996-12-31

    Recently, The use of first-order system least squares principle for the approximate solution of Stokes problems has been extensively studied by Cai, Manteuffel, and McCormick. In this paper, we study multilevel solvers of first-order system least-squares method for the generalized Stokes equations based on the velocity-vorticity-pressure formulation in three dimensions. The least-squares functionals is defined to be the sum of the L{sup 2}-norms of the residuals, which is weighted appropriately by the Reynolds number. We develop convergence analysis for additive and multiplicative multilevel methods applied to the resulting discrete equations.

  19. STEP: Self-supporting tailored k-space estimation for parallel imaging reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zechen; Wang, Jinnan; Balu, Niranjan; Li, Rui; Yuan, Chun

    2016-02-01

    A new subspace-based iterative reconstruction method, termed Self-supporting Tailored k-space Estimation for Parallel imaging reconstruction (STEP), is presented and evaluated in comparison to the existing autocalibrating method SPIRiT and calibrationless method SAKE. In STEP, two tailored schemes including k-space partition and basis selection are proposed to promote spatially variant signal subspace and incorporated into a self-supporting structured low rank model to enforce properties of locality, sparsity, and rank deficiency, which can be formulated into a constrained optimization problem and solved by an iterative algorithm. Simulated and in vivo datasets were used to investigate the performance of STEP in terms of overall image quality and detail structure preservation. The advantage of STEP on image quality is demonstrated by retrospectively undersampled multichannel Cartesian data with various patterns. Compared with SPIRiT and SAKE, STEP can provide more accurate reconstruction images with less residual aliasing artifacts and reduced noise amplification in simulation and in vivo experiments. In addition, STEP has the capability of combining compressed sensing with arbitrary sampling trajectory. Using k-space partition and basis selection can further improve the performance of parallel imaging reconstruction with or without calibration signals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Bootstrap support is not first-order correct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Edward

    2009-04-01

    The appropriate interpretation of bootstrap support for splits and the question of what constitutes large bootstrap support have received considerable attention. One desirable interpretation, indeed the interpretation that was put forward when bootstrap support for splits was first introduced, is that 1-minus bootstrap support is a P value for the hypothesis that the split is not well resolved. As a P value, bootstrap support has been argued to be first-order correct. By obtaining the limiting distribution of bootstrap support for a split when maximum likelihood estimation is conducted, it is shown that bootstrap support is not first-order correct and insight is provided into the nature of the problem. Borrowing from earlier results, it is also shown that similar results hold when the neighbor-joining algorithm is used. Examples suggest that bootstrap support is generally conservative as a P value and give insight as to why this is usually the case. The analysis indicates that the problem is largely due to the unusual nature of tree space where boundary trees always have at least 2 neighbors.

  1. First-order discrete Faddeev gravity at strongly varying fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatsymovsky, V. M.

    2017-11-01

    We consider the Faddeev formulation of general relativity (GR), which can be characterized by a kind of d-dimensional tetrad (typically d = 10) and a non-Riemannian connection. This theory is invariant w.r.t. the global, but not local, rotations in the d-dimensional space. There can be configurations with a smooth or flat metric, but with the tetrad that changes abruptly at small distances, a kind of “antiferromagnetic” structure. Previously, we discussed a first-order representation for the Faddeev gravity, which uses the orthogonal connection in the d-dimensional space as an independent variable. Using the discrete form of this formulation, we considered the spectrum of (elementary) area. This spectrum turns out to be physically reasonable just on a classical background with large connection like rotations by π, that is, with such an “antiferromagnetic” structure. In the discrete first-order Faddeev gravity, we consider such a structure with periodic cells and large connection and strongly changing tetrad field inside the cell. We show that this system in the continuum limit reduces to a generalization of the Faddeev system. The action is a sum of related actions of the Faddeev type and is still reduced to the GR action.

  2. Hydrodynamical description of first-order phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokov, V.

    2010-01-01

    Solutions of hydrodynamical equations are presented for an equation of state allowing for a first-order phase transition. The numerical analysis is supplemented by analytical treatment provided the system is close to the critical point. The processes of growth and dissolution of seeds of various sizes and shapes in meta-stable phases (like super-cooled vapor and super-heated liquid) are studied, as well as the dynamics of unstable modes in the spinodal region. We show that initially nonspherical seeds acquire spherical shape with passage of time. Applications to the description of the first-order phase transitions in nuclear systems, such as the nuclear gas-liquid transition occurring in low energy heavy-ion collisions and the hadron-quark transition in the high energy heavy-ion collisions are discussed. In both cases we point out the important role played by effects of viscosity and surface tension. It is shown that fluctuations dissolve and grow as if the fluid were effectively very viscous. Even in the spinodal region seeds may grow slowly due to viscosity and critical slowing down. This prevents the enhancement of fluctuations in the near-critical region, which is frequently considered as a signal of the critical point in heavy-ion collisions. (author)

  3. Adaptive k-space sampling design for edge-enhanced DCE-MRI using compressed sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Rajikha; Sinha, Neelam

    2014-09-01

    The critical challenge in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is the trade-off between spatial and temporal resolution due to the limited availability of acquisition time. To address this, it is imperative to under-sample k-space and to develop specific reconstruction techniques. Our proposed method reconstructs high-quality images from under-sampled dynamic k-space data by proposing two main improvements; i) design of an adaptive k-space sampling lattice and ii) edge-enhanced reconstruction technique. A high-resolution data set obtained before the start of the dynamic phase is utilized. The sampling pattern is designed to adapt to the nature of k-space energy distribution obtained from the static high-resolution data. For image reconstruction, the well-known compressed sensing-based total variation (TV) minimization constrained reconstruction scheme is utilized by incorporating the gradient information obtained from the static high-resolution data. The proposed method is tested on seven real dynamic time series consisting of 2 breast data sets and 5 abdomen data sets spanning 1196 images in all. For data availability of only 10%, performance improvement is seen across various quality metrics. Average improvements in Universal Image Quality Index and Structural Similarity Index Metric of up to 28% and 24% on breast data and about 17% and 9% on abdomen data, respectively, are obtained for the proposed method as against the baseline TV reconstruction with variable density random sampling pattern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A maximum principle for the first-order Boltzmann equation, incorporating a potential treatment of voids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schofield, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    Ackroyd's generalized least-squares method for solving the first-order Boltzmann equation is adapted to incorporate a potential treatment of voids. The adaptation comprises a direct least-squares minimization allied with a suitably-defined bilinear functional. The resulting formulation gives rise to a maximum principle whose functional does not contain terms of the type that have previously led to difficulties in treating void regions. The maximum principle is derived without requiring continuity of the flux at interfaces. The functional of the maximum principle is concluded to have an Euler-Lagrange equation given directly by the first-order Boltzmann equation. (author)

  5. Energy Stable Flux Formulas For The Discontinuous Galerkin Discretization Of First Order Nonlinear Conservation Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Timothy; Charrier, Pierre; Mansour, Nagi N. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We consider the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element discretization of first order systems of conservation laws derivable as moments of the kinetic Boltzmann equation. This includes well known conservation law systems such as the Euler For the class of first order nonlinear conservation laws equipped with an entropy extension, an energy analysis of the DG method for the Cauchy initial value problem is developed. Using this DG energy analysis, several new variants of existing numerical flux functions are derived and shown to be energy stable.

  6. Basic first-order model theory in Mizar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bright Caminati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The author has submitted to Mizar Mathematical Library a series of five articles introducing a framework for the formalization of classical first-order model theory.In them, Goedel's completeness and Lowenheim-Skolem theorems have also been formalized for the countable case, to offer a first application of it and to showcase its utility.This is an overview and commentary on some key aspects of this setup.It features exposition and discussion of a new encoding of basic definitions and theoretical gears needed for the task, remarks about the design strategies and approaches adopted in their implementation, and more general reflections about proof checking induced by the work done.

  7. Distributions of Autocorrelated First-Order Kinetic Outcomes: Illness Severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Englehardt

    Full Text Available Many complex systems produce outcomes having recurring, power law-like distributions over wide ranges. However, the form necessarily breaks down at extremes, whereas the Weibull distribution has been demonstrated over the full observed range. Here the Weibull distribution is derived as the asymptotic distribution of generalized first-order kinetic processes, with convergence driven by autocorrelation, and entropy maximization subject to finite positive mean, of the incremental compounding rates. Process increments represent multiplicative causes. In particular, illness severities are modeled as such, occurring in proportion to products of, e.g., chronic toxicant fractions passed by organs along a pathway, or rates of interacting oncogenic mutations. The Weibull form is also argued theoretically and by simulation to be robust to the onset of saturation kinetics. The Weibull exponential parameter is shown to indicate the number and widths of the first-order compounding increments, the extent of rate autocorrelation, and the degree to which process increments are distributed exponential. In contrast with the Gaussian result in linear independent systems, the form is driven not by independence and multiplicity of process increments, but by increment autocorrelation and entropy. In some physical systems the form may be attracting, due to multiplicative evolution of outcome magnitudes towards extreme values potentially much larger and smaller than control mechanisms can contain. The Weibull distribution is demonstrated in preference to the lognormal and Pareto I for illness severities versus (a toxicokinetic models, (b biologically-based network models, (c scholastic and psychological test score data for children with prenatal mercury exposure, and (d time-to-tumor data of the ED01 study.

  8. Mean value first order second moment analysis of buckling of axially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These imperfect models are analysed using ANSYS non-linear FE buckling analysis including both geometrical and material non-linearities. From these FE analysis results, the strength distribution of the plate is obtained and reliability analysis is carried out using Mean Value First Order Second Moment (MVFOSM) method.

  9. Reduction of static field equation of Faddeev model to first order PDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Minoru; Shi Changguang

    2007-01-01

    A method to solve the static field equation of the Faddeev model is presented. For a special combination of the concerned field, we adopt a form which is compatible with the field equation and involves two arbitrary complex functions. As a result, the static field equation is reduced to a set of first order partial differential equations

  10. The first-order Euler-Lagrange equations and some of their uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, C.; Santamaria, F. [Departamento de Física de Partículas and Instituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE),Campus Vida, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2016-12-13

    In many nonlinear field theories, relevant solutions may be found by reducing the order of the original Euler-Lagrange equations, e.g., to first order equations (Bogomolnyi equations, self-duality equations, etc.). Here we generalise, further develop and apply one particular method for the order reduction of nonlinear field equations which, despite its systematic and versatile character, is not widely known.

  11. Photonic probing of radio waves for k-space tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakowski, Janusz; Schneider, Garrett J; Shi, Shouyuan; Schuetz, Christopher A; Prather, Dennis W

    2017-07-10

    We harness coherent optical processing to simultaneously sense the angle of arrival and the frequency of radio waves. Signals captured by a distributed antenna array are up-converted to optical domain using electro-optic modulators coupled to individual antennas. Employing a common laser source to feed all the modulators ensures spatially coherent up-conversion of radio-frequency (RF) waves to optical beams carried by optical fibers. Fiber-length dispersion extends the spatial aperture of the distributed antenna array into the temporal dimension. The interference of beams emanating from the fibers is captured by a CCD and used to computationally reconstruct RF waves in k-space.

  12. Determination of astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis by first-order derivative spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao Juan; Juan, Liu Xiao; Wu, Ying Hua; Hua, Wu Ying; Zhao, Li Chao; Chao, Zhao Li; Xiao, Su Yao; Yao, Xiao Su; Zhou, Ai Mei; Mei, Zhou Ai; Liu, Xin; Xin, Liu

    2011-01-01

    A highly selective, convenient, and precise method, first-order derivative spectrophotometry, was applied for the determination of astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis. Ethyl acetate and ethanol (1:1, v/v) were found to be the best extraction solvent tested due to their high efficiency and low toxicity compared with nine other organic solvents. Astaxanthin coexisting with chlorophyll and beta-carotene was analyzed by first-order derivative spectrophotometry in order to optimize the conditions for the determination of astaxanthin. The results show that when detected at 432 nm, the interfering substances could be eliminated. The dynamic linear range was 2.0-8.0 microg/mL, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9916. The detection threshold was 0.41 microg/mL. The RSD for the determination of astaxanthin was in the range of 0.01-0.06%; the results of recovery test were 98.1-108.0%. The statistical analysis between first-order derivative spectrophotometry and HPLC by T-testing did not exceed their critical values, revealing no significant differences between these two methods. It was proved that first-order derivative spectrophotometry is a rapid and convenient method for the determination of astaxanthin in H. pluvialis that can eliminate the negative effect resulting from the coexistence of astaxanthin with chlorophyll and beta-carotene.

  13. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the first-order hyperpolarizability of a class of triarylamine derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Daniel L., E-mail: dlsilva.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: deboni@ifsc.usp.br [Departamento de Ciências da Natureza, Matemática e Educação, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Anhanguera–Km 174, 13600-970 Araras, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05314-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Ruben D.; Mendonca, Cleber R.; De Boni, Leonardo, E-mail: dlsilva.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: deboni@ifsc.usp.br [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Vivas, Marcelo G. [Instituto de Ciência de Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Cidade Universitária - BR 267 Km 533, 37715-400 Poços de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Ishow, E. [CEISAM–UMR CNRS 6230, Université de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière, 44322 Nantes (France); Canuto, Sylvio [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05314-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-14

    This paper reports on the static and dynamic first-order hyperpolarizabilities of a class of push-pull octupolar triarylamine derivatives dissolved in toluene. We have combined hyper-Rayleigh scattering experiment and the coupled perturbed Hartree-Fock method implemented at the Density Functional Theory (DFT) level of theory to determine the static and dynamic (at 1064 nm) first-order hyperpolarizability (β{sub HRS}) of nine triarylamine derivatives with distinct electron-withdrawing groups. In four of these derivatives, an azoaromatic unit is inserted and a pronounceable increase of the first-order hyperpolarizability is reported. Based on the theoretical results, the dipolar/octupolar character of the derivatives is determined. By using a polarizable continuum model in combination with the DFT calculations, it was found that although solvated in an aprotic and low dielectric constant solvent, due to solvent-induced polarization and the frequency dispersion effect, the environment substantially affects the first-order hyperpolarizability of all derivatives investigated. This statement is supported due to the solvent effects to be essential for the better agreement between theoretical results and experimental data concerning the dynamic first-order hyperpolarizability of the derivatives. The first-order hyperpolarizability of the derivatives was also modeled using the two- and three-level models, where the relationship between static and dynamic first hyperpolarizabilities is given by a frequency dispersion model. Using this approach, it was verified that the dynamic first hyperpolarizability of the derivatives is satisfactorily reproduced by the two-level model and that, in the case of the derivatives with an azoaromatic unit, the use of a damped few-level model is essential for, considering also the molecular size of such derivatives, a good quantitative agreement between theoretical results and experimental data to be observed.

  14. Weakly Isolated horizons: first order actions and gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Reyes, Juan D; Vukašinac, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    The notion of Isolated Horizons has played an important role in gravitational physics, being useful from the characterization of the endpoint of black hole mergers to (quantum) black hole entropy. With an eye towards a canonical formulation we consider general relativity in terms of connection and vierbein variables and their corresponding first order actions. We focus on two main issues: (i) The role of the internal gauge freedom that exists, in the consistent formulations of the action principle, and (ii) the role that a 3  +  1 canonical decomposition has in the allowed internal gauge freedom. More concretely, we clarify in detail how the requirement of having well posed variational principles compatible with general weakly isolated horizons (WIHs) as internal boundaries does lead to a partial gauge fixing in the first order descriptions used previously in the literature. We consider the standard Hilbert–Palatini action together with the Holst extension (needed for a consistent 3  +  1 decomposition), with and without boundary terms at the horizon. We show in detail that, for the complete configuration space—with no gauge fixing—, while the Palatini action is differentiable without additional surface terms at the inner WIH boundary, the more general Holst action is not. The introduction of a surface term at the horizon—that renders the action for asymptotically flat configurations differentiable—does make the Holst action differentiable, but only if one restricts the configuration space and partially reduces the internal Lorentz gauge. For the second issue at hand, we show that upon performing a 3  +  1 decomposition and imposing the time gauge, there is a further gauge reduction of the Hamiltonian theory in terms of Ashtekar–Barbero variables to a U (1)-gauge theory on the horizon. We also extend our analysis to the more restricted boundary conditions of (strongly) isolated horizons as inner boundary. We show that even when

  15. Double sampling control chart for a first order autoregressive process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A. E. Claro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose the Double Sampling control chart for monitoring processes in which the observations follow a first order autoregressive model. We consider sampling intervals that are sufficiently long to meet the rational subgroup concept. The Double Sampling chart is substantially more efficient than the Shewhart chart and the Variable Sample Size chart. To study the properties of these charts we derived closed-form expressions for the average run length (ARL taking into account the within-subgroup correlation. Numerical results show that this correlation has a significant impact on the chart properties.Neste artigo propomos o gráfico de controle de amostragem dupla para monitoramento de processos nos quais as observações seguem um modelo autoregressivo de primeira ordem. Nós consideramos intervalos de amostragem suficientemente longos em linha com o conceito de subgrupos racionais. O gráfico de controle de amostragem dupla é substancialmente mais eficiente que o Gráfico de Shewhart e do que o Gráfico com Amostra de Tamanho Variável. Para estudar as propriedades destes gráficos nós derivamos expressões de forma-fechada para o Numero Médio de Amostras até o Sinal (NMA levando em conta a correlação dentro do subgrupo. Os resultados numéricos mostram que esta correlação tem impacto significante sobre as propriedades do gráfico.

  16. Spectroscopic studies (FTIR, FT-Raman and UV-Visible), normal coordinate analysis, NBO analysis, first order hyper polarizability, HOMO and LUMO analysis of (1R)-N-(Prop-2-yn-1-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-amine molecule by ab initio HF and density functional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, S; Ramachandran, G

    2014-01-01

    The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and FT-Raman of (1R)-N-(Prop-2-yn-1-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-amine (1RNPDA) were recorded in the regions 4000-400 cm(-1) and 4000-100 cm(-1) respectively. A complete assignment and analysis of the fundamental vibrational modes of the molecule were carried out. The observed fundamental modes have been compared with the harmonic vibrational frequencies computed using HF method by employing 6-31G(d,p) basis set and DFT(B3LYP) method by employing 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The vibrational studies were interpreted in terms of Potential Energy Distribution (PED). The complete vibrational frequency assignments were made by Normal Co-ordinate Analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field methodology (SQMFF). The first order hyper polarizability (β0) of this molecular system and related properties (α, μ, and Δα) are calculated using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method based on the finite-field approach. The thermodynamic functions of the title compound were also performed at the above methods and basis set. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of 1RNPDA is reported. The (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using the GIAO method confirms with the experimental values. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. UV-vis spectrum of the compound was recorded and electronic properties such as excitation energies, oscillator strength and wavelength were performed by TD-DFT/B3LYP using 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The HOMO and LUMO energy gap reveals that the energy gap reflects the chemical activity of the molecule. The observed and calculated wave numbers are formed to be in good agreement. The experimental spectra also coincide satisfactorily with those of theoretically constructed spectra. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. First Order Sea Clutter Cross Section for HF Hybrid Sky-Surface Wave Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.P. Zhu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modified method to simulate the first order sea clutter cross section for high frequency (HF hybrid sky-surface wave radar, based on the existent model applied in the bistatic HF surface wave radar. The modification focuses on the derivation of Bragg scattering frequency and the ionosphere dispersive impact on the clutter resolution cell. Meanwhile, an analytic expression to calculate the dispersive transfer function is derived on condition that the ionosphere is spherical stratified. Simulation results explicate the variance of the cross section after taking account of the influence triggered by the actual clutter resolution cell, and the spectral width of the first order sea clutter is defined so as to compare the difference. Eventually, experiment results are present to verify the rationality and validity of the proposed method.

  18. A framework for simulating ultrasound imaging based on first order nonlinear pressure–velocity relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang; Fan, Rui; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    An ultrasound imaging framework modeled with the first order nonlinear pressure–velocity relations (NPVR) based simulation and implemented by a half-time staggered solution and pseudospectral method is presented in this paper. The framework is capable of simulating linear and nonlinear ultrasound...... for the strong nonlinearity, the RMS error for 1 MPa initial pressure amplitude is reduced from 36.6% to 27.3%....

  19. Critical ignition conditions in exothermically reacting systems: first-order reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonov, Valeriy Yu

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the comparative analysis of the thermal explosion (TE) critical conditions on the planes temperature-conversion degree and temperature-time was conducted. It was established that the ignition criteria are almost identical only at relatively small values of Todes parameter. Otherwise, the results of critical conditions analysis on the plane temperature-conversion degree may be wrong. The asymptotic method of critical conditions calculation for the first-order reactions was proposed (taking into account the reactant consumption). The degeneration conditions of TE were determined. The calculation of critical conditions for specific first-order reaction was made. The comparison of the analytical results obtained with the results of numerical calculations and experimental data showed that they are in good agreement.

  20. First-order, stationary mean-field games with congestion

    KAUST Repository

    Evangelista, David

    2017-10-04

    Mean-field games (MFGs) are models for large populations of competing rational agents that seek to optimize a suitable functional. In the case of congestion, this functional takes into account the difficulty of moving in high-density areas. Here, we study stationary MFGs with congestion with quadratic or power-like Hamiltonians. First, using explicit examples, we illustrate two main difficulties: the lack of classical solutions and the existence of areas with vanishing density. Our main contribution is a new variational formulation for MFGs with congestion. This formulation was not previously known, and, thanks to it, we prove the existence and uniqueness of solutions. Finally, we consider applications to numerical methods.

  1. An Implementable First-Order Primal-Dual Algorithm for Structured Convex Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many application problems of practical interest can be posed as structured convex optimization models. In this paper, we study a new first-order primaldual algorithm. The method can be easily implementable, provided that the resolvent operators of the component objective functions are simple to evaluate. We show that the proposed method can be interpreted as a proximal point algorithm with a customized metric proximal parameter. Convergence property is established under the analytic contraction framework. Finally, we verify the efficiency of the algorithm by solving the stable principal component pursuit problem.

  2. Influence of partial k-space filling on the quality of magnetic resonance images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago da Silva Jornada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To study the influence that the scan percentage tool used in partial k-space acquisition has on the quality of images obtained with magnetic resonance imaging equipment. Materials and Methods: A Philips 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging scanner was used in order to obtain phantom images for quality control tests and images of the knee of an adult male. Results: There were no significant variations in the uniformity and signal-to-noise ratios with the phantom images. However, analysis of the high-contrast spatial resolution revealed significant degradation when scan percentages of 70% and 85% were used in the acquisition of T1- and T2-weighted images, respectively. There was significant degradation when a scan percentage of 25% was used in T1- and T2-weighted in vivo images (p ≤ 0.01 for both. Conclusion: The use of tools that limit the k-space is not recommended without knowledge of their effect on image quality.

  3. Predictions of protein flexibility: first-order measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Julio A; Chacón, Pablo; Abagyan, Ruben

    2004-09-01

    The normal modes of a molecule are utilized, in conjunction with classical conformal vector field theory, to define a function that measures the capability of the molecule to deform at each of its residues. An efficient algorithm is presented to calculate the local chain deformability from the set of normal modes of vibration. This is done by considering each mode as an off-grid sample of a deformation vector field. Predictions of deformability are compared with experimental data in the form of dihedral angle differences between two conformations of ten kinases by using a modified correlation function. Deformability calculations correlate well with experimental results and validate the applicability of this method to protein flexibility predictions. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Random First-Order Linear Discrete Models and Their Probabilistic Solution: A Comprehensive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-C. Casabán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a complete stochastic solution represented by the first probability density function for random first-order linear difference equations. The study is based on Random Variable Transformation method. The obtained results are given in terms of the probability density functions of the data, namely, initial condition, forcing term, and diffusion coefficient. To conduct the study, all possible cases regarding statistical dependence of the random input parameters are considered. A complete collection of illustrative examples covering all the possible scenarios is provided.

  5. First-order convex feasibility algorithms for x-ray CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidky, Emil Y.; Jørgensen, Jakob Heide; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Iterative image reconstruction (IIR) algorithms in computed tomography (CT) are based on algorithms for solving a particular optimization problem. Design of the IIR algorithm, therefore, is aided by knowledge of the solution to the optimization problem on which it is based. Often times...... problems. Conclusions: Formulation of convex feasibility problems can provide a useful alternative to unconstrained optimization when designing IIR algorithms for CT. The approach is amenable to recent methods for accelerating first-order algorithms which may be particularly useful for CT with limited...

  6. Approximating positive solutions of nonlinear first order ordinary quadratic differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapurao C. Dhage

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors prove the existence as well as approximations of the positive solutions for an initial value problem of first-order ordinary nonlinear quadratic differential equations. An algorithm for the solutions is developed and it is shown that the sequence of successive approximations converges monotonically to the positive solution of related quadratic differential equations under some suitable mixed hybrid conditions. We base our results on the Dhage iteration method embodied in a recent hybrid fixed-point theorem of Dhage (2014 in partially ordered normed linear spaces. An example is also provided to illustrate the abstract theory developed in the paper.

  7. Existence of weak solutions to first-order stationary mean-field games with Dirichlet conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, Rita

    2018-04-19

    In this paper, we study first-order stationary monotone mean-field games (MFGs) with Dirichlet boundary conditions. While for Hamilton--Jacobi equations Dirichlet conditions may not be satisfied, here, we establish the existence of solutions of MFGs that satisfy those conditions. To construct these solutions, we introduce a monotone regularized problem. Applying Schaefer\\'s fixed-point theorem and using the monotonicity of the MFG, we verify that there exists a unique weak solution to the regularized problem. Finally, we take the limit of the solutions of the regularized problem and using Minty\\'s method, we show the existence of weak solutions to the original MFG.

  8. Deterministic simulation of first-order scattering in virtual X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freud, N. E-mail: nicolas.freud@insa-lyon.fr; Duvauchelle, P.; Pistrui-Maximean, S.A.; Letang, J.-M.; Babot, D

    2004-07-01

    A deterministic algorithm is proposed to compute the contribution of first-order Compton- and Rayleigh-scattered radiation in X-ray imaging. This algorithm has been implemented in a simulation code named virtual X-ray imaging. The physical models chosen to account for photon scattering are the well-known form factor and incoherent scattering function approximations, which are recalled in this paper and whose limits of validity are briefly discussed. The proposed algorithm, based on a voxel discretization of the inspected object, is presented in detail, as well as its results in simple configurations, which are shown to converge when the sampling steps are chosen sufficiently small. Simple criteria for choosing correct sampling steps (voxel and pixel size) are established. The order of magnitude of the computation time necessary to simulate first-order scattering images amounts to hours with a PC architecture and can even be decreased down to minutes, if only a profile is computed (along a linear detector). Finally, the results obtained with the proposed algorithm are compared to the ones given by the Monte Carlo code Geant4 and found to be in excellent accordance, which constitutes a validation of our algorithm. The advantages and drawbacks of the proposed deterministic method versus the Monte Carlo method are briefly discussed.

  9. First-order system least squares for the pure traction problem in planar linear elasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Z.; Manteuffel, T.; McCormick, S.; Parter, S.

    1996-12-31

    This talk will develop two first-order system least squares (FOSLS) approaches for the solution of the pure traction problem in planar linear elasticity. Both are two-stage algorithms that first solve for the gradients of displacement, then for the displacement itself. One approach, which uses L{sup 2} norms to define the FOSLS functional, is shown under certain H{sup 2} regularity assumptions to admit optimal H{sup 1}-like performance for standard finite element discretization and standard multigrid solution methods that is uniform in the Poisson ratio for all variables. The second approach, which is based on H{sup -1} norms, is shown under general assumptions to admit optimal uniform performance for displacement flux in an L{sup 2} norm and for displacement in an H{sup 1} norm. These methods do not degrade as other methods generally do when the material properties approach the incompressible limit.

  10. Prediction of flexible/rigid regions from protein sequences using k-spaced amino acid pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruan Jishou

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally, it is believed that the native structure of a protein corresponds to a global minimum of its free energy. However, with the growing number of known tertiary (3D protein structures, researchers have discovered that some proteins can alter their structures in response to a change in their surroundings or with the help of other proteins or ligands. Such structural shifts play a crucial role with respect to the protein function. To this end, we propose a machine learning method for the prediction of the flexible/rigid regions of proteins (referred to as FlexRP; the method is based on a novel sequence representation and feature selection. Knowledge of the flexible/rigid regions may provide insights into the protein folding process and the 3D structure prediction. Results The flexible/rigid regions were defined based on a dataset, which includes protein sequences that have multiple experimental structures, and which was previously used to study the structural conservation of proteins. Sequences drawn from this dataset were represented based on feature sets that were proposed in prior research, such as PSI-BLAST profiles, composition vector and binary sequence encoding, and a newly proposed representation based on frequencies of k-spaced amino acid pairs. These representations were processed by feature selection to reduce the dimensionality. Several machine learning methods for the prediction of flexible/rigid regions and two recently proposed methods for the prediction of conformational changes and unstructured regions were compared with the proposed method. The FlexRP method, which applies Logistic Regression and collocation-based representation with 95 features, obtained 79.5% accuracy. The two runner-up methods, which apply the same sequence representation and Support Vector Machines (SVM and Naïve Bayes classifiers, obtained 79.2% and 78.4% accuracy, respectively. The remaining considered methods are

  11. Neutron Transport in Spatially Random Media: An Assessment of the Accuracy of First Order Smoothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.

    2000-01-01

    A formalism has been developed for studying the transmission of neutrons through a spatially stochastic medium. The stochastic components are represented by absorbing plates of randomly varying strength and random position. This type of geometry enables the Feinberg-Galanin-Horning method to be employed and leads to the solution of a coupled set of linear equations for the flux at the plate positions. The matrix of the coefficients contains members that are random and these are solved by simulation. That is, the strength and plate positions are sampled from uniform distributions and the equations solved many times (in this case 10 5 simulations are carried out). Probability distributions for the plate transmission and reflection factors are constructed from which the mean and variance can be computed.These essentially exact solutions enable closure approximations to be assessed for accuracy. To this end, we have compared the mean and variance obtained from the first order smoothing approximation of Keller with the exact results and have found excellent agreement for the mean values but note deviations of up to 40% for the variance. Nevertheless, for the problems considered here, first order smoothing appears to be of practical value and is very efficient numerically in comparison with simulation

  12. Computation of the optical properties and their first order derivatives for multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu El-Haija, A.J.; Omari, H.Y.

    1985-08-01

    An elaborate computer programme has been established for calculating the optical properties and their first order derivatives for arbitrary multilayer structure systems. The method employs Chebychev polynomials. The optical properties that may be calculated include reflectivity R, transmissivity T, absorptivity A and their derivatives R', T' and A' with respect to wavelength. The obtained values of R, T and A as calculated by this method were compared with their values calculated from direct multiplication of matrices using the characteristic transfer technique. The advantages of the present programme over the previous one reside in the reduction of the computer time by almost a factor of m, the total number of identity periods, and the advantage of calculating the derivatives of R, T and A with respect to wavelength. The basic formulas which are utilized in these calculations are given together with the essential details of the programme, including a block diagram. (author)

  13. Thermodynamics of rotating black branes in gravity with first order string corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Dehghani

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available   In this paper, the rotating black brane solutions with zero curvature horizon of classical gravity with first order string corrections are introduced. Although these solutions are not asymptotically anti de Sitter, one can use the counterterm method in order to compute the conserved quantities of these solutions. Here, by reviewing the counterterm method for asymptotically anti de Sitter spacetimes, the conserved quantities of these rotating solutions are computed. Also a Smarr-type formula for the mass as a function of the entropy and the angular momenta is obtained, and it is shown that the conserved and thermodynamic quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. Finally, a stability analysis in the canonical ensemble is performed, and it is shown that the system is thermally stable. This is in commensurable with the fact that there is no Hawking-Page phase transition for black object with zero curvature horizon.

  14. A First-order Prediction-Correction Algorithm for Time-varying (Constrained) Optimization: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simonetto, Andrea [Universite catholique de Louvain

    2017-07-25

    This paper focuses on the design of online algorithms based on prediction-correction steps to track the optimal solution of a time-varying constrained problem. Existing prediction-correction methods have been shown to work well for unconstrained convex problems and for settings where obtaining the inverse of the Hessian of the cost function can be computationally affordable. The prediction-correction algorithm proposed in this paper addresses the limitations of existing methods by tackling constrained problems and by designing a first-order prediction step that relies on the Hessian of the cost function (and do not require the computation of its inverse). Analytical results are established to quantify the tracking error. Numerical simulations corroborate the analytical results and showcase performance and benefits of the algorithms.

  15. Image reconstruction in k-space from MR data encoded with ambiguous gradient fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Gerrit; Gallichan, Daniel; Weber, Hans; Witschey, Walter R T; Honal, Matthias; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the limits of image reconstruction in k-space are explored when non-bijective gradient fields are used for spatial encoding. The image space analogy between parallel imaging and imaging with non-bijective encoding fields is partially broken in k-space. As a consequence, it is hypothesized and proven that ambiguities can only be resolved partially in k-space, and not completely as is the case in image space. Image-space and k-space based reconstruction algorithms for multi-channel radiofrequency data acquisitions are programmed and tested using numerical simulations as well as in vivo measurement data. The hypothesis is verified based on an analysis of reconstructed images. It is found that non-bijective gradient fields have the effect that densely sampled autocalibration data, used for k-space reconstruction, provide less information than a separate scan of the receiver coil sensitivity maps, used for image space reconstruction. Consequently, in k-space only the undersampling artifact can be unfolded, whereas in image space, it is also possible to resolve aliasing that is caused by the non-bijectivity of the gradient fields. For standard imaging, reconstruction in image space and in k-space is nearly equivalent, whereas there is a fundamental difference with practical consequences for the selection of image reconstruction algorithms when non-bijective encoding fields are involved. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Effect of First-Order Bending Resonance of Wheelset at High Speed on Wheel-Rail Contact Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuoqiao Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The first-order bending deformation of wheelset is considered in the modeling vehicle/track coupling dynamic system to investigate its effect on wheel/rail contact behavior. In considering the effect of the first-order bending resonance on the rolling contact of wheel/rail, a new wheel/rail contact model is derived in detail in the modeling vehicle/track coupling dynamic system, in which the many intermediate coordinate systems and complex coordinate system transformations are used. The bending mode shape and its corresponding frequency of the wheelset are obtained through the modal analysis by using commercial software ANSYS. The modal superposition method is used to solve the differential equations of wheelset motion considering its flexible deformation due to the first-order bending resonance. In order to verify the present model and clarify the influence of the first-order bending deformation of wheelset on wheel/track contact behavior, a harmonic track irregularity with a fixed wavelength and a white-noise roughness are, respectively used as the excitations in the two models of vehicle-rail coupling dynamic system, one considers the effect of wheelset bending deformation, and the other does not. The numerical results indicate that the wheelset first-order bending deformation has an influence on wheel/rail rolling contact behavior and is easily excited under wheel/rail roughness excitation.

  17. Fast single image super-resolution using estimated low-frequency k-space data in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianhua; Mou, Zhiying; Qin, Binjie; Li, Wanqing; Yang, Feng; Robini, Marc; Zhu, Yuemin

    2017-07-01

    Single image super-resolution (SR) is highly desired in many fields but obtaining it is often technically limited in practice. The purpose of this study was to propose a simple, rapid and robust single image SR method in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI). The idea is based on the mathematical formulation of the intrinsic link in k-space between a given (modulus) low-resolution (LR) image and the desired SR image. The method consists of two steps: 1) estimating the low-frequency k-space data of the desired SR image from a single LR image; 2) reconstructing the SR image using the estimated low-frequency and zero-filled high-frequency k-space data. The method was evaluated on digital phantom images, physical phantom MR images and real brain MR images, and compared with existing SR methods. The proposed SR method exhibited a good robustness by reaching a clearly higher PSNR (25.77dB) and SSIM (0.991) averaged over different noise levels in comparison with existing edge-guided nonlinear interpolation (EGNI) (PSNR=23.78dB, SSIM=0.983), zero-filling (ZF) (PSNR=24.09dB, SSIM=0.985) and total variation (TV) (PSNR=24.54dB, SSIM=0.987) methods while presenting the same order of computation time as the ZF method but being much faster than the EGNI or TV method. The average PSNR or SSIM over different slice images of the proposed method (PSNR=26.33 dB or SSIM=0.955) was also higher than the EGNI (PSNR=25.07dB or SSIM=0.952), ZF (PSNR=24.97dB or SSIM=0.950) and TV (PSNR=25.70dB or SSIM=0.953) methods, demonstrating its good robustness to variation in anatomical structure of the images. Meanwhile, the proposed method always produced less ringing artifacts than the ZF method, gave a clearer image than the EGNI method, and did not exhibit any blocking effect presented in the TV method. In addition, the proposed method yielded the highest spatial consistency in the inter-slice dimension among the four methods. This study proposed a fast, robust and efficient single image SR

  18. Free-Breathing Phase Contrast MRI with Near 100% Respiratory Navigator Efficiency using k-space Dependent Respiratory Gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçakaya, Mehmet; Gulaka, Praveen; Basha, Tamer A.; Ngo, Long H.; Manning, Warren J.; Nezafat, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the efficacy of a novel respiratory motion scheme, where only the center of k-space is gated using respiratory navigators, versus a fully respiratory-gated acquisition for 3D flow imaging. Methods 3D flow images were acquired axially using a GRE sequence in a volume covering the ascending and descending aorta, and the pulmonary artery bifurcation in 12 healthy subjects (33.2±15.8 years; 5 men). For respiratory motion compensation, two gating & tracking strategies were used with a 7mm gating window: 1) All of k-space acquired within the gating window (fully-gated), 2) Central k-space acquired within the gating window, and the remainder of k-space acquired without any gating (center-gated). Each scan was repeated twice. Stroke volume, mean flow, peak velocity and signal-to-noise-ratio measurements were performed both on the ascending and the descending aorta for all acquisitions, which were compared using a linear mixed-effects model and Bland-Altman analysis. Results There were no statistical differences between the fully-gated and center-gated strategies for the quantification of stroke volume, peak velocity and mean flow, as well as the signal-to-noise-ratio measurements. Furthermore, the proposed center-gated strategy had significantly shorter acquisition time compared to the fully-gated strategy (13:19±3:02 vs. 19:35±5:02, P<0.001). Conclusions The proposed novel center-gated strategy for 3D flow MRI allows for markedly shorter acquisition time without any systematic variation in quantitative flow measurements in this small group of healthy volunteers. PMID:23900942

  19. Chemical species separation with simultaneous estimation of field map and T2* using a k-space formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorato, Jose Luis; Parot, Vicente; Tejos, Cristian; Uribe, Sergio; Irarrazaval, Pablo

    2012-08-01

    Chemical species separation techniques in image space are prone to incorporate several distortions. Some of these are signal accentuation in borders and geometrical warping from field inhomogeneity. These errors come from neglecting intraecho time variations. In this work, we present a new approach for chemical species separation in MRI with simultaneous estimation of field map and T2* decay, formulated entirely in k-space. In this approach, the time map is used to model the phase accrual from off-resonance precession and also the amplitude decay due to T2*. Our technique fits the signal model directly in k-space with the acquired data minimizing the l(2)-norm with an interior-point algorithm. Standard two dimensional gradient echo sequences in the thighs and head were used for demonstrating the technique. With this approach, we were able to obtain excellent estimation for the species, the field inhomogeneity, and T2* decay images. The results do not suffer from geometric distortions derived from the chemical shift or the field inhomogeneity. Importantly, as the T2* map is well positioned, the species signal in borders is correctly estimated. Considering intraecho time variations in a complete signal model in k-space for separating species yields superior estimation of the variables of interest when compared to existing methods. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Experimental MR-guided cryotherapy of the brain with almost real-time imaging by radial k-space scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacke, J.; Schorn, R.; Glowinski, A.; Grosskortenhaus, S.; Adam, G.; Guenther, R.W.; Rasche, V.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To test radial k-space scanning by MR fluoroscopy to guide and control MR-guided interstitial cryotherapy of the healthy pig brain. Methods: After MR tomographic planning of the approach, an MR-compatible experimental cryotherapy probe of 2.7 mm diameter was introduced through a 5 mm burr hole into the right frontal brain of five healthy pigs. The freeze-thaw cycles were imaged using a T 1 -weighted gradient echo sequence with radial k-space scanning in coronal, sagittal, and axial directions. Results: The high temporal resolution of the chosen sequence permits a continuous representation of the freezing process with good image quality and high contrast between ice and unfrozen brain parenchyma. Because of the interactive conception of the sequence the layer plane could be chosen as desired during the measurement. Ice formation was sharply demarcated, spherically configurated, and was free of signals. Its maximum diameter was 13 mm. Conclusions: With use of the novel, interactively controllable gradient echo sequence with radial k-space scanning, guidance of the intervention under fluoroscopic conditions with the advantages of MRT is possible. MR-guided cryotherapy allows a minimally-invasive, precisely dosable focal tissue ablation. (orig.) [de

  1. A Direct Calculation of First-Order Wave Function of Helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndinya, Boniface Otieno; Omolo, Joseph Akeyo

    2010-01-01

    We develop a simple analytic calculation for the first order wave function of helium in a model in which nuclear charge screening is caused by repulsive coulomb interaction. The perturbation term, first-order correlation energy, and first-order wave function are divided into two components, one component associated with the repulsive coulomb interaction and the other proportional to magnetic shielding. The resulting first-order wave functions are applied to calculate second-order energies within the model. We find that the second-order energies are independent of the nuclear charge screening constant in the unperturbed Hamiltonian with a central coulomb potential. (general)

  2. EXTRA: a digital computer program for the solution of stiff sets of ordinary initial value, first order differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidell, J.

    1976-08-01

    EXTRA is a program written for the Winfrith KDF9 enabling the user to solve first order initial value differential equations. In this report general numerical integration methods are discussed with emphasis on their application to the solution of stiff sets of equations. A method of particular applicability to stiff sets of equations is described. This method is incorporated in the program EXTRA and full instructions for its use are given. A comparison with other methods of computation is included. (author)

  3. Uniqueness of solutions of a generalized Cauchy problem for a system of first order partial functional differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Netka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with weak solutions of a generalized Cauchy problem for a nonlinear system of first order differential functional equations. A theorem on the uniqueness of a solution is proved. Nonlinear estimates of the Perron type are assumed. A method of integral functional inequalities is used.

  4. Linear reversible second-order cellular automata and their first-order matrix equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, A. J.

    2004-11-01

    Linear or one-dimensional reversible second-order cellular automata, exemplified by three cases named as RCA1-3, are introduced. Displays of their evolution in discrete time steps, &{\\in}Z_2;) as for RCA1-3. MCA1-3 are tractable because it has been possible to generalize to them the heavy duty methods already well-developed for ordinary first-order cellular automata like those of Wolfram's Rules 90 and 150. While the automata MCA1-3 are thought to be of genuine interest in their own right, with untapped further mathematical potential, their treatment has been applied here to expediting derivation of a large body of general and explicit results for N(t) for RCA1-3. Amongst explicit results obtained are formulas also for each of RCA1-3 for the total weight of the configurations of the first &2^M; times, M =0, 1, 2,\\ldots.

  5. Observer-Based Bilinear Control of First-Order Hyperbolic PDEs: Application to the Solar Collector

    KAUST Repository

    Mechhoud, Sarra

    2015-12-18

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of bilinear control of a solar collector plant using the available boundary and solar irradiance measurements. The solar collector is described by a first-order 1D hyperbolic partial differential equation where the pump volumetric flow rate acts as the plant control input. By combining a boundary state observer and an internal energy-based control law, a nonlinear observer based feedback controller is proposed. With a feed-forward control term, the effect of the solar radiation is cancelled. Using the Lyapunov approach we prove that the proposed control guarantees the global exponential stability of both the plant and the tracking error. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed method.

  6. A Framework for Incorporating General Domain Knowledge into Latent Dirichlet Allocation using First-Order Logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrzejewski, D; Zhu, X; Craven, M; Recht, B

    2011-01-18

    Topic models have been used successfully for a variety of problems, often in the form of application-specific extensions of the basic Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model. Because deriving these new models in order to encode domain knowledge can be difficult and time-consuming, we propose the Fold-all model, which allows the user to specify general domain knowledge in First-Order Logic (FOL). However, combining topic modeling with FOL can result in inference problems beyond the capabilities of existing techniques. We have therefore developed a scalable inference technique using stochastic gradient descent which may also be useful to the Markov Logic Network (MLN) research community. Experiments demonstrate the expressive power of Fold-all, as well as the scalability of our proposed inference method.

  7. First-Order Quantum Phase Transition for Dicke Model Induced by Atom-Atom Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiu-Qin; Liu Ni; Liang Jiu-Qing

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we use the spin coherent state transformation and the ground state variational method to theoretically calculate the ground function. In order to consider the influence of the atom-atom interaction on the extended Dicke model’s ground state properties, the mean photon number, the scaled atomic population and the average ground energy are displayed. Using the self-consistent field theory to solve the atom-atom interaction, we discover the system undergoes a first-order quantum phase transition from the normal phase to the superradiant phase, but a famous Dicke-type second-order quantum phase transition without the atom-atom interaction. Meanwhile, the atom-atom interaction makes the phase transition point shift to the lower atom-photon collective coupling strength. (paper)

  8. Gravitational waves from first-order phase transitions: towards model separation by bubble nucleation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, Ryusuke; Lee, Sangjun; Seong, Hyeonseok; Takimoto, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    We study gravitational-wave production from bubble collisions in a cosmic first-order phase transition, focusing on the possibility of model separation by the bubble nucleation rate dependence of the resulting gravitational-wave spectrum. By using the method of relating the spectrum with the two-point correlator of the energy-momentum tensor , we first write down analytic expressions for the spectrum with a Gaussian correction to the commonly used nucleation rate, Γ propto eβ tarrow eβ t-γ2t2, under the thin-wall and envelope approximations. Then we quantitatively investigate how the spectrum changes with the size of the Gaussian correction. It is found that the spectral shape shows Script O(10)% deviation from Γ propto eβ t case for some physically motivated scenarios. We also briefly discuss detector sensitivities required to distinguish different spectral shapes.

