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Sample records for first-episode schizophrenia patients

  1. First episode schizophrenia

    with schizophrenia present clinically with psychotic, negative and cognitive ... changes in their emotions, cognition or behaviour which may indicate a ... contribute 80% to the risk of schizophrenia developing. A number of .... Positive symptoms ... Depression ... treatment of first episode schizophrenia is of critical importance.

  2. Cognitive and clinical predictors of functional capacity in patients with first episode schizophrenia

    Vesterager, Lone; Christensen, Torben Ø; Olsen, Birthe B

    2012-01-01

    The predictors of functional capacity in first episode schizophrenia among seven separable cognitive domains and clinical variables are unknown.......The predictors of functional capacity in first episode schizophrenia among seven separable cognitive domains and clinical variables are unknown....

  3. Comparison of first-episode and chronic patients diagnosed with schizophrenia: symptoms and childhood trauma.

    Wang, Zheng; Xue, Zhimin; Pu, Weidan; Yang, Bo; Li, Li; Yi, Wenyin; Wang, Peng; Liu, Chang; Wu, Guowei; Liu, Zhening; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2013-02-01

    There has been considerable interest in identifying and addressing the specific needs of early-episode patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in the hope that by addressing such needs early, chronic disabilities can be avoided. One hundred twenty-eight early-episode and 571 chronic patients were compared on socio-demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms and history of childhood trauma. Symptoms were measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and trauma with the short version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. First-episode patients scored 9.3% higher than chronic patients on the PANSS positive symptom scale and 16.3% lower on the negative symptom scale. More first episode patients reported childhood sexual abuse (P = 0.033); however, fewer reported childhood emotional neglect (P = 0.01). Childhood trauma was associated with positive symptoms, specifically with hallucinations in first-episode patients (r = 0.174; P = 0.049). Moreover, fewer parents of first episode patients were living alone (P = 0.008). On multiple logistic regression, the first-episode patients were younger (odds ratio = 0.92), had higher PANSS positive symptom scores (odds ratio 1.04) and lower negative symptom scores (odds ratio 0.948 recalculate). More positive symptoms, fewer negative symptoms, less isolated parents and greater risk of childhood sexual abuse might warrant attention in first episode schizophrenia and perhaps should be a focus for the development of targeted interventions. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. General and social cognition in remitted first-episode schizophrenia patients : a comparative study

    Caldiroli, Alice; Buoli, Massimiliano; Serati, Marta; Cahn, Wiepke; Altamura, A Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate whether both neurocognitive and social cognitive performances were different between remitted first-episode schizophrenia patients, non-remitters and healthy controls (HC). We assessed social cognition (Degraded Facial Affect Recognition Task-DFAR and

  5. EEG correlates of a mental arithmetic task in patients with first episode schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    Garakh, Zhanna; Zaytseva, Yuliya; Kapranova, Alexandra; Fiala, Ondrej; Horacek, Jiri; Shmukler, Alexander; Gurovich, Isaac Ya; Strelets, Valeria B

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the spectral power of the cortical bands in patients with first episode schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder at rest and during the performance of a mental arithmetic task. We analyzed EEG spectral power (SP) in the resting state and subsequently while counting down from 200 in steps of 7, in 32 first episode schizophrenia patients (SZ), 32 patients with first episode schizoaffective disorder (SA) and healthy controls (HC, n=40). Behavioral parameters such as accuracy and counting speed were also evaluated. Both SZ and SA patients were slower in counting than HC, no difference was obtained in the accuracy and counting speed in the patient groups. In the resting state patients showed elevated midline theta power, off-midline anterior beta 2 power and decreased central/posterior alpha power. The SA group occupied an intermediate position between the schizophrenia patients and controls. In task performance patients lacked a typical increase of midline theta, left anterior beta 2, and anterior gamma power; however, schizoaffective patients demonstrated a growing trend of power in the gamma band in left anterior off-midline sites similar to HC. Moreover, alpha power was less inhibited in schizoaffective patients and more pronounced in schizophrenia patients indicating distinct inhibitory mechanisms in these psychotic disorders. Patients with SA demonstrate less alteration in the spectral power of bands at rest than SZ, and present spectral power changes during cognitive task performance close to the controls. Our study contributes to the present evidence on the neurophysiological distinction between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Decreased Left Putamen and Thalamus Volume Correlates with Delusions in First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients

    Xiaojun Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDelusional thinking is one of the hallmark symptoms of schizophrenia. However, the underlying neural substrate for delusions in schizophrenia remains unknown. In an attempt to further our understanding of the neural basis of delusions, we explored gray matter deficits and their clinical associations in first-episode schizophrenia patients with and without delusions.MethodsTwenty-four first-episode schizophrenia patients with delusions and 18 without delusions as well as 26 healthy controls (HC underwent clinical assessment and whole-brain structural imaging which were acquired a 3.0 T scanner. Voxel-based morphometry was used to explore inter-group differences in gray matter volume using analysis of covariance, and Spearman correlation coefficients (rho between the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS-delusion scores and mean regional brain volumes was obtained.ResultsPatients with delusions showed decreased brain gray matter volumes in the left putamen, thalamus, and caudate regions compared with HC. Patients with delusions also showed decreased regional volume in the left putamen and thalamus compared with patients without delusions. SAPS-delusion scores were negatively correlated with the gray matter volumes of the left putamen and thalamus.DiscussionLeft putamen and thalamus volume loss may be biological correlates of delusions in schizophrenia.

  7. A magnetic resonance imaging study in first-episode disorganized-type patients with schizophrenia

    Ohnuma, Tohru; Kimura, Michihiro; Takahashi, Tadashi; Iwamoto, Norihiko; Arai, Heii

    1997-01-01

    Although a number of radiological studies have suggested that brains of patients suffering from schizophrenia have morphological abnormalities, the results are inconsistent. In the present study, in order to examine the brain, morphological features of homogeneous schizophrenics' brain magnetic resonance imagings (MRI) were taken, before neuroleptic treatment, from subjects suffering from disorganized-type schizophrenia, (DOS) during their first episodes. Results showed that DOS had significantly smaller indices for bilateral frontal gray matter (GM), left hippocampal formation (HF), left parahippocampal gray matter (PHGM) and left cingulate gyrus gray matter (CGM) than normal controls. These findings support the previous computed tomography (CT) and MRI studies on schizophrenic brains, although the subjects were not defined as disorganized-type, and may suggest the involvement of a neurocircuit between the bilateral frontal lobe and the left side of limbic system in the first-episode DOS group. (author). 54 refs

  8. Relationship of neuromotor disturbances to psychosis symptoms in first-episode neuroleptic-naive schizophrenia patients.

    Cortese, Leonardo; Caligiuri, Michael P; Malla, Ashok K; Manchanda, Rahul; Takhar, Jatinder; Haricharan, Raj

    2005-06-01

    From the very inception of the modern diagnostic scheme for psychotic disorders, abnormalities in motor function have been observed in these conditions. Despite convergence from multiple areas of research supporting the notion that multiple frontal-subcortical circuits regulate motor and limbic behavior, the precise relationship between motor abnormalities and psychopathology has not been elucidated. The goals of this study were to examine the prevalence of extrapyramidal signs (EPS) in first-episode schizophrenia patients and their relationships to three psychopathological dimensions (positive psychosis syndrome, negative syndrome, and disorganization). We assessed EPS using traditional observer-based as well as quantitative instrumental measures in 39 neuroleptic-naive first-episode schizophrenia subjects. Subjects were followed for 6 months after initiating antipsychotic treatment to examine the stability of motor-limbic relationships. Four main findings emerged from this study. First, depending on the measure used the prevalence of dyskinesia prior to treatment ranged from 13% to 20%. The prevalence of parkinsonism ranged from 18% to 28%. Second, severity of dyskinesia was associated with the positive psychotic syndrome; whereas parkinsonism was associated with the positive psychosis, negative syndrome and disorganization. Third, psychopathology improved significantly across all symptom dimensions following antipsychotic treatment, while EPS remained stable. This suggests that some motor abnormalities in schizophrenia may reflect trait characteristics. Fourth, abnormalities on the pre-treatment instrumental measure of parkinsonism predicted greater improvement on positive psychosis symptoms following treatment (p=0.008). Our findings support the notion that neuromotor disturbances may be a core feature of schizophrenia in a substantial proportion of patients and implicate multiple fronto-striatal circuits regulating limbic and neuromotor behavior in

  9. Olfactory identification deficit and its relationship with hedonic traits in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and individuals with schizotypy.

    Zou, Lai-Quan; Zhou, Han-Yu; Lui, Simon S Y; Wang, Yi; Wang, Ya; Gan, Jun; Zhu, Xiong-Zhao; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2018-04-20

    Olfactory identification impairments have been consistently found in schizophrenia patients. However, few previous studies have investigated this in first-episode patients. There are also inconsistent findings regarding olfactory identification ability in psychometrically-defined schizotypy individuals. In this study, we directly compared the olfactory identification ability of first-episode schizophrenia patients with schizotypy individuals. The relationship between olfactory identification impairments and hedonic traits was also examined. Thirty-five first-episode schizophrenia patients, 40 schizotypy individuals as defined by the Chapman's Anhedonia Scales and 40 demographically matched controls were recruited. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test was administered. Hedonic capacity was assessed using the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS). The results showed that both the schizophrenia and schizotypy groups showed poorer olfactory identification ability than controls, and the impairment was significantly correlated with reduced pleasure experiences. Our findings support olfactory identification impairment as a trait marker for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of Borna Disease Virus (BDV in Patients with First Episode of Schizophrenia

    Hasan Soltani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Schizophrenia is a complex widespread neuropsychiatric disorder. This illness encompasses a complex debilitating mental disorder causing illusion, delusion, disturbed relationship, low motivation and decline of emotion. Viral infection of the brain including Borna Disease Virus (BDV may play a role in transient or permanent neurological and behavioral abnormalities. This role of Borna virus has not been resolved outright yet, and based on published papers investigation examining the role of this virus in schizophrenia is in progress worldwide.Method: In this study, Nested Reverse Transcription–Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nested RT-PCR was used for detection of BDV Ribonucleic Acid (RNA in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs of a group of patients experiencing the first episode of schizophrenia. The results were compared with a normal group.Results: In our study, no BDV-positive was found in PBMCs of the case group. Out of 40 participants of control group one was positive for P24 gene of BDV. This result are similar to several published papers about this topic.Conclusion: An etiological relationship between Bornavirus and schizophrenia was not found in this study. More investigations are warranted to illustrate the probable relationship between bornavirus infection and schizophrenia.

  11. Lower LINE-1 methylation in first-episode schizophrenia patients with the history of childhood trauma.

    Misiak, Błażej; Szmida, Elżbieta; Karpiński, Paweł; Loska, Olga; Sąsiadek, Maria M; Frydecka, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    We investigated methylation of DNA repetitive sequences (LINE-1 and BAGE) in peripheral blood leukocytes from first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and healthy controls (HCs) with respect to childhood adversities. Patients were divided into two subgroups based on the history of childhood trauma - FES(+) and FES(-) subjects. The majority of HCs had a negative history of childhood trauma - HCs(-) subjects. FES(+) patients had significantly lower LINE-1 methylation in comparison with FES(-) patients or HC(-) subjects. Emotional abuse and total trauma score predicted lower LINE-1 methylation in FES patients, while general trauma score was associated with lower BAGE methylation in HCs. Childhood adversities might be associated with global DNA hypomethylation in adult FES patients.

  12. Physical activity and anomalous bodily experiences in patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    Nyboe, Lene; Moeller, Marianne K; Vestergaard, Claus H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low physical activity is strongly correlated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and poor physical health. Although the prevalence of MetS is high in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES), little is still known about the level of and possible barriers for physical activity in FES....... AIM: The purpose of the study was to compare physical activity in patients with FES with healthy controls; to investigate changes in physical activity over 1 year of follow-up; and to explore the correlations of physical activity and anomalous bodily experiences reported by patients with FES. METHODS......: Both physical activity and aerobic fitness were measured. Anomalous bodily experiences were measured by selected items from the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience and The Body Awareness Scale. Psychopathological data comprising negative and positive symptoms and data on psychotropic medication...

  13. Volumetric and morphological characteristics of the hippocampus are associated with progression to schizophrenia in patients with first-episode psychosis.

    Sauras, R; Keymer, A; Alonso-Solis, A; Díaz, A; Molins, C; Nuñez, F; Rabella, M; Roldán, A; Grasa, E; Alvarez, E; Portella, M J; Corripio, I

    2017-09-01

    Abnormalities in the hippocampus have been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychosis. However, it is still unclear whether certain abnormalities are a pre-existing vulnerability factor, a sign of disease progression or a consequence of environmental factors. We hypothesized that first-episode psychosis patients who progress to schizophrenia after one year of follow up will display greater volumetric and morphological changes from the very beginning of the disorder. We studied the hippocampus of 41 patients with a first-episode psychosis and 41 matched healthy controls. MRI was performed at the time of the inclusion in the study. After one year, the whole sample was reevaluated and divided in two groups depending on the diagnoses (schizophrenia vs. non-schizophrenia). Patients who progressed to schizophrenia showed a significantly smaller left hippocampus volume than control group and no-schizophrenia group (F=3.54; df=2, 77; P=0.03). We also found significant differences in the morphology of the anterior hippocampus (CA1) of patients with first-episode psychosis who developed schizophrenia compared with patients who did not. These results are consistent with the assumption of hyperfunctioning dopaminergic cortico-subcortical circuits in schizophrenia, which might be related with an alteration of subcortical structures, such as the hippocampus, along the course of the disease. According with these results, hippocampus abnormalities may serve as a prognostic marker of clinical outcome in patients with a first-episode psychosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence and profile of cognitive deficits in a cohort of first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients

    Jensen, Maria Høj; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard

    2014-01-01

    first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients and 60 matched healthy controls have been examined at baseline. The study uses several instruments, including BACS (Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia) and CANTAB (Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery). Premorbid......Background and Aims: Cognitive deficits are considered a core feature of schizophrenia with prevalence estimates ranging from ca. 75-85 %. These deficits are present in the early phase of the illness; however in most first-episode schizophrenia studies the patients are receiving antipsychotic...... medication, which can affect the results on specific domains such as processing speed. As part of the PECANS project (Pan European Collaboration on Antipsychotic Naïve Schizophrenia) the aim of the present study is to establish the prevalence and profile of cognitive deficits in a cohort of first...

  15. Metabolic syndrome and aerobic fitness in patients with first-episode schizophrenia, including a 1-year follow-up

    Nyboe, L.; Vestergaard, C. H.; Moeller, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic abnormalities in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) with sex- and age-matched healthy controls; to investigate changes in MetS during 1year of treatment; and to investigate predictors of MetS. METHODS: Pa...

  16. Gray matter morphological anomalies in the cerebellar vermis in first-episode schizophrenia patients with cognitive deficits.

    Wang, Jingjuan; Zhou, Li; Cui, Chunlei; Liu, Zhening; Lu, Jie

    2017-11-22

    Cognitive deficits are a core feature of early schizophrenia. However, the pathological foundations underlying cognitive deficits are still unknown. The present study examined the association between gray matter density and cognitive deficits in first-episode schizophrenia. Structural magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was performed in 34 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 21 healthy controls. Patients were divided into two subgroups according to working memory task performance. The three groups were well matched for age, gender, and education, and the two patient groups were also further matched for diagnosis, duration of illness, and antipsychotic treatment. Voxel-based morphometric analysis was performed to estimate changes in gray matter density in first-episode schizophrenia patients with cognitive deficits. The relationships between gray matter density and clinical outcomes were explored. Patients with cognitive deficits were found to have reduced gray matter density in the vermis and tonsil of cerebellum compared with patients without cognitive deficits and healthy controls, decreased gray matter density in left supplementary motor area, bilateral precentral gyrus compared with patients without cognitive deficits. Classifier results showed GMD in cerebellar vermis tonsil cluster could differentiate SZ-CD from controls, left supplementary motor area cluster could differentiate SZ-CD from SZ-NCD. Gray matter density values of the cerebellar vermis cluster in patients groups were positively correlated with cognitive severity. Decreased gray matter density in the vermis and tonsil of cerebellum may underlie early psychosis and serve as a candidate biomarker for schizophrenia with cognitive deficits.

  17. Childhood traumatic events and types of auditory verbal hallucinations in first-episode schizophrenia patients.

    Misiak, Błażej; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Kiejna, Andrzej; Frydecka, Dorota

    2016-04-01

    Evidence is accumulating that childhood trauma might be associated with higher severity of positive symptoms in patients with psychosis and higher incidence of psychotic experiences in non-clinical populations. However, it remains unknown whether the history of childhood trauma might be associated with particular types of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). We assessed childhood trauma using the Early Trauma Inventory Self-Report - Short Form (ETISR-SF) in 94 first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients. Lifetime psychopathology was evaluated using the Operational Criteria for Psychotic Illness (OPCRIT) checklist, while symptoms on the day of assessment were examined using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Based on ETISR-SF, patients were divided into those with and without the history of childhood trauma: FES(+) and FES(-) patients. FES(+) patients had significantly higher total number of AVH types and Schneiderian first-rank AVH as well as significantly higher PANSS P3 item score (hallucinatory behavior) in comparison with FES(-) patients. They experienced significantly more frequently third person AVH and abusive/accusatory/persecutory voices. These differences remained significant after controlling for education, PANSS depression factor score and chlorpromazine equivalent. Linear regression analysis revealed that the total number of AVH types was predicted by sexual abuse score after controlling for above mentioned confounders. This effect was significant only in females. Our results indicate that the history of childhood trauma, especially sexual abuse, is associated with higher number AVH in females but not in males. Third person AVH and abusive/accusatory/persecutory voices, representing Schneiderian first-rank symptoms, might be particularly related to childhood traumatic events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impaired cue identification and intention retrieval underlie prospective memory deficits in patients with first-episode schizophrenia.

    Liu, Dengtang; Ji, Chengfeng; Zhuo, Kaiming; Song, Zhenhua; Wang, Yingchan; Mei, Li; Zhu, Dianming; Xiang, Qiong; Chen, Tianyi; Yang, Zhilei; Zhu, Guang; Wang, Ya; Cheung, Eric Fc; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Fan, Xiaoduo; Chan, Raymond Ck; Xu, Yifeng; Jiang, Kaida

    2017-03-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with impairment in prospective memory, the ability to remember to carry out an intended action in the future. It has been established that cue identification (detection of the cue event signaling that an intended action should be performed) and intention retrieval (retrieval of an intention from long-term memory following the recognition of a prospective cue) are two important processes underlying prospective memory. The purpose of this study was to examine prospective memory deficit and underlying cognitive processes in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. This study examined cue identification and intention retrieval components of event-based prospective memory using a dual-task paradigm in 30 patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls. All participants were also administered a set of tests assessing working memory and retrospective memory. Both cue identification and intention retrieval were impaired in patients with first-episode schizophrenia compared with healthy controls ( ps cue identification (Cohen's d = 0.98) and a medium effect size for intention retrieval (Cohen's d = 0.62). After controlling for working memory and retrospective memory, the difference in cue identification between patients and healthy controls remained significant. However, the difference in intention retrieval between the two groups was no longer significant. In addition, there was a significant inverse relationship between cue identification and negative symptoms ( r = -0.446, p = 0.013) in the patient group. These findings suggest that both cue identification and intention retrieval in event-based prospective memory are impaired in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Cue identification and intention retrieval could be potentially used as biomarkers for early detection and treatment prognosis of schizophrenia. In addition, addressing cue identification deficit through cognitive enhancement training may

  19. Risk factors for medication non-adherence in patients with first episode schizophrenia and related disorders; a prospective five year follow-up

    de Haan, L.; van Amelsvoort, T.; Dingemans, P.; Linszen, D.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The goal of this study is to assess, prospectively, the relative contribution of baseline variables to long-term medication adherence in patients with a first episode of schizophrenia. METHODS: Consecutively admitted patients suffering from a first episode of schizophrenia or related

  20. Rorschach Inkblot Method data at baseline and after 2 years treatment of consecutively admitted patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Andersen, Palle Bent; Knudsen, Per Bjerregaard

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Rorschach Inkblot Method is regarded as an important clinical instrument for detailed diagnostic description of the integrative capacities of individuals in psychotic states and as an instrument for measuring progression in the course of treatment. Aims: To describe relevant...... Rorschach variables at baseline in a group of consecutively admitted patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Furthermore, to describe the changes in these variables from baseline to year 2 for the group of patients given psychiatric standard treatment, and to compare these changes with changes in other...... outcome measures [Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Strauss-Carpenter and socio-demographic variables]. Methods: In a prospective study, 34 patients consecutively admitted to treatment for a first episode of schizophrenia were tested using Exner...

  1. An optimized voxel-based morphometry MRI study of the brain in patients with first episode schizophrenia

    Lv Su; Huang Xiaoqi; Tang Hehan; Gong Qiyong; Ouyang Luo; Deng Wei; Jiang Lijun; Li Tao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the structural differences between patients with first episode schizophrenia and normal controls using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study. Methods: High resolution T 1 weighted images were obtained using 3.0 T MR from 13 first-episode, untreated schizophrenia and 13 age, sex, handedness matched normal controls. Images were preprocessed by employing the optimized VBM and two sample t-test was used to detect differences between patients and normal controls with respect to both density and volume of gray matter in the brain. Results Patients with schizophrenia had significant lower gray matter density and gray matter volume generally distributed among bilateral hemispheres, especially in bilateral frontal and temporal lobes. However, no significant increase of gray matter density and gray matter volume was observed in these patients. Conclusions: Optimized voxel-based morphometry study is an automatic and effective method to study psychological diseases such as schizophrenia. Compared with normal controls, patients with schizophrenia had significantly lower gray matter density and gray matter volume across the bilateral hemispheres. (authors)

  2. Neurological soft signs discriminating mood disorders from first episode schizophrenia

    Boks, MPM; Liddle, PF; Burgerhof, JGM; Knegtering, R; Bosch, RJ

    Objective: To investigate the specificity of neurological soft signs (NSS) for first episode schizophrenia compared with mood disorders. Method: We assessed NSS in a sample of 60 healthy controls, 191 first episode psychosis patients and 81 mood disorder patients. We used a principle component

  3. Values in First-Episode Schizophrenia.

    Agid, Ofer; Mcdonald, Krysta; Fervaha, Gagan; Littrell, Romie; Thoma, Jessica; Zipursky, Robert B; Foussias, George; Remington, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Functional impairment continues to represent a major challenge in schizophrenia. Surprisingly, patients with schizophrenia report a level of happiness comparable with control subjects, even in the face of the prominent functional deficits, a finding at odds with evidence indicating a positive relation between happiness and level of functioning. In attempting to reconcile these findings, we chose to examine the issue of values, defined as affectively infused criteria or motivational goals used to select and justify actions, people, and the self, as values are related to both happiness and functioning. Fifty-six first-episode patients in remission and 56 healthy control subjects completed happiness and values measures. Statistical analyses included correlations, analysis of variance, structural equation modelling, and smallest space analysis. Results indicated that patients with schizophrenia placed significantly greater priority on the value dimensions of Tradition (P = 0.02) and Power (P = 0.03), and significantly less priority on Self-direction (P = 0.007) and Stimulation, (P = 0.008). Essentially, people with schizophrenia place more emphasis on the customs and ideas that traditional culture or religion provide in conjunction with a decreased interest in change, which is at odds with the expectations of early adulthood. This value difference could be related to functional deficits. To this point, we have assumed that people hold to the same values that guided them before the illness' onset, but this may not be the case. Our study indicates that values differ in people with schizophrenia, compared with control subjects, even early in the illness and in the face of symptomatic remission.

  4. Longitudinal volume changes of the pituitary gland in patients with schizotypal disorder and first-episode schizophrenia.

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Zhou, Shi-Yu; Nakamura, Kazue; Tanino, Ryoichiro; Furuichi, Atsushi; Kido, Mikio; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro; Noguchi, Kyo; Seto, Hikaru; Kurachi, Masayoshi; Suzuki, Michio

    2011-01-15

    An enlarged volume of the pituitary gland has been reported in the schizophrenia spectrum, possibly reflecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hyperactivity. However, it remains largely unknown whether the pituitary size longitudinally changes in the course of the spectrum disorders. In the present study, longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were obtained from 18 patients with first-episode schizophrenia, 13 patients with schizotypal disorder, and 20 healthy controls. The pituitary volume was measured at baseline and follow-up (mean, 2.7 years) scans and was compared across groups. The pituitary volume was larger in the schizophrenia patients than controls at baseline, and both patient groups had significantly larger pituitary volume than controls at follow-up. In a longitudinal comparison, both schizophrenia (3.6%/year) and schizotypal (2.7%/year) patients showed significant pituitary enlargement compared with controls (-1.8%/year). In the schizophrenia patients, greater pituitary enlargement over time was associated with less improvement of delusions and higher scores for thought disorders at the follow-up. These findings suggest that the pituitary gland exhibits ongoing volume changes during the early course of the schizophrenia spectrum as a possible marker of state-related impairments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The association between psychopathology of first-episode psychosis patients within the schizophrenia spectrum and previous offending

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    treatment centres included and rated 477 patients with first-episode psychosis over a 2-year period on socio-demography, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, OPerational CRITeria checklist, Global Assessment of Functioning, Premorbid Adjustment Scale and Self-report Insight Scale for psychosis. Data......, employment status and education, a primarily positive symptomatology was associated with a prior criminal career. The premorbid level of functioning and several function parameters were also significantly associated with criminal history. There are significant differences in psychopathology between...... schizophrenia spectrum patients with and without a criminal career before first-episode psychosis, and a better screening procedure in the judicial system could detect these individuals earlier and make adequate treatment possible....

  6. The association between psychopathology of first-episode psychosis patients within the schizophrenia spectrum and previous offending

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    treatment centres included and rated 477 patients with first-episode psychosis over a 2-year period on socio-demography, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, OPerational CRITeria checklist, Global Assessment of Functioning, Premorbid Adjustment Scale and Self-report Insight Scale for psychosis. Data......, employment status and education, a primarily positive symptomatology was associated with a prior criminal career. The premorbid level of functioning and several function parameters were also significantly associated with criminal history. There are significant differences in psychopathology between...... schizophrenia spectrum patients with and without a criminal career before first-episode psychosis, and a better screening procedure in the judicial system could detect these individuals earlier and make adequate treatment possible....

  7. Mismatch negativity in chronic schizophrenia and first-episode schizophrenia.

    Salisbury, Dean F; Shenton, Martha E; Griggs, Carlye B; Bonner-Jackson, Aaron; McCarley, Robert W

    2002-08-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related brain potential that is sensitive to stimulus deviation from a repetitive pattern. The MMN is thought primarily to reflect the activity of sensory memory, with, at most, moderate influences of higher-level cognitive processes, such as attention. The MMN is reported to be reduced in patients with chronic schizophrenia. However, it is unknown whether MMN is reduced in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (at first hospitalization). Subject groups comprised patients with chronic schizophrenia (n = 16) and older control subjects (n = 13), and patients with first-episode schizophrenia (n = 21) and younger control subjects (n = 27). The MMN was visualized by subtracting the averaged event-related brain potential to standard tones (1 kHz [95% of all tones]) from the event-related brain potential to pitch-deviant tones (1.2 kHz [5% of all tones]). The MMN voltage was the mean voltage from 100 to 200 milliseconds. Pitch-deviant MMN was reduced by approximately 47% in patients with chronic illness along the sagittal midline relative to controls. The MMN was not reduced in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. All 4 groups showed approximately 64% larger MMN to pitch-deviant tones over the right hemisphere compared with the left hemisphere. The pitch-deviant MMN reductions present in patients with chronic schizophrenia are not present at first hospitalization. The sensory, echoic memory functions indexed by MMN seem unaffected early in the schizophrenia disease process. Reductions in MMN amplitude may develop over time and index the progression of the disorder, although that can only be definitively determined by longitudinal assessments.

  8. Brain Volume Changes After Withdrawal of Atypical Antipsychotics in Patients With First-Episode Schizophrenia

    Boonstra, Geartsje; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Schnack, Hugo G.; Cahn, Wiepke; Burger, Huibert; Boersma, Maria; de Kroon, Bart; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Kahn, Rene S.

    The influence of antipsychotic medication on brain morphology in schizophrenia may confound interpretation of brain changes over time. We aimed to assess the effect of discontinuation of atypical antipsychotic medication on change in brain volume in patients. Sixteen remitted, stable patients with

  9. Sex-Specific Patterns of Aberrant Brain Function in First-Episode Treatment-Naive Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Lei, Wei; Li, Mingli; Deng, Wei; Zhou, Yi; Ma, Xiaohong; Wang, Qiang; Guo, Wanjun; Li, Yinfei; Jiang, Lijun; Han, Yuanyuan; Huang, Chaohua; Hu, Xun; Li, Tao

    2015-07-16

    Male and female patients with schizophrenia show significant differences in a number of important clinical features, yet the neural substrates of these differences are still poorly understood. Here we explored the sex differences in the brain functional aberrations in 124 treatment-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia (61 males), compared with 102 age-matched healthy controls (50 males). Maps of degree centrality (DC) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) were constructed using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and compared between groups. We found that: (1) Selective DC reduction was observed in the right putamen (Put_R) in male patients and the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in female patients; (2) Functional connectivity analysis (using Put_R and MFG as seeds) found that male and female patients have disturbed functional integration in two separate networks, i.e., the sensorimotor network and the default mode network; (3) Significant ALFF alterations were also observed in these two networks in both genders; (4) Sex specific brain functional alterations were associated with various symptoms in patients. These results suggested that sex-specific patterns of functional aberration existed in schizophrenia, and these patterns were associated with the clinical features both in male and female patients.

  10. Sex-Specific Patterns of Aberrant Brain Function in First-Episode Treatment-Naive Patients with Schizophrenia

    Wei Lei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Male and female patients with schizophrenia show significant differences in a number of important clinical features, yet the neural substrates of these differences are still poorly understood. Here we explored the sex differences in the brain functional aberrations in 124 treatment-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia (61 males, compared with 102 age-matched healthy controls (50 males. Maps of degree centrality (DC and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF were constructed using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and compared between groups. We found that: (1 Selective DC reduction was observed in the right putamen (Put_R in male patients and the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG in female patients; (2 Functional connectivity analysis (using Put_R and MFG as seeds found that male and female patients have disturbed functional integration in two separate networks, i.e., the sensorimotor network and the default mode network; (3 Significant ALFF alterations were also observed in these two networks in both genders; (4 Sex specific brain functional alterations were associated with various symptoms in patients. These results suggested that sex-specific patterns of functional aberration existed in schizophrenia, and these patterns were associated with the clinical features both in male and female patients.

  11. Suicidal ideation and quality of life in patients with a first episode of schizophrenia

    Krystyna Górna

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Risk of suicide in patients with schizophrenia is 20- to 50-fold higher than in the general population. The impact of suicidal behaviour on quality of life rarely was a subject of in-depth analysis. The issue is particularly important in patients after first psychiatric hospitalisation, since the risk of suicide is very high during the first postdischarge months. The aim of this study was to analyse correlations between presence of suicidal ideations prior to first hospitalisation and quality of life of patients with schizophrenia during the first post-hospitalisation year. Material and method: Overall, 86 patients were enrolled in the study. Suicidal ideations and behaviours were assessed based on interviews with patients and their relatives, as well as on medical records. The patients’ quality of life was evaluated one month (1st exam and after one year (2nd exam after discharge. Quality of life was assessed using the WHOQOL questionnaire and the SFS scale. Psychopathological symptoms were evaluated using the PANSS inventory. Results: Prior to first hospitalisation, suicidal ideations were present in 39.5% of our patients. Persons with suicidal thoughts presented more severe psychopathological symptoms (1st exam; p=0.05. Both examinations revealed differences in the patients’ quality of life. Lack of suicidal ideations was associated with a better quality of life as assessed by the WHOQOL questionnaire in the following domains: general well-being (1st and 2nd exam, state of health (1st exam, Mental (1st and 2nd exam, Physical (1st exam, Environmental domains (1st exam and Work/Employment (SFS scale, 1st and 2nd exam. A correlation was noticed between suicidal ideation and change in quality of life (WHOQOL in domains Social relationships and Environmental. An improvement of quality of life in this domain was noticed in persons with suicidal ideations. Conclusions: Suicidal ideations prior to first psychiatric hospitalisation

  12. Treatment of patients with first-episode psychosis: two-year outcome data from the Danish National Schizophrenia Project

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Valbak, Kristian; Harder, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    First episode psychosis interventions have been in focus in the last two decades in an attempt to improve the course and outcome of schizophrenic disorders. The Danish National Schizophrenia Project began in 1997 its intake of patients, aged 16-35, with a first psychotic episode of a schizophrenic...... psychodynamic psychotherapy as a supplement to treatment as usual", "integrated, assertive, psychosocial and educational treatment programme", or "treatment as usual". Data on symptoms and social function and sociodemographic data were obtained at inclusion, and at year 1 and 2. The three sub-cohorts did...... patients in the treatment-as-usual group. Improvement in the intervention groups continued into the second year. Patients receiving integrated assertive treatment faired better than those being treated with the less intensive method of supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy, and the latter group improved...