  9. Improved MRI Reconstruction From Reduced Scans K-Space by Integrating Neural Priors in the Bayesian Restoration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reczko, M

    2001-01-01

    ...) from reduced scans in k-space. The proposed approach considers the combined use of Neural Network models and Bayesian restoration, in the problem of MRI image extraction from sparsely sampled k-space, following several different...

  10. Self-navigated 4D cartesian imaging of periodic motion in the body trunk using partial k-space compressed sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küstner, Thomas; Würslin, Christian; Schwartz, Martin; Martirosian, Petros; Gatidis, Sergios; Brendle, Cornelia; Seith, Ferdinand; Schick, Fritz; Schwenzer, Nina F; Yang, Bin; Schmidt, Holger

    2017-08-01

    To enable fast and flexible high-resolution four-dimensional (4D) MRI of periodic thoracic/abdominal motion for motion visualization or motion-corrected imaging. We proposed a Cartesian three-dimensional k-space sampling scheme that acquires a random combination of k-space lines in the ky/kz plane. A partial Fourier-like constraint compacts the sampling space to one half of k-space. The central k-space line is periodically acquired to allow an extraction of a self-navigated respiration signal used to populate a k-space of multiple breathing positions. The randomness of the acquisition (induced by periodic breathing pattern) yields a subsampled k-space that is reconstructed using compressed sensing. Local image evaluations (coefficient of variation and slope steepness through organs) reveal information about motion resolvability. Image quality is inspected by a blinded reading. Sequence and reconstruction method are made publicly available. The method is able to capture and reconstruct 4D images with high image quality and motion resolution within a short scan time of less than 2 min. These findings are supported by restricted-isometry-property analysis, local image evaluation, and blinded reading. The proposed method provides a clinical feasible setup to capture periodic respiratory motion with a fast acquisition protocol and can be extended by further surrogate signals to capture additional periodic motions. Retrospective parametrization allows for flexible tuning toward the targeted applications. Magn Reson Med 78:632-644, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. First order simulations on time measurements using inorganic scintillators for PET applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joly, B.; Montarou, G.; Pauna, N.

    2008-01-01

    Time measurements based on scintillating crystals are used in many different experimental sets-up in high energy physics, nuclear physics and medical imaging (e.g. PET). Time of Flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) is based on the measurement of the difference between the detection times of the two gamma arising from positrons decays. The fundamental improvement of TOF is an increase in signal to noise ratio which translates into sensitivity improvement. Conventional method for time measurements is based on the detection of first photoelectrons. Recently, in LHC experiments and more particularly for electromagnetic calorimeter, a fully digital method based on optimal filtering that considers samples of the entire signal was successfully applied. Since such a method allows ultimately time resolutions of about a few tens of picoseconds, for this report, first order simulations were performed using a simplified model of a detection block made of a PMT coupled to a LYSO or LaBr 3 crystal. These simulations were achieved to estimate time resolutions with the conventional method (first photoelectrons detection with CFD) or the optimal filtering. A hybrid method is also tested to be applied with fast running front-end electronics. These simulations will be the basis for experimental future studies. (authors)

  12. Linear reversible second-order cellular automata and their first-order matrix equivalents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macfarlane, A J

    2004-01-01

    Linear or one-dimensional reversible second-order cellular automata, exemplified by three cases named as RCA1-3, are introduced. Displays of their evolution in discrete time steps, t=0, 1, 2, ..., from their simplest initial states and on the basis of updating rules in modulo 2 arithmetic, are presented. In these, shaded and unshaded squares denote cells whose cell variables are equal to one and zero respectively. This paper is devoted to finding general formulas for, and explicit numerical evaluations of, the weights N(t) of the states or configurations of RCA1-3, i.e. the total number of shaded cells in tth line of their displays. This is achieved by means of the replacement of RCA1-3 by the equivalent linear first-order matrix automata MCA1-3, for which the cell variables are 2x2 matrices, instead of just numbers (element of Z 2 ) as for RCA1-3. MCA1-3 are tractable because it has been possible to generalize to them the heavy duty methods already well-developed for ordinary first-order cellular automata like those of Wolfram's Rules 90 and 150. While the automata MCA1-3 are thought to be of genuine interest in their own right, with untapped further mathematical potential, their treatment has been applied here to expediting derivation of a large body of general and explicit results for N(t) for RCA1-3. Amongst explicit results obtained are formulas also for each of RCA1-3 for the total weight of the configurations of the first 2 M times, M=0, 1, 2, ..

  13. K-space polarimetry of bullseye plasmon antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Clara I; Mohtashami, Abbas; Koenderink, A Femius

    2015-04-30

    Surface plasmon resonators can drastically redistribute incident light over different output wave vectors and polarizations. This can lead for instance to sub-diffraction sized nanoapertures in metal films that beam and to nanoparticle antennas that enable efficient conversion of photons between spatial modes, or helicity channels. We present a polarimetric Fourier microscope as a new experimental tool to completely characterize the angle-dependent polarization-resolved scattering of single nanostructures. Polarimetry allows determining the full Stokes parameters from just six Fourier images. The degree of polarization and the polarization ellipse are measured for each scattering direction collected by a high NA objective. We showcase the method on plasmonic bullseye antennas in a metal film, which are known to beam light efficiently. We find rich results for the polarization state of the beamed light, including complete conversion of input polarization from linear to circular and from one helicity to another. In addition to uncovering new physics for plasmonic groove antennas, the described technique projects to have a large impact in nanophotonics, in particular towards the investigation of a broad range of phenomena ranging from photon spin Hall effects, polarization to orbital angular momentum transfer and design of plasmon antennas.

  14. Evaluation of a PSO Approach for Optimum Design of a First-Order Controllers for TCP/AQM Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sana Testouri; Karim Saadaoui; Mohamed Benrejeb

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method for determining the optimal parameters of a first-order controller for TCP/AQM system. The model TCP/AQM is described by a second-order system with time delay. First, the analytical approach, based on the D-decomposition method and Lemma of Kharitonov, is used to determine the stabilizing regions of a firstorder controller. Second, the optimal parameters of the controller are obtained by the PSO algorithm. Fin...

  15. Propagators of Generalized Schrödinger Equations Related by First-order Supersymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schulze-Halberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct an explicit relation between propagators of generalized Schrödinger equations that are linked by a first-order supersymmetric transformation. Our findings extend and complement recent results on the conventional case [1].

  16. On periodic boundary value problems of first-order perturbed impulsive differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapurao C. Dhage

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an existence result for a first order impulsive differential inclusion with periodic boundary conditions and impulses at the fixed times under the convex condition of multi-functions.

  17. Existence and attractivity results for nonlinear first order random differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapurao C. Dhage

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the existence and attractivity results are proved for nonlinear first order ordinary random differential equations. Two examples are provided to demonstrate the realization of the abstract developed theory.

  18. First order integro-differential equations in Banach algebras involving Caratheodory and discontinuous nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapurao Dhage

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some existence theorems for the first order differential equations in Banach algebras is proved under the mixed generalized Lipschitz, Carathéodory and monotonicity conditions.

  19. Oscillation Criteria in First Order Neutral Delay Impulsive Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrova, M. B.; Donev, V. I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is dealing with the oscillatory properties of first order neutral delay impulsive differential equations and corresponding to them inequalities with constant coefficients. The established sufficient conditions ensure the oscillation of every solution of this type of equations.

  20. Efficient allocations in dynamic private information economies with persistent shocks: a first-order approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kapička, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 3 (2013), s. 1027-1054 ISSN 0034-6527 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : first-order approach * persistent shocks * private information Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 3.235, year: 2013

  1. Fuzzy stochastic generalized reliability studies on embankment systems based on first-order approximation theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yajun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to address the complex uncertainties caused by interfacing between the fuzziness and randomness of the safety problem for embankment engineering projects, and to evaluate the safety of embankment engineering projects more scientifically and reasonably, this study presents the fuzzy logic modeling of the stochastic finite element method (SFEM based on the harmonious finite element (HFE technique using a first-order approximation theorem. Fuzzy mathematical models of safety repertories were introduced into the SFEM to analyze the stability of embankments and foundations in order to describe the fuzzy failure procedure for the random safety performance function. The fuzzy models were developed with membership functions with half depressed gamma distribution, half depressed normal distribution, and half depressed echelon distribution. The fuzzy stochastic mathematical algorithm was used to comprehensively study the local failure mechanism of the main embankment section near Jingnan in the Yangtze River in terms of numerical analysis for the probability integration of reliability on the random field affected by three fuzzy factors. The result shows that the middle region of the embankment is the principal zone of concentrated failure due to local fractures. There is also some local shear failure on the embankment crust. This study provides a referential method for solving complex multi-uncertainty problems in engineering safety analysis.

  2. Wave Height Estimation from First-Order Backscatter of a Dual-Frequency High Frequency Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Tian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Second-order scattering based wave height measurement with high-frequency (HF radar has always been subjected to problems such as distance limitation and external interference especially under low or moderate sea state. The performance is further exacerbated for a compact system with small antennas. First-order Bragg scattering has been investigated to relate wave height to the stronger Bragg backscatter, but calibrating the echo power along distance and direction is challenging. In this paper, a new method is presented to deal with the calibration and improve the Bragg scattering based wave height estimation from dual-frequency radar data. The relative difference of propagation attenuation and directional spreading between two operating frequencies has been found to be identifiable along range and almost independent of direction, and it is employed to effectively reduce the fitting requirements of in situ wave buoys. A 20-day experiment was performed over the Taiwan Strait of China to validate this method. Comparison of wave height measured by radar and buoys at distance of 15 km and 70 km shows that the root-mean-square errors are 0.34 m and 0.56 m, respectively, with correlation coefficient of 0.82 and 0.84.

  3. First-order relativistic corrections to response properties: the hyperpolarizability of the Ne atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klopper, W; Coriani, S; Helgaker, T; Joergensen, P

    2004-01-01

    The computation of first-order relativistic corrections to electrical response properties has been implemented into the Dalton program at the level of closed-shell coupled-cluster theory, within the framework of the direct perturbation theory (DPT) of relativistic effects. Calculations of the first-order relativistic DPT corrections to the static and frequency-dependent dipole polarizability (α) and second dipole hyperpolarizability (γ) of the Ne atom illustrate possible applications of the new code

  4. Correction of the first order beam transport of the SLC Arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, N.; Barklow, T.; Emma, P.; Krejcik, P.

    1991-05-01

    Correction of the first order transport of the SLC Arcs has been made possible by a technique which allows the full 4x4 transport matrix across any section of Arc to be experimentally determined. By the introduction of small closed bumps into each achromat, it is possible to substantially correct first order optical errors, and notably the cross plane coupling at the exit of the Arcs. 4 refs., 3 figs

  5. Scaling behavior in first-order quark-hadron phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    It is shown that in the Ginzburg-Landau description of first-order quark-hadron phase transition the normalized factorial moments exhibit scaling behavior. The scaling exponent ν depends on only one effective parameter g, which characterizes the strength of the transition. For a strong first-order transition, we find ν=1.45. For weak transition it is 1.30 in agreement with the earlier result on second-order transition

  6. Compressed Sensing MRI Reconstruction from Highly Undersampled k-Space Data Using Nonsubsampled Shearlet Transform Sparsity Prior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Compressed sensing has shown great potential in speeding up MR imaging by undersampling k-space data. Generally sparsity is used as a priori knowledge to improve the quality of reconstructed image. Compressed sensing MR image (CS-MRI reconstruction methods have employed widely used sparsifying transforms such as wavelet or total variation, which are not preeminent in dealing with MR images containing distributed discontinuities and cannot provide a sufficient sparse representation and the decomposition at any direction. In this paper, we propose a novel CS-MRI reconstruction method from highly undersampled k-space data using nonsubsampled shearlet transform (NSST sparsity prior. In particular, we have implemented a flexible decomposition with an arbitrary even number of directional subbands at each level using NSST for MR images. The highly directional sensitivity of NSST and its optimal approximation properties lead to improvement in CS-MRI reconstruction applications. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method results in the high quality reconstruction, which is highly effective at preserving the intrinsic anisotropic features of MRI meanwhile suppressing the artifacts and added noise. The objective evaluation indices outperform all compared CS-MRI methods. In summary, NSST with even number directional decomposition is very competitive in CS-MRI applications as sparsity prior in terms of performance and computational efficiency.

  7. Specific absorption rate reduction in parallel transmission by k-space adaptive radiofrequency pulse design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homann, Hanno; Graesslin, Ingmar; Nehrke, Kay; Findeklee, Christian; Dössel, Olaf; Börnert, Peter

    2011-02-01

    The specific absorption rate (SAR) is an important safety criterion, limiting many MR protocols with respect to the achievable contrast and scan duration. Parallel transmission enables control of the radiofrequency field in space and time and hence allows for SAR management. However, a trade-off exists between radiofrequency pulse performance and SAR reduction. To overcome this problem, in this work, parallel transmit radiofrequency pulses are adapted to the position in sampling k-space. In the central k-space, highly homogeneous but SAR-intensive radiofrequency shim settings are used to achieve optimal performance and contrast. In the outer k-space, the homogeneity requirement is relaxed to reduce the average SAR of the scan. The approach was experimentally verified on phantoms and volunteers using field echo and spin echo sequences. A reduction of the SAR by 25-50% was achieved without compromising image quality. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Vibrational, UV spectra, NBO, first order hyperpolarizability and HOMO-LUMO analysis of carvedilol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarnalatha, N; Gunasekaran, S; Nagarajan, M; Srinivasan, S; Sankari, G; Ramkumaar, G R

    2015-02-05

    In this work, we have investigated experimentally and theoretically on the molecular structure, vibrational spectra, UV spectral analysis and NBO studies of cardio-protective drug carvedilol. The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra for carvedilol in the solid phase have been recorded in the region 4000-100 cm(-1) and 4000-400 cm(-1) respectively. Theoretical calculations were performed by using density functional theory (DFT) method at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) basis set levels. The harmonic vibrational frequencies, the optimized geometric parameters have been interpreted and compared with the reported experimental values. The complete vibrational assignments were performed on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes. The thermodynamic properties and molecular electrostatic potential surfaces of the molecule were constructed. The electronic absorption spectrum was recorded in the region 400-200 nm and electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies were calculated. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions and charge delocalization have been analyzed from natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The first order hyperpolarizability of the title molecule was also calculated. The photo stability of carvedilol under different storage conditions were analyzed using UV-Vis spectral technique. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Distinguishing magnetic particle size of iron oxide nanoparticles with first-order reversal curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumari, Monika; Hirt, Ann M., E-mail: ann.hirt@erdw.ethz.ch [Department of Earth Sciences, Institute of Geophysics, ETH-Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 5, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Widdrat, Marc; Faivre, Damien [Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Science Park Golm, D-14424 Potsdam (Germany); Tompa, Éva; Pósfai, Mihály [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, H-8200 Veszprém (Hungary); Uebe, Rene; Schüler, Dirk [Department Biologie I, LMU Munich, Großhaderner Str. 2, D-82152 Martinsried (Germany)

    2014-09-28

    Magnetic nanoparticles encompass a wide range of scientific study and technological applications. The success of using the nanoparticles in various applications demands control over size, dispersibility, and magnetics. Hence, the nanoparticles are often characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction, and magnetic hysteresis loops. TEM analysis requires a thin layer of dispersed particles on the grid, which may often lead to particle aggregation thus making size analysis difficult. Magnetic hysteresis loops on the other hand provide information on the bulk property of the material without discriminating size, composition, and interaction effects. First order reversal curves (FORCs), described as an assembly of partial hysteresis loops originating from the major loop are efficient in identifying the domain size, composition, and interaction in a magnetic system. This study presents FORC diagrams on a variety of well-characterized biogenic and synthetic magnetite nanoparticles. It also introduces deconvoluted reversible and irreversible components from FORC as an important method for obtaining a semi-quantitative measure of the effective magnetic particle size. This is particularly important in a system with aggregation and interaction among the particles that often leads to either the differences between physical size and effective magnetic size. We also emphasize the extraction of secondary components by masking dominant coercivity fraction on FORC diagram to explore more detailed characterization of nanoparticle systems.

  10. Efficient robust control of first order scalar conservation laws using semi-analytical solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new robust control framework for transportation problems in which the state is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law. Using an equivalent formulation based on a Hamilton-Jacobi equation, we pose the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link, using initial density control and boundary flow control, as a Linear Program. We then show that this framework can be extended to arbitrary control problems involving the control of subsets of the initial and boundary conditions. Unlike many previously investigated transportation control schemes, this method yields a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling shocks (i.e. discontinuities in the state of the system). We also demonstrate that the same framework can handle robust control problems, in which the uncontrollable components of the initial and boundary conditions are encoded in intervals on the right hand side of inequalities in the linear program. The lower bound of the interval which defines the smallest feasible solution set is used to solve the robust LP/MILP. Since this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation used to model the state of the system, it is extremely fast. Several examples are given to demonstrate the performance of the robust control solution and the trade-off between the robustness and the optimality.

  11. Efficient collective influence maximization in cascading processes with first-order transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Sen; Teng, Xian; Shaman, Jeffrey; Morone, Flaviano; Makse, Hernán A.

    2017-01-01

    In many social and biological networks, the collective dynamics of the entire system can be shaped by a small set of influential units through a global cascading process, manifested by an abrupt first-order transition in dynamical behaviors. Despite its importance in applications, efficient identification of multiple influential spreaders in cascading processes still remains a challenging task for large-scale networks. Here we address this issue by exploring the collective influence in general threshold models of cascading process. Our analysis reveals that the importance of spreaders is fixed by the subcritical paths along which cascades propagate: the number of subcritical paths attached to each spreader determines its contribution to global cascades. The concept of subcritical path allows us to introduce a scalable algorithm for massively large-scale networks. Results in both synthetic random graphs and real networks show that the proposed method can achieve larger collective influence given the same number of seeds compared with other scalable heuristic approaches. PMID:28349988

  12. Energy barriers between metastable states in first-order quantum phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Sascha; Timpanaro, André M.; Cormick, Cecilia; Landi, Gabriel T.

    2018-02-01

    A system of neutral atoms trapped in an optical lattice and dispersively coupled to the field of an optical cavity can realize a variation of the Bose-Hubbard model with infinite-range interactions. This model exhibits a first-order quantum phase transition between a Mott insulator and a charge density wave, with spontaneous symmetry breaking between even and odd sites, as was recently observed experimentally [Landig et al., Nature (London) 532, 476 (2016), 10.1038/nature17409]. In the present paper, we approach the analysis of this transition using a variational model which allows us to establish the notion of an energy barrier separating the two phases. Using a discrete WKB method, we then show that the local tunneling of atoms between adjacent sites lowers this energy barrier and hence facilitates the transition. Within our simplified description, we are thus able to augment the phase diagram of the model with information concerning the height of the barrier separating the metastable minima from the global minimum in each phase, which is an essential aspect for the understanding of the reconfiguration dynamics induced by a quench across a quantum critical point.

  13. Generic first-order phase transitions between isotropic and orientational phases with polyhedral symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Greitemann, Jonas; Pollet, Lode

    2018-01-01

    Polyhedral nematics are examples of exotic orientational phases that possess a complex internal symmetry, representing highly nontrivial ways of rotational symmetry breaking, and are subject to current experimental pursuits in colloidal and molecular systems. The classification of these phases has been known for a long time; however, their transitions to the disordered isotropic liquid phase remain largely unexplored, except for a few symmetries. In this work, we utilize a recently introduced non-Abelian gauge theory to explore the nature of the underlying nematic-isotropic transition for all three-dimensional polyhedral nematics. The gauge theory can readily be applied to nematic phases with an arbitrary point-group symmetry, including those where traditional Landau methods and the associated lattice models may become too involved to implement owing to a prohibitive order-parameter tensor of high rank or (the absence of) mirror symmetries. By means of exhaustive Monte Carlo simulations, we find that the nematic-isotropic transition is generically first-order for all polyhedral symmetries. Moreover, we show that this universal result is fully consistent with our expectation from a renormalization group approach, as well as with other lattice models for symmetries already studied in the literature. We argue that extreme fine tuning is required to promote those transitions to second-order ones. We also comment on the nature of phase transitions breaking the O(3 ) symmetry in general cases.

  14. Linear stability analysis of first-order delayed car-following models on a ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassarre, Sylvain; Roussignol, Michel; Tordeux, Antoine

    2012-09-01

    The evolution of a line of vehicles on a ring is modeled by means of first-order car-following models. Three generic models describe the speed of a vehicle as a function of the spacing ahead and the speed of the predecessor. The first model is a basic one with no delay. The second is a delayed car-following model with a strictly positive parameter for the driver and vehicle reaction time. The last model includes a reaction time parameter with an anticipation process by which the delayed position of the predecessor is estimated. Explicit conditions for the linear stability of homogeneous configurations are calculated for each model. Two methods of calculus are compared: an exact one via Hopf bifurcations and an approximation by second-order models. The conditions describe stable areas for the parameters of the models that we interpret. The results notably show that the impact of the reaction time on the stability can be palliated by the anticipation process.

  15. First-order dynamical phase transition in models of glasses: an approach based on ensembles of histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrahan, Juan P [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Jack, Robert L [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lecomte, Vivien; Duijvendijk, Kristina van; Wijland, Frederic van [Laboratoire Matiere et Systemes Complexes (CNRS UMR 7057), Universite Paris Diderot, 10 rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Pitard, Estelle [Laboratoire des Colloides, Verres et Nanomateriaux (CNRS UMR 5587), Universite de Montpellier II, place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2009-02-20

    We investigate the dynamics of kinetically constrained models of glass formers by analysing the statistics of trajectories of the dynamics, or histories, using large deviation function methods. We show that, in general, these models exhibit a first-order dynamical transition between active and inactive dynamical phases. We argue that the dynamical heterogeneities displayed by these systems are a manifestation of dynamical first-order phase coexistence. In particular, we calculate dynamical large deviation functions, both analytically and numerically, for the Fredrickson-Andersen model, the East model, and constrained lattice gas models. We also show how large deviation functions can be obtained from a Landau-like theory for dynamical fluctuations. We discuss possibilities for similar dynamical phase-coexistence behaviour in other systems with heterogeneous dynamics.

  16. PID controller tuning for the first-order-plus-dead-time process model via Hermite-Biehler theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anindo; Iqbal, Kamran

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses PID stabilization of a first-order-plus-dead-time (FOPDT) process model using the stability framework of the Hermite-Biehler theorem. The FOPDT model approximates many processes in the chemical and petroleum industries. Using a PID controller and first-order Padé approximation for the transport delay, the Hermite-Biehler theorem allows one to analytically study the stability of the closed-loop system. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and develop an algorithm for selection of stabilizing feedback gains. The results are given in terms of stability bounds that are functions of plant parameters. Sensitivity and disturbance rejection characteristics of the proposed PID controller are studied. The results are compared with established tuning methods such as Ziegler-Nichols, Cohen-Coon, and internal model control.

  17. Trophic structure of fish fauna along the longitudinal gradient of a first-order rural stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardel Nimet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: This study evaluated the trophic structure of the fish assemblage along the longitudinal gradient of a first-order rural stream. Methods Fish were sampled by electrofishing technique in December 2007, September 2008 and March 2009, at three stretch of the Itiz stream (headwater, middle and mouth. We sampled 1,255 individuals relating to 18 species. The categorization of trophic guilds was based on stomach content data of 1,096 individuals, analyzed according to the volumetric method, except for four species, which were classified according to the literature. To test the hypothesis of differences in the richness, abundance and biomass of trophic guilds along the headwater-mouth gradient, it was performed non-parametric statistical analysis of the dietary data. Was also calculated, the amplitude of trophic niche (Levins's index for each guild. To summarize the composition and abundance of the trophic guilds along the longitudinal gradient, we applied a non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS. Results We registered seven guilds: herbivorous, detritivorous, aquatic insectivorous, terrestrial insectivorous, invertivorous, omnivorous and piscivorous, the latter was exclusive to headwater and middle stretches. The omnivorous guild was not recorded in the headwater. Through PERMANOVA analysis it was found that the species richness of more specialized guilds (detritivorous and insectivorous terrestrial and of generalist invertivorous increased, while less specialized guilds like aquatic insectivorous and herbivorous, decrease significantly in headwater-mouth direction. Except by the non-expected increase of insectivorous terrestrial and decrease of herbivorous downstream, the non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS identified longitudinal variations in abundance and biomass of the guilds that agree with general patterns of fish guilds distribution along environmental gradients. Conclusion These results suggest that the influence of

  18. Friction anomalies at first-order transition spinodals: 1T-TaS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizon, Emanuele; Marx, Torben; Dietzel, Dirk; Pellegrini, Franco; Santoro, Giuseppe E.; Schirmeisen, Andre; Tosatti, Erio

    2018-02-01

    Revealing phase transitions of solids through mechanical anomalies in the friction of nanotips sliding on their surfaces, a successful approach for continuous transitions, is still an unexplored tool for first-order ones. Owing to slow nucleation, first-order structural transformations occur with hysteresis, comprised between two spinodal temperatures where, on both sides of the thermodynamic transition, one or the other metastable free energy branches terminates. The spinodal transformation, a collective one-shot event without heat capacity anomaly, is easy to trigger by a weak external perturbation. Here we show that even the gossamer mechanical action of an AFM-tip can locally act as a trigger, narrowly preempting the spontaneous spinodal transformation, and making it observable as a nanofrictional anomaly. Confirming this expectation, the CCDW-NCCDW first-order transition of the important layer compound 1T-TaS2 is shown to provide a demonstration of this effect.

  19. PSsolver: A Maple implementation to solve first order ordinary differential equations with Liouvillian solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellar, J.; Duarte, L. G. S.; da Mota, L. A. C. P.

    2012-10-01

    We present a set of software routines in Maple 14 for solving first order ordinary differential equations (FOODEs). The package implements the Prelle-Singer method in its original form together with its extension to include integrating factors in terms of elementary functions. The package also presents a theoretical extension to deal with all FOODEs presenting Liouvillian solutions. Applications to ODEs taken from standard references show that it solves ODEs which remain unsolved using Maple's standard ODE solution routines. New version program summary Program title: PSsolver Catalogue identifier: ADPR_v2_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADPR_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2302 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 31962 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 14 (also tested using Maple 15 and 16). Computer: Intel Pentium Processor P6000, 1.86 GHz. Operating system: Windows 7. RAM: 4 GB DDR3 Memory Classification: 4.3. Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADPR_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 144 (2002) 46 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Symbolic solution of first order differential equations via the Prelle-Singer method. Solution method: The method of solution is based on the standard Prelle-Singer method, with extensions for the cases when the FOODE contains elementary functions. Additionally, an extension of our own which solves FOODEs with Liouvillian solutions is included. Reasons for new version: The program was not running anymore due to changes in the latest versions of Maple. Additionally, we corrected/changed some bugs/details that were hampering the smoother functioning of the routines. Summary

  20. SU-F-J-158: Respiratory Motion Resolved, Self-Gated 4D-MRI Using Rotating Cartesian K-Space Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, F; Zhou, Z; Yang, Y; Sheng, K; Hu, P [UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Dynamic MRI has been used to quantify respiratory motion of abdominal organs in radiation treatment planning. Many existing 4D-MRI methods based on 2D acquisitions suffer from limited slice resolution and additional stitching artifacts when evaluated in 3D{sup 1}. To address these issues, we developed a 4D-MRI (3D dynamic) technique with true 3D k-space encoding and respiratory motion self-gating. Methods: The 3D k-space was acquired using a Rotating Cartesian K-space (ROCK) pattern, where the Cartesian grid was reordered in a quasi-spiral fashion with each spiral arm rotated using golden angle{sup 2}. Each quasi-spiral arm started with the k-space center-line, which were used as self-gating{sup 3} signal for respiratory motion estimation. The acquired k-space data was then binned into 8 respiratory phases and the golden angle ensures a near-uniform k-space sampling in each phase. Finally, dynamic 3D images were reconstructed using the ESPIRiT technique{sup 4}. 4D-MRI was performed on 6 healthy volunteers, using the following parameters (bSSFP, Fat-Sat, TE/TR=2ms/4ms, matrix size=500×350×120, resolution=1×1×1.2mm, TA=5min, 8 respiratory phases). Supplemental 2D real-time images were acquired in 9 different planes. Dynamic locations of the diaphragm dome and left kidney were measured from both 4D and 2D images. The same protocol was also performed on a MRI-compatible motion phantom where the motion was programmed with different amplitude (10–30mm) and frequency (3–10/min). Results: High resolution 4D-MRI were obtained successfully in 5 minutes. Quantitative motion measurements from 4D-MRI agree with the ones from 2D CINE (<5% error). The 4D images are free of the stitching artifacts and their near-isotropic resolution facilitates 3D visualization and segmentation of abdominal organs such as the liver, kidney and pancreas. Conclusion: Our preliminary studies demonstrated a novel ROCK 4D-MRI technique with true 3D k-space encoding and respiratory

  1. K-space trajectory mapping and its application for ultrashort Echo time imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Latta, P.; Starčuk jr., Zenon; Gruwel, M. L. H.; Weber, M.H.; Tomanek, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 36, February (2017), s. 68-76 ISSN 0730-725X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12607S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : gradient imperfections * K-space deviation * trajectrory estaimation * ultrashort echo time Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment OBOR OECD: Medical engineering Impact factor: 2.225, year: 2016

  2. Simple empirical order parameter for a first-order quantum phase transition in atomic nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatsos, Dennis; McCutchan, E A; Casten, R F; Casperson, R J

    2008-04-11

    A simple, empirical, easy-to-measure effective order parameter of a first-order phase transition in atomic nuclei is presented, namely, the ratio of the energies of the first excited 6+ and 0+ states, distinguishing between first- and second-order transitions, and taking on a special value in the critical region, as data in Nd-Dy show. In the large NB limit of the interacting boson approximation model, a repeating degeneracy between alternate yrast and successive 0+ states is found in the critical region around the line of a first-order phase transition, pointing to a possible underlying symmetry.

  3. Rounding by disorder of first-order quantum phase transitions: emergence of quantum critical points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Pallab; Schwab, David; Chakravarty, Sudip

    2008-01-11

    We give a heuristic argument for disorder rounding of a first-order quantum phase transition into a continuous phase transition. From both weak and strong disorder analysis of the N-color quantum Ashkin-Teller model in one spatial dimension, we find that, for N > or =3, the first-order transition is rounded to a continuous transition and the physical picture is the same as the random transverse field Ising model for a limited parameter regime. The results are strikingly different from the corresponding classical problem in two dimensions where the fate of the renormalization group flows is a fixed point corresponding to N-decoupled pure Ising models.

  4. Realization of first-order current-mode filters with low number of MOS transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Yuce, Erkan; Minaei, Shahram; Herencsár, Norbert; Koton, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a new current-mode (CM) circuit for realizing all of the first-order filter responses is suggested. The proposed configuration contains low number of components, only two NMOS transistors both operating in saturation region, two capacitors and two resistors. Major advantages of the presented circuit are low voltage, low noise and high linearity. The proposed filter circuit can simultaneously provide both inverting and non-inverting first-order low-pass, high-pass and all-pass f...

  5. On entropy change measurements around first order phase transitions in caloric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Luana; Ba Doan, Nguyen; Ranno, Laurent

    2017-02-22

    In this work we discuss the measurement protocols for indirect determination of the isothermal entropy change associated with first order phase transitions in caloric materials. The magneto-structural phase transitions giving rise to giant magnetocaloric effects in Cu-doped MnAs and FeRh are used as case studies to exemplify how badly designed protocols may affect isothermal measurements and lead to incorrect entropy change estimations. Isothermal measurement protocols which allow correct assessment of the entropy change around first order phase transitions in both direct and inverse cases are presented.

  6. Linear or linearizable first-order delay ordinary differential equations and their Lie point symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorodnitsyn, Vladimir A.; Kozlov, Roman; Meleshko, Sergey V.; Winternitz, Pavel

    2018-05-01

    A recent article was devoted to an analysis of the symmetry properties of a class of first-order delay ordinary differential systems (DODSs). Here we concentrate on linear DODSs, which have infinite-dimensional Lie point symmetry groups due to the linear superposition principle. Their symmetry algebra always contains a two-dimensional subalgebra realized by linearly connected vector fields. We identify all classes of linear first-order DODSs that have additional symmetries, not due to linearity alone, and we present representatives of each class. These additional symmetries are then used to construct exact analytical particular solutions using symmetry reduction.

  7. First-order convex feasibility algorithms for x-ray CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidky, Emil Y; Jørgensen, Jakob S; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2013-03-01

    Iterative image reconstruction (IIR) algorithms in computed tomography (CT) are based on algorithms for solving a particular optimization problem. Design of the IIR algorithm, therefore, is aided by knowledge of the solution to the optimization problem on which it is based. Often times, however, it is impractical to achieve accurate solution to the optimization of interest, which complicates design of IIR algorithms. This issue is particularly acute for CT with a limited angular-range scan, which leads to poorly conditioned system matrices and difficult to solve optimization problems. In this paper, we develop IIR algorithms which solve a certain type of optimization called convex feasibility. The convex feasibility approach can provide alternatives to unconstrained optimization approaches and at the same time allow for rapidly convergent algorithms for their solution-thereby facilitating the IIR algorithm design process. An accelerated version of the Chambolle-Pock (CP) algorithm is adapted to various convex feasibility problems of potential interest to IIR in CT. One of the proposed problems is seen to be equivalent to least-squares minimization, and two other problems provide alternatives to penalized, least-squares minimization. The accelerated CP algorithms are demonstrated on a simulation of circular fan-beam CT with a limited scanning arc of 144°. The CP algorithms are seen in the empirical results to converge to the solution of their respective convex feasibility problems. Formulation of convex feasibility problems can provide a useful alternative to unconstrained optimization when designing IIR algorithms for CT. The approach is amenable to recent methods for accelerating first-order algorithms which may be particularly useful for CT with limited angular-range scanning. The present paper demonstrates the methodology, and future work will illustrate its utility in actual CT application.

  8. Verication of an LCF-Style First-Order Prover with Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Alexander Birch; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    We formalize in Isabelle/HOL the kernel of an LCF-style prover for first-order logic with equality from John Harrison’s Handbook of Practical Logic and Automated Reasoning. We prove the kernel sound and generate Standard ML code from the formalization. The generated code can then serve...

  9. Novel Resistorless First-Order Current-Mode Universal Filter Employing a Grounded Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arslanalp

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new bipolar junction transistor (BJT based configuration for providing first-order resistorless current-mode (CM all-pass, low-pass and high-pass filter responses from the same configuration is suggested. The proposed circuit called as a first-order universal filter possesses some important advantages such as consisting of a few BJTs and a grounded capacitor, consuming very low power and having electronic tunability property of its pole frequency. Additionally, types of filter response can be obtained only by changing the values of current sources. The suggested circuit does not suffer from disadvantages of use of the resistors in IC process. The presented first-order universal filter topology does not need any passive element matching constraints. Moreover, as an application example, a second-order band-pass filter is obtained by cascading two proposed filter structures which are operating as low-pass filter and high-pass one. Simulations by means of PSpice program are accomplished to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the developed first-order universal filter.

  10. Harmonic oscillator thermal density matrix: First-order differential equations for the position representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán-Gil, L. F.; Walser, R.

    2018-01-01

    A first-order partial differential equation is derived whose solution enables us to find straightforwardly the off-diagonal matrix elements in the position representation of the harmonic oscillator density operator. This approach constitutes an alternative to techniques that require advanced knowledge of mathematical and quantum mechanical results.

  11. Imaging of first-order surface-related multiples by reverse-time migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejian; Liu, Yike; Hu, Hao; Li, Peng; Khan, Majid

    2017-02-01

    Surface-related multiples have been utilized in the reverse-time migration (RTM) procedures, and additional illumination for subsurface can be provided. Meanwhile, many cross-talks are generated from undesired interactions between forward- and backward-propagated seismic waves. In this paper, subsequent to analysing and categorizing these cross-talks, we propose RTM of first-order multiples to avoid most undesired interactions in RTM of all-order multiples, where only primaries are forward-propagated and crosscorrelated with the backward-propagated first-order multiples. With primaries and multiples separated during regular seismic data processing as the input data, first-order multiples can be obtained by a two-step scheme: (1) the dual-prediction of higher-order multiples; and (2) the adaptive subtraction of predicted higher-order multiples from all-order multiples within local offset-time windows. In numerical experiments, two synthetic and a marine field data sets are used, where different cross-talks generated by RTM of all-order multiples can be identified and the proposed RTM of first-order multiples can provide a very interpretable image with a few cross-talks.

  12. First-order dominance: stronger characterization and a bivariate checking algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, Troels Martin; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2018-01-01

    distributions. Utilizing that this problem can be formulated as a transportation problem with a special structure, we provide a stronger characterization of multivariate first-order dominance and develop a linear time complexity checking algorithm for the bivariate case. We illustrate the use of the checking...

  13. Back-and-forth systems for fuzzy first-order models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dellunde, P.; García-Cerdaña, A.; Noguera, Carles

    (2018) ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GF15-34650L Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Mathematical fuzzy logic * first-order fuzzy logics * non-classical logics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2018/MTR/noguera-0486421. pdf

  14. Poverty Mapping Based on First-Order Dominance with an Example from Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Azhar; Salvucci, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    We explore a novel first-order dominance (FOD) approach to poverty mapping and compare its properties to small-area estimation. The FOD approach uses census data directly, is straightforward to implement, is multidimensional allowing for a broad conception of welfare and accounts rigorously for w...

  15. Oscillation Criteria of First Order Neutral Delay Differential Equations with Variable Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima N. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some new oscillation criteria are given for first order neutral delay differential equations with variable coefficients. Our results generalize and extend some of the well-known results in the literature. Some examples are considered to illustrate the main results.

  16. Variations in the Solution of Linear First-Order Differential Equations. Classroom Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Brian; Osler, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    A special project which can be given to students of ordinary differential equations is described in detail. Students create new differential equations by changing the dependent variable in the familiar linear first-order equation (dv/dx)+p(x)v=q(x) by means of a substitution v=f(y). The student then creates a table of the new equations and…

  17. Learning first-order definable concepts over structures of small degree

    OpenAIRE

    Grohe, Martin; Ritzert, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We consider a declarative framework for machine learning where concepts and hypotheses are defined by formulas of a logic over some background structure. We show that within this framework, concepts defined by first-order formulas over a background structure of at most polylogarithmic degree can be learned in polylogarithmic time in the "probably approximately correct" learning sense.

  18. Minimal Semantics for Action Specifications in First-order Dynamic Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersen, Jan; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we investigate minimal semantics for First Order Dynamic Logic formulas. The goal is to be able to write action specifications in a declarative pre/post-condition style. The declarative specification of actions comes with some well known problems: the frame problem, the qualification

  19. Explicit solutions of one-dimensional, first-order, stationary mean-field games with congestion

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2017-01-05

    Here, we consider one-dimensional first-order stationary mean-field games with congestion. These games arise when crowds face difficulty moving in high-density regions. We look at both monotone decreasing and increasing interactions and construct explicit solutions using the current formulation. We observe new phenomena such as discontinuities, unhappiness traps and the non-existence of solutions.

  20. How much are your geraniums? Taking graph conditions beyond first Order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Katoen, Joost-Pieter; Langerak, Rom; Rensink, Arend

    2017-01-01

    Previous work has shown how first-order logic can equivalently be expressed through nested graph conditions, also called condition trees, with surprisingly few ingredients. In this paper, we extend condition trees by adding set-based operators such as sums and products, calculated over operands that

  1. Weak first-order orientational transition in the Lebwohl-Lasher model for liquid crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhengping; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Zuckermann, Martin J.

    1992-01-01

    The nature of the orientational phase transition in the three-dimensional Lebwohl-Lasher model of liquid crystals has been studied by computer simulation using reweighting techniques and finite-size scaling analysis. Unambiguous numerical evidence is found in favor of a weak first-order transition...

  2. First Order Fire Effects Model: FOFEM 4.0, user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; Robert E. Keane; James K. Brown

    1997-01-01

    A First Order Fire Effects Model (FOFEM) was developed to predict the direct consequences of prescribed fire and wildfire. FOFEM computes duff and woody fuel consumption, smoke production, and fire-caused tree mortality for most forest and rangeland types in the United States. The model is available as a computer program for PC or Data General computer.

  3. Advancing investigation and physical modeling of first-order fire effects on soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Massman; John M. Frank; Sacha J. Mooney

    2010-01-01

    Heating soil during intense wildland fires or slash-pile burns can alter the soil irreversibly, resulting in many significant long-term biological, chemical, physical, and hydrological effects. To better understand these long-term effects, it is necessary to improve modeling capability and prediction of the more immediate, or first-order, effects that fire can have on...

  4. Efficient allocations in dynamic private information economies with persistent shocks: a first-order approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kapička, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 3 (2013), s. 1027-1054 ISSN 0034-6527 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : first-order approach * persistent shocks * private information Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 3.235, year: 2013

  5. A stochastic model of chemical equilibrium: case study of the reversible first-order reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolc, Milan

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 136, 5-6 (1999), s. 647-661 ISSN 0001-5407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : chemical equilibrium * first-order reaction Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.477, year: 1999

  6. Complex-plane strategy for computing rotating polytropic models - efficiency and accuracy of the complex first-order perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geroyannis, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical method is developed for determining the structure distortion of a polytropic star which rotates either uniformly or differentially. This method carries out the required numerical integrations in the complex plane. The method is implemented to compute indicative quantities, such as the critical perturbation parameter which represents an upper limit in the rotational behavior of the star. From such indicative results, it is inferred that this method achieves impressive improvement against other relevant methods; most important, it is comparable to some of the most elaborate and accurate techniques on the subject. It is also shown that the use of this method with Chandrasekhar's first-order perturbation theory yields an immediate drastic improvement of the results. Thus, there is no neeed - for most applications concerning rotating polytropic models - to proceed to the further use of the method with higher order techniques, unless the maximum accuracy of the method is required. 31 references

  7. Bubble nucleation in first-order inflation and other cosmological phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.; Weinberg, E.J.; Widrow, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    We address in some detail the kinematics of bubble nucleation and percolation in first-order cosmological phase transitions, with the primary focus on first-order inflation. We study how a first-order phase transition completes, describe measures of its progress, and compute the distribution of bubble sizes. For example, we find that the typical bubble size in a successful transition is of order 1% to 100% of the Hubble radius, and depends very weakly on the energy scale of the transition. We derive very general conditions that must be satisfied by Γ/H 4 to complete the phase transition (Γ=bubble nucleation rate per unit volume; H=expansion rate; physically, Γ/H 4 corresponds to the volume fraction of space occupied by bubbles nucleated over a Hubble time). In particular, Γ/H 4 must exceed 9/4π to successfully end inflation. To avoid the deleterious effects of bubbles nucleated early during inflation on primordial nucleosynthesis and on the isotropy and spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation, during most of inflation Γ/H 4 must be less than order 10 -4 --10 -3 . Our constraints imply that in a successful model of first-order inflation the phase transition must complete over a period of at most a few Hubble times and all but preclude individual bubbles from providing an interesting source of density perturbation. We note, though, that it is just possible for Poisson fluctuations in the number of moderately large-size bubbles to lead to interesting isocurvature perturbations, whose spectrum is not scale invariant. Finally, we analyze in detail several recently proposed models of first-order inflation

  8. The strongly coupled fourth family and a first-order electroweak phase transition. 1. Quark sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikukawa, Yoshio; Kohda, Masaya; Yasuda, Junichiro

    2009-01-01

    In models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking due to strongly coupled fourth-family quarks and leptons, their low-energy effective descriptions may involve multiple composite Higgs fields, leading to a possibility that the electroweak phase transition at finite temperature is first-order due to the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. We examine the behavior of the electroweak phase transition on the basis of the effective renormalizable Yukawa theory, which consists of the fourth-family quarks and two SU(2)-doublet Higgs fields corresponding to the bilinear operators of the fourth-family quarks with/without imposing the compositeness condition. The strength of the first-order phase transition is estimated using the finite-temperature effective potential at one loop with ring improvement. In the Yukawa theory without the compositeness condition, it is found that there is a parameter region where the first-order phase transition is sufficiently strong for the electroweak baryogenesis with the experimentally acceptable Higgs boson and fourth-family quark masses. On the other hand, when the compositeness condition is imposed, the phase transition turns out to be weakly first-order, or possibly second-order, although the result is rather sensitive to the details of the compositeness condition. By combining with the result of the Yukawa theory without the compositeness condition, it is argued that with the fourth-family quark masses in the range of 330-480 GeV, corresponding to the compositeness scale in the range of 1.0-2.3 TeV, the four-fermion interaction among the fourth-family quarks does not lead to the strongly first-order electroweak phase transition. (author)

  9. Linear perturbation of spherically symmetric flows: a first-order upwind scheme for the gas dynamics equations in Lagrangian coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarisse, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    A numerical scheme for computing linear Lagrangian perturbations of spherically symmetric flows of gas dynamics is proposed. This explicit first-order scheme uses the Roe method in Lagrangian coordinates, for computing the radial spherically symmetric mean flow, and its linearized version, for treating the three-dimensional linear perturbations. Fulfillment of the geometric conservation law discrete formulations for both the mean flow and its perturbation is ensured. This scheme capabilities are illustrated by the computation of free-surface mode evolutions at the boundaries of a spherical hollow shell undergoing an homogeneous cumulative compression, showing excellent agreement with reference results. (author)

  10. Quaternionic factorization of the Schroedinger operator and its applications to some first-order systems of mathematical physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchenko, Viktor G [Faculdade de Ciencias y Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8000 Faro (Portugal); Kravchenko, Vladislav V [Depto de Telecomunicaciones, SEPI ESIME Zacatenco, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. IPN S/N, Edif. 1 CP 07738, DF (Mexico)

    2003-11-07

    We show that an ample class of physically meaningful partial differential systems of first order such as the Dirac equation with different one-component potentials, static Maxwell's system and the system describing the force-free magnetic fields are equivalent to a single quaternionic equation which in its turn reduces in general to a Schroedinger equation with quaternionic potential, and in some situations this last can be diagonalized. The rich variety of methods developed for different problems corresponding to the Schroedinger equation can be applied to the systems considered in the present work.