  13. Altered Patterns of Reward Activation in a Large Cohort of Antipsychotic Naïve First Episode Schizophrenia Patients

    Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard; Rostrup, Egill; Wulff, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Disturbances of the brain reward system are suggested to play an important role in the development of central psychopathological symptoms in schizophrenia. Several studies have been published by know looking at dysfunctions of the reward system. Often these studies are driven by specific...... hypotheses trying to link a certain aspect of reward processing to specific symptoms. However, reward processing is a complex mechanism, as it consists of several phases which interact. Thus deficit found in one part of the reward process might be secondary to other mechanism and aspects, which might...... not have been caught by the focused analyses. By using a multivariate approach we want to confirm previous findings in a smaller group of patients, and further we expect this method to reveal other important alterations in reward processing. METHODS 53 antipsychotic-naïve first-episode patients...

  14. Reduced context effects on retrieval in first-episode schizophrenia.

    Lucia M Talamini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A recent modeling study by the authors predicted that contextual information is poorly integrated into episodic representations in schizophrenia, and that this is a main cause of the retrieval deficits seen in schizophrenia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have tested this prediction in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and matched controls. The benefit from contextual cues in retrieval was strongly reduced in patients. On the other hand, retrieval based on item cues was spared. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that reduced integration of context information into episodic representations is a core deficit in schizophrenia and one of the main causes of episodic memory impairment.

  15. Neurological signs and morphological cerebral changes in schizophrenia: An analysis of NSS subscales in patients with first episode psychosis.

    Heuser, Mark; Thomann, Philipp A; Essig, Marco; Bachmann, Silke; Schröder, Johannes

    2011-05-31

    Neurological soft signs (NSS) comprise a broad range of minor motor and sensory deficits which are frequently found in schizophrenia. However, the cerebral changes underlying NSS are only partly understood. We therefore investigated the cerebral correlates of NSS by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 102 patients with first episode schizophrenia. NSS were assessed after remission of acute psychotic symptoms using the Heidelberg scale (HS), which consists of five NSS subscales ("motor coordination", "complex motor tasks", "orientation", "integrative functions", and "hard signs"). Correlations between NSS scores and cerebral changes were established by optimized voxel-based morphometry. NSS total scores were significantly associated with reduced gray matter densities in the precentral and postcentral gyri, the inferior parietal lobule and the inferior occipital gyrus. Both of the NSS subscales "motor coordination" and "complex motor tasks", referred to motor strip changes but showed differential correlations with parietal, insular, cerebellar or frontal sites, respectively. The NSS subscales "orientation" and "integrative functions" were associated with left frontal, parietal, and occipital changes or bihemispheric frontal changes, respectively. The NSS subscale "hard signs" was associated with deficits in the right cerebellum and right parastriate cortex. Repeated analyses for white matter changes revealed similar results. These findings confirm the associations between NSS and cerebral changes in areas important for motor and sensory functioning. This variety of cerebral sites corresponds to the heterogeneity of NSS and are consistent with the hypothesis that NSS reflect both a rather generalized cerebral dysfunction and localized deficits specific for particular signs. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Case study of first episode schizophrenia in pregnancy and postpartum.

    Kast, Kristopher A; Agarkar, Smita

    2017-08-01

    Patients with first-episode psychosis of peripartum onset commonly prove to have a mood-disorder diathesis; however, a proportion of cases represent first-episode schizophrenia. We present such a case and discuss the clinical relevance of recognizing this small but important population of new mothers. These patients are at considerable risk of misdiagnosis, resulting in ineffective maintenance therapy, poorer recovery of function, and development of treatment resistance. Accurate diagnosis in the peripartum period will impact treatment decisions and long-term therapy. Clinicians need to be vigilant, especially during maintenance therapy, to identify these patients and ensure appropriate antipsychotic therapy is provided.

  17. The history of childhood trauma is associated with lipid disturbances and blood pressure in adult first-episode schizophrenia patients.

    Misiak, Błażej; Kiejna, Andrzej; Frydecka, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    It has repeatedly been found that early-life traumatic events may contribute to metabolic dysregulation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between the history of childhood trauma and cardiovascular risk factors in first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients. The history of childhood trauma was assessed using the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report - Short Form (ETISR-SF) in 83 FES patients. Based on the ETISR-SF, patients were divided into those with positive and negative history of childhood trauma: FES(+) and FES(-) patients. Serum levels of fasting glucose lipids, homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate, as well as anthropometric parameters and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. The history of childhood trauma was associated with higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, SBP and DBP after covarying for age, gender, body mass index, education and chlorpromazine equivalent. There were significant correlations between scores of distinct ETISR-SF subscales and LDL, high-density lipoprotein, SBP, DBP and the number of metabolic syndrome criteria. Results of this study indicate that traumatic events during childhood might be related to higher resting blood pressure and higher LDL levels in adult FES patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Frequency and predictive values of first rank symptoms at baseline among 362 young adult patients with first-episode schizophrenia Results from the Danish OPUS study

    Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the frequency of the Schneiderian First Rank Symptoms (FRSs) in a representative group of patients with first-episode schizophrenia and to analyse the predictive value of these symptoms in relation to psychopathology, work situation, depression, dependency and admission after 2 years...

  19. Prefrontal cortex connectivity dysfunction in performing the Fist–Edge–Palm task in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and non-psychotic first-degree relatives

    Raymond C.K. Chan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological soft signs have been considered one of the promising neurological endophenotypes for schizophrenia. However, most previous studies have employed clinical rating data only. The present study aimed to examine the neurobiological basis of one of the typical motor coordination signs, the Fist–Edge–Palm (FEP task, in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and their non-psychotic first degree relatives. Thirteen patients with first-episode schizophrenia, 14 non-psychotic first-degree relatives and 14 healthy controls were recruited. All of them were instructed to perform the FEP task in a 3 T GE Machine. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis was used to evaluate the functional connectivity between the sensorimotor cortex and frontal regions when participants performed the FEP task compared to simple motor tasks. In the contrast of palm-tapping (PT vs. rest, activation of the left frontal–parietal region was lowest in the schizophrenia group, intermediate in the relative group and highest in the healthy control group. In the contrast of FEP vs. PT, patients with schizophrenia did not show areas of significant activation, while relatives and healthy controls showed significant activation of the left middle frontal gyrus. Moreover, with the increase in task complexity, significant functional connectivity was observed between the sensorimotor cortex and the right frontal gyrus in healthy controls but not in patients with first episode schizophrenia. These findings suggest that activity of the left frontal–parietal and frontal regions may be neurofunctional correlates of neurological soft signs, which in turn may be a potential endophenotype of schizophrenia. Moreover, the right frontal gyrus may play a specific role in the execution of the FEP task in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  20. Progressive striatal and hippocampal volume loss in initially antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients treated with quetiapine: relationship to dose and symptoms

    Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Skimminge, Arnold; Rasmussen, Hans

    2011-01-01

    . Although patients' ventricles did not change significantly, ventricular increases correlated with less improvement of negative symptoms. Progressive regional volume loss in quetiapine-treated, first-episode schizophrenia patients may be dose-dependent and clinically relevant. The mechanisms underlying...... scarcely been investigated. Here we investigated structural brain changes in antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients after 6 months treatment with the SGA, quetiapine. We have recently reported on baseline volume reductions in the caudate nucleus and hippocampus. Baseline and follow-up T1......-weighted images (3 T) from 22 patients and 28 matched healthy controls were analysed using tensor-based morphometry. Non-parametric voxel-wise group comparisons were performed. Small volume correction was employed for striatum, hippocampus and ventricles. Dose-dependent medication effects and associations...

  1. Sensorimotor gating and habituation in antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients before and after 6 months' treatment with quetiapine

    Aggernaes, Bodil; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Ebdrup, Bjorn H

    2010-01-01

    Impaired prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI) in schizophrenia has been replicated in many studies. However, previous results may have been influenced by course of illness, and antipsychotic medication. Studies on antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients are lacking....... Treatment with quetiapine for 6 months increased male PPI to a level where it was no longer statistically different from the controls. The much smaller group of females did not show PPI deficits at baseline. In addition, compared to controls, patients appeared highly aroused and showed a strong yet non...

  2. Two subgroups of antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients identified with a Gaussian mixture model on cognition and electrophysiology

    Bak, N.; Ebdrup, B.H.; Oranje, B

    2017-01-01

    Deficits in information processing and cognition are among the most robust findings in schizophrenia patients. Previous efforts to translate group-level deficits into clinically relevant and individualized information have, however, been non-successful, which is possibly explained by biologically...... different disease subgroups. We applied machine learning algorithms on measures of electrophysiology and cognition to identify potential subgroups of schizophrenia. Next, we explored subgroup differences regarding treatment response. Sixty-six antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients...... be used to classify subgroups of schizophrenia patients. The two distinct subgroups, which we identified, were psychopathologically inseparable before treatment, yet their response to dopaminergic blockade was predicted with significant accuracy. This proof of principle encourages further endeavors...

  3. Stability of prepulse inhibition and habituation of the startle reflex in schizophrenia: a 6-year follow-up study of initially antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients

    Hammer, Trine Bjørg; Oranje, Bob; Fagerlund, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    and is regarded as an endophenotype for schizophrenia. However, reports on the stability of PPI over a longer period of time are lacking, both for patients with schizophrenia and for healthy subjects. The current study examined 25 initially drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients and 23 healthy matched...... not change in patients or controls. The present results show that PPI in drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients can improve significantly over time. As PPI increased in patients over the same period that it decreased in controls, it is likely that the increase was caused by disease-related factors......Deficits in information processing appear to be core features in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) and habituation of the startle reflex are operational measures of early information processing. Impaired PPI in schizophrenia has been replicated in many studies...

  4. Physical activity in schizophrenia is higher in the first episode than in subsequent ones

    Sebastian eWalther

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is frequently associated with abnormal motor behavior, particularly hypokinesia. The course of the illness tends to deteriorate in the first years. We aimed to assess gross motor activity in patients with a first episode (n = 33 and multiple episodes (n = 115 of schizophrenia spectrum disorders using wrist actigraphy. First episode patients were younger, had higher motor activity and reduced negative symptom severity. Covarying for age, chlorpromazine equivalents and negative symptoms, first episode patients still had higher motor activity. This was also true after excluding patients with schizophreniform disorder from the analyses. In first episode patients but not in patients with multiple episodes, motor activity was correlated with antipsychotic dosage. In conclusion, after controlling for variables related to disorder chronicity, patients with first episodes were still more active than patients with multiple episodes. Thus, reduced motor activity is a marker of deterioration in the course of schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  5. A Virtual Reality Task Based on Animal Research - Spatial Learning and Memory in Patients after the First Episode of Schizophrenia

    Iveta eFajnerova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cognitive deficit is considered to be a characteristic feature of schizophrenia disorder. A similar cognitive dysfunction was demonstrated in animal models of schizophrenia. However, the poor comparability of methods used to assess cognition in animals and humans could be responsible for low predictive validity of current animal models. In order to assess spatial abilities in schizophrenia and compare our results with the data obtained in animal models we designed a virtual analogue of the Morris water maze (MWM, the virtual Four Goals Navigation (vFGN task.Method: Twenty-nine patients after the first psychotic episode with schizophrenia symptoms and a matched group of healthy volunteers performed the vFGN task. They were required to find and remember four hidden goal positions in an enclosed virtual arena. The task consisted of two parts. The Reference memory (RM session with a stable goal position was designed to test spatial learning. The Delayed-matching-to-place (DMP session presented a modified working memory protocol designed to test the ability to remember a sequence of three hidden goal positions.Results: Data obtained in the RM session show impaired spatial learning in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls in pointing and navigation accuracy. The DMP session showed impaired spatial memory in schizophrenia during the recall of spatial sequence and similar deficit in spatial bias in probe trials. The pointing accuracy and the quadrant preference showed higher sensitivity toward the cognitive deficit than the navigation accuracy. Direct navigation to the goal was affected by sex and age of the tested subjects. Age affected spatial performance only in healthy controls. Conclusions: Despite some limitations of the study, our results correspond well to previous studies in animal models of schizophrenia and support the decline of spatial cognition in schizophrenia, indicating the usefulness of the vFGN task in

  6. Decreased left middle temporal gyrus volume in antipsychotic drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients and their healthy unaffected siblings.

    Hu, Maorong; Li, Jun; Eyler, Lisa; Guo, Xiaofeng; Wei, Qingling; Tang, Jingsong; Liu, Feng; He, Zhong; Li, Lihua; Jin, Hua; Liu, Zhening; Wang, Juan; Liu, Fang; Chen, Huafu; Zhao, Jingping

    2013-03-01

    The shared neuropathological characteristics of patients with schizophrenia and their siblings might represent intermediate phenotypes that could be used to investigate genetic susceptibility to the illness. We sought to discover gray matter volume differences in patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected siblings with voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We recruited antipsychotic drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients, their unaffected siblings and age-, sex- and handedness-matched healthy controls. We used VBM to investigate differences in gray matter volume among the 3 groups. There were significant gray matter volumetric differences among the 3 groups in bilateral hippocampal and parahippocampal gyri, bilateral middle temporal gyri, and superior temporal gyri (FDR ptemporal gyrus, and volume of this region was not different between siblings and patients. Our findings confirm and extend previous VBM analyses in schizophrenia and it indicate that schizophrenia may be characterized by an abnormal development of cerebral lateralization. Furthermore, these data argue that patients and their unaffected siblings might share decreases in the gray matter volume of the left middle temporal gyrus, and this regional reduction might be a potential endophenotype for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impaired temporoparietal deactivation with working memory load in antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    Nejad, Ayna B; Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. Neuroimaging studies have shown abnormal task-related deactivations during working memory (WM) in schizophrenia patients with recent emphasis on brain regions within the default mode network. Using fMRI, we tested whether antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients were impaired...... load. These regions activated with the no WM load condition (0-back) in both groups. Conclusions. Because 0-back activation reflects verbal attention processes, patients' persistent activation in the 1-back and 2-back conditions may reflect an inability to shift cognitive strategy with onset of WM...

  8. Structural magnetic resonance imaging in patients with first-episode schizophrenia, psychotic and severe non-psychotic depression and healthy controls. Results of the schizophrenia and affective psychoses (SAP) project.

    Salokangas, R K R; Cannon, T; Van Erp, T; Ilonen, T; Taiminen, T; Karlsson, H; Lauerma, H; Leinonen, K M; Wallenius, E; Kaljonen, A; Syvälahti, E; Vilkman, H; Alanen, A; Hietala, J

    2002-09-01

    Structural brain abnormalities are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders. To study how regional brain volumes and their ratios differ between patients with schizophrenia, psychotic depression, severe non-psychotic depression and healthy controls. Magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain on first-episode patients and on healthy controls. Patients with schizophrenia had a smaller left frontal grey matter volume than the other three groups. Patients with psychotic depression had larger ventricular and posterior sulcal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes than controls. Patients with depression had larger white matter volumes than the other patients. Left frontal lobe, especially its grey matter volume, seems to be specifically reduced in first-episode schizophrenia. Enlarged cerebral ventricles and sulcal CSF volumes are prevalent in psychotic depression. Preserved or expanded white matter is typical of non-psychotic depression.

  9. Patients with first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia and subjects at ultra-high risk of psychosis shared increased cerebellar-default mode network connectivity at rest.

    Wang, Houliang; Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Wang, Guodong; Lyu, Hailong; Wu, Renrong; Chen, Jindong; Wang, Shuai; Li, Lehua; Zhao, Jingping

    2016-05-18

    Increased cerebellar-default mode network (DMN) connectivity has been observed in first-episode, drug-naive patients with schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether increased cerebellar-DMN connectivity starts earlier than disease onset. Thirty-four ultra-high risk (UHR) subjects, 31 first-episode, drug-naive patients with schizophrenia and 37 healthy controls were enrolled for a resting-state scan. The imaging data were analyzed using the seed-based functional connectivity (FC) method. Compared with the controls, UHR subjects and patients with schizophrenia shared increased connectivity between the right Crus I and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus and between Lobule IX and the left superior medial prefrontal cortex. There are positive correlations between the right Crus I-bilateral precuneus connectivity and clinical variables (Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes/Positive and Negative Symptom Scale negative symptoms/total scores) in the UHR subjects. Increased cerebellar-DMN connectivity shared by the UHR subjects and the patients not only highlights the importance of the DMN in the pathophysiology of psychosis but also may be a trait alteration for psychosis.

  10. Striatal D2/3 Binding Potential Values in Drug-Naïve First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients Correlate With Treatment Outcome

    Wulff, Sanne; Pinborg, Lars Hageman; Svarer, Claus

    2015-01-01

    potential (BP(p)) values and treatment outcome in a cohort of antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients. Additionally, we wished to investigate associations between striatal dopamine D(2/3) receptor blockade and alterations of negative symptoms as well as functioning and subjective well......-being. Twenty-eight antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients and 26 controls were included in the study. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with [(123)I]iodobenzamide ([(123)I]-IBZM) was used to examine striatal D(2/3) receptor BP(p). Patients were examined before and after 6 weeks...... of treatment with the D(2/3) receptor antagonist amisulpride. There was a significant negative correlation between striatal D(2/3) receptor BP(p) at baseline and improvement of positive symptoms in the total group of patients. Comparing patients responding to treatment to nonresponders further showed...

  11. Striatal D2/3 Binding Potential Values in Drug-Naïve First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients Correlate With Treatment Outcome

    Wulff, Sanne; Pinborg, Lars Hageman; Svarer, Claus; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn; Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard; Allerup, Peter; Bak, Nikolaj; Rasmussen, Hans; Frandsen, Erik; Rostrup, Egill; Glenthøj, Birte Yding

    2015-01-01

    One of best validated findings in schizophrenia research is the association between blockade of dopamine D2 receptors and the effects of antipsychotics on positive psychotic symptoms. The aim of the present study was to examine correlations between baseline striatal D2/3 receptor binding potential (BPp) values and treatment outcome in a cohort of antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients. Additionally, we wished to investigate associations between striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade and alterations of negative symptoms as well as functioning and subjective well-being. Twenty-eight antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients and 26 controls were included in the study. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with [123I]iodobenzamide ([123I]-IBZM) was used to examine striatal D2/3 receptor BPp. Patients were examined before and after 6 weeks of treatment with the D2/3 receptor antagonist amisulpride. There was a significant negative correlation between striatal D2/3 receptor BPp at baseline and improvement of positive symptoms in the total group of patients. Comparing patients responding to treatment to nonresponders further showed significantly lower baseline BPp in the responders. At follow-up, the patients demonstrated a negative correlation between the blockade and functioning, whereas no associations between blockade and negative symptoms or subjective well-being were observed. The results show an association between striatal BPp of dopamine D2/3 receptors in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode patients with schizophrenia and treatment response. Patients with a low BPp have a better treatment response than patients with a high BPp. The results further suggest that functioning may decline at high levels of dopamine receptor blockade. PMID:25698711

  12. First-episode schizophrenia: characterization and clinical correlates

    Robert M. Bilder

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological impairments are well documented in schizophrenia and are important targets of treatment. Information about the severity and pattern of deficits after treatment for the first psychotic episode and about relationships between these deficits and syndromal characteristics remains limited. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments including 41 individual tests were given to 94 patients with first-episode schizophrenia after initial stabilization of psychosis and to a comparison group of 36 healthy volunteers. Profiles of neuropsychological deficits and the relationship of deficits to sex and handedness were examined. Correlations of neuropsychological deficit with a broad range of historical and clinical characteristics, including outcome, were explored. Patients had a large generalized neuropsychological deficit. Patients also had, superimposed on the generalized deficit, subtle relative deficits in memory and executive functions. Learning/memory dysfunction best distinguished patients from healthy individuals; after accounting for this difference, only motor deficits further distinguished the groups. Patients with higher neuropsychological ability had only memory deficits, and patients with lower ability had both memory and executive deficits. Dextral patients had less severe generalized deficit. Severity of residual symptoms was associated with greater generalized deficit. Executive and attentional deficits were most linked to global functional impairment and poor outcome. The results document a large generalized deficit, and more subtle differential deficits, in clinically stabilized first-episode patients. Learning/memory deficits were observed even in patients with less severe generalized deficit, but the pattern was unlike the amnestic syndrome and probably reflects different mechanisms. Executive and attentional deficits marked the more severe ly disabled patients, and may portend relatively poor outcome. Failure to

  13. Brain structure in people at ultra-high risk of psychosis, patients with first-episode schizophrenia, and healthy controls: a VBM study.

    Nenadic, Igor; Dietzek, Maren; Schönfeld, Nils; Lorenz, Carsten; Gussew, Alexander; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Sauer, Heinrich; Gaser, Christian; Smesny, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Early intervention research in schizophrenia has suggested that brain structural alterations might be present in subjects at high risk of developing psychosis. The heterogeneity of regional effects of these changes, which is established in schizophrenia, however, has not been explored in prodromal or high-risk populations. We used high-resolution MRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM8) to analyze grey matter differences in 43 ultra high-risk subjects for psychosis (meeting ARMS criteria, identified through CAARMS interviews), 24 antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients and 49 healthy controls (groups matched for age and gender). Compared to healthy controls, resp., first-episode schizophrenia patients had reduced regional grey matter in left prefrontal, insula, right parietal and left temporal cortices, while the high-risk group showed reductions in right middle temporal and left anterior frontal cortices. When dividing the ultra-high-risk group in those with a genetic risk vs. those with attenuated psychotic symptoms, the former showed left anterior frontal, right caudate, as well as a smaller right hippocampus, and amygdala reduction, while the latter subgroup showed right middle temporal cortical reductions (each compared to healthy controls). Our findings in a clinical psychosis high-risk cohort demonstrate variability of brain structural changes according to subgroup and background of elevated risk, suggesting frontal and possibly also hippocampal/amygdala changes in individuals with genetic susceptibility. Heterogeneity of structural brain changes (as seen in schizophrenia) appears evident even at high-risk stage, prior to potential onset of psychosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Selective attention and mismatch negativity in antipsychotic-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia patients before and after 6 months of antipsychotic monotherapy.

    Oranje, B; Aggernaes, B; Rasmussen, H; Ebdrup, B H; Glenthøj, B Y

    2017-09-01

    Attention deficits have been frequently reported in schizophrenia. It has been suggested that treatment with second-generation antipsychotics can ameliorate these deficits. In this study, the influence of 6 months treatment with quetiapine, a compound with less affinity for dopamine D2 receptors than for serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors, on electrophysiological parameters of attention was investigated in a group of antipsychotic-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia patients compared with a group of age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A total of 34 first-episode, antipsychotic-naïve patients with schizophrenia and an equal number of healthy controls were tested in a selective attention and a typical mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm at baseline and after 6 months. The patients were treated with quetiapine according to their clinical needs during the period between baseline and follow-up, whereas controls received no treatment. Patients showed lower MMN and P200 amplitude than healthy controls in the selective attention paradigm at baseline, while this was not the case for MMN of the typical MMN paradigm. Interestingly, after 6 months treatment, this MMN deficit was only ameliorated in patients treated with above median dosages of quetiapine. Patients had lower P3B amplitude, yet showed similar levels of processing negativity and N100 amplitude compared with healthy controls, both at baseline and follow-up. The results indicate that deficits in MMN, P200 and P3B amplitude are present at early stages of schizophrenia, although depending on the paradigm used. Furthermore, the results indicate that 6 months quetiapine treatment ameliorates MMN but not P3B deficits, and only in those subjects on higher dosages.

  15. Increased Blood-Reelin-Levels in First Episode Schizophrenia.

    Tobias Hornig

    Full Text Available Reelin is an extracellular glycoprotein involved in several functions of brain development, synaptogenesis and dendritic proliferation. Numerous studies found perturbation in the reelin system and altered serum reelin levels in neuropsychiatric patients using the western blot procedure. In the international literature, this is the first study that made use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to analyze serum reelin protein concentration quantitatively.In order to study possible alterations in reelin blood levels in schizophrenia, we analyzed this signal in schizophrenic patients with a first episode hallucinatory and paranoid syndrome and control subjects in a pilot study design.We found increased blood reelin protein concentration in schizophrenic patients compared to healthy controls.Our findings point to a relevant role of reelin metabolism in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.Reelin could be a biomarker for the course of disease or psychopharmacological treatment.We conclude that the reelin protein blood concentration might be a relevant signal with respect to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  16. Phonetic measures of reduced tongue movement correlate with negative symptom severity in hospitalized patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

    Covington, Michael A; Lunden, S L Anya; Cristofaro, Sarah L; Wan, Claire Ramsay; Bailey, C Thomas; Broussard, Beth; Fogarty, Robert; Johnson, Stephanie; Zhang, Shayi; Compton, Michael T

    2012-12-01

    Aprosody, or flattened speech intonation, is a recognized negative symptom of schizophrenia, though it has rarely been studied from a linguistic/phonological perspective. To bring the latest advances in computational linguistics to the phenomenology of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, a clinical first-episode psychosis research team joined with a phonetics/computational linguistics team to conduct a preliminary, proof-of-concept study. Video recordings from a semi-structured clinical research interview were available from 47 first-episode psychosis patients. Audio tracks of the video recordings were extracted, and after review of quality, 25 recordings were available for phonetic analysis. These files were de-noised and a trained phonologist extracted a 1-minute sample of each patient's speech. WaveSurfer 1.8.5 was used to create, from each speech sample, a file of formant values (F0, F1, F2, where F0 is the fundamental frequency and F1 and F2 are resonance bands indicating the moment-by-moment shape of the oral cavity). Variability in these phonetic indices was correlated with severity of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom scores using Pearson correlations. A measure of variability of tongue front-to-back position-the standard deviation of F2-was statistically significantly correlated with the severity of negative symptoms (r=-0.446, p=0.03). This study demonstrates a statistically significant and meaningful correlation between negative symptom severity and phonetically measured reductions in tongue movements during speech in a sample of first-episode patients just initiating treatment. Further studies of negative symptoms, applying computational linguistics methods, are warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reduced white matter integrity and facial emotion perception in never-medicated patients with first-episode schizophrenia: A diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Zhao, Xiaoxin; Sui, Yuxiu; Yao, Jingjing; Lv, Yiding; Zhang, Xinyue; Jin, Zhuma; Chen, Lijun; Zhang, Xiangrong

    2017-07-03

    Facial emotion perception is impaired in schizophrenia. Although the pathology of schizophrenia is thought to involve abnormality in white matter (WM), few studies have examined the correlation between facial emotion perception and WM abnormalities in never-medicated patients with first-episode schizophrenia. The present study tested associations between facial emotion perception and WM integrity in order to investigate the neural basis of impaired facial emotion perception in schizophrenia. Sixty-three schizophrenic patients and thirty control subjects underwent facial emotion categorization (FEC). The FEC data was inserted into a logistic function model with subsequent analysis by independent-samples T test and the shift point and slope as outcome measurements. Severity of symptoms was measured using a five-factor model of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Voxelwise group comparison of WM fractional anisotropy (FA) was operated using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). The correlation between impaired facial emotion perception and FA reduction was examined in patients using simple regression analysis within brain areas that showed a significant FA reduction in patients compared with controls. The same correlation analysis was also performed for control subjects in the whole brain. The patients with schizophrenia reported a higher shift point and a steeper slope than control subjects in FEC. The patients showed a significant FA reduction in left deep WM in the parietal, temporal and occipital lobes, a small portion of the corpus callosum (CC), and the corona radiata. In voxelwise correlation analysis, we found that facial emotion perception significantly correlated with reduced FA in various WM regions, including left forceps major (FM), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), Left splenium of CC, and left ILF. The correlation analyses in healthy controls revealed no significant correlation of FA with

  18. Impaired glucose tolerance in first-episode drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia: relationships with clinical phenotypes and cognitive deficits.

    Chen, D C; Du, X D; Yin, G Z; Yang, K B; Nie, Y; Wang, N; Li, Y L; Xiu, M H; He, S C; Yang, F D; Cho, R Y; Kosten, T R; Soares, J C; Zhao, J P; Zhang, X Y

    2016-11-01

    Schizophrenia patients have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) than normals. We examined the relationship between IGT and clinical phenotypes or cognitive deficits in first-episode, drug-naïve (FEDN) Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. A total of 175 in-patients were compared with 31 healthy controls on anthropometric measures and fasting plasma levels of glucose, insulin and lipids. They were also compared using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Neurocognitive functioning was assessed using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). Patient psychopathology was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Of the patients, 24.5% had IGT compared with none of the controls, and they also had significantly higher levels of fasting blood glucose and 2-h glucose after an oral glucose load, and were more insulin resistant. Compared with those patients with normal glucose tolerance, the IGT patients were older, had a later age of onset, higher waist or hip circumference and body mass index, higher levels of low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides and higher insulin resistance. Furthermore, IGT patients had higher PANSS total and negative symptom subscale scores, but no greater cognitive impairment except on the emotional intelligence index of the MCCB. IGT occurs with greater frequency in FEDN schizophrenia, and shows association with demographic and anthropometric parameters, as well as with clinical symptoms but minimally with cognitive impairment during the early course of the disorder.

  19. White matter fibertracking in first-episode schizophrenia, schizoaffective patients and subjects at ultra-high risk of psychosis

    Peters, Bart D.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Dekker, Nienke; Blaas, Jorik; Becker, Hiske E.; Dingemans, Peter M.; Akkerman, Erik M.; Majoie, Charles B.; van Amelsvoort, Therèse; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Linszen, Don H.

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of white matter pathology in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine whether white matter abnormalities found with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in previous schizophrenia studies are present in the early phase of the illness. DTI was performed at 3 T on 10

  20. Risperidone increases the cortical silent period in drug-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Ustohal, Libor; Mayerova, Michaela; Hublova, Veronika; Prikrylova Kucerova, Hana; Ceskova, Eva; Kasparek, Tomas

    2017-04-01

    Schizophrenia is accompanied by impaired cortical inhibition, as measured by several markers including the cortical silent period (CSP). It is thought that CSP measures gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors B (GABA B ) mediated inhibitory activity. But the mutual roles of schizophrenia as a disease and the drugs used for the treatment of psychosis on GABA mediated neurotransmission are not clear. We recruited 13 drug-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation to assess CSP prior to initiating risperidone monotherapy and again four weeks later. At the same time, we rated the severity of psychopathology using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). We obtained data from 12 patients who showed a significant increase in CSP, from 134.20±41.81 ms to 162.95±61.98 ms ( p=0.041; Cohen's d=0.544). After the treatment, the PANSS total score was significantly lower, as were the individual subscores ( pschizophrenia demonstrated an association between risperidone monotherapy and an increase in GABA B mediated inhibitory neurotransmission.

  1. Social cognition and neurocognitive deficits in first-episode schizophrenia

    Bliksted, Vibeke Fuglsang; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Weed, Ethan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent research has shown a significant impact of social cognitive domains on real world functioning and prognosis in schizophrenia. However, the correlations between specific aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, IQ and clinical symptoms remain unclear in first-episode schizop...... are comparable to the implicit and explicit mentalising discussed in the developmental literature. The two forms of social cognitive deficits are likely to require quite different social cognitive interventions.......BACKGROUND: Recent research has shown a significant impact of social cognitive domains on real world functioning and prognosis in schizophrenia. However, the correlations between specific aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, IQ and clinical symptoms remain unclear in first...

  2. Source-reconstruction of event-related fields reveals hyperfunction and hypofunction of cortical circuits in antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients during Mooney face processing.

    Rivolta, Davide; Castellanos, Nazareth P; Stawowsky, Cerisa; Helbling, Saskia; Wibral, Michael; Grützner, Christine; Koethe, Dagmar; Birkner, Katharina; Kranaster, Laura; Enning, Frank; Singer, Wolf; Leweke, F Markus; Uhlhaas, Peter J

    2014-04-23

    Schizophrenia is characterized by dysfunctions in neural circuits that can be investigated with electrophysiological methods, such as EEG and MEG. In the present human study, we examined event-related fields (ERFs), in a sample of medication-naive, first-episode schizophrenia (FE-ScZ) patients (n = 14) and healthy control participants (n = 17) during perception of Mooney faces to investigate the integrity of neuromagnetic responses and their experience-dependent modification. ERF responses were analyzed for M100, M170, and M250 components at the sensor and source levels. In addition, we analyzed peak latency and adaptation effects due to stimulus repetition. FE-ScZ patients were characterized by significantly impaired sensory processing, as indicated by a reduced discrimination index (A'). At the sensor level, M100 and M170 responses in FE-ScZ were within the normal range, whereas the M250 response was impaired. However, source localization revealed widespread elevated activity for M100 and M170 in FE-ScZ and delayed peak latencies for the M100 and M250 responses. In addition, M170 source activity in FE-ScZ was not modulated by stimulus repetitions. The present findings suggest that neural circuits in FE-ScZ may be characterized by a disturbed balance between excitation and inhibition that could lead to a failure to gate information flow and abnormal spreading of activity, which is compatible with dysfunctional glutamatergic neurotransmission.

  3. Efficacy of antipsychotic drugs against hostility in the European First-Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST)

    Volavka, Jan; Czobor, Pal; Derks, Eske M.; Bitter, Istvan; Libiger, Jan; Kahn, René S.; Fleischhacker, W. Wolfgang; Kahn, R. S.; Fleischhacker, W. W.; Boter, H.; Keet, I. P. M.; Brugman, C.; Davidson, M.; Dollfus, S.; Gaebel, W.; Galderisi, S.; Gheorghe, M.; Gonen, I.; Grobbee, D. E.; Hranov, L. G.; Hummer, M.; Libiger, J.; Králové, Hradec; Lindefors, N.; López-Ibor, J. J.; Nijssen, K.; Peuskens, J.; Prelipceanu, D.; Riecher-Rössler, A.; Rybakowski, J. K.; Sedvall, G.; von Wilmsdorff, M.