  11. First-order flow equations for extremal and non-extremal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perz, Jan; Vercnocke, Bert; Smyth, Paul; Van Riet, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We derive a general form of first-order flow equations for extremal and non-extremal, static, spherically symmetric black holes in theories with massless scalars and vectors coupled to gravity. By rewriting the action as a sum of squares a la Bogomol'nyi, we identify the function governing the first-order gradient flow, the 'generalised superpotential', which reduces to the 'fake superpotential' for non-supersymmetric extremal black holes and to the central charge for supersymmetric black holes. For theories whose scalar manifold is a symmetric space after a timelike dimensional reduction, we present the condition for the existence of a generalised superpotential. We provide examples to illustrate the formalism in four and five spacetime dimensions.

  12. A Formalization of the Theorem of Existence of First-Order Most General Unifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia B Avelar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a formalization of the theorem of existence of most general unifiers in first-order signatures in the higher-order proof assistant PVS. The distinguishing feature of this formalization is that it remains close to the textbook proofs that are based on proving the correctness of the well-known Robinson's first-order unification algorithm. The formalization was applied inside a PVS development for term rewriting systems that provides a complete formalization of the Knuth-Bendix Critical Pair theorem, among other relevant theorems of the theory of rewriting. In addition, the formalization methodology has been proved of practical use in order to verify the correctness of unification algorithms in the style of the original Robinson's unification algorithm.

  13. Discrete gravity as a local theory of the Poincare group in the first-order formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gionti, Gabriele [Vatican Observatory Research Group, Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Specola Vaticana, V-00120 Citta Del Vaticano (Vatican City State, Holy See,)

    2005-10-21

    A discrete theory of gravity, locally invariant under the Poincare group, is considered as in a companion paper. We define a first-order theory, in the sense of Palatini, on the metric-dual Voronoi complex of a simplicial complex. We follow the same spirit as the continuum theory of general relativity in the Cartan formalism. The field equations are carefully derived taking in account the constraints of the theory. They look very similar to first-order Einstein continuum equations in the Cartan formalism. It is shown that in the limit of small deficit angles these equations have Regge calculus, locally, as the only solution. A quantum measure is easily defined which does not suffer the ambiguities of Regge calculus, and a coupling with fermionic matter is easily introduced.

  14. Discrete gravity as a local theory of the Poincare group in the first-order formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gionti, Gabriele

    2005-01-01

    A discrete theory of gravity, locally invariant under the Poincare group, is considered as in a companion paper. We define a first-order theory, in the sense of Palatini, on the metric-dual Voronoi complex of a simplicial complex. We follow the same spirit as the continuum theory of general relativity in the Cartan formalism. The field equations are carefully derived taking in account the constraints of the theory. They look very similar to first-order Einstein continuum equations in the Cartan formalism. It is shown that in the limit of small deficit angles these equations have Regge calculus, locally, as the only solution. A quantum measure is easily defined which does not suffer the ambiguities of Regge calculus, and a coupling with fermionic matter is easily introduced

  15. QCD-Electroweak First-Order Phase Transition in a Supercooled Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso, Satoshi; Serpico, Pasquale D; Shimada, Kengo

    2017-10-06

    If the electroweak sector of the standard model is described by classically conformal dynamics, the early Universe evolution can be substantially altered. It is already known that-contrarily to the standard model case-a first-order electroweak phase transition may occur. Here we show that, depending on the model parameters, a dramatically different scenario may happen: A first-order, six massless quark QCD phase transition occurs first, which then triggers the electroweak symmetry breaking. We derive the necessary conditions for this dynamics to occur, using the specific example of the classically conformal B-L model. In particular, relatively light weakly coupled particles are predicted, with implications for collider searches. This scenario is also potentially rich in cosmological consequences, such as renewed possibilities for electroweak baryogenesis, altered dark matter production, and gravitational wave production, as we briefly comment upon.

  16. A new class of group field theories for first order discrete quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriti, D [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Utrecht 3584 TD (Netherlands); Tlas, T [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.oriti@phys.uu.nl, E-mail: t.tlas@damtp.cam.ac.uk

    2008-04-21

    Group field theories, a generalization of matrix models for 2D gravity, represent a second quantization of both loop quantum gravity and simplicial quantum gravity. In this paper, we construct a new class of group field theory models, for any choice of spacetime dimension and signature, whose Feynman amplitudes are given by path integrals for clearly identified discrete gravity actions, in first order variables. In the three-dimensional case, the corresponding discrete action is that of first order Regge calculus for gravity (generalized to include higher order corrections), while in higher dimensions, they correspond to a discrete BF theory (again, generalized to higher order) with an imposed orientation restriction on hinge volumes, similar to that characterizing discrete gravity. This new class of group field theories may represent a concrete unifying framework for loop quantum gravity and simplicial quantum gravity approaches.

  17. Critical nonequilibrium relaxation in cluster algorithms in the BKT and weak first-order phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonomura, Yoshihiko; Tomita, Yusuke

    Recently we showed that the critical nonequilibrium relaxation in cluster algorithms is widely described by the stretched-exponential decay of physical quantities in the Ising or Heisenberg models. Here we make a similar analysis in the Berezinsky-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transition in the 2D XY model (simple exponential decay) and in the weak first-order phase transition in the 2D q = 5 Potts model (power-law decay), which means that these phase transitions can clearly be characterized by the present analysis. These relaxation behaviors are compared with those in the 3D and 4D XY models (second-order phase transition) and in the 2D q-state Potts models (2 = 6 for strong first-order phase transitions.

  18. Novel structures for Discrete Hartley Transform based on first-order moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jun; Zheng, Wenjuan; Wang, Hao; Liu, Jianguo

    2018-03-01

    Discrete Hartley Transform (DHT) is an important tool in digital signal processing. In the present paper, the DHT is firstly transformed into the first-order moments-based form, then a new fast algorithm is proposed to calculate the first-order moments without multiplication. Based on the algorithm theory, the corresponding hardware architecture for DHT is proposed, which only contains shift operations and additions with no need for multipliers and large memory. To verify the availability and effectiveness, the proposed design is implemented with hardware description language and synthesized by Synopsys Design Compiler with 0.18-μm SMIC library. A series of experiments have proved that the proposed architecture has better performance in terms of the product of the hardware consumption and computation time.

  19. First-order estimate of the planktic foraminifer biomass in the modern ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schiebel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Planktic foraminifera are heterotrophic mesozooplankton of global marine abundance. The position of planktic foraminifers in the marine food web is different compared to other protozoans and ranges above the base of heterotrophic consumers. Being secondary producers with an omnivorous diet, which ranges from algae to small metazoans, planktic foraminifers are not limited to a single food source, and are assumed to occur at a balanced abundance displaying the overall marine biological productivity at a regional scale. With a new non-destructive protocol developed from the bicinchoninic acid (BCA method and nano-photospectrometry, we have analysed the protein-biomass, along with test size and weight, of 754 individual planktic foraminifers from 21 different species and morphotypes. From additional CHN analysis, it can be assumed that protein-biomass equals carbon-biomass. Accordingly, the average individual planktic foraminifer protein- and carbon-biomass amounts to 0.845 μg. Samples include symbiont bearing and symbiont-barren species from the sea surface down to 2500 m water depth. Conversion factors between individual biomass and assemblage-biomass are calculated for test sizes between 72 and 845 μm (minimum test diameter. Assemblage-biomass data presented here include 1128 sites and water depth intervals. The regional coverage of data includes the North Atlantic, Arabian Sea, Red Sea, and Caribbean as well as literature data from the eastern and western North Pacific, and covers a wide range of oligotrophic to eutrophic waters over six orders of magnitude of planktic-foraminifer assemblage-biomass (PFAB. A first order estimate of the average global planktic foraminifer biomass production (>125 μm ranges from 8.2–32.7 Tg C yr−1 (i.e. 0.008–0.033 Gt C yr−1, and might be more than three times as high including neanic and juvenile individuals adding up to 25–100 Tg C yr−1. However, this is a first

  20. On integration of the first order differential equations in a finite terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malykh, M D

    2017-01-01

    There are several approaches to the description of the concept called briefly as integration of the first order differential equations in a finite terms or symbolical integration. In the report three of them are considered: 1.) finding of a rational integral (Beaune or Poincaré problem), 2.) integration by quadratures and 3.) integration when the general solution of given differential equation is an algebraical function of a constant (Painlevé problem). Their realizations in Sage are presented. (paper)

  1. The reversibility and first-order nature of liquid?liquid transition in a molecular liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Mika; Tanaka, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Liquid?liquid transition is an intriguing phenomenon in which a liquid transforms into another liquid via the first-order transition. For molecular liquids, however, it always takes place in a supercooled liquid state metastable against crystallization, which has led to a number of serious debates concerning its origin: liquid?liquid transition versus unusual nano-crystal formation. Thus, there have so far been no single example free from such debates, to the best of our knowledge. Here we sh...

  2. Maximum Principles and Boundary Value Problems for First-Order Neutral Functional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domoshnitsky Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain the maximum principles for the first-order neutral functional differential equation where , and are linear continuous operators, and are positive operators, is the space of continuous functions, and is the space of essentially bounded functions defined on . New tests on positivity of the Cauchy function and its derivative are proposed. Results on existence and uniqueness of solutions for various boundary value problems are obtained on the basis of the maximum principles.

  3. Supplementary First-Order All-Pass Filters with Two Grounded Passive Elements Using FDCCII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two novel first-order all-pass filters are proposed using only one grounded resistor and one grounded capacitor along with a fully differential current conveyor (FDCCII. There is no element-matching restriction. The presented all-pass filter circuits can be made electronically tunable due to the electronic resistors. Furthermore, the presented circuits enjoy high-input impedance for easy cascadability. The theoretical results are verified with SPICE simulations.

  4. On the existence of touch points for first-order state inequality constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seywald, Hans; Cliff, Eugene M.

    1993-01-01

    The appearance of touch points in state constrained optimal control problems with general vector-valued control is studied. Under the assumption that the Hamiltonian is regular, touch points for first-order state inequalities are shown to exist only under very special conditions. In many cases of practical importance these conditions can be used to exclude touch points a priori without solving an optimal control problem. The results are demonstrated on a simple example.

  5. A Henkin-Style Proof of Completeness for First-Order Algebraizable Logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 1 (2015), s. 341-358 ISSN 0022-4812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 247584 - MATOMUVI Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic s * algebraizable logic s * first-order logic s * completeness theorem * Henkin theories Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.510, year: 2015

  6. Löwenheim-Skolem theorems for non-classical first-order algebraizable logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dellunde, P.; García-Cerdaña, A.; Noguera, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2016), s. 321-345 ISSN 1367-0751 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Löwenheim-Skolem theorems * first-order predicate logic s * non-classical logic s * algebraizable logic s * model theory Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.575, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/noguera-0469168.pdf

  7. First-order exchange coefficient coupling for simulating surface water-groundwater interactions: Parameter sensitivity and consistency with a physics-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, B.A.; Mirus, B.B.; Heppner, C.S.; VanderKwaak, J.E.; Loague, K.

    2009-01-01

    Distributed hydrologic models capable of simulating fully-coupled surface water and groundwater flow are increasingly used to examine problems in the hydrologic sciences. Several techniques are currently available to couple the surface and subsurface; the two most frequently employed approaches are first-order exchange coefficients (a.k.a., the surface conductance method) and enforced continuity of pressure and flux at the surface-subsurface boundary condition. The effort reported here examines the parameter sensitivity of simulated hydrologic response for the first-order exchange coefficients at a well-characterized field site using the fully coupled Integrated Hydrology Model (InHM). This investigation demonstrates that the first-order exchange coefficients can be selected such that the simulated hydrologic response is insensitive to the parameter choice, while simulation time is considerably reduced. Alternatively, the ability to choose a first-order exchange coefficient that intentionally decouples the surface and subsurface facilitates concept-development simulations to examine real-world situations where the surface-subsurface exchange is impaired. While the parameters comprising the first-order exchange coefficient cannot be directly estimated or measured, the insensitivity of the simulated flow system to these parameters (when chosen appropriately) combined with the ability to mimic actual physical processes suggests that the first-order exchange coefficient approach can be consistent with a physics-based framework. Copyright ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Effect of random field disorder on the first order transition in p-spin interaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumedha; Singh, Sushant K.

    2016-01-01

    We study the random field p-spin model with Ising spins on a fully connected graph using the theory of large deviations in this paper. This is a good model to study the effect of quenched random field on systems which have a sharp first order transition in the pure state. For p = 2, the phase-diagram of the model, for bimodal distribution of the random field, has been well studied and is known to undergo a continuous transition for lower values of the random field (h) and a first order transition beyond a threshold, htp(≈ 0.439) . We find the phase diagram of the model, for all p ≥ 2, with bimodal random field distribution, using large deviation techniques. We also look at the fluctuations in the system by calculating the magnetic susceptibility. For p = 2, beyond the tricritical point in the regime of first order transition, we find that for htp ho = 1 / p!), the system does not show ferromagnetic order even at zero temperature. We find that the magnetic susceptibility for p ≥ 3 is discontinuous at the transition point for h

  9. First order mean field games - explicit solutions, perturbations and connection with classical mechanics

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2016-01-06

    We present recent developments in the theory of first-order mean-field games (MFGs). A standard assumption in MFGs is that the cost function of the agents is monotone in the density of the distribution. This assumption leads to a comprehensive existence theory and to the uniqueness of smooth solutions. Here, our goals are to understand the role of local monotonicity in the small perturbation regime and the properties of solutions for problems without monotonicity. Under a local monotonicity assumption, we show that small perturbations of MFGs have unique smooth solutions. In addition, we explore the connection between first-order MFGs and classical mechanics and KAM theory. Next, for non-monotone problems, we construct non-unique explicit solutions for a broad class of first-order mean-field games. We provide an alternative formulation of MFGs in terms of a new current variable. These examples illustrate two new phenomena: the non-uniqueness of solutions and the breakdown of regularity.

  10. Investigation of snow single scattering properties based on first order Legendre phase function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppanapelli, Lavan Kumar; Casselgren, Johan; Wåhlin, Johan; Sjödahl, Mikael

    2017-04-01

    Angularly resolved bidirectional reflectance measurements were modelled by approximating a first order Legendre expanded phase function to retrieve single scattering properties of snow. The measurements from 10 different snow types with known density and specific surface area (SSA) were investigated. A near infrared (NIR) spectrometer was used to measure reflected light above the snow surface over the hemisphere in the wavelength region of 900-1650 nm. A solver based on discrete ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT) model was used to retrieve the estimated Legendre coefficients of the phase function and a correlation between the coefficients and physical properties of different snow types is investigated. Results of this study suggest that the first two coefficients of the first order Legendre phase function provide sufficient information about the physical properties of snow where the latter captures the anisotropic behaviour of snow and the former provides a relative estimate of the single scattering albedo of snow. The coefficients of the first order phase function were compared with the experimental data and observed that both the coefficients are in good agreement with the experimental data. These findings suggest that our approach can be applied as a qualitative tool to investigate physical properties of snow and also to classify different snow types.

  11. Data fusion in cyber security: first order entity extraction from common cyber data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobe, Nicklaus A.

    2012-06-01

    The Joint Directors of Labs Data Fusion Process Model (JDL Model) provides a framework for how to handle sensor data to develop higher levels of inference in a complex environment. Beginning from a call to leverage data fusion techniques in intrusion detection, there have been a number of advances in the use of data fusion algorithms in this subdomain of cyber security. While it is tempting to jump directly to situation-level or threat-level refinement (levels 2 and 3) for more exciting inferences, a proper fusion process starts with lower levels of fusion in order to provide a basis for the higher fusion levels. The process begins with first order entity extraction, or the identification of important entities represented in the sensor data stream. Current cyber security operational tools and their associated data are explored for potential exploitation, identifying the first order entities that exist in the data and the properties of these entities that are described by the data. Cyber events that are represented in the data stream are added to the first order entities as their properties. This work explores typical cyber security data and the inferences that can be made at the lower fusion levels (0 and 1) with simple metrics. Depending on the types of events that are expected by the analyst, these relatively simple metrics can provide insight on their own, or could be used in fusion algorithms as a basis for higher levels of inference.

  12. First-order system least-squares for second-order elliptic problems with discontinuous coefficients: Further results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloechle, B.; Manteuffel, T.; McCormick, S.; Starke, G.

    1996-12-31

    Many physical phenomena are modeled as scalar second-order elliptic boundary value problems with discontinuous coefficients. The first-order system least-squares (FOSLS) methodology is an alternative to standard mixed finite element methods for such problems. The occurrence of singularities at interface corners and cross-points requires that care be taken when implementing the least-squares finite element method in the FOSLS context. We introduce two methods of handling the challenges resulting from singularities. The first method is based on a weighted least-squares functional and results in non-conforming finite elements. The second method is based on the use of singular basis functions and results in conforming finite elements. We also share numerical results comparing the two approaches.

  13. Increasing signal-to-noise ratio of swept-source optical coherence tomography by oversampling in k-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagib, Karim; Mezgebo, Biniyam; Thakur, Rahul; Fernando, Namal; Kordi, Behzad; Sherif, Sherif

    2018-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography systems suffer from noise that could reduce ability to interpret reconstructed images correctly. We describe a method to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) using oversampling in k-space. Due to this oversampling, information redundancy would be introduced in the measured interferogram that could be used to reduce white noise in the reconstructed A-scan. We applied our novel scaled nonuniform discrete Fourier transform to oversampled SS-OCT interferograms to reconstruct images of a salamander egg. The peak-signal-to-noise (PSNR) between the reconstructed images using interferograms sampled at 250MS/s andz50MS/s demonstrate that this oversampling increased the signal-to-noise ratio by 25.22 dB.

  14. Easy measurement of diffusion coefficients of EGFP-tagged plasma membrane proteins using k-space Image Correlation Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Koffman, Jennifer Skaarup; Marlar, Saw

    2014-01-01

    Lateral diffusion and compartmentalization of plasma membrane proteins are tightly regulated in cells and thus, studying these processes will reveal new insights to plasma membrane protein function and regulation. Recently, k-Space Image Correlation Spectroscopy (kICS)1 was developed to enable...... routine measurements of diffusion coefficients directly from images of fluorescently tagged plasma membrane proteins, that avoided systematic biases introduced by probe photophysics. Although the theoretical basis for the analysis is complex, the method can be implemented by nonexperts using a freely...... to the correlation function yields the diffusion coefficient. This paper provides a step-by-step guide to the image analysis and measurement of diffusion coefficients via kICS. First, a high frame rate image sequence of a fluorescently labeled plasma membrane protein is acquired using a fluorescence microscope Then...

  15. Optimization of first order decay gas generation model parameters for landfills located in cold semi-arid climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Hoang Lan; Ng, Kelvin Tsun Wai; Richter, Amy

    2017-11-01

    Canada has one of the highest waste generation rates in the world. Because of high land availability, land disposal rates in the province of Saskatchewan are high compared to the rest of the country. In this study, landfill gas data was collected at semi-arid landfills in Regina and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, and curve fitting was carried out to find optimal k and L o or DOC values using LandGEM, Afvalzorg Simple, and IPCC first order decay models. Model parameters at each landfill were estimated and compared using default k and L o or DOC values. Methane generation rates were substantially overestimated using default values (with percentage errors from 55 to 135%). The mean percentage errors for the optimized k and L o or DOC values ranged from 11.60% to 19.93% at the Regina landfill, and 1.65% to 10.83% at the Saskatoon landfill. Finally, the effect of different iterative methods on the curve fitting process was examined. The residual sum of squares for each model and iterative approaches were similar, with the exception of iterative method 1 for the IPCC model. The default values in these models fail to represent landfills located in cold semi-arid climates. The use of site specific data, provided enough information is available regarding waste mass and composition, can greatly help to improve the accuracy of these first order decay models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biotransformation of trace organic chemicals during groundwater recharge: How useful are first-order rate constants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, J; Wing, A D; Alidina, M; Drewes, J E

    2015-08-01

    This study developed relationships between the attenuation of emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrC) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as a function of retention time, system characteristics, and operating conditions using controlled laboratory-scale soil column experiments simulating MAR. The results revealed that MAR performance in terms of TOrC attenuation is primarily determined by key environmental parameters (i.e., redox, primary substrate). Soil columns with suboxic and anoxic conditions performed poorly (i.e., less than 30% attenuation of moderately degradable TOrC) in comparison to oxic conditions (on average between 70-100% attenuation for the same compounds) within a residence time of three days. Given this dependency on redox conditions, it was investigated if key parameter-dependent rate constants are more suitable for contaminant transport modeling to properly capture the dynamic TOrC attenuation under field-scale conditions. Laboratory-derived first-order removal kinetics were determined for 19 TOrC under three different redox conditions and rate constants were applied to MAR field data. Our findings suggest that simplified first-order rate constants will most likely not provide any meaningful results if the target compounds exhibit redox dependent biotransformation behavior or if the intention is to exactly capture the decline in concentration over time and distance at field-scale MAR. However, if the intention is to calculate the percent removal after an extended time period and subsurface travel distance, simplified first-order rate constants seem to be sufficient to provide a first estimate on TOrC attenuation during MAR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Polarimetric First-Order Model of Soil Moisture Effects on the DInSAR Coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zwieback

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in soil moisture between two radar acquisitions can impact the observed coherence in differential interferometry: both coherence magnitude |Υ| and phase Φ are affected. The influence on the latter potentially biases the estimation of deformations. These effects have been found to be variable in magnitude and sign, as well as dependent on polarization, as opposed to predictions by existing models. Such diversity can be explained when the soil is modelled as a half-space with spatially varying dielectric properties and a rough interface. The first-order perturbative solution achieves–upon calibration with airborne L band data–median correlations ρ at HH polarization of 0.77 for the phase Φ, of 0.50 for |Υ|, and for the phase triplets ≡ of 0.56. The predictions are sensitive to the choice of dielectric mixing model, in particular the absorptive properties; the differences between the mixing models are found to be partially compensatable by varying the relative importance of surface and volume scattering. However, for half of the agricultural fields the Hallikainen mixing model cannot reproduce the observed sensitivities of the phase to soil moisture. In addition, the first-order expansion does not predict any impact on the HV coherence, which is however empirically found to display similar sensitivities to soil moisture as the co-pol channels HH and VV. These results indicate that the first-order solution, while not able to reproduce all observed phenomena, can capture some of the more salient patterns of the effect of soil moisture changes on the HH and VV DInSAR signals. Hence it may prove useful in separating the deformations from the moisture signals, thus yielding improved displacement estimates or new ways for inferring soil moisture.

  18. Biotransformation of trace organic chemicals during groundwater recharge: How useful are first-order rate constants?

    KAUST Repository

    Regnery, J.

    2015-05-29

    This study developed relationships between the attenuation of emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrC) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as a function of retention time, system characteristics, and operating conditions using controlled laboratory-scale soil column experiments simulating MAR. The results revealed that MAR performance in terms of TOrC attenuation is primarily determined by key environmental parameters (i.e. redox, primary substrate). Soil columns with suboxic and anoxic conditions performed poorly (i.e. less than 30% attenuation of moderately degradable TOrC) in comparison to oxic conditions (on average between 70-100% attenuation for the same compounds) within a residence time of three days. Given this dependency on redox conditions, it was investigated if key parameter-dependent rate constants are more suitable for contaminant transport modeling to properly capture the dynamic TOrC attenuation under field-scale conditions. Laboratory-derived first-order removal kinetics were determined for 19 TOrC under three different redox conditions and rate constants were applied to MAR field data. Our findings suggest that simplified first-order rate constants will most likely not provide any meaningful results if the target compounds exhibit redox dependent biotransformation behavior or if the intention is to exactly capture the decline in concentration over time and distance at field-scale MAR. However, if the intention is to calculate the percent removal after an extended time period and subsurface travel distance, simplified first-order rate constants seem to be sufficient to provide a first estimate on TOrC attenuation during MAR.

  19. A calculation methodology applied for fuel management in PWR type reactors using first order perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossini, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    An attempt has been made to obtain a strategy coherent with the available instruments and that could be implemented with future developments. A calculation methodology was developed for fuel reload in PWR reactors, which evolves cell calculation with the HAMMER-TECHNION code and neutronics calculation with the CITATION code.The management strategy adopted consists of fuel element position changing at the beginning of each reactor cycle in order to decrease the radial peak factor. The bi-dimensional, two group First Order perturbation theory was used for the mathematical modeling. (L.C.J.A.)

  20. New Gain Controllable Resistor-less Current-mode First Order Allpass Filter and its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jaikla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available New first order allpass filter (APF in current mode, constructed from 2 CCCCTAs and grounded capacitor, is presented. The current gain and phase shift can be electronically /orthogonally controlled. Low input and high output impedances are achieved which make the circuit to be easily cascaded to the current-mode circuit without additional current buffers. The operation of the proposed filter has been verified through simulation results which confirm the theoretical analysis. The application example as current-mode quadrature oscillator with non-interactive current control for both of oscillation condition and oscillation frequency is included to show the usability of the proposed filter.

  1. Some remarks on real numbers induced by first-order spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Sune; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of a first-order sentence is the set of natural numbers occurring as the cardinalities of finite models of the sentence. In a recent survey, Durand et al. introduce a new class of real numbers, the spectral reals, induced by spectra and pose two open problems associated to this class...... may occur, and (iv) every right-computable real number between 0 and 1 occurs as the subword entropy of a spectral real. In addition, Durand et al. note that the set of spectral reals is not closed under addition or multiplication. We extend this result by showing that the class of spectral reals...

  2. Transition barrier at a first-order phase transition in the canonical and microcanonical ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Wolfhard; Schierz, Philipp; Zierenberg, Johannes

    2017-11-01

    We compare the transition barrier that accompanies a first-order phase transition in the canonical and microcanonical ensemble. This is directly encoded in the probability distributions of standard Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations and a proper microcanonical sampling technique. For the example of droplet formation, we find that in both ensembles the transition barrier scales as expected but that the barrier is much smaller in the microcanonical ensemble. In addition its growth with system size is weaker which will enhance this difference for larger systems. We provide an intuitive physical explanation for this observation.

  3. Tunable first-order resistorless all-pass filter with low output impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, Parveen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a voltage mode cascadable single active element tunable first-order all-pass filter with a single passive component. The active element used to realise the filter is a new building block termed as differential difference dual-X current conveyor with a buffered output (DD-DXCCII). The filter is thus realized with the help of a DD-DXCCII, a capacitor, and a MOS transistor. By exploiting the low output impedance, a higher order filter is also realized. Nonideal and parasitic study is also carried out on the realised filters. The proposed DD-DXCCII filters are simulated using TSMC the 0.25 µm technology.

  4. Boundary driven phase transitions of the first order for systems of conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkov, Vladislav

    2007-07-01

    We argue that a driven system with two particle species and hardcore interactions generically undergoes at least two different types of boundary-driven first-order phase transitions. One observes them in succession, bringing the system from a state with a small density of right-movers to a fully jammed state, by keeping one boundary fixed and changing gradually conditions at the other boundary. As in one-component systems, the phase transitions are caused by shock motion. Monte Carlo simulations and PDEs numerical integration of a specific model serve as an example.

  5. Some New First-Order All-Pass Realizations Using CCII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirat Pal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Some new first-order all-pass filters using a second-generation current conveyor are reported. Two circuits have higher input impedance than reported very recently and use a grounded capacitor. Additionally two more circuits have been reported, one of which has minimum passive and active components and has the facility of single resistance tuning. The other circuit has high input impedance and uses two current conveyors but has one passive component less than the similar circuits reported earlier.

  6. Gravitational waves from a first-order electroweak phase transition: a brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, David J.

    2018-01-01

    We review the production of gravitational waves by an electroweak first-order phase transition. The resulting signal is a good candidate for detection at next-generation gravitational wave detectors, such as LISA. Detection of such a source of gravitational waves could yield information about physics beyond the Standard Model that is complementary to that accessible to current and near-future collider experiments. We summarize efforts to simulate and model the phase transition and the resulting production of gravitational waves. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue `Higgs cosmology'.

  7. A stepwise Cas course for solving First-Order Partial Diferential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera-Venegas, Gabriel; Galán-García, José Luis; Galán-García, María Ángeles; Padilla-Domínguez, Yolanda; Rodríguez-Cielos, Pedro; Rodríguez-Cielos, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Partial Differential Equations (PDE) is a very important topic in advance Mathematics for Engineering. The three main first-order PDE problems that a basic course must deal with are: \\begin{enumerate} \\item {\\bf Pfaff Differential Equations}, which consists on finding the general solution for: $$ P(x,y,z)\\:{\\rm d}x + Q(x,y,z)\\:{\\rm d}y + Q(x,y,z)\\:{\\rm d}z = 0 $$ \\item {\\bf Quasi-linear Partial Differential Equations}, which consists on finding the general solution for: ...

  8. Pressure effects on first-order magnetic Raman scattering in NiO

    CERN Document Server

    Mita, Y; Kobayashi, M; Endo, S

    2002-01-01

    The pressure dependence of first-order magnetic Raman peak of NiO single crystal was studied up to 20 GPa at room temperature. At ambient pressure, an unknown peak is also observed at nearly the same position as the one-magnon one and their separation becomes remarkable with increasing pressure. Pressure coefficients of the one-magnon peak and the other peak are obtained as 0.4 and 1.5 cm sup - sup 1 GPa sup - sup 1 , respectively. The next-nearest-neighbour antiferromagnetic exchange constant J sub 2 is obtained as a function of the lattice constant.

  9. Certified Soundness of Simplest Known Formulation of First-Order Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Bruntse

    2017-01-01

    In 1965, Donald Monk published a paper about an axiomatic system for first-order predicate logic that he described as “the simplest known formulation of ordinary logic”. In this paper we show work in progress on certifying soundness of this system in the interactive proof assistant Isabelle....... Through this work we demonstrate the usefulness of using proof assistants for validating mathematical results. This work also establishes an outline for future work such as a certified completeness proof of the axiomatic system in Isabelle....

  10. Lie Symmetry Analysis of a First-Order Feedback Model of Option Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winter Sinkala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A first-order feedback model of option pricing consisting of a coupled system of two PDEs, a nonliner generalised Black-Scholes equation and the classical Black-Scholes equation, is studied using Lie symmetry analysis. This model arises as an extension of the classical Black-Scholes model when liquidity is incorporated into the market. We compute the admitted Lie point symmetries of the system and construct an optimal system of the associated one-dimensional subalgebras. We also construct some invariant solutions of the model.

  11. Gravitational waves from a first-order electroweak phase transition: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, David J

    2018-03-06

    We review the production of gravitational waves by an electroweak first-order phase transition. The resulting signal is a good candidate for detection at next-generation gravitational wave detectors, such as LISA. Detection of such a source of gravitational waves could yield information about physics beyond the Standard Model that is complementary to that accessible to current and near-future collider experiments. We summarize efforts to simulate and model the phase transition and the resulting production of gravitational waves.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Higgs cosmology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  12. Poverty mapping based on first order dominance with an example from Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Azhar M.; Salvucci, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    We explore a novel first-order dominance (FOD) approach to poverty mapping and compare its properties to small-area estimation. The FOD approach uses census data directly, is straightforward to implement, is multidimensional allowing for a broad conception of welfare and accounts rigorously...... for welfare distributions in both levels and trends. An application to Mozambique highlights the value of the approach, including its advantages in the monitoring and evaluation of public expenditures. We conclude that the FOD approach to poverty mapping constitutes a useful addition to the toolkit of policy...

  13. First-order aerodynamic and aeroelastic behavior of a single-blade installation setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunaa, Mac; Bergami, Leonardo; Guntur, Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    the first-order aerodynamic and aeroelastic behavior of a single blade installation system, where the blade is grabbed by a yoke, which is lifted by the crane and stabilized by two taglines. A simple engineering model is formulated to describe the aerodynamic forcing on the blade subject to turbulent wind...... of arbitrary direction. The model is coupled with a schematic aeroelastic representation of the taglines system, which returns the minimum line tension required to compensate for the aerodynamic forcing. The simplified models are in excellent agreement with the aeroelastic code HAWC2, and provide a solid basis...

  14. Self-Organized Bistability Associated with First-Order Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Santo, Serena; Burioni, Raffaella; Vezzani, Alessandro; Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2016-06-01

    Self-organized criticality elucidates the conditions under which physical and biological systems tune themselves to the edge of a second-order phase transition, with scale invariance. Motivated by the empirical observation of bimodal distributions of activity in neuroscience and other fields, we propose and analyze a theory for the self-organization to the point of phase coexistence in systems exhibiting a first-order phase transition. It explains the emergence of regular avalanches with attributes of scale invariance that coexist with huge anomalous ones, with realizations in many fields.

  15. Self-Organized Bistability Associated with First-Order Phase Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Santo, Serena; Burioni, Raffaella; Vezzani, Alessandro; Muñoz, Miguel A

    2016-06-17

    Self-organized criticality elucidates the conditions under which physical and biological systems tune themselves to the edge of a second-order phase transition, with scale invariance. Motivated by the empirical observation of bimodal distributions of activity in neuroscience and other fields, we propose and analyze a theory for the self-organization to the point of phase coexistence in systems exhibiting a first-order phase transition. It explains the emergence of regular avalanches with attributes of scale invariance that coexist with huge anomalous ones, with realizations in many fields.

  16. Evolution of order and chaos across a first-order quantum phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.; Macek, M.

    2012-01-01

    We study the evolution of the dynamics across a generic first-order quantum phase transition in an interacting boson model of nuclei. The dynamics inside the phase coexistence region exhibits a very simple pattern. A classical analysis reveals a robustly regular dynamics confined to the deformed region and well separated from a chaotic dynamics ascribed to the spherical region. A quantum analysis discloses regular bands of states in the deformed region, which persist to energies well above the phase-separating barrier, in the face of a complicated environment. The impact of kinetic collective rotational terms on this intricate interplay of order and chaos is investigated.

  17. Regularity and chaos at critical points of first-order quantum phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, M.; Leviatan, A.

    2011-01-01

    We study the interplay between regular and chaotic dynamics at the critical point of a generic first-order quantum phase transition in an interacting boson model of nuclei. A classical analysis reveals a distinct behavior of the coexisting phases in a broad energy range. The dynamics is completely regular in the deformed phase and, simultaneously, strongly chaotic in the spherical phase. A quantum analysis of the spectra separates the regular states from the irregular ones, assigns them to particular phases, and discloses persisting regular rotational bands in the deformed region.

  18. Evolution of order and chaos across a first-order quantum phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leviatan, A., E-mail: ami@phys.huji.ac.il [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Macek, M., E-mail: mmacek@phys.huji.ac.il [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2012-07-24

    We study the evolution of the dynamics across a generic first-order quantum phase transition in an interacting boson model of nuclei. The dynamics inside the phase coexistence region exhibits a very simple pattern. A classical analysis reveals a robustly regular dynamics confined to the deformed region and well separated from a chaotic dynamics ascribed to the spherical region. A quantum analysis discloses regular bands of states in the deformed region, which persist to energies well above the phase-separating barrier, in the face of a complicated environment. The impact of kinetic collective rotational terms on this intricate interplay of order and chaos is investigated.

  19. Order, chaos and quasi symmetries in a first-order quantum phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A; Macek, M

    2014-01-01

    We study the competing order and chaos in a first-order quantum phase transition with a high barrier. The boson model Hamiltonian employed, interpolates between its U(5) (spherical) and SU(3) (deformed) limits. A classical analysis reveals regular (chaotic) dynamics at low (higher) energy in the spherical region, coexisting with a robustly regular dynamics in the deformed region. A quantum analysis discloses, amidst a complicated environment, persisting regular multiplets of states associated with partial U(5) and quasi SU(3) dynamical symmetries

  20. Magnetocaloric effect in materials with the first order transitions - direct measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamarád, Jiří; Kaštil, J.; Arnold, Zdeněk; Javorský, P.; Sechovský, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 5 (2010), s. 1000-1001 ISSN 0587-4246 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0030 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA101/07/1173 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : magneto-caloric characteristics * first order transitions * Gd Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.467, year: 2010 http://przyrbwn.icm.edu.pl/APP/PDF/118/a118z5p117.pdf

  1. Optimal control of first order distributed systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. L.

    1972-01-01

    The problem of characterizing optimal controls for a class of distributed-parameter systems is considered. The system dynamics are characterized mathematically by a finite number of coupled partial differential equations involving first-order time and space derivatives of the state variables, which are constrained at the boundary by a finite number of algebraic relations. Multiple control inputs, extending over the entire spatial region occupied by the system ("distributed controls') are to be designed so that the response of the system is optimal. A major example involving boundary control of an unstable low-density plasma is developed from physical laws.

  2. First-Order Transitions and the Magnetic Phase Diagram of CeSb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente; Clausen, Kurt Nørgaard; Vogt, O.

    1980-01-01

    might exist in the magnetic phase diagram of CeSb at 16K for a field of approximately 0.3 T. The present study concludes that the transitions from the paramagnetic to the magnetically ordered states are of first order for fields below 0.8 T. Within the experimental accuracy no change has been observed......The high-temperature (14-17K) low-magnetic field (0-0.8 T) region of the phase diagram of the anomalous antiferromagnet CeSb has been reinvestigated by neutron diffraction in an attempt to locate a possible tricritical point. Previous neutron diffraction studies indicated that a tricritical point...

  3. On the probability of cycle-slipping in first-order phase-locked loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Frieda, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The first-passage time boundary value problem for first-order phase-locked loops (PLL) is analyzed, and spectral representations are developed for the probability density function (pdf), the distribution function, and the moments of the first time to passage (or cycle-slip). For the sinusoidal PLL, an asymptotic formula, that is surprisingly accurate even at low loop SNR's and large frequency offsets, is obtained for the pdf of the time to cycle-slip, in terms of the mean time to slip.

  4. The Widom-Rowlinson mixture on a sphere: elimination of exponential slowing down at first-order phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, T; Vink, R L C

    2010-01-01

    Computer simulations of first-order phase transitions using 'standard' toroidal boundary conditions are generally hampered by exponential slowing down. This is partly due to interface formation, and partly due to shape transitions. The latter occur when droplets become large such that they self-interact through the periodic boundaries. On a spherical simulation topology, however, shape transitions are absent. We expect that by using an appropriate bias function, exponential slowing down can be largely eliminated. In this work, these ideas are applied to the two-dimensional Widom-Rowlinson mixture confined to the surface of a sphere. Indeed, on the sphere, we find that the number of Monte Carlo steps needed to sample a first-order phase transition does not increase exponentially with system size, but rather as a power law τ∝V α , with α∼2.5, and V the system area. This is remarkably close to a random walk for which α RW = 2. The benefit of this improved scaling behavior for biased sampling methods, such as the Wang-Landau algorithm, is investigated in detail.

  5. First order and second order fermi acceleration of energetic charged particles by shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Steady state solutions of the cosmic ray transport equation describing first order Fermi acceleration of energetic charged particles at a plane shock (without losses) and second order Fermi acceleration in the downstream region of the shock are derived. The solutions for the isotropic part of the phase space distribution function are expressible as eigenfunction expansions, being superpositions of series of power law momentum spectra, with the power law indices being the roots of an eigenvalue equation. The above exact analytic solutions are for the case where the spatial diffusion coefficient kappa is independent of momentum. The solutions in general depend on the shock compression ratio, the modulation parameters V 1 L/kappa 1 , V 2 L/kappa 2 (V is the plasma velocity, kappa is the energetic particle diffusion coefficient, and L a characteristic length over which second order Fermi acceleration is effective) in the upstream and downstream regions of the shock, respectively, and also on a further dimensionless parameter, zeta, characterizing second order Fermi acceleration. In the limit as zeta→0 (no second order Fermi acceleration) the power law momentum spectrum characteristic of first order Fermi acceleration (depending only on the shock compression ratio) obtained previously is recovered. Perturbation solutions for the case where second order Fermi effects are small, and for realistic diffusion coefficients (kappainfinityp/sup a/, a>0, p = particle momentum), applicable at high momenta, are also obtained

  6. Dynamic Off-Equilibrium Transition in Systems Slowly Driven across Thermal First-Order Phase Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelissetto, Andrea; Vicari, Ettore

    2017-01-20

    We study the off-equilibrium behavior of systems with short-range interactions, slowly driven across a thermal first-order transition, where the equilibrium dynamics is exponentially slow. We consider a dynamics that starts in the high-T phase at time t=t_{i}0 in the low-T phase, with a time-dependent temperature T(t)/T_{c}≈1-t/t_{s}, where t_{s} is the protocol time scale. A general off-equilibrium scaling (OS) behavior emerges in the limit of large t_{s}. We check it at the first-order transition of the two-dimensional q-state Potts model with q=20 and 10. The numerical results show evidence of a dynamic transition, where the OS functions show a spinodal-like singularity. Therefore, the general mean-field picture valid for systems with long-range interactions is qualitatively recovered, provided the time dependence is appropriately (logarithmically) rescaled.

  7. The reversibility and first-order nature of liquid–liquid transition in a molecular liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Mika; Tanaka, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Liquid–liquid transition is an intriguing phenomenon in which a liquid transforms into another liquid via the first-order transition. For molecular liquids, however, it always takes place in a supercooled liquid state metastable against crystallization, which has led to a number of serious debates concerning its origin: liquid–liquid transition versus unusual nano-crystal formation. Thus, there have so far been no single example free from such debates, to the best of our knowledge. Here we show experimental evidence that the transition is truly liquid–liquid transition and not nano-crystallization for a molecular liquid, triphenyl phosphite. We kinetically isolate the reverse liquid-liquid transition from glass transition and crystallization with a high heating rate of flash differential scanning calorimetry, and prove the reversibility and first-order nature of liquid–liquid transition. Our finding not only deepens our physical understanding of liquid–liquid transition but may also initiate a phase of its research from both fundamental and applications viewpoints. PMID:27841349

  8. Nonlocal postbuckling analysis of graphene sheets with initial imperfection based on first order shear deformation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Soleimani

    Full Text Available In this paper, the first order shear deformation theory (FSDT is used to investigate the postbuckling behavior of orthotropic single-layered graphene sheet (SLGS under in-plane loadings. Nonlocal elasticity theory and von-Karman nonlinear model in combination with the isogeometric analysis (IGA have been applied to study the postbuckling characteristics of SLGSs. In contrast to the classical model, the nonlocal continuum model developed in this work considers the size-effects on the postbuckling characteristics of SLGSs. FSDT takes into account effects of shear deformations through-the-thickness of plate. Geometric imperfection which is defined as a very small transverse displacement of the mid-plane is applied on undeformed nanoplate to create initial deviation in graphene sheet from being perfectly flat. Nonlinear governing equations of motion for SLGS are derived from the principle of virtual work and a variational formulation. At the end, the results are presented as the postbuckling equilibrium paths of SLGS. The influence of various parameters such as edge length, nonlocal parameter, compression ratio, boundary conditions and aspect ratio on the postbuckling path is investigated. The results of this work show the high accuracy of nonlocal FSDT-based analysis for postbuckling behavior of graphene sheets. Keywords: Postbuckling analysis, Graphene sheet, Nonlocal elasticity, First order shear deformation theory, Isogeometric analysis, Initial imperfection

  9. Paraxial propagation of the first-order chirped Airy vortex beams in a chiral medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jintao; Zhang, Jianbin; Ye, Junran; Liu, Haowei; Liang, Zhuoying; Long, Shangjie; Zhou, Kangzhu; Deng, Dongmei

    2018-03-05

    We introduce the propagation of the first-order chirped Airy vortex beams (FCAiV) in a chiral medium analytically. Results show that the FCAiV beams split into the left circularly polarized vortex (LCPV) beams and the right circularly polarized vortex (RCPV) beams, which have totally different propagation trajectories in the chiral medium. In this paper, we investigate the effects of the first-order chirped parameter β, the chiral parameter γ and the optical vortex on the propagation process of the FCAiV beams. It is shown that the propagation trajectory of the FCAiV beams declines with the chirped parameter increasing. Besides, the increase of the chiral parameter acting on the LCPV beams makes the relative position between the main lobe and the optical vortex further while the effect on the RCPV beams is the opposite. Furthermore, the relative position between the main lobe and the optical vortex contributes to the position of the intensity focusing. Meanwhile, with the chiral parameter increasing, the maximum gradient and scattering forces of the LCPV beams decrease but those of the RCPV beams will increase during the propagation. It is significant that we can control the propagation trajectory, the intensity focusing position and the radiation forces of the FCAiV beams by varying the chirped parameter and the chiral parameter.

  10. A first order phase transition from inflationary to big bang universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, G.

    1986-01-01

    The microcanonical entropy is calculated for a system of massive, conformally coupled, scalar bosons using a conformal gravitational theory. The resulting entropy is seen to indicate a first order phase transition from an inflationary expansion stage (where the amplitude of the scalar boson follows that of the scale function of the universe and the mass of the solar boson is the source of the cosmological constant) to a big bang stage (where neither of these conditions hold). Such a first order phase transition involves an entropy increase of some thirty orders of magnitude. In the author's theory, the invariant temperature (proper temperature times scale function) is not zero, nor is it the Hawking temperature, but it is tens of magnitudes smaller than the corresponding temperature of the big bang stage. A specific model for these bosons that provides the phase transition and serves as the source of the cosmological constant is also examined briefly, where the bosons are identified as spontaneously generated primordial black holes as in the cosmological model of Brout, Englert and Casher. In that case, the decay of the black holes provides a decaying cosmological constant and an explicit mechanism for heating up the universe

  11. Enhanced Modeling of First-Order Plant Equations of Motion for Aeroelastic and Aeroservoelastic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pototzky, Anthony S.

    2010-01-01

    A methodology is described for generating first-order plant equations of motion for aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic applications. The description begins with the process of generating data files representing specialized mode-shapes, such as rigid-body and control surface modes, using both PATRAN and NASTRAN analysis. NASTRAN executes the 146 solution sequence using numerous Direct Matrix Abstraction Program (DMAP) calls to import the mode-shape files and to perform the aeroelastic response analysis. The aeroelastic response analysis calculates and extracts structural frequencies, generalized masses, frequency-dependent generalized aerodynamic force (GAF) coefficients, sensor deflections and load coefficients data as text-formatted data files. The data files are then re-sequenced and re-formatted using a custom written FORTRAN program. The text-formatted data files are stored and coefficients for s-plane equations are fitted to the frequency-dependent GAF coefficients using two Interactions of Structures, Aerodynamics and Controls (ISAC) programs. With tabular files from stored data created by ISAC, MATLAB generates the first-order aeroservoelastic plant equations of motion. These equations include control-surface actuator, turbulence, sensor and load modeling. Altitude varying root-locus plot and PSD plot results for a model of the F-18 aircraft are presented to demonstrate the capability.

  12. Multidimensional Poverty Indices and First Order Dominance Techniques: An Empirical Comparison of Different Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar; Permanyer, Iñaki

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we contrast different perspectives to the measurement of multidimensional poverty. Using data from 38 Demographic and Health Surveys around the developing world, we have compared the performance of two broad approaches: multidimensional poverty indices and first order dominance tech...... gradient that exists between countries, it can be proposed as a viable alternative to the MPI with the advantage of not having to rely on the somewhat arbitrary and normatively binding assumptions that underpin the construction of UNDP’s index.......In this paper we contrast different perspectives to the measurement of multidimensional poverty. Using data from 38 Demographic and Health Surveys around the developing world, we have compared the performance of two broad approaches: multidimensional poverty indices and first order dominance...... techniques (FOD). Our empirical findings suggest that the FOD approach might be a reasonable cost-effective alternative to the United Nations Development Program (UNDP)’s flagship poverty indicator: the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). To the extent that the FOD approach is able to uncover the socio-economic...

  13. CMB anisotropies at second order III: bispectrum from products of the first-order perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Nitta, Daisuke; Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Riotto, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the bispectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropies induced by the second-order fluctuations in the Boltzmann equation. In this paper, which is one of a series of papers on the numerical calculation of the bispectrum from the second-order fluctuations, we consider the terms that are products of the first-order perturbations, and leave intrinsically second-order terms and perturbations in the recombination history to the subsequent papers. We show that the bispectrum has the maximum signal in the squeezed triangles, similar to the local-type primordial bispectrum, as both types generate non-linearities via products of the first-order terms in position space. However, detailed calculations show that their shapes are sufficiently different: the cross-correlation coefficient reaches 0.5 at the maximum multipole of l_{max}~ 200, and then weakens to 0.3 at l_{max}~ 2000. The differences in shape arise from (i) the way the acoustic oscillations affect the bispectrum, and (ii...

  14. A First-Order Analytical Theory for Optimal Low-Thrust Limited-Power Transfers between Arbitrary Elliptical Coplanar Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro da Silva Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A complete first-order analytical solution, which includes the short periodic terms, for the problem of optimal low-thrust limited-power transfers between arbitrary elliptic coplanar orbits in a Newtonian central gravity field is obtained through canonical transformation theory. The optimization problem is formulated as a Mayer problem of optimal control theory with Cartesian elements—position and velocity vectors—as state variables. After applying the Pontryagin maximum principle and determining the maximum Hamiltonian, classical orbital elements are introduced through a Mathieu transformation. The short periodic terms are then eliminated from the maximum Hamiltonian through an infinitesimal canonical transformation built through Hori method. Closed-form analytical solutions are obtained for the average canonical system by solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation through separation of variables technique. For transfers between close orbits a simplified solution is straightforwardly derived by linearizing the new Hamiltonian and the generating function obtained through Hori method.

  15. Moving-Horizon Modulating Functions-Based Algorithm for Online Source Estimation in a First Order Hyperbolic PDE

    KAUST Repository

    Asiri, Sharefa M.

    2017-08-22

    In this paper, an on-line estimation algorithm of the source term in a first order hyperbolic PDE is proposed. This equation describes heat transport dynamics in concentrated solar collectors where the source term represents the received energy. This energy depends on the solar irradiance intensity and the collector characteristics affected by the environmental changes. Control strategies are usually used to enhance the efficiency of heat production; however, these strategies often depend on the source term which is highly affected by the external working conditions. Hence, efficient source estimation methods are required. The proposed algorithm is based on modulating functions method where a moving horizon strategy is introduced. Numerical results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed estimator in open and closed loops.

  16. First-order reactant in homogeneous turbulence before the final period of decay. [contaminant fluctuations in chemical reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Patel, S. R.

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for studying theoretically the concentration fluctuations of a dilute contaminate undergoing a first-order chemical reaction. The method is based on Deissler's (1958) theory for homogeneous turbulence for times before the final period, and it follows the approach used by Loeffler and Deissler (1961) to study temperature fluctuations in homogeneous turbulence. Four-point correlation equations are obtained; it is assumed that terms containing fifth-order correlation are very small in comparison with those containing fourth-order correlations, and can therefore be neglected. A spectrum equation is obtained in a form which can be solved numerically, yielding the decay law for the concentration fluctuations in homogeneous turbulence for the period much before the final period of decay.

  17. Rapid, k-space linear wavelength scanning laser source based on recirculating frequency shifter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Minggui; Wang, Lin; Li, Feng; Cao, Yuan; Wang, Xudong; Feng, Xinhuan; Guan, Bai-Ou; Wai, P K A

    2016-11-28

    We propose and successfully demonstrate a k-space linear and self-clocked wavelength scanning fiber laser source based on recirculating frequency shifting (RFS). The RFS is realized with a high speed electro-optic dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator operating at the state of carrier suppressed single sideband modulation. A gated short pulse is injected into an amplified RFS loop to generate the wavelength scanning pulse train. We find that the accumulation of in-band amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise over multiple scanning periods will saturate the erbium-doped fiber amplifier and impede the amplification to the pulse signal in the RFS loop. To overcome the degradation of temporal signal due to the accumulation of ASE noise over multiple scanning periods, we insert a modulated optical switch into the RFS loop to completely attenuate the in-band ASE noise at the end of each scanning period. The signal to noise ratio of the temporal pulsed signal is greatly enhanced. K-space linear and self-clocked wavelength scanning fiber laser sources in 6.1 nm/7.2 nm scanning range with 20 GHz/30 GHz frequency shifting are successfully demonstrated.

  18. The magnetocaloric effect at the first-order magneto-elastic phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the magnetocaloric effect at the first-order magneto-elastic phase transition. The entropy change Δs at the transition temperature is given by the sum of the magnetic and the structural contributions. By using a thermodynamic model, it is shown that the sign and amplitude of the structural contribution to Δs are determined by the dimensionless parameter ζ (zeta) which depends on β, the steepness of the change of exchange forces with volume, and on α p , the thermal expansion coefficient of the structural lattice. For ζ 1 the structural entropy dominates and a transition occurs upon heating from a low temperature paramagnet to a high temperature ferromagnet.

  19. The magnetocaloric effect at the first-order magneto-elastic phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Vittorio

    2011-06-08

    This paper presents a study of the magnetocaloric effect at the first-order magneto-elastic phase transition. The entropy change Δs at the transition temperature is given by the sum of the magnetic and the structural contributions. By using a thermodynamic model, it is shown that the sign and amplitude of the structural contribution to Δs are determined by the dimensionless parameter ζ (zeta) which depends on β, the steepness of the change of exchange forces with volume, and on α(p), the thermal expansion coefficient of the structural lattice. For ζ 1 the structural entropy dominates and a transition occurs upon heating from a low temperature paramagnet to a high temperature ferromagnet.

  20. First-order phase transition and tricritical point in multiband U (1 ) London superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, Karl A. H.; Babaev, Egor

    2016-02-01

    The order of the superconducting phase transition is a classical problem. Single-component type-2 superconductors exhibit a continuous "inverted-X Y " phase transition, as was first demonstrated for U (1 ) lattice London superconductors by a celebrated duality mapping with subsequent backing by numerical simulations. Here we study this problem in multiband U (1 ) London superconductors and find evidence that by contrast the model has a tricritical point. The superconducting phase transition becomes first order when the Josephson length is sufficiently large compared to the magnetic field penetration length. We present evidence that the fluctuation-induced dipolar interaction between vortex loops makes the phase transition discontinuous. We discuss that this mechanism is also relevant for the phase transitions in multicomponent gauge theories with higher broken symmetry.

  1. Periodic solutions of first-order functional differential equations in population dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Padhi, Seshadev; Srinivasu, P D N

    2014-01-01

    This book provides cutting-edge results on the existence of multiple positive periodic solutions of first-order functional differential equations. It demonstrates how the Leggett-Williams fixed-point theorem can be applied to study the existence of two or three positive periodic solutions of functional differential equations with real-world applications, particularly with regard to the Lasota-Wazewska model, the Hematopoiesis model, the Nicholsons Blowflies model, and some models with Allee effects. Many interesting sufficient conditions are given for the dynamics that include nonlinear characteristics exhibited by population models. The last chapter provides results related to the global appeal of solutions to the models considered in the earlier chapters. The techniques used in this book can be easily understood by anyone with a basic knowledge of analysis. This book offers a valuable reference guide for students and researchers in the field of differential equations with applications to biology, ecology, a...

  2. Tunable First-Order Resistorless All-Pass Filter with Low Output Impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Beg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a voltage mode cascadable single active element tunable first-order all-pass filter with a single passive component. The active element used to realise the filter is a new building block termed as differential difference dual-X current conveyor with a buffered output (DD-DXCCII. The filter is thus realized with the help of a DD-DXCCII, a capacitor, and a MOS transistor. By exploiting the low output impedance, a higher order filter is also realized. Nonideal and parasitic study is also carried out on the realised filters. The proposed DD-DXCCII filters are simulated using TSMC the 0.25 µm technology.

  3. On the Realization of First-Order Current-Mode AP/HP Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tangsrirat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A compact circuit topology for the realization of the current-mode first-order allpass (AP and highpass (HP filters is described. The proposed circuit contains a minimum number of components, i.e., eight bipolar transistors and one grounded capacitor. The advantages of this circuit are the use of only grounded capacitor as a passive element, the electronic tunability of its parameters and its potential for low-voltage operation. Some simulation results are also reported, which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed circuit. Owing to the pole frequency of the filter circuit is normally dependent on temperature; a low-voltage translinear–based current source circuit for temperature compensation is also suggested.

  4. NanoSafer vs. 1.1 - Nanomaterial risk assessment using first order modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Keld A.; Saber, Anne T.; Kristensen, Henrik V.

    2013-01-01

    for safe use of MN based on first order modeling. The hazard and case specific exposure as sessments are combined for an integrated risk evaluation and final control banding. Requested material da ta are typically available from the producers’ technical information sheets. The hazard data are given...... in the SDS for the closest analogue bulk material for which the requested occupational exposure limit (OEL) is given as well. The emission potential is either given by a constant release rate or the dustiness level determined us ing the EN15051 rotating drum or similar. The exposure assessment is estimated...... of the nearest analogue bulk material a nd the specific surface area. The NanoSafer control banding tool is now available in Danish and English and contains help tools, including a data library with dustiness data and an inspirational nanosafety e learning tool for companies’ risk management. The ability...

  5. Medium corrections to the first order optical potential for low-energy pion-4He scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, J. de; Geffen, F. van; Velde, M. van der

    1980-01-01

    We study the Pauli-principle corrections for low energy π- 4 He elastic scattering. In our approach we take into account explicitly the spin and isospin dependence of the Pauli-principle effect. Furthermore we discuss the combined effect of the Pauli-principle correction and the nuclear binding. Contrary to the Pauli principle we treat the binding corrections in an approximate way, using an effective mass for the residual nucleus. In our calculations we use the first-order optical potential of Celenza, Liu and Shakin. The Pauli-principle correction is found to have a considerable effect on the differential cross section. Our results indicate that the Pauli-principle corrections are largely compensated by the nuclear binding. (orig.)

  6. First-order superconducting transition in the inter-band model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes da Silva, M. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Departamento de Física, 3000, Japiim, 69077-00 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia do Amazonas, Av. 7 de Setembro, 1975 - Centro, Manaus, AM 69020-120 (Brazil); Dinóla Neto, F., E-mail: dinola@ufam.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Departamento de Física, 3000, Japiim, 69077-00 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Padilha, I.T. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Departamento de Física, 3000, Japiim, 69077-00 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Ricardo de Sousa, J. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Departamento de Física, 3000, Japiim, 69077-00 Manaus, AM (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Continentino, M.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-04-01

    The comprehension about the theoretical features of superconductivity is an interesting and fundamental topic in condensed matter physics. Several theoretical proposals were considered to describe the new classes of superconducting compounds and alloys. In this work we propose to study a non-conventional superconducting system where the Cooper pairs are formed by fermions from different bands described via two band model with hybridization. In this inter-band scenario we find a first-order phase transition at low temperatures and we observe a tricritical point in the phase diagram. In our description, the control parameter is the hybridization that can be tuned by external pressure. This fact indicates the possibility to observe discontinuities in the SC gap amplitude through applying pressure on the system.

  7. Free Vibration Analysis of Laminated Plates Using First-Order Shear Deformation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Umut; Uzman, Ümit

    This paper deals with free vibration analysis of simply supported laminated composite plates using first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The displacement field of a laminated composite plate is given for FSDT. The numerical studies are conducted to determine the effect of width-to-thickness ratio, degree of orthotropy, fiber orientation, aspect ratio on the nondimensionalized fundamental frequency for laminated composite plates. Also, the effect of shear deformation, rotatory inertia and shear correction coefficient on the nondimensionalized fundamental frequency is examined. A MATLAB code is written for free vibration of laminated plates. However, the problem is modeled using finite element package program ANSYS for different meshes. Finally, the results are given in graphical and tabular form and compared.

  8. Asymmetric first order shear horizontal guided waves propagation in a tapered plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiu-Jiu; Song, Guang-Huang; Han, Xu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, through numerical simulation of the first order shear horizontal guided waves propagation in a homogeneous tapered plate, we have realized sound unidirectional transmission based on the mode conversion mechanism. We also find that the contrast transmission ratio of unidirectional transmission is highly influenced by the slope angle of tapered edge. And the working frequency range of the asymmetric transmission can be easily controlled by the height of tapered surface or the thickness of slab. This asymmetric system shows potentially significant applications in various sound devices. - Highlights: • We study the sound unidirectional transmission for SH 1 guided wave in a homogeneous tapered plate. • The contrast transmission ratio of unidirectional transmission is highly influenced by the slope angle. • The working frequency range of unidirectional transmission can be easily controlled by structure parameters

  9. Viable inflationary models ending with a first-order phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, Marina; Liddle, Andrew R.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the parameter space of two-field inflation models where inflation terminates via a first-order phase transition causing nucleation of bubbles. Such models experience a tension from the need to ensure nearly scale-invariant density perturbations, while avoiding a near scale-invariant bubble size distribution which would conflict observations. We perform an exact analysis of the different regimes of the models, where the energy density of the inflaton field ranges from being negligible as compared to the vacuum energy to providing most of the energy for inflation. Despite recent microwave anisotropy results favoring a spectral index less than 1, we find that there are still viable models that end with bubble production and can match all available observations. As a by-product of our analysis, we also provide an up-to-date assessment of the viable parameter space of Linde's original second-order hybrid model across its full parameter range.

  10. Visualizing spatiotemporal pulse propagation: first-order spatiotemporal couplings in laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Michelle; Guang, Zhe; Pease, Jerrold; Trebino, Rick

    2017-04-10

    Even though a general theory of first-order spatiotemporal couplings exists in the literature, it is often difficult to visualize how these distortions affect laser pulses. In particular, it is difficult to show the spatiotemporal phase of pulses in a meaningful way. Here, we propose a general solution to plotting the electric fields of pulses in three-dimensional space that intuitively shows the effects of spatiotemporal phases. The temporal phase information is color-coded using spectrograms and color response functions, and the beam is propagated to show the spatial phase evolution. Using this plotting technique, we generate two- and three-dimensional images and movies that show the effects of spatiotemporal couplings.

  11. Gravitational waves from the sound of a first order phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Huber, Stephan J; Rummukainen, Kari; Weir, David J

    2014-01-31

    We report on the first three-dimensional numerical simulations of first-order phase transitions in the early Universe to include the cosmic fluid as well as the scalar field order parameter. We calculate the gravitational wave (GW) spectrum resulting from the nucleation, expansion, and collision of bubbles of the low-temperature phase, for phase transition strengths and bubble wall velocities covering many cases of interest. We find that the compression waves in the fluid continue to be a source of GWs long after the bubbles have merged, a new effect not taken properly into account in previous modeling of the GW source. For a wide range of models, the main source of the GWs produced by a phase transition is, therefore, the sound the bubbles make.

  12. Re-Investigation of Generalized Integrator Based Filters From a First-Order-System Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xin, Zhen; Zhao, Rende; Mattavelli, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The generalized integrator (GI)-based filters can be categorized into two types: one is related to quadrature signal generator (QSG), and the other is related to sequence filter (SF). The QSG is used for generating the in-quadrature sinusoidal signals and the SF works for extracting the symmetrical...... sequence components. The signals generated by QSG and SF are useful in many applications, such as grid synchronization and harmonic estimation. However, the principles of QSG and SF are usually explained by either differential equations or transfer functions, which are not appropriate for analyzing some...... extended structures and thus restrict their applications. To overcome the drawback, this paper uses the first-order-system concept to re-investigate the GI-based filters, with which their working principles can be intuitively understood and their structure correlations can be easily discovered. Moreover...

  13. Some aspects of the inverse problem for general first order systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarlet, W.; Cantrijn, F.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the most general systems of first-order ordinary differential equations which satisfy the integrability conditions of the inverse problem for canonical formulations, i.e., are derivable from a variational principle. It is shown that they have a structure which is invariant under arbitrary coordinate-transformations. A special class of transformations, called identity-isotopic transformations, is described. It is illustrated how these transformations share all properties with classical canonical transformations except one: the solutions of the system, viewed as transformations from the set of initial values, generally are not identity-isotopic. This failure is shown to be due to the explicit time-dependence of the functions which characterise the system, and the special role of this time-dependence is further clarified using the possibility of a reduction to conventional Hamiltonian systems. All properties are derived here within the framework of an analytic treatment of a system of differential equations

  14. Classical solutions of mixed problems for quasilinear first order PFDEs on a cylindrical domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Czernous

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We abandon the setting of the domain as a Cartesian product of real intervals, customary for first order PFDEs (partial functional differential equations with initial boundary conditions. We give a new set of conditions on the possibly unbounded domain \\(\\Omega\\ with Lipschitz differentiable boundary. Well-posedness is then reliant on a variant of the normal vector condition. There is a neighbourhood of \\(\\partial\\Omega\\ with the property that if a characteristic trajectory has a point therein, then its every earlier point lies there as well. With local assumptions on coefficients and on the free term, we prove existence and Lipschitz dependence on data of classical solutions on \\((0,c\\times\\Omega\\ to the initial boundary value problem, for small \\(c\\. Regularity of solutions matches this domain, and the proof uses the Banach fixed-point theorem. Our general model of functional dependence covers problems with deviating arguments and integro-differential equations.

  15. Studies on the first-order hyperpolarizability and terahertz generation in 3-nitroaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnakumar, V.; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2008-01-01

    Single crystals of 3-nitroaniline (C 6 H 6 N 2 O 2 ) also called as m-nitroaniline (m-NA) have been grown by adopting slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature using methanol as a solvent. To reveal the microscopic nonlinear optical properties, the first-order hyperpolarizability (β) was evaluated by using the density functional theory (DFT) quantum chemical calculations at B3LYP/3-21 G (d,p) level. According to the results of DFT calculations, the grown crystals exhibit non-zero β values and it might have microscopic nonlinear optical behavior which is seven times more than that of urea. Terahertz (1 THz=10 12 Hz) radiation was also generated in the title organic nonlinear optical crystal using ultra short femtosecond laser

  16. Relation between weather radar equation and first-order backscattering theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Marzano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this work is to provide a new insight into the physical basis of the meteorological-radar theory in attenuating media. Starting form the general integral form of the weather radar equation, a modified form of the classical weather radar equation at attenuating wavelength is derived. This modified radar equation includes a new parameter, called the range-bin extinction factor, taking into account the rainfall path attenuation within each range bin. It is shown that, only in the case of low-to-moderate attenuating media, the classical radar equation at attenuating wavelength can be used. These theoretical results are corroborated by using the radiative transfer theory where multiple scattering phenomena can be quantified. From a new definition of the radar reflectivity, in terms of backscattered specific intensity, a generalised radar equation is deduced. Within the assumption of first-order backscattering, the generalised radar equation is reduced to the modified radar equation, previously obtained. This analysis supports the conclusion that the description of radar observations at attenuating wavelength should include, in principle, first-order scattering effects. Numerical simulations are performed by using statistical relationships among the radar reflectivity, rain rate and specific attenuation, derived from literature. Results confirm that the effect of the range-bin extinction factor, depending on the considered frequency and range resolution, can be significant at X band for intense rain, while at Ka band and above it can become appreciable even for moderate rain. A discussion on the impact of these theoretical and numerical results is finally included.

  17. Time Domain Waveform Inversion for the Q Model Based on the First-Order Viscoacoustic Wave Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Propagating seismic waves are dispersed and attenuated in the subsurface due to the conversion of elastic energy into heat. The absorptive property of a medium can be described by the quality factor Q. In this study, the first-order pressure-velocity viscoacoustic wave equations based on the standard linear solid model are used to incorporate the effect of Q. For the Q model inversion, an iterative procedure is then proposed by minimizing an objective function that measures the misfit energy between the observed data and the modeled data. The adjoint method is applied to derive the gradients of the objective function with respect to the model parameters, that is, bulk modulus, density, and Q-related parameter τ. Numerical tests on the crosswell recording geometry indicate the feasibility of the proposed approach for the Q anomaly estimation.

  18. First-order dissolution rate law and the role of surface layers in glass performance assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambow, B.; Müller, R.

    2001-09-01

    The first-order dissolution rate law is used for nuclear waste glass performance predictions since 1984. A first discussion of the role of saturation effects was initiated at the MRS conference that year. In paper (1) it was stated that "For glass dissolution A* (the reaction affinity) cannot become zero since saturation only involves the reacting surface while soluble elements still might be extracted from the glass" [B. Grambow, J. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 44 (1985) 15]. Saturation of silica at the surface and condensation of surface silanol groups was considered as being responsible for the slow down of reaction rates by as much as a factor of 1000. Precipitation of Si containing secondary phases such as quartz was invoked as a mechanism for keeping final dissolution affinities higher than zero. Another (2) paper [A.B. Barkatt, P.B. Macedo, B.C. Gibson, C.J. Montrose, J. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 44 (1985) 3] stated that "… under repository conditions the extent of glass dissolution will be moderate due to saturation with respect to certain major elements (in particular, Si, Al and Ca). Consequently, the concentration levels of the more soluble glass constituents in the aqueous medium are expected to fall appreciable below their solubility limit." The formation of dense surface layers was considered responsible for explaining the saturation effect. The mathematical model assumed stop of reaction in closed systems, once solubility limits were achieved. For more than 15 years the question of the correctness of one or the other concept has seldom been posed and has not yet been resolved. The need of repository performance assessment for validated rate laws demands a solution, particularly since the consequences of the two concepts and research requirements for the long-term glass behavior are quite different. In concept (1) the stability of the `equilibrium surface region' is not relevant because, by definition, this region is stable chemically and after a

  19. Automating the First-Order Theory of Rewriting for Left-Linear Right-Ground Rewrite Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rapp, Franziska; Middeldorp, Aart

    2016-01-01

    The first-order theory of rewriting is decidable for finite left-linear right-ground rewrite systems. We present a new tool that implements the decision procedure for this theory. It is based on tree automata techniques. The tool offers the possibility to synthesize rewrite systems that satisfy properties that are expressible in the first-order theory of rewriting.

  20. Two-photon decay rates of hydrogenlike ions revisited by using Dirac-Coulomb Sturmian expansions of the first order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, Zachée; Nganso, Hugues Merlain Tetchou; Ekogo, Thierry Blanchard; Njock, Moïse Godfroy Kwato

    2014-02-01

    A fully relativistic multipole scheme is formulated to study two-photon emission processes in hydrogenlike ions with an infinitely heavy, pointlike, and spinless nucleus of charge up to 100. By making use of the Sturmian expansion of the Dirac-Coulomb Green function of the first order constructed by Szmytkowski, closed-form expressions are derived for arbitrary multipole channels. In the nonrelativistic limit, well-known formulas established previously are retrieved. For the sake of assessing the effectiveness of our approach, numerical applications are then carried out for two-photon decay rates of the selected 2s1/2 and 2p1/2 atomic states. To this end, radial integrals, the most crucial quantities involved in the matrix elements, are treated with great care by means of two suitable techniques that agree with each other quite closely so that very accurate values are obtained regardless of the choice of parameters, such as radial quantum numbers and orders of spherical Bessel functions of the first kind. In addition, the convergence and stability of computations are checked in connection with the intermediate-state summation, which appears within the second-order perturbation theory. As expected, the gauge invariance of our fully relativistic multipole numbers is confirmed. Relativistic effects, and the influence of the negative spectrum of the complete set of Dirac-Coulomb Sturmians of first order and retardation truncations in the transition operator are examined. Finally, a comparison is undertaken of our two-photon relativistic calculations with refined predictions of other authors based on finite basis-set methods widely employed over the past decades.

  1. Forward Modeling of Reduced Power Spectra from Three-dimensional k-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Papen, Michael; Saur, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    We present results from a numerical forward model to evaluate one-dimensional reduced power spectral densities (PSDs) from arbitrary energy distributions in {\\boldsymbol{k}} -space. In this model, we can separately calculate the diagonal elements of the spectral tensor for incompressible axisymmetric turbulence with vanishing helicity. Given a critically balanced turbulent cascade with {{k}\\parallel }∼ k\\bot α and α \\lt 1, we explore the implications on the reduced PSD as a function of frequency. The spectra are obtained under the assumption of Taylor’s hypothesis. We further investigate the functional dependence of the spectral index κ on the field-to-flow angle θ between plasma flow and background magnetic field from MHD to electron kinetic scales. We show that critically balanced turbulence asymptotically develops toward θ-independent spectra with a slope corresponding to the perpendicular cascade. This occurs at a transition frequency {{f}2D}(L,α ,θ ), which is analytically estimated and depends on outer scale L, critical balance exponent α, and field-to-flow angle θ. We discuss anisotropic damping terms acting on the {\\boldsymbol{k}} -space distribution of energy and their effects on the PSD. Further, we show that the spectral anisotropies κ (θ ) as found by Horbury et al. and Chen et al. in the solar wind are in accordance with a damped critically balanced cascade of kinetic Alfvén waves. We also model power spectra obtained by Papen et al. in Saturn’s plasma sheet and find that the change of spectral indices inside 9 {{R}s} can be explained by damping on electron scales.

  2. Magnetic Fields at First Order Phase Transition: A Threat to Electroweak Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    De Simone, Andrea; Quiros, Mariano; Riotto, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The generation of the observed baryon asymmetry may have taken place during the electroweak phase transition, thus involving physics testable at LHC, a scenario dubbed electroweak baryogenesis. In this paper we point out that the magnetic field which is produced in the bubbles of a first order phase transition endangers the baryon asymmetry produced in the bubble walls. The reason being that the produced magnetic field couples to the sphaleron magnetic moment and lowers the sphaleron energy; this strengthens the sphaleron transitions inside the bubbles and triggers a more effective wash out of the baryon asymmetry. We apply this scenario to the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) where, in the absence of a magnetic field, successful electroweak baryogenesis requires the lightest CP-even Higgs and the right-handed stop masses to be lighter than about 127 GeV and 120 GeV, respectively. We show that even for moderate values of the magnetic field, the Higgs mass required to preserve the ...

  3. The First Order Correction to the Exit Distribution for Some Random Walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Tom

    2016-07-01

    We study three different random walk models on several two-dimensional lattices by Monte Carlo simulations. One is the usual nearest neighbor random walk. Another is the nearest neighbor random walk which is not allowed to backtrack. The final model is the smart kinetic walk. For all three of these models the distribution of the point where the walk exits a simply connected domain D in the plane converges weakly to harmonic measure on partial D as the lattice spacing δ → 0. Let ω (0,\\cdot ;D) be harmonic measure for D, and let ω _δ (0,\\cdot ;D) be the discrete harmonic measure for one of the random walk models. Our definition of the random walk models is unusual in that we average over the orientation of the lattice with respect to the domain. We are interested in the limit of (ω _δ (0,\\cdot ;D)- ω (0,\\cdot ;D))/δ . Our Monte Carlo simulations of the three models lead to the conjecture that this limit equals c_{M,L} ρ _D(z) times Lebesgue measure with respect to arc length along the boundary, where the function ρ _D(z) depends on the domain, but not on the model or lattice, and the constant c_{M,L} depends on the model and on the lattice, but not on the domain. So there is a form of universality for this first order correction. We also give an explicit formula for the conjectured density ρ _D.

  4. Agricultural herbicide transport in a first-order intermittent stream, Nebraska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, J.R.; Linard, J.I.

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of herbicides in surface waters is a function of many variables, including scale of the watershed, physical and chemical properties of the herbicide, physical and chemical properties of the soil, rainfall intensity, and time of year. In this study, the transport of 6 herbicides and 12 herbicide degradates was examined during the 2004 growing season in an intermediate-scale agricultural watershed (146 ha) that is drained by a first-order intermittent stream, and the mass load for each herbicide in the stream was estimated. The herbicide load during the first week of storm events after application ranged from 17% of annual load for trifluralin to 84% of annual load for acetochlor. The maximum weekly herbicide load in the stream was generally within the first 3 weeks after application for those compounds that were applied within the watershed during 2004, and later for herbicides not applied within the watershed during 2004 but still detected in the stream. The apparent dominant mode of herbicide transport in the stream-determined by analysis amongst herbicide and conservative ion concentrations at different points in the hydrograph and in base flow samples-was either overland runoff or shallow subsurface flow, depending on the elapsed time after application and type of herbicide. The load as a percentage of use (LAPU) for the parent compounds in this study was similar to literature values for those compounds applied by the farmer within the watershed, but smaller for those herbicides that had rainfall as their only source within the watershed.

  5. Strong first order electroweak phase transition in the CP-conserving 2HDM revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basler, P.; Krause, M.; Mühlleitner, M. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wittbrodt, J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY,Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Wlotzka, A. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-02-23

    The discovery of the Higgs boson by the LHC experiments ATLAS and CMS has marked a milestone for particle physics. Yet, there are still many open questions that cannot be answered within the Standard Model (SM). For example, the generation of the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe through baryogenesis can only be explained qualitatively in the SM. A simple extension of the SM compatible with the current theoretical and experimental constraints is given by the 2-Higgs-Doublet Model (2HDM) where a second Higgs doublet is added to the Higgs sector. We investigate the possibility of a strong first order electroweak phase transition in the CP-conserving 2HDM type I and type II where either of the CP-even Higgs bosons is identified with the SM-like Higgs boson. The renormalisation that we apply on the loop-corrected Higgs potential allows us to efficiently scan the 2HDM parameter space and simultaneously take into account all relevant theoretical and up-to-date experimental constraints. The 2HDM parameter regions found to be compatible with the applied constraints and a strong electroweak phase transition are analysed systematically. Our results show that there is a strong interplay between the requirement of a strong phase transition and collider phenomenology with testable implications for searches at the LHC.

  6. Fluctuation-induced first-order transition in Eu-based trillium lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Diego G.; Prots, Yurii; Geibel, Christoph; Seiro, Silvia

    2017-07-01

    Among spin arrangements prone to geometric frustration, the so-called trillium lattice has not been very intensively investigated. A few theoretical works show that it is at the border between a degenerate, an only partially ordered, and a fully ordered ground state. However, only few compounds with this structure have been studied, and there is presently no good example of a trillium lattice with an antiferromagnetic ground state and clear evidence for frustration effects. We present magnetic and specific heat measurements on two realizations of a trillium lattice of local spins, EuPtSi and EuPtGe. Both compounds exhibit a similar magnetic behavior, with Eu2 + moments ordering antiferromagnetically at TN=4.1 K (EuPtSi) and 3.3 K (EuPtGe), albeit retaining a considerable amount of entropy in strong magnetic fluctuations extending to temperatures well above TN. The magnetic entropy reaches only roughly half of R ln8 at TN. These fluctuations are presumably the source for the pronounced first-order character of the transition at TN and are likely due to magnetic frustration. Thus, EuPtSi and EuPtGe open a new door to experimental studies of frustration effects in the trillium lattice and provide a testing ground for theoretical predictions.

  7. Morphing Continuum Theory: A First Order Approximation to the Balance Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonnell, Louis; Cheikh, Mohamad Ibrahim; Chen, James

    2017-11-01

    Morphing Continuum Theory is constructed under the framework of Rational Continuum Mechanics (RCM) for fluid flows with inner structure. This multiscale theory has been successfully emplyed to model turbulent flows. The framework of RCM ensures the mathematical rigor of MCT, but contains new material constants related to the inner structure. The physical meanings of these material constants have yet to be determined. Here, a linear deviation from the zeroth-order Boltzmann-Curtiss distribution function is derived. When applied to the Boltzmann-Curtiss equation, a first-order approximation of the MCT governing equations is obtained. The integral equations are then related to the appropriate material constants found in the heat flux, Cauchy stress, and moment stress terms in the governing equations. These new material properties associated with the inner structure of the fluid are compared with the corresponding integrals, and a clearer physical interpretation of these coefficients emerges. The physical meanings of these material properties is determined by analyzing previous results obtained from numerical simulations of MCT for compressible and incompressible flows. The implications for the physics underlying the MCT governing equations will also be discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Award Number FA9550-17-1-0154.

  8. Nonlocal postbuckling analysis of graphene sheets with initial imperfection based on first order shear deformation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Ahmad; Naei, Mohammad Hasan; Mashhadi, Mahmoud Mosavi

    In this paper, the first order shear deformation theory (FSDT) is used to investigate the postbuckling behavior of orthotropic single-layered graphene sheet (SLGS) under in-plane loadings. Nonlocal elasticity theory and von-Karman nonlinear model in combination with the isogeometric analysis (IGA) have been applied to study the postbuckling characteristics of SLGSs. In contrast to the classical model, the nonlocal continuum model developed in this work considers the size-effects on the postbuckling characteristics of SLGSs. FSDT takes into account effects of shear deformations through-the-thickness of plate. Geometric imperfection which is defined as a very small transverse displacement of the mid-plane is applied on undeformed nanoplate to create initial deviation in graphene sheet from being perfectly flat. Nonlinear governing equations of motion for SLGS are derived from the principle of virtual work and a variational formulation. At the end, the results are presented as the postbuckling equilibrium paths of SLGS. The influence of various parameters such as edge length, nonlocal parameter, compression ratio, boundary conditions and aspect ratio on the postbuckling path is investigated. The results of this work show the high accuracy of nonlocal FSDT-based analysis for postbuckling behavior of graphene sheets.

  9. First-order optical analysis of a quasi-microscope for planetary landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, F. O.; Sinclair, A. R.; Burcher, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    A first-order geometrical optics analysis of a facsimile camera augmented with an auxiliary lens as magnifier is presented. This concept, called quasi-microscope, bridges the gap between surface resolutions of the order of 1 to 10 mm which can be obtained directly with planetary lander cameras and resolutions of the order of 0.2 to 10 microns which can be obtained only with relatively complex microscopes. A facsimile camera was considered in the analysis; however, the analytical results can also be applied to television and film cameras. It was found that quasi-microscope resolutions in the range from 10 to 100 microns are obtainable with current state-of-the-art lander facsimile cameras. For the Viking lander camera having an angular resolution of 0.04 deg, which was considered as a specific example, the best achievable resolution would be about 20 microns. The preferred approach to increase the resolution of the quasi-microscope would be, if possible, through an increase in angular resolution of the camera. A twofold to threefold improvement in resolution could also be achieved with a special camera focus position, but this approach tends to require larger and heavier auxiliary optics.

  10. A time series model: First-order integer-valued autoregressive (INAR(1))

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarmata, D. M.; Novkaniza, F.; Widyaningsih, Y.

    2017-07-01

    Nonnegative integer-valued time series arises in many applications. A time series model: first-order Integer-valued AutoRegressive (INAR(1)) is constructed by binomial thinning operator to model nonnegative integer-valued time series. INAR (1) depends on one period from the process before. The parameter of the model can be estimated by Conditional Least Squares (CLS). Specification of INAR(1) is following the specification of (AR(1)). Forecasting in INAR(1) uses median or Bayesian forecasting methodology. Median forecasting methodology obtains integer s, which is cumulative density function (CDF) until s, is more than or equal to 0.5. Bayesian forecasting methodology forecasts h-step-ahead of generating the parameter of the model and parameter of innovation term using Adaptive Rejection Metropolis Sampling within Gibbs sampling (ARMS), then finding the least integer s, where CDF until s is more than or equal to u . u is a value taken from the Uniform(0,1) distribution. INAR(1) is applied on pneumonia case in Penjaringan, Jakarta Utara, January 2008 until April 2016 monthly.

  11. First-order and higher order sequence learning in specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gillian M; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2017-02-01

    A core claim of the procedural deficit hypothesis of specific language impairment (SLI) is that the disorder is associated with poor implicit sequence learning. This study investigated whether implicit sequence learning problems in SLI are present for first-order conditional (FOC) and higher order conditional (HOC) sequences. Twenty-five children with SLI and 27 age-matched, nonlanguage-impaired children completed 2 serial reaction time tasks. On 1 version, the sequence to be implicitly learnt comprised a FOC sequence and on the other a HOC sequence. Results showed that the SLI group learned the HOC sequence (η p ² = .285, p = .005) but not the FOC sequence (η p ² = .099, p = .118). The control group learned both sequences (FOC η p ² = .497, HOC η p 2= .465, ps < .001). The SLI group's difficulty learning the FOC sequence is consistent with the procedural deficit hypothesis. However, the study provides new evidence that multiple mechanisms may underpin the learning of FOC and HOC sequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Design of experiments for zeroth and first-order reaction rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo-Salas, Mariano; Martín-Martín, Raúl; Rodríguez-Aragón, Licesio J

    2014-09-01

    This work presents optimum designs for reaction rates experiments. In these experiments, time at which observations are to be made and temperatures at which reactions are to be run need to be designed. Observations are performed along time under isothermal conditions. Each experiment needs a fixed temperature and so the reaction can be measured at the designed times. For these observations under isothermal conditions over the same reaction a correlation structure has been considered. D-optimum designs are the aim of our work for zeroth and first-order reaction rates. Temperatures for the isothermal experiments and observation times, to obtain the most accurate estimates of the unknown parameters, are provided in these designs. D-optimum designs for a single observation in each isothermal experiment or for several correlated observations have been obtained. Robustness of the optimum designs for ranges of the correlation parameter and comparisons of the information gathered by different designs are also shown. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The Jump Set under Geometric Regularization. Part 1: Basic Technique and First-Order Denoising

    KAUST Repository

    Valkonen, Tuomo

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Let u ∈ BV(Ω) solve the total variation (TV) denoising problem with L2-squared fidelity and data f. Caselles, Chambolle, and Novaga [Multiscale Model. Simul., 6 (2008), pp. 879-894] have shown the containment Hm-1 (Ju \\\\Jf) = 0 of the jump set Ju of u in that of f. Their proof unfortunately depends heavily on the co-area formula, as do many results in this area, and as such is not directly extensible to higher-order, curvature-based, and other advanced geometric regularizers, such as total generalized variation and Euler\\'s elastica. These have received increased attention in recent times due to their better practical regularization properties compared to conventional TV or wavelets. We prove analogous jump set containment properties for a general class of regularizers. We do this with novel Lipschitz transformation techniques and do not require the co-area formula. In the present Part 1 we demonstrate the general technique on first-order regularizers, while in Part 2 we will extend it to higher-order regularizers. In particular, we concentrate in this part on TV and, as a novelty, Huber-regularized TV. We also demonstrate that the technique would apply to nonconvex TV models as well as the Perona-Malik anisotropic diffusion, if these approaches were well-posed to begin with.

  14. Hardware-efficient implementation of digital FIR filter using fast first-order moment algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Liu, Jianguo; Xiong, Jun; Zhang, Jing

    2018-03-01

    As the digital finite impulse response (FIR) filter can be transformed into the shift-add form of multiple small-sized firstorder moments, based on the existing fast first-order moment algorithm, this paper presents a novel multiplier-less structure to calculate any number of sequential filtering results in parallel. The theoretical analysis on its hardware and time-complexities reveals that by appropriately setting the degree of parallelism and the decomposition factor of a fixed word width, the proposed structure may achieve better area-time efficiency than the existing two-dimensional (2-D) memoryless-based filter. To evaluate the performance concretely, the proposed designs for different taps along with the existing 2-D memoryless-based filters, are synthesized by Synopsys Design Compiler with 0.18-μm SMIC library. The comparisons show that the proposed design has less area-time complexity and power consumption when the number of filter taps is larger than 48.

  15. First-order quantum phase transitions: Test ground for emergent chaoticity, regularity and persisting symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macek, M., E-mail: mmacek@Racah.phys.huji.ac.il; Leviatan, A., E-mail: ami@phys.huji.ac.il

    2014-12-15

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the emerging order and chaos and enduring symmetries, accompanying a generic (high-barrier) first-order quantum phase transition (QPT). The interacting boson model Hamiltonian employed, describes a QPT between spherical and deformed shapes, associated with its U(5) and SU(3) dynamical symmetry limits. A classical analysis of the intrinsic dynamics reveals a rich but simply-divided phase space structure with a Hénon–Heiles type of chaotic dynamics ascribed to the spherical minimum and a robustly regular dynamics ascribed to the deformed minimum. The simple pattern of mixed but well-separated dynamics persists in the coexistence region and traces the crossing of the two minima in the Landau potential. A quantum analysis discloses a number of regular low-energy U(5)-like multiplets in the spherical region, and regular SU(3)-like rotational bands extending to high energies and angular momenta, in the deformed region. These two kinds of regular subsets of states retain their identity amidst a complicated environment of other states and both occur in the coexistence region. A symmetry analysis of their wave functions shows that they are associated with partial U(5) dynamical symmetry (PDS) and SU(3) quasi-dynamical symmetry (QDS), respectively. The pattern of mixed but well-separated dynamics and the PDS or QDS characterization of the remaining regularity, appear to be robust throughout the QPT. Effects of kinetic collective rotational terms, which may disrupt this simple pattern, are considered.

  16. First-order similarities and differences between Alps, Dinarides, Hellenides and Anatolides-Taurides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Stefan M.; Bernoulli, Daniel; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Matenco, Liviu; Schefer, Senecio; Oberhänsli, Roland; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Ustaszewski, Kamil

    2013-04-01

    We correlated tectonic units across several circum-Mediterranean orogen strands between the Alps, Carpathians, the Balkan Peninsula, the Aegean and Western Turkey. Our compilation allows discussing fundamental along-strike similarities and differences. One first-order difference is that Dinarides-Hellenides, Anatolides and Taurides represent orogens of opposite subduction polarity and age with respect to the Alps and Carpathians. The internal Dinarides are linked to the Alps and Western Carpathians along the Mid-Hungarian fault zone, a suspected former trench-trench transform fault; its lithospheric root was obliterated during Neogene back-arc extension that formed the Pannonian Basin. Dinarides and Hellenides alike consist of far-travelled nappes detached from the Adriatic continental margin along décollement horizons in Paleozoic or younger stratigraphic levels during Cretaceous and Cenozoic orogeny. The more internal nappes (i.e. Jadar-Kopaonik, Drina-Ivanjica, East Bosnian-Durmitor and their Pelagonian and Almopias equivalents in the Hellenides) are composite nappes whereby the allochthonous Adriatic margin sequences passively carry ophiolites (Western Vardar Ophiolitic Unit) obducted during the latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous. These obducted ophiolitic units, as well as ophiolites obducted onto Europe-derived units presently found in the East Carpathians (Eastern Vardar Ophiolitic Unit obducted onto the Dacia continental block), root in one single Neotethys ocean that started closing with the initiation of obduction in the latest Jurassic; final suturing occurred during Cretaceous times, terminating with the formation of the Sava-Izmir-Ankara suture in the latest Cretaceous. Ophiolitic "massifs" found outside the Sava-Izmir-Ankara suture zone do not mark oceanic sutures, nor do the Drina-Ivanjica and Pelagonian "massifs" represent independent continental fragments (terranes). The same logic applies to Western Turkey with the difference that the ophiolites

  17. Different Phylogenetic and Environmental Controls of First-order Root Morphological and Chemical Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Wang, Q.; Zhao, N.; Yu, G.; He, N.

    2017-12-01

    Fine roots are the most distal roots that act as the primary belowground organs in acquiring limiting nutrients and water from the soil. However, limited by the inconsistency in definitions of fine roots and the different protocols among studies, knowledge of root system traits has, to date, still lagged far behind our understanding of above-ground traits. In particular, whether variation in fine root traits among the plant species along a single root economics spectrum and this underlying mechanism are still hotly debated. In this study, we sampled the first-order root using the standardized protocols, and measured six important root traits related to resource use strategies, from 181 plant species from subtropical to boreal forests. Base on this large dataset, we concluded that different phylogenetic and environmental factors affected on root thickness and nutrient, resulting in the decoupled pattern between them. Specifically, variation in species-level traits related to root thickness (including root diameter, RD and specific root length, SRL) was restricted by common ancestry and little plastic to the changing environments, whereas the large-scale variation in woody root nutrient was mainly controlled by environmental differences, especially soil variables. For community-level traits, mean annual temperature (MAT) mainly influenced the community-level root thickness through the direct effect of changes in plant species composition, while soil P had a positive influence effect on community-level root nitrogen concentration (CWM_RN), reflecting the strong influence of soil fertility on belowground root nutrient. The different environmental constraints and selective pressures acting between root thickness and nutrient traits allows for multiple ecological strategies to adapt to complex environmental conditions. In addition, strong relationships between community-level root traits and environmental variables, due to environmental filters, indicate that in contrast

  18. Shape of the acoustic gravitational wave power spectrum from a first order phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Huber, Stephan J.; Rummukainen, Kari; Weir, David J.