    2011-01-01

    To compare the effects of haloperidol, amisulpride, olanzapine, quetiapine, and ziprasidone on hostility in first-episode schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or schizophreniform disorder. We used the data acquired in the European First-Episode Schizophrenia Trial, an open, randomized trial

  4. Right lateralized white matter abnormalities in first-episode, drug-naive paranoid schizophrenia.

    Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Liu, Zhening; Gao, Keming; Xiao, Changqing; Chen, Huafu; Zhao, Jingping

    2012-11-30

    Numerous studies in first-episode schizophrenia suggest the involvement of white matter (WM) abnormalities in multiple regions underlying the pathogenesis of this condition. However, there has never been a neuroimaging study in patients with first-episode, drug-naive paranoid schizophrenia by using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method. Here, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with TBSS method to investigate the brain WM integrity in patients with first-episode, drug-naive paranoid schizophrenia. Twenty patients with first-episode, drug-naive paranoid schizophrenia and 26 healthy subjects matched with age, gender, and education level were scanned with DTI. An automated TBSS approach was employed to analyze the data. Voxel-wise statistics revealed that patients with paranoid schizophrenia had decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) II, the right fornix, the right internal capsule, and the right external capsule compared to healthy subjects. Patients did not have increased FA values in any brain regions compared to healthy subjects. There was no correlation between the FA values in any brain regions and patient demographics and the severity of illness. Our findings suggest right-sided alterations of WM integrity in the WM tracts of cortical and subcortical regions may play an important role in the pathogenesis of paranoid schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Predictors of discontinuation of antipsychotic medication and subsequent outcomes in the European First Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST)

    Landolt, Karin; Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Derks, Eske M.; Libiger, Jan; Kahn, René S.; Fleischhacker, W. Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This study had two aims: to describe patients suffering from first-episode schizophrenia who had stopped taking any antipsychotic medication, and to gain information on the predictors of successful discontinuation. We investigated data from the European First Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST).

  6. Executive attention impairment in first-episode schizophrenia

    Orellana Gricel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared the attention abilities of a group of first-episode schizophrenia (FES patients and a group of healthy participants using the Attention Network Test (ANT, a standard procedure that estimates the functional state of three neural networks controlling the efficiency of three different attentional behaviors, i.e., alerting (achieving and maintaining a state of high sensitivity to incoming stimuli, orienting (ability to select information from sensory input, and executive attention (mechanisms for resolving conflict among thoughts, feelings, and actions. Methods We evaluated 22 FES patients from 17 to 29 years of age with a recent history of a single psychotic episode treated only with atypical neuroleptics, and 20 healthy persons matched with FES patients by sex, age, and educational level as the control group. Attention was estimated using the ANT in which participants indicate whether a central horizontal arrow is pointing to the left or the right. The central arrow may be preceded by spatial or temporal cues denoting where and when the arrow will appear, and may be flanked by other arrows (hereafter, flankers pointing in the same or the opposite direction. Results The efficiency of the alerting, orienting, and executive networks was estimated by measuring how reaction time was influenced by congruency between temporal, spatial, and flanker cues. We found that the control group only demonstrated significantly greater attention efficiency than FES patients in the executive attention network. Conclusions FES patients are impaired in executive attention but not in alerting or orienting attention, suggesting that executive attention deficit may be a primary impairment during the progression of the disease.

  7. The effect of betahistine, a histamine H1 receptor agonist/H3 antagonist, on olanzapine-induced weight gain in first-episode schizophrenia patients.

    Poyurovsky, Michael; Pashinian, Artashes; Levi, Aya; Weizman, Ronit; Weizman, Abraham

    2005-03-01

    Histamine antagonism has been implicated in antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain. Betahistine, a histamine enhancer with H1 agonistic/H3 antagonistic properties (48 mg t.i.d.), was coadministered with olanzapine (10 mg/day) in three first-episode schizophrenia patients for 6 weeks. Body weight was measured at baseline and weekly thereafter. Clinical rating scales were completed at baseline and at week 6. All participants gained weight (mean weight gain 3.1+/-0.9 kg) and a similar pattern of weight gain was observed: an increase during the first 2 weeks and no additional weight gain (two patients) or minor weight loss (one patient) from weeks 3 to 6. None gained 7% of baseline weight, which is the cut-off for clinically significant weight gain. Betahistine was safe and well tolerated and did not interfere with the antipsychotic effect of olanzapine. Our findings justify a placebo-controlled evaluation of the putative weight-attenuating effect of betahistine in olanzapine-induced weight gain.

  8. Schizophrenia/first episode psychosis in children and adolescents

    Childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) is diagnosed before the age of 13 years, and early onset schizophrenia (EOS) is diagnosed before the age of 18 years. EOS is considered extremely rare and its prevalence in comparison to the worldwide prevalence of schizophrenia (1%) has not adequately been studied. Patients ...

  9. Decreased frontal serotonin2A receptor binding in antipsychotic-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    Rasmussen, Hans; Erritzoe, David; Andersen, Rune

    2010-01-01

    , in vivo studies of serotonin(2A) binding report conflicting results, presumably because sample sizes have been small or because schizophrenic patients who were not antipsychotic-naive were included. Furthermore, the relationships between serotonin(2A) binding, psychopathology, and central neurocognitive...

  10. Discriminating between first- and second-order cognition in first-episode paranoid schizophrenia.

    Bliksted, Vibeke; Samuelsen, Erla; Sandberg, Kristian; Bibby, Bo Martin; Overgaard, Morten Storm

    2017-03-01

    An impairment of visually perceiving backward masked stimuli is commonly observed in patients with schizophrenia, yet it is unclear whether this impairment is the result of a deficiency in first or higher order processing and for which subtypes of schizophrenia it is present. Here, we compare identification (first order) and metacognitive (higher order) performance in a visual masking paradigm between a highly homogenous group of young first-episode patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia (N = 11) to that of carefully matched healthy controls (N = 13). We find no difference across groups in first-order performance, but find a difference in metacognitive performance, particularly for stimuli with relatively high visibility. These results indicate that the masking deficit is present in first-episode patients with paranoid schizophrenia, but that it is primarily an impairment of metacognition.

  11. IQ subgroups in relation to neurocognitive profiles, psychopathology and brain volume in first-episode schizophrenia

    Jensen, Maria Høj; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Rostrup, Egill

    . low) using the healthy controls as reference. The IQ subgroups were compared using psychopathology ratings (Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale), neuropsychological assessments (Brief Assessment of Cognition in schizophrenia and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) and a combined 3T......Background and Aim: Approximately half of patients with schizophrenia experience a deterioration in IQ before or around illness onset and recent studies have found apositive association between IQ and brain volume in first episode schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the combined...... impact of estimated IQ trajectory and IQ level at illness onset on psychopathology, neurocognitive profiles and brain volume. Materials and methods: The design is a cross-sectional, case-control study of 60 first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients and 60 matched healthy controls...

  12. Middle and Inferior Temporal Gyrus Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in First-Episode Schizophrenia: An MRI Study

    Kuroki, Noriomi; Shenton, Martha Elizabeth; Salisbury, Dean; Hirayasu, Yoshio; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah; Kikinis, Ron; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; McCarley, Robert William

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of schizophrenia reveal temporal lobe structural brain abnormalities in the superior temporal gyrus and the amygdala-hippocampal complex. However, the middle and inferior temporal gyri have received little investigation, especially in first-episode schizophrenia. Method: High-spatial-resolution MRI was used to measure gray matter volume in the inferior, middle, and superior temporal gyri in 20 patients with first-episode schizophrenia, 20 pa...

  13. Differential effects of antipsychotic drugs on insight in first episode schizophrenia: Data from the European First-Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST).

    Pijnenborg, G H M; Timmerman, M E; Derks, E M; Fleischhacker, W W; Kahn, R S; Aleman, A

    2015-06-01

    Although antipsychotics are widely prescribed, their effect of on improving poor illness insight in schizophrenia has seldom been investigated and therefore remains uncertain. This paper examines the effects of low dose haloperidol, amisulpride, olanzapine, quetiapine, and ziprasidone on insight in first-episode schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or schizophreniform disorder. The effects of five antipsychotic drugs in first episode psychosis on insight were compared in a large scale open randomized controlled trial conducted in 14 European countries: the European First-Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST). Patients with at least minimal impairments in insight were included in the present study (n=455). Insight was assessed with item G12 of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), administered at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after randomization. The use of antipsychotics was associated with clear improvements in insight over and above improvements in other symptoms. This effect was most pronounced in the first three months of treatment, with quetiapine being significantly less effective than other drugs. Effects of spontaneous improvement cannot be ruled out due to the lack of a placebo control group, although such a large spontaneous improvement of insight would seem unlikely. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of atypical antipsychotics on brain N-acetylaspartate levels in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode patients with schizophrenia: a preliminary study

    Grošić V

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vladimir Grošić,1 Petra Folnegovic Grošić,2 Petra Kalember,3,4 Maja Bajs Janović,2 Marko Radoš,3,4 Mate Mihanović,1 Neven Henigsberg3,51Psychiatric Hospital Sveti Ivan, Zagreb, 2University Hospital Center Zagreb, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, 3Polyclinic Neuron, Croatian Institute for Brain Research, Zagreb, 4Department of Neuropharmacology and Behavioral Pharmacology, Croatian Institute for Brain Research, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, 5Vrapče University Hospital, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, CroatiaPurpose: To investigate the correlates of a clinical therapeutic response by using the parameters measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy after the administration of atypical antipsychotics.Patients and methods: Twenty-five antipsychotic-naïve first-episode patients with schizophrenia were monitored for 12 months. The patients were evaluated using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression Scale of Severity, Tower of London – Drexel University, Letter–Number Span Test, Trail Making Test A, and Personal and Social Performance Scale. They were administered atypical antipsychotics, starting with quetiapine. In the absence of a therapeutic response, another antipsychotic was introduced.Results: After 12 study months, the N-acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr level did not significantly change at the whole-group level. Additional analysis revealed a significant rise in the NAA/Cr level in the study group that stayed on the same antipsychotic throughout the study course (P=0.008 and a significant drop in NAA/Cr in the study group that switched antipsychotics (P=0.005. On the whole-group level, no significant correlations between NAA/Cr values and other scores were found at either baseline or after 12 study months.Conclusion: One-year treatment with atypical antipsychotics administered to antipsychotic-naïve patients didn’t result

  15. Apathy in first episode psychosis patients

    Evensen, Julie; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Barder, Helene

    2012-01-01

    Apathy is a common symptom in first episode psychosis (FEP), and is associated with poor functioning. Prevalence and correlates of apathy 10 years after the first psychotic episode remain unexplored.......Apathy is a common symptom in first episode psychosis (FEP), and is associated with poor functioning. Prevalence and correlates of apathy 10 years after the first psychotic episode remain unexplored....

  16. First episode schizophrenia | Khamker | South African Family Practice

    Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric condition. Patients with schizophrenia present clinically with psychotic, negative and cognitive symptoms, which can become evident late in adolescence or in early adulthood. The peak age for presentation is 20 years in males and 25 years in females. This chronic condition follows a ...

  17. Predictive validity of proposed remission criteria in first-episode schizophrenic patients responding to antipsychotics

    Wunderink, Lex; Nienhuis, Fokko J.; Sytema, Sjoerd; Wiersma, Durk

    The objective of this study was to examine the predictive validity of the remission criteria proposed by Andreasen et all in first-episode patients responding to antipsychotics. Antipsychotic responsive patients with first-episode schizophrenia showing symptom remission (n = 60) were compared with

  18. The effect of positive symptoms on social cognition in first-episode schizophrenia is modified by the presence of negative symptoms

    Bliksted, Vibeke Fuglsang; Videbech, Poul B; Fagerlund, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is considerable evidence that patients with schizophrenia have neurocognitive and social-cognitive deficits. It is unclear how such deficits in first-episode schizophrenia relate to current clinical symptoms. METHOD: Fifty-nine patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) were...

  19. The effect of antipsychotic drugs on nonspecific inflammation markers in the first episode of schizophrenia

    Stefanović Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Immune system disorder, including inflammation, takes a significant place when considering still unclear etiology of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to determine the blood levels of nonspecific inflammation markers in the first episode of schizophrenia and their relation to the therapy response. Methods. In this study we determined the blood levels of nonspecific inflammation markers: white blood cells count (WBC, C-reactive protein (CRP, erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR and the elements of differential white blood cell counts (or the leukocyte formula: granulocytes (Gra, lymphocytes (Lym and monocytes (Mon, in the first episode of schizofrenia, in 78 patients hospitalized at the Clinic for Psychiatric Disorders “Dr Laza Lazarević” in Belgrade. The levels were measured at admission to the clinic, as well as after 4 weeks of antipsychotic treatment. The Positive and negative syndrome scale for schizophrenia (PANSS was applied to measure the severity of psychopathology and response to the treatment. Results. During the first episode of schizophrenia, before initiation of antipsychotic treatment, the frequency of abnormal values was high (≥ 25% of the patients for the following non-specific inflammation markers: WBC, CRP, ESR and Gra, in the leukocyte formula, but dropped after 4 weeks of antipsychotic treatment at the level of high statistical significance for WBC and Gra (p < 0.001. The ESR remained unchanged in as many as 50% of the patients even after 4-week antipsychotic treatment, at the level of statistical significance in the non-responders compared to the responders (p = 0.045. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate that in the first episode of schizophrenia the blood levels of non-specific inflammation markers (WBS, CRP, ESR and Gra from the leukocyte formula were high in the subpopulation of patients with the tendency towards normalization of inflammation parameters after a 4-week antipsychotic

  20. Duration of Untreated Psychosis Is Associated with More Negative Schizophrenia Symptoms after Acute Treatment for First-Episode Psychosis

    Grano, Niklas; Lindsberg, Jenni; Karjalainen, Marjaana; Gronroos, Peter; Blomberg, Ari-Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Evidence of association between duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients is inconsistent in the recent literature. In the present study, DUP, schizophrenia symptoms, duration of medication, and diagnosis were obtained from hospital archives in a sample of FEP patients.…

  1. Determinants of subjective quality of life in first-episode schizophrenia: perspective from Malaysia.

    Chee, K Y

    2010-05-01

    This study sought to examine the determinants of subjective quality of life among patients with first-episode schizophrenia in a developing country. One-hundred and twenty patients registered with National Mental Health Registry for Schizophrenia from 1 January 2003 to 31 August 2005 were included. They were diagnosed with first-episode schizophrenia, schizoaffective and schizophreniform disorders and had been compliant to treatment. Sociodemographic data were obtained and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-Anchored Version, Health of The Nation Outcome Scales, Simpson-Angus Extrapyramidal Side Effects Scale, Barnes Akathisia Scale and the World Health Organization Quality of Life were used to assess psychopathology, side effects from antipsychotics and subjective quality of life. Gender, positive and disorganized symptoms of schizophrenia, and cognitive and physical impairments appeared to be the most important predictors of subjective quality of life among the patients from this centre in Malaysia. Different domains of self-rated quality of life correlated with different sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Some of the characteristics were malleable and a better understanding of these could lead to improvements in the management of patients with schizophrenia.

  2. [Event-related potentials P₃₀₀ with memory function and psychopathology in first-episode paranoid schizophrenia].

    Liu, Wei-bo; Chen, Qiao-zhen; Yin, Hou-min; Zheng, Lei-lei; Yu, Shao-hua; Chen, Yi-ping; Li, Hui-chun

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the variability of event-related potentials P(300) and the relationship with memory function/psychopathology in patients with first-episode paranoid schizophrenia. Thirty patients with first-episode paranoid schizophrenia (patient group) and twenty health subjects (control group) were enrolled in the study. The auditory event-related potentials P₃₀₀ at the scalp electrodes Cz, Pz and Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) were examined in both groups, Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was evaluated in patient group. In comparison with control group, patients had longer latency of P₃₀₀ [(390.6 ± 47.6)ms at Cz and (393.3 ± 50.1)ms at Pz] (Pparanoid schizophrenia has memory deficit, which can be evaluated comprehensively by P₃₀₀ and WMS. The longer latency of P₃₀₀ might be associated with the increased severity of first-episode paranoid schizophrenia.

  3. Reduced γ-Aminobutyric Acid and Glutamate+Glutamine Levels in Drug-Naïve Patients with First-Episode Schizophrenia but Not in Those at Ultrahigh Risk

    Junjie Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, glutamate (Glu levels, and an imbalance between GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmissions have been involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear how these abnormalities impact the onset and course of psychosis. In the present study, 21 drug-naïve subjects at ultrahigh risk for psychosis (UHR, 16 drug-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES, and 23 healthy controls (HC were enrolled. In vivo GABA and glutamate+glutamine (Glx levels in the medial prefrontal cortex were measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Medial prefrontal GABA and Glx levels in FES patients were significantly lower than those in HC and UHR, respectively. GABA and Glx levels in UHR were comparable with those in HC. In each group, there was a positive correlation between GABA and Glx levels. Reduced medial prefrontal GABA and Glx levels thus may play an important role in the early stages of schizophrenia.

  4. Reduced γ-Aminobutyric Acid and Glutamate+Glutamine Levels in Drug-Naïve Patients with First-Episode Schizophrenia but Not in Those at Ultrahigh Risk.

    Wang, Junjie; Tang, Yingying; Zhang, Tianhong; Cui, Huiru; Xu, Lihua; Zeng, Botao; Li, Yu; Li, Gaiying; Li, Chunbo; Liu, Hui; Lu, Zheng; Zhang, Jianye; Wang, Jijun

    2016-01-01

    Altered γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu) levels, and an imbalance between GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmissions have been involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear how these abnormalities impact the onset and course of psychosis. In the present study, 21 drug-naïve subjects at ultrahigh risk for psychosis (UHR), 16 drug-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES), and 23 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. In vivo GABA and glutamate+glutamine (Glx) levels in the medial prefrontal cortex were measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Medial prefrontal GABA and Glx levels in FES patients were significantly lower than those in HC and UHR, respectively. GABA and Glx levels in UHR were comparable with those in HC. In each group, there was a positive correlation between GABA and Glx levels. Reduced medial prefrontal GABA and Glx levels thus may play an important role in the early stages of schizophrenia.

  5. Structural brain correlates of sensorimotor gating in antipsychotic-naive men with first-episode schizophrenia

    Hammer, Trine B; Oranje, Bob; Skimminge, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    in the left rostral dorsal premotor cortex, the right presupplementary motor area and the anterior medial superior frontal gyrus bilaterally. Follow-up analyses suggested that the rostral dorsal premotor cortex and presupplementary motor area correlations were driven predominantly by the controls. Limitations......Background: Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex is modulated by a complex neural network. Prepulse inhibition impairments are found at all stages of schizophrenia. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies suggest that brain correlates of PPI differ between patients...... with schizophrenia and healthy controls; however, these studies included only patients with chronic illness and medicated patients. Our aim was to examine the structural brain correlates of PPI in antipsychotic-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Methods: We performed acoustic PPI assessment...

  6. Effects of Blocking D2/D3 Receptors on Mismatch Negativity and P3a Amplitude of Initially Antipsychotic Naïve, First Episode Schizophrenia Patients

    Düring, Signe; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Oranje, Bob

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced mismatch negativity and P3a amplitude have been suggested to be among the core deficits in schizophrenia since the late 1970s. Blockade of dopamine D2 receptors play an important role in the treatment of schizophrenia. In addition, there is some evidence indicating that deficits...... reduced P3a amplitude compared with healthy controls, but no differences in mismatch negativity. Although the treatment with amisulpride significantly improved the patients' psychopathological (PANSS) and functional (GAF) scores, it did not influence their mismatch negativity amplitude, while also...... clinically and functionally, it had no effect on either mismatch negativity or P3a amplitude. This suggests that even though there is a dopaminergic involvement in global functioning and symptomatology in schizophrenia, there is no such involvement in these particular measures of early information processing....

  7. Decreased resting-state interhemispheric coordination in first-episode, drug-naive paranoid schizophrenia.

    Guo, Wenbin; Xiao, Changqing; Liu, Guiying; Wooderson, Sarah C; Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Jian; Yu, Liuyu; Liu, Jianrong

    2014-01-03

    Dysconnectivity hypothesis posits that schizophrenia relates to abnormalities in neuronal connectivity. However, little is known about the alterations of the interhemispheric resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. In the present study, we used a newly developed voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) method to investigate the interhemispheric FC of the whole brain in patients with paranoid schizophrenia at rest. Forty-nine first-episode, drug-naive patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 50 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy subjects underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans. An automated VMHC approach was used to analyze the data. Patients exhibited lower VMHC than healthy subjects in the precuneus (PCu), the precentral gyrus, the superior temporal gyrus (STG), the middle occipital gyrus (MOG), and the fusiform gyrus/cerebellum lobule VI. No region showed greater VMHC in the patient group than in the control group. Significantly negative correlation was observed between VMHC in the precentral gyrus and the PANSS positive/total scores, and between VMHC in the STG and the PANSS positive/negative/total scores. Our results suggest that interhemispheric resting-state FC of VMHC is reduced in paranoid schizophrenia with clinical implications for psychiatric symptomatology thus further contribute to the dysconnectivity hypothesis of schizophrenia. © 2013.

  8. Psychometric evaluation of the Danish and Swedish Satisfaction with Life Scale in first episode psychosis patients

    Hochwälder, Jacek; Mattsson, Maria; Holmqvist, Ragnhild

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To psychometrically evaluate the Satisfaction with Life Scale in two cohorts of first-episode psychosis patients in the Danish National Schizophrenia Project and in the Swedish Parachute Project. METHOD: Four properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale were examined in the Danish cohort....... The dimensions were confirmed in the Swedish sample. CONCLUSION: The Satisfaction with Life Scale shows satisfactory psychometric properties and seems valid and useful among first-episode psychosis patients....

  9. Selective attention and mismatch negativity in antipsychotic-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia patients before and after 6 months of antipsychotic monotherapy

    Oranje, B.; Aggernaes, B.; Rasmussen, H.

    2017-01-01

    -naïve patients with schizophrenia and an equal number of healthy controls were tested in a selective attention and a typical mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm at baseline and after 6 months. The patients were treated with quetiapine according to their clinical needs during the period between baseline and follow......-up, whereas controls received no treatment. Results Patients showed lower MMN and P200 amplitude than healthy controls in the selective attention paradigm at baseline, while this was not the case for MMN of the typical MMN paradigm. Interestingly, after 6 months treatment, this MMN deficit was only......Background Attention deficits have been frequently reported in schizophrenia. It has been suggested that treatment with second-generation antipsychotics can ameliorate these deficits. In this study, the influence of 6 months treatment with quetiapine, a compound with less affinity for dopamine D2...

  10. Impaired theory of mind in first-episode schizophrenia: comparison with community, university and depressed controls.

    Kettle, Jonathan W L; O'Brien-Simpson, Laurie; Allen, Nicholas B

    2008-02-01

    First order theory of mind, as measured by the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test' Revised, is impaired in schizophrenia. However, no study has investigated whether this occurs in first-episode schizophrenia. Also, it is unclear whether such a deficit is specific to schizophrenia, and whether convenience control samples, particularly undergraduate university students, represent valid comparison groups. This study investigated theory of mind ability, measured by the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test' Revised, in a group of first-episode schizophrenia outpatients (n=13) and three control groups: outpatients with non-psychotic major depression (n=14), individuals from the general community (n=16) and from an undergraduate university course (n=27). The schizophrenia group exhibited significant theory of mind impairments compared to both non-psychiatric control groups but not the depression group. Unexpectedly, the depression group was not significantly impaired compared to the community control group, and the university control group exhibited superior theory of mind ability relative to all three groups. The findings indicate theory of mind deficits in first episode schizophrenia and support the implementation of theory of mind interventions in first-episode schizophrenia treatment programs. Results also indicate that community rather than university control groups represent more valid comparison groups in first-episode schizophrenia research.

  11. Reduced Context Effects on Retrieval in First-Episode Schizophrenia

    Talamini, Lucia M.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Nieman, Dorien H.; Linszen, Don H.; Meeter, Martijn

    2010-01-01

    Background: A recent modeling study by the authors predicted that contextual information is poorly integrated into episodic representations in schizophrenia, and that this is a main cause of the retrieval deficits seen in schizophrenia. Methodology/Principal Findings: We have tested this prediction

  12. Reduced context effects on retrieval in first-episode schizophrenia

    Talamini, L.M.; de Haan, L.; Nieman, D.H.; Linszen, D.H.; Meeter, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A recent modeling study by the authors predicted that contextual information is poorly integrated into episodic representations in schizophrenia, and that this is a main cause of the retrieval deficits seen in schizophrenia. Methodology/Principal Findings: We have tested this prediction

  13. Reduced context effects on retrieval in first-episode schizophrenia

    Talamini, L.M.; Haan, L.; Nieman, D.H.; Linszen, D.H.; Meeter, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A recent modeling study by the authors predicted that contextual information is poorly integrated into episodic representations in schizophrenia, and that this is a main cause of the retrieval deficits seen in schizophrenia. & Methodology/Principal Findings: We have tested this

  14. Early detection of the first episode of schizophrenia and suicidal behavior

    Melle, Ingrid; Johannesen, Jan Olav; Friis, Svein

    2006-01-01

    The suicide rate in schizophrenia is high, with the risk being highest early in the course. The rate of suicide attempts before treatment onset is also high and is often the event leading up to first treatment contact. A previous report showed that the duration of untreated psychosis can be reduced...... through an early detection program, and that the reduction was associated with lower symptom levels at treatment initiation. Treatment programs that bring first-episode patients into treatment at lower symptom levels can have the potential to reduce risk for suicide attempts....

  15. Neurological Soft Signs, Spontaneous and Treatment Emergent Extrapyramidal Syndromes in Black Africans With First Episode Schizophrenia

    Akin Ojagbemi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Very little is known about the relationship between spontaneous and treatment-induced motor syndromes in Africans with first episode schizophrenia.Objective: We investigated the association between spontaneous NSS and EPS, with treatment-induced EPS in a homogenous sample of Black Africans with first episode schizophrenia.Methods: We examined Xhosa (South Africa and Yoruba (Nigeria patients, using the Neurological Evaluation Scale and extrapyramidal symptoms scale before and at 3 months after exposure to low dose flupenthixol decanoate. Pearson's correlations and Linear regression models, controlling for duration of untreated psychosis (D.U.P and premorbid adjustments, were used in examining associations.Results: Among 99 participants in the baseline sample, 91 (91.8% and 20 (20.2% had at least one definite NSS and EPS, respectively, before exposure to antipsychotics. Treatment-induced EPS were recorded in 34 (38.6%. Spontaneous EPS was associated with treatment-emergent Akathisia in participants with a longer D.U.P (r = 0.75, β = 0.70, p = 0.008. This association was specific for Parkinsonism (r = 0.75, β = 0.85, p = 0.008 and dyskinesia (r = 0.75, β = 1.70, p = 0.008.Conclusion: Similar to previous findings for tardive dyskinesia in studies implementing longer-term follow-up, spontaneous EPS may also predict short-term antipsychotic-induced EPS such as akathisia. These results may be important for early identification of patients at risk of treatment-induced Akathisia-linked psychomotor agitation in first episode schizophrenia.

  16. Insight and white matter fractional anisotropy in first-episode schizophrenia.

    Asmal, Laila; du Plessis, Stefan; Vink, Matthijs; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Chiliza, Bonginkosi; Emsley, Robin

    2017-05-01

    Impaired insight is a hallmark feature of schizophrenia. Structural studies implicate predominantly prefrontal, cingulate, cuneus/precuneus, and inferior temporal brain regions. The cortical midline structures (CMS) are also implicated in functional studies primarily through self-reflective processing tasks. However, few studies have explored the relationship between white matter tracts and insight in schizophrenia, and none in first-episode schizophrenia (FES). Here, we examined for fractional anisotropy (FA) differences in 89 minimally treated FES patients and 98 matched controls, and identified those FA differences associated with impaired clinical insight in patients. We found widespread FA reduction in FES patients compared to controls. Poorer insight in patients was predicted by lower FA values in a number of white matter tracts with a predilection for tracts associated with cortical midline structures (fronto-occipital, cingulate, cingulate hippocampus, uncinate, anterior corona radiata), and more severe depressive symptoms. The association between FA abnormalities and insight was most robust for the awareness of symptoms and illness awareness domains. Our study implicates a network of tracts involved in impaired insight in schizophrenia with a predilection for the CMS. This study is a first step in delineating the white matter tracts involved in insight impairment in schizophrenia prior to chronicity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The association between anomalous self-experiences, self-esteem and depression in first episode schizophrenia

    Elisabeth Haug

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anomalous self-experiences (ASEs aggregate in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, but the relationship between ASEs, and depression has been studied to a limited extent. Lower self-esteem has been shown to be associated with depression in early psychosis. Our hypothesis is that ASEs in early phases of schizophrenia are linked to lower levels of self-esteem, which in turn is associated with depression. Aim: The aim is to examine the relationship between ASEs, self-esteem and depression in first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders.Method: ASEs were assessed in 55 patients with first-episode schizophrenia by means of the Examination of anomalous Self-Experience (EASE instrument. Assessment of depression was based on the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS. Self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES. Symptom severity was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (SCI-PANSS. Substance misuse was measured with the Drug Use Disorder Identification Test (DUDIT, and alcohol use was measured with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT. Data on childhood adjustment were collected using the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS. Data on childhood trauma were collected using the Norwegian version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, short form (CTQ-SF. Results: Analyses detected a significant association between current depression and ASEs as measured by the EASE in women, but not in men. The effect of ASEs on depression appeared to be mediated by self-esteem. No other characteristics associated with depression influenced the relationship between depression, self-esteem and ASEs. Conclusion: Evaluating ASEs can assist clinicians in understanding patients’ experience of self-esteem and depressive symptoms. The complex interaction between ASEs, self-esteem, depression and suicidality could be a clinical target for the prevention of suicidality

  18. Plasma homovanillic acid levels in first-episode schizophrenia. Psychopathology and treatment response.

    Koreen, A R; Lieberman, J; Alvir, J; Mayerhoff, D; Loebel, A; Chakos, M; Amin, F; Cooper, T

    1994-02-01

    To examine plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels in first-episode schizophrenia, to compare pHVA levels in patients and controls, and to assess the association of pHVA levels with psychopathology and treatment response. Forty-one patients entered the study, and pHVA levels were measured at baseline and on a weekly basis for up to 6 weeks of open standardized neuroleptic treatment. Psychopathology was evaluated with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, and the Clinical Global Impressions scale. Ten healthy controls were used for comparison of baseline pHVA levels. No differences were observed between patients and controls. Baseline pHVA level was not associated with psychopathology but was associated with time to reach remission. Baseline pHVA levels and week-1 pHVA levels were higher in responders than nonresponders. Regardless of responsiveness, female participants had higher pHVA levels than male participants throughout the study. The pattern of pHVA levels with treatment was similar in all patients with a short-term rise initially and then a decrease toward baseline values. These findings suggest that pHVA levels have prognostic significance for response and time to reach remission. Qualitative and quantitative differences between first-episode patients' pHVA levels and studies using a long-term, neuroleptic-exposed population suggest that changes occur with neuroleptic treatment or the progression of the illness.

  19. Cognitive-perceptual deficits and symptom correlates in first-episode schizophrenia

    Riaan M. Olivier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thought disorder and visual-perceptual deficits have been well documented, but their relationships with clinical symptoms and cognitive function remain unclear. Cognitive-perceptual deficits may underscore clinical symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Aim: This study aimed to explore how thought disorder and form perception are related with clinical symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in first-episode schizophrenia. Setting: Forty-two patients with a first-episode of schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder were recruited from community clinics and state hospitals in the Cape Town area. Methods: Patients were assessed at baseline with the Rorschach Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery (MCCB. Spearman correlational analyses were conducted to investigate relationships between PTI scores, PANSS factor analysis-derived domain scores and MCCB composite and subscale scores. Multiple regression models explored these relationships further. Results: Unexpectedly, poor form perception (X- % was inversely correlated with the severity of PANSS positive symptoms (r = -0.42, p = 0.02. Good form perception (XA% correlated significantly with speed of processing (r = 0.59, p < 0.01, working memory (r = 0.48, p < 0.01 and visual learning (r = 0.55, p < 0.01. PTI measures of thought disorder did not correlate significantly with PANSS symptom scores or cognitive performance. Conclusions: Form perception is associated with positive symptoms and impairment in executive function during acute psychosis. These findings suggest that there may be clinical value in including sensory-perceptual processing tasks in cognitive remediation and social cognitive training programmes for schizophrenia patients.