    2017-11-01

    We present results from large-scale numerical simulations of a first order thermal phase transition in the early Universe, in order to explore the shape of the acoustic gravitational wave and the velocity power spectra. We compare the results with the predictions of the recently proposed sound shell model. For the gravitational wave power spectrum, we find that the predicted k-3 behavior, where k is the wave number, emerges clearly for detonations. The power spectra from deflagrations show similar features, but exhibit a steeper high-k decay and an extra feature not accounted for in the model. There are two independent length scales: the mean bubble separation and the thickness of the sound shell around the expanding bubble of the low temperature phase. It is the sound shell thickness which sets the position of the peak of the power spectrum. The low wave number behavior of the velocity power spectrum is consistent with a causal k3, except for the thinnest sound shell, where it is steeper. We present parameters for a simple broken power law fit to the gravitational wave power spectrum for wall speeds well away from the speed of sound where this form can be usefully applied. We examine the prospects for the detection, showing that a LISA-like mission has the sensitivity to detect a gravitational wave signal from sound waves with an RMS fluid velocity of about 0.05 c , produced from bubbles with a mean separation of about 10-2 of the Hubble radius. The shape of the gravitational wave power spectrum depends on the bubble wall speed, and it may be possible to estimate the wall speed, and constrain other phase transition parameters, with an accurate measurement of a stochastic gravitational wave background.

  19. Application of tracer isotope in kinetic study of first order ion exchange reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, R.S.; Singare, P.U.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of first order ion exchange reaction rates at different temperatures (27 deg- 48 degC) and particularly at low concentration of potassium iodide solution (electrolyte) ranging from 0.005 M to 0.040 M is carried out by application of radioactive tracer isotope 131 I. With increase in concentration of electrolyte, amount of iodide ion exchanged in millimoles increases. Specific reaction rates of ion exchange reaction are calculated for different temperatures and for different amount of ion exchange resins. It is observed that with increase in temperature, reaction rate increases but the increase is more pronounced for increase in amount of ion exchange resins. For 0.005 M solution of electrolyte, the reaction rate increases from 0.121 min -1 at 27 degC to 0.178 min -1 at 48 degC. For 0.005 M solution of electrolyte the reaction rate increases from 0.121 min -1 at 27 degC to 0.178 min 1 at 48 degC. For 0.005 M solution of electrolyte at 27 degC the reaction rate increases from 0.121 min -1 for 1.0 g of resin to 0.368 min -1 for 5.0 g of resin. From the reaction rates calculated at different temperatures, energy of activation in kJ/mole is calculated. It is observed that for 0.005 M solution of electrolyte, energy of activation is 4.62 kJ/mole which decreases to 2.87 kJ/mole for increase in concentration of electrolyte to 0.100 M. (author)

  20. Photoelectron diffraction k-space volumes of the c(2x2) Mn/Ni(100) structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, S.; Denlinger, J.; Chen, X. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Traditionally, x-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) studies have either been done by scanning the diffraction angle for fixed kinetic energy (ADPD), or scanning the kinetic energy at fixed exit angle (EDPD). Both of these methods collect subsets of the full diffraction pattern, or volume, which is the intensity of photoemission as a function of momentum direction and magnitude. With the high density available at the Spectromicroscopy Facility (BL 7.0) {open_quotes}ultraESCA{close_quotes} station, the authors are able to completely characterize the photoelectron diffraction patterns of surface structures, up to several hundred electron volts kinetic energy. This large diffraction `volume` can then be analyzed in many ways. The k-space volume contains as a subset the energy dependent photoelectron diffraction spectra along all emission angles. It also contains individual, hemispherical, diffraction patterns at specific kinetic energies. Other `cuts` through the data set are also possible, revealing new ways of viewing photoelectron diffraction data, and potentially new information about the surface structure being studied. In this article the authors report a brief summary of a structural study being done on the c(2x2) Mn/Ni(100) surface alloy. This system is interesting for both structural and magnetic reasons. Magnetically, the Mn/Ni(100) surface alloy exhibits parallel coupling of the Mn and Ni moments, which is opposite to the reported coupling for the bulk, disordered, alloy. Structurally, the Mn atoms are believed to lie well above the surface plane.

  1. Prediction of citrullination sites by incorporating k-spaced amino acid pairs into Chou's general pseudo amino acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Zhe; Wang, Shi-Yun

    2018-04-22

    As one of the most important and common protein post-translational modifications, citrullination plays a key role in regulating various biological processes and is associated with several human diseases. The accurate identification of citrullination sites is crucial for elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms of citrullination and designing drugs for related human diseases. In this study, a novel bioinformatics tool named CKSAAP_CitrSite is developed for the prediction of citrullination sites. With the assistance of support vector machine algorithm, the highlight of CKSAAP_CitrSite is to adopt the composition of k-spaced amino acid pairs surrounding a query site as input. As illustrated by 10-fold cross-validation, CKSAAP_CitrSite achieves a satisfactory performance with a Sensitivity of 77.59%, a Specificity of 95.26%, an Accuracy of 89.37% and a Matthew's correlation coefficient of 0.7566, which is much better than those of the existing prediction method. Feature analysis shows that the N-terminal space containing pairs may play an important role in the prediction of citrullination sites, and the arginines close to N-terminus tend to be citrullinated. The conclusions derived from this study could offer useful information for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of citrullination and related experimental validations. A user-friendly web-server for CKSAAP_CitrSite is available at 123.206.31.171/CKSAAP_CitrSite/. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Characterizing the Magnetic Properties of Natural Samples Using First-Order Reversal Curve Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, C. R.; Roberts, A. P.; Verosub, K. L.

    2001-12-01

    A FORC diagram is calculated from a class of partial hysteresis curves known as first-order reversal curves or FORCs. The measurement of a FORC begins by saturating a sample in a large positive applied field. The field is then decreased to a specified field and reversed; the FORC consists of the magnetization curve that results when the applied field is increased from this reversal field back to saturation. By repeating this measurement for different reversal fields, one obtains a suite of curves that provide detailed information on the distribution of particle switching fields (coercivities) and interaction fields in the sample. These magnetization data are transformed into a FORC distribution by calculating a second derivative of the magnetization data, and by applying a change in co-ordinates. The FORC distribution is, therefore, an empirically well-defined quantity that can be used to probe subtle variations in hysteresis behavior. We have used FORC diagrams to characterize the main types of hysteresis behavior observed in rock magnetism and environmental magnetism. FORC diagrams can be calculated using room-temperature or low-temperature data and enable identification of superparamagnetic, single domain and multi-domain grains, as well as magnetostatic interactions, even in mixed magnetic mineral assemblages. Routine use of FORC diagrams to examine representative bulk samples from large sample collections can provide important information concerning the magnetic particles that cannot be obtained using standard hysteresis measurements. In addition to using FORC diagrams to identify specific magnetic components in a sample, they can also be used to understand fundamental problems in rock magnetism. Our results suggest that pseudo-single domain grains contain contributions from single domain and multi-domain moments and that the hysteresis behavior observed in the multi-domain grains typically encountered in rock magnetism cannot be solely explained through

  3. First-Order Interfacial Transformations with a Critical Point: Breaking the Symmetry at a Symmetric Tilt Grain Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengfeng; Zhou, Naixie; Zheng, Hui; Ong, Shyue Ping; Luo, Jian

    2018-02-01

    First-order interfacial phaselike transformations that break the mirror symmetry of the symmetric ∑5 (210 ) tilt grain boundary (GB) are discovered by combining a modified genetic algorithm with hybrid Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. Density functional theory calculations confirm this prediction. This first-order coupled structural and adsorption transformation, which produces two variants of asymmetric bilayers, vanishes at an interfacial critical point. A GB complexion (phase) diagram is constructed via semigrand canonical ensemble atomistic simulations for the first time.

  4. A segmented K-space velocity mapping protocol for quantification of renal artery blood flow during breath-holding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Cortsen, M; Söndergaard, L

    1995-01-01

    Two important prerequisites for MR velocity mapping of pulsatile motion are synchronization of the sequence execution to the time course of the flow pattern and robustness toward loss of signal in complex flow fields. Synchronization is normally accomplished by using either prospective ECG...... the segmented k-space technique, in which the entire data acquisition can be made within a breath-hold by the sampling of several phase-encoding lines within a small time window during each heart cycle. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a segmented k-space velocity mapping protocol...

  5. K-space linear Fourier domain mode locked laser and applications for optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenwillig, Christoph M; Biedermann, Benjamin R; Palte, Gesa; Huber, Robert

    2008-06-09

    We report on a Fourier Domain Mode Locked (FDML) wavelength swept laser source with a highly linear time-frequency sweep characteristic and demonstrate OCT imaging without k-space resampling prior to Fourier transformation. A detailed theoretical framework is provided and different strategies how to determine the optimum drive waveform of the piezo-electrically actuated optical bandpass-filter in the FDML laser are discussed. An FDML laser with a relative optical frequency deviation ??nu/nu smaller than 8 x10(-5) over a 100 nm spectral bandwidth at 1300 nm is presented, enabling high resolution OCT over long ranging depths. Without numerical time-to-frequency resampling and without spectral apodization a sensitivity roll off of 4 dB over 2 mm, 12.5 dB over 4 mm and 26.5 dB over 1 cm at 3.5 mus sweep duration and 106.6 dB maximum sensitivity at 9.2 mW average power is achieved. The axial resolution in air degrades from 14 to 21 mum over 4 mm imaging depth. The compensation of unbalanced dispersion in the OCT sample arm by an adapted tuning characteristic of the source is demonstrated. Good stability of the system without feedback-control loops is observed over hours.

  6. Experimental and micromagnetic first-order reversal curves analysis in NdFeB-based bulk 'exchange spring'-type permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiriac, Horia [National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics, 47 Mangeron Boulevard, 700050, Iasi (Romania); Lupu, Nicoleta [National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics, 47 Mangeron Boulevard, 700050, Iasi (Romania); Stoleriu, Laurentiu [Al. I. Cuza University, Department of Solid State and Theoretical Physics, Blvd. Carol I, 11, 700506, Iasi (Romania)]. E-mail: lstoler@uaic.ro; Postolache, Petronel [Al. I. Cuza University, Department of Solid State and Theoretical Physics, Blvd. Carol I, 11, 700506, Iasi (Romania); Stancu, Alexandru [Al. I. Cuza University, Department of Solid State and Theoretical Physics, Blvd. Carol I, 11, 700506, Iasi (Romania)

    2007-09-15

    In this paper we present the results of applying the first-order reversal curves (FORC) diagram experimental method to the analysis of the magnetization processes of NdFeB-based permanents magnets. The FORC diagrams for this kind of exchange spring magnets show the existence of two magnetic phases-a soft magnetic phase and a hard magnetic one. Micromagnetic modeling is used for validating the hypotheses regarding the origin of the different features of the experimental FORC diagrams.

  7. Selfish punishment with avoiding mechanism can alleviate both first-order and second-order social dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Pengbi; Wu, Zhi-Xi

    2014-11-21

    Punishment, especially selfish punishment, has recently been identified as a potent promoter in sustaining or even enhancing the cooperation among unrelated individuals. However, without other key mechanisms, the first-order social dilemma and second-order social dilemma are still two enduring conundrums in biology and the social sciences even with the presence of punishment. In the present study, we investigate a spatial evolutionary four-strategy prisoner׳s dilemma game model with avoiding mechanism, where the four strategies are cooperation, defection, altruistic and selfish punishment. By introducing the low level of random mutation of strategies, we demonstrate that the presence of selfish punishment with avoiding mechanism can alleviate the two kinds of social dilemmas for various parametrizations. In addition, we propose an extended pair approximation method, whose solutions can essentially estimate the dynamical behaviors and final evolutionary frequencies of the four strategies. At last, considering the analogy between our model and the classical Lotka-Volterra system, we introduce interaction webs based on the spatial replicator dynamics and the transformed payoff matrix to qualitatively characterize the emergent co-exist strategy phases, and its validity are supported by extensive simulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. First-order correct bootstrap support adjustments for splits that allow hypothesis testing when using maximum likelihood estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Edward

    2010-07-01

    The most frequent measure of phylogenetic uncertainty for splits is bootstrap support. Although large bootstrap support intuitively suggests that a split in a tree is well supported, it has not been clear how large bootstrap support needs to be to conclude that there is significant evidence that a hypothesized split is present. Indeed, recent work has shown that bootstrap support is not first-order correct and thus cannot be directly used for hypothesis testing. We present methods that adjust bootstrap support values in a maximum likelihood (ML) setting so that they have an interpretation corresponding to P values in conventional hypothesis testing; for instance, adjusted bootstrap support larger than 95% occurs only 5% of the time if the split is not present. Through examples and simulation settings, it is found that adjustments always increase the level of support. We also find that the nature of the adjustment is fairly constant across parameter settings. Finally, we consider adjustments that take into account the data-dependent nature of many hypotheses about splits: the hypothesis that they are present is being tested because they are in the tree estimated through ML. Here, in contrast, we find that bootstrap probability often needs to be adjusted downwards.

  9. Simulation of branched serial first-order decay of atrazine and metabolites in adapted and nonadapted soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Richard M.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Jason L. Krutz,; Dale L. Shaner,

    2011-01-01

    In the present study a branched serial first-order decay (BSFOD) model is presented and used to derive transformation rates describing the decay of a common herbicide, atrazine, and its metabolites observed in unsaturated soils adapted to previous atrazine applications and in soils with no history of atrazine applications. Calibration of BSFOD models for soils throughout the country can reduce the uncertainty, relative to that of traditional models, in predicting the fate and transport of pesticides and their metabolites and thus support improved agricultural management schemes for reducing threats to the environment. Results from application of the BSFOD model to better understand the degradation of atrazine supports two previously reported conclusions: atrazine (6-chloro-N-ethyl-N′-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) and its primary metabolites are less persistent in adapted soils than in nonadapted soils; and hydroxyatrazine was the dominant primary metabolite in most of the soils tested. In addition, a method to simulate BSFOD in a one-dimensional solute-transport unsaturated zone model is also presented.

  10. Automated circumferential construction of first-order aqueous humor outflow pathways using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Alex S.; Belghith, Akram; Dastiridou, Anna; Chopra, Vikas; Zangwill, Linda M.; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2017-06-01

    The purpose was to create a three-dimensional (3-D) model of circumferential aqueous humor outflow (AHO) in a living human eye with an automated detection algorithm for Schlemm's canal (SC) and first-order collector channels (CC) applied to spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Anterior segment SD-OCT scans from a subject were acquired circumferentially around the limbus. A Bayesian Ridge method was used to approximate the location of the SC on infrared confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscopic images with a cross multiplication tool developed to initiate SC/CC detection automated through a fuzzy hidden Markov Chain approach. Automatic segmentation of SC and initial CC's was manually confirmed by two masked graders. Outflow pathways detected by the segmentation algorithm were reconstructed into a 3-D representation of AHO. Overall, only <1% of images (5114 total B-scans) were ungradable. Automatic segmentation algorithm performed well with SC detection 98.3% of the time and <0.1% false positive detection compared to expert grader consensus. CC was detected 84.2% of the time with 1.4% false positive detection. 3-D representation of AHO pathways demonstrated variably thicker and thinner SC with some clear CC roots. Circumferential (360 deg), automated, and validated AHO detection of angle structures in the living human eye with reconstruction was possible.

  11. Random balance designs for the estimation of first order global sensitivity indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarantola, S.; Gatelli, D.; Mara, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    We present two methods for the estimation of main effects in global sensitivity analysis. The methods adopt Satterthwaite's application of random balance designs in regression problems, and extend it to sensitivity analysis of model output for non-linear, non-additive models. Finite as well as infinite ranges for model input factors are allowed. The methods are easier to implement than any other method available for global sensitivity analysis, and reduce significantly the computational cost of the analysis. We test their performance on different test cases, including an international benchmark on safety assessment for nuclear waste disposal originally carried out by OECD/NEA

  12. Random balance designs for the estimation of first order global sensitivity indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarantola, S. [Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Institute of the Protection and Security of the Citizen, TP 361, Via E. Fermi 1, 21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)]. E-mail: stefano.tarantola@jrc.it; Gatelli, D. [Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Institute of the Protection and Security of the Citizen, TP 361, Via E. Fermi 1, 21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Mara, T.A. [Laboratory of Industrial engineering, University of Reunion Island, BP 7151, 15 avenue Rene Cassin, 97 715 Saint-Denis (France)

    2006-06-15

    We present two methods for the estimation of main effects in global sensitivity analysis. The methods adopt Satterthwaite's application of random balance designs in regression problems, and extend it to sensitivity analysis of model output for non-linear, non-additive models. Finite as well as infinite ranges for model input factors are allowed. The methods are easier to implement than any other method available for global sensitivity analysis, and reduce significantly the computational cost of the analysis. We test their performance on different test cases, including an international benchmark on safety assessment for nuclear waste disposal originally carried out by OECD/NEA.

  13. Evaluation of Variable Density and Data-Driven K-Space Undersampling for Compressed Sensing Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Frank; Viergever, Max A; Seevinck, Peter R

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of variable density and data-driven k-space undersampling patterns on reconstruction quality for compressed sensing (CS) magnetic resonance imaging to provide recommendations on how to avoid suboptimal CS reconstructions. MATERIALS

  14. Technical innovation in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of musculoskeletal tumors: an MR angiographic sequence using a sparse k-space sampling strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Laura M; Mugera, Charles; Soldatos, Theodoros; Flammang, Aaron; del Grande, Filippo

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate the clinical use of an MR angiography sequence performed with sparse k-space sampling (MRA), as a method for dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI, and apply it to the assessment of sarcomas for treatment response. Three subjects with sarcomas (2 with osteosarcoma, 1 with high-grade soft tissue sarcomas) underwent MRI after neoadjuvant therapy/prior to surgery, with conventional MRI (T1-weighted, fluid-sensitive, static post-contrast T1-weighted sequences) and DCE-MRI (MRA, time resolution = 7-10 s, TR/TE 2.4/0.9 ms, FOV 40 cm(2)). Images were reviewed by two observers in consensus who recorded image quality (1 = diagnostic, no significant artifacts, 2 = diagnostic, 75 % with good response, >75 % with poor response). DCE-MRI findings were concordant with histological response (arterial enhancement with poor response, no arterial enhancement with good response). Unlike conventional DCE-MRI sequences, an MRA sequence with sparse k-space sampling is easily integrated into a routine musculoskeletal tumor MRI protocol, with high diagnostic quality. In this preliminary work, tumor enhancement characteristics by DCE-MRI were used to assess treatment response.

  15. Technical innovation in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of musculoskeletal tumors: an MR angiographic sequence using a sparse k-space sampling strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayad, Laura M.; Mugera, Charles; Grande, Filippo del; Soldatos, Theodoros; Flammang, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the clinical use of an MR angiography sequence performed with sparse k-space sampling (MRA), as a method for dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI, and apply it to the assessment of sarcomas for treatment response. Three subjects with sarcomas (2 with osteosarcoma, 1 with high-grade soft tissue sarcomas) underwent MRI after neoadjuvant therapy/prior to surgery, with conventional MRI (T1-weighted, fluid-sensitive, static post-contrast T1-weighted sequences) and DCE-MRI (MRA, time resolution = 7-10 s, TR/TE 2.4/0.9 ms, FOV 40 cm 2 ). Images were reviewed by two observers in consensus who recorded image quality (1 = diagnostic, no significant artifacts, 2 = diagnostic, 75 % with good response, >75 % with poor response). DCE-MRI findings were concordant with histological response (arterial enhancement with poor response, no arterial enhancement with good response). Unlike conventional DCE-MRI sequences, an MRA sequence with sparse k-space sampling is easily integrated into a routine musculoskeletal tumor MRI protocol, with high diagnostic quality. In this preliminary work, tumor enhancement characteristics by DCE-MRI were used to assess treatment response. (orig.)

  16. Controlling T2 blurring in 3D RARE arterial spin labeling acquisition through optimal combination of variable flip angles and k-space filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Chang, Ching-Di; Alsop, David C

    2018-02-09

    To improve the SNR efficiency and reduce the T 2 blurring of 3D rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement stack-of-spiral arterial spin labeling imaging by using variable refocusing flip angles and k-space filtering. An algorithm for determining the optimal combination of variable flip angles and filtering correction is proposed. The flip angles are designed using extended phase graph physical simulations in an analytical and global optimization framework, with an optional constraint on deposited power. Optimal designs for correcting to Hann and Fermi window functions were compared with conventional constant amplitude or variable flip angle only designs on 6 volunteers. With the Fermi window correction, the proposed optimal designs provided 39.8 and 27.3% higher SNR (P variable flip angle designs. Even when power deposition was limited to 50% of the constant amplitude design, the proposed method outperformed the SNR (P variable flip angles can be derived as the output of an optimization problem. The combined design of variable flip angle and k-space filtering provided superior SNR to designs primarily emphasizing either approach singly. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. Tilt scanning interferometry: a 3D k-space representation for depth-resolved structure and displacement measurement in scattering materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizzi, Gustavo E.; Coupland, Jeremy M.; Ruiz, Pablo D.

    2010-09-01

    Tilt Scanning Interferometry (TSI) has been recently developed as an experimental method to measure multi-component displacement fields inside the volume of semitransparent scattering materials. It can be considered as an extension of speckle interferometry in 3D, in which the illumination angle is tilted to provide depth information, or as an optical diffraction tomography technique with phase detection. It relies on phase measurements to extract the displacement information, as in the usual 2D counterparts. A numerical model to simulate the speckle fields recorded in TSI has been recently developed to enable the study on how the phase and amplitude are affected by factors such as refraction, absorption, scattering, dispersion, stress-optic coupling and spatial variations of the refractive index, all of which may lead to spurious displacements. In order to extract depth-resolved structure and phase information from TSI data, the approach had been to use Fourier Transformation of the intensity modulation signal along the illumination angle axis. However, it turns out that a more complete description of the imaging properties of the system for tomographic optical diffraction can be achieved using a 3D representation of the transfer function in k-space. According to this formalism, TSI is presented as a linear filtering operation. In this paper we describe the transfer function of TSI in 3D k-space, evaluate the 3D point spread function and present simulated results.

  18. Food-resource partitioning among fish species from a first-order stream in northwestern Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jislaine Cristina da Silva

    Full Text Available This study addressed the feeding ecology of fish fauna from a first-order stream located in a rural area. The purposes were to evaluate the influence of interspecific, seasonal and spatial factors on the diet, examine the dietary overlap, and determine the predominant food sources. Sampling was conducted in December 2007, September 2008, and March 2009, in three 50-m stretches of Itiz stream (upstream, intermediate, and downstream, through electrofishing. A total of 1,102 stomach contents were analyzed from 14 species, by the volumetric method. In general, allochthonous resources were predominant in the diets. Astyanax aff. fasciatus, Astyanax aff. paranae, Astyanax bockmanni, and Bryconamericus aff. iheringi consumed a higher proportion of plant remains, and Bryconamericus stramineus consumed predominantly Hymenoptera. The diets of Cetopsorhamdia iheringi, Characidium aff. zebra, Imparfinis schubarti, and Trichomycterus sp. consisted of aquatic insects, especially immature forms of Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Diptera. Hypostomus ancistroides, Hisonotus sp., Poecilia reticulata, and Rineloricaria aff. pentamaculata exploited mainly detritus, while Rhamdia quelen used a variety of items, predominantly terrestrial insects. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA showed a clear distinction among the species, with different morphology and feeding tactics. The Multi-Response Permutation Procedure (MRPP supported this differentiation, and also indicated significant spatial and temporal variations in the dietary composition; the Indicator Value Method (IndVal indicated the main items that contributed to these differences. The diet overlap among species was low (< 0.4 to around 78% of pairs, and the mean value did not vary significantly among the sites or between hydrological periods within each site. According to the null model of Pianka’s index, the values for dietary overlap were significantly higher than expected at random, showing

  19. First order sensitivity analysis of flexible multibody systems using absolute nodal coordinate formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pi Ting; Zhang Yunqing; Chen Liping

    2012-01-01

    Design sensitivity analysis of flexible multibody systems is important in optimizing the performance of mechanical systems. The choice of coordinates to describe the motion of multibody systems has a great influence on the efficiency and accuracy of both the dynamic and sensitivity analysis. In the flexible multibody system dynamics, both the floating frame of reference formulation (FFRF) and absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) are frequently utilized to describe flexibility, however, only the former has been used in design sensitivity analysis. In this article, ANCF, which has been recently developed and focuses on modeling of beams and plates in large deformation problems, is extended into design sensitivity analysis of flexible multibody systems. The Motion equations of a constrained flexible multibody system are expressed as a set of index-3 differential algebraic equations (DAEs), in which the element elastic forces are defined using nonlinear strain-displacement relations. Both the direct differentiation method and adjoint variable method are performed to do sensitivity analysis and the related dynamic and sensitivity equations are integrated with HHT-I3 algorithm. In this paper, a new method to deduce system sensitivity equations is proposed. With this approach, the system sensitivity equations are constructed by assembling the element sensitivity equations with the help of invariant matrices, which results in the advantage that the complex symbolic differentiation of the dynamic equations is avoided when the flexible multibody system model is changed. Besides that, the dynamic and sensitivity equations formed with the proposed method can be efficiently integrated using HHT-I3 method, which makes the efficiency of the direct differentiation method comparable to that of the adjoint variable method when the number of design variables is not extremely large. All these improvements greatly enhance the application value of the direct differentiation

  20. Derivation of the first order transformation matrix for a simple Wien filter and comparison to results of numerical integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, J.V.

    1986-01-01

    One of the elements of the 750-keV polarized H/sup -/ injection transport at LAMPF is a Wien (E x B) filter. The Wien filter is used to process the spin of the polarized H/sup -/ ions to the appropriate orientation needed by the experiments. The proton-spin orientation is changed several times during a production cycle. At each new setting of the Wien filter, the beam is focused differently and the beam transport must be returned for an optimum match into the linac. The transport is tuned interactively using the first-order optics code TRACE. The first-order transformation matrix for a simple Wien filter is developed for use in TRACE and the transformation is compared to results of numerical integration to determine the validity of the first-order approximation.

  1. Simultaneous Determination of Cobalt (II and Nickel (II By First Order Derivative Spectrophotometry in Micellar Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Rohilla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A first-derivative spectrophotometry method for the simultaneous determination of Co (II and Ni (II with Alizarin Red S in presence of Triton X-100 is described. Measurements were made at the zero-crossing wavelengths at 549.0 nm for Co (II and 546.0 nm for Ni (II. The linearity is obtained in the range of 0.291- 4.676 μg/ml of Ni (II and 0.293- 4.124 μg/ml of Co (II in the presence of each other by using first derivative spectrophotometric method. The possible interfering effects of various ions were studied. The validity of the method was examined by using synthetic mixtures of Co (II and Ni (II. The developed derivative procedure, using the zero crossing technique, has been successfully applied for the simultaneous analysis of Co (II and Ni (II in spiked water samples.

  2. Derivation of the first-order transformation matrix for a simple Wien filter and comparison to results of numerical integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, J.W.

    1987-08-15

    The first-order transformation matrix is derived for a simple Wien filter. The Wien filter is approximated by square-edged, homogeneous, transverse E and B fields. The results are compared to results of numerical integration through a Wien filter with and without fringe fields. The derived transformation matrix is presently used in the first-order optics code TRACE to tune the 750 keV polarized proton injection transport at LAMPF. The Wien filter is used to precess the spin of the polarized proton beam.

  3. Derivation of the first-order transformation matrix for a simple Wien filter and comparison to results of numerical integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, James W.

    1987-08-01

    The first-order transformation matrix is derived for a simple Wien filter. The Wien filter is approximated by square-edged homogeneous, transverse E and B fields. The results are compared to results of numerical integration through a Wien filter with and without fringe fields. The derived transformation matrix is presently used in the first-order optics code TRACE to tune the 750 keV polarized proton injection transport at LAMPF. The Wien filter is used to precess the spin of the polarized proton beam.

  4. Errors of first-order probe correction for higher-order probes in spherical near-field antenna measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Tommi; Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund; Pivnenko, Sergiy

    2004-01-01

    An investigation is performed to study the error of the far-field pattern determined from a spherical near-field antenna measurement in the case where a first-order (mu=+-1) probe correction scheme is applied to the near-field signal measured by a higher-order probe.......An investigation is performed to study the error of the far-field pattern determined from a spherical near-field antenna measurement in the case where a first-order (mu=+-1) probe correction scheme is applied to the near-field signal measured by a higher-order probe....

  5. Non-integrability of first order resonances in Hamiltonian systems in three degrees of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Ognyan

    2012-02-01

    The normal forms of the Hamiltonian 1:2: ω resonances to degree three for ω = 1, 3, 4 are studied for integrability. We prove that these systems are non-integrable except for the discrete values of the parameters which are well known. We use the Ziglin-Morales-Ramis method based on the differential Galois theory.

  6. Mean value first order second moment analysis of buckling of axially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Bielewicz and Gorski (2002) developed a simulation method to generate random geometrical imperfections using non- homogeneous two dimensional random fields on regular nets. Schenk and Schueller (2003) in their work, using imperfection databank at Delft University of Technology, generated geometrical imperfection ...

  7. Assessment of ex-vitro anaerobic digestion kinetics of crop residues through first order exponential models: effect of lag phase period and curve factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, A.R.; Brohi, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic studies of AD (Anaerobic Digestion) process are useful to predict the performance of digesters and design appropriate digesters and also helpful in understanding inhibitory mechanisms of biodegradation. The aim of this study was to assess the anaerobic kinetics of crop residues digestion with buffalo dung. Seven crop residues namely, bagasse, banana plant waste, canola straw, cotton stalks, rice straw, sugarcane trash and wheat straw were selected from the field and were analyzed on MC (Moisture Contents), TS (Total Solids) and VS (Volatile Solids) with standard methods. In present study, three first order exponential models namely exponential model, exponential lag phase model and exponential curve factor model were used to assess the kinetics of the AD process of crop residues and the effect of lag phase and curve factor was analyzed based on statistical hypothesis testing and on information theory. Assessment of kinetics of the AD of crop residues and buffalo dung follows the first order kinetics. Out of the three models, the simple exponential model was the poorest model, while the first order exponential curve factor model is the best fit model. In addition to statistical hypothesis testing, the exponential curve factor model has least value of AIC (Akaike's Information Criterion) and can generate methane production data more accurately. Furthermore, there is an inverse linear relationship between the lag phase period and the curve factor. (author)

  8. Using Directional Diffusion Coefficients for Nonlinear Diffusion Acceleration of the First Order SN Equations in Near-Void Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunert, Sebastian; Hammer, Hans; Lou, Jijie; Wang, Yaqi; Ortensi, Javier; Gleicher, Frederick; Baker, Benjamin; DeHart, Mark; Martineau, Richard

    2016-11-01

    The common definition of the diffusion coeffcient as the inverse of three times the transport cross section is not compat- ible with voids. Morel introduced a non-local tensor diffusion coeffcient that remains finite in voids[1]. It can be obtained by solving an auxiliary transport problem without scattering or fission. Larsen and Trahan successfully applied this diffusion coeffcient for enhancing the accuracy of diffusion solutions of very high temperature reactor (VHTR) problems that feature large, optically thin channels in the z-direction [2]. It is demonstrated that a significant reduction of error can be achieved in particular in the optically thin region. Along the same line of thought, non-local diffusion tensors are applied modeling the TREAT reactor confirming the findings of Larsen and Trahan [3]. Previous work of the authors have introduced a flexible Nonlinear-Diffusion Acceleration (NDA) method for the first order S N equations discretized with the discontinuous finite element method (DFEM), [4], [5], [6]. This NDA method uses a scalar diffusion coeffcient in the low-order system that is obtained as the flux weighted average of the inverse transport cross section. Hence, it su?ers from very large and potentially unbounded diffusion coeffcients in the low order problem. However, it was noted that the choice of the diffusion coeffcient does not influence consistency of the method at convergence and hence the di?usion coeffcient is essentially a free parameter. The choice of the di?usion coeffcient does, however, affect the convergence behavior of the nonlinear di?usion iterations. Within this work we use Morel’s non-local di?usion coef- ficient in the aforementioned NDA formulation in lieu of the flux weighted inverse of three times the transport cross section. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that significant en- hancement of the spectral properties of NDA can be achieved in near void regions. For testing the spectral properties of the NDA

  9. Solvent effects on first-order molecular hyperpolarizability: A study based on vibrational observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliani, P.; Del Zoppo, M.; Castiglioni, C.; Zerbi, G.; Marder, S. R.; Perry, J. W.

    1995-12-01

    Using a recently developed method, we show here that solvent effects on the first molecular hyperpolarizabilities of push-pull polyenes can be predicted by evaluation of the relaxation contribution βr to the hyperpolarizability from vibrational infrared and Raman intensities and vibrational frequencies. The molecules studied in this work are a few organic polymethine dyes with different donor and acceptor groups. The analysis of their vibrational spectra confirms the key role played by the structural parameters of the polyene chain in determining the nonlinear optical response.

  10. Training Preschoolers on First-Order False Belief Understanding: Transfer on Advanced ToM Skills and Metamemory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecce, Serena; Bianco, Federica; Demicheli, Patrizia; Cavallini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between theory of mind (ToM) and metamemory knowledge using a training methodology. Sixty-two 4- to 5-year-old children were recruited and randomly assigned to one of two training conditions: A first-order false belief (ToM) and a control condition. Intervention and control groups were equivalent at pretest for…

  11. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 02: First Order Fire Effects Model (FOFEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Sutherland

    2004-01-01

    FOFEM 5.2 is a simple, yet versatile computer program that predicts first order fire effects using text and graphic outputs. It can be used in a variety of situations including: determining acceptable upper and lower fuel moistures for conducting prescribed burns, determining the number of acres that may be burned on a given day without exceeding particulate emission...

  12. Simultaneous first order derivative spectrophotometric determination of vanadium and zirconium in alloy steels and minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Anitha; George, Louis

    2012-09-01

    A simple, selective and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the individual and simultaneous determination of trace amounts of vanadium(V) and zirconium(IV) in acetic acid medium using a newly synthesised reagent diacetylmonoxime salicyloylhydrazone (DMSH), without any prior separation. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the coloured species are 1.30 x 10(4) and 1.82 x 10(4) L mol(-1)cm(-1) and 3.9 and 2.5 ng cm(-2) for V(V) and Zr(IV), respectively. Beer's law is obeyed between 0.26-2.80 and 0.30-3.20 μg mL(-1) concentration of vanadium (V) and zirconium (IV) at 405 and 380 nm respectively. The stoichiometry of the complex was found to be 1:1 (metal:ligand) for V(V) and 1:2 for Zr(IV) complexes. These metal ions interfere with the determination of each other in zero order spectrophotometry. The first derivative spectra of these complexes permitted a simultaneous determination of V(V) and Zr(IV) at zero crossing wavelengths of 445 nm and 405 nm, respectively. The optimum conditions for maximum colour development and other analytical parameters were evaluated. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the determination of zirconium and vanadium in standard alloy steel samples, mineral and soil samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Surface charges for gravity and electromagnetism in the first order formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodden, Ernesto; Hidalgo, Diego

    2018-02-01

    A new derivation of surface charges for 3  +  1 gravity coupled to electromagnetism is obtained. Gravity theory is written in the tetrad-connection variables. The general derivation starts from the Lagrangian, and uses the covariant symplectic formalism in the language of forms. For gauge theories, surface charges disentangle physical from gauge symmetries through the use of Noether identities and the exactness symmetry condition. The surface charges are quasilocal, explicitly coordinate independent, gauge invariant and background independent. For a black hole family solution, the surface charge conservation implies the first law of black hole mechanics. As a check, we show the first law for an electrically charged, rotating black hole with an asymptotically constant curvature (the Kerr–Newman (anti-)de Sitter family). The charges, including the would-be mass term appearing in the first law, are quasilocal. No reference to the asymptotic structure of the spacetime nor the boundary conditions is required and therefore topological terms do not play a rôle. Finally, surface charge formulae for Lovelock gravity coupled to electromagnetism are exhibited, generalizing the one derived in a recent work by Barnich et al Proc. Workshop ‘ About Various Kinds of Interactions’ in honour of Philippe Spindel (4–5 June 2015, Mons, Belgium) C15-06-04 (2016 (arXiv:1611.01777 [gr-qc])). The two different symplectic methods to define surface charges are compared and shown equivalent.

  14. Prediction of the shape of inline wave force and free surface elevation using First Order Reliability Method (FORM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghadirian, Amin; Bredmose, Henrik; Schløer, Signe

    2017-01-01

    In design of substructures for offshore wind turbines, the extreme wave loads which are of interest in Ultimate Limit States are often estimated by choosing extreme events from linear random sea states and replacing them by either stream function wave theory or the NewWave theory of a certain...... as the free surface elevation time series. The discrepancies between the FORM results and the measurements is found to be a result of more nonlinearity in the selected events than second order and negligence of the drag forces above still water level in the present analysis. This paper is one step toward more...... precise prediction of extreme wave shape and loads. Ultimately such waves can be used in the design process of offshore structures. The approach can be generalized to fully nonlinear models....

  15. Modeling and performance analysis of a closed-loop supply chain using first-order hybrid Petri nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imane Outmal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Green or closed-loop supply chain had been the focus of many manufacturers during the last decade. The application of closed-loop supply chain in today’s manufacturing is not only due to growing environmental concerns and the recognition of its benefits in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption, and meeting a more strict environmental regulations but it also offers economic competitive advantages if appropriately managed. First-order hybrid Petri nets represent a powerful graphical and mathematical formalism to map and analyze the dynamics of complex systems such as closed-loop supply chain networks. This article aims at illustrating the use of first-order hybrid Petri nets to model a closed-loop supply chain network and evaluate its operational, financial, and environmental performance measures under different management policies. Actual data from auto manufacturer in the United States are used to validate network’s performance under both tactical and strategic decision-making, namely, (1 tactical decision—production policies: increase of recovered versus new components and (2 strategic decision—closed-loop supply chain network structure: manufacturer internal recovery process or recovery process done by a third-party collection and recovery center. The work presented in this article is an extension of the use of first-order hybrid Petri nets as a modeling and performance analysis tool from supply chain to closed-loop supply chain. The modularity property of first-order hybrid Petri nets has been used in the modeling process, and the simulation and analysis of the modeled network are done in MATLAB® environment. The results of the experiments depict that first-order hybrid Petri nets are a powerful modeling and analysis formalism for closed-loop supply chain networks and can be further used as an efficient decision-making tool at both tactical and strategic levels. Unlike other researches on modeling supply chain

  16. Nonlinear vibration of thick FGM plates on elastic foundation subjected to thermal and mechanical loads using the first-order shear deformation plate theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Dinh Duc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical approach to investigate the nonlinear dynamic response and vibration of thick functionally graded material (FGM plates using both of the first-order shear deformation plate theory and stress function with full motion equations (not using Volmir’s assumptions. The FGM plate is assumed to rest on elastic foundation and subjected to mechanical, thermal, and damping loads. Numerical results for dynamic response of the FGM plate are obtained by Runge–Kutta method. The results show the material properties, the elastic foundations, mechanical and thermal loads on the nonlinear dynamic response of functionally graded plates.

  17. FIFI 3: A digital computer code for the solution of sets of first order differential equations and the analysis of process plant dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumner, H.M.

    1965-11-01

    FIFI 3 is a FORTRAN Code embodying a technique for the analysis of process plant dynamics. As such, it is essentially a tool for the integration of sets of first order ordinary differential equations, either linear or non-linear; special provision is made for the inclusion of time-delayed variables in the mathematical model of the plant. The method of integration is new and is centred on a stable multistep predictor-corrector algorithm devised by the late Mr. F.G. Chapman, of the UKAEA, Winfrith. The theory on which the Code is based and detailed rules for using it are described in Parts I and II respectively. (author)

  18. Simulation of the experimental thermal cleaning procedure in LiF:Mg,Ti and investigation of the origin of the first-order kinetics of its peaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, Mokhtar; Kadri, Dahane; Mokeddem, Abdelmalek

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the simulation of the thermal cleaning procedure in LiF:Mg,Ti as well as the investigation of the origin of its glow-peaks have been performed by six electron trapping levels and one recombination center phenomenological model. The most generally accepted parameter of the glow-peaks 1 to 5 of LiF:Mg,Ti is their first-order kinetics; this was particularly investigated by the use of the random variation of the kinetic parameters method.

  19. Light- and electric-field-induced first-order orientation transitions in a dendrimer-doped nematic liquid crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayan, E A; Budagovsky, I A; Shvetsov, S A; Smayev, M P; Zolot'ko, A S; Boiko, N I; Barnik, M I

    2010-12-01

    Interaction of light and ac electric fields with a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) doped with nanosized second-generation carbosilane codendrimers containing terminal azobenzene fragments has been studied. A first-order Freedericksz transition in the linearly polarized light, accompanied by an intrinsic bistability in a wide region, was observed. An additional ac electric field decreases the light-induced Freedericksz transition threshold and narrows the bistability region. Light illumination transforms the second-order electric-field-induced Freedericksz transition to a first-order one. The width of the bistability region increases with the light wave intensity. The theory of the interaction of light and ac electric fields with the dendrimer-doped NLCs is developed taking into account an additional (with respect to the undoped nematic host) dependence of the optical torque on the angle between the director and the light field.

  20. Impact of instrumental response on observed ozonesonde profiles: First-order estimates and implications for measures of variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, G. T.; Merrill, J. T.; Johnson, B. J.; Oltmans, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    Ozonesondes provide information on the ozone distribution up to the middle stratosphere. Ozone profiles often feature layers, with vertically discrete maxima and minima in the mixing ratio. Layers are especially common in the UT/LS regions and originate from wave breaking, shearing and other transport processes. ECC sondes, however, have a moderate response time to significant changes in ozone. A sonde can ascend over 350 meters before it responds fully to a step change in ozone. This results in an overestimate of the altitude assigned to layers and an underestimate of the underlying variability in the amount of ozone. An estimate of the response time is made for each instrument during the preparation for flight, but the profile data are typically not processed to account for the response. Here we present a method of categorizing the response time of ECC instruments and an analysis of a low-pass filter approximation to the effects on profile data. Exponential functions were fit to the step-up and step-down responses using laboratory data. The resulting response time estimates were consistent with results from standard procedures, with the up-step response time exceeding the down-step value somewhat. A single-pole Butterworth filter that approximates the instrumental effect was used with synthetic layered profiles to make first-order estimates of the impact of the finite response time. Using a layer analysis program previously applied to observed profiles we find that instrumental effects can attenuate ozone variability by 20-45% in individual layers, but that the vertical offset in layer altitudes is moderate, up to about 150 meters. We will present results obtained using this approach, coupled with data on the distribution of layer characteristics found using the layer analysis procedure on profiles from Narragansett, Rhode Island and other US sites to quantify the impact on overall variability estimates given ambient distributions of layer occurrence, thickness

  1. Application of a simple first-order, non-linear rainfall-runoff model in watersheds of varying permafrost coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, W. Robert; Hinzman, Larry

    2010-05-01

    coverage. As the storage capacity changes throughout the summer period, a simple, first-order, non-linear differential equation describing the storage-discharge relationship is developed for each month of the summer thaw period (typically June - September). These monthly relationships are then combined to form a single storage-discharge relationship that changes smoothly throughout the summer period. By allowing the storage-discharge relationship to vary with time, the changes in runoff due to changes in the active layer development are represented. Storage-discharge relationships and results of stream flow simulations will be presented for headwater basins of varying permafrost coverage and size in both the zones of continuous and discontinuous permafrost.

  2. DVCCs Based High Input Impedance Voltage-Mode First-Order Filters Employing Grounded Capacitor and Resistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Horng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A voltage-mode high input impedance first-order highpass, lowpass and allpass filters using two differential voltage current conveyors (DVCCs, one grounded capacitor and one grounded resistor is presented. The highpass, lowpass and allpass signals can be obtained simultaneously from the circuit configuration. The suggested filter uses a canonical number of passive components without requiring any component matching condition. The simulation results confirm the theoretical analysis.

  3. Hochstadt-Lieberman Type Theorem for a Non-Symmetric System of First-Order Ordinary Differential Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trooshin, Igor; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2003-04-01

    We consider an eigenvalue problem for a nonsymmetric first order differential operator Au( x ; ) = ( {matrix { 0 & 1 ŗ1 & 0 ŗ} } ; ){{du} / {dx}}( x ; ) + Q( x ; )u( x ; ), 0 < x < 1 , where Q is a 2 × 2 matrix whose components are of C1 class on [0, 1]. Assuming that Q(x) is known in the half interval of (0, 1), we prove the uniqueness in an inverse eigenvalue problem of determining Q(x) from the spectra.

  4. Interplay of order and chaos across a first-order quantum shape-phase transition in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.; Macek, M.

    2012-01-01

    We study the nature of the dynamics in a first-order quantum phase transition between spherical and prolate-deformed nuclear shapes. Classical and quantum analyses reveal a change in the system from a chaotic Hénon-Heiles behavior on the spherical side into a pronounced regular dynamics on the deformed side. Both order and chaos persist in the coexistence region and their interplay reflects the Landau potential landscape and the impact of collective rotations.

  5. Interplay of order and chaos across a first-order quantum shape-phase transition in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leviatan, A.; Macek, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2012-10-20

    We study the nature of the dynamics in a first-order quantum phase transition between spherical and prolate-deformed nuclear shapes. Classical and quantum analyses reveal a change in the system from a chaotic Henon-Heiles behavior on the spherical side into a pronounced regular dynamics on the deformed side. Both order and chaos persist in the coexistence region and their interplay reflects the Landau potential landscape and the impact of collective rotations.