  20. First Episode Schizophrenia Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Assessment after Atypical Antipsychotics

    Rimbu, A.; Mititelu, R.; Marinescu, G.; Ghita, S.; Mazilu, C.; Codorean, I.; Gheorghe, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Aim: Since regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) findings in schizophrenic patients are inconsistent, the aim of our study was to evaluate and compare rCBF in the first episode of schizophrenia, before and after atypical antipsychotic treatment. Method: 21 patients who met criteria for schizophrenia were assessed PANSS score and tomographic brain perfusion (SPECT). The treatment was administered for 10-12 weeks and the dose was 4.8mg/day Risperidone, 11.6mg/day Olanzepine, 440mg/day Quetiapine. After finishing treatment all patients underwent a control SPECT study. Results: PANSS scores revealed two groups: group A-14 patients with predominant positive symptoms; 9 received Olanzapine and 5 Quetiapine. In group B -7 patients with predominant negative symptoms received Risperidone. Positive symptoms were associated with hypoperfusion in posterior parietal regions and superior temporal gyrus, bilaterally; for negative symptoms we found hypoperfusion in prefrontal cortex, predominantly in left side and a hyper perfusion in left basal ganglia. All patients that received atypical antipsychotic drugs had clinical improvement and decreases in PANSS scores; the control SPECT analysis revealed the same cortical changes as first studies in 15 patients and an increase of the rCBF in frontal lobes for 4 patients. 14 patients we noticed an increased rCBF at subcortical level, especially in left caudate nuclei. Conclusions: We found nonspecific features of rCBF in patients with first episode of schizophrenia, suggesting a perfusion dynamic balance rather than a fixed model. Those aspects are much more related to clinical symptoms, than to the therapeutical response. The rCBF changes in subcortical level after treatment (64.4% increase of rCBF; 35.6% not modified), can have a good prognostic value for therapeutic response. (author)

  1. Two subgroups of antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients identified with a Gaussian mixture model on cognition and electrophysiology

    Bak, N.; Ebdrup, B.H.; Oranje, B

    2017-01-01

    Deficits in information processing and cognition are among the most robust findings in schizophrenia patients. Previous efforts to translate group-level deficits into clinically relevant and individualized information have, however, been non-successful, which is possibly explained by biologically...... and sixty-five healthy controls underwent extensive electrophysiological and neurocognitive test batteries. Patients were assessed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) before and after 6 weeks of monotherapy with the relatively selective D2 receptor antagonist, amisulpride (280.3±159 mg per...... day). A reduced principal component space based on 19 electrophysiological variables and 26 cognitive variables was used as input for a Gaussian mixture model to identify subgroups of patients. With support vector machines, we explored the relation between PANSS subscores and the identified subgroups...

  2. Auditory change detection in schizophrenia: sources of activity, related neuropsychological function and symptoms in patients with a first episode in adolescence, and patients 14 years after an adolescent illness-onset.

    Oades, Robert D; Wild-Wall, Nele; Juran, Stephanie A; Sachsse, Jan; Oknina, Ljubov B; Röpcke, Bernd

    2006-02-08

    The event-related brain response mismatch negativity (MMN) registers changes in auditory stimulation with temporal lobe sources reflecting short-term echoic memory and frontal sources a deviance-induced switch in processing. Impairment, controversially present at the onset of schizophrenia, develops rapidly and can remain independent of clinical improvement. We examined the characteristics of the scalp-recorded MMN and related these to tests of short-term memory and set-shifting. We assessed whether the equivalent dipole sources are affected already at illness-onset in adolescence and how these features differ after a 14-year course following an adolescent onset. The strength, latency, orientation and location of frontal and temporal lobe sources of MMN activity early and late in the course of adolescent-onset schizophrenia are analysed and illustrated. MMN, a measure of auditory change-detection, was elicited by short deviant tones in a 3-tone oddball-presentation and recorded from 32 scalp electrodes. Four dipole sources were placed following hypothesis-led calculations using brain electrical source analysis on brain atlas and MR-images. A short neuropsychological test battery was administered. We compared 28 adolescent patients with a first episode of schizophrenia and 18 patients 14 years after diagnosis in adolescence with two age-matched control groups from the community (n = 22 and 18, respectively). MMN peaked earlier in the younger than the older subjects. The amplitude was reduced in patients, especially the younger group, and was here associated with negative symptoms and slow set-shifting. In first-episode patients the temporal lobe sources were more ventral than in controls, while the left cingular and right inferior-mid frontal sources were more caudal. In the older patients the left temporal locus remained ventral (developmental stasis), the right temporal locus extended more antero-laterally (illness progression), and the right frontal source moved

  3. Auditory change detection in schizophrenia: sources of activity, related neuropsychological function and symptoms in patients with a first episode in adolescence, and patients 14 years after an adolescent illness-onset

    Sachsse Jan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The event-related brain response mismatch negativity (MMN registers changes in auditory stimulation with temporal lobe sources reflecting short-term echoic memory and frontal sources a deviance-induced switch in processing. Impairment, controversially present at the onset of schizophrenia, develops rapidly and can remain independent of clinical improvement. We examined the characteristics of the scalp-recorded MMN and related these to tests of short-term memory and set-shifting. We assessed whether the equivalent dipole sources are affected already at illness-onset in adolescence and how these features differ after a 14-year course following an adolescent onset. The strength, latency, orientation and location of frontal and temporal lobe sources of MMN activity early and late in the course of adolescent-onset schizophrenia are analysed and illustrated. Methods MMN, a measure of auditory change-detection, was elicited by short deviant tones in a 3-tone oddball-presentation and recorded from 32 scalp electrodes. Four dipole sources were placed following hypothesis-led calculations using brain electrical source analysis on brain atlas and MR-images. A short neuropsychological test battery was administered. We compared 28 adolescent patients with a first episode of schizophrenia and 18 patients 14 years after diagnosis in adolescence with two age-matched control groups from the community (n = 22 and 18, respectively. Results MMN peaked earlier in the younger than the older subjects. The amplitude was reduced in patients, especially the younger group, and was here associated with negative symptoms and slow set-shifting. In first-episode patients the temporal lobe sources were more ventral than in controls, while the left cingular and right inferior-mid frontal sources were more caudal. In the older patients the left temporal locus remained ventral (developmental stasis, the right temporal locus extended more antero

  4. Wavelet Features for Recognition of First Episode of Schizophrenia from MRI Brain Images

    P. Dluhos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning methods are increasingly used in various fields of medicine, contributing to early diagnosis and better quality of care. These outputs are particularly desirable in case of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, due to the inherent potential for creating a new gold standard in the diagnosis and differentiation of particular disorders. This paper presents a scheme for automated classification from magnetic resonance images based on multiresolution representation in the wavelet domain. Implementation of the proposed algorithm, utilizing support vector machines classifier, is introduced and tested on a dataset containing 104 patients with first episode schizophrenia and healthy volunteers. Optimal parameters of different phases of the algorithm are sought and the quality of classification is estimated by robust cross validation techniques. Values of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity over 71% are achieved.

  5. Factors Moderating the Relationship Between Childhood Trauma and Premorbid Adjustment in First-Episode Schizophrenia.

    Kilian, S; Burns, J K; Seedat, S; Asmal, L; Chiliza, B; Du Plessis, S; Olivier, M R; Kidd, M; Emsley, R

    2017-01-01

    Childhood trauma is a recognised risk factor for schizophrenia. It has been proposed that childhood trauma interferes with normal neurodevelopment, thereby establishing a biological vulnerability to schizophrenia. Poor premorbid adjustment is frequently a precursor to schizophrenia, and may be a manifestation of neurodevelopmental compromise. We investigated the relationship between childhood trauma and premorbid adjustment in 77 patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders. We also investigated possible mediating roles for other selected risk factors in the relationship. We found several significant correlations between different trauma types and both social and academic premorbid adjustment from childhood to late adolescence. There were no significant moderating effects for family history of schizophrenia or family history of psychiatric disorder. History of obstetric complications, substance abuse and poor motor coordination weakened some of the associations between childhood trauma and premorbid adjustment, while poor sequencing of motor acts strengthened the association. Our results confirm previous studies indicating an association between childhood trauma and premorbid adjustment. Results indicate a general rather than specific association, apparent with different types of trauma, and affecting both social and academic components of premorbid adjustment across childhood, early and late adolescence. Further, our results suggest a complex interplay of various risk factors, supporting the notion of different pathways to psychosis.

  6. Outcome of first-episode schizophrenia and the new antipsychotics

    associated w~h poor outcome ard predictors of relapse, and the use ... Although a muttitude of clinical trials has been conducted, no ... negative symptoms and side-effects, are alienated from society ... development of chronic or secondary symptoms are .... psychotropic drugs on negative symptoms in schizophrenia. J Clin.

  7. Cognitive effects of six months of treatment with quetiapine in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia

    Andersen, Rune; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Rasmussen, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Effects of quetiapine on cognition were assessed in a group of first-episode antipsychotic-naïve patients with schizophrenia (N=24). A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests was administered at baseline and after 6months of treatment with quetiapine. In order to examine retest effects...

  8. Comparative study of clozapine versus risperidone in treatment-naive, first-episode schizophrenia: A pilot study

    Sukhtej Sahni

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of this preliminary study showed clozapine as a better choice than risperidone in terms of efficacy, tolerability and better quality of life in treatment-naive, first-episode schizophrenia. However, further studies need to be done on a larger group of patients to confirm the findings.

  9. Connectivity-enhanced diffusion analysis reveals white matter density disruptions in first episode and chronic schizophrenia

    Rachael G. Grazioplene

    Full Text Available Reduced fractional anisotropy (FA is a well-established correlate of schizophrenia, but it remains unclear whether these tensor-based differences are the result of axon damage and/or organizational changes and whether the changes are progressive in the adult course of illness. Diffusion MRI data were collected in 81 schizophrenia patients (54 first episode and 27 chronic and 64 controls. Analysis of FA was combined with “fixel-based” analysis, the latter of which leverages connectivity and crossing-fiber information to assess both fiber bundle density and organizational complexity (i.e., presence and magnitude of off-axis diffusion signal. Compared with controls, patients with schizophrenia displayed clusters of significantly lower FA in the bilateral frontal lobes, right dorsal centrum semiovale, and the left anterior limb of the internal capsule. All FA-based group differences overlapped substantially with regions containing complex fiber architecture. FA within these clusters was positively correlated with principal axis fiber density, but inversely correlated with both secondary/tertiary axis fiber density and voxel-wise fiber complexity. Crossing fiber complexity had the strongest (inverse association with FA (r = −0.82. When crossing fiber structure was modeled in the MRtrix fixel-based analysis pipeline, patients exhibited significantly lower fiber density compared to controls in the dorsal and posterior corpus callosum (central, postcentral, and forceps major. Findings of lower FA in patients with schizophrenia likely reflect two inversely related signals: reduced density of principal axis fiber tracts and increased off-axis diffusion sources. Whereas the former confirms at least some regions where myelin and or/axon count are lower in schizophrenia, the latter indicates that the FA signal from principal axis fiber coherence is broadly contaminated by macrostructural complexity, and therefore does not necessarily reflect

  10. Predictors of remission and recovery in a first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder sample: 2-year follow-up of the OPUS trial

    Petersen, Lone; Thorup, Anne; Øqhlenschlaeger, Johan

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the frequency and predictors of good outcome for patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD). METHOD: We conducted a 2-year follow-up of a cohort of patients (n = 547) with first-episode SSD. We evaluated the patients on demographic variables, diagnosis...

  11. 7T Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in First-Episode Schizophrenia.

    Reid, Meredith A; Salibi, Nouha; White, David M; Gawne, Timothy J; Denney, Thomas S; Lahti, Adrienne C

    2018-01-29

    Recent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies suggest that abnormalities of the glutamatergic system in schizophrenia may be dependent on illness stage, medication status, and symptomatology. Glutamatergic metabolites appear to be elevated in the prodromal and early stages of schizophrenia but unchanged or reduced below normal in chronic, medicated patients. However, few of these studies have measured metabolites with high-field 7T MR scanners, which offer higher signal-to-noise ratio and better spectral resolution than 3T scanners and facilitate separation of glutamate and glutamine into distinct signals. In this study, we examined glutamate and other metabolites in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of first-episode schizophrenia patients. Glutamate and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) were significantly lower in schizophrenia patients vs controls. No differences were observed in levels of glutamine, GABA, or other metabolites. In schizophrenia patients but not controls, GABA was negatively correlated with the total score on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) as well as the immediate memory and language subscales. Our findings suggest that glutamate and NAA reductions in the ACC may be present early in the illness, but additional large-scale studies are needed to confirm these results as well as longitudinal studies to determine the effect of illness progression and treatment. The correlation between GABA and cognitive function suggests that MRS may be an important technique for investigating the neurobiology underlying cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Hippocampal and caudate volume reductions in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia

    Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Glenthøj, Birte; Rasmussen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    of a false discovery rate correction (p brain structure volumes. We grouped patients as those with (n = 9) or without (n = 29) any lifetime substance abuse to examine the possible effects of substance abuse. RESULTS: We found......BACKGROUND: Enlarged ventricles and reduced hippocampal volume are consistently found in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Studies investigating brain structure in antipsychotic-naive patients have generally focused on the striatum. In this study, we examined whether ventricular...... healthy controls by use of a 3-T scanner. We warped the brain images to each other by use of a high-dimensional intersubject registration algorithm. We performed voxel-wise group comparisons with permutation tests. We performed small volume correction for the hippocampus, caudate and ventricles by use...

  13. Impaired Social and Role Function in Ultra-High Risk for Psychosis and First-Episode Schizophrenia: Its Relations with Negative Symptoms.

    Lee, So Jung; Kim, Kyung Ran; Lee, Su Young; An, Suk Kyoon

    2017-09-01

    Psychosocial dysfunction was a nettlesome problem of schizophrenia even in their prodromal phase as well as in their first-episode. In addition, its relations with psychopathology were not determined. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the social and role function impairment was found in ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) individuals as well as first-episode schizophrenia patients and to explore its relations with psychopathology. Thirty-seven normal controls, 63 UHR participants and 28 young, first-episode schizophrenia patients were recruited. Psychosocial functioning was examined by using Global function: Social and Role scale. Psychopathologies of positive, negative and depressive symptom were also measured. Social and role functioning in UHR were compromised at the equivalent level of those of first-episode schizophrenia patients. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that social and role dysfunction was associated with negative symptoms in each UHR and first-episode schizophrenia group. These findings suggest that the significant impairment of social and role function may be appeared before the active psychosis onset at the level of extent to those of first-episode schizophrenia patients. The psychosocial intervention strategy especially targeting the negative symptoms should be developed and provided to individuals from their prepsychotic stage of schizophrenia.

  14. Out of touch with reality? Social perception in first-episode schizophrenia.

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J H; Salone, Anatolia; Ferri, Francesca; De Berardis, Domenico; Romani, Gian Luca; Ferro, Filippo M; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-04-01

    Social dysfunction has been recognized as an elementary feature of schizophrenia, but it remains a crucial issue whether social deficits in schizophrenia concern the inter-subjective domain or primarily have their roots in disturbances of self-experience. Social perception comprises vicarious processes grounding an experiential inter-relationship with others as well as self-regulation processes allowing to maintain a coherent sense of self. The present study investigated whether the functional neural basis underlying these processes is altered in first-episode schizophrenia (FES). Twenty-four FES patients and 22 healthy control participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a social perception task requiring them to watch videos depicting other individuals' inanimate and animate/social tactile stimulations, and a tactile localizer condition. Activation in ventral premotor cortex for observed bodily tactile stimulations was reduced in the FES group and negatively correlated with self-experience disturbances. Moreover, FES patients showed aberrant differential activation in posterior insula for first-person tactile experiences and observed affective tactile stimulations. These findings suggest that social perception in FES at a pre-reflective level is characterized by disturbances of self-experience, including impaired multisensory representations and self-other distinction. However, the results also show that social perception in FES involves more complex alterations of neural activation at multiple processing levels.

  15. Effects of Dopamine D2/D3 Blockade on Human Sensory and Sensorimotor Gating in Initially Antipsychotic-Naive, First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients

    Düring, Signe; Glenthøj, Birte Y; Andersen, Gitte Saltoft

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that psychophysiological measures of sensory and sensorimotor gating, P50 gating and prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI), underlie core features of schizophrenia and are linked to dopaminergic pathways in the striatum and prefrontal cortex. In the present study, ...

  16. Experience of stigma and discrimination reported by people experiencing the first episode of schizophrenia and those with a first episode of depression: The FEDORA project.

    Corker, Elizabeth A; Beldie, Alina; Brain, Cecilia; Jakovljevic, Miro; Jarema, Marek; Karamustafalioglu, Oguz; Marksteiner, Josef; Mohr, Pavel; Prelipceanu, Dan; Vasilache, Anamaria; Waern, Margda; Sartorius, Norman; Thornicroft, Graham

    2015-08-01

    To record and measure the nature and severity of stigma and discrimination experienced by people during a first episode of schizophrenia and those with a first episode of major depressive disorder. The Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC-12) was used in a cross-sectional survey to elicit service user reports of anticipated and experienced discrimination by 150 people with a diagnosis of first-episode schizophrenia and 176 with a diagnosis of first-episode major depressive disorder in seven countries (Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Sweden and Turkey). Participants with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder reported discrimination in a greater number of life areas than those with schizophrenia, as rated by the total DISC-12 score (p = .03). With regard to specific life areas, participants with depression reported more discrimination in regard to neighbours, dating, education, marriage, religious activities, physical health and acting as a parent than participants with schizophrenia. Participants with schizophrenia reported more discrimination with regard to the police compared to participants with depression. Stigma and discrimination because of mental illness change in the course of the mental diseases. Future research may take a longitudinal perspective to better understand the beginnings of stigmatisation and its trajectory through the life course and to identify critical periods at which anti-stigma interventions can most effectively be applied. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Working Memory Modulation of Frontoparietal Network Connectivity in First-Episode Schizophrenia

    Nielsen, Jesper Duemose; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Wang, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Working memory (WM) impairment is regarded as a core aspect of schizophrenia. However, the neural mechanisms behind this cognitive deficit remain unclear. The connectivity of a frontoparietal network is known to be important for subserving WM. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the curr......Working memory (WM) impairment is regarded as a core aspect of schizophrenia. However, the neural mechanisms behind this cognitive deficit remain unclear. The connectivity of a frontoparietal network is known to be important for subserving WM. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging......, the current study investigated whether WM-dependent modulation of effective connectivity in this network is affected in a group of first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients compared with similarly performing healthy participants during a verbal n-back task. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) of the coupling...... between regions (left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), left inferior parietal lobe (IPL), and primary visual area) identified in a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis was performed to characterize effective connectivity during the n-back task. The PPI analysis revealed that the connectivity...

  18. Alterations of Intrinsic Connectivity Networks in Antipsychotic-Naïve First-Episode Schizophrenia

    Anhøj, Simon; Ødegaard Nielsen, Mette; Jensen, Maria Høj

    2018-01-01

    Background: The investigation of large-scale intrinsic connectivity networks in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia increases our understanding of system-level cerebral dysfunction in schizophrenia while enabling control of confounding effects of medication and disease progression. Re......-parietal networks suggested to be involved in the control of cognitive and sensory functions. Moreover, the present study suggests that the problem of not disengaging the VAN leads to difficulties with attention and possibly subjective awareness....

  19. A virtual reality task based on animal research – spatial learning and memory in patients after the first episode of schizophrenia

    Fajnerová, Iveta; Rodriguez, M.; Levčík, David; Konrádová, L.; Mikoláš, P.; Brom, C.; Stuchlík, Aleš; Vlček, Kamil; Horáček, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, May 27 (2014), s. 157 ISSN 1662-5153 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13386 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NT14291; GA MZd(CZ) NT13843 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : schizophrenia * spatial navigation * learning and memory * virtual reality environment * cognitive deficit * Morris Water Maze (MWM) * psychotic disorders * spatial behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.270, year: 2014

  20. Brain-Wide Analysis of Functional Connectivity in First-Episode and Chronic Stages of Schizophrenia.

    Li, Tao; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Jie; Rolls, Edmund T; Yang, Wei; Palaniyappan, Lena; Zhang, Lu; Cheng, Wei; Yao, Ye; Liu, Zhaowen; Gong, Xiaohong; Luo, Qiang; Tang, Yanqing; Crow, Timothy J; Broome, Matthew R; Xu, Ke; Li, Chunbo; Wang, Jijun; Liu, Zhening; Lu, Guangming; Wang, Fei; Feng, Jianfeng

    2017-03-01

    Published reports of functional abnormalities in schizophrenia remain divergent due to lack of staging point-of-view and whole-brain analysis. To identify key functional-connectivity differences of first-episode (FE) and chronic patients from controls using resting-state functional MRI, and determine changes that are specifically associated with disease onset, a clinical staging model is adopted. We analyze functional-connectivity differences in prodromal, FE (mostly drug naïve), and chronic patients from their matched controls from 6 independent datasets involving a total of 789 participants (343 patients). Brain-wide functional-connectivity analysis was performed in different datasets and the results from the datasets of the same stage were then integrated by meta-analysis, with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Prodromal patients differed from controls in their pattern of functional-connectivity involving the inferior frontal gyri (Broca's area). In FE patients, 90% of the functional-connectivity changes involved the frontal lobes, mostly the inferior frontal gyrus including Broca's area, and these changes were correlated with delusions/blunted affect. For chronic patients, functional-connectivity differences extended to wider areas of the brain, including reduced thalamo-frontal connectivity, and increased thalamo-temporal and thalamo-sensorimoter connectivity that were correlated with the positive, negative, and general symptoms, respectively. Thalamic changes became prominent at the chronic stage. These results provide evidence for distinct patterns of functional-dysconnectivity across FE and chronic stages of schizophrenia. Importantly, abnormalities in the frontal language networks appear early, at the time of disease onset. The identification of stage-specific pathological processes may help to understand the disease course of schizophrenia and identify neurobiological markers crucial for early diagnosis. © The Author 2016. Published by

  1. Basal ganglia volumes in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients before and after short-term treatment with either a typical or an atypical antipsychotic drug

    Glenthoj, Andreas; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Mackeprang, Torben

    2007-01-01

    or intracranial volume, the only significant difference between patients and controls was a Hemisphere x Group interaction for the caudate nucleus at baseline, with controls having larger left than right caudate nuclei and patients having marginally larger right than left caudate volumes. Within patients, the two...... of exposure to medication and in controls at baseline. Caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, and putamen volumes were measured. Compared with controls, absolute volumes of interest (VOIs) were smaller in patients at baseline and increased after treatment. However, with controls for age, gender and whole brain...

  2. Basal ganglia volumes in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients before and after short-term treatment with either a typical or an atypical antipsychotic drug

    Glenthoj, Andreas; Glenthoj, Birte Y; Mackeprang, Torben

    2007-01-01

    of exposure to medication and in controls at baseline. Caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, and putamen volumes were measured. Compared with controls, absolute volumes of interest (VOIs) were smaller in patients at baseline and increased after treatment. However, with controls for age, gender and whole brain...... or intracranial volume, the only significant difference between patients and controls was a Hemisphere x Group interaction for the caudate nucleus at baseline, with controls having larger left than right caudate nuclei and patients having marginally larger right than left caudate volumes. Within patients, the two...

  3. Course and predictors of suicidality over the first two years of treatment in first-episode schizophrenia spectrum psychosis

    Melle, Ingrid; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Friis, Svein

    2010-01-01

    the objective of this study was to investigate the course of suicidal behavior over the first 2 years of comprehensive, integrated treatment in two groups of patients with DSM-IV first episode schizophrenia spectrum psychosis, where one group was recruited through an early detection program. We h......, with no between-groups differences. Severe suicidality (plans and attempts) was predicted by drug abuse, dissatisfaction with life and severe suicidality at start of treatment.......the objective of this study was to investigate the course of suicidal behavior over the first 2 years of comprehensive, integrated treatment in two groups of patients with DSM-IV first episode schizophrenia spectrum psychosis, where one group was recruited through an early detection program. We...... have previously shown that the rate of severe suicidal behavior was lower in the earlier detected group than in the other. First episode schizophrenia is a high risk period for suicidality, but we found low rates of completed suicides and suicide attempts in both groups after 2 years in treatment...

  4. Global Micro- and Macro-structural White Matter Alterations and the reward circuit in First-episode Antipsychotic-naïve Schizophrenia Patients. Preliminary Results

    Raghava, Jayachandra Mitta; Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard

    hypothalamus separately. All tracking was performed using PROBTRACKX. Results Baseline: Voxel-wise statistics performed on the probabilistic WM fiber maps for whole brain identified deficiencies in patients, showing reduced macro-structural connectivity in: thalamus, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, forceps......-lwise statistics performed on the probabilistic WM fiber maps for whole brain showed significant interaction, indicating improvement in the connectivity within the patients in Forceps major, right Cingulum (hippocampus), right Anterior thalamic radiation. Conclusions These preliminary results indicate...

  5. Neurocognition and occupational functioning in patients with first-episode psychosis

    Tandberg, Marte; Ueland, Torill; Sundet, Kjetil

    2011-01-01

    Neurocognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia that is associated with poor occupational functioning. Few studies have investigated this relationship in patients with first-episode psychosis. The current study examined the characteristics of employed and unemployed patients with first......-up. Those unemployed at baseline were rated lower on global functioning and were more likely to have a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Total employment rates were 41% at baseline and 38% at 2-year follow-up. Four employment paths emerged at follow-up, defined as persistently employed, becoming unemployed...

  6. Exploratory factor structure of the neurological evaluation scale in black africans with first episode schizophrenia

    Akin Ojagbemi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available While the organization of neurological soft signs (NSS in schizophrenia into Sensory integration, Motor coordination, and Motor sequencing, is functionally ‘meaningful’, it has not been confirmed by empirical methods such as factor analysis. Data on the exploratory factor analysis of the Neurological Evaluation scale in Black Africans with first episode schizophrenia are presented in this report. Data on the confirmatory factor structure of NSS in this population as well as their interpretation can be found in the work by Ojagbemi et al. (2015 [7].

  7. Patient satisfaction with treatment in first-episode psychosis

    Haahr, Ulrik Helt; Simonsen, Erik; Røssberg, Jan Ivar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine first-episode psychotic patients' satisfaction with elements of a comprehensive 2-year treatment program. Subjects and method: The TIPS (Early Treatment and Intervention in Psychosis) project provided a 2-year treatment program consisting of milieu therapy (inpatient), individ......Purpose: To examine first-episode psychotic patients' satisfaction with elements of a comprehensive 2-year treatment program. Subjects and method: The TIPS (Early Treatment and Intervention in Psychosis) project provided a 2-year treatment program consisting of milieu therapy (inpatient......), individual psychotherapy, family intervention and medication. Of 140 patients at baseline, 112 were included at 2-year follow-up. Eighty-four participants were interviewed using a questionnaire eliciting levels of satisfaction with different treatment elements at two of the four sites. Results: Participants...... and non-participants did not differ on demographic or clinical data at baseline. Of those participating, 75% were satisfied with treatment in general. Individual and milieu therapy received higher rating than medication or family intervention. No predictors of general satisfaction with treatment were...

  8. Analysis of clinical characteristics and antipsychotic medication prescribing practices of first-episode schizophrenia in Israel: a naturalistic prospective study.

    Strous, Rael D; Bar, Faina; Keret, Noa; Lapidus, Raya; Kosov, Nikolai; Chelben, Joseph; Kotler, Moshe

    2006-01-01

    Investigation of the clinical presentation and treatment of first-episode psychosis is important in order to exclude effects of age, chronic illness, long-term treatment and institutionalization. The aim of this descriptive study was to investigate the management practices of first-episode schizophrenia in a cohort of patients in Israel and to document use of the various "typical" or "atypical" antipsychotic agents. Fifty-one consecutive patients (26 M, 25 F) with first-episode psychosis were recruited for study participation and were administered either typical or atypical antipsychotic medications in a naturalistic manner. While an approximately equal number of subjects received typical and atypical medications at illness onset, a prominent shift to atypical antipsychotic treatment occurred over the study course; 18 subjects had medication class shifts: 17 from typical to atypical, and one from atypical to typical. Negative symptoms did not affect length of hospitalization, but were associated with aggression. Higher depression rates were noted in patients with long hospitalizations who received typical antipsychotic medications. Immigrants were admitted at an age approximately four years older than native-born Israelis. The prominent shift from "typical" to "atypical" antipsychotic medications may indicate sensitivity of first-episode psychotic patients to side-effects of "typical" medications and prominence of use of atypical medications in this patient subpopulation be it due to improved efficacy over time or successful marketing. Unique cultural and population characteristics may contribute to the manifestation of first-episode psychosis and suggest the importance of more effective outreach to the immigrant population in order to manage an apparent treatment delay.

  9. The Association between Anomalous Self-experiences, Self-esteem and Depressive Symptoms in First Episode Schizophrenia.

    Haug, Elisabeth; Øie, Merete G; Andreassen, Ole A; Bratlien, Unni; Romm, Kristin L; Møller, Paul; Melle, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anomalous self-experiences (ASEs) aggregate in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, but the relationship between ASEs, and depression has been studied to a limited extent. Lower self-esteem has been shown to be associated with depression in early psychosis. Our hypothesis is that ASEs in early phases of schizophrenia are linked to lower levels of self-esteem, which in turn is associated with depression. Aim: The aim is to examine the relationship between ASEs, self-esteem and depression in first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Method: ASEs were assessed in 55 patients with first-episode schizophrenia by means of the Examination of anomalous Self-Experience (EASE) instrument. Assessment of depression was based on the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). Self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). Symptom severity was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (SCI-PANSS). Substance misuse was measured with the Drug Use Disorder Identification Test (DUDIT), and alcohol use was measured with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). Data on childhood adjustment were collected using the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS). Data on childhood trauma were collected using the Norwegian version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, short form (CTQ-SF). Results: Analyses detected a significant association between current depression and ASEs as measured by the EASE in women, but not in men. The effect of ASEs on depression appeared to be mediated by self-esteem. No other characteristics associated with depression influenced the relationship between depression, self-esteem and ASEs. Conclusion: Evaluating ASEs can assist clinicians in understanding patients' experience of self-esteem and depressive symptoms. The complex interaction between ASEs, self-esteem, depression and suicidality could be a clinical target for the prevention of suicidality in this

  10. Neurocognitive predictors of remission of symptoms and social and role functioning in the early course of first-episode schizophrenia.

    Torgalsbøen, Anne-Kari; Mohn, Christine; Rishovd Rund, Bjørn

    2014-04-30

    In a Norwegian ongoing longitudinal study, we investigate the neurocognitive development in first-episode schizophrenia patients, and the influence of neurocognition on remission and real life functioning. In the present study, results from the early course of illness are reported. The sample includes 28 schizophrenia spectrum patients and 28 pairwise matched healthy controls. The patients were recruited from mental health service institutions and data on psychosocial functioning, remission and neurocognition were obtained through a clinical interview, an inventory on social and role functioning, operational criteria of remission, and a standardized neurocognitive test battery, the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). Large effect size differences between patients and controls were observed at baseline on every cognitive domain, as well as statistically significant improvements on overall cognitive function at follow-up for the patient group. A remission rate of 61% was found. The neurocognitive baseline measure of Attention significantly predicted remission status at follow-up, whereas Attention and Working Memory at baseline predicted levels of social and role functioning. In the early course of the illness, more than half of the group of first-episode patients were in remission, and neurocognitive functions are significantly associated with both remission of symptoms and social and role functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of impaired processing speed on cognition in first-episode antipsychotic-naive schizophrenic patients

    Andersen, Rune; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Rasmussen, Hans

    2013-01-01

    of neuropsychological tests to assess domains of cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. Composite scores were calculated, grouping tests into cognitive domains. RESULTS: There were significant differences between patients and healthy controls on global cognition and all cognitive domains, including verbal intelligence......BACKGROUND: Impaired cognition is a prominent feature of schizophrenia. To what extent the heterogeneous cognitive impairments can be accounted for by considering only a single underlying impairment or a small number of core impairments remains elusive. This study examined whether cognitive...... impairments in antipsychotic-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia patients may be determined by a relative slower speed of information processing. METHOD: Forty-eight antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 48 matched healthy controls were administered a comprehensive battery...

  12. Childhood trauma and dissociation in first-episode psychosis, chronic schizophrenia and community controls.

    Braehler, Christine; Valiquette, Luc; Holowka, Darren; Malla, Ashok K; Joober, Ridha; Ciampi, Antonio; Pawliuk, Nicole; King, Suzanne

    2013-11-30

    Increasing evidence supports the role of childhood trauma in the etiology of psychosis but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Early maltreatment has been linked to dissociative symptoms in psychosis patients. We explored associations between childhood trauma (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale) in first-episode psychotic patients (n=62), chronic psychotic patients (n=43), and non-psychotic community controls (n=66). Multivariate analyses of covariance were used to test associations between childhood trauma and dissociation by group while controlling for sex. Chronic patients reported the highest level of dissociation. More severe childhood trauma was associated with greater dissociative symptoms in all groups although most strongly in chronic patients. Emotional abuse showed the strongest associations with dissociation, with these being strongest for chronic patients, followed by first-episode patients--and least for controls. Men showed a stronger association between physical neglect and dissociation than women, irrespective of group. There were no significant group by sex interactions. Our findings replicate the strong association between childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms in chronic and first-episode psychotic patients relative to non-psychotic control subjects. We also demonstrate the salience of emotional abuse in explaining variance in dissociation, especially in chronic patients. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Co-morbid depressive disorder is associated with better neurocognitive performance in first episode schizophrenia spectrum.

    Herniman, Sarah E; Cotton, Sue M; Killackey, Eóin; Hester, Robert; Allott, Kelly A

    2018-03-15

    Both major depressive disorder (MDD) and first episode schizophrenia spectrum (FES) are associated with significant neurocognitive deficits. However, it remains unclear whether the neurocognitive deficits in individuals with FES are more severe if there is comorbid depressive disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the neurocognitive profiles between those with and without full-threshold depressive disorder in FES. This study involved secondary analysis of baseline data from a randomized controlled trial of vocational intervention for young people with first-episode psychosis (N = 82; age range: 15-25 years). Those with full-threshold depressive disorder (n = 24) had significantly better information processing speed than those without full-threshold depressive disorder. Severity of depressive symptoms was also associated with better information processing speed. In additional to the cross-sectional design, limitations of this study include the absence of assessing insight as a potential mediator. After the first psychotic episode, it could be speculated that those with better information processing speed may be more likely to develop full-threshold depressive disorder, as their ability to efficiently process information may allow them to be more aware of their situations and environments, and consequently to have greater insight into the devastating consequences of FES. Such novel findings support the examination of full-threshold depressive disorder in relation to neurocognitive performance across illness phases in future work. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. In vivo gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate levels in people with first-episode schizophrenia: A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Chiu, P W; Lui, Simon S Y; Hung, Karen S Y; Chan, Raymond C K; Chan, Queenie; Sham, P C; Cheung, Eric F C; Mak, Henry K F

    2018-03-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) dysfunction and its consequent imbalance are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Reduced GABA production would lead to a disinhibition of glutamatergic neurons and subsequently cause a disruption of the modulation between GABAergic interneurons and glutamatergic neurons. In this study, levels of GABA, Glx (summation of glutamate and glutamine), and other metabolites in the anterior cingulate cortex were measured and compared between first-episode schizophrenia subjects and healthy controls (HC). Diagnostic potential of GABA and Glx as upstream biomarkers for schizophrenia was explored. Nineteen first-episode schizophrenia subjects and fourteen HC participated in this study. Severity of clinical symptoms of patients was measured with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Metabolites were measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and quantified using internal water as reference. First-episode schizophrenia subjects revealed reduced GABA and myo-inositol (mI), and increased Glx and choline (Cho), compared to HC. No significant correlation was found between metabolite levels and PANSS scores. Receiver operator characteristics analyses showed Glx had higher sensitivity and specificity (84.2%, 92.9%) compared to GABA (73.7%, 64.3%) for differentiating schizophrenia patients from HC. Combined model of both GABA and Glx revealed the best sensitivity and specificity (89.5%, 100%). This study simultaneously showed reduction in GABA and elevation in Glx in first-episode schizophrenia subjects, and this might provide insights on explaining the disruption of modulation between GABAergic interneurons and glutamatergic neurons. Elevated Cho might indicate increased membrane turnover; whereas reduced mI might reflect dysfunction of the signal transduction pathway. In vivo Glx and GABA revealed their diagnostic potential for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Early effects of treatment in first episode schizophrenia on brain perfusion evaluated with 99mTc-ECD-SPECT

    Milcinski, M.; Grmek, M.; Novak, B.; Kocmur, M.

    2002-01-01

    Aim of our study was to evaluate regional cerebral blood flow (r-CBF) in acute first-episode schizophrenia and the early effects of antipsychotic drugs on r-CBF. Methods: Clinical criteria for schizophrenia were met according to International Classification of Diseases - 10th Edition (ICD-10). Psychic status and severity of disease of each patient were evaluated with a semi-structured psychiatric interview, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) on the same day as the scintigraphic study. R-CBF was evaluated using 99m-Tc-ECD. Until now 9 first-episode schizophrenic patients 2-7 (average 5.2) days after the beginning of antipsychotic treatment and 7 pts 8-15 (average 10.4) weeks later were investigated. R-CBF was evaluated in every patient in comparison to cerebellar blood flow in frontal and temporal regions in 4 slices. Both studies were compared. Homogeneity of brain perfusion was assessed visually as homogenous, moderately and severely non-homogenous. Results: In acute patients, perfusion was non-homogenous and decreased in left frontal lobe (90.1±4.4) in comparison to the right side (93.3±±4.6, p<0.05). Increase in perfusion was significant (p<0.05) between first and second scan in left (90.1±4.4 to 94.1±5.2, p<0.05) and right (93.4±4.6 to 96.9±5.8, p<0.05) frontal lobes. Significant difference in perfusion between right and left posterior region of temporal lobe found on the first scan was no longer present on the second scan. Perfusion was significantly more homogenous on the second scan. Significant decrease in PANSS (p<0.05) and CGI (p<0.001) scores was noted. Conclusions: Despite the low number of patients included so far, our findings implicate that patients with first-episode schizophrenia have significant bilateral frontal hypoperfusion, more pronounced on the left side. After average 10 weeks of medication, bilateral increase in blood flow was observed in frontal lobes and left-right difference was no

  16. Deinstitutionalization revisited: a 5-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial of hospital-based rehabilitation versus specialized assertive intervention (OPUS) versus standard treatment for patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    Nordentoft, Merete; Øhlenschlæger, Johan; Thorup, Anne Amalie Elgaard

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effects of hospital-based rehabilitation including weekly supportive psychodynamic therapy compared with specialized assertive intervention and standard treatment has not previously been investigated in first-episode psychosis. The aim of the study was to examine long-term effect...... in a special part of the Copenhagen OPUS trial and randomized to either the specialized assertive intervention program (OPUS), standard treatment or hospital-based rehabilitation. RESULTS: It was a stable pattern that patients randomized to hospital-based rehabilitation spent more days in psychiatric wards...

  17. Metabolic Syndrome in First Episode Schizophrenia, Based on the National Mental Health Registry of Schizophrenia (NMHR) in a General Hospital in Malaysia: A 10-Year Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Lee, Albert Muh Haur; Ng, Chong Guan; Koh, Ong Hui; Gill, Jesjeet Singh; Aziz, Salina Abdul

    2018-05-07

    Schizophrenia has been linked with various medical comorbidities, particularly metabolic syndrome. The number of studies on this aspect is lacking in Malaysia. (1) Objective: To investigate metabolic syndrome rates and its associated factors. (2) Method: This is the first 10-year retrospective-outcome study of patients with first episode schizophrenia in Malaysia. Out of 394 patients diagnosed with first episode schizophrenia and registered with the National Mental Health Registry of Schizophrenia (NMHR) in the General Hospital Kuala Lumpur (GHKL) in 2004⁻2005, 174 patients consented to participate in the study. They were interviewed using a Schizophrenia outcome questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made using the National Cholesterol Education Program—Third Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP ATP III). (3) Results: All patients’ weight, body mass index, fasting blood sugar, and blood pressure are significantly increased. Sixty-three subjects (36.2%) developed metabolic syndrome while 36 (23.2%) were hypertensive, and 41 (28.1%) were diabetic. Use of fluphenthixol depot (CI = 1.05⁻5.09, OR: 0.84, p = 0.039), reduced physical activity (CI = 0.13⁻1.00, OR: −1.04, p = 0.049), and substance use disorder (CI = 1.40, 13.89, OR: 1.48, p = 0.012) were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome based on univariate analysis. In further multivariate analysis, comorbid substance abuse was the only significant factor associated with metabolic syndrome after adjusting for physical activity and intramuscular depot. (4) Conclusion: Patients with schizophrenia are at high risk of metabolic syndrome. It is important to address substance use problems as an important risk factor of this comorbidity.

  18. The predictive value of baseline NAA/Cr for treatment response of first-episode schizophrenia: A ¹H MRS study.

    Liu, Weibo; Yu, Hualiang; Jiang, Biao; Pan, Bing; Yu, Shaohua; Li, Huichun; Zheng, Leilei

    2015-07-23

    The study focused on the predictive value of baseline metabolite ratios in bilateral hippocampus of first-episode schizophrenia by using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS). (1)H MRS data were acquired from 23 hallucination and 17 non-hallucination first-episode schizophrenia patients compared with 17 healthy participants. Clinical characteristics of patients were rated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) before and after 3-month treatment. The schizophrenia patients showed lower NAA/Cr ratio than healthy participants respectively (p=0.024; p=0.001), and non-hallucination patients had even lower NAA/Cr ratio than hallucination patients (p=0.033). After 3-month treatment, hallucination patients had greater improvement in negative symptoms than non-hallucination patients (p=0.018). The reduction of PANSS total score and negative factor score was positively correlated with the left NAA/Cr in both group patients (pNAA/Cr had predictive value for the whole treatment response, and the left hippocampal NAA/Cr can predict the prognosis of negative symptoms during acute phase medication in first-episode schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Plasma homovanillic acid differences in clinical subgroups of first episode schizophrenic patients.

    Baeza, Immaculada; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Deulofeu, Ramon; de la Serna, Elena; Goti, Javier; Salvà, Joan; Bernardo, Miquel

    2009-07-30

    This study evaluates the relationship between plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels, which have been used to study the role of central dopamine in schizophrenia, and the positive/negative syndrome in first episode schizophrenic patients before and after antipsychotic treatment. Forty neuroleptic-naive first episode schizophrenic patients were monitored at baseline and on days 7, 14 and 28. Clinical status was evaluated with the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), and the Brief Psychotic Rating Scale. Plasma HVA levels were also measured. Patients were divided into predominantly positive or negative syndrome groups by subtracting SAPS from SANS scores, at baseline. A healthy control group was also enrolled. Schizophrenic patients as a group had significantly higher pHVA levels than controls at baseline (20.50+/-11.85 vs. 13.04+/-7.22 ng/ml). Moreover, 12 predominantly negative syndrome patients had similar mean baseline pHVA levels (21.30+/-12.36 ng/ml) to those of 28 predominantly positive syndrome patients (19.40+/-11.33 ng/ml). During follow-up, there was a different evolution of pHVA levels in the predominantly positive syndrome group than in the predominantly negative syndrome group, with a significantly greater global reduction of pHVA levels in the former. Although both groups showed clinical improvement following 4 weeks of treatment with risperidone, pHVA levels at endpoint were lower (13.29+/-5.91 ng/ml) than at baseline in patients in the predominantly positive syndrome group, while among those in the predominantly negative syndrome group there was no difference in pHVA levels before and after treatment (21.02+/-13.06 ng/ml). The different pHVA level profiles observed in predominantly positive and negative syndrome first episode patients after 4 weeks of treatment with risperidone suggest that each syndrome may have a different underlying neurobiology.

  20. No alterations of brain GABA after 6 months of treatment with atypical antipsychotic drugs in early-stage first-episode schizophrenia.

    Goto, Naoki; Yoshimura, Reiji; Kakeda, Shingo; Moriya, Junji; Hori, Hikaru; Hayashi, Kenji; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Nakano-Umene, Wakako; Katsuki, Asuka; Nishimura, Joji; Korogi, Yukunori; Nakamura, Jun

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs on GABA concentrations in early-stage, first-episode schizophrenia patients. Sixteen (8 males, 8 females; age, 30±11 years old) patients were followed up for six months. We also included 18 sex- and age-matched healthy control subjects. All patients were treated with atypical antipsychotic drugs (5 patients with risperidone, 5 patients with olanzapine, 4 patients with aripiprazole, and 2 patients with quetiapine). In all three regions measured (frontal lobe, left basal ganglia, and parieto-occipital lobe), no differences in GABA concentrations were observed in a comparison of pre-treatment levels and those six months after treatment. These results suggest that relatively short-term treatment with atypical antipsychotic drugs may not affect GABAergic neurotransmission; however, it is also possible that such treatment prevents further reductions in brain GABA levels in people with early-stage, first-episode schizophrenia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Elevated glutamine/glutamate ratio in cerebrospinal fluid of first episode and drug naive schizophrenic patients

    Lindström Leif H

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS studies report that glutamine is altered in the brains of schizophrenic patients. There were also conflicting findings on glutamate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of schizophrenic patients, and absent for glutamine. This study aims to clarify the question of glutamine and glutamate in CSF of first episode and drug naive schizophrenic patients. Method Levels of glutamine and glutamate in CSF of 25 first episode and drug-naive male schizophrenic patients and 17 age-matched male healthy controls were measured by a high performance liquid chromatography. Results The ratio (126.1 (median, 117.7 ± 27.4 (mean ± S.D. of glutamine to glutamate in the CSF of patients was significantly (z = -3.29, p = 0.001 higher than that (81.01 (median, 89.1 ± 22.5 (mean ± S.D. of normal controls although each level of glutamine and glutamate in patients was not different from that of normal controls. Conclusion Our data suggests that a disfunction in glutamate-glutamine cycle in the brain may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  2. Structural brain abnormalities in first episode schizophrenia. Is it just illness?

    Rais, M.

    2011-01-01

    Although neuroimaging studies consistently demonstrated brain volume alterations in patients with schizophrenia, confounding factors like age, IQ, duration of the illness, use of antipsychotic medication and drug (ab-)use might partly explain these results. Therefore, the relation between

  3. Patterns of regional gray matter loss at different stages of schizophrenia: A multisite, cross-sectional VBM study in first-episode and chronic illness

    Ulysses S. Torres

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The above data indicate that brain changes associated with the diagnosis of schizophrenia are more widespread in chronic schizophrenia compared to first-episode patients. Our findings also suggest that relative GM volume deficits may be greater in (presumably more severe cases with earlier age of onset, as well as varying as a function of illness duration in specific frontal brain regions. Finally, our results highlight the potentially complex effects of the continued use of antipsychotic drugs on structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia, as we found that cumulative doses of antipsychotics affected brain volumes globally rather than selectively on frontal-temporal regions.

  4. Predictors of discontinuation of antipsychotic medication and subsequent outcomes in the European First Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST).

    Landolt, Karin; Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Derks, Eske M; Libiger, Jan; Kahn, René S; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    This study had two aims: to describe patients suffering from first-episode schizophrenia who had stopped taking any antipsychotic medication, and to gain information on the predictors of successful discontinuation. We investigated data from the European First Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST). From the 325 patients included, 15.7% discontinued all antipsychotic medication. In a first analysis, clinical and sociodemographical predictors of discontinuing any antipsychotic medication were identified, using Cox regression. In the second analysis, logistic regression was used to determine variables associated with those patients who had stopped taking antipsychotic medication and had a favourable outcome, i.e., successful discontinuation. A good outcome was defined as a) having had no relapse within the whole observation period (80.6%), and b) having had no relapse and symptomatic remission at 12-month-follow-up (37.2%). Cox regression revealed that a higher proportion of patients from Western European countries and Israel stopped antipsychotic medication than from Central and Eastern European countries, that relapse was associated with discontinuation, and that discontinuers had lower compliance and higher quality of life. Predictors of successful discontinuation differed with the outcome definition used. Using definition b), successful discontinuers had a better baseline prognosis and better baseline social integration. Using definition a), successful discontinuers more often were from Western European countries. Region and clinical factors were associated with discontinuation. Prognosis and social integration played an important role in predicting successful discontinuation. As this study had several limitations, for example the observational design regarding discontinuation, further studies are needed to identify predictors of successful discontinuation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Change in cannabis use, clinical symptoms and social functioning among patients with first-episode psychosis

    Clausen, L; Hjorthøj, C R; Thorup, Anne A.E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies indicate that cannabis use among patients with psychotic disorders is associated with worse outcome, but only a few studies have controlled for baseline condition and medication. METHOD: At 5-year follow-up, interviews were carried out with 314 first-episode psychosis...... patients included in the OPUS trial. The patients included were in the age range of 18 to 45 years old and 59% were male. Cannabis use was extracted from the Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry. At follow-up, the patients were divided into different groups according to the variable cannabis...... use: abstainers, stoppers, starters and continuers. Psychotic, negative and disorganized dimensions (ranging from zero to five) were calculated for each of the four groups based on the Schedule for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia. RESULTS: Cannabis users were younger...

  6. Emotional Intelligence in a Group of Patients with First-Episode Psychosis in Iran

    Hamid Reza Pooretemad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the Emotional Intelligence (EI of a group of patients with first episode psychosis in Iran as compared with a healthy control group. A case-control design was used. EI was assessed using Persian version of Bar-On Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i administered on 25 patients with history of a single psychotic episode in the last two years, as well as 64 healthy participants. The mean (±SD of EI scores of patients and healthy controls group was 319.8 (±40.9 and 328.8 (±33.3, respectively. Two-independent sample t-test revealed no significant difference in the EI scores of two groups (P=0.29. In contrast with chronic schizophrenia, the patients with first-episode psychosis were not different from the healthy subjects in terms of emotional intelligence score. It might be implied that the low emotional intelligence of the patients with chronic psychotic disorders is an accumulative result of the underlying disease over time.

  7. Both volumetry and functional connectivity of Heschl's gyrus are associated with auditory P300 in first episode schizophrenia.

    Guo, Qian; Tang, Yingying; Li, Hui; Zhang, Tianhong; Li, Jianqi; Sheng, Jianhua; Liu, Dengtang; Li, Chunbo; Wang, Jijun

    2014-12-01

    Reduced gray matter volume in left superior temporal gyrus (STG) is considered to be associated with auditory P300 amplitude in schizophrenia. Little is known about possible pathological circuits regarding sub-regions of STG that contribute to auditory P300 abnormality in schizophrenia. The current study investigated gray matter volume in STG and functional connectivity of Heschl's gyrus in first-episode schizophrenia (FESZ), as well as their correlations with P300 amplitude. Nineteen FESZ patients and 19 healthy controls contributed MRI scans. Eighteen patients and 17 controls underwent auditory P300 test within 1 week after MRI scanning. STG structural abnormalities were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis. Bilateral Heschl's gyri (HG) were selected as seeds for FC analysis in resting MRI data. Correlations of P300 amplitude with gray matter alterations in STG and HG-based FC were analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis within each group. Compared to healthy controls, FESZ patients showed reduced gray matter in left STG and P300 amplitude. Gray matter volume of left Heschl's gyrus was positively correlated with P300 amplitude in FESZ patients. HG-based FC of resting fMRI was decreased in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), medial frontal gyrus (MFG), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and left temporal pole, whereas the same metric was increased in the lingual gyrus, precuneus and cerebellar tonsil among FESZ patients. FC between bilateral HG and precuneus was inversely correlated with P300 amplitude among healthy controls, and was absent among FES patients. The findings point towards both decreased volume of Heschl's gyrus and its altered functional pathways may contribute to auditory P300 abnormality in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reshaping an enduring sense of self: the process of recovery from a first episode of schizophrenia.

    Romano, Donna M; McCay, Elizabeth; Goering, Paula; Boydell, Katherine; Zipursky, Robert

    2010-08-01

    Although advances in the treatment of schizophrenia have been made, little is known about the process of recovery from first episode of schizophrenia (FES). To date, the study of recovery in the field of mental health has focused on long-term mental illness. This qualitative study addresses ways in which individuals with FES describe their process of recovery and how identified individuals (e.g. family members) describe their perceptions of and roles in the participant's process of recovery. Charmaz's constructivist grounded theory methodology was used to interview 10 young adults twice who self-identified as recovering from FES. In addition, 10 individuals were identified who had influenced their recovery and were interviewed once, for a total of 30 interviews. Data collection sources included in-depth semi-structured interviews. Data analysis methods were consistent with Charmaz's methodology and included coding, and constant comparison of data. The results provide a substantive theory of the process of recovery from FES that is comprised of the following phases: 'Who they were prior to the illness', 'Lives interrupted: Encountering the illness', 'Engaging in services and supports', 'Re-engaging in life', 'Envisioning the future'; and the core category, 'Re-shaping an enduring sense of self', that occurred throughout all phases. A prominent feature of this model is that participants' enduring sense of self were reshaped rather than reconstructed throughout their recovery. This model of recovery from FES is unique, and as such, provides implications for clinical care, research and policy development for these young adults and their families.

  9. Psychometric evaluation of the Danish and Swedish Satisfaction with Life Scale in first episode psychosis patients.

    Hochwälder, Jacek; Mattsson, Maria; Holmqvist, Ragnhild; Cullberg, Johan; Rosenbaum, Bent

    2013-04-01

    To psychometrically evaluate the Satisfaction with Life Scale in two cohorts of first-episode psychosis patients in the Danish National Schizophrenia Project and in the Swedish Parachute Project. Four properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale were examined in the Danish cohort (explorative investigation) and then confirmed in the Swedish cohort: (1) the factor structure; (2) correlations between subscales; (3) internal consistencies of subscales; and (4) main tendencies (arithmetic means) and variations (standard deviations) of subscales. The relations between the Satisfaction with Life Scale and various life conditions were investigated in the Swedish cohort. For both samples, the analysis indicated that the obtained four-dimensional 11-item scale had satisfactory properties. Moderately high scores were obtained in the four subscales: "living," "social relationships," "self and present life" and "work." They correlated positively with each other, the internal consistencies of the subscales were acceptable and the means for the subscales indicated no apparent floor or ceiling effects. The four dimensions obtained seem relevant and presented good face validity. The dimensions were confirmed in the Swedish sample. The Satisfaction with Life Scale shows satisfactory psychometric properties and seems valid and useful among first-episode psychosis patients.

  10. Trajectories of premorbid childhood and adolescent functioning in schizophrenia-spectrum psychoses: A first-episode study.

    Horton, Leslie E; Tarbox, Sarah I; Olino, Thomas M; Haas, Gretchen L

    2015-06-30

    Evidence of social and behavioral problems preceding the onset of schizophrenia-spectrum psychoses is consistent with a neurodevelopmental model of these disorders. Here we predict that individuals with a first episode of schizophrenia-spectrum psychoses will evidence one of three patterns of premorbid adjustment: an early deficit, a deteriorating pattern, or adequate or good social adjustment. Participants were 164 (38% female; 31% black) individuals ages 15-50 with a first episode of schizophrenia-spectrum psychoses. Premorbid adjustment was assessed using the Cannon-Spoor Premorbid Adjustment Scale. We compared the fit of a series of growth mixture models to examine premorbid adjustment trajectories, and found the following 3-class model provided the best fit with: a "stable-poor" adjustment class (54%), a "stable-good" adjustment class (39%), and a "deteriorating" adjustment class (7%). Relative to the "stable-good" class, the "stable-poor" class experienced worse negative symptoms at 1-year follow-up, particularly in the social amotivation domain. This represents the first known growth mixture modeling study to examine premorbid functioning patterns in first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum psychoses. Given that the stable-poor adjustment pattern was most prevalent, detection of social and academic maladjustment as early as childhood may help identify people at increased risk for schizophrenia-spectrum psychoses, potentially increasing feasibility of early interventions. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Differential effects of antipsychotic drugs on insight in first episode schizophrenia: Data from the European First-Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST)

    Pijnenborg, G. H. M.; Timmerman, M. E.; Derks, E. M.; Fleischhacker, W. W.; Kahn, R. S.; Aleman, A.

    2015-01-01

    Although antipsychotics are widely prescribed, their effect of on improving poor illness insight in schizophrenia has seldom been investigated and therefore remains uncertain. This paper examines the effects of low dose haloperidol, amisulpride, olanzapine, quetiapine, and ziprasidone on insight in

  12. Differential effects of antipsychotic drugs on insight in first episode schizophrenia : Data from the European First-Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST)

    Pijnenborg, G. H. M.; Timmerman, Marieke; Derks, E.M.; Fleischhacker, W. W.; Kahn, R. S.; Aleman, A.

    Although antipsychotics are widely prescribed, their effect of on improving poor illness insight in schizophrenia has seldom been investigated and therefore remains uncertain. This paper examines the effects of low dose haloperidol, amisulpride, olanzapine, quetiapine, and ziprasidone on insight in

  13. GAD1 Gene Expression in Blood of Patients with First-Episode Psychosis.

    Jie Yin Yee

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter, has often been studied in relation to its role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. GABA is synthesized from glutamate by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD, derived from two genes, GAD1 and GAD2. GAD1 is expressed as both GAD67 and GAD25 mRNA transcripts with the former reported to have a lower expression level in schizophrenia compared to healthy controls and latter was reported to be predominantly expressed fetally, suggesting a role in developmental process. In this study, GAD67 and GAD25 mRNA levels were measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR in peripheral blood of subjects with first-episode psychosis (FEP and from healthy controls. We observed low GAD25 and GAD67 gene expression levels in human peripheral blood. There was no difference in GAD25 and GAD67 gene expression level, and GAD25/GAD67 ratio between patients with FEP and healthy controls. PANSS negative symptoms were associated with levels of GAD25 mRNA transcripts in patients with FEP. While the current study provides information on GAD25 and GAD67 mRNA transcript levels in whole blood of FEP patients, further correlation and validation work between brain regions, cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood expression profiling are required to provide a better understanding of GAD25 and GAD67.

  14. Social network among young adults with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders: results from the Danish OPUS trial

    Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia

    2006-01-01

    Social network has considerable impact on physical and mental health. Patients experiencing first-episode psychosis early in adult life may experience severe problems concerning development and maintenance of their social network.......Social network has considerable impact on physical and mental health. Patients experiencing first-episode psychosis early in adult life may experience severe problems concerning development and maintenance of their social network....

  15. Social network among young adults with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Results from the Danish OPUS trial

    Thorup, A; Petersen, L; Jeppesen, P

    2006-01-01

    Social network has considerable impact on physical and mental health. Patients experiencing first-episode psychosis early in adult life may experience severe problems concerning development and maintenance of their social network.......Social network has considerable impact on physical and mental health. Patients experiencing first-episode psychosis early in adult life may experience severe problems concerning development and maintenance of their social network....

  16. Effects of Short-Term Inpatient Treatment on Sensitivity to a Size Contrast Illusion in First-Episode Psychosis and Multiple-Episode Schizophrenia

    Steven M Silverstein

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the Ebbinghaus illusion, a shape appears larger than its actual size when surrounded by small shapes and smaller than its actual size when surrounded by large shapes. Resistance to this illusion has been previously reported in schizophrenia, and linked to disorganized symptoms and poorer prognosis in cross-sectional studies. It is unclear, however, when in the course of illness this resistance first emerges or how it varies longitudinally with illness phase. Method: First-episode psychosis patients, multiple-episode schizophrenia patients and healthy controls completed a psychophysical task at two different time points, corresponding to hospital admission and discharge for patients. The task required judging the relative size of two circles centered on either side of the screen. Targets were presented without context (baseline, or were surrounded by shapes that made the size judgment harder or easier (misleading and helpful contexts, respectively. Context sensitivity was operationalized as improvement relative to baseline in the helpful condition minus the amount of decrement (relative to baseline in the misleading condition. Results: At admission, context sensitivity was lower in the multiple-episode group than in the other groups, and was marginally less in the first episode than in the control group. In addition, schizophrenia patients were significantly more and less accurate than the other groups in the misleading and helpful conditions, respectively. At discharge, all groups exhibited similar context sensitivity. Poorer context sensitivity was related to higher levels of disorganized symptoms, and lower level of depression, excitement, and positive symptoms. Discussion: Resistance to the Ebbinghaus illusion, as a characteristic of the acute phase of schizophrenia, emerges after the first episode of psychosis. This suggests that visual context processing is a state-marker in schizophrenia and a biomarker of relapse and

  17. Effects of short-term inpatient treatment on sensitivity to a size contrast illusion in first-episode psychosis and multiple-episode schizophrenia.

    Silverstein, Steven M; Keane, Brian P; Wang, Yushi; Mikkilineni, Deepthi; Paterno, Danielle; Papathomas, Thomas V; Feigenson, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In the Ebbinghaus illusion, a shape appears larger than its actual size when surrounded by small shapes and smaller than its actual size when surrounded by large shapes. Resistance to this visual illusion has been previously reported in schizophrenia, and linked to disorganized symptoms and poorer prognosis in cross-sectional studies. It is unclear, however, when in the course of illness this resistance first emerges or how it varies longitudinally with illness phase. We addressed these issues by having first-episode psychosis patients, multiple-episode schizophrenia patients and healthy controls complete a psychophysical task at two different time points, corresponding to hospital admission and discharge for patients. The task required judging the relative size of two circular targets centered on either side of the screen. Targets were presented without context (baseline), or were surrounded by shapes that made the size judgment harder or easier (misleading and helpful contexts, respectively). Context sensitivity was operationalized as the amount of improvement relative to baseline in the helpful condition minus the amount of decrement relative to baseline in the misleading condition. At hospital admission, context sensitivity was lower in the multiple-episode group than in the other groups, and was marginally less in the first episode than in the control group. In addition, schizophrenia patients were significantly more and less accurate than the other groups in the misleading and helpful conditions, respectively. At discharge, all groups exhibited similar context sensitivity. In general, poorer context sensitivity was related to higher levels of disorganized symptoms, and lower level of depression, excitement, and positive symptoms. Resistance to the Ebbinghaus illusion, as a characteristic of the acute phase of illness in schizophrenia, increases in magnitude after the first episode of psychosis. This suggests that visual context processing is a state-marker in

  18. Can patients at risk for persistent negative symptoms be identified during their first episode of psychosis?

    Malla, Ashok K; Norman, Ross M G; Takhar, Jatinder; Manchanda, Rahul; Townsend, Laurel; Scholten, Derek; Haricharan, Raj

    2004-07-01

    Patients with schizophrenia who show persistent negative symptoms are an important subgroup, but they are difficult to identify early in the course of illness. The objective of this study was to examine characteristics that discriminate between first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients in whom primary negative symptoms did or did not persist after 1 year of treatment. Patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of FEP whose primary negative symptoms did (N = 36) or did not (N = 35) persist at 1 year were contrasted on their baseline and 1-year characteristics. Results showed that patients with persistent primary negative symptoms (N = 36) had a significantly longer duration of untreated psychosis (p < .005), worse premorbid adjustment during early (p < .001) and late adolescence (p < .01), and a higher level of affective flattening (p < .01) at initial presentation compared with patients with transitory primary negative symptoms. The former group also showed significantly lower remission rates at 1 year (p < .001). Multiple regression analysis confirmed the independent contribution of duration of untreated psychosis, premorbid adjustment, and affective flattening at baseline to the patients' likelihood of developing persistent negative symptoms. It may therefore be possible to distinguish a subgroup of FEP patients whose primary negative symptoms are likely to persist on the basis of characteristics shown at initial presentation for treatment.

  19. Cognitive reserve as a predictor of two year neuropsychological performance in early onset first-episode schizophrenia.

    de la Serna, Elena; Andrés-Perpiñá, Susana; Puig, Olga; Baeza, Inmaculada; Bombin, Igor; Bartrés-Faz, David; Arango, Celso; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Parellada, Mara; Mayoral, María; Graell, Montserrat; Otero, Soraya; Guardia, Joan; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    The concept of cognitive reserve (CR) has been defined as individual differences in the efficient utilization of brain networks which allow some people to cope better than others with brain pathology. CR has been developed mainly in the field of aging and dementia after it was observed that there appears to be no direct relationship between the degree of brain pathology and the severity of clinical manifestations of this damage. The present study applies the concept of CR to a sample of children and adolescents with a first episode of schizophrenia, aiming to assess the possible influence of CR on neuropsychological performance after two year follow-up, controlling for the influence of clinical psychopathology. 35 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SSD) and 98 healthy controls (HC) matched for age and gender were included. CR was assessed at baseline, taking into account premorbid IQ, educational-occupational level and leisure activities. Clinical and neuropsychological assessments were completed by all patients at two year follow-up. The CR proxy was able to predict working memory and attention at two year follow-up. Verbal memory and cognitive flexibility were not predicted by any of the variables included in the regression model. The SSD group obtained lower scores than HC on CR. CR measures correctly classified 79.8% of the sample as being SSD or HC. Lower scores on CR were observed in SSD than in HC and the CR measure correctly classified a high percentage of the sample into the two groups. CR may predict SSD performance on working memory and attention tasks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cognitive behavioral therapy across the stages of psychosis : Prodromal, first episode, and chronic schizophrenia

    Valmaggia, Lucia R.; Tabraham, Paul; Morris, Eric; Bourrian, Theo K.

    Since the early 1990s, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been increasingly used as an adjunctive treatment for psychotic disorders. This paper describes the CBT of three cases, each at a different stage of psycholic disorder: at-risk mental state, first-episode psychosis, and chronic psychotic

  1. Telomerase level increase is related to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid efficacy in first episode schizophrenia: Secondary outcome analysis of the OFFER randomized clinical trial.

    Pawełczyk, Tomasz; Grancow-Grabka, Marta; Trafalska, Elżbieta; Szemraj, Janusz; Żurner, Natalia; Pawełczyk, Agnieszka

    2018-04-20

    Schizophrenia is associated with shortening of the lifespan mainly due to cardiovascular events, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Both telomere attrition and decrease of telomerase levels were observed in schizophrenia. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) influence multiple biochemical mechanisms which are postulated to accelerate telomere shortening and limit the longevity of patients with schizophrenia. Intervention studies based on add-on therapy with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in patients with schizophrenia did not assess the changes in telomerase levels. A randomized placebo-controlled trial named OFFER was designed to compare the efficacy of a 26-week intervention composed of either 2.2g/day of n-3 PUFA or olive oil placebo with regard to symptom severity in first-episode schizophrenia patients. The secondary outcome measure of the study was to describe the association between the clinical effect of n-3 PUFA and changes in telomerase levels. Seventy-one patients aged 16-35 were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to the study arms. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess the change in symptom severity. Telomerase levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were assessed at three points: at baseline and at weeks 8 and 26 of the intervention. A significantly greater increase in PBMC telomerase levels in the intervention group compared to placebo was observed (p<0.001). Changes in telomerase levels significantly and inversely correlated with improvement in depressive symptoms and severity of the illness. The efficacy of a six-month intervention with n-3 PUFA observed in first-episode schizophrenia may be related to an increase in telomerase levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of integrated treatment on the use of coercive measures in first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder. A randomized clinical trial

    Ohlenschlaeger, Johan; Nordentoft, Merete; Thorup, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The effect of integrated treatment on the use of coercive measures in first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder in Denmark is not known. A total of 328 patients were randomly assigned to integrated treatment (167 patients) or standard treatment (161 patients). Integrated treatment consisted...... of assertive community treatment, psycho-educational multi-family groups, and social skills training. Data on coercion were extracted from the register from the National Board of Health, and data on continuity from medical records. Even though the level of continuity seemed higher in integrated treatment...