  6. Vibrational spectra, molecular structure, NBO, UV, NMR, first order hyperpolarizability, analysis of 4-Methoxy-4'-Nitrobiphenyl by density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarasu, K; Kavitha, E

    2014-03-25

    In this study, geometrical optimization, spectroscopic analysis, electronic structure and nuclear magnetic resonance studies of 4-Methoxy-4'-Nitrobiphenyl (abbreviated as 4M4'NBPL) were investigated by utilizing HF and DFT/B3LYP with 6-31G(d,p) as basis set. The equilibrium geometry, vibrational wavenumbers and the first order hyperpolarizability of the 4M4'NBPL have been calculated with the help of density functional theory computations. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra were recorded in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) and 3500-50 cm(-1) respectively. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis is also used to explain the molecular stability. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of the title compound dissolved in chloroform were recorded in the range of 200-800 cm(-1). The HOMO-LUMO energy gap explains the charge interaction taking place within the molecule. Good correlation between the experimental (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts in chloroform solution and calculated GIAO shielding tensors were found. The dipole moment, linear polarizability and first order hyperpolarizability values were also computed. The linear polarizability and first order hyperpolarizability of the studied molecule indicate that the compound is a good candidate of nonlinear optical materials. The chemical reactivity and thermodynamic properties of 4M4'NBPL at different temperature are calculated. In addition, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), frontier molecular orbitals (FMO) analysis were investigated using theoretical calculations. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Use of Dirac Coulomb Sturmians of the first order for relativistic calculations of two-photon bound bound transition amplitudes in hydrogen-like ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetchou Nganso, H. M.; Njock, M. G. Kwato

    2007-03-01

    A fully relativistic treatment of the S-matrix elements describing two-photon bound-bound transition amplitudes in hydrogen-like ions is undertaken in the present work. Several selected transitions from the ground state |12Srang towards the L and M shells (|22Srang, |32Srang, |32D3/2rang and |32D5/2rang) are described. For that purpose, we use the complete set of relativistic Sturmian functions derived by Szmytkowski (1997 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30 825) from the first-order Sturm-Liouville problems for the Dirac equation. The method followed consists of writing the matrix elements in terms of Green functions expanded over the first-order Dirac-Coulomb Sturmians. Previous approaches used a Sturmian basis associated with the Gell-Mann-Feynman equation. On the other hand, a distinctive feature of our tensor treatment is that the expressions derived are quite general and could be applied to any multipole of the two-photon bound-bound transitions. In the case of dipole transitions, considered also by Szymanowski et al (1997 Phys. Rev. A 56 700) in their calculations, the selection rules derived from our method lead to two additional terms related to l1p = 2 and l2p = 2. The numerical results obtained for the transition from the ground state |12Srang towards the L and M shells enable us to draw inferences as to the improvements of our method.

  8. Improved abdominal MRI in non-breath-holding children using a radial k-space sampling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Hyuk; Choi, Young Hun; Cheon, Jung Eun; Lee, So Mi; Cho, Hyun Hae; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In One [Seoul National University Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Su Mi [SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Radial k-space sampling techniques have been shown to reduce motion artifacts in adult abdominal MRI. To compare a T2-weighted radial k-space sampling MRI pulse sequence (BLADE) with standard respiratory-triggered T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) in pediatric abdominal imaging. Axial BLADE and respiratory-triggered turbo spin echo sequences were performed without fat suppression in 32 abdominal MR examinations in children. We retrospectively assessed overall image quality, the presence of respiratory, peristaltic and radial artifact, and lesion conspicuity. We evaluated signal uniformity of each sequence. BLADE showed improved overall image quality (3.35 ± 0.85 vs. 2.59 ± 0.59, P < 0.001), reduced respiratory motion artifact (0.51 ± 0.56 vs. 1.89 ± 0.68, P < 0.001), and improved lesion conspicuity (3.54 ± 0.88 vs. 2.92 ± 0.77, P = 0.006) compared to respiratory triggering turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequences. The bowel motion artifact scores were similar for both sequences (1.65 ± 0.77 vs. 1.79 ± 0.74, P = 0.691). BLADE introduced a radial artifact that was not observed on the respiratory triggering-TSE images (1.10 ± 0.85 vs. 0, P < 0.001). BLADE was associated with diminished signal variation compared with respiratory triggering-TSE in the liver, spleen and air (P < 0.001). The radial k-space sampling technique improved the quality and reduced respiratory motion artifacts in young children compared with conventional respiratory-triggered turbo spin-echo sequences. (orig.)

  9. Transient modeling of non-Fickian transport and first-order reaction using continuous time random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnell, Daniel K.; Hansen, Scott K.; Xu, Jie

    2017-09-01

    Contaminants in groundwater may experience a broad spectrum of velocities and multiple rates of mass transfer between mobile and immobile zones during transport. These conditions may lead to non-Fickian plume evolution which is not well described by the advection-dispersion equation (ADE). Simultaneously, many groundwater contaminants are degraded by processes that may be modeled as first-order decay. It is now known that non-Fickian transport and reaction are intimately coupled, with reaction affecting the transport operator. However, closed-form solutions for these important scenarios have not been published for use in applications. In this paper, we present four new Green's function analytic solutions in the uncoupled, uncorrelated continuous time random walk (CTRW) framework for reactive non-Fickian transport, corresponding to the quartet of conservative tracer solutions presented by Kreft and Zuber (1978) for Fickian transport. These consider pulse injection for both resident and flux concentration combined with detection in both resident and flux concentration. A pair of solutions for resident concentration temporal pulses with detection in both flux and resident concentration is also presented. We also derive the relationship between flux and resident concentration for non-Fickian transport with first-order reaction for this CTRW formulation. An explicit discussion of employment of the new solutions to model transport with arbitrary upgradient boundary conditions as well as mobile-immobile mass transfer is then presented. Using the new solutions, we show that first-order reaction has no effect on the anomalous spatial spreading rate of concentration profiles, but produces breakthrough curves at fixed locations that appear to have been generated by Fickian transport. Under the assumption of a Pareto CTRW transition distribution, we present a variety of numerical simulations including results showing coherence of our analytic solutions and CTRW particle

  10. Enhancement of elliptic flow can signal a first-order phase transition in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Yasushi; Niemi, Harri; Ohnishi, Akira; Steinheimer, Jan; Luo, Xiaofeng; Stöcker, Horst

    2018-02-01

    The beam energy dependence of the elliptic flow, v2, is studied in mid-central Au+Au collisions in the energy range of 3≤ √{s_{NN}} ≤ 30 GeV within the microscopic transport model JAM. The results of three different modes of JAM are compared; cascade-, hadronic mean field-, and a new mode with modified equations of state, with a first-order phase transition and with a crossover transition. The standard hadronic mean field suppresses the elliptic flow v2, while the inclusion of the effects of a first-order phase transition (and also of a crossover transition) does enhance the elliptic flow at √{s_{NN}} , is understood as being due to out-of-plane flow, py > px, i.e. v2 py, in the expansion stage, v2 > 0. The directed flow, v1(y) = , dubbed "bounce-off", is an independent measure of the pressure, which quickly builds up the transverse momentum transfer in the reaction plane. When the spectator matter leaves the participant fireball region, where the highest compression occurs, a hard expansion leads to larger v2. A combined analysis of the three transverse flow coefficients, radial v0 ˜ v_{\\perp}-, directed v1- and elliptic v2- flow of nucleons, in the beam energy range 3≤√{s_{NN}} ≤ 10 GeV, distinguishes the different compression and expansion scenarios: a characteristic dependence on the early stage equation of state is observed. The enhancement of both the elliptic and the transverse radial flow and the simultaneous collapse of the directed flow of nucleons offers a clear signature if a first-order phase transition is realized at the highest baryon densities created in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

  11. Gravitational waves from the first order electroweak phase transition in the Z3 symmetric singlet scalar model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Toshinori

    2018-01-01

    Among various scenarios of baryon asymmetry of the Universe, electroweak baryogenesis is directly connected with physics of the Higgs sector. We discuss spectra of gravitational waves which are originated by the strongly first order phase transition at the electroweak symmetry breaking, which is required for a successful scenario of electroweak baryogenesis. In the Z3 symmetric singlet scalar model, the significant gravitational waves are caused by the multi-step phase transition. We show that the model can be tested by measuring the characteristic spectra of the gravitational waves at future interferometers such as LISA and DECIGO.

  12. Applications of first order matricial theory to the calculation of storage ring designed for producing synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A review of first order matrix theory (linear approximation) used for calculating component elements of a particle accelerator employing the synchrotron principle of alternated gradient, is presented. Based on this theory, criteria for dimensioning synchrotron designed, exclusively for producing electromagnetic radiation, are established. The problem to find out optimum disposition of elements (straight line sections, quadrupolar magnetic lens, etc.) which take advantages of deflector magnets of the DCI synchrotron (Orsay Linear Accelerator Laboratory, French) aiming to construct a synchrotron designed to operate as electromagnetic radiation source, is solved. (M.C.K.) [pt

  13. A Complete First-Order Analytical Solution for Optimal Low-Thrust Limited-Power Transfers Between Coplanar Orbits with Small Eccentricities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva Fernandes, Sandro; Das Chagas Carvalho, Francisco; Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho

    The purpose of this work is to present a complete first order analytical solution, which includes short periodic terms, for the problem of optimal low-thrust limited power trajectories with large amplitude transfers (no rendezvous) between coplanar orbits with small eccentricities in Newtonian central gravity field. The study of these transfers is particularly interesting because the orbits found in practice often have a small eccentricity and the problem of transferring a vehicle from a low earth orbit to a high earth orbit is frequently found. Besides, the analysis has been motivated by the renewed interest in the use of low-thrust propulsion systems in space missions verified in the last two decades. Several researchers have obtained numerical and sometimes analytical solutions for a number of specific initial orbits and specific thrust profiles. Averaging methods are also used in such researches. Firstly, the optimization problem associated to the space transfer problem is formulated as a Mayer problem of optimal control with Cartesian elements - position and velocity vectors - as state variables. After applying the Pontryagin Maximum Principle, successive Mathieu transformations are performed and suitable sets of orbital elements are introduced. The short periodic terms are eliminated from the maximum Hamiltonian function through an infinitesimal canonical transformation built through Hori method - a perturbation canonical method based on Lie series. The new Hamiltonian function, which results from the infinitesimal canonical transformation, describes the extremal trajectories for long duration maneuvers. Closed-form analytical solutions are obtained for the new canonical system by solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation through the separation of variables technique. By applying the transformation equations of the algorithm of Hori method, a first order analytical solution for the problem is obtained in non-singular orbital elements. For long duration maneuvers

  14. Gravitational waves and Higgs boson couplings for exploring first order phase transition in the model with a singlet scalar field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashino, Katsuya, E-mail: hashino@jodo.sci.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Kakizaki, Mitsuru, E-mail: kakizaki@sci.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Kanemura, Shinya, E-mail: kanemu@sci.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Ko, Pyungwon, E-mail: pko@kias.re.kr [School of Physics, KIAS, Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of); Matsui, Toshinori, E-mail: matsui@kias.re.kr [School of Physics, KIAS, Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-10

    We calculate the spectrum of gravitational waves originated from strongly first order electroweak phase transition in the extended Higgs model with a real singlet scalar field. In order to calculate the bubble nucleation rate, we perform a two-field analysis and evaluate bounce solutions connecting the true and the false vacua using the one-loop effective potential at finite temperatures. Imposing the Sakharov condition of the departure from thermal equilibrium for baryogenesis, we survey allowed regions of parameters of the model. We then investigate the gravitational waves produced at electroweak bubble collisions in the early Universe, such as the sound wave, the bubble wall collision and the plasma turbulence. We find that the strength at the peak frequency can be large enough to be detected at future space-based gravitational interferometers such as eLISA, DECIGO and BBO. Predicted deviations in the various Higgs boson couplings are also evaluated at the zero temperature, and are shown to be large enough too. Therefore, in this model strongly first order electroweak phase transition can be tested by the combination of the precision study of various Higgs boson couplings at the LHC, the measurement of the triple Higgs boson coupling at future lepton colliders and the shape of the spectrum of gravitational wave detectable at future gravitational interferometers.

  15. Quantification of the first-order high-pass filter's influence on the automatic measurements of the electrocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Jonas; Leber, Remo; Schmid, Ramun; Schmid, Hans-Jakob; Generali, Gianluca; Abächerli, Roger

    2017-02-01

    The first-order high-pass filter (AC coupling) has previously been shown to affect the ECG for higher cut-off frequencies. We seek to find a systematic deviation in computer measurements of the electrocardiogram when the AC coupling with a 0.05 Hz first-order high-pass filter is used. The standard 12-lead electrocardiogram from 1248 patients and the automated measurements of their DC and AC coupled version were used. We expect a large unipolar QRS-complex to produce a deviation in the opposite direction in the ST-segment. We found a strong correlation between the QRS integral and the offset throughout the ST-segment. The coefficient for J amplitude deviation was found to be -0.277 µV/(µV⋅s). Potential dangerous alterations to the diagnostically important ST-segment were found. Medical professionals and software developers for electrocardiogram interpretation programs should be aware of such high-pass filter effects since they could be misinterpreted as pathophysiology or some pathophysiology could be masked by these effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hillslopes to hollows to first order channels: identification of transitions and characteristics of process domains in headwater catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K.; Locke, W. W.

    2009-12-01

    Where hillslopes end and hollows and first order channels begin continues to be a relevant question for landscape evolution and development of channel networks. In this work, we test a technique using LIDAR-derived topographic indices to define the transition from hillslopes to unchannelized (zero order) hollows, and from hollows to first order channels in four small (self-organization. Analytically-derived thresholds were verified against field mapping of channel heads and hollows. Results show that the power law portions of the frequency-magnitude relationships were successfully used to locate domain transitions. The transition zones of hillslope to hollow and hollow to channel were identified, for continuous and discontinuous headwater channels of 0.5 to 1 meter in width. Incisive flow alternates downstream with diffusive flow resulting in a discontinuous headwater channel network. The degree of network evolution and self organization of the networks was also evaluated using frequency-magnitude relationships of the topographic indices and total energy dissipation of each catchment. The southwest Montana catchments exhibited more advanced landscape evolution based upon the extent of self organization and optimality, as evidenced by minimum total catchment energy dissipation. The network development of the central Montana catchments appears constrained by debris flow lag deposit in portions of the catchment.

  17. Gravitational waves and Higgs boson couplings for exploring first order phase transition in the model with a singlet scalar field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Hashino

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We calculate the spectrum of gravitational waves originated from strongly first order electroweak phase transition in the extended Higgs model with a real singlet scalar field. In order to calculate the bubble nucleation rate, we perform a two-field analysis and evaluate bounce solutions connecting the true and the false vacua using the one-loop effective potential at finite temperatures. Imposing the Sakharov condition of the departure from thermal equilibrium for baryogenesis, we survey allowed regions of parameters of the model. We then investigate the gravitational waves produced at electroweak bubble collisions in the early Universe, such as the sound wave, the bubble wall collision and the plasma turbulence. We find that the strength at the peak frequency can be large enough to be detected at future space-based gravitational interferometers such as eLISA, DECIGO and BBO. Predicted deviations in the various Higgs boson couplings are also evaluated at the zero temperature, and are shown to be large enough too. Therefore, in this model strongly first order electroweak phase transition can be tested by the combination of the precision study of various Higgs boson couplings at the LHC, the measurement of the triple Higgs boson coupling at future lepton colliders and the shape of the spectrum of gravitational wave detectable at future gravitational interferometers.

  18. Adaptive Energy-based Bilinear Control of First-Order 1-D Hyperbolic PDEs: Application to a One-Loop Parabolic Solar Collector Trough

    KAUST Repository

    Mechhoud, Sarra

    2017-12-14

    In this paper, the adaptive bilinear control of a first-order 1-D hyperbolic partial differential equation (PDE) with an unknown time-varying source term is investigated where only boundary measurements are available. By means of boundary injection, the bilinear adaptive law is developed in the Lyapunov approach. It consists of a state observer and an input adaptation law combined with a bilinear control method derived using an energy-like principle. Both global asymptotic practical convergence of the tracking error and input-to-state stability of the system are guaranteed. A potential application of this control strategy is the one-loop solar collector parabolic trough where the solar irradiance is the unknown input (source term) and the flow rate is the control variable. The objective is to drive the boundary temperature at the outlet to track a desired profile. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed method.

  19. Comprehensive quantification of signal-to-noise ratio and g-factor for image-based and k-space-based parallel imaging reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Philip M; Grant, Aaron K; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J; Lattanzi, Riccardo; Sodickson, Daniel K; McKenzie, Charles A

    2008-10-01

    Parallel imaging reconstructions result in spatially varying noise amplification characterized by the g-factor, precluding conventional measurements of noise from the final image. A simple Monte Carlo based method is proposed for all linear image reconstruction algorithms, which allows measurement of signal-to-noise ratio and g-factor and is demonstrated for SENSE and GRAPPA reconstructions for accelerated acquisitions that have not previously been amenable to such assessment. Only a simple "prescan" measurement of noise amplitude and correlation in the phased-array receiver, and a single accelerated image acquisition are required, allowing robust assessment of signal-to-noise ratio and g-factor. The "pseudo multiple replica" method has been rigorously validated in phantoms and in vivo, showing excellent agreement with true multiple replica and analytical methods. This method is universally applicable to the parallel imaging reconstruction techniques used in clinical applications and will allow pixel-by-pixel image noise measurements for all parallel imaging strategies, allowing quantitative comparison between arbitrary k-space trajectories, image reconstruction, or noise conditioning techniques. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. High order ADER schemes for a unified first order hyperbolic formulation of Newtonian continuum mechanics coupled with electro-dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbser, Michael; Peshkov, Ilya; Romenski, Evgeniy; Zanotti, Olindo

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a new unified first order hyperbolic model of Newtonian continuum mechanics coupled with electro-dynamics. The model is able to describe the behavior of moving elasto-plastic dielectric solids as well as viscous and inviscid fluids in the presence of electro-magnetic fields. It is actually a very peculiar feature of the proposed PDE system that viscous fluids are treated just as a special case of elasto-plastic solids. This is achieved by introducing a strain relaxation mechanism in the evolution equations of the distortion matrix A, which in the case of purely elastic solids maps the current configuration to the reference configuration. The model also contains a hyperbolic formulation of heat conduction as well as a dissipative source term in the evolution equations for the electric field given by Ohm's law. Via formal asymptotic analysis we show that in the stiff limit, the governing first order hyperbolic PDE system with relaxation source terms tends asymptotically to the well-known viscous and resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations. Furthermore, a rigorous derivation of the model from variational principles is presented, together with the transformation of the Euler-Lagrange differential equations associated with the underlying variational problem from Lagrangian coordinates to Eulerian coordinates in a fixed laboratory frame. The present paper hence extends the unified first order hyperbolic model of Newtonian continuum mechanics recently proposed in [110,42] to the more general case where the continuum is coupled with electro-magnetic fields. The governing PDE system is symmetric hyperbolic and satisfies the first and second principle of thermodynamics, hence it belongs to the so-called class of symmetric hyperbolic thermodynamically compatible systems (SHTC), which have been studied for the first time by Godunov in 1961 [61] and later in a series of papers by Godunov and Romenski [67,69,119]. An important feature of the

  1. Reduction of respiratory ghosting motion artifacts in conventional two-dimensional multi-slice Cartesian turbo spin-echo: which k-space filling order is the best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuuji; Yoneyama, Masami; Nakamura, Masanobu; Takemura, Atsushi

    2018-03-07

    The two-dimensional Cartesian turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence is widely used in routine clinical studies, but it is sensitive to respiratory motion. We investigated the k-space orders in Cartesian TSE that can effectively reduce motion artifacts. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between k-space order and degree of motion artifacts using a moving phantom. We compared the degree of motion artifacts between linear and asymmetric k-space orders. The actual spacing of ghost artifacts in the asymmetric order was doubled compared with that in the linear order in the free-breathing situation. The asymmetric order clearly showed less sensitivity to incomplete breath-hold at the latter half of the imaging period. Because of the actual number of partitions of the k-space and the temporal filling order, the asymmetric k-space order of Cartesian TSE was superior to the linear k-space order for reduction of ghosting motion artifacts.

  2. Properties of the set of admissible 'state-control' pairs for first-order evolution control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstonogov, A A

    2001-01-01

    We consider a control system described by a non-linear first-order evolution equation on an evolution triple of Banach spaces (a 'Gelfand triple') with a mixed multivalued control constraint whose values are non-convex closed sets in the control space. Besides the original system, we consider systems with the following control constraints: the constraint whose values are the closed convex hulls of the values of the original constraint, and the constraint whose values are the extreme points of the convexified constraint that belong to the original one. We study topological properties of the sets of admissible 'state-control' pairs for the same system with various constraints and consider the relations between them. An example of a non-linear parabolic control system is worked out in detail

  3. First-order symmetries of the Dirac equation in a curved background: a unified dynamical symmetry condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acik, Oe; Ertem, Ue; Vercin, A; Oender, M

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown that, for all dimensions and signatures, the most general first-order linear symmetry operators for the Dirac equation including interaction with Maxwell field in a curved background are given in terms of Killing-Yano (KY) forms. As a general gauge invariant condition it is found that among all KY forms of the underlying (pseudo) Riemannian manifold, only those which Clifford commute with the Maxwell field take part in the symmetry operator. It is also proved that associated with each KY form taking part in the symmetry operator, one can define a quadratic function of velocities which is a geodesic invariant as well as a constant of motion for the classical trajectory. Some geometrical and physical implications of the existence of KY forms are also elucidated.

  4. Single DV-DXCCII Based Voltage Controlled First Order All-pass Filter with Inverting and Non-inverting responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Chaturvedi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new voltage controlled first order all-pass filter is presented. The proposed circuit employs a single differential voltage dual-X second generation current conveyor (DV-DXCCII and a grounded capacitor only. The proposed all-pass filter provides both inverting and non inverting voltage-mode outputs from the same configuration simultaneously without any matching condition. Non-ideal analysis along with sensitivity analysis is also investigated. The proposed circuit has low active and passive sensitivities. As an application the proposed all-pass filter is connected in cascade to get higher order filter. The theoretical results are validated thorough PSPICE simulations using TSMC 0.18µm CMOS process parameters.

  5. Thermodynamics of the Heat-Flux Avalanches at the First-Order Magnetic Transition in Magnetocaloric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzi, Marco; Bennati, Cecilia; Basso, Vittorio

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the kinetics of first-order magnetic phase transitions by measuring and modeling the heat-flux avalanches corresponding to the irreversible motion of the phase-boundary interface separating the coexisting low- and high-temperature stable magnetic phases. By means of out-of-equilibrium thermodynamics, we encompass the damping mechanisms of the boundary motion in a phenomenological parameter αs. By analyzing the time behavior of the heat-flux signals measured on La (Fe -Mn -Si )13-H magnetocaloric compounds through Peltier calorimetry temperature scans performed at low rates, we relate the linear rise of the individual avalanches to the intrinsic-damping parameter αs.

  6. Investigating the Effects of the 0.05 Hz First-order High-pass Filter on the Electrocardiogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksen, Jonas; Leber, Remo; Schmid, Ramun

    2016-01-01

    Background: A thorough review is needed for the first-order 0.05 Hz high-pass filter, which was introduced almost fifty years ago before modern techniques were available. We quantify the effectiveness of inverse filtering and assess the changes that the filter imposes on the electrocardiogram (ECG...... ECGs were reconstructed with an RMS error of less than 0.5 μV and a maximum error of ±1 μV (set 1). A clear correlation was found between QRS integral and deviations to the ST-segment (set 2, see Table 1). Any T-wave deviations were poorly described by QRS integral. No correlation was found between QRS...

  7. Melting scenario of the two-dimensional core-softened system: first-order or continuous transition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudalov, D E; Fomin, Yu D; Tsiok, E N; Ryzhov, V N

    2014-01-01

    We present a computer simulation study of the phase behavior of two-dimensional classical particles repelling each other through an isotropic core-softened potential. As in the analogous three dimensional case, a reentrant-melting transition occurs upon compression for not too high pressures. However, in two dimensions in the low density part of the phase diagram melting is a continuous two-stage transition, with an intermediate hexatic phase. All available evidence supports the Kosterlitz-Thouless-Halperin-Nelson-Young (KTHNY) scenario for this melting transition. On the other hand, at high density part of the phase diagram one first-order transition takes place. We expect that such a phenomenology can be checked in confined monolayers of charge-stabilized colloids with a softened core and water confined between two hydrophobic plates.

  8. First-order phase transitions in CaFe2As2 single crystal: a local probe study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzamora, M; Munevar, J; Baggio-Saitovitch, E; Bud'ko, S L; Ni Ni; Canfield, P C; Sanchez, D R

    2011-01-01

    57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy has been used to investigate the structural and magnetic phase transitions of CaFe 2 As 2 (T N = 173 K) single crystals. For this compound we found that V ZZ is positive and parallel to the c-axis of the tetragonal structure. For CaFe 2 As 2 a magnetic hyperfine field B hf was observed at the 57 Fe nucleus below T N ∼ 173 K. Analysis of the temperature dependence of B hf data using the Bean-Rodbell model shows that the Fe spins undergo a first-order magnetic transition at ∼ 173 K. A collinear antiferromagnetic structure is established below this temperature with the Fe spin lying in the (a, b) plane. Below T N the paramagnetic fraction of Fe decreases down to 150 K and for lower temperatures all the Fe spins are magnetically ordered.

  9. Food-resource partitioning among fish species from a first-order stream in northwestern Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jislaine Cristina da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed the feeding ecology of fish fauna from a first-order stream located in a rural area. The purposes were to evaluate the influence of interspecific, seasonal and spatial factors on the diet, examine the dietary overlap, and determine the predominant food sources. Sampling was conducted in December 2007, September 2008, and March 2009, in three 50-m stretches of Itiz stream (upstream, intermediate, and downstream, through electrofishing. A total of 1,102 stomach contents were analyzed from 14 species, by the volumetric method. In general, allochthonous resources were predominant in the diets. Astyanax aff. fasciatus, Astyanax aff. paranae, Astyanax bockmanni, and Bryconamericus aff. iheringi consumed a higher proportion of plant remains, and Bryconamericus stramineus consumed predominantly Hymenoptera. The diets of Cetopsorhamdia iheringi, Characidium aff. zebra, Imparfinis schubarti, and Trichomycterus sp. consisted of aquatic insects, especially immature forms of Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Diptera. Hypostomus ancistroides, Hisonotus sp., Poecilia reticulata, and Rineloricaria aff. pentamaculata exploited mainly detritus, while Rhamdia quelen used a variety of items, predominantly terrestrial insects. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA showed a clear distinction among the species, with different morphology and feeding tactics. The Multi-Response Permutation Procedure (MRPP supported this differentiation, and also indicated significant spatial and temporal variations in the dietary composition; the Indicator Value Method (IndVal indicated the main items that contributed to these differences. The diet overlap among species was low (Este estudo abordou a ecologia alimentar da ictiofauna de um riacho de primeira ordem situado em área rural. Os objetivos foram verificar a influência dos fatores interespecíficos, sazonais e espaciais sobre a dieta, avaliar a sobreposição alimentar, além de determinar os

  10. Singularities in K-space and multi-brane solutions in cubic string field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Hiroyuki; Kojita, Toshiko

    2013-02-01

    In a previous paper [arXiv:1111.2389], we studied the multi-brane solutions in cubic string field theory by focusing on the topological nature of the "winding number" {N} which counts the number of branes. We found that {N} can be non-trivial owing to the singularity from the zero-eigenvalue of K of the KBc algebra, and that solutions carrying integer {N} and satisfying the EOM in the strong sense is possible only for {N} = 0 , ±1. In this paper, we extend the construction of multi-brane solutions to | {N} | ≥ 2. The solutions with N = ±2ismadepossiblebythefactthatthecorrelatorisinvariantunderatransformation exchanging K with 1 /K and hence K = ∞ eigenvalue plays the same role as K = 0. We further propose a method of constructing solutions with | {N} | ≥ 3 by expressing the eigenvalue space of K as a sum of intervals where the construction for | {N} | ≤ 2 is applicable.

  11. SU-E-J-113: Effects of Deformable Registration On First-Order Texture Maps Calculated From Thoracic Lung CT Scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C; Cunliffe, A; Al-Hallaq, H; Armato, S [The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the stability of eight first-order texture features following the deformable registration of serial computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods: CT scans at two different time points from 10 patients deemed to have no lung abnormalities by a radiologist were collected. Following lung segmentation using an in-house program, texture maps were calculated from 32×32-pixel regions of interest centered at every pixel in the lungs. The texture feature value of the ROI was assigned to the center pixel of the ROI in the corresponding location of the texture map. Pixels in the square ROI not contained within the segmented lung were not included in the calculation. To quantify the agreement between ROI texture features in corresponding pixels of the baseline and follow-up texture maps, the Fraunhofer MEVIS EMPIRE10 deformable registration algorithm was used to register the baseline and follow-up scans. Bland-Altman analysis was used to compare registered scan pairs by computing normalized bias (nBias), defined as the feature value change normalized to the mean feature value, and normalized range of agreement (nRoA), defined as the range spanned by the 95% limits of agreement normalized to the mean feature value. Results: Each patient’s scans contained between 6.8–15.4 million ROIs. All of the first-order features investigated were found to have an nBias value less than 0.04% and an nRoA less than 19%, indicating that the variability introduced by deformable registration was low. Conclusion: The eight first-order features investigated were found to be registration stable. Changes in CT texture maps could allow for temporal-spatial evaluation of the evolution of lung abnormalities relating to a variety of diseases on a patient-by-patient basis. SGA and HA receives royalties and licensing fees through the University of Chicago for computer-aided diagnosis technology. Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute Of General

  12. From first-order magneto-elastic to magneto-structural transition in (Mn,Fe)1.95P0.50Si0.50 compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.H.; Zhang, L.; Ou, Z.Q.; Brück, E.

    2011-01-01

    We report on structural, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of MnxFe1.95?xP0.50Si0.50 (x???1.10) compounds. With increasing the Mn:Fe ratio, a first-order magneto-elastic transition gradually changes into a first-order magneto-structural transition via a second-order magnetic transition. The

  13. A deterministic solution of the first order linear Boltzmann transport equation in the presence of external magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Aubin, J; Keyvanloo, A; Vassiliev, O; Fallone, B G

    2015-02-01

    Accurate radiotherapy dose calculation algorithms are essential to any successful radiotherapy program, considering the high level of dose conformity and modulation in many of today's treatment plans. As technology continues to progress, such as is the case with novel MRI-guided radiotherapy systems, the necessity for dose calculation algorithms to accurately predict delivered dose in increasingly challenging scenarios is vital. To this end, a novel deterministic solution has been developed to the first order linear Boltzmann transport equation which accurately calculates x-ray based radiotherapy doses in the presence of magnetic fields. The deterministic formalism discussed here with the inclusion of magnetic fields is outlined mathematically using a discrete ordinates angular discretization in an attempt to leverage existing deterministic codes. It is compared against the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, utilizing the emf_macros addition which calculates the effects of electromagnetic fields. This comparison is performed in an inhomogeneous phantom that was designed to present a challenging calculation for deterministic calculations in 0, 0.6, and 3 T magnetic fields oriented parallel and perpendicular to the radiation beam. The accuracy of the formalism discussed here against Monte Carlo was evaluated with a gamma comparison using a standard 2%/2 mm and a more stringent 1%/1 mm criterion for a standard reference 10 × 10 cm(2) field as well as a smaller 2 × 2 cm(2) field. Greater than 99.8% (94.8%) of all points analyzed passed a 2%/2 mm (1%/1 mm) gamma criterion for all magnetic field strengths and orientations investigated. All dosimetric changes resulting from the inclusion of magnetic fields were accurately calculated using the deterministic formalism. However, despite the algorithm's high degree of accuracy, it is noticed that this formalism was not unconditionally stable using a discrete ordinate angular discretization. The feasibility of including magnetic field

  14. Density-weighted concentric rings k-space trajectory for 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at 7 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiew, Mark; Jiang, Wenwen; Burns, Brian; Larson, Peder; Steel, Adam; Jezzard, Peter; Albert Thomas, M; Emir, Uzay E

    2018-01-01

    It has been shown that density-weighted (DW) k-space sampling with spiral and conventional phase encoding trajectories reduces spatial side lobes in magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). In this study, we propose a new concentric ring trajectory (CRT) for DW-MRSI that samples k-space with a density that is proportional to a spatial, isotropic Hanning window. The properties of two different DW-CRTs were compared against a radially equidistant (RE) CRT and an echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) trajectory in simulations, phantoms and in vivo experiments. These experiments, conducted at 7 T with a fixed nominal voxel size and matched acquisition times, revealed that the two DW-CRT designs improved the shape of the spatial response function by suppressing side lobes, also resulting in improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). High-quality spectra were acquired for all trajectories from a specific region of interest in the motor cortex with an in-plane resolution of 7.5 × 7.5 mm 2 in 8 min 3 s. Due to hardware limitations, high-spatial-resolution spectra with an in-plane resolution of 5 × 5 mm 2 and an acquisition time of 12 min 48 s were acquired only for the RE and one of the DW-CRT trajectories and not for EPSI. For all phantom and in vivo experiments, DW-CRTs resulted in the highest SNR. The achieved in vivo spectral quality of the DW-CRT method allowed for reliable metabolic mapping of eight metabolites including N-acetylaspartylglutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid and glutathione with Cramér-Rao lower bounds below 50%, using an LCModel analysis. Finally, high-quality metabolic mapping of a whole brain slice using DW-CRT was achieved with a high in-plane resolution of 5 × 5 mm 2 in a healthy subject. These findings demonstrate that our DW-CRT MRSI technique can perform robustly on MRI systems and within a clinically feasible acquisition time. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Second Harmonic Generation, Electrooptical Pockels Effect, and Static First-Order Hyperpolarizabilities of 2,2′-Bithiophene Conformers: An HF, MP2, and DFT Theoretical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Alparone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The static and dynamic electronic (hyperpolarizabilities of the equilibrium conformations of 2,2′-bithiophene (anti-gauche and syn-gauche were computed in the gas phase. The calculations were carried out using Hartree-Fock (HF, Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory (MP2, and density functional theory methods. The properties were evaluated for the second harmonic generation (SHG, and electrooptical Pockels effect (EOPE nonlinear optical processes at the typical λ=1064 nm of the Nd:YAG laser. The anti-gauche form characterized by the S–C2–C2′–S dihedral angle of 137° (MP2/6-311G** is the global minimum on the potential energy surface, whereas the syn-gauche rotamer (S–C2–C2′–S = 48°, MP2/6-311G** lies ca. 0.5 kcal/mol above the anti-gauche form. The structural properties of the gauche structures are rather similar to each other. The MP2 electron correlation effects are dramatic for the first-order hyperpolarizabilities of the 2,2′-bithiophenes, decreasing the HF values by ca. a factor of three. When passing from the anti-gauche to the syn-gauche conformer, the static and frequency-dependent first-order hyperpolarizabilities increase by ca. a factor of two. Differently, the electronic polarizabilities and second-order hyperpolarizabilities of these rotamers are rather close to each other. The syn-gauche structure could be discriminated from the anti-gauche one through its much more intense SHG and EOPE signals.

  16. First-order-reversal-curve analysis of exchange-coupled SmCo/NdFeB nanocomposite alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Mingxiang; Zhang, Pengyue, E-mail: Zhang_pengyue@cjlu.edu.cn; Ge, Hongliang; Yu, Nengjun; Wu, Qiong

    2014-06-01

    Exchange-coupled SmCo{sub 5}/Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B nanocomposite magnets have been fabricated by ball milling of the micrometer sized SmCo{sub 5} and Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B powders. The influence of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B content on the microstructure and magnetic properties of these hybrid alloys was investigated. The alloys that show strong intergrain exchange-coupling behavior with (BH){sub max}=2.95 MGOe was obtained when the two hard phases are well coupled. A first-order-reversal-curve (FORC) analysis was performed for both SmCo{sub 5} single-phase magnet and SmCo{sub 5}/Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B hybrid magnet; the FORC diagrams results show two major peaks for the hybrid magnets. In both cases, the magnetization reversal behaviors for these alloys were discussed in detail and are consistent with the results of δM plots. - Highlights: • Exchange-coupled SmCo{sub 5}/Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B nanocomposite magnets were studied. • Magnetization reversal behaviors of the hybrid magnet were discussed. • The FORCs analysis is taken to identify the optimal conditions for hybrid magnet.

  17. First-Order 0-π Quantum Phase Transition in the Kondo Regime of a Superconducting Carbon-Nanotube Quantum Dot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Maurand

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We study a carbon-nanotube quantum dot embedded in a superconducting-quantum-interference-device loop in order to investigate the competition of strong electron correlations with a proximity effect. Depending on whether local pairing or local magnetism prevails, a superconducting quantum dot will exhibit a positive or a negative supercurrent, referred to as a 0 or π Josephson junction, respectively. In the regime of a strong Coulomb blockade, the 0-to-π transition is typically controlled by a change in the discrete charge state of the dot, from even to odd. In contrast, at a larger tunneling amplitude, the Kondo effect develops for an odd-charge (magnetic dot in the normal state, and quenches magnetism. In this situation, we find that a first-order 0-to-π quantum phase transition can be triggered at a fixed valence when superconductivity is brought in, due to the competition of the superconducting gap and the Kondo temperature. The superconducting-quantum-interference-device geometry together with the tunability of our device allows the exploration of the associated phase diagram predicted by recent theories. We also report on the observation of anharmonic behavior of the current-phase relation in the transition regime, which we associate with the two accessible superconducting states. Our results finally demonstrate that the spin-singlet nature of the Kondo state helps to enhance the stability of the 0 phase far from the mixed-valence regime in odd-charge superconducting quantum dots.

  18. First-order invariants and cohomology of spaces of embeddings of self-intersecting curves in R{sup n}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, V A [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2005-10-31

    We study the cohomology of the space of generic immersions R{sup 1}{yields}R{sup n}, n{>=}3, with a fixed set of transversal self-intersections. In particular, we study isotopy invariants of such immersions when n=3, calculate the lower cohomology groups of this space for n>3, and define and calculate the groups of first-order invariants of such immersions for n=3. We investigate the representability of these invariants by rational combinatorial formulae that generalize the classical formula for the linking number of two curves in R{sup 3}. We prove the existence of such combinatorial formulae with half-integer coefficients and construct the topological obstruction to their integrality. As a corollary, it is proved that one of the basic 4th order knot invariants cannot be represented by an integral Polyak-Viro formula. The structure of the cohomology groups under investigation depends on the existence of a planar curve with a given self-intersection type. On the other hand, one can use the self-intersection type to construct automatically a chain complex calculating these cohomology groups. This gives a simple homological criterion for the existence of such a planar curve.

  19. Uniqueness of First Order Post-Newtonian Collinear Solutions for Three-Body Problem under a Scalar-Tensor Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei-Guang; Zhou, Tian-Yi; Xie, Yi

    2017-10-01

    As a continuing investigation of an earlier work that establishes the collinear solutions to the three-body problem with general masses under a scalar-tensor theory, we study these solutions and prove their uniqueness up to the first order post-Newtonian approximation. With the help of observed bounds on the scalar field in the Solar System, we show that the seventh-order polynomial equation determining the distance ratio among the three masses has either one or three positive roots. However, in the case with three positive roots, it is found that two positive roots break down the slow-motion condition for the post-Newtonian approximation so that only one positive root is physically valid. The resulting uniqueness suggests that the locations of the three masses are very close to their Newtonian positions with post-Newtonian corrections of general relativity and the scalar field. We also prove that, in the framework of the scalar-tensor theory, the angular velocity of the collinear configuration is always less than the Newtonian one when all other parameters are fixed. These results are valid only for three-body systems where upper-bounds on the scalar field are compatible with those of the Solar System. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11573015 and J1210039, and the Innovation Training Project for Undergraduates of Nanjing University, China

  20. Asymmetric propagation of the first order antisymmetric lamb wave in a tapered plate based on time domain analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Shao-Yong; Chen, Jiu-Jiu; Song, Guang-Huang; Han, Xu

    2017-07-01

    The asymmetric propagation of the first order antisymmetric (A1) Lamb wave in a tapered plate respectively carved with sharp bottom corner and round bottom corner is theoretically investigated. Through numerical simulation of A1 Lamb wave in time domain, we find that when the thickness of the waveguide abruptly decreases to below the cut-off thickness, about half of the A1 mode is converted into the fundamental symmetrical S0 and antisymmetrical A0 modes to pass through the defected region. Furthermore, the transmitted modes A0 and S0 are completely apart from each other and can be quantitatively evaluated. Conversely, when the thickness change is very smooth, most of the energy of A1 Lamb wave is reflected back. It is the unique mode conversion behavior that leads to great transmission difference value of A1 Lamb wave along the opposite directions. Finally, the influence of geometrical parameters on the transmission coefficient is also studied. The higher efficiency and proper working frequency range can be realized by adjusting the slope angle θ, height h 1 and h 2. The simple asymmetric systems will be potentially significant in applications of ultrasound diagnosis and therapy.

  1. Comparison of first-order-decay modeled and actual field measured municipal solid waste landfill methane data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Hamid R; Reinhart, Debra R; Niskanen, Antti

    2013-12-01

    The first-order decay (FOD) model is widely used to estimate landfill gas generation for emissions inventories, life cycle assessments, and regulation. The FOD model has inherent uncertainty due to underlying uncertainty in model parameters and a lack of opportunities to validate it with complete field-scale landfill data sets. The objectives of this paper were to estimate methane generation, fugitive methane emissions, and aggregated collection efficiency for landfills through a mass balance approach using the FOD model for gas generation coupled with literature values for cover-specific collection efficiency and methane oxidation. This study is unique and valuable because actual field data were used in comparison with modeled data. The magnitude and variation of emissions were estimated for three landfills using site-specific model parameters and gas collection data, and compared to vertical radial plume mapping emissions measurements. For the three landfills, the modeling approach slightly under-predicted measured emissions and over-estimated aggregated collection efficiency, but the two approaches yielded statistically equivalent uncertainties expressed as coefficients of variation. Sources of uncertainty include challenges in large-scale field measurement of emissions and spatial and temporal fluctuations in methane flow balance components (generated, collected, oxidized, and emitted methane). Additional publication of sets of field-scale measurement data and methane flow balance components will reduce the uncertainty in future estimates of fugitive emissions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. On the Possibility of Ill-Conditioned Covariance Matrices in the First-Order Two-Step Estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, James L.; Axelrod, Penina; Kasdin, N. Jeremy

    1997-01-01

    The first-order two-step nonlinear estimator, when applied to a problem of orbital navigation, is found to occasionally produce first step covariance matrices with very low eigenvalues at certain trajectory points. This anomaly is the result of the linear approximation to the first step covariance propagation. The study of this anomaly begins with expressing the propagation of the first and second step covariance matrices in terms of a single matrix. This matrix is shown to have a rank equal to the difference between the number of first step states and the number of second step states. Furthermore, under some simplifying assumptions, it is found that the basis of the column space of this matrix remains fixed once the filter has removed the large initial state error. A test matrix containing the basis of this column space and the partial derivative matrix relating first and second step states is derived. This square test matrix, which has dimensions equal to the number of first step states, numerically drops rank at the same locations that the first step covariance does. It is formulated in terms of a set of constant vectors (the basis) and a matrix which can be computed from a reference trajectory (the partial derivative matrix). A simple example problem involving dynamics which are described by two states and a range measurement illustrate the cause of this anomaly and the application of the aforementioned numerical test in more detail.

  3. Visible and dark matter from a first-order phase transition in a baryon-symmetric universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petraki, Kalliopi; Volkas, Raymond R.; Trodden, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The similar cosmological abundances observed for visible and dark matter suggest a common origin for both. By viewing the dark matter density as a dark-sector asymmetry, mirroring the situation in the visible sector, we show that the visible and dark matter asymmetries may have arisen simultaneously through a first-order phase transition in the early universe. The dark asymmetry can then be equal and opposite to the usual visible matter asymmetry, leading to a universe that is symmetric with respect to a generalised baryon number. We present both a general structure, and a precisely defined example of a viable model of this type. In that example, the dark matter is ''atomic'' as well as asymmetric, and various cosmological and astrophysical constraints are derived. Testable consequences for colliders include a Z' boson that couples through the B−L charge to the visible sector, but also decays invisibly to dark sector particles. The additional scalar particles in the theory can mix with the standard Higgs boson and provide other striking signatures

  4. Covariant kinetic theory for effective fugacity quasiparticle model and first order transport coefficients for hot QCD matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sukanya; Chandra, Vinod

    2018-02-01

    An effective relativistic kinetic theory has been constructed for an interacting system of quarks, antiquarks and gluons within a quasiparticle description of hot QCD medium at finite temperature and baryon chemical potential, where the interactions are encoded in the gluon and quark effective fugacities with nontrivial energy dispersions. The local conservations of stress-energy tensor and number current require the introduction of a mean field term in the transport equation which produces non-vanishing contribution to the first order transport coefficients. Such contribution has been observed to be significant for the temperatures which are closer to the QCD transition temperature, however, induces negligible contributions beyond a few times the transition temperature. As an implication, impact of the mean field contribution on the temperature dependence of the shear viscosity, bulk viscosity and thermal conductivity of a hot QCD medium in the presence of binary, elastic collisions among the constituents, has been investigated. Visible effects have been observed for the temperature regime closer to the QCD transition temperature.