  3. A randomised multicentre trial of integrated versus standard treatment for patients with a first episode of psychotic illness

    Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia; Thorup, Anne

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of integrated treatment for patients with a first episode of psychotic illness.......To evaluate the effects of integrated treatment for patients with a first episode of psychotic illness....

  4. Gray matter changes in subjects at high risk for developing psychosis and first-episode schizophrenia: a voxel-based structural MRI study

    Kazue eNakamura

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to use a voxel-based MRI method to investigate the neuroanatomical characteristics in subjects at high risk of developing psychosis compared with those of healthy controls and first-episode schizophrenia patients. Methods: This study included 14 subjects with at-risk mental state (ARMS, 34 patients with first-episode schizophrenia, and 51 healthy controls. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM with the Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL tools to investigate the whole-brain difference in gray matter volume among the three groups. Results: Compared with the healthy controls, the schizophrenia patients showed significant gray matter reduction in the left anterior cingulate gyrus. There was no significant difference in the gray matter volume between the ARMS and other groups. Conclusion: The present study suggests that alteration of the anterior cingulate gyrus may be associated with development of frank psychosis. Further studies with a larger ARMS subjects would be required to examine the potential role of neuroimaging methods in the prediction of future transition into psychosis.

  5. Three-factor model of premorbid adjustment in a sample with chronic schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis.

    Barajas, Ana; Usall, Judith; Baños, Iris; Dolz, Montserrat; Villalta-Gil, Victoria; Vilaplana, Miriam; Autonell, Jaume; Sánchez, Bernardo; Cervilla, Jorge A; Foix, Alexandrina; Obiols, Jordi E; Haro, Josep Maria; Ochoa, Susana

    2013-12-01

    The dimensionality of premorbid adjustment (PA) has been a debated issue, with attempts to determine whether PA is a unitary construct or composed of several independent domains characterized by a differential deterioration pattern and specific outcome correlates. This study examines the factorial structure of PA, as well as, the course and correlates of its domains. Retrospective study of 84 adult patients experiencing first-episode psychosis (FEP) (n=33) and individuals with schizophrenia (SCH) (n=51). All patients were evaluated with a comprehensive battery of instruments including clinical, functioning and neuropsychological variables. A principal component analysis accompanied by a varimax rotation method was used to examine the factor structure of the PAS-S scale. Paired t tests and Wilcoxon rank tests were used to assess the changes in PAS domains over time. Bivariate correlation analyses were performed to analyse the relationship between PAS factors and clinical, social and cognitive variables. PA was better explained by three factors (71.65% of the variance): Academic PA, Social PA and Socio-sexual PA. The academic domain showed higher scores of PA from childhood. Social and clinical variables were more strongly related to Social PA and Socio-sexual PA domains, and the Academic PA domain was exclusively associated with cognitive variables. This study supports previous evidence, emphasizing the validity of dividing PA into its sub-components. A differential deterioration pattern and specific correlates were observed in each PA domains, suggesting that impairments in each PA domain might predispose individuals to develop different expressions of psychotic dimensions. © 2013.

  6. [Cognitive deficits in first episode psychosis patients and people at risk for psychosis: from diagnosis to treatment].

    Lecardeur, L; Meunier-Cussac, S; Dollfus, S

    2013-05-01

    Up to now, studies have not demonstrated significant efficacy of antipsychotics on cognitive impairments in patients with psychotic disorders. These cognitive deficits are of particular interest since they traditionally start early before the diagnosis of psychosis. They are observed during premorbid and prodromal stages, and during the first episode of psychosis. Moreover, cognitive impairments may be detected without any psychotic symptoms (such as positive symptoms) suggesting their development independently of the psychotic symptoms. Cognitive disturbances consist of impairments of episodic and working memories, intellectual functioning, executive functions (planning, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility), selective and sustained attentions and social cognition (emotion, recognition, theory of mind). The altered cognitive functions observed in schizophrenia are the same as in earlier stages but at a lower level of severity. Data suggest that cognitive deficits can be considered as vulnerability markers of psychosis since they have been described in healthy relatives of psychotic patients with high genetic risk. Cognitive deficits might also be considered as predictive of the occurrence of the disease after the first episode of psychosis. Indeed, retrospective studies suggest cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia during premorbid and prodromal phases but not in bipolar patients. Cognitive assessment might be of particular interest in people at risk for psychosis, in order to differentiate diagnostic outcomes. Cognitive functioning impairs until the diagnosis of first episode psychosis, even though cognitive profiles are quite heterogeneous in these patients. Once the diagnosis of schizophrenia is considered, cognitive deficits may be stable, although the literature is still controversial. Several factors such as symptoms and gender can contribute in diversifying the cognitive profiles. Moreover, age of onset might worsen the prognosis because of

  7. Risk Factors for the First Episode of Peritonitis in Southern Chinese Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Fan, Xiaoguang; Huang, Rong; Wang, Juan; Ye, Hongjian; Guo, Qunying; Yi, Chunyan; Lin, Jianxiong; Zhou, Qian; Shao, Fengmin; Yu, Xueqing; Yang, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Background The first episode of peritonitis affects survival of the peritoneal membrane as a medium for dialysis as well as survival of patients. The aim of this study is to investigate risk factors associated with the first episode of peritonitis in Southern Chinese continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. Methods This is a single-center, retrospective, cohort study. All incident CAPD patients from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2010 were recruited, and followed up until their first episode of peritonitis or 31 December, 2012. Baseline demographic, socioeconomic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. Cox proportional model was used to determine the factors associated with the first episode of peritonitis. Results In a cumulative 30756.5 patient-months follow-up (the median vintage 26.1 months) of 1117 CAPD patients, 309(27.7%) patients presented the first episodes of peritonitis. The cumulative peritonitis-free survival was 86.2%, 78.1%, 71.4% and 57.8% at 1, 2, 3 and 5 year, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with risk for the first episode of peritonitis were elderly patients (>65 years) [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.427, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.051 to 1.938, P = 0.023], male(HR = 1.315, 95% CI = 1.028 to 1.684, P = 0.030), lower education level (HR = 1.446, 95% CI: 1.127 to 1.855, P = 0.004) and albumin peritonitis in Southern Chinese CAPD patients. PMID:25222609

  8. Out of touch with reality? Social perception in first-episode schizophrenia

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J. H.; Salone, Anatolia; Ferri, Francesca; De Berardis, Domenico; Romani, Gian Luca; Ferro, Filippo M.; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Social dysfunction has been recognized as an elementary feature of schizophrenia, but it remains a crucial issue whether social deficits in schizophrenia concern the inter-subjective domain or primarily have their roots in disturbances of self-experience. Social perception comprises vicarious processes grounding an experiential inter-relationship with others as well as self-regulation processes allowing to maintain a coherent sense of self. The present study investigated whether the functiona...

  9. Beyond the first episode: candidate factors for a risk prediction model of schizophrenia.

    Murphy, Brendan P

    2010-01-01

    Many early psychosis services are financially compromised and cannot offer a full tenure of care to all patients. To maintain viability of services it is important that those with schizophrenia are identified early to maximize long-term outcomes, as are those with better prognoses who can be discharged early. The duration of untreated psychosis remains the mainstay in determining those who will benefit from extended care, yet its ability to inform on prognosis is modest in both the short and medium term. There are a number of known or putative genetic and environmental risk factors that have the potential to improve prognostication, though a multivariate risk prediction model combining them with clinical characteristics has yet to be developed. Candidate risk factors for such a model are presented, with an emphasis on environmental risk factors. More work is needed to corroborate many putative factors and to determine which of the established factors are salient and which are merely proxy measures. Future research should help clarify how gene-environment and environment-environment interactions occur and whether risk factors are dose-dependent, or if they act additively or synergistically, or are redundant in the presence (or absence) of other factors.

  10. The quality of life among first-episode psychotic patients in the OPUS trial

    Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: From an 'objective' perspective, treatment of first-episode psychosis has improved in many ways with the development of specialised early and intensive team-based treatment like e.g. the 'OPUS' treatment. However, the patients' perspective is also important and was investigated in the...... extent and more strongly with the affective balance and level of self-esteem....... in the 'OPUS' study by analysing data concerning quality of life. AIM: We aimed to investigate the 'quality of life from patients' perspective' among a cohort of young adults with a first-episode psychosis at the time of treatment initiation and after two years. Especially, we were interested in analysing...

  11. Are multi family groups appropriate for patients with first episode psychosis?

    Rossberg, Jan Ivar; Johannessen, J O; Klungsoyr, O

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare outcome over 5 years for patients who participated in multi family groups (MFGs) to those who refused or were not offered participation. METHOD: Of 301 first episode psychotic patients aged 15-65 years, 147 participated in MFGs. Outcome was measured by drop-out rates, positive...

  12. Prevalence of psychotic and non-psychotic disorders in relatives of patients with a first episode psychosis.

    Faridi, Kia; Pawliuk, Nicole; King, Suzanne; Joober, Ridha; Malla, Ashok K

    2009-10-01

    Family members of individuals with schizophrenia suffer from elevated rates of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD) and other forms of psychopathology. However, few studies have examined familial psychopathology in probands with a first episode of psychosis (FEP). We systematically evaluated family history in patients experiencing an affective or non-affective FEP. The Family Interview for Genetic Studies was used to obtain diagnostic information on all first- and second-degree relatives of probands admitted to a specialized FEP program. Probands were 94 previously untreated patients suffering from a first-episode of affective or schizophrenia spectrum psychosis, aged 14 to 30. The interview ascertained diagnoses of psychotic disorders, affective disorders, substance-use disorders (SUD), and schizophrenia-related personality disorders. One in five probands (19.1%) had a history of psychosis among their first-degree relatives, while 34.0% had any relative with psychosis. Fewer probands had a family history of SSD (7.4% with a first-degree history and 18.1% with a history among any relatives). Over half (53.2%) of probands had a first-degree relative with Major Depressive Disorder, and 38.3% had a first-degree relative with a SUD. Overall, 69.9% of probands had a first-degree relative with a mental disorder. The proportion of probands with a family history of any of these diagnoses did not vary by proband diagnosis (affective or SS Psychosis), though probands with co-morbid SUD were more likely to have a family history of substance abuse. Diverse psychopathology is commonly present in families of FEP patients and may imply a generalized vulnerability to psychiatric disorders to be greater in such families compared to specific vulnerability to SS or affective psychosis. These findings may also have implications for provision of care for the probands.

  13. The quality of life among first-episode psychotic patients in the OPUS trial

    Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: From an 'objective' perspective, treatment of first-episode psychosis has improved in many ways with the development of specialised early and intensive team-based treatment like e.g. the 'OPUS' treatment. However, the patients' perspective is also important and was investigated in the...... extent and more strongly with the affective balance and level of self-esteem....

  14. Metformin for treatment of antipsychotic-induced amenorrhea and weight gain in women with first-episode schizophrenia: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Wu, Ren-Rong; Jin, Hua; Gao, Keming; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Ou, Jian-Jun; Shao, Ping; Wang, Juan; Guo, Xiao-Feng; Davis, John M; Chan, Philip K; Zhao, Jing-Ping

    2012-08-01

    Data on the treatment of antipsychotic-induced amenorrhea, particularly when occurring with weight gain, are limited. The authors investigated the efficacy and safety of metformin in the treatment of antipsychotic-induced amenorrhea and weight gain in women with first-episode schizophrenia. Eighty-four women (ages 18-40 years) with first-episode schizophrenia who suffered from amenorrhea during antipsychotic treatment were randomly assigned, in a double-blind study design, to receive 1000 mg/day of metformin or placebo in addition to their antipsychotic treatment for 6 months. The primary outcome measures were restoration of menstruation and change in body weight and body mass index (BMI). Secondary outcome measures were changes in levels of prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, and testosterone; in fasting levels of insulin and glucose; in LH/FSH ratio; and in insulin resistance index. Repeated mixed models with repeated-measures regression analyses and binary logistic regression were used in the analysis. A total of 76 patients completed the 6-month trial. Significantly more patients in the metformin group (N=28, 66.7%) than in placebo group (N=2, 4.8%) resumed their menstruation. Among patients treated with metformin, BMI decreased by a mean of 0.93 and the insulin resistance index by 2.04. In contrast, patients who received placebo had a mean increase in BMI of 0.85. The prolactin, LH, and testosterone levels and LH/FSH ratio decreased significantly in the metformin group at months 2, 4, and 6, but these levels did not change in the placebo group. Metformin was effective in reversing antipsychotic-induced adverse events, including restoration of menstruation, promotion of weight loss, and improvement in insulin resistance in female patients with schizophrenia.

  15. Gender differences in young adults with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders at baseline in the Danish OPUS study

    Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia

    2007-01-01

    Gender differences in age at first onset, duration of untreated psychosis, psychopathology, social functioning, and self-esteem were investigated in a group of 578 young adults with a first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder. The mean age at first-onset of symptoms, age at first contact......, and duration of untreated psychosis were similar for men and women. Men had more severe negative symptoms, poorer premorbid functioning, and poorer social networks, whereas women had more severe hallucinations. More men than women were substance abusers, were unemployed, and lived alone. Women had poorer self-esteem...... functioning, which cannot be explained by older age of onset for women. Women make more suicide attempts and experience lower self-esteem in spite of better social functioning. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-May...

  16. Gender differences in young adults with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders at baseline in the Danish OPUS study

    Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia

    2007-01-01

    Gender differences in age at first onset, duration of untreated psychosis, psychopathology, social functioning, and self-esteem were investigated in a group of 578 young adults with a first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder. The mean age at first-onset of symptoms, age at first contact......, and duration of untreated psychosis were similar for men and women. Men had more severe negative symptoms, poorer premorbid functioning, and poorer social networks, whereas women had more severe hallucinations. More men than women were substance abusers, were unemployed, and lived alone. Women had poorer self-esteem...... functioning, which cannot be explained by older age of onset for women. Women make more suicide attempts and experience lower self-esteem in spite of better social functioning....

  17. The effect of positive symptoms on social cognition in first-episode schizophrenia is modified by the presence of negative symptoms.

    Bliksted, Vibeke; Videbech, Poul; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Frith, Chris

    2017-02-01

    There is considerable evidence that patients with schizophrenia have neurocognitive and social-cognitive deficits. It is unclear how such deficits in first-episode schizophrenia relate to current clinical symptoms. Fifty-nine patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) were tested using the Danish version of NART (premorbid IQ), subtests from WAIS-III (current IQ), and global cognition using Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrena (BACS), a neurocognitive test battery. Social perception was tested using film clips of everyday interactions (TASIT). Theory of mind (ToM) was tested using silent animations (Animated Triangles Task). The FES subjects had been experiencing psychotic symptoms for several years (mean duration 9.5 years 95% confidence interval (CI [7.6;11.3]). The FES patients were divided into clinical subgroups based on their level of positive and negative symptoms (using SANS and SAPS). Healthy controls were matched to the patients. High levels of negative symptoms were associated with low estimated functional IQ and poor neurocognition and social cognition. All SANS subscales, but Avolition-Apathy, had significant negative impact on social cognition. The effects of positive symptoms were complex. High levels of delusions were associated with higher premorbid IQ. In the presence of high levels of negative symptoms, high levels of positive symptoms were associated with the most comprehensive deficits in social perception, while, in the absence of negative symptoms, high levels of positive symptoms were not associated with such deficits. The results suggest that social-cognitive training will need to take account of the above mentioned effects of symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Relationship between neurocognition and functional recovery in first-episode schizophrenia: Results from the second year of the Oslo multi-follow-up study.

    Torgalsbøen, Anne-Kari; Mohn, Christine; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd

    2015-06-30

    Lack of control of confounding variables, high attrition rate, and too few neurocognitive domains completed at each assessment point are some of the limitations identified in studies of the relationship between cognition and functional outcome in schizophrenia. In the ongoing Oslo multi-follow-up study 28 first episode schizophrenia patients and a pairwise matched control group (N=28) are assessed with the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), a clinical interview, an inventory on social and role functioning and criteria of remission and recovery at several follow-up points. The current paper describes the rate of remission and full recovery, and investigates the relationship between neurocognition and functional outcome. At 2-year follow-up, 80.0% of the patients were in remission and 16.0% of them fulfilled the criteria for full recovery. The attrition rate was very low. In the follow-up period, there was a statistically significant decline in Verbal Learning and a significant improvement on Reasoning/Problem Solving and Social Cognition in the schizophrenia group, but not in the control group. This indicates a differentiated neurocognitive course. In the schizophrenia group, Attention/Vigilance and years of education at baseline were significant predictors of social and role functioning 2 years later. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Frequency and pattern of childhood symptom onset reported by first episode schizophrenia and clinical high risk youth.

    Woodberry, Kristen A; Serur, Rachael A; Hallinan, Sean B; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I; Giuliano, Anthony J; Wojcik, Joanne D; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Frazier, Jean A; Goldstein, Jill M; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W; Seidman, Larry J

    2014-09-01

    Psychosis prevention and early intervention efforts in schizophrenia have focused increasingly on sub-threshold psychotic symptoms in adolescents and young adults. Although many youth report symptom onset prior to adolescence, the childhood incidence of prodromal-level symptoms in those with schizophrenia or related psychoses is largely unknown. This study reports on the retrospective recall of prodromal-level symptoms from 40 participants in a first-episode of schizophrenia (FES) and 40 participants at "clinical high risk" (CHR) for psychosis. Onset of positive and non-specific symptoms was captured using the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes. Frequencies are reported according to onset during childhood (prior to age 13), adolescence (13-17), or adulthood (18+). Childhood-onset of attenuated psychotic symptoms was not rare. At least 11% of FES and 23% of CHR reported specific recall of childhood-onset of unusual or delusional ideas, suspiciousness, or perceptual abnormalities. Most recalled experiencing non-specific symptoms prior to positive symptoms. CHR and FES did not differ significantly in the timing of positive and non-specific symptom onset. Other than being younger at assessment, those with childhood onset did not differ demographically from those with later onset. Childhood-onset of initial psychotic-like symptoms may be more common than previous research has suggested. Improved characterization of these symptoms and a focus on their predictive value for subsequent schizophrenia and other major psychoses are needed to facilitate screening of children presenting with attenuated psychotic symptoms. Accurate detection of prodromal symptoms in children might facilitate even earlier intervention and the potential to alter pre-illness trajectories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Anterior cingulate cortex-related connectivity in first-episode schizophrenia: a spectral dynamic causal modeling study with functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Long-Biao eCui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the neural basis of schizophrenia (SZ is important for shedding light on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this mental disorder. Structural and functional alterations in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC have been implicated in the neurobiology of SZ. However, the effective connectivity among them in SZ remains unclear. The current study investigated how neuronal pathways involving these regions were affected in first-episode SZ using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Forty-nine patients with a first-episode of psychosis and diagnosis of SZ—according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision—were studied. Fifty healthy controls (HCs were included for comparison. All subjects underwent resting state fMRI. We used spectral dynamic causal modeling (DCM to estimate directed connections among the bilateral ACC, DLPFC, hippocampus, and MPFC. We characterized the differences using Bayesian parameter averaging (BPA in addition to classical inference (t-test. In addition to common effective connectivity in these two groups, HCs displayed widespread significant connections predominantly involved in ACC not detected in SZ patients, but SZ showed few connections. Based on BPA results, SZ patients exhibited anterior cingulate cortico-prefrontal-hippocampal hyperconnectivity, as well as ACC-related and hippocampal-dorsolateral prefrontal-medial prefrontal hypoconnectivity. In summary, sDCM revealed the pattern of effective connectivity involving ACC in patients with first-episode SZ. This study provides a potential link between SZ and dysfunction of ACC, creating an ideal situation to associate mechanisms behind SZ with aberrant connectivity among these cognition and emotion-related regions.

  1. Multifamily group treatment in a program for patients with first-episode psychosis

    Fjell, Anne; Bloch Thorsen, Gerd Ragna; Friis, Svein

    2007-01-01

    Psychoeducational multifamily group treatment based on the McFarlane model was implemented for adult patients experiencing a first episode of psychosis and for the families of 301 patients. Patients were participants in a research project in Norway and Denmark. Of 301 patients 246 were invited...... to participate and 147 agreed. Patients' reluctance to participate increased with age. Most had to wait between six and 12 months until a sufficient number was gathered to start a group. Treatment was well received by patients and families. Care should be taken to prevent a long delay before group commencement...... at this stressful period in the lives of patients and families....

  2. Perceptual and cognitive effects of antipsychotics in first-episode schizophrenia: the potential impact of GABA concentration in the visual cortex.

    Kelemen, Oguz; Kiss, Imre; Benedek, György; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2013-12-02

    Schizophrenia is characterized by anomalous perceptual experiences (e.g., sensory irritation, inundation, and flooding) and specific alterations in visual perception. We aimed to investigate the effects of short-term antipsychotic medication on these perceptual alterations. We assessed 28 drug-naïve first episode patients with schizophrenia and 20 matched healthy controls at baseline and follow-up 8 weeks later. Contrast sensitivity was measured with steady- and pulsed-pedestal tests. Participants also received a motion coherence task, the Structured Interview for Assessing Perceptual Anomalies (SIAPA), and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the occipital cortex (GABA/total creatine [Cr] ratio). Results revealed that, comparing baseline and follow-up values, patients with schizophrenia exhibited a marked sensitivity reduction on the steady-pedestal test at low spatial frequency. Anomalous perceptual experiences were also significantly ameliorated. Antipsychotic medications had no effect on motion perception. RBANS scores showed mild improvements. At baseline, but not at follow-up, patients with schizophrenia outperformed controls on the steady-pedestal test at low spatial frequency. The dysfunction of motion perception (higher coherence threshold in patients relative to controls) was similar at both assessments. There were reduced GABA levels in schizophrenia at both assessments, which were not related to perceptual functions. These results suggest that antipsychotics dominantly affect visual contrast sensitivity and anomalous perceptual experiences. The prominent dampening effect on low spatial frequency in the steady-pedestal test might indicate the normalization of putatively overactive magnocellular retino-geniculo-cortical pathways. © 2013.

  3. Cognitive training plus a comprehensive psychosocial programme (OPUS) versus the comprehensive psychosocial programme alone for patients with first-episode schizophrenia (the NEUROCOM trial): a study protocol for a centrally randomised, observer-blinded multi-centre clinical trial

    Vesterager, Lone; Christensen, Torben Østergaard; Olsen, Birthe B

    2011-01-01

    training integrated in a comprehensive psychosocial programme versus the comprehensive psychosocial programme alone. The cognitive training consists of four modules focusing on attention, executive functioning, learning, and memory. Cognitive training involves computer-assisted training tasks as well...... as practical everyday tasks and calendar training. It takes place twice a week, and every other week the patient and trainer engage in a dialogue on the patient’s cognitive difficulties, motivational goals, and progress in competence level. Cognitive training relies on errorless learning principles...

  4. Negative symptom subgroups have different effects on the clinical course of schizophrenia after the first episode: a 24-month follow up study.

    Ergül, C; Üçok, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the factor structure of negative symptoms in first-episode schizophrenia (FES), and to examine the relationship of these factors with clinical course and functioning of patients during the two-year follow up. We assessed 174 drug-naïve patients with FES using Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-Expanded (BPRS), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and a cognitive battery at admission. The scales were repeated monthly during follow up. We recorded the patients' functioning levels, remission, and work status after 12 and 24 months. A two-factor structure was found at the baseline, whereas one factor was found after 12 and 24 months. Expressive deficit (ED) factor consisted of alogia and blunted affect, and motivation-pleasure deficit (MPD) factor consisted of avolition and anhedonia. ED factor was related to earlier onset and remission, and it was negatively correlated with duration of education and cognitive test scores. MPD factor was related to duration of untreated psychosis, family history of schizophrenia, and work status, and it appeared as the only independent variable that contributed to the baseline GAF score in linear regression analysis. Our findings suggest that the factors have different aetiologies and impacts on the clinical course of schizophrenia and functioning after FES. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Plasma levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol are associated with microstructural changes within the cerebellum in the early stage of first-episode schizophrenia: a longitudinal VBM study

    Nishimura J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Joji Nishimura,1 Shingo Kakeda,1 Osamu Abe,2 Reiji Yoshimura,3 Keita Watanabe,1 Naoki Goto,3 Hikaru Hori,3 Toru Sato,1 Hidemasa Takao,4 Hiroyuki Kabasawa,5 Jun Nakamura,3 Yukunori Korogi1 1Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan; 2Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nihon University, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan; 4Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 5MR Applied Science Laboratory Japan, GE Yokogawa Medical Systems, Hino-shi, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: The aims of this study are to determine how the interval changes of the brain structures in the early stage of first-episode schizophrenia relate to the interval changes in the clinical data, including the clinical symptoms of schizophrenia and catecholaminergic measures (plasma homovanillic acid [HVA] and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol [MHPG]. Regional brain volumes and fractional anisotropy (FA/mean diffusivity (MD with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI were measured at baseline and 6-month follow-up in a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI system in a cohort of 16 schizophrenic patients, who were in their first episode at the time of baseline MRI. At the time of baseline and follow-up MRI, all 16 patients underwent evaluations that included a psychopathological assessment (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS] and peripheral catecholaminergic measures (plasma MHPG or HVA. For interval changes between baseline and follow-up MRI data (morphological change, MD, and FA, the correlation/regression analysis was performed as a series of single regression correlations in Statistical Parametric Mapping 5, with the interval changes in PANSS or plasma HVA and MHPG as the covariates of interest. Positive and inverse correlations contrasts were created, and in this

  6. The effect of comorbid depression on facial and prosody emotion recognition in first-episode schizophrenia spectrum.

    Herniman, Sarah E; Allott, Kelly A; Killackey, Eóin; Hester, Robert; Cotton, Sue M

    2017-01-15

    Comorbid depression is common in first-episode schizophrenia spectrum (FES) disorders. Both depression and FES are associated with significant deficits in facial and prosody emotion recognition performance. However, it remains unclear whether people with FES and comorbid depression, compared to those without comorbid depression, have overall poorer emotion recognition, or instead, a different pattern of emotion recognition deficits. The aim of this study was to compare facial and prosody emotion recognition performance between those with and without comorbid depression in FES. This study involved secondary analysis of baseline data from a randomized controlled trial of vocational intervention for young people with first-episode psychosis (N=82; age range: 15-25 years). Those with comorbid depression (n=24) had more accurate recognition of sadness in faces compared to those without comorbid depression. Severity of depressive symptoms was also associated with more accurate recognition of sadness in faces. Such results did not recur for prosody emotion recognition. In addition to the cross-sectional design, limitations of this study include the absence of facial and prosodic recognition of neutral emotions. Findings indicate a mood congruent negative bias in facial emotion recognition in those with comorbid depression and FES, and provide support for cognitive theories of depression that emphasise the role of such biases in the development and maintenance of depression. Longitudinal research is needed to determine whether mood-congruent negative biases are implicated in the development and maintenance of depression in FES, or whether such biases are simply markers of depressed state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Course of intelligence deficits in early onset, first episode schizophrenia: a controlled, 5-year longitudinal study

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt Møllegaard; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2010-01-01

    FSIQ change was observed between patients with EOS and patients with other non-affective psychoses, although this result must be interpreted with caution due to the small sample sizes. The results suggest abnormally slow acquisition of new intellectual information and skills in EOS patients during...

  8. A Study of Soft Neurological Signs and Its Correlates in Drug-Naive Patients with First Episode Psychosis.

    Gunasekaran, Vanishree; Venkatesh, V Mathan Kumar; Asokan, T V

    2016-01-01

    Soft neurological signs are minor, non localizing, objective abnormalities, thought to reflect damage in cortical and sub-cortical connections or connections within different cortical regions. Regional structural grey matter anomalies have already been observed and correlated with the presence of cognitive deficits and presence of soft neurological signs in schizophrenic patients. Drug naive patients presenting with first episode of psychosis (FEP)were clinically evaluated for soft neurological signs using the Cambridge Neurological Inventory. The soft neurological signs scores were compared with scores in healthy volunteers. In the patient group, this score was also correlated with demographic and disorder variables. Of the 30 patients with FEP, 60% were women. The average age of the participant was 36.2 years. The average duration of illness was 1.55 years. More than 50% of the patients had schizophrenia. 93.3% of patients with FEP had atleast one soft neurological sign compared to 16.6% of controls. The average score on BPRS was 25.86 and on PANSS was 39.29, and BPRS, PANSS scores had a significant correlation with total soft neurological signs score. There is a significantly higher incidence of soft neurological signs in patients with FEP, particularly schizophrenia. The presence of soft signs correlated with the severity of psychosis.

  9. Substance abuse and first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The Danish OPUS trial

    Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia; Thorup, Anne

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years.......To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years....

  10. Differential effects of sex on substance use between first episode psychosis patients and healthy people.

    Núñez, Christian; Ochoa, Susana; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Baños, Iris; Barajas, Ana; Dolz, Montserrat; Sánchez, Bernardo; Del Cacho, Núria; Usall, Judith

    2016-08-01

    Substance use in psychosis is an important field of study given that it can be a risk factor for the development of psychosis and can give rise to psychotic symptoms. Studies of substance use in first episode psychosis patients do not frequently assess non-pathological substance consumption among patients, but rather the prevalence of substance abuse or dependence disorders. Moreover, most of these studies do not address the effects of sex in sufficient depth, and the consumption of caffeine or tobacco, which are two of the most frequently used substances, is often not assessed. The aim of this study was to compare patterns and quantities of substance use between first episode psychosis patients and healthy controls and between men and women, and explore the potential interactive effects between group (patients or controls) and sex. A total of 158 participants (82 first episode psychosis patients and 76 healthy controls) were included in the study. Both adults and adolescents were included in the study. Frequency and amount of use of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, stimulants, and opiates were gathered. A significant main effect of sex was found for the frequency of use of tobacco (p=.050). Main effects of group were found for the quantity of tobacco (pcannabis (pcannabis (p=.017) consumed. There were also interaction effects between group and sex for the frequency of use of tobacco (p=.005) and cannabis (p=.009), and for the amount of cannabis consumed (p=.049). Qualitative differences between males and females regarding combined substance use are also reported. Among patients, men used tobacco more frequently than women, but this sex difference was not the same for the control group, in which women smoked more often than men. Regarding cannabis, men smoked cannabis more frequently and in larger amounts than women, but only in the patients group, whereas no sex differences for cannabis were found for the controls. Main effects of

  11. Trajectories of suicidal ideation in patients with first-episode psychosis

    Madsen, Trine; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Secher, Rikke Gry

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heterogeneity in suicidal ideation over time in patients with first-episode psychosis is expected, but prototypical trajectories of this have not yet been established. We aimed to identify trajectories of suicidal ideation over a 3-year period and to examine how these trajectories...... assessments in a latent growth mixture modelling analysis to empirically identify trajectories of suicidal ideation. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied to estimate associations between trajectories and subsequent suicidality. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT...

  12. Cognitive profiles of three clusters of patients with a first-episode psychosis.

    Ochoa, Susana; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Barajas, Ana; Iniesta, Raquel; Dolz, Montserrat; Baños, Iris; Sánchez, Bernardo; Carlson, Janina; Foix, Alexandrina; Pelaez, Trinidad; Coromina, Marta; Pardo, Marta; Usall, Judith

    2013-10-01

    The primary objective was to identify specific groups of patients with a first-episode psychosis based on family history, obstetric complications, neurological soft signs, and premorbid functioning. The secondary objective was to relate these groups with cognitive variables. A total of 62 first-episode psychoses were recruited from adult and child and adolescent mental health services. The inclusion criteria were patients between 7 and 65 years old (real range of the samples was 13-35 years old), two or more psychotic symptoms and less than one year from the onset of the symptoms. Premorbid functioning (PAS), soft signs (NES), obstetric complications and a neuropsychological battery (CPT, TMTA/TMTB, TAVEC/TAVECI, Stroop, specific subtest of WAIS-III/WISC-IV) were administered. We found three clusters: 1) higher neurodevelopment contribution (N=14), 2) higher genetic contribution (N=30), and 3) lower neurodevelopment contribution (N=18). Statistical differences were found between groups in TMTB, learning curve of the TAVEC, digits of the WAIS and premorbid estimated IQ, the cluster 1 being the most impaired. A cluster approach could differentiate several groups of patients with different cognitive performance. Neuropsychological interventions, as cognitive remediation, should be addressed specifically to patients with more impaired results. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of posttraumatic symptoms in patients with first-episode psychosis.

    2011-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder is common among patients with psychotic disorders. The present study examined the internal reliability and comparability of the Impact of Event Scale (IES) in a sample of 38 patients with first-episode psychosis and 47 controls exposed to severe physical and\\/or sexual abuse. The IES total score and both subscales showed high internal consistency in both groups (Cronbach\\'s alpha coefficients of approximately 0.9 or higher). Given their equivalent trauma reporting, the lack of differences in IES scores between patients and controls seems to indicate that patients are likely to report accurately and neither exaggerate nor minimize their posttraumatic symptoms. Overall, the findings suggest that the IES can be used to assess symptoms of posttraumatic stress in patients with psychotic disorders as in other populations.