  5. Bounded noise induced first-order phase transitions in a baseline non-spatial model of gene transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Onofrio, Alberto; Caravagna, Giulio; de Franciscis, Sebastiano

    2018-02-01

    In this work we consider, from a statistical mechanics point of view, the effects of bounded stochastic perturbations of the protein decay rate for a bistable biomolecular network module. Namely, we consider the perturbations of the protein decay/binding rate constant (DBRC) in a circuit modeling the positive feedback of a transcription factor (TF) on its own synthesis. The DBRC models both the spontaneous degradation of the TF and its linking to other unknown biomolecular factors or drugs. We show that bounded perturbations of the DBRC preserve the positivity of the parameter value (and also its limited variation), and induce effects of interest. First, the noise amplitude induces a first-order phase transition. This is of interest since the system in study has neither spatial components nor it is composed by multiple interacting networks. In particular, we observe that the system passes from two to a unique stochastic attractor, and vice-versa. This behavior is different from noise-induced transitions (also termed phenomenological bifurcations), where a unique stochastic attractor changes its shape depending on the values of a parameter. Moreover, we observe irreversible jumps as a consequence of the above-mentioned phase transition. We show that the illustrated mechanism holds for general models with the same deterministic hysteresis bifurcation structure. Finally, we illustrate the possible implications of our findings to the intracellular pharmacodynamics of drugs delivered in continuous infusion.

  6. A first-order second-moment calculation for seismic hazard assessment with the consideration of uncertain magnitude conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake size can be described with different magnitudes for different purposes. For example, local magnitude ML is usually adopted to compile an earthquake catalog, and moment magnitude Mw is often prescribed by a ground motion model. Understandably, when inconsistent units are encountered in an earthquake analysis, magnitude conversion needs to be performed beforehand. However, the conversion is not expected at full certainty owing to the model error of empirical relationships. This paper introduces a novel first-order second-moment (FOSM calculation to estimate the annual rate of earthquake motion (or seismic hazard on a probabilistic basis, including the consideration of the uncertain magnitude conversion and three other sources of earthquake uncertainties. In addition to the methodology, this novel FOSM application to engineering seismology is demonstrated in this paper with a case study. With a local ground motion model, magnitude conversion relationship and earthquake catalog, the analysis shows that the best-estimate annual rate of peak ground acceleration (PGA greater than 0.18 g (induced by earthquakes is 0.002 per year at a site in Taipei, given the uncertainties of magnitude conversion, earthquake size, earthquake location, and motion attenuation.

  7. A first-order second-moment calculation for seismic hazard assessment with the consideration of uncertain magnitude conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. P.; Yun, X.; Wu, Y.-M.

    2013-10-01

    Earthquake size can be described with different magnitudes for different purposes. For example, local magnitude ML is usually adopted to compile an earthquake catalog, and moment magnitude Mw is often prescribed by a ground motion model. Understandably, when inconsistent units are encountered in an earthquake analysis, magnitude conversion needs to be performed beforehand. However, the conversion is not expected at full certainty owing to the model error of empirical relationships. This paper introduces a novel first-order second-moment (FOSM) calculation to estimate the annual rate of earthquake motion (or seismic hazard) on a probabilistic basis, including the consideration of the uncertain magnitude conversion and three other sources of earthquake uncertainties. In addition to the methodology, this novel FOSM application to engineering seismology is demonstrated in this paper with a case study. With a local ground motion model, magnitude conversion relationship and earthquake catalog, the analysis shows that the best-estimate annual rate of peak ground acceleration (PGA) greater than 0.18 g (induced by earthquakes) is 0.002 per year at a site in Taipei, given the uncertainties of magnitude conversion, earthquake size, earthquake location, and motion attenuation.

  8. Neural networks dynamic hysteresis model for piezoceramic actuator based on hysteresis operator of first-order differential equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Xuanju; Tan Yonghong

    2005-01-01

    A new neural networks dynamic hysteresis model for piezoceramic actuator is proposed by combining the Preisach model with diagonal recurrent neural networks. The Preisach model is based on elementary rate-independent operators and is not suitable for modeling piezoceramic actuator across a wide frequency band because of the rate-dependent hysteresis characteristic of the piezoceramic actuator. The structure of the developed model is based on the structure of the Preisach model, in which the rate-independent relay hysteresis operators (cells) are replaced by the rate-dependent hysteresis operators of first-order differential equation. The diagonal recurrent neural networks being modified by an adjustable factor can be used to model the hysteresis behavior of the pizeoceramic actuator because its structure is similar to the structure of the modified Preisach model. Therefore, the proposed model not only possesses that of the Preisach model, but also can be used for describing its dynamic hysteresis behavior. Through the experimental results of both the approximation and the prediction, the effectiveness of the neural networks dynamic hysteresis model for the piezoceramic actuator is demonstrated

  9. Using publicly available GPS solutions for fast estimations of first-order source details from coseismic deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Piersanti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We here explore the potential use of publicly available GPS solutions to obtain first-order constraints on a source model immediately following an earthquake, within the limits of GPS solution timeliness and near-field coverage. We use GPS solutions from the Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center to carry out simple inversions of the coseismic displacement field induced by the 2010 Maule earthquake (Chile, by inferring the seismic moment and the rake angle of a fixed-geometry seismic source. The rake angle obtained from the inversion (m = 117.8˚ is consistent with seismological estimates. The seismic moment, which corresponds to a moment magnitude MW = 8.9, is about 1.6 times greater than seismological estimates. This suggests that as in other recent megathrust events, a consistent fraction of the energy was released aseismically. In this respect, the additional information obtained from GPS can help to provide a better estimate of the weight of the aseismic contribution to the energy release.

  10. Sound Shell Model for Acoustic Gravitational Wave Production at a First-Order Phase Transition in the Early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Mark

    2018-02-16

    A model for the acoustic production of gravitational waves at a first-order phase transition is presented. The source of gravitational radiation is the sound waves generated by the explosive growth of bubbles of the stable phase. The model assumes that the sound waves are linear and that their power spectrum is determined by the characteristic form of the sound shell around the expanding bubble. The predicted power spectrum has two length scales, the average bubble separation and the sound shell width when the bubbles collide. The peak of the power spectrum is at wave numbers set by the sound shell width. For a higher wave number k, the power spectrum decreases to k^{-3}. At wave numbers below the inverse bubble separation, the power spectrum goes to k^{5}. For bubble wall speeds near the speed of sound where these two length scales are distinguished, there is an intermediate k^{1} power law. The detailed dependence of the power spectrum on the wall speed and the other parameters of the phase transition raises the possibility of their constraint or measurement at a future space-based gravitational wave observatory such as LISA.

  11. Exact representation of crossover of transitions from first order to second order in the Potts model for rumor transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, C G; Liu, Z Z; Wang, J F; Luo, J

    2003-07-01

    The L-state Potts model for rumor is the N-spin chain describing how a simple rumor transmitted by N recreant rumormongers is aggrandized. The studied rumor is represented mathematically by a simple proposition with the universal quantifier, which again is represented geometrically by a point in a proposition space. During the transmission, such a proposition is changed with the change of the rumor, which has individual number N0 at the beginning of the transmission. Correspondingly, the point expressing the proposition may start from an arbitrary site at the proposition space, and then it shifts in the space. Thus, a spin sum of the Potts model corresponds to a walk of a point in the proposition space and spin configuration's numbers is given by enumerating the corresponding walks. The concept of the lattice path in combinatorial mathematics is introduced and the exact series representation of the configuration's numbers is given. The partition function exhibits the transition of the chain and critical equivalent inverse temperature beta(c) is determined. Moreover, there is a crossover value of the individual number, N00. The model has a first-order transition when N0N00.

  12. Sound Shell Model for Acoustic Gravitational Wave Production at a First-Order Phase Transition in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Mark

    2018-02-01

    A model for the acoustic production of gravitational waves at a first-order phase transition is presented. The source of gravitational radiation is the sound waves generated by the explosive growth of bubbles of the stable phase. The model assumes that the sound waves are linear and that their power spectrum is determined by the characteristic form of the sound shell around the expanding bubble. The predicted power spectrum has two length scales, the average bubble separation and the sound shell width when the bubbles collide. The peak of the power spectrum is at wave numbers set by the sound shell width. For a higher wave number k , the power spectrum decreases to k-3. At wave numbers below the inverse bubble separation, the power spectrum goes to k5. For bubble wall speeds near the speed of sound where these two length scales are distinguished, there is an intermediate k1 power law. The detailed dependence of the power spectrum on the wall speed and the other parameters of the phase transition raises the possibility of their constraint or measurement at a future space-based gravitational wave observatory such as LISA.

  13. First-order phase transition in a 2D random-field Ising model with conflicting dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crokidakis, Nuno

    2009-02-01

    The effects of locally random magnetic fields are considered in a nonequilibrium Ising model defined on a square lattice with nearest-neighbor interactions. In order to generate the random magnetic fields, we have considered random variables {h} that change randomly with time according to a double-Gaussian probability distribution, which consists of two single-Gaussian distributions, centered at +ho and -ho, with the same width σ. This distribution is very general and can recover in appropriate limits the bimodal distribution (\\sigma \\to 0 ) and the single-Gaussian one (ho = 0). We performed Monte Carlo simulations in lattices with linear sizes in the range L = 32-512. The system exhibits ferromagnetic and paramagnetic steady states. Our results suggest the occurrence of first-order phase transitions between the above-mentioned phases at low temperatures and large random-field intensities ho for some small values of the width σ. By means of finite size scaling, we estimate the critical exponents in the low-field region, where we have continuous phase transitions. In addition, we show a sketch of the phase diagram of the model for some values of σ.

  14. Cosmogenic 22Na as a steady-state tracer of solute transport and water age in first-order catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaste, James M.; Lauer, Nancy E.; Spaetzel, Alana B.; Goydan, Claire

    2016-12-01

    Naturally-occurring cosmogenic 22Na (T1/2 = 2.6 yr) is a potentially powerful tracer of solute and water movement in catchments. However, due to its low abundance in precipitation (∼10-20 molL-1), there are only a handful of datasets documenting cosmogenic 22Na atmospheric fluxes and concentrations in surface waters. Here we present the first record of cosmogenic 22Na fallout to North America and test its use as a radiometric tracer of water age in three small catchments in the Eastern United States. We show that 22Na deposition to southeastern Virginia, USA during 2012-2014 was 187 ± 10 mBqm-2yr-1 and that flux is largely additive with precipitation amounts. Our measurements of fallout combined with previous 22Na deposition data from other regions indicate that approximately 77% of the variability in the annual global 22Na atmospheric flux is controlled by precipitation. Export of 22Na in drainage waters from three first-order forested catchments ranged from 12.5 to 174 mBq m-2 yr-1 and can be explained by a flux-based radioactive decay model, indicating that the watersheds are in steady-state with respect to cosmogenic 22Na on annual timescales. We conclude that in temperate climates with no systematic changes in rainfall amounts at the annual timescale, 22Na may be useful for quantifying the recharge age of relatively young (solute transport at the watershed scale.

  15. General solution of the chemical master equation and modality of marginal distributions for hierarchic first-order reaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Matthias; Kromer, Justus A; Klipp, Edda

    2018-01-20

    Multimodality is a phenomenon which complicates the analysis of statistical data based exclusively on mean and variance. Here, we present criteria for multimodality in hierarchic first-order reaction networks, consisting of catalytic and splitting reactions. Those networks are characterized by independent and dependent subnetworks. First, we prove the general solvability of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) for this type of reaction network and thereby extend the class of solvable CME's. Our general solution is analytical in the sense that it allows for a detailed analysis of its statistical properties. Given Poisson/deterministic initial conditions, we then prove the independent species to be Poisson/binomially distributed, while the dependent species exhibit generalized Poisson/Khatri Type B distributions. Generalized Poisson/Khatri Type B distributions are multimodal for an appropriate choice of parameters. We illustrate our criteria for multimodality by several basic models, as well as the well-known two-stage transcription-translation network and Bateman's model from nuclear physics. For both examples, multimodality was previously not reported.

  16. View-sharing in keyhole imaging: Partially compressed central k-space acquisition in time-resolved MRA at 3.0 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadizadeh, Dariusch R., E-mail: Dariusch.Hadizadeh@ukb.uni-bonn.de [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Gieseke, Juergen [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands); Beck, Gabriele; Geerts, Liesbeth [Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands); Kukuk, Guido M. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Bostroem, Azize [Department of Neurosurgery, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn, Deutschland (Germany); Urbach, Horst; Schild, Hans H.; Willinek, Winfried A. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Introduction: Time-resolved contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography (CEMRA) of the intracranial vasculature has proved its clinical value for the evaluation of cerebral vascular disease in cases where both flow hemodynamics and morphology are important. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a combination of view-sharing with keyhole imaging to increase spatial and temporal resolution of time-resolved CEMRA at 3.0 T. Methods: Alternating view-sharing was combined with randomly segmented k-space ordering, keyhole imaging, partial Fourier and parallel imaging (4DkvsMRA). 4DkvsMRA was evaluated using varying compression factors (80-100) resulting in spatial resolutions ranging from (1.1 x 1.1 x 1.4) to (0.96 x 0.96 x 0.95) mm{sup 3} and temporal resolutions ranging from 586 ms/dynamic scan - 288 ms/dynamic scan in three protocols in 10 healthy volunteers and seven patients (17 subjects). DSA correlation was available in four patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (cAVMs) and one patient with cerebral teleangiectasia. Results: 4DkvsMRA was successfully performed in all subjects and showed clear depiction of arterial and venous phases with diagnostic image quality. At the maximum view-sharing compression factor (=100), a 'flickering' artefact was observed. Conclusion: View-sharing in keyhole imaging allows for increased spatial and temporal resolution in time-resolved MRA.

  17. View-sharing in keyhole imaging: Partially compressed central k-space acquisition in time-resolved MRA at 3.0 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadizadeh, Dariusch R.; Gieseke, Juergen; Beck, Gabriele; Geerts, Liesbeth; Kukuk, Guido M.; Bostroem, Azize; Urbach, Horst; Schild, Hans H.; Willinek, Winfried A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Time-resolved contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography (CEMRA) of the intracranial vasculature has proved its clinical value for the evaluation of cerebral vascular disease in cases where both flow hemodynamics and morphology are important. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a combination of view-sharing with keyhole imaging to increase spatial and temporal resolution of time-resolved CEMRA at 3.0 T. Methods: Alternating view-sharing was combined with randomly segmented k-space ordering, keyhole imaging, partial Fourier and parallel imaging (4DkvsMRA). 4DkvsMRA was evaluated using varying compression factors (80-100) resulting in spatial resolutions ranging from (1.1 x 1.1 x 1.4) to (0.96 x 0.96 x 0.95) mm 3 and temporal resolutions ranging from 586 ms/dynamic scan - 288 ms/dynamic scan in three protocols in 10 healthy volunteers and seven patients (17 subjects). DSA correlation was available in four patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (cAVMs) and one patient with cerebral teleangiectasia. Results: 4DkvsMRA was successfully performed in all subjects and showed clear depiction of arterial and venous phases with diagnostic image quality. At the maximum view-sharing compression factor (=100), a 'flickering' artefact was observed. Conclusion: View-sharing in keyhole imaging allows for increased spatial and temporal resolution in time-resolved MRA.

  18. New evolution equations for the joint response-excitation probability density function of stochastic solutions to first-order nonlinear PDEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, D.; Karniadakis, G. E.

    2012-08-01

    By using functional integral methods we determine new evolution equations satisfied by the joint response-excitation probability density function (PDF) associated with the stochastic solution to first-order nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). The theory is presented for both fully nonlinear and for quasilinear scalar PDEs subject to random boundary conditions, random initial conditions or random forcing terms. Particular applications are discussed for the classical linear and nonlinear advection equations and for the advection-reaction equation. By using a Fourier-Galerkin spectral method we obtain numerical solutions of the proposed response-excitation PDF equations. These numerical solutions are compared against those obtained by using more conventional statistical approaches such as probabilistic collocation and multi-element probabilistic collocation methods. It is found that the response-excitation approach yields accurate predictions of the statistical properties of the system. In addition, it allows to directly ascertain the tails of probabilistic distributions, thus facilitating the assessment of rare events and associated risks. The computational cost of the response-excitation method is order magnitudes smaller than the one of more conventional statistical approaches if the PDE is subject to high-dimensional random boundary or initial conditions. The question of high-dimensionality for evolution equations involving multidimensional joint response-excitation PDFs is also addressed.

  19. First order reversal curve analysis on NdFeB nanocomposite ribbons subjected to Joule heating treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pampillo, L.G. [INTECIN-Instituto de Tecnologias y ciencias de la Ingenieria ' Hilario Fernandez Long' (UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Ingenieria, Paseo Colon 850 (C1063ACV), C. A. B. A. (Argentina); Saccone, F.D., E-mail: fsaccone@fi.uba.ar [INTECIN-Instituto de Tecnologias y ciencias de la Ingenieria ' Hilario Fernandez Long' (UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Ingenieria, Paseo Colon 850 (C1063ACV), C. A. B. A. (Argentina); Knobel, M. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin-Departamento de Fisica de Materia Condensada-Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz, Barao Geraldo 13083-970, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sirkin, H.R.M. [INTECIN-Instituto de Tecnologias y ciencias de la Ingenieria ' Hilario Fernandez Long' (UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Ingenieria, Paseo Colon 850 (C1063ACV), C. A. B. A. (Argentina)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nd-lean amorphous precursors subjected to Joule heating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exchange-spring magnets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FORC diagrams of irreversible switching fields. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This last techniques helped us to verify the optimized treatments conditions. - Abstract: Amorphous precursors with composition Nd{sub 4.5}Fe{sub 72-x}Co{sub 3+x}Cr{sub 2}Al{sub 1}B{sub 17.5} (x = 0, 2, 7, 12) were thermally treated by the Joule heating technique with a linearly varying electrical current. The crystallization kinetics was followed by monitoring the resistance of the ribbons during the heating up to the final applied current. Crystallized nanostructured phases coexist with an amorphous matrix, as it was observed by means of Moessbauer Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The irreversible magnetic response of the Joule heated ribbons was analyzed by the First Order Reversal Curves (FORC) diagram technique. For the optimal treatments, associated with the higher maximum energy products for each sample composition, it was found that the main interaction is of a strongly dipolar characteristic. Over annealed samples show a FORC diagram that gives into account of softening, due to grain growth, for those phases precipitated at the first crystallization stage. When it is measured at 20 K, the hardest magnetic sample (Fe = 72 at.%, Co = 3 at.%, I{sub final} = 0.5 A), exhibits a diagram with characteristics corresponding to dipolar interactions of soft phases. This fact is consistent with an enhancement of the exchange length due to the increase in the soft phase stiffness as it is expected at low temperatures.

  20. A Practical Modeling Framework for Non-Fickian Transport and Multi-Species Sequential First-Order Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnell, Daniel K; Xu, Jie; Hansen, Scott K; Sims, Lawrence S; Faust, Charles R

    2018-03-13

    Many studies indicate that small-scale heterogeneity and/or mobile-immobile mass exchange produce transient non-Fickian plume behavior that is not well captured by the use of the standard, deterministic advection-dispersion equation (ADE). An extended ADE modeling framework is presented here that is based on continuous time random walk (CTRW) theory. It can be used to characterize non-Fickian transport coupled with simultaneous sequential first-order reactions (e.g. biodegradation or radioactive decay) for multiple degrading contaminants such as chlorinated solvents, RDX, pesticides, and radionuclides. To demonstrate this modeling framework, new transient analytical solutions are derived and are inverted in Laplace space. Closed-form, steady-state, multi-species analytical solutions are also derived for non-Fickian transport in highly heterogeneous aquifers with linear sorption-desorption and matrix diffusion for use in spreadsheets. The solutions are general enough to allow different degradation rates for the mobile and immobile zones. The transient solutions for multi-species transport are applied to examine the effects of source remediation on the natural attenuation of downgradient plumes of both parent and degradation products in highly heterogeneous aquifers. Results for representative settings show that the use of the standard, deterministic ADE can over-estimate cleanup rates and under-predict the cleanup timeframe in comparison to the extended ADE analytical model. The modeling framework and calculations introduced here are also applied for a 30 year groundwater cleanup program at a site in Palm Bay, Florida. The simulated plume concentrations using the extended ADE exhibited agreement with observed long concentration tails of TCE, cis 1,2 DCE and VC that remained above cleanup goals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Nitrogen Removal in a Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland Estimated Using the First-Order Kinetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Cui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We monitored the water quality and hydrological conditions of a horizontal subsurface constructed wetland (HSSF-CW in Beijing, China, for two years. We simulated the area-based constant and the temperature coefficient with the first-order kinetic model. We examined the relationships between the nitrogen (N removal rate, N load, seasonal variations in the N removal rate, and environmental factors—such as the area-based constant, temperature, and dissolved oxygen (DO. The effluent ammonia (NH4+-N and nitrate (NO3−-N concentrations were significantly lower than the influent concentrations (p < 0.01, n = 38. The NO3−-N load was significantly correlated with the removal rate (R2 = 0.96, p < 0.01, but the NH4+-N load was not correlated with the removal rate (R2 = 0.02, p > 0.01. The area-based constants of NO3−-N and NH4+-N at 20 °C were 27 ± 26 (mean ± SD and 14 ± 10 m∙year−1, respectively. The temperature coefficients for NO3−-N and NH4+-N were estimated at 1.004 and 0.960, respectively. The area-based constants for NO3−-N and NH4+-N were not correlated with temperature (p > 0.01. The NO3−-N area-based constant was correlated with the corresponding load (R2 = 0.96, p < 0.01. The NH4+-N area rate was correlated with DO (R2 = 0.69, p < 0.01, suggesting that the factors that influenced the N removal rate in this wetland met Liebig’s law of the minimum.

  2. Micturating cystourethrography by MR imaging using radial k-space sampling; MR-Miktionszystourethrographie mit radialer k-Raum-Abtastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolte-Ernsting, C.C.A.; Glowinski, A.; Katterbach, F.J.; Adam, G.; Guenther, R.W. [Universitaetsklinikum der RWTH Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Rasche, V. [Philips GmbH Forschungslaboratorien, Hamburg (Germany)

    1998-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of micturating cystourethrography (MCU) by means of real-time MR imaging with radial k-space sampling. Results: The proposed technique allowed in all 7 patients a dynamic realtime imaging of the Gd-flow inside the urethra during micturition. The normal anatomy of the entire course of the urethra was demonstrated in each patient, while simultaneously the relation of the prostate and pelvic floor became visible. Furthermore, the urinary bladder could be assessed by interactive repositioning of the slice orientation in any preferred direction. The ureters could also be visualized due to the persisting Gd-enhancement of the upper urinary tract after the preceding MR-urography. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] Ziel: Untersuchung zur Durchfuehrbarkeit einer Miktionszystourethrographie (MCU) mittels MR-tomographischer Echtzeitdarstellung durch radiale k-Raum-Abtastung. Ergebnisse: Das gewaehlte Verfahren ermoeglichte bei allen 7 Patienten waehrend der Miktion eine dynamische Echtzeitdarstellung der Gd-Anflutung innerhalb der Harnroehre. Die normale Anatomie der Urethra konnte jeweils im gesamten Verlauf beurteilt werden, wobei gleichzeitig der Bezug zu Prostata und Beckenboden sichtbar wurde. Durch eine interaktive Umpositionierung der Messschicht in jeder gewuenschten Ebene liess sich die Harnblase bequem mituntersuchen sowie ebenfalls auch die Ureteren, die durch die vorausgegangene Urographie noch mit Gd angefuellt waren. (orig./AJ)

  3. The relationship of dynamical heterogeneity to the Adam-Gibbs and random first-order transition theories of glass formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Francis W; Douglas, Jack F; Sastry, Srikanth

    2013-03-28

    We carefully examine common measures of dynamical heterogeneity for a model polymer melt and test how these scales compare with those hypothesized by the Adam and Gibbs (AG) and random first-order transition (RFOT) theories of relaxation in glass-forming liquids. To this end, we first analyze clusters of highly mobile particles, the string-like collective motion of these mobile particles, and clusters of relative low mobility. We show that the time scale of the high-mobility clusters and strings is associated with a diffusive time scale, while the low-mobility particles' time scale relates to a structural relaxation time. The difference of the characteristic times for the high- and low-mobility particles naturally explains the well-known decoupling of diffusion and structural relaxation time scales. Despite the inherent difference of dynamics between high- and low-mobility particles, we find a high degree of similarity in the geometrical structure of these particle clusters. In particular, we show that the fractal dimensions of these clusters are consistent with those of swollen branched polymers or branched polymers with screened excluded-volume interactions, corresponding to lattice animals and percolation clusters, respectively. In contrast, the fractal dimension of the strings crosses over from that of self-avoiding walks for small strings, to simple random walks for longer, more strongly interacting, strings, corresponding to flexible polymers with screened excluded-volume interactions. We examine the appropriateness of identifying the size scales of either mobile particle clusters or strings with the size of cooperatively rearranging regions (CRR) in the AG and RFOT theories. We find that the string size appears to be the most consistent measure of CRR for both the AG and RFOT models. Identifying strings or clusters with the "mosaic" length of the RFOT model relaxes the conventional assumption that the "entropic droplets" are compact. We also confirm the

  4. The phase transition of the first order in the critical region of the gas-liquid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Yukhnovskii

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a summarising investigation of the events of the phase transition of the first order that occur in the critical region below the liquid-gas critical point. The grand partition function has been completely integrated in the phase-space of the collective variables. The basic density measure is the quartic one. It has the form of the exponent function with the first, second, third and fourth degree of the collective variables. The problem has been reduced to the Ising model in an external field, the role of which is played by the generalised chemical potential μ*. The line μ*(η =0, where η is the density, is the line of the phase transition. We consider the isothermal compression of the gas till the point where the phase transition on the line μ*(η =0 is reached. When the path of the pressing reaches the line μ* =0 in the gas medium, a droplet of liquid springs up. The work for its formation is obtained, the surface-tension energy is calculated. On the line μ* =0 we have a two-phase system: the gas and the liquid (the droplet one. The equality of the gas and of the liquid chemical potentials is proved. The process of pressing is going on. But the pressure inside the system has stopped, two fixed densities have arisen: one for the gas-phase ηG=ηc(1-d/2 and the other for the liquid-phase ηL=ηc(1+d/2 (symmetrically to the rectlinear diameter, where ηc=0.13044 is the critical density. Starting from that moment the external pressure works as a latent work of pressure. Its value is obtained. As a result, the gas-phase disappears and the whole system turns into liquid. The jump of the density is equal to ηc d, where d=(D/2G1/2 ~ τν/2. D and G are coefficients of the Hamiltonian in the last cell connected with the renormalisation-group symmetry. The equation of state is written.

  5. Scaled free energies, power-law potentials, strain pseudospins, and quasiuniversality for first-order structural transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, S. R.; Lookman, T.; Saxena, A.

    2010-10-01

    We consider ferroelastic first-order phase transitions with NOP order-parameter strains entering Landau free energies as invariant polynomials that have NV structural-variant Landau minima. The total free energy includes (seemingly innocuous) harmonic terms, in the n=6-NOP nonorder-parameter strains. Four three-dimensional (3D) transitions are considered, tetragonal/orthorhombic, cubic/tetragonal, cubic/trigonal, and cubic/orthorhombic unit-cell distortions, with, respectively, NOP=1 , 2, 3, and 2; and NV=2 , 3, 4, and 6. Five two-dimensional (2D) transitions are also considered, as simpler examples. Following Barsch and Krumhansl, we scale the free energy to absorb most material-dependent elastic coefficients into an overall prefactor, by scaling in an overall elastic energy density; a dimensionless temperature variable; and the spontaneous-strain magnitude at transition λ≪1 . To leading order in λ the scaled Landau minima become material independent, in a kind of “quasiuniversality.” The scaled minima in NOP -dimensional order-parameter space, fall at the center and at the NV corners, of a transition-specific polyhedron inscribed in a sphere, whose radius is unity at transition. The “polyhedra” for the four 3D transitions are, respectively, a line, a triangle, a tetrahedron, and a hexagon. We minimize the n terms harmonic in the nonorder-parameter strains, by substituting solutions of the “no dislocation” St Venant compatibility constraints, and explicitly obtain power-law anisotropic, order-parameter interactions, for all transitions. In a reduced discrete-variable description, the competing minima of the Landau free energies induce unit-magnitude pseudospin vectors, with NV+1 values, pointing to the polyhedra corners and the (zero-value) center. The total scaled free energies then become ZNV+1 clocklike pseudospin Hamiltonians, with temperature-dependent local Landau terms, nearest-neighbor Ginzburg couplings, and power-law St Venant

  6. Simulation of Streamflow in a Discontinuous Permafrost Environment Using a Modified First-order, Nonlinear Rainfall-runoff Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, W. R.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2009-12-01

    The sub-arctic environment can be characterized by being located in the zone of discontinuous permafrost. Although the distribution of permafrost in this region is specific, it dominates the response of many of the hydrologic processes including stream flow, soil moisture dynamics, and water storage processes. In areas underlain by permafrost, ice-rich conditions at the permafrost table inhibit surface water percolation to the deep subsurface soils, resulting in an increased runoff generation generation during precipitation events, decreased baseflow between precipitation events, and relatively wetter soils compared to permafrost-free areas. Over the course of a summer season, the thawing of the active layer (the thin soil layer about the permafrost that seasonally freezes and thaws) increases the potential water holding capacity of the soil, resulting in a decreasing surface water contribution during precipitation events and a steadily increasing baseflow contribution between precipitation events. Simulation of stream flow in this region is challenging due to the rapidly changing thermal (permafrost versus non-permafrost, active layer development) and hydraulic (hydraulic conductivity and soil storage capacity) conditions in both time and space (x, y, and z-dimensions). Many of the factors that have a control on both permafrost distribution and the thawing/freezing of active layer (such as soil material, soil moisture, and ice content) are not easily quantified at scales beyond the point measurement. In this study, these issues are addressed through streamflow analysis - the only hydrologic process that is easily measured at the basin scale. Following the general procedure outlined in Kirchner (2008), a simple rainfall-runoff model was applied to three small head-water basins of varying permafrost coverage. A simple, first-order, non-linear differential equation that describes the storage-discharge relationship were derived from three years of stream flow data

  7. a Comparison of Simulated Annealing, Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization in Optimal First-Order Design of Indoor Tls Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, F.; Lichti, D.

    2017-09-01

    The optimal network design problem has been well addressed in geodesy and photogrammetry but has not received the same attention for terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) networks. The goal of this research is to develop a complete design system that can automatically provide an optimal plan for high-accuracy, large-volume scanning networks. The aim in this paper is to use three heuristic optimization methods, simulated annealing (SA), genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO), to solve the first-order design (FOD) problem for a small-volume indoor network and make a comparison of their performances. The room is simplified as discretized wall segments and possible viewpoints. Each possible viewpoint is evaluated with a score table representing the wall segments visible from each viewpoint based on scanning geometry constraints. The goal is to find a minimum number of viewpoints that can obtain complete coverage of all wall segments with a minimal sum of incidence angles. The different methods have been implemented and compared in terms of the quality of the solutions, runtime and repeatability. The experiment environment was simulated from a room located on University of Calgary campus where multiple scans are required due to occlusions from interior walls. The results obtained in this research show that PSO and GA provide similar solutions while SA doesn't guarantee an optimal solution within limited iterations. Overall, GA is considered as the best choice for this problem based on its capability of providing an optimal solution and fewer parameters to tune.

  8. Study of the first-order transition in the spin-1 Blume–Capel model by using effective-field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costabile, Emanuel [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Amazonas, Marcio A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Amazonas, 1975, Sete de Setembro, 69020-120, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Viana, J. Roberto [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Sousa, J. Ricardo de, E-mail: jsousa@ufam.edu.br.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000, Manaus, AM (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2012-10-01

    The spin-1 Blume–Capel model on a square lattice is studied by using an effective-field theory (EFT) with correlation. We propose an expression for the free energy within the EFT. The phase diagram is constructed in the temperature (T) and single-ion anisotropy amplitude (D) plane. The first-order transition line is obtained by Maxwell construction (comparison between free energies). Our results predict first-order transitions at low temperatures and large anisotropy strengths, which correspond in the phase diagram to the existence of a tricritical point (TCP). We compare our results with mean-field approximation (MFA), that show a qualitative correct behavior for the phase diagram. -- Highlights: ► In this Letter we have studied the spin-1 Blume–Capel model by using effective-field theory (EFT). ► The first-order line is obtained for the first time. ► The model presents second and first-order phase transitions. ► We propose a functional to treat the first-order line. ► We discuss other alternative by using EFT to study first-order line.

  9. Dose optimization with first-order total-variation minimization for dense angularly sampled and sparse intensity modulated radiation therapy (DASSIM-RT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hojin; Li Ruijiang; Lee, Rena; Goldstein, Thomas; Boyd, Stephen; Candes, Emmanuel; Xing Lei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A new treatment scheme coined as dense angularly sampled and sparse intensity modulated radiation therapy (DASSIM-RT) has recently been proposed to bridge the gap between IMRT and VMAT. By increasing the angular sampling of radiation beams while eliminating dispensable segments of the incident fields, DASSIM-RT is capable of providing improved conformity in dose distributions while maintaining high delivery efficiency. The fact that DASSIM-RT utilizes a large number of incident beams represents a major computational challenge for the clinical applications of this powerful treatment scheme. The purpose of this work is to provide a practical solution to the DASSIM-RT inverse planning problem. Methods: The inverse planning problem is formulated as a fluence-map optimization problem with total-variation (TV) minimization. A newly released L1-solver, template for first-order conic solver (TFOCS), was adopted in this work. TFOCS achieves faster convergence with less memory usage as compared with conventional quadratic programming (QP) for the TV form through the effective use of conic forms, dual-variable updates, and optimal first-order approaches. As such, it is tailored to specifically address the computational challenges of large-scale optimization in DASSIM-RT inverse planning. Two clinical cases (a prostate and a head and neck case) are used to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed planning technique. DASSIM-RT plans with 15 and 30 beams are compared with conventional IMRT plans with 7 beams in terms of plan quality and delivery efficiency, which are quantified by conformation number (CN), the total number of segments and modulation index, respectively. For optimization efficiency, the QP-based approach was compared with the proposed algorithm for the DASSIM-RT plans with 15 beams for both cases. Results: Plan quality improves with an increasing number of incident beams, while the total number of segments is maintained to be about the

  10. Canted spin structure and the first order magnetic transition in CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles coated by amorphous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubutin, I.S. [Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119333 (Russian Federation); Starchikov, S.S., E-mail: sergey.s.starchikov@gmail.com [Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119333 (Russian Federation); Gervits, N.E.; Korotkov, N.Yu.; Dmitrieva, T.V. [Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119333 (Russian Federation); Lin, Chun-Rong, E-mail: crlinspin@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, National Pingtung University, Pingtung County 90003, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Yaw-Teng [Department of Applied Physics, National Pingtung University, Pingtung County 90003, Taiwan (China); Shih, Kun-Yauh [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Pingtung University, Pingtung County 90003, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jiann-Shing [Department of Applied Physics, National Pingtung University, Pingtung County 90003, Taiwan (China); Wang, Cheng-Chien [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan 710, Taiwan (China)

    2016-10-01

    The functional polymer (PMA-co-MAA) latex microspheres were used as a core template to prepare magnetic hollow spheres consisting of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} composites. The spinel type crystal structure of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite is formed under annealing, whereas the polymer cores are completely removed after annealing at 450 °C. Magnetic and Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements reveal very interesting magnetic properties of the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} hollow spheres strongly dependent on the particle size which can be tuned by the annealing temperature. In the ground state of low temperatures, the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are in antiferromagnetic state due to the canted magnetic structure. Under heating in the applied field, the magnetic structure gradually transforms from canted to collinear, which increases the magnetization. The Mössbauer data revealed that the small size CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} particles (2.2–4.3 nm) do not show superparamagnetic behavior but transit from the magnetic to the paramagnetic state by a jump-like magnetic transition of the first order This effect is a specific property of the magnetic nanoparticles isolated by inert material, and can be initiated by internal pressure creating at the particle surface. The suggested method of synthesis can be modified with various bio-ligands on the silane surface, and such materials can find many applications in diagnostics and bio-separation. - Highlights: • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposites in shell of hollow microcapsules designed for biomedical applications • The CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particle size and magnetic properties can be tuned by thermal treatment • Canted spin structure in the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles coated by SiO{sub 2} • The first order magnetic transition in the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles coated by silica.

  11. Vibrational spectroscopic (FTIR and FT-Raman), first-order hyperpolarizablity, HOMO, LUMO, NBO, Mulliken charge analyses of 2-ethylimidazole based on Hartree-Fock and DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arivazhagan, M; Manivel, S; Jeyavijayan, S; Meenakshi, R

    2015-01-05

    The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of 2-ethylimidazole (2EIDZ) have been recorded in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) and 3500-50 cm(-1), respectively. Utilizing the observed FTIR and FT-Raman data, a complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound were carried out. The optimized molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities and Raman scattering activities, were calculated by ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The difference between the observed and scaled wavenumber values of most of the fundamentals is very small. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of 2EIDZ is also reported based on total energy distribution (TED). The values of the total dipole moment (μ) and the first-order hyperpolarizability (β) of the compound were computed. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Besides, HOMO and LUMO analysis, Mulliken's charge analysis and several thermodynamic properties have been calculated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis, structural, spectral (FTIR, FT-Raman, UV, NMR), NBO and first order hyperpolarizability analysis of N-phenylbenzenesulfonamide by density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarasu, K; Kavitha, E; Sundaraganesan, N

    2014-12-10

    In this study sulfonamide compound, N-phenylbenzenesulfonamide (NPBS) has been synthesized and grown as a high quality single crystal by the slow evaporation solution growth technique. The grown crystals were characterized by the Fourier transform infrared (4000-400cm(-1)), Fourier transform Raman (3500-500cm(-1)), UV-Vis (200-800nm) and NMR spectroscopy. Density functional (DFT) calculations have been carried out for the compound NPBS by utilizing DFT level of theory using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) as basis set. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and optimized geometric parameters such as bond lengths and bond angles have been calculated by using quantum chemical methods. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. The dipole moment, linear polarizability and first order hyperpolarizability values were also computed. The chemical reactivity and ionization potential of NPBS were also calculated. In addition, Molecular Electrostatic Potential (MEP), Frontier Molecular Orbital (FMO) analysis was investigated using theoretical calculations. The thermodynamic properties of the compound were calculated at different temperatures and corresponding relations between the properties and temperature were also studied. Finally, geometric parameters, vibrational bands were compared with available experimental data of the molecules. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Molecular structure, vibrational spectra, NBO, UV and first order hyperpolarizability, analysis of 4-Chloro-dl-phenylalanine by density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarasu, K; Kavitha, E

    2014-12-10

    The Fourier transform infrared (4000-400cm(-1)) and Fourier transform Raman (3500-50cm(-1)) spectra of 4-Chloro-dl-phenylalanine (4CLPA) were recorded and analyzed. The equilibrium geometry, bonding features and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers were investigated with the help of density functional theory (DFT) method using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) as basis set. The observed vibrational wavenumbers were compared with the calculated results. Natural bond orbital analysis confirms the presence of intramolecular charge transfer and the hydrogen bonding interaction. Predicted electronic absorption spectra from TD-DFT calculation have been analyzed comparing with the UV-Vis (200-800nm) spectrum. The effects of chlorine and ethylene group substituent in benzene ring in the vibrational wavenumbers have been analyzed. The HOMO-LUMO energy gap explains the charge interaction taking place within the molecule. The first order hyperpolarizability (β0) and related properties (β, α0 and Δα) of 4CLPA were calculated. The Chemical reactivity and chemical potential of 4CLPA is calculated. In addition, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), frontier molecular orbital (FMO) analysis were investigated using theoretical calculations. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Non-water-suppressed short-echo-time magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging using a concentric ring k-space trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emir, Uzay E; Burns, Brian; Chiew, Mark; Jezzard, Peter; Thomas, M Albert

    2017-07-01

    Water-suppressed MRS acquisition techniques have been the standard MRS approach used in research and for clinical scanning to date. The acquisition of a non-water-suppressed MRS spectrum is used for artefact correction, reconstruction of phased-array coil data and metabolite quantification. Here, a two-scan metabolite-cycling magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) scheme that does not use water suppression is demonstrated and evaluated. Specifically, the feasibility of acquiring and quantifying short-echo (T E  = 14 ms), two-dimensional stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) MRSI spectra in the motor cortex is demonstrated on a 3 T MRI system. The increase in measurement time from the metabolite-cycling is counterbalanced by a time-efficient concentric ring k-space trajectory. To validate the technique, water-suppressed MRSI acquisitions were also performed for comparison. The proposed non-water-suppressed metabolite-cycling MRSI technique was tested for detection and correction of resonance frequency drifts due to subject motion and/or hardware instability, and the feasibility of high-resolution metabolic mapping over a whole brain slice was assessed. Our results show that the metabolite spectra and estimated concentrations are in agreement between non-water-suppressed and water-suppressed techniques. The achieved spectral quality, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) > 20 and linewidth analysis. In addition, the high SNR of the water peak of the non-water-suppressed technique enabled voxel-wise single-scan frequency, phase and eddy current correction. These findings demonstrate that our non-water-suppressed metabolite-cycling MRSI technique can perform robustly on 3 T MRI systems and within a clinically feasible acquisition time. © 2017 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Analytical estimation of annual runoff distribution in ungauged seasonally dry basins based on a first order Taylor expansion of the Fu's equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracciolo, D.; Deidda, R.; Viola, F.

    2017-11-01

    The assessment of the mean annual runoff and its interannual variability in a basin is the first and fundamental task for several activities related to water resources management and water quality analysis. The scarcity of observed runoff data is a common problem worldwide so that the runoff estimation in ungauged basins is still an open question. In this context, the main aim of this work is to propose and test a simple tool able to estimate the probability distribution of the annual surface runoff in ungauged river basins in arid and semi-arid areas using a simplified Fu's parameterization of the Budyko's curve at regional scale. Starting from a method recently developed to derive the distribution of annual runoff, under the assumption of negligible inter-annual change in basin water storage, we here generalize the application to any catchment where the parameter of the Fu's curve is known. Specifically, we provide a closed-form expression of the annual runoff distribution as a function of the mean and standard deviation of annual rainfall and potential evapotranspiration, and the Fu's parameter. The proposed method is based on a first order Taylor expansion of the Fu's equation and allows calculating the probability density function of annual runoff in seasonally dry arid and semi-arid geographic context around the world by taking advantage of simple easy-to-find climatic data and the many studies with estimates of the Fu's parameter worldwide. The computational simplicity of the proposed tool makes it a valuable supporting tool in the field of water resources assessment for practitioners, regional agencies and authorities.

  16. Generalized semi-analytical solutions to multispecies transport equation coupled with sequential first-order reaction network with spatially or temporally variable transport and decay coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Heejun

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a semi-analytical procedure for solving coupled the multispecies reactive solute transport equations, with a sequential first-order reaction network on spatially or temporally varying flow velocities and dispersion coefficients involving distinct retardation factors. This proposed approach was developed to overcome the limitation reported by Suk (2013) regarding the identical retardation values for all reactive species, while maintaining the extensive capability of the previous Suk method involving spatially variable or temporally variable coefficients of transport, general initial conditions, and arbitrary temporal variable inlet concentration. The proposed approach sequentially calculates the concentration distributions of each species by employing only the generalized integral transform technique (GITT). Because the proposed solutions for each species' concentration distributions have separable forms in space and time, the solution for subsequent species (daughter species) can be obtained using only the GITT without the decomposition by change-of-variables method imposing the limitation of identical retardation values for all the reactive species by directly substituting solutions for the preceding species (parent species) into the transport equation of subsequent species (daughter species). The proposed solutions were compared with previously published analytical solutions or numerical solutions of the numerical code of the Two-Dimensional Subsurface Flow, Fate and Transport of Microbes and Chemicals (2DFATMIC) in three verification examples. In these examples, the proposed solutions were well matched with previous analytical solutions and the numerical solutions obtained by 2DFATMIC model. A hypothetical single-well push-pull test example and a scale-dependent dispersion example were designed to demonstrate the practical application of the proposed solution to a real field problem.

  17. New quantum cascade laser architectures: II-VI quantum cascade emitters, high k-space lasing, and short injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Kale J.

    Quantum cascade (QC) lasers are today's most capable mid-infrared light sources. With up to watt-level room temperature emission over a broad swath of mid-infrared wavelengths, these tiny semiconductor devices enable a variety of applications and technologies such as ultra-sensitive systems for detecting trace molecules in the vapor phase. The foundation of a QC structure lies in alternating hundreds of wide- and narrow-bandgap semiconductor layers to form a coupled quantum well system. In this way, the laws of quantum mechanics are used to precisely engineer electron transport and create artificial optical transitions. The result is a material with capabilities not found in nature, a truly "designer" material. As a central theme in this thesis, we stress the remarkable flexibility of the quantum cascade---the ability to highly tailor device structure for creative design concepts. The QC idea, in fact, relies on no particular material system for its implementation. While all QC lasers to date have been fabricated from III--V materials such as InGaAs/AlInAs, I detail our preliminary work on ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe---a II--VI materials system---where we have demonstrated electroluminescence. We then further discuss how the inherent QC flexibility can be exploited for new devices that extend QC performance and capabilities. In this regard, we offer the examples of excited state transitions and short injectors. Excited state transitions are an avenue to enhancing optical gain, which is especially needed for longer-wavelength devices where optical losses hinder performance. Likewise, shortening the QC injector length over a conventional QC structure has powerful implications for threshold current, output power, and wall-plug efficiency. In both cases, novel physical effects are discovered. Pumping electrons into highly excited states led to the discovery of high k-space lasing from highly non-equilibrium electron distributions. Shortening QC injector regions allowed us to

  18. One-dimensional, non-local, first-order, stationary mean-field games with congestion: a Fourier approach

    KAUST Repository

    Nurbekyan, Levon

    2017-03-11

    Here, we study a one-dimensional, non-local mean-field game model with congestion. When the kernel in the non-local coupling is a trigonometric polynomial we reduce the problem to a finite dimensional system. Furthermore, we treat the general case by approximating the kernel with trigonometric polynomials. Our technique is based on Fourier expansion methods.

  19. First-order based cumulative distribution function for solute concentration in heterogeneous aquifers: Theoretical analysis and implications for human health risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, F. P. J.; Fiori, A.

    2014-05-01

    Quantifying the uncertainty of solute concentration in heterogeneous aquifers is an important step in both human health and ecological risk analysis. The need for a probabilistic representation of transport is justified by the incomplete characterization of the subsurface. We derive the one-point concentration cumulative distribution function (CDF) while taking into account the spatial statistical structure of the hydraulic conductivity, space dimensionality, the injection source size, the Péclet number, and the sampling volume at the monitoring location. The CDF is application oriented and derived at first order in the log-conductivity variance. We illustrate how several key parameters control the shape of the concentration CDF. The CDF shape is important since it reflects both uncertainty and the dilution state of the plume. The transition from a bimodal to a unimodal CDF is examined and results are further supported by analyzing the concentration coefficient of variation. Results indicate the significance of the statistical anisotropy ratio (i.e., the ratio between the hydraulic conductivity correlation scales) in determining the CDF shape. The importance of the sampling volume in the tails of the concentration CDF and a comparison between the proposed model with the β-CDF approach (i.e., beta distribution) are also shown. Finally, we illustrate how the framework could be used in applications by evaluating the human health risk CDF. Our results are formally valid for low to moderate heterogeneous aquifers and source sizes small as compared to the hydraulic conductivity correlation length. The proposed approach can serve as a benchmark tool for other methods.

  20. Generalized semi-analytical solutions to multispecies transport equation coupled with sequential first-order reaction network in arbitrary heterogenious medium using GITT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Heejun

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a semi-analytical procedure for solving coupled the multispecies reactive solute transport equations, with a sequential first-order reaction network in arbitrary heterogeneous media using General Integral Transformation Tecgnique(GITT).This proposed approach was developed to describe behavior of reactive multicpecise transport on spatially or temporally varying flow velocities and dispersion coefficients with distinct retardation factors, which might be function of space and time. This proposed approach deals with general initial conditions, and arbitrary temporal variable inlet concentration as well as arbitrary heterogenous media. The proposed approach sequentially calculates the concentration distributions of each species by employing only the generalized integral transform technique (GITT). Because the proposed solutions for each species' concentration distributions have separable forms in space and time, the solution for subsequent species (daughter species) can be obtained using only the GITT without the decomposition by change-of-variables method imposing the limitation of identical retarda- tion values for all the reactive species by directly substituting solutions for the preceding species (parent species) into the transport equation of subsequent species (daughter species). The proposed solutions were compared with previously published analytical solutions or numerical solutions of the numerical code of the Two-Dimensional Subsurface Flow, Fate and Transport of Microbes and Chemicals (2DFATMIC) in all verification examples. In these examples, the proposed solutions were well matched with previous analytical solutions and the numerical solutions obtained by 2DFATMIC model. A hypothetical single-well push-pull test example and a scale-dependent dispersion example were designed to demonstrate the practical application of the proposed solution to a real field problem.

  1. Vibrational spectra, molecular structure, NBO, NMR, UV, first order hyperpolarizability, analysis of (S)-(-)-N-(5-Nitro-2-pyridyl) alaninol by Density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarasu, K; Kavitha, E

    2014-06-05

    In this study, geometrical optimization, spectroscopic analysis, electronic structure and nuclear magnetic resonance studies of (S)-(-)-N-(5-Nitro-2-pyridyl) alaninol (abbreviated as SN5N2PLA) were investigated by utilizing HF and DFT/B3LYP with 6-31G(d,p) as basis set. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and FT-Raman spectra of SN5N2PLA were recorded in the region 4000-400cm(-1) and 3500-50cm(-1), respectively. Complete vibrational assignments, analysis and correlation of the fundamental modes for the title compound were carried out. UV-Visible spectrum of the compound that dissolved in methanol were recorded in the region 200-800nm and the electronic properties HOMO and LUMO energies were measured by TD-DFT approach. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The molecular stability and bond strength have been investigated by applying the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. The (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of SN5N2PLA were calculated using the GIAO method in methanol solution and compared with the measured experimental data. The dipole moment, polarizability and first order hyperpolarizability values were also computed. The polarizability and first hyperpolarizability of the studied molecule indicate that the compound is a good candidate of nonlinear optical materials. The Chemical reactivity and Thermodynamic properties of SN5N2PLA at different temperature are calculated. In addition, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) analysis were investigated using theoretical calculations. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Magneto-elastic coupling across the first-order transition in the distorted kagome lattice antiferromagnet Dy{sub 3}Ru{sub 4}Al{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, M.S., E-mail: henriques@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); CCTN, IST/CFMCUL, University of Lisbon, Nuclear and Technological Campus, P-2695-066 Bobadela (Portugal); Gorbunov, D.I. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory (HLD-EMFL), Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Kriegner, D.; Vališka, M. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Andreev, A.V. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Matěj, Z. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2016-02-15

    Structural changes through the first-order paramagnetic–antiferromagnetic phase transition of Dy{sub 3}Ru{sub 4}Al{sub 12} at 7 K have been studied by means of X-ray diffraction and thermal expansion measurements. The compound crystallizes in a hexagonal crystal structure of Gd{sub 3}Ru{sub 4}Al{sub 12} type (P6{sub 3}/mmc space group), and no structural phase transition has been found in the temperature interval between 2.5 and 300 K. Nevertheless, due to the spin-lattice coupling the crystal volume undergoes a small orthorhombic distortion of the order of 2×10{sup −5} as the compound enters the antiferromagnetic state. We propose that the first-order phase transition is not driven by the structural changes but rather by the exchange interactions present in the system. - Highlights: • Dy{sub 3}Ru{sub 4}Al{sub 12} displays a first-order phase transition at the Néel temperature, 7 K. • No structural phase transition has been found between 2.5 and 300 K. • However, the compound undergoes a small orthorhombic distortion of ~2×10{sup −5} at 7 K. • We propose that the first-order transition is driven by exchange interactions.

  3. Experimental investigation of the effect of thermal hysteresis in first order material MnFe(P,As) applied in an AMR device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Moos, Lars; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    The magnetocaloric first order material MnFe(P,As) is a candidate for room temperature magnetic refrigeration. However, these materials have intrinsic hysteresis and the impact on the refrigeration performance has not yet been thoroughly investigated in the literature.Here, the magnetocaloric eff...

  4. Using a CBL Unit, a Temperature Sensor, and a Graphing Calculator to Model the Kinetics of Consecutive First-Order Reactions as Safe In-Class Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Russo, Deborah A.; Cortes-Figueroa, Jose E.; Schuman, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    The use of Calculator-Based Laboratory (CBL) technology, the graphing calculator, and the cooling and heating of water to model the behavior of consecutive first-order reactions is presented, where B is the reactant, I is the intermediate, and P is the product for an in-class demonstration. The activity demonstrates the spontaneous and consecutive…

  5. The role of simple and complex working memory strategies in the development of first-order false belief reasoning : A computational model of transfer of skills.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arslan, Burcu; Wierda, S.; Taatgen, Niels; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2015-01-01

    In their fourth year, most children start to understand that someone else might have a false belief, which is different from the reality that the children know. The most studied experimental task to test this development is called the first-order false belief task. What kind of prior cognitive

  6. The impact of the transient uptake flux on bioaccumulation : Linear adsorption and first-order internalisation coupled with spherical semi-infinite mass transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galceran, J.; Monné, J.; Puy, J.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake of a chemical species (such as an organic molecule or a toxic metal ion) by an organism is modelled considering linear pre-adsorption followed by a first-order internalisation. The active biosurface is supposed to be spherical or semi-spherical and the mass transport in the medium is

  7. A stochastic model of chemical equilibrium in a system where the two-stage consecutive reversible first-order reaction takes place

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolc, Milan

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 137, č. 4 (2000), s. 547-560 ISSN 1217-8969 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : first-order * chemical * equilibrium Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.454, year: 2000

  8. On the ambiguity of the reaction rate constants in multivariate curve resolution for reversible first-order reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Henning; Sawall, Mathias; Kubis, Christoph; Selent, Detlef; Hess, Dieter; Franke, Robert; Börner, Armin; Neymeyr, Klaus

    2016-07-13

    If for a chemical reaction with a known reaction mechanism the concentration profiles are accessible only for certain species, e.g. only for the main product, then often the reaction rate constants cannot uniquely be determined from the concentration data. This is a well-known fact which includes the so-called slow-fast ambiguity. This work combines the question of unique or non-unique reaction rate constants with factor analytic methods of chemometrics. The idea is to reduce the rotational ambiguity of pure component factorizations by considering only those concentration factors which are possible solutions of the kinetic equations for a properly adapted set of reaction rate constants. The resulting set of reaction rate constants corresponds to those solutions of the rate equations which appear as feasible factors in a pure component factorization. The new analysis of the ambiguity of reaction rate constants extends recent research activities on the Area of Feasible Solutions (AFS). The consistency with a given chemical reaction scheme is shown to be a valuable tool in order to reduce the AFS. The new methods are applied to model and experimental data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 3D multi-slab diffusion-weighted readout-segmented EPI with real-time cardiac-reordered K-space acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Robert; Miller, Karla L; Tijssen, Rob H N; Porter, David A; Jezzard, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and demonstrate a three-dimensional (3D) extension of the readout-segmented echo-planar imaging (rs-EPI) sequence for diffusion imaging. Potential k-space acquisition schemes were assessed by simulating their associated spatial point spread functions. Motion-induced phase artifacts were also simulated to test navigator corrections and a real-time reordering of the k-space acquisition relative to the cardiac cycle. The cardiac reordering strategy preferentially chooses readout segments closer to the center of 3D k-space during diastole. Motion-induced phase artifacts were quantified by calculating the voxel-wise temporal variation in a set of repeated diffusion-weighted acquisitions. Based on the results of these simulations, a 2D navigated multi-slab rs-EPI sequence with real-time cardiac reordering was implemented. The multi-slab implementation enables signal-to-noise ratio-optimal repetition times of 1-2 s. Cardiac reordering was validated in simulations and in vivo using the multi-slab rs-EPI sequence. In comparisons with standard k-space acquisitions, cardiac reordering was shown to reduce the variability due to motion-induced phase artifacts by 30-50%. High-resolution diffusion tensor imaging data acquired with the cardiac-reordered multi-slab rs-EPI sequence are presented. A 3D multi-slab rs-EPI sequence with cardiac reordering has been demonstrated in vivo and is shown to provide high-quality 3D diffusion-weighted data sets. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Self-gated 4D multiphase, steady-state imaging with contrast enhancement (MUSIC) using rotating cartesian K-space (ROCK): Validation in children with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Zhou, Ziwu; Han, Eric; Gao, Yu; Nguyen, Kim-Lien; Finn, J Paul; Hu, Peng

    2017-08-01

    To develop and validate a cardiac-respiratory self-gating strategy for the recently proposed multiphase steady-state imaging with contrast enhancement (MUSIC) technique. The proposed SG strategy uses the ROtating Cartesian K-space (ROCK) sampling, which allows for retrospective k-space binning based on motion surrogates derived from k-space center line. The k-space bins are reconstructed using a compressed sensing algorithm. Ten pediatric patients underwent cardiac MRI for clinical reasons. The original MUSIC and 2D-CINE images were acquired as a part of the clinical protocol, followed by the ROCK-MUSIC acquisition, all under steady-state intravascular distribution of ferumoxytol. Subjective scores and image sharpness were used to compare the images of ROCK-MUSIC and original MUSIC. All scans were completed successfully without complications. The ROCK-MUSIC acquisition took 5 ± 1 min, compared to 8 ± 2 min for the original MUSIC. Image scores of ROCK-MUSIC were significantly better than original MUSIC at the ventricular outflow tracts (3.9 ± 0.3 vs. 3.3 ± 0.6, P ROCK-MUSIC in the other anatomic locations. ROCK-MUSIC provided images of equal or superior image quality compared to original MUSIC, and this was achievable with 40% savings in scan time and without the need for physiologic signal. Magn Reson Med 78:472-483, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. Fast and calibration free determination of first order reaction kinetics in API synthesis using in-situ ATR-FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, Moritz C; Husmann, Sascha; Lechner, Christian; Kunick, Conrad; Scholl, Stephan

    2017-09-28

    In early stages of drug development only sparse amounts of the key substances are available, which is problematic for the determination of important process data like reaction kinetics. Therefore, it is important to perform experiments as economically as possible, especially in regards to limiting compounds. Here we demonstrate the use of a temperature step experiment enabling the determination of complete reaction kinetics in a single non-isothermal experiment. In contrast to the traditionally used HPLC, the method takes advantage of the high measuring rate and the low amount of labor involved in using in-situ ATR-FTIR to determine time-dependent concentration-equivalent data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular structure, spectroscopic studies and first-order molecular hyperpolarizabilities of ferulic acid by density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, S.; Sundaraganesan, N.; Manoharan, S.

    2009-10-01

    Quantum chemical calculations of energies, geometrical structure and vibrational wavenumbers of ferulic acid (FA) (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) were carried out by using density functional (DFT/B3LYP/BLYP) method with 6-31G(d,p) as basis set. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained by DFT calculations are in good agreement with single crystal XRD data. The vibrational spectral data obtained from solid phase FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra are assigned based on the results of the theoretical calculations. The observed spectra are found to be in good agreement with calculated values. The electric dipole moment ( μ) and the first hyperpolarizability ( β) values of the investigated molecule have been computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculation results also show that the FA molecule might have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non-zero values. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of FA was also reported. The energy and oscillator strength calculated by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) results complements with the experimental findings. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies shows that charge transfer occur within the molecule. The theoretical FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra for the title molecule have been constructed.

  13. k-space sampling optimization for ultrashort TE imaging of cortical bone: Applications in radiation therapy planning and MR-based PET attenuation correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Lingzhi; Traughber, Melanie; Su, Kuan-Hao; Pereira, Gisele C.; Grover, Anu; Traughber, Bryan; Muzic, Raymond F. Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The ultrashort echo-time (UTE) sequence is a promising MR pulse sequence for imaging cortical bone which is otherwise difficult to image using conventional MR sequences and also poses strong attenuation for photons in radiation therapy and PET imaging. The authors report here a systematic characterization of cortical bone signal decay and a scanning time optimization strategy for the UTE sequence through k-space undersampling, which can result in up to a 75% reduction in acquisition time. Using the undersampled UTE imaging sequence, the authors also attempted to quantitatively investigate the MR properties of cortical bone in healthy volunteers, thus demonstrating the feasibility of using such a technique for generating bone-enhanced images which can be used for radiation therapy planning and attenuation correction with PET/MR. Methods: An angularly undersampled, radially encoded UTE sequence was used for scanning the brains of healthy volunteers. Quantitative MR characterization of tissue properties, including water fraction and R2 ∗ = 1/T2 ∗ , was performed by analyzing the UTE images acquired at multiple echo times. The impact of different sampling rates was evaluated through systematic comparison of the MR image quality, bone-enhanced image quality, image noise, water fraction, and R2 ∗ of cortical bone. Results: A reduced angular sampling rate of the UTE trajectory achieves acquisition durations in proportion to the sampling rate and in as short as 25% of the time required for full sampling using a standard Cartesian acquisition, while preserving unique MR contrast within the skull at the cost of a minimal increase in noise level. The R2 ∗ of human skull was measured as 0.2–0.3 ms −1 depending on the specific region, which is more than ten times greater than the R2 ∗ of soft tissue. The water fraction in human skull was measured to be 60%–80%, which is significantly less than the >90% water fraction in brain. High-quality, bone

  14. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kimball

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  15. Experimental MR-guided cryotherapy of the brain with almost real-time imaging by radial k-space scanning; Experimentelle MR-gesteuerte Kryotherapie des Gehirns mit nahezu Echtzeitdarstellung durch radiale k-Raum-Abtastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacke, J.; Schorn, R.; Glowinski, A.; Grosskortenhaus, S.; Adam, G.; Guenther, R.W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Speetzen, R.; Rau, G. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Biomedizinische Technik, Aachen (Germany); Rasche, V. [Philips GmbH Forschungslaboratorium, Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-02-01

    Purpose: To test radial k-space scanning by MR fluoroscopy to guide and control MR-guided interstitial cryotherapy of the healthy pig brain. Methods: After MR tomographic planning of the approach, an MR-compatible experimental cryotherapy probe of 2.7 mm diameter was introduced through a 5 mm burr hole into the right frontal brain of five healthy pigs. The freeze-thaw cycles were imaged using a T{sub 1}-weighted gradient echo sequence with radial k-space scanning in coronal, sagittal, and axial directions. Results: The high temporal resolution of the chosen sequence permits a continuous representation of the freezing process with good image quality and high contrast between ice and unfrozen brain parenchyma. Because of the interactive conception of the sequence the layer plane could be chosen as desired during the measurement. Ice formation was sharply demarcated, spherically configurated, and was free of signals. Its maximum diameter was 13 mm. Conclusions: With use of the novel, interactively controllable gradient echo sequence with radial k-space scanning, guidance of the intervention under fluoroscopic conditions with the advantages of MRT is possible. MR-guided cryotherapy allows a minimally-invasive, precisely dosable focal tissue ablation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Erprobung der radialen k-Raum-Abtastung bei der MR-Fluoroskopie zur Steuerung und Kontrolle MR-gesteuerter interstitieller Kryotherapie des gesunden Schweinegehirns. Methoden: Nach MR-tomographischer Planung des Zugangsweges wurde eine MR-kompatible experimentelle Kryotherapiesonde von 2,7 mm Durchmesser ueber ein 5 mm Bohrloch in das rechte Frontalhirn von fuenf gesunden Schweinen eingebracht. Die Frier-/Tauzyklen wurden anhand einer T{sub 1}-gewichteten Gradientenechosequenz mit radialer k-Raum-Abtastung in koronarer, sagittaler und axialer Schichtfuehrung dargestellt. Ergebnisse: Die hohe zeitliche Aufloesung der gewaehlten Sequenz erlaubte eine kontinuierliche Darstellung des Friervorgangs bei

  16. Magneto-elastic coupling across the first-order transition in the distorted kagome lattice antiferromagnet Dy3Ru4Al12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, M S; Gorbunov, D I; Kriegner, D; Vališka, M; Andreev, A V; Matěj, Z

    2016-02-15

    Structural changes through the first-order paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic phase transition of Dy 3 Ru 4 Al 12 at 7 K have been studied by means of X-ray diffraction and thermal expansion measurements. The compound crystallizes in a hexagonal crystal structure of Gd 3 Ru 4 Al 12 type ( P 6 3 / mmc space group), and no structural phase transition has been found in the temperature interval between 2.5 and 300 K. Nevertheless, due to the spin-lattice coupling the crystal volume undergoes a small orthorhombic distortion of the order of 2×10 -5 as the compound enters the antiferromagnetic state. We propose that the first-order phase transition is not driven by the structural changes but rather by the exchange interactions present in the system.

  17. Space-time Characteristics and Experimental Analysis of Broadening First-order Sea Clutter in HF Hybrid Sky-surface Wave Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.J. Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In high frequency (HF hybrid sky-surface wave radar, the first-order sea clutter broadening is very complex and serious under the influence of ionosphere and bistatic angle, which affects the detection of ship target. This paper analyzes the space-time characteristics based on the HF sky-surface wave experimental system. We first introduce the basic structure, working principle and position principle based on our experimental system. Also analyzed is the influence of ionosphere and bistatic angle on the space-time coupling characteristics of broadening first-order sea clutter and the performance of space-time adaptive processing (STAP. Finally, the results of theoretic analysis are examined with the experimental data. Simulation results show that the results of experiment consist with that of theoretic analysis.

  18. Nonlinear vibration of thick FGM plates on elastic foundation subjected to thermal and mechanical loads using the first-order shear deformation plate theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Dinh Duc; Pham Hong Cong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical approach to investigate the nonlinear dynamic response and vibration of thick functionally graded material (FGM) plates using both of the first-order shear deformation plate theory and stress function with full motion equations (not using Volmir’s assumptions). The FGM plate is assumed to rest on elastic foundation and subjected to mechanical, thermal, and damping loads. Numerical results for dynamic response of the FGM plate are obtained by Runge–Kutta metho...

  19. Molecular orientational re-ordering and the transformation of a Landau second order phase transition to first order in a nematic liquid crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, T.C.

    1988-08-01

    We consider the nature of the nematic to isotropic phase transition in terms of the molecular orientational re-ordering, expressed by the variation of the order parameter, s, in the light of Landau's theory of second order phase transition. Then, we show how the de Gennes modification to the Landau thermodynamic potential converts the transition to first order which is in better agreement with the experimental observations. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  20. On functional bases of the first-order differential invariants for non-conjugate subgroups of the Poincaré group $P(1,4$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Fedorchuk

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available It is established which functional bases of the first-order differential invariants of the splitting and non-splitting subgroups of the Poincaré group $P(1,4$ are invariant under the subgroups of the extended Galilei group $widetilde G(1,3 subset P(1,4$. The obtained sets of functional bases are classified according to dimensions.

  1. Access is mainly a second-order process: SDT models whether phenomenally (first-order) conscious states are accessed by reflectively (second-order) conscious processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Michael; Kalaida, Natasha; Winer, E Samuel

    2009-06-01

    Access can either be first-order or second-order. First order access concerns whether contents achieve representation in phenomenal consciousness at all; second-order access concerns whether phenomenally conscious contents are selected for metacognitive, higher order processing by reflective consciousness. When the optional and flexible nature of second-order access is kept in mind, there remain strong reasons to believe that exclusion failure can indeed isolate phenomenally conscious stimuli that are not so accessed. Irvine's [Irvine, E. (2009). Signal detection theory, the exclusion failure paradigm and weak consciousness-Evidence for the access/phenomenal distinction? Consciousness and Cognition.] partial access argument fails because exclusion failure is indeed due to lack of second-order access, not insufficient phenomenally conscious information. Further, the enable account conforms with both qualitative differences and subjective report, and is simpler than the endow account. Finally, although first-order access may be a distinct and important process, second-order access arguably reflects the core meaning of access generally.

  2. Optimized broad-histogram simulations for strong first-order phase transitions: droplet transitions in the large-Q Potts model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Bela; Troyer, Matthias; Gull, Emanuel; Trebst, Simon; Huse, David A

    2010-01-01

    The numerical simulation of strongly first-order phase transitions has remained a notoriously difficult problem even for classical systems due to the exponentially suppressed (thermal) equilibration in the vicinity of such a transition. In the absence of efficient update techniques, a common approach for improving equilibration in Monte Carlo simulations is broadening the sampled statistical ensemble beyond the bimodal distribution of the canonical ensemble. Here we show how a recently developed feedback algorithm can systematically optimize such broad-histogram ensembles and significantly speed up equilibration in comparison with other extended ensemble techniques such as flat-histogram, multicanonical and Wang–Landau sampling. We simulate, as a prototypical example of a strong first-order transition, the two-dimensional Potts model with up to Q = 250 different states in large systems. The optimized histogram develops a distinct multi-peak structure, thereby resolving entropic barriers and their associated phase transitions in the phase coexistence region—such as droplet nucleation and annihilation, and droplet–strip transitions for systems with periodic boundary conditions. We characterize the efficiency of the optimized histogram sampling by measuring round-trip times τ(N, Q) across the phase transition for samples comprised of N spins. While we find power-law scaling of τ versus N for small Q∼ 2 , we observe a crossover to exponential scaling for larger Q. These results demonstrate that despite the ensemble optimization, broad-histogram simulations cannot fully eliminate the supercritical slowing down at strongly first-order transitions

  3. Contributions of an adiabatic initial inversion pulse and K-space Re-ordered by inversion-time at each slice position (KRISP) to control of CSF artifacts and visualization of the brain in FLAIR magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curati, Walter L.; Oatridge, Angela; Herlihy, Amy H.; Hajnal, Joseph V.; Puri, Basant K.; Bydder, Graeme M

    2001-05-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the performance of three fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) pulse sequences for control of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood flow artifacts in imaging of the brain. The first of these sequences had an initial sinc inversion pulse which was followed by conventional k-space mapping. The second had an initial sinc inversion pulse followed by k-space re-ordered by inversion time at each slice position (KRISP) and the third had an adiabatic initial inversion pulse followed by KRISP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients with established disease were studied with all three pulse sequences. Seven were also studied with the adiabatic KRISP sequence after contrast enhancement. Their images were evaluated for patient motion artifact, CSF and blood flow artifact as well as conspicuity of the cortex, meninges, ventricular system, brainstem and cerebellum. The conspicuity of lesions and the degree of enhancement were also evaluated. RESULTS: Both the sinc and adiabatic KRISP FLAIR sequences showed better control of CSF and blood flow artifacts than the conventional FLAIR sequence. In addition the adiabatic KRISP FLAIR sequence showed better control of CSF artifact at the inferior aspect of the posterior fossa. The lesion conspicuity was similar for each of the FLAIR sequences as was the degree of contrast enhancement to that shown with a T{sub 1}weighted spin echo sequence. CONCLUSION: The KRISP FLAIR sequence controls high signal artifacts from CSF flow and blood flow and the adiabatic pulse controls high signal artifacts due to inadequate inversion of the CSF magnetization at the periphery of the head transmitter coil. The KRISP FLAIR sequence also improves cortical and meningeal definition as a result of an edge enhancement effect. The effects are synergistic and can be usefully combined in a single pulse sequence. Curati, W.L. et al. (2001)

  4. Numerical analysis of first-order acousto-optic Bragg diffraction of profiled optical beams using open-loop transfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Monish R.; Almehmadi, Fares S.

    2014-03-01

    In standard acousto-optic Bragg analysis, the incident light and sound beams are assumed to be uniform plane waves (with constant profiles) leading to the results based on standard weak interaction theory. As a follow-up to earlier work dealing with nonuniform incident optical beams, we revisit the problem of Bragg diffraction under nonuniform profiles, and include Gaussian, third-order Hermite-Gaussian, and zeroth-order Bessel profiles in our investigation, along with a few others. The first-order diffracted beam is examined (using a transfer function formalism based on angular spectra) under several parametric limits [such as the Klein-Cook parameter Q, the effective profile width, and the optical phase-shift parameter (α) in the sound cell]. Wherever feasible, the numerical results are compared with analytic theory. The scattered first-order profile output versus the optical phase-shift appears to maintain behavior similar to the known first-order characteristics (sin2 in intensity) encountered for the uniform incident beam case. It is observed, however, that such conformity exists seemingly only at relatively small values of Q (typically about 20 to 50). At higher Qs, on the other hand (where one would otherwise expect behavior closer to standard Bragg theory based on large Qs), it is found that the first-order intensity deviates substantially from the expected sin2- (or related) pattern. This deviation actually becomes more severe at even higher Qs. Additionally, the output profiles at higher Qs are also found to be distorted relative to the incident profiles. These results, though anomalous, are nevertheless generally compatible with earlier studies. Based on the transfer function theory, it is also known that for very large optical phase shifts (i.e., when α goes to infinity), the scattered first-order output for a Gaussian profile undergoes an axial (spatial) shift past the output plane of the sound cell. This predicted result is corroborated in our

  5. The spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV) and first order hyperpolarizability, HOMO and LUMO analysis of 3-aminobenzophenone by density functional method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, M; Kurt, M; Cinar, M; Ayyappan, S; Sudha, S; Sundaraganesan, N

    2012-06-15

    In this work, experimental and theoretical study on the molecular structure and the vibrational spectra of 3-aminobenzophenone (3-ABP) is presented. The vibrational frequencies of the title compound were obtained theoretically by DFT/B3LYP calculations employing the standard 6-311++G(d,p) basis set for optimized geometry and were compared with Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR) in the region of 400-4000 cm(-1) and with Fourier Transform Raman spectrum in the region of 50-4000 cm(-1). Complete vibrational assignments, analysis and correlation of the fundamental modes for the title compound were carried out. The vibrational harmonic frequencies were scaled using scale factor, yielding a good agreement between the experimentally recorded and the theoretically calculated values. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Vibrational spectra, molecular structure, natural bond orbital, first order hyperpolarizability, thermodynamic analysis and normal coordinate analysis of Salicylaldehyde p-methylphenylthiosemicarbazone by density functional method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porchelvi, E. Elamurugu; Muthu, S.

    2015-01-01

    The thiosemicarbazone compound, Salicylaldehyde p-methylphenylthiosemicarbazone (abbreviated as SMPTSC) was synthesized and characterized by FTIR, FT-Raman and UV. Density functional (DFT) calculations have been carried out for the title compound by performing DFT level of theory using B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) basis set. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies were calculated and compared with the experimental data. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out with aid of normal coordinate analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field methodology. The electronic dipole moment (μD) and the first hyperpolarizability (βtot) values of the investigated molecule were computed using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The stability and charge delocalization of the molecule was studied by natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Thearomaticities of the phenyl rings were studied using the standard harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity (HOMA) index. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges is also calculated. The molecule orbital contributions are studied by density of energy states (DOSs).

  7. Fatigue damage estimation in non-linear systems using a combination of Monte Carlo simulation and the First Order Reliability Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2015-01-01

    For non-linear systems the estimation of fatigue damage under stochastic loadings can be rather time-consuming. Usually Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) is applied, but the coefficient-of-variation (COV) can be large if only a small set of simulations can be done due to otherwise excessive CPU time. ...

  8. Five-Year-Olds’ Systematic Errors in Second-Order False Belief Tasks Are Due to First-Order Theory of Mind Strategy Selection: A Computational Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Burcu; Taatgen, Niels A.; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2017-01-01

    The focus of studies on second-order false belief reasoning generally was on investigating the roles of executive functions and language with correlational studies. Different from those studies, we focus on the question how 5-year-olds select and revise reasoning strategies in second-order false belief tasks by constructing two computational cognitive models of this process: an instance-based learning model and a reinforcement learning model. Unlike the reinforcement learning model, the instance-based learning model predicted that children who fail second-order false belief tasks would give answers based on first-order theory of mind (ToM) reasoning as opposed to zero-order reasoning. This prediction was confirmed with an empirical study that we conducted with 72 5- to 6-year-old children. The results showed that 17% of the answers were correct and 83% of the answers were wrong. In line with our prediction, 65% of the wrong answers were based on a first-order ToM strategy, while only 29% of them were based on a zero-order strategy (the remaining 6% of subjects did not provide any answer). Based on our instance-based learning model, we propose that when children get feedback “Wrong,” they explicitly revise their strategy to a higher level instead of implicitly selecting one of the available ToM strategies. Moreover, we predict that children’s failures are due to lack of experience and that with exposure to second-order false belief reasoning, children can revise their wrong first-order reasoning strategy to a correct second-order reasoning strategy. PMID:28293206

  9. Five-Year-Olds' Systematic Errors in Second-Order False Belief Tasks Are Due to First-Order Theory of Mind Strategy Selection: A Computational Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Burcu; Taatgen, Niels A; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2017-01-01

    The focus of studies on second-order false belief reasoning generally was on investigating the roles of executive functions and language with correlational studies. Different from those studies, we focus on the question how 5-year-olds select and revise reasoning strategies in second-order false belief tasks by constructing two computational cognitive models of this process: an instance-based learning model and a reinforcement learning model. Unlike the reinforcement learning model, the instance-based learning model predicted that children who fail second-order false belief tasks would give answers based on first-order theory of mind (ToM) reasoning as opposed to zero-order reasoning. This prediction was confirmed with an empirical study that we conducted with 72 5- to 6-year-old children. The results showed that 17% of the answers were correct and 83% of the answers were wrong. In line with our prediction, 65% of the wrong answers were based on a first-order ToM strategy, while only 29% of them were based on a zero-order strategy (the remaining 6% of subjects did not provide any answer). Based on our instance-based learning model, we propose that when children get feedback "Wrong," they explicitly revise their strategy to a higher level instead of implicitly selecting one of the available ToM strategies. Moreover, we predict that children's failures are due to lack of experience and that with exposure to second-order false belief reasoning, children can revise their wrong first-order reasoning strategy to a correct second-order reasoning strategy.

  10. Bifactor latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and first-order latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, SoYean; Burns, G Leonard; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Becker, Stephen P

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to determine if the latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms is best explained by a general disruptive behavior factor along with specific inattention (IN), hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), and ODD factors (a bifactor model) whereas the latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms is best explained by a first-order factor independent of the bifactor model of ADHD/ODD. Parents' (n = 703) and teachers' (n = 366) ratings of SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI, and ODD symptoms on the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory (CADBI) in a community sample of children (ages 5-13; 55% girls) were used to evaluate 4 models of symptom organization. Results indicated that a bifactor model of ADHD/ODD symptoms, in conjunction with a separate first-order SCT factor, was the best model for both parent and teacher ratings. The first-order SCT factor showed discriminant validity with the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factors in the bifactor model. In addition, higher scores on the SCT factor predicted greater academic and social impairment, even after controlling for the general disruptive behavior and 3 specific factors. Consistent with predictions from the trait-impulsivity etiological model of externalizing liability, a single, general disruptive behavior factor accounted for nearly all common variance in ADHD/ODD symptoms, whereas SCT symptoms represented a factor different from the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factor. These results provide additional support for distinguishing between SCT and ADHD-IN. The study also demonstrates how etiological models can be used to predict specific latent structures of symptom organization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Optimized broad-histogram simulations for strong first-order phase transitions: droplet transitions in the large-Q Potts model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Bela; Gull, Emanuel; Trebst, Simon; Troyer, Matthias; Huse, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The numerical simulation of strongly first-order phase transitions has remained a notoriously difficult problem even for classical systems due to the exponentially suppressed (thermal) equilibration in the vicinity of such a transition. In the absence of efficient update techniques, a common approach for improving equilibration in Monte Carlo simulations is broadening the sampled statistical ensemble beyond the bimodal distribution of the canonical ensemble. Here we show how a recently developed feedback algorithm can systematically optimize such broad-histogram ensembles and significantly speed up equilibration in comparison with other extended ensemble techniques such as flat-histogram, multicanonical and Wang-Landau sampling. We simulate, as a prototypical example of a strong first-order transition, the two-dimensional Potts model with up to Q = 250 different states in large systems. The optimized histogram develops a distinct multi-peak structure, thereby resolving entropic barriers and their associated phase transitions in the phase coexistence region—such as droplet nucleation and annihilation, and droplet-strip transitions for systems with periodic boundary conditions. We characterize the efficiency of the optimized histogram sampling by measuring round-trip times τ(N, Q) across the phase transition for samples comprised of N spins. While we find power-law scaling of τ versus N for small Q \\lesssim 50 and N \\lesssim 40^2 , we observe a crossover to exponential scaling for larger Q. These results demonstrate that despite the ensemble optimization, broad-histogram simulations cannot fully eliminate the supercritical slowing down at strongly first-order transitions.

  12. "Big Bang" as a result result of the curvature-driven first-order phase transition in the early cold Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashitskii, E. A.; Pentegov, V. I.

    We suggest that the "Big Bang" may be a result of the first-order phase transition driven by changing scalar curvature of the 4D space-time in the expanding cold Universe, filled with nonlinear scalar field φ and neutral matter with equation of state p = vɛ (where p and ɛ are pressure and energy density of matter). We consider a Lagrangian for scalar field in curved space-time with nonlinearity φ, which along with the quadratic term -ΣR|φ|2 (where Σ is interaction constant and R is scalar curvature) contains a term ΣR(φ +φ+) linear in φ. Due to this term the condition for the extrema of the potential energy of the scalar field is given by a cubic equation. Provided v > 1/3 the scalar curvature R = [κ(3v-1)ɛ - 4Γ (where κ and Γ are Einstein's gravitational and cosmological constants) decreases along with decreasing " in the process of the Universe's expansion, and at some critical value Rc < 0 a first-order phase transition occurs, driven by an "external field" parameter proportional to R. Given certain conditions the critical radius of the early Universe at the point of the first-order phase transition may reach arbitrary large values, so this scenario of unrestricted "inflation" of the Universe may be called "hyperinflation". Beyond the point of phase transition the system is rolling down into the potential minimum releasing the potential energy of scalar field with subsequent powerful heating of the Universe playing the role of "Big Bang".

  13. On the finite temperature λφ4 model. Is there a first order phase transition in (λφ4)3?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malbouisson, A.P.C.; Svaiter, N.F.

    1995-11-01

    We investigate the behavior at finite temperature of the massive λ φ 4 model in a D-dimensional spacetime, performing a renormalization up to the order of one loop. In this approximation we show that the thermal mass increase with the temperature, while the thermal coupling constant decrease with the temperature. We establish that in the (λφ 4 ) 3 model there is a temperature β * -1 above which the coupling constant becomes negative. We argue that the system could develop a first order phase transition, where the origin corresponds to a metastable vacuum. (author). 29 refs

  14. High order ADER schemes for a unified first order hyperbolic formulation of continuum mechanics: Viscous heat-conducting fluids and elastic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbser, Michael; Peshkov, Ilya; Romenski, Evgeniy; Zanotti, Olindo

    2016-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the numerical solution of the unified first order hyperbolic formulation of continuum mechanics recently proposed by Peshkov and Romenski [110], further denoted as HPR model. In that framework, the viscous stresses are computed from the so-called distortion tensor A, which is one of the primary state variables in the proposed first order system. A very important key feature of the HPR model is its ability to describe at the same time the behavior of inviscid and viscous compressible Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids with heat conduction, as well as the behavior of elastic and visco-plastic solids. Actually, the model treats viscous and inviscid fluids as generalized visco-plastic solids. This is achieved via a stiff source term that accounts for strain relaxation in the evolution equations of A. Also heat conduction is included via a first order hyperbolic system for the thermal impulse, from which the heat flux is computed. The governing PDE system is hyperbolic and fully consistent with the first and the second principle of thermodynamics. It is also fundamentally different from first order Maxwell-Cattaneo-type relaxation models based on extended irreversible thermodynamics. The HPR model represents therefore a novel and unified description of continuum mechanics, which applies at the same time to fluid mechanics and solid mechanics. In this paper, the direct connection between the HPR model and the classical hyperbolic-parabolic Navier-Stokes-Fourier theory is established for the first time via a formal asymptotic analysis in the stiff relaxation limit. From a numerical point of view, the governing partial differential equations are very challenging, since they form a large nonlinear hyperbolic PDE system that includes stiff source terms and non-conservative products. We apply the successful family of one-step ADER-WENO finite volume (FV) and ADER discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element schemes to the HPR model in the stiff

  15. Source term boundary adaptive estimation in a first-order 1D hyperbolic PDE: Application to a one loop solar collector through

    KAUST Repository

    Mechhoud, Sarra

    2016-08-04

    In this paper, boundary adaptive estimation of solar radiation in a solar collector plant is investigated. The solar collector is described by a 1D first-order hyperbolic partial differential equation where the solar radiation models the source term and only boundary measurements are available. Using boundary injection, the estimator is developed in the Lyapunov approach and consists of a combination of a state observer and a parameter adaptation law which guarantee the asymptotic convergence of the state and parameter estimation errors. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed identifier.

  16. On the reduction of the multidimensional stationary Schroedinger equation to a first-order equation and its relation to the pseudoanalytic function theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchenko, Vladislav V [Departmento de Telecomunicaciones, SEPI, Escuela Superior de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, CP 07738 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2005-01-28

    Given a particular solution of a one-dimensional stationary Schroedinger equation this equation of second order can be reduced to a first-order linear ordinary differential equation. This is done with the aid of an auxiliary Riccati differential equation. In the present work we show that the same fact is true in a multidimensional situation also. For simplicity we consider the case of two or three independent variables. One particular solution of the stationary Schroedinger equation allows us to reduce this second-order equation to a linear first-order quaternionic differential equation. As in the one-dimensional case this is done with the aid of an auxiliary quaternionic Riccati equation. The resulting first-order quaternionic equation is equivalent to the static Maxwell system and is closely related to the Dirac equation. In the case of two independent variables it is the well-known Vekua equation from theory of pseudoanalytic (or generalized analytic) functions. Nevertheless, we show that even in this case it is very useful to consider not only complex valued functions, solutions of the Vekua equation, but complete quaternionic functions. In this way the first-order quaternionic equation represents two separate Vekua equations, one of which gives us solutions of the Schroedinger equation and the other one can be considered as an auxiliary equation of a simpler structure. Moreover for the auxiliary equation we always have the corresponding Bers generating pair (F, G), the base of the Bers theory of pseudoanalytic functions, and what is very important, the Bers derivatives of solutions of the auxiliary equation give us solutions of the main Vekua equation and as a consequence of the Schroedinger equation. Based on this fact we obtain an analogue of the Cauchy integral theorem for solutions of the stationary Schroedinger equation. Other results from theory of pseudoanalytic functions can be written for solutions of the Schroedinger equation. Moreover, for an ample

  17. Monod kinetics rather than a first-order degradation model explains atrazine fate in soil mini-columns: Implications for pesticide fate modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheyns, K.; Mertens, J.; Diels, J.; Smolders, E.; Springael, D.

    2010-01-01

    Pesticide transport models commonly assume first-order pesticide degradation kinetics for describing reactive transport in soil. This assumption was assessed in mini-column studies with associated batch degradation tests. Soil mini-columns were irrigated with atrazine in two intermittent steps of about 30 days separated by 161 days application of artificial rain water. Atrazine concentration in the effluent peaked to that of the influent concentration after initial break-through but sharply decreased while influx was sustained, suggesting a degradation lag phase. The same pattern was displayed in the second step but peak height and percentage of atrazine recovered in the effluent were lower. A Monod model with biomass decay was successfully calibrated to this data. The model was successfully evaluated against batch degradation data and mini-column experiments at lower flow rate. The study suggested that first-order degradation models may underestimate risk of pesticide leaching if the pesticide degradation potential needs amplification during degradation. - Population dynamics of pesticide degrading population should be taken into account when predictions of pesticide fate are made to avoid underestimation of pesticide break-through towards groundwater.

  18. Influence of structural defects on the magnetocaloric effect in the vicinity of the first order magnetic transition in Fe50.4Rh49.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverev, V. I.; Saletsky, A. M.; Gimaev, R. R.; Tishin, A. M.; Miyanaga, T.; Staunton, J. B.

    2016-05-01

    The large magnetocaloric effect (MCE), which accompanies the first order ferromagnetic/anti-ferromagnetic transition in CsCl-ordered Fe-Rh alloys, has been investigated by measurements in slowly cycled magnetic fields of up to 2 T in magnitude for a range of temperatures, 300 K < T < 350 K. A bulk sample with composition Fe50.4Rh49.6 was used and the results were compared with those produced by the ab-initio density functional theory-based disordered local moment theory of the MCE. The measurements revealed an irreversibility effect in which the temperature of the material did not return to its initial value following several cycles of the magnetic field. These observations were explained in the framework of the ab-initio theory for the first order transition in which the consequences of the incomplete long range compositional order and small compositional inhomogeneities of the sample were included. The mean value of the long range order parameter S used in the theoretical work was 0.985, close to the value obtained experimentally from XRD measurements. The sample inhomogeneities were modeled by regions in the sample having a distribution of S values with narrow half-width 0.004 about the mean value. The influence of such compositional disorder on both the transition temperature (323.5 K) and MCE adiabatic temperature change (ΔT = 7.5 K) was also studied.

  19. Magnetic properties of Gd5(Si1.5Ge2.5) near the temperature and magnetic field induced first order phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, E.M.; Gschneidner, K.A.; Pecharsky, V.K.

    2001-01-01

    The temperature (from 5 to 300 K) and DC magnetic field (from 0 to 90 kOe) dependencies of the DC magnetization and magnetic susceptibility, and the temperature (from 5 to 350 K) dependency of the AC magnetic susceptibility of Gd 5 (Si 1.5 Ge 2.5 ) have been studied. The temperature and/or magnetic field induced magnetic phase transition in Gd 5 (Si 1.5 Ge 2.5 ) is a first order ferromagnet-paramagnet transition. The temperature of the magnetic transition in low AC magnetic field is 206 and 217 K for cooling and heating, respectively. The DC magnetic field increases the transition temperature by ∼0.36 K/kOe indicating that the paramagnetic phase can be reversibly transformed into the ferromagnetic phase. When the magnetic field is removed, the ferromagnetic phase transforms into the paramagnetic phase showing a large remanence-free hysteresis. The magnetic phase diagram based on the isothermal magnetic field dependence of the DC magnetization at various temperatures for Gd 5 (Si 1.5 Ge 2.5 ) is proposed. The magnetic field dependence of the magnetization in the vicinity of the first order phase transition shows evidence for the formation of a magnetically heterogeneous system in the volume of Gd 5 (Si 1.5 Ge 2.5 ) specimen where the magnetically ordered (ferromagnetic) and disordered (paramagnetic) phases co-exist

  20. High order ADER schemes for a unified first order hyperbolic formulation of continuum mechanics: Viscous heat-conducting fluids and elastic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumbser, Michael; Peshkov, Ilya; Romenski, Evgeniy; Zanotti, Olindo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • High order schemes for a unified first order hyperbolic formulation of continuum mechanics. • The mathematical model applies simultaneously to fluid mechanics and solid mechanics. • Viscous fluids are treated in the frame of hyper-elasticity as generalized visco-plastic solids. • Formal asymptotic analysis reveals the connection with the Navier–Stokes equations. • The distortion tensor A in the model appears to be well-suited for flow visualization. - Abstract: This paper is concerned with the numerical solution of the unified first order hyperbolic formulation of continuum mechanics recently proposed by Peshkov and Romenski [110], further denoted as HPR model. In that framework, the viscous stresses are computed from the so-called distortion tensor A, which is one of the primary state variables in the proposed first order system. A very important key feature of the HPR model is its ability to describe at the same time the behavior of inviscid and viscous compressible Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids with heat conduction, as well as the behavior of elastic and visco-plastic solids. Actually, the model treats viscous and inviscid fluids as generalized visco-plastic solids. This is achieved via a stiff source term that accounts for strain relaxation in the evolution equations of A. Also heat conduction is included via a first order hyperbolic system for the thermal impulse, from which the heat flux is computed. The governing PDE system is hyperbolic and fully consistent with the first and the second principle of thermodynamics. It is also fundamentally different from first order Maxwell–Cattaneo-type relaxation models based on extended irreversible thermodynamics. The HPR model represents therefore a novel and unified description of continuum mechanics, which applies at the same time to fluid mechanics and solid mechanics. In this paper, the direct connection between the HPR model and the classical hyperbolic–parabolic Navier