  14. Grey matter morphological anomalies in the caudate head in first-episode psychosis patients with delusions of reference.

    Tao, Haojuan; Wong, Gloria H Y; Zhang, Huiran; Zhou, Yuan; Xue, Zhimin; Shan, Baoci; Chen, Eric Y H; Liu, Zhening

    2015-07-30

    Delusions of reference (DOR) are theoretically linked with aberrant salience and associative learning. Previous studies have shown that the caudate nucleus plays a critical role in the cognitive circuits of coding prediction errors and associative learning. The current study aimed at testing the hypothesis that abnormalities in the caudate nucleus may be involved in the neuroanatomical substrate of DOR. Structural magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was performed in 44 first-episode psychosis patients (with diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder) and 25 healthy controls. Patients were divided into three groups according to symptoms: patients with DOR as prominent positive symptom; patients with prominent positive symptoms other than DOR; and patients with minimal positive symptoms. All groups were age-, gender-, and education-matched, and patient groups were matched for diagnosis, duration of illness, and antipsychotic treatment. Voxel-based morphometric analysis was performed to identify group differences in grey matter density. Relationships were explored between grey matter density and DOR. Patients with DOR were found to have reduced grey matter density in the caudate compared with patients without DOR and healthy controls. Grey matter density values of the left and right caudate head were negatively correlated with DOR severity. Decreased grey matter density in the caudate nucleus may underlie DOR in early psychosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modification of the association between antipsychotic treatment response and childhood adversity by MMP9 gene variants in a first-episode schizophrenia cohort.

    McGregor, Nathaniel; Thompson, Nicole; O'Connell, Kevin Sean; Emsley, Robin; van der Merwe, Lize; Warnich, Louise

    2018-04-01

    Antipsychotics remain the most effective, and wide used option for ameliorating the symptoms of schizophrenia. However, inter-individual differences in treatment outcome are vast and suggest a role for genetic and environmental factors in affording favourable outcomes. A notable epigenetic relationship which has gained considerable traction in recent literature is the way in which the severity of childhood trauma can modify associations seen between genetic variation and antipsychotic treatment response. A potential mechanism of action which may facilitate this relationship is synaptic plasticity. This study investigated the role of variants in matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), a gene involved in synaptic plasticity, with treatment outcome considering the severity of childhood trauma as an interacting variable. The cohort comprised South African first episode schizophrenia patients treated with a single injectable antipsychotic, flupenthixol decanoate, monitored over 12 months. Relationships between novel and previously described variants, and haplotypes, with antipsychotic treatment response were found to be modified when considering childhood trauma as an interacting variable. This study provides the first evidence for the involvement of polymorphisms within MMP9 and the severity of childhood trauma in antipsychotic treatment response, and warrants further investigation into the role gene-environment interactions may play in the betterment of antipsychotic treatment strategies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. An investigation of a possible relationship between olfactory identification deficits at first episode and four-year outcomes in patients with psychosis.

    Good, Kimberley P; Tibbo, Philip; Milliken, Heather; Whitehorn, David; Alexiadis, Maria; Robertson, Nancy; Kopala, Lili C

    2010-12-01

    Olfactory identification deficits are found in a significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia spectrum psychotic disorders and appear to be predictive of incomplete remission of negative and cognitive symptoms. In the current study, we examined whether patients with first episode psychosis who have olfactory identification deficits (microsmic) have poorer functional outcome than those whose olfactory status is normal (normosmic). Sixty-six (66) first episode psychosis patients (46 M and 20 F) were assessed with the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) at baseline. UPSIT scores served to classify patients into subgroups. The patients' psychiatrists completed the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) and the Levels of Functioning Scale (LOFS) after at least 6 months of treatment. The Premorbid Assessment Scale (PAS) was rated by a parent at baseline. Thirty-eight percent (38%) of the sample was identified as 'microsmic'. LOFS and SOFAS scores were significantly lower in the microsmic group than in the normosmic group. Symptoms were significantly worse in the microsmic group in comparison to the normosmic group. PAS scores did not differ between groups. First episode patients identified as microsmic at baseline assessment went on to demonstrate poorer functional outcome compared to normosmic patients despite no differences in premorbid adjustment. Olfactory identification deficits at first episode may provide a marker for poorer outcome. Testing olfaction is simple and inexpensive, and could provide clinically valuable information at first episode to identify those patients who might benefit from more intensive interventions promoting functional recovery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical utility of Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) among patients with first episode depression

    Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2010-01-01

    for comorbid personality disorder among patients suffering from depression would be of clinical use. METHOD: The present study aimed to assess the utility of the Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) as a screen for personality disorder in a population of patients recently......BACKGROUND: Personality disorder frequently co-occurs with depression and seems to be associated with a poorer outcome of treatment and increased risk for recurrences. However, the diagnosing of personality disorder can be lengthy and requires some training. Therefore, a brief screening interview...... diagnosed with first episode depression. A total number of 394 patients with an ICD-10 diagnosis of a single depressive episode were sampled consecutively via the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register during a 2years inclusion period and assessed by the screening interview and, subsequently...

  18. Overlapping and disease specific trait, response, and reflection impulsivity in adolescents with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Jepsen, J. R.M.; Rydkjaer, J.; Fagerlund, B.

    2018-01-01

    and Schizophrenia for School-aged Children – Present and Lifetime Version. Subjects with early-onset, first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders (EOS) (N = 29) or ADHD (N = 29) and healthy controls (N = 45) were compared on two performance measures (Information Sampling Task, Stop Signal Task) and a subjective......Background: Schizophrenia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are developmental disorders with shared clinical characteristics such as cognitive impairments and impulsivity. Impulsivity is a core feature of ADHD and an important factor in aggression, violence, and substance use...... in schizophrenia. Based on the hypothesis that schizophrenia and ADHD represent a continuum of neurodevelopmental impairments, the aim was to identify overlapping and disease specific forms of impulsivity. Methods: Adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age were assessed with the Schedule for Affective Disorders...

  19. Self-stigma and affiliate stigma in first-episode psychosis patients and their caregivers.

    Chen, Emily S M; Chang, Wing Chung; Hui, Christy L M; Chan, Sherry K W; Lee, Edwin Ho Ming; Chen, Eric Y H

    2016-09-01

    Stigma is a major factor causing delayed help-seeking and poor treatment adherence in patients with psychotic disorders. Previous research has mostly focused on chronic samples and the impact of culturally-relevant variables on both patients' and their caregivers' stigmatization is understudied. This study aimed to examine the relationships between various forms of stigma, "face concern", and clinical characteristics in a group of Chinese first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and their caregivers. Forty-four Hong Kong Chinese aged 15-54 years presenting with FEP to psychiatric services and their caregivers were recruited. Assessments on self-stigma, affiliate stigma, perceived public stigma, "face concern", symptom severity and subjective quality of life (QoL) were conducted. Self-stigma of FEP patients was correlated with perceived public stigma, "face concern", insight and psychological health of QoL. Multiple regression analysis revealed that perceived public stigma and "face concern" independently predicted self-stigma. Mediation analysis further suggested that "face concern" partially mediated the relationship between perceived public stigma and self-stigma. Caregivers' affiliate stigma was significantly associated with higher levels of stress, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Affiliate stigma did not correlate with perceived public stigma and "face concern". Our results indicate a critical role of perceived public stigma and fear of losing face in determining self-stigma in Chinese patients with FEP. Caregivers with greater degree of affiliate stigma experience increased stress and emotional distress. Our findings highlight the importance to examine culturally specific factors that may contribute to the development of self-stigma in first-episode populations of different ethnicities.

  20. Dopamine transporter gene polymorphism and psychiatric symptoms seen in schizophrenic patients at their first episode

    Inada, Toshiya; Sugita, Tetsuyoshi; Dobashi, Izumi [National Institute of Mental Health, Chiba (Japan)] [and others

    1996-07-26

    To investigate the possible role of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene in determining the phenotype in human subjects, allele frequencies for the 40-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism at this site were compared between 117 Japanese normal controls and 118 schizophrenic patients, including six subgroups: early-onset, those with a family history, and those suffering from one of the following psychiatric symptoms at their first episode: delusion and hallucination; disorganization; bizarre behavior; and negative symptoms. No significant differences were observed between the group as a whole or any subgroup of schizophrenic patients and controls. The results indicate that VNTR polymorphism in the DAT gene is unlikely to be a major contributor to any of the psychiatric parameters examined in the present population of schizophrenic subjects. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. Abnormal resting-state brain activities in patients with first-episode obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Niu, Qihui; Yang, Lei; Song, Xueqin; Chu, Congying; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Lifang; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiang; Cheng, Jingliang; Li, Youhui

    2017-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the brain activity of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and its correlation with the disease at resting duration in patients with first-episode OCD, providing a forceful imaging basis for clinic diagnosis and pathogenesis of OCD. Twenty-six patients with first-episode OCD and 25 healthy controls (HC group; matched for age, sex, and education level) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning at resting state. Statistical parametric mapping 8, data processing assistant for resting-state fMRI analysis toolkit, and resting state fMRI data analysis toolkit packages were used to process the fMRI data on Matlab 2012a platform, and the difference of regional homogeneity (ReHo) values between the OCD group and HC group was detected with independent two-sample t -test. With age as a concomitant variable, the Pearson correlation analysis was adopted to study the correlation between the disease duration and ReHo value of whole brain. Compared with HC group, the ReHo values in OCD group were decreased in brain regions, including left thalamus, right thalamus, right paracentral lobule, right postcentral gyrus, and the ReHo value was increased in the left angular gyrus region. There was a negative correlation between disease duration and ReHo value in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). OCD is a multifactorial disease generally caused by abnormal activities of many brain regions at resting state. Worse brain activity of the OFC is related to the OCD duration, which provides a new insight to the pathogenesis of OCD.

  2. Specific and generalized neuropsychological deficits: a comparison of patients with various first-episode psychosis presentations.

    Zanelli, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence suggests that compromised neuropsychological function is frequently observed in schizophrenia. Neurocognitive dysfunction has often been reported in other psychotic disorders, although there are inconsistencies in the literature. In the context of four distinct diagnostic groups, the authors compared neuropsychological performance among patients experiencing their first psychotic episode.

  3. Using internet enabled mobile devices and social networking technologies to promote exercise as an intervention for young first episode psychosis patients.

    Killackey, Eoin; Anda, Anna Lee; Gibbs, Martin; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario; Thompson, Andrew; Sun, Pamela; Baksheev, Gennady N

    2011-05-12

    Young people with first episode psychosis are at an increased risk for a range of poor health outcomes. In contrast to the growing body of evidence that suggests that exercise therapy may benefit the physical and mental health of people diagnosed with schizophrenia, there are no studies to date that have sought to extend the use of exercise therapy among patients with first episode psychosis. The aim of the study is to test the feasibility and acceptability of an exercise program that will be delivered via internet enabled mobile devices and social networking technologies among young people with first episode psychosis. This study is a qualitative pilot study being conducted at Orygen Youth Health Research Centre in Melbourne, Australia. Participants are young people aged 15-24 who are receiving clinical care at a specialist first episode psychosis treatment centre. Participants will also comprise young people from the general population. The exercise intervention is a 9-week running program, designed to gradually build a person's level of fitness to be able to run 5 kilometres (3 miles) towards the end of the program. The program will be delivered via an internet enabled mobile device. Participants will be asked to post messages about their running experiences on the social networking website, and will also be asked to attend three face-to-face interviews. This paper describes the development of a qualitative study to pilot a running program coupled with the use of internet enabled mobile devices among young people with first episode psychosis. If the program is found to be feasible and acceptable to patients, it is hoped that further rigorous evaluations will ultimately lead to the introduction of exercise therapy as part of an evidence-based, multidisciplinary approach in routine clinical care.

  4. Using internet enabled mobile devices and social networking technologies to promote exercise as an intervention for young first episode psychosis patients

    Sun Pamela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people with first episode psychosis are at an increased risk for a range of poor health outcomes. In contrast to the growing body of evidence that suggests that exercise therapy may benefit the physical and mental health of people diagnosed with schizophrenia, there are no studies to date that have sought to extend the use of exercise therapy among patients with first episode psychosis. The aim of the study is to test the feasibility and acceptability of an exercise program that will be delivered via internet enabled mobile devices and social networking technologies among young people with first episode psychosis. Methods/Design This study is a qualitative pilot study being conducted at Orygen Youth Health Research Centre in Melbourne, Australia. Participants are young people aged 15-24 who are receiving clinical care at a specialist first episode psychosis treatment centre. Participants will also comprise young people from the general population. The exercise intervention is a 9-week running program, designed to gradually build a person's level of fitness to be able to run 5 kilometres (3 miles towards the end of the program. The program will be delivered via an internet enabled mobile device. Participants will be asked to post messages about their running experiences on the social networking website, and will also be asked to attend three face-to-face interviews. Discussion This paper describes the development of a qualitative study to pilot a running program coupled with the use of internet enabled mobile devices among young people with first episode psychosis. If the program is found to be feasible and acceptable to patients, it is hoped that further rigorous evaluations will ultimately lead to the introduction of exercise therapy as part of an evidence-based, multidisciplinary approach in routine clinical care.

  5. [MRI for brain structure and function in patients with first-episode panic disorder].

    Zhang, Yan; Duan, Lian; Liao, Mei; Yang, Fan; Liu, Jun; Shan, Baoci; Li, Lingjiang

    2011-12-01

    To determine the brain function and structure in patinets with first-episode panic disorder (PD). All subjects (24 PD patients and 24 healthy subjects) received MRI scan and emotional counting Stroop task during the functional magnetic resonance imaging. Blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometric technology were used to detect the gray matter volume. Compared with the healthy controls, left thalamus, left medial frontal gyrus, left anterior cingulate gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, left insula (panic-related words vs. neutral words) lacked activation in PD patients, but the over-activation were found in right brain stem, right occipital lobe/lingual gyrus in PD patients. Compared with the healthy controls, the gray matter volume in the PD patients significantly decreased in the left superior temporal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus, left medial occipital gyrus, dorsomedial nucleus of left thalamus and right anterior cingulate gyrus. There was no significantly increased gray matter volume in any brain area in PD patients. PD patients have selective attentional bias in processing threatening information due to the depression and weakening of the frontal cingulated gyrus.

  6. The effect of implementation of an early detection team: A nationwide register-based study of characteristics and help-seeking behavior in first-episode schizophrenia in Denmark.

    Hastrup, Lene Halling; Haahr, Ulrik Helt; Nordgaard, Julie; Simonsen, Erik

    2018-04-26

    In an effort to make people with signs of psychosis seek help as early as possible, Region Zealand launched in 2012 an early detection team project as the first and only in Denmark. The project consisted of a combination of easy access and an information campaign targeting the public. This nation-wide study examined characteristics and help-seeking behavior of patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) in the early detection region in comparison with other Danish regions. Data from the Danish National Schizophrenia register on all Danish patients diagnosed with first-episode schizophrenia during 2012 to 2015 were linked to demographic and health care data drawn from official national registers. Binary logistic regression analyses examined the difference between the early detection region and other regions controlling for demographic characteristics and utilization of mental health care services and contacts to general practitioner (GP). Patients in the early detection region were younger (OR = 0.51; CI: 0.42-0.62; p < 0.000) than in regions without early detection teams. Furthermore, they were more likely to be of Danish origin, and less likely to have contact with mental health services and GPs prior to FES. The study suggests that implementing an early detection team in combination with an information campaign contributed to detecting patients with first-episode schizophrenia earlier than in regions without the early detection team. The study gives an indication of different pathways among patients in the early detection region. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Cortical thickness and surface area correlates with cognitive dysfunction among first-episode psychosis patients.

    Haring, L; Müürsepp, A; Mõttus, R; Ilves, P; Koch, K; Uppin, K; Tarnovskaja, J; Maron, E; Zharkovsky, A; Vasar, E; Vasar, V

    2016-07-01

    In studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), some have reported specific brain structure-function relationships among first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, but findings are inconsistent. We aimed to localize the brain regions where cortical thickness (CTh) and surface area (cortical area; CA) relate to neurocognition, by performing an MRI on participants and measuring their neurocognitive performance using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), in order to investigate any significant differences between FEP patients and control subjects (CS). Exploration of potential correlations between specific cognitive functions and brain structure was performed using CANTAB computer-based neurocognitive testing and a vertex-by-vertex whole-brain MRI analysis of 63 FEP patients and 30 CS. Significant correlations were found between cortical parameters in the frontal, temporal, cingular and occipital brain regions and performance in set-shifting, working memory manipulation, strategy usage and sustained attention tests. These correlations were significantly dissimilar between FEP patients and CS. Significant correlations between CTh and CA with neurocognitive performance were localized in brain areas known to be involved in cognition. The results also suggested a disrupted structure-function relationship in FEP patients compared with CS.

  8. Strategies to enhance patient recruitment and retention in research involving patients with a first episode of mental illness.

    Furimsky, Ivana; Cheung, Amy H; Dewa, Carolyn S; Zipursky, Robert B

    2008-11-01

    Recruitment and retention of research participants is often the most labor-intensive and difficult component of clinical trials. Poor recruitment and retention frequently pose as a major barrier in the successful completion of clinical trials. In fact, many studies are prematurely terminated, or their findings questioned due to low recruitment and retention rates. The conduct of clinical trials involving youth with a first episode of mental illness comes with additional challenges in recruitment and retention including barriers associated with engagement and family involvement. To develop effective early interventions for first episode mental illness, it is necessary to develop strategies to enhance recruitment and retention in this patient population. This article presents the recruitment and retention challenges experienced in two clinical trials: one involving participants experiencing a first episode of depression and one involving participants experiencing a first episode psychosis. Challenges with recruitment and retention are identified and reviewed at both the patient level and clinician level. Strategies that were implemented to enhance recruitment and retention in these two studies are also discussed. Finally, ethical issues to consider when implementing these strategies are also highlighted.

  9. No sex differences in neuropsychological performance in first episode psychosis patients.

    Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Jose Manuel; Gomez-Ruiz, Elsa; Roiz-Santiáñez, Roberto; Reeves, Lauren L; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto

    2014-01-03

    The purpose of this study was to verify whether male patients with psychosis have greater neurocognitive impairment than female patients at illness onset. Participants with a first episode of psychosis (74 women/86 men) and healthy controls (62 women/97 men) were assessed with an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Women in the clinical group were older at illness onset and had achieved higher formal education than men. This trend was the same for the control group. The patient group presented with lower premorbid IQ compared to healthy controls, and performed below for most neuropsychological tests. Women scored higher than men on a test of verbal memory, whereas men scored higher than women on a test of reaction time, visual memory, and a planning task. There were no group-by-sex interactions for any of the neuropsychological tests. The present study shows that at the onset of psychosis there are no differences between males and females in neuropsychological performance. The differential pattern of cognitive performance observed is similar to that in healthy males and females. Furthermore, females with a late onset of psychosis may represent a subgroup with specific visuospatial and problem solving impairments. © 2013.

  10. From lumping to splitting and back again: Atypical social and language development in individuals with clinical-high-risk for psychosis, first episode schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders

    Solomon, Marjorie; Olsen, Emily; Niendam, Tara; Ragland, J. Daniel; Yoon, Jong; Minzenberg, Michael; Carter, Cameron S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Individuals with autism and schizophrenia exhibit atypical language and social symptoms. The extent to which these symptoms are evident during development and in current functioning is unclear. Method Three groups of patients aged 11–20 diagnosed as clinical-high-risk for psychosis (CHR; n = 15), first episode psychosis (FEP; n = 16), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD; n = 20), plus typically developing individuals (TYP; n = 20) were compared on common autism parent-report questionnaires assessing social and language development and current functioning including the Social Communication Questionnaire, the Children’s Communication Checklist, and the Social Reciprocity Scale. Results All clinical groups demonstrated atypical social and language development, with social impairment highest in ASD. Twenty percent of participants with CHR and FEP met diagnostic criteria for ASD as assessed by parent-report. ASD exhibited greater current syntactic, and pragmatic language symptoms including delayed echolalia, pedantic speech, and deficits in appreciating irony and sarcasm. All clinical groups exhibited current deficits in social functioning. CHR and FE had similar and intermediate levels of functioning relative to ASD and TYP, with CHR generally scoring closer to TYP, providing construct validity for the CHR diagnostic label. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that ASDs, CHR, and FEP share common features of atypical neurodevelopment of language and social function. Evidence of impaired social reciprocity across both disorders and distinct language symptoms in ASDs provides important information for differential diagnosis and psychosis prevention, as well as leads for future investigations of comparative genetics and pathophysiology. PMID:21458242

  11. Family Functioning in First-Episode and Chronic Psychosis: The Role of Patient's Symptom Severity and Psychosocial Functioning.

    Koutra, Katerina; Triliva, Sofia; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Basta, Maria; Lionis, Christos; Vgontzas, Alexandros N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between illness-related characteristics, such as symptom severity and psychosocial functioning, and specific aspects of family functioning both in patients experiencing their first episode of psychosis (FEP) and chronically ill patients. A total of 50 FEP and 50 chronic patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (most recent episode manic severe with psychotic features) and their family caregivers participated in the study. Family functioning was evaluated in terms of cohesion and flexibility (FACES IV Package), expressed emotion (FQ), family burden (FBS) and caregivers' psychological distress (GHQ-28). Patients' symptom severity (BPRS) and psychosocial functioning (GAS) were assessed by their treating psychiatrist within 2 weeks from the caregivers' assessment. Increased symptom severity was associated with greater dysfunction in terms of family cohesion and flexibility (β coefficient -0.13; 95 % CI -0.23, -0.03), increased caregivers' EE levels on the form of emotional overinvolvement (β coefficient 1.03; 95 % CI 0.02, 2.03), and psychological distress (β coefficient 3.37; 95 % CI 1.29, 5.45). Family burden was found to be significantly related to both symptom severity (β coefficient 3.01; 95 % CI 1.50, 4.51) and patient's functioning (β coefficient -2.04; 95 % CI -3.55, -0.53). No significant interaction effect of chronicity was observed in the afore-mentioned associations. These findings indicate that severe psychopathology and patient's low psychosocial functioning are associated with poor family functioning. It appears that the effect for family function is significant from the early stages of the illness. Thus, early psychoeducational interventions should focus on patients with severe symptomatology and impaired functioning and their families.

  12. Non literal language comprehension in a large sample of first episode psychosis patients in adulthood.

    Perlini, Cinzia; Bellani, Marcella; Finos, Livio; Lasalvia, Antonio; Bonetto, Chiara; Scocco, Paolo; D'Agostino, Armando; Torresani, Stefano; Imbesi, Massimiliano; Bellini, Francesca; Konze, Angela; Veronese, Angela; Ruggeri, Mirella; Brambilla, Paolo

    2017-11-10

    To date no data still exist on the comprehension of figurative language in the early phases of psychosis. The aim of this study is to investigate for the first time the comprehension of metaphors and idioms at the onset of the illness. Two-hundred-twenty eight (228) first episode psychosis (FEP) patients (168 NAP, non-affective psychosis; 60 AP, affective psychosis) and 70 healthy controls (HC) were assessed. Groups were contrasted on: a) type of stimulus (metaphors vs idioms) and b) type of response (OPEN = spontaneous explanations vs CLOSED = multiple choice answer). Moreover, a machine learning (ML) approach was adopted to classifying participants. Both NAP and AP had a poorer performance on OPEN metaphors and idioms compared to HC, with worse results on spontaneous interpretation of idioms than metaphors. No differences were observed between NAP and AP in CLOSED tasks. The ML approach points at CLOSED idioms as the best discriminating variable, more relevant than the set of pre-frontal and IQ scores. Deficits in non-figurative language may represent a core feature of psychosis. The possibility to identify linguistic features discriminating FEP may support the early recognition of patients at risk to develop psychosis, guiding provision of personalized and timely interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Contributions of Feature Binding During Encoding and Functional Connectivity of the Medial Temporal Lobe Structures to Episodic Memory Deficits Across the Prodromal and First-Episode Phases of Schizophrenia.

    Haut, Kristen M; van Erp, Theo G M; Knowlton, Barbara; Bearden, Carrie E; Subotnik, Kenneth; Ventura, Joseph; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2015-03-01

    Patients with and at risk for psychosis may have difficulty using associative strategies to facilitate episodic memory encoding and recall. In parallel studies, patients with first-episode schizophrenia ( n = 27) and high psychosis risk ( n = 28) compared with control participants ( n = 22 and n = 20, respectively) underwent functional MRI during a remember-know memory task. Psychophysiological interaction analyses, using medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures as regions of interest, were conducted to measure functional connectivity patterns supporting successful episodic memory. During encoding, patients with first-episode schizophrenia demonstrated reduced functional coupling between MTL regions and regions involved in stimulus representations, stimulus selection, and cognitive control. Relative to control participants and patients with high psychosis risk who did not convert to psychosis, patients with high psychosis risk who later converted to psychosis also demonstrated reduced connectivity between MTL regions and auditory-verbal and visual-association regions. These results suggest that episodic memory deficits in schizophrenia are related to inefficient recruitment of cortical connections involved in associative memory formation; such deficits precede the onset of psychosis among those individuals at high clinical risk.

  14. Premorbid IQ subgroups in first episode non affective psychosis patients: Long-term sex differences in function and neurocognition.

    Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Setién-Suero, Esther; Neergaard, Karl David; Belzunces, Àuria Albacete; Contreras, Fernando; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto

    2017-12-21

    Low IQ has been associated with schizophrenia, even to the point of being posited as a possible causal factor for psychosis. However, individuals with normal and high IQ also develop psychotic illnesses. The aim of this study was to characterize premorbid IQ subgroups at first episode of psychosis (FEP). The study sample comes from a large epidemiological, 3-year longitudinal, intervention program on psychosis containing individuals living in a catchment area in Spain. Estimated premorbid IQ (epIQ) scores were used to build low (110) epIQ subgroups in samples of FEP patients (N=292) and healthy controls (N=199). The epIQ subgroups were compared in sociodemographic, neuropsychological, clinical and premorbid characteristics. Long-term functional and cognitive outcome, with a focus on sex differences, were also explored. Low-epIQ was more frequently found in FEP patients (28.8%) than in healthy controls (14.6%). Low-epIQ patients were more likely to have worse premorbid adjustment, belong to low socioeconomic status families, have less years of education, and to be single, unemployed, and younger. They presented more severe impairments in processing speed, executive and global cognitive function. Female patients with low-epIQ showed better baseline function and more stable outcome than males. Our results indicate that low premorbid IQ is a morbid manifestation, easily detected in a subgroup of FEP patients that predicts poorer outcome particularly in males. This perspective provides important information for the tailoring of subgroup-specific early intervention programs for psychosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Episode cycles with increasing recurrences in first-episode bipolar-I disorder patients.

    Baldessarini, R J; Salvatore, P; Khalsa, H-M K; Imaz-Etxeberria, H; Gonzalez-Pinto, A; Tohen, M

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary review of a century of studies of the course of manic-depressive syndromes produced 40 reports, of which approximately one-third report evidence of shortening wellness intervals or cycle-lengths with more recurrences, and two-thirds did not. We evaluated inter-episode intervals (cycle-length) in 128 clinically-treated, DSM-IV bipolar-I disorder patients followed prospectively and systematically over 5.7 years, with 6.5 episodes/person. As expected, cycle-length varied inversely with total cycle-count/person; however, multivariate linear regression found only longer initial hospitalization and fewer total cycles to be associated with cycle-length, whereas cycle-number (1, 2, 3, etc.), sex, intake-age, and first-episode polarity were not. Regression of within-subject cycle-length versus cycle-number yielded individual slope-functions with pseudo-random distribution (28% fell within ±1 month/cycle of the null [zero-slope]). Mean duration of early and late euthymic intervals (cycles 2 vs. 5) in patients with matched recurrence-counts was nearly identical. The course of bipolar-I disorder from onset was largely random or chaotic over nearly 6 years from onset. Only a minority of patients showed either cycle-acceleration or slowing, without changes in wellness intervals. The findings may be influenced by treatment-effects, but seem to indicate that most current bipolar-I disorder patients are unlikely to show progressive shortening of recurrence-cycles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sharing information about diagnosis and outcome of first-episode psychosis in patients presenting to early intervention services.

    Farooq, Saeed; Green, Debra J; Singh, Swaran P

    2018-05-04

    First-episode psychosis (FEP) can be a serious and debilitating disease, but there is limited literature on how to inform patients and carers about its diagnosis and outcome. We aimed to examine the attitudes, practices and views of clinicians working in Early Intervention Service about sharing information on diagnosis and outcome of FEP. A 26-item questionnaire was sent electronically to clinical staff who have been involved in the discussion of FEP diagnosis in Early Intervention Services in the West Midlands, UK. A total of 51 clinicians completed the questionnaire. All respondents stated that patients or carers of those presenting with FEP wish to be informed of their diagnosis, and three-quarters (76%) felt there is a need to develop guidelines on how to inform about diagnosis; 57% stated that they usually use broad diagnostic groups such as psychosis when discussing diagnosis, and only 11% use the term schizophrenia. A total of 40% thought that the therapeutic relationship and treatment adherence (58%) would improve if patients know about their diagnosis; 42 (88%) respondents felt that the likely outcome of the illness should also be discussed with patients when the diagnosis is communicated. The clinicians were aware that service users wished to be informed about the diagnosis and outcome of FEP but had no guidance on the subject. Despite the limitations of an online self-administered survey, the study highlights the need for guidance and improving clinical practice in discussing the diagnosis of FEP in a vulnerable population. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Neuroanatomical differences between first-episode psychosis patients with and without neurocognitive deficit: a 3 year longitudinal study

    Rosa eAyesa-Arriola

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The course of cognitive function in first episode psychosis (FEP patients suggests that some individuals are normal or near-normal whereas some cases present a marked decline. The goal of the present longitudinal study was to identify neuroanatomical differences between deficit and non-deficit patients.Methods: Fifty nine FEP patients with neuroimage and neurocognitive information were studied at baseline and 3 year after illness onset. A global cognitive function score was used to classify deficit and non-deficit patients at baseline. Analysis of covarianes and repeated-measures analysis were performed to evaluate differences in brain volumes. Age, premorbid IQ and intracranial volume were used as covariates. We examined only volumes of whole brain, whole brain gray and white matter, cortical CSF and lateral ventricles, lobular volumes of gray and white matter, and subcortical (caudate nucleus and thalamus regions.Results: At illness onset 50.8% of patients presented global cognitive deficit. There were no significant differences between neuropsychological subgroups in any of the brain regions studied at baseline (all F(1,54 ≤ 3.42; all p ≥ 0.07 and follow-up (all F(1,54 ≤ 3.43; all p ≥ 0.07 time points. There was a significant time by group interaction for the parietal tissue volume (F(1,54 =4.97, p = 0.030 and the total gray matter volume (F(1,54 = 4.31, p =0.042, with the deficit group showing a greater volume decrease. Conclusions: Our results did not confirm the presence of significant morphometric differences in the brain regions evaluated between cognitively impaired and cognitively preserved schizophrenia patients at the early stages of the illness. However, there were significant time by group interactions for the parietal tissue volume and the total gray matter volume during the 3-year follow-up period, which might indicate that cognitive deficit in schizophrenia would be associated with progressive brain volume

  18. Comparison of the density of gamma-aminobutyric acid in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex of patients with first-episode psychosis and healthy controls.

    Yang, Zhilei; Zhu, Yajing; Song, Zhenhua; Mei, Li; Zhang, Jianye; Chen, Tianyi; Wang, Yingchan; Xu, Yifeng; Jiang, Kaida; Li, Yao; Liu, Dengtang

    2015-12-25

    Abnormality in the concentration and functioning of gamma-aminobutyric acid (γ-aminobutyric acid, GABA) in the brain is not only an important hypothetical link to the cause of schizophrenia but it may also be correlated with the cognitive decline and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Studies utilizing high field magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) report abnormal density of GABA in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) of patients with chronic schizophrenia, but these results may be confounded by study participants' prior use of antipsychotic medications. Compare the density of GABA in the vmPFC of patients with first-episode psychosis to that in healthy controls and assess the relationship of GABA density in the vmPFC to the severity of psychotic symptoms. Single-voxel (1)H-MRS was used to assess the concentration of GABA and other metabolites in the vmPFC of 22 patients with first-episode psychosis (10 with schizophrenia and 12 with schizophreniform disorder) and 23 healthy controls. Thirteen of the 22 patients were drug-naïve and 9 had used antipsychotic medication for less than 3 days. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to evaluate the severity of psychotic symptoms in the patient group. The mean (sd) GABA density in the vmPFC was significantly higher in patients than in controls (2.28 [0.54] v. 1.93 [0.32] mM, t=2.62, p=0.012). The densities of other metabolites - including N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA), glutamic acid (GLU), and glutamine (GLN) - were not significantly different between patients and controls. Among the patients, GABA density in the vmPFC was not significantly correlated with PANSS total score or with any of the three PANSS subscale scores for positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and general psychopathology. GABA concentration was not associated with the duration of illness, but it was significantly correlated with patient age (r=0.47, p=0.026). Elevation of GABA density in the vmPFC of patients with first-episode

  19. Psychopathology, cognition and outcome in Dutch and immigrant first-episode psychosis patients.

    Stouten, Luyken H; Veling, Wim; Laan, Winfried; Van der Gaag, Mark

    2018-03-30

    The primary aim was to examine differences in baseline symptom expression, neurocognition, social cognition and psychosocial functioning between Dutch, first-generation immigrants and second-generation immigrants with a first-episode psychosis (FEP). The secondary aim was to examine functional and symptomatic change and between-group differences at 12-months follow-up. Associations between migration, baseline characteristics and outcome were explored. Forty-six Dutch, 56 second-generation- and 60 first-generation immigrant patients completed baseline measures for 6 symptom dimensions (positive symptoms, negative symptoms, neurocognitive functioning, social cognitive functioning, excitement and emotional distress) and 5 domains of psychosocial functioning (general functioning, work and study, relationships, self-care and disturbing behaviour). Functioning and psychotic symptoms were assessed at baseline and 12-months follow-up. ANCOVA and t tests were used to assess between-group differences. General linear models were used to explore within-group differences. Backward-regression was used to explore predictors of outcome. Levels of positive symptoms, excitement and emotional distress did not differ between groups at baseline or follow-up. Dutch patients had lower levels of negative symptoms than both immigrant groups at follow-up. On neurocognition and social cognition, Dutch performed better than second-generation immigrants, who in turn performed better than first-generation immigrants. Psychosocial functioning across all domains at baseline and at 12-months follow-up was similar across groups. Baseline levels of general psychosocial functioning and income were the strongest predictors of outcome at follow-up. Psychosocial functioning and symptom profiles are comparable between Dutch, first-generation immigrant and second-generation immigrant FEP patients, excluding neurocognitive and social cognitive deficits. A range of baseline characteristics predicted

  20. Diagnostic stability of comorbid personality disorders among patients fully or partially remitted from first-episode depression

    Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Bech, Per; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    The diagnostic stability of comorbid personality disorders among patients with depression remains unclear. A total of 262 patients suffering from first-episode depression were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II) and reassessed after 5...

  1. An algorithm-based approach to first-episode schizophrenia: response rates over 3 prospective antipsychotic trials with a retrospective data analysis.

    Agid, Ofer; Arenovich, Tamara; Sajeev, Gautam; Zipursky, Robert B; Kapur, Shitij; Foussias, George; Remington, Gary

    2011-11-01

    Early, effective treatment in first-episode schizophrenia is advocated, although evidence based on a systematic approach over multiple antipsychotic trials is lacking. Employing a naturalistic design, we examined response rates over 3 circumscribed antipsychotic trials. Between June 2003 and December 2008, 244 individuals with first-episode schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder according to DSM-IV criteria were treated at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, following an algorithm that moved them through 2 antipsychotic trials, followed by a trial with clozapine. For the first 2 trials, treatment consisted of risperidone followed by olanzapine, or vice versa; each trial consisted of 3 stages (low-, full-, or high-dose) lasting up to 4 weeks at each level and adjusted according to response/tolerability. Clinical response was defined as a Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement score of 2 (much improved) or 1 (very much improved) and/or a Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale Thought Disorder subscale score ≤ 6. Data were analyzed retrospectively, and publication of anonymized clinical data was approved by the Research Ethics Board of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health in May 2003. In trial 1, 74.5% of individuals responded, with rates significantly higher for olanzapine (82.1%, 115/140) versus risperidone (66.3%, 69/104; P = .005). With trial 2, response rate dropped dramatically to 16.6% but again was significantly higher for olanzapine (25.7%, 9/35) compared to risperidone (4.0%, 1/25; P = .04). Response rate climbed above 70% once more, specifically 75.0% (21/28), in those individuals who agreed to a third trial with clozapine. Results confirm a high response rate (75%) to initial antipsychotic treatment in first-episode schizophrenia. A considerably lower response rate (algorithm. © Copyright 2011 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  2. Differences in P50 and prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex between male smokers and non-smokers with first episode schizophrenia without medical treatment

    Song Lisheng; Chen Xingshi; Chen Meijuan; Tang Yunxiang; Wang Jijun; Zhang Mingdao; Lou Feiying

    2014-01-01

    Backgorund Nicotine may improve schizophrenia patient's cognitive deficit symptoms.This study was to explore the chronic effects of smoking on prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI) and P50 in the patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES).Methods The event-related potentials (ERP) recording and analysis instrument made by Brain Products,Germany,was used to detect PPI and P50 in 49 male FES patients (FES group,n=21 for smokers and n=28 for non-smokers) and 43 normal male controls (control group,n=19 for smokers and n=24 for non-smokers).Results Compared with normal controls,the FES group had prolonged PPI latency when elicited by single stronger stimulus (P <0.05); the FES group had prolonged PPI latency and increased PPI amplitude (P <0.05,0.01) when elicited by weak and strong stimuli.The FES group had lower PPI inhibition rate than normal controls (P <0.05).Compared with normal controls,the FES group had increased P50-S2 amplitude and increased amplitude ratio S2/S1 (both P <0.05).In the control group,the smokers had a tendency of increase in P50-S2 amplitude (P >0.05) and shorter P50-S2 latency (P <0.05) than the non-smokers.The smokers had higher PPI amplitude than the non-smokers (P <0.05).In the FES group,the smokers had higher P50-S1 amplitude,shorter P50-S2 latency,and higher amplitude ratio S2/S1 than the non-smokers (P <0.05,0.01).The smokers had higher PPI amplitude than the non-smokers (P <0.05).Conclusions There is obvious PPI and P50 deficits in schizophrenic patients.However,these deficits are relatively preserved in the smokers compared with the non-smokers,which suggests that long-term smoking might partially improve the sensory gating in schizophrenic patients.Whether this conclusion can be deduced to female patients requires further follow-ups.

  3. Differences in cannabis-related experiences between patients with a first episode of psychosis and controls.

    Bianconi, F; Bonomo, M; Marconi, A; Kolliakou, A; Stilo, S A; Iyegbe, C; Gurillo Muñoz, P; Homayoun, S; Mondelli, V; Luzi, S; Dazzan, P; Prata, D; La Cascia, C; O'Connor, J; David, A; Morgan, C; Murray, R M; Lynskey, M; Di Forti, M

    2016-04-01

    Many studies have reported that cannabis use increases the risk of a first episode of psychosis (FEP). However, only a few studies have investigated the nature of cannabis-related experiences in FEP patients, and none has examined whether these experiences are similar in FEP and general populations. The aim of this study was to explore differences in self-reported cannabis experiences between FEP and non-psychotic populations. A total of 252 subjects, who met International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 criteria for FEP, and 217 controls who reported cannabis use were selected from the Genetics and Psychosis (GAP) study. The Medical Research Council Social Schedule and the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire were used to collect sociodemographic data and cannabis use information, respectively. Both 'bad' and 'enjoyable' experiences were more commonly reported by FEP subjects than controls. Principal components factor analysis identified four components which explained 62.3% of the variance. Linear regression analysis on the whole sample showed that the type of cannabis used and beliefs about the effect of cannabis on health all contributed to determining the intensity and frequency of experiences. Linear regression analysis on FEP subjects showed that the duration of cannabis use and amount of money spent on cannabis were strongly related to the intensity and frequency of enjoyable experiences in this population. These results suggest a higher sensitivity to cannabis effects among people who have suffered their first psychotic episode; this hypersensitivity results in them reporting both more 'bad' and 'enjoyable' experiences. The greater enjoyment experienced may provide an explanation of why FEP patients are more likely to use cannabis and to continue to use it despite experiencing an exacerbation of their psychotic symptoms.

  4. Frontal-insula gray matter deficits in first-episode medication-naïve patients with major depressive disorder.

    Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te

    2014-05-01

    This study is designed to investigate the gray matter volume (GMV) deficits in patients with first-episode medication-naïve major depressive disorder (MDD). We enrolled 38 patients with first-episode medication-naïve MDD and 27 controls in this project. Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare GMV differences between two groups. Besides, the relationship between GMV of patients and the severity of clinical symptoms was estimated to confirm the role of GMV deficits in clinical symptoms. The correlation between total GMV and illness duration was also performed to elucidate the impacts of untreated duration on the GMV. We found that first-episode medication-naïve MDD patients had significant GMV deficits in bilateral superior frontal gyri, left middle frontal gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus and left insula. The GMV of patient group was negatively correlated with the severity of clinical symptoms and the illness duration. A pattern of GMV deficits in fronto-insula might represent the biomarker for first-episode medication-naïve MDD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Multi-center MRI prediction models : Predicting sex and illness course in first episode psychosis patients

    Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Schnack, Hugo G.; van Haren, Neeltje E.; Kahn, René S.; Lappin, Julia; Dazzan, Paola; Morgan, Craig; Reinders, Antje A.; Gutierrez-Tordesillas, Diana; Gutierrez-Tordesillas, Diana; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Schaufelberger, Maristela S.; Rosa, Pedro G.; Zanetti, Marcus V.

    2017-01-01

    Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies have attempted to use brain measures obtained at the first-episode of psychosis to predict subsequent outcome, with inconsistent results. Thus, there is a real need to validate the utility of brain measures in the prediction of outcome using large datasets, from independent samples, obtained with different protocols and from different MRI scanners. This study had three main aims: 1) to investigate whether structural MRI data from multiple ce...

  6. Opposite effective connectivity in the posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex between first-episode schizophrenic patients with suicide risk and healthy controls.

    Huiran Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The schizophrenic patients with high suicide risk are characterized by depression, better cognitive function, and prominent positive symptoms. However, the neurobiological basis of suicide attempts in schizophrenia is not clear. The suicide in schizophrenia is implicated in the defects in emotional process and decision-making, which are associated with prefrontal-cingulate circuit. In order to explore the possible neurobiological basis of suicide in schizophrenia, we investigated the correlation of prefrontal-cingulate circuit with suicide risk in schizophrenia via dynamic casual modelling. METHOD: Participants were 33 first-episode schizophrenic patients comprising of a high suicide risk group (N = 14 and a low suicide risk group (N = 19. A comparison group of healthy controls (N = 15 were matched for age, gender and education. N-back tasking functional magnetic resonance imaging data was collected. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls group, the two patients groups showed decreased task-related suppression during 2-back task state versus baseline state in the left posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex; the hyper-connectivity from the left posterior cingulate cortex to the left medial prefrontal cortex existed in both schizophrenic patients groups, but hypo-connectivity in the opposite direction only existed in the schizophrenic patients group with high suicide risk. CONCLUSIONS: The hyper-connectivity from the left posterior cingulate cortex to the left medial prefrontal cortex may suggest that the abnormal effective connectivity was associated with risk for schizophrenia. The hypo-connectivity in the opposite direction may represent a possible correlate of increased vulnerability to suicide attempt.

  7. Relationship of low vitamin D status with positive, negative and cognitive symptom domains in people with first-episode schizophrenia.

    Graham, K A; Keefe, R S; Lieberman, J A; Calikoglu, A S; Lansing, K M; Perkins, D O

    2015-10-01

    Deficient vitamin D levels are very common among Americans of all ages and ethnicities, but little is known about its prevalence or associated problems among those with schizophrenia. Stored plasma from 20 recent onset schizophrenia subjects and 20 matched healthy comparison subjects were analysed for 25 OH vitamin D, and related to measures of symptom severity and neurocognition. There was no significant difference in mean 25 OH vitamin D between the schizophrenia and the healthy comparison subjects (28.2 standard deviation (SD) 12.6 ng mL(-1) vs. 29.9 SD 14.3 ng mL(-1) ), and about half the subjects in each group had insufficient levels (vitamin D status (r = -0.55, P = 0.012); the correlations of overall symptom severity and positive symptom severity with 25 OH vitamin D levels approached significance (r = -0.42, P = 0.07 and r = -0.36, P = 0.12, respectively). There was no relationship of vitamin D with depressive symptoms. Among the schizophrenia subjects, lower 25 OH vitamin D levels were associated with more severe overall cognitive deficits (r = 0.56, P = 0.019). This study found that lower vitamin D levels in schizophrenia subjects were associated with more severe negative symptoms and overall cognitive deficits. However, the cross-sectional design precludes any conclusions about whether low vitamin D status in fact causes more severe negative symptoms and cognitive impairments. No relationship was found between lower vitamin D levels and depressive symptoms. © 2014 The Authors Early Intervention in Psychiatry Published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Shortened duration of untreated first episode of psychosis

    Larsen, Tor Ketil; McGlashan, T H; Johannessen, Jan Olav

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether duration of untreated psychosis can be shortened in patients with first episodes of DSM-IV schizophrenia spectrum disorders and whether shorted duration alters patient appearance at treatment. METHOD: Two study groups were ascertained in the same Norwegian h...

  9. Overlapping and disease specific trait, response, and reflection impulsivity in adolescents with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Jepsen, J R M; Rydkjaer, J; Fagerlund, B; Pagsberg, A K; Jespersen, R Av F; Glenthøj, B Y; Oranje, B

    2018-03-01

    Schizophrenia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are developmental disorders with shared clinical characteristics such as cognitive impairments and impulsivity. Impulsivity is a core feature of ADHD and an important factor in aggression, violence, and substance use in schizophrenia. Based on the hypothesis that schizophrenia and ADHD represent a continuum of neurodevelopmental impairments, the aim was to identify overlapping and disease specific forms of impulsivity. Adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age were assessed with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-aged Children - Present and Lifetime Version. Subjects with early-onset, first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders (EOS) (N = 29) or ADHD (N = 29) and healthy controls (N = 45) were compared on two performance measures (Information Sampling Task, Stop Signal Task) and a subjective personality trait measure of impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Version 11 (BIS-11)). Significantly increased reflection impulsivity was observed in ADHD but not in the EOS group. No significant response inhibition deficits (stop signal reaction time) were found in the two clinical groups. The ADHD and the EOS group showed significantly increased motor, attentional, and non-planning subtraits of impulsivity. Impaired pre-decisional information gathering appeared to be specific for ADHD while the information gathering was not significantly reduced in subjects with EOS. Neither the ADHD nor EOS group showed impaired response inhibition but shared increased personality subtraits of attentional, non-planning, and motor impulsivity although the latter was significantly more pronounced in ADHD. These increased subtraits of impulsivity may reflect diagnostic non-specific neurodevelopmental impairments in ADHD and EOS in adolescence.

  10. First-episode psychosis

    Simonsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    . Patients with first-episode psychosis had significantly high NEO-PI-R scores for neuroticism and agreeableness, and lower scores for conscientiousness and extroversion. The median time for remission in the total sample was three months. Female gender and better premorbid functioning were predictive of less...... negative symptoms and shorter duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) was predictive for shorter time to remission, stable remission, less severe positive psychotic symptoms, and better social functioning. Female gender, better premorbid social functioning and more education also contributed to a better...... should warn clinicians to pay attention to the more elaborate needs of these patients. A re-evaluation at three months should reveal that non-remitted patients with longer DUPs indicate high risk of continuous non-remission. A possible shift to clozapine for this group should be strongly considered....

  11. Differing patterns of brain structural abnormalities between black and white patients with their first episode of psychosis.

    Morgan, K D

    2010-07-01

    African-Caribbean and black African people living in the UK are reported to have a higher incidence of diagnosed psychosis compared with white British people. It has been argued that this may be a consequence of misdiagnosis. If this is true they might be less likely to show the patterns of structural brain abnormalities reported in white British patients. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate whether there are differences in the prevalence of structural brain abnormalities in white and black first-episode psychosis patients.

  12. Family functioning in families of first-episode psychosis patients as compared to chronic mentally ill patients and healthy controls.

    Koutra, Katerina; Triliva, Sofia; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Stefanakis, Zacharias; Basta, Maria; Lionis, Christos; Vgontzas, Alexandros N

    2014-11-30

    The present study aimed to investigate possible differences in family environment among patients experiencing their First Episode of Psychosis (FEP), chronic patients and controls. Family cohesion and flexibility (FACES-IV) and psychological distress (GHQ-28) were evaluated in families of 50 FEP and 50 chronic patients, as well as 50 controls, whereas expressed emotion (FQ) and family burden (FBS) were assessed in families of FEP and chronic patients. Multivariable linear regression analysis, adjusted for confounders, indicated impaired cohesion and flexibility for families of FEP patients compared to controls, and lower scores for families of chronic patients compared to those of FEP patients. Caregivers of chronic patients scored significantly higher in criticism, and reported higher burden and psychological distress than those of FEP patients. Our findings suggest that unbalanced levels of cohesion and flexibility, high criticism and burden appeared to be the outcome of psychosis and not risk factors triggering the onset of the illness. Furthermore, emotional over-involvement both in terms of positive (i.e. concern) and negative behaviors (i.e. overprotection) is prevalent in Greek families. Psychoeducational interventions from the early stages of the illness should be considered to promote caregivers' awareness regarding the patients' illness, which in turn, may ameliorate dysfunctional family interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural brain abnormalities in early onset first-episode psychosis

    Pagsberg, A K; Baaré, William Frans Christian; Raabjerg Christensen, A M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain morphometry in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis offer a unique opportunity for pathogenetic investigations. METHODS: We compared high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain in 29 patients (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder...... that schizophrenia patients (n = 15) had significantly larger lateral ventricles as compared to controls. Duration and dose of antipsychotics correlated negatively with global gray matter volume in minimally medicated patients (n = 18). CONCLUSION: Findings of white matter changes and enlarged lateral ventricles...... already at illness onset in young schizophrenia spectrum patients, suggests aberrant neurodevelopmental processes in the pathogenesis of these disorders. Gray matter volume changes, however, appear not to be a key feature in early onset first-episode psychosis....

  14. What is it like to take antipsychotic medication? A qualitative study of patients with first-episode psychosis.

    Gray, R; Deane, K

    2016-03-01

    What is known on the subject? Antipsychotic drugs are an important part of treatment for most patients with first episode psychosis. We do not know much about what it is like to take these drugs from the patient's point of view. What this paper adds to existing knowledge? We talked to 20 young people with psychosis about their experiences of taking antipsychotic drugs. Patients relationship with medication was complex, young people found medication often to be both good and bad at the same time. We were interested in how seemingly trivial issues--colour, taste, size, name--could be very important to young people and could result in them stopping. What are the implications for practice? We think our study highlights the complicated internal struggles that people with first episode psychosis have with medication. Our study highlights how Nurses and Doctors need to try and better understand what it is like to take these drugs and work collaboratively with patients to support them to make informed choices about treatment. Low-dose antipsychotic medication is an important part of treatment for people experiencing a first episode of psychosis. Little is known about this group of patients' experiences of taking medication. A qualitative study of purposively sampled young people experiencing a first episode of psychosis was carried out. A mental health nurse working in the early psychosis team interviewed participants using a structured topic guide. Interviews were subjected to thematic analysis. Interviews were completed with 20 young people. Thematic analysis generated six themes: (1) the drugs do work, (2) the drugs don't work (as well as I'd like), (3) side effects, (4) the indirect effects of medication, (5) rage against the machine and (6) the not trivial issues about medication. Our overarching meta-theme was that young people's experience of taking antipsychotics was complex; medication was often considered good and bad at the same time. Our observations underpin

  15. Intensive case management for high-risk patients with first-episode psychosis: service model and outcomes.

    Brewer, Warrick J; Lambert, Timothy J; Witt, Katrina; Dileo, John; Duff, Cameron; Crlenjak, Carol; McGorry, Patrick D; Murphy, Brendan P

    2015-01-01

    The first episode of psychosis is a crucial period when early intervention can alter the trajectory of the young person's ongoing mental health and general functioning. After an investigation into completed suicides in the Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre (EPPIC) programme, the intensive case management subprogramme was developed in 2003 to provide assertive outreach to young people having a first episode of psychosis who are at high risk owing to risk to self or others, disengagement, or suboptimal recovery. We report intensive case management model development, characterise the target cohort, and report on outcomes compared with EPPIC treatment as usual. Inclusion criteria, staff support, referral pathways, clinical review processes, models of engagement and care, and risk management protocols are described. We compared 120 consecutive referrals with 50 EPPIC treatment as usual patients (age 15-24 years) in a naturalistic stratified quasi-experimental real-world design. Key performance indicators of service use plus engagement and suicide attempts were compared between EPPIC treatment as usual and intensive case management, and psychosocial and clinical measures were compared between intensive case management referral and discharge. Referrals were predominately unemployed males with low levels of functioning and educational attainment. They were characterised by a family history of mental illness, migration and early separation, with substantial trauma, history of violence, and forensic attention. Intensive case management improved psychopathology and psychosocial outcomes in high-risk patients and reduced risk ratings, admissions, bed days, and crisis contacts. Characterisation of intensive case management patients validated the clinical research focus and identified a first episode of psychosis high-risk subgroup. In a real-world study, implementation of an intensive case management stream within a well-established first episode of psychosis

  16. Altered functional connectivity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder

    Ye, Ting; Peng, Jing; Nie, Binbin; Gao, Juan; Liu, Jiangtao; Li, Yang; Wang, Gang; Ma, Xin; Li, Kuncheng

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate resting-state functional connectivity alteration of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Twenty-two first-episode MDD patients and thirty age-, gender- and education-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled. Rest state functional magnetic resonance images and structure magnetic resonance images were scanned. The functional connectivity analysis was done based on the result of voxel-based morphometry (VBM). And the right DLPFC was chosen as the seed region of interests (ROI), as its gray matter density (GMD) decreased in the MDD patients compared with controls and its GMD values were negative correlation with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores. Results: Compared to healthy controls, the MDD patients showed increased functional connectivity with right the DLPFC in the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), thalamus and precentral gyrus. In contrast, there were decreased functional connectivity between the right DLPFC and right parietal lobe. Conclusions: By applying the VBM results to the functional connectivity analysis, the study suggested that abnormality of GMD in right DLPFC might be related to the functional connectivity alteration in the pathophysiology of MDD, which might be useful in further characterizing structure–function relations in this disorder.

  17. Altered functional connectivity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder

    Ye, Ting, E-mail: yeting@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Peng, Jing, E-mail: ppengjjing@sina.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Nie, Binbin, E-mail: niebb@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, Juan, E-mail: gaojuan@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Jiangtao, E-mail: Liujiangtao813@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Li, Yang, E-mail: Liyang2007428@hotmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Wang, Gang, E-mail: gangwang@gmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Ma, Xin, E-mail: lijianshe@medmail.com.cn [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Li, Kuncheng [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); and others

    2012-12-15

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate resting-state functional connectivity alteration of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Twenty-two first-episode MDD patients and thirty age-, gender- and education-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled. Rest state functional magnetic resonance images and structure magnetic resonance images were scanned. The functional connectivity analysis was done based on the result of voxel-based morphometry (VBM). And the right DLPFC was chosen as the seed region of interests (ROI), as its gray matter density (GMD) decreased in the MDD patients compared with controls and its GMD values were negative correlation with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores. Results: Compared to healthy controls, the MDD patients showed increased functional connectivity with right the DLPFC in the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), thalamus and precentral gyrus. In contrast, there were decreased functional connectivity between the right DLPFC and right parietal lobe. Conclusions: By applying the VBM results to the functional connectivity analysis, the study suggested that abnormality of GMD in right DLPFC might be related to the functional connectivity alteration in the pathophysiology of MDD, which might be useful in further characterizing structure–function relations in this disorder.

  18. Impaired visual, working, and verbal memory in first-episode, drug-naive patients with major depressive disorder in a Chinese population.

    Chen, Ce; Jiang, Wen-Hui; Wang, Wei; Ma, Xian-Cang; Li, Ye; Wu, Jin; Hashimoto, Kenji; Gao, Cheng-Ge

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive impairment has been observed in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it remains unclear whether the deficits in specific cognitive domains are present in first-episode, drug-naïve patients or medicated patients. In the present study, using the CogState battery (CSB) Chinese language version, we evaluated the visual, working, and verbal memory in first-episode drug-naive patients and medicated patients with MDD in a Chinese population. We measured the cognitive function in first-episode drug-naïve patients (n = 36), medicated MDD patients (n = 71), and age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (n = 59) in a Chinese population. The CSB composite scores in both first-episode drug-naive patients and medicated patients were significantly poorer than those in the healthy control subjects. The CSB sub-scores, including visual, working, and verbal memory were also significantly poorer in both patient groups than those in the healthy control subjects. In contrast, processing speed, attention/vigilance, executive function, spatial working memory, and social cognition were no different from healthy controls, whereas the executive function was significantly better in the medicated patients than in the healthy control subjects and first-episode drug-naïve patients. These findings suggest an impairment in the visual, working, and verbal memory in first-episode, drug-naive MDD patients in a Chinese population.

  19. The effect of atypical antipsychotics on pituitary gland volume in patients with first-episode psychosis: a longitudinal MRI study.

    Nicolo, John-Paul; Berger, Gregor E; Garner, Belinda A; Velakoulis, Dennis; Markulev, Connie; Kerr, Melissa; McGorry, Patrick D; Proffitt, Tina-Marie; McConchie, Mirabel; Pantelis, Christos; Wood, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    Pituitary volume is currently measured as a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hyperactivity in patients with psychosis despite suggestions of susceptibility to antipsychotics. Qualifying and quantifying the effect of atypical antipsychotics on the volume of the pituitary gland will determine whether this measure is valid as a future estimate of HPA-axis activation in psychotic populations. To determine the qualitative and quantitative effect of atypical antipsychotic medications on pituitary gland volume in a first-episode psychosis population. Pituitary volume was measured from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images in a group of 43 first-episode psychosis patients, the majority of whom were neuroleptic-naïve, at baseline and after 3months of treatment, to determine whether change in pituitary volume was correlated with cumulative dose of atypical antipsychotic medication. There was no significant baseline difference in pituitary volume between subjects and controls, or between neuroleptic-naïve and neuroleptic-treated subjects. Over the follow-up period there was a negative correlation between percentage change in pituitary volume and cumulative 3-month dose of atypical antipsychotic (r=-0.37), i.e. volume increases were associated with lower doses and volume decreases with higher doses. Atypical antipsychotic medications may reduce pituitary gland volume in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that atypical antipsychotic medication may support affected individuals to cope with stress associated with emerging psychotic disorders.

  20. First Episode Psychosis

    ... About Psychosis Treatment Share Fact Sheet: First Episode Psychosis Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy En Español Facts About Psychosis The word psychosis is used to describe conditions ...

  1. Suicidal changes in patients with first episode psychosis: clinical predictors of increasing suicidal tendency in the early treatment phase

    Madsen, Trine; Nordentoft, Merete

    2012-01-01

    significantly predicted developing a higher suicidal tendency, whereas a one-point increase score on delusions was preventive of this. Feeling hopeless was highly associated with suicide attempt in those with earlier suicide attempt. Conclusion: The risk of suicide attempt did not differ between patient groups......Aim: To identify predictors for developing a higher suicidal tendency during treatment of first-episode psychosis. Methods: In a prospective follow-up study, we examined clinical factors collected at treatment initiation as predictors for developing a higher suicidal tendency among patients...... in the first year of treatment of psychosis. Patients were grouped and ranked according to their highest suicidal tendency in the year before treatment: not suicidal, suicidal thoughts, suicidal plans or suicide attempt(s). Predictors for becoming more suicidal in the first year of treatment were examined...

  2. Olfactory Functioning in First-Episode Psychosis.

    Kamath, Vidyulata; Lasutschinkow, Patricia; Ishizuka, Koko; Sawa, Akira

    2018-04-06

    Though olfactory deficits are well-documented in schizophrenia, fewer studies have examined olfactory performance profiles across the psychosis spectrum. The current study examined odor identification, discrimination, and detection threshold performance in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder with psychotic features, major depression with psychotic features, and other psychotic conditions. FEP patients (n = 97) and healthy adults (n = 98) completed birhinal assessments of odor identification, discrimination, and detection threshold sensitivity for lyral and citralva. Participants also completed measures of anticipatory pleasure, anhedonia, and empathy. Differences in olfactory performances were assessed between FEP patients and controls and within FEP subgroups. Sex-stratified post hoc analyses were employed for a complete analysis of sex differences. Relationships between self-report measures and olfactory scores were also examined. Individuals with psychosis had poorer scores across all olfactory measures when compared to the control group. Within the psychosis cohort, patients with schizophrenia-associated psychosis had poorer odor identification, discrimination, and citralva detection threshold scores relative to controls. In schizophrenia patients, greater olfactory disturbance was associated with increased negative symptomatology, greater self-reported anhedonia, and lower self-reported anticipatory pleasure. Patients with mood-associated psychosis performed comparable to controls though men and women in this cohort showed differential olfactory profiles. These findings indicate that olfactory deficits extend beyond measures of odor identification in FEP with greater deficits observed in schizophrenia-related subgroups of psychosis. Studies examining whether greater olfactory dysfunction confers greater risk for developing schizophrenia relative to other forms of psychosis are

  3. Association Between Genetic Polymorphisms in the Serotonergic System and Comorbid Personality Disorders Among Patients with First-Episode Depression

    Bukh, Jens D; Bock, Camilla; Kessing, Lars V

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the association between genetic polymorphisms and personality disorders have provided inconsistent results. Using the "enriched sample method," the authors of the present study aimed to assess the association between polymorphisms in the serotonergic transmitter system and comorbid...... personality disorders in patients recently diagnosed with first-episode depression. A total of 290 participants were systematically recruited via the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. Diagnoses of personality disorders were assessed by a SCID-II interview, and polymorphisms in the genes encoding...... the serotonin transporter, serotonin receptors 1A, 2A, 2C, and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 were genotyped. The authors found a significant effect of the length polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) on cluster B personality disorder (mainly borderline disorder), but no influence on cluster C...

  4. Premorbid functioning of patients with first-episode nonaffective psychosis: a comparison of deterioration in academic and social performance, and clinical correlates of Premorbid Adjustment Scale scores.

    Monte, Ralph C; Goulding, Sandra M; Compton, Michael T

    2008-09-01

    Motivated by a previous study among male veterans [Allen, D.N., Frantom, L.V., Strauss, G.P., van Kammen, D.P., 2005. Differential patterns of premorbid academic and social deterioration in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 75, 389-397], the present analysis examined: (1) patterns of premorbid academic and social functioning during childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence, and (2) associations between these premorbid functioning dimensions and a number of clinical variables. Data on premorbid functioning were collected using the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS) in 95 hospitalized first-episode patients. Analyses were similar to those conducted by Allen and colleagues (2005). Deterioration was evident in both academic and social functioning from childhood to early adolescence, along with a pronounced/accelerated deterioration in academic functioning from early adolescence to late adolescence, occurring in both male and female patients. Age at onset of prodromal symptoms was predicted by childhood/early adolescent/late adolescent academic functioning scores, and age at onset of psychotic symptoms was significantly associated only with childhood academic functioning. Severity of negative symptoms was predicted by childhood and late adolescent social functioning scores, and severity of general psychopathology symptoms was predicted by late adolescent academic functioning, as well as childhood and late adolescent social functioning scores. Consistent with prior findings, deterioration in premorbid functioning appears to be more pronounced in the academic than social dimension of the PAS. Some PAS scores are predictive of ages at onset of prodrome/psychosis and severity of psychotic symptoms. Ongoing research on premorbid adjustment in schizophrenia may have implications for future prevention goals.

  5. Overgeneral autobiographical memory at baseline predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression.

    Liu, Yansong; Zhang, Fuquan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Cao, Leiming; Wang, Jun; Na, Aiguo; Sun, Yujun; Zhao, Xudong

    2016-09-30

    Previous studies have shown that overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a characteristic of depression. However, there are no studies to explore the association between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression (FE). This study investigated whether baseline OGM predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. We recruited 125 patients with FE. The participants were divided into remitted group and non-remitted group according to the severity of their depression at 12 months follow-up. The measures consisted of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, and Autobiographical Memory Test. Hierarchical linear regression analyses and bootstrap mediation analyses were conducted. The results showed that non-remitted patients had more OGM at baseline. Baseline OGM predicted depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. Rumination mediated the relationship between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up. Our findings highlight OGM as a vulnerability factor involved in the maintenance of depression in patients with FE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 38.4 PREVALENCE OF ANTI-NEURONAL ANTIBODIES IN PATIENTS ADMITTED WITH FIRST EPISODE OF PSYCHOSIS AND THEIR CLINICAL OUTCOMES

    Scott, James; Gillis, David; Ryan, Alex; Hargovan, Hethal; Blum, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Anti-neuronal antibodies are associated with psychosis although their clinical significance in first episode of psychosis (FEP) is undetermined. This study examined the prevalence of anti-neuronal antibodies in patients admitted to hospital for treatment of their first episode of psychosis and described clinical presentations and treatment outcomes of those who were antibody positive. Methods Between July 2013 and May 2015, all consenting patients aged between 12 and 50 admitted for their first episode of psychosis to three mental health hospitals in Queensland, Australia, were tested for anti-neuronal antibodies in serum. Antibody positive patients were referred for neurological and immunological consultation and treatment. Results During the study, 154 FEP patients were admitted with their first episode of psychosis and 113 consented to participate. Six patients were found to have anti-neuronal antibodies; (anti-NMDAR antibodies [n = 4], VGKC antibody [n = 1], antibody against uncharacterised antigen [n = 1]). Of these, five received immunotherapy, leading to complete resolution of psychosis in four. Discussion A small, but significant subgroup of patients with first episode psychosis have anti-neuronal antibodies detectable in serum and evidence of central nervous system autoimmune pathology. Early identification of these patients and referral for appropriate treatment is critical to optimise recovery.

  7. Criticism and Depression among the Caregivers of At-Risk Mental State and First-Episode Psychosis Patients.

    Yumiko Hamaie

    Full Text Available Expressed emotion (EE, especially criticism, is an important predictor of outcomes for the patient for a wide range of mental health problems. To understand complex links between EE and various relevant variables in early phase psychosis, this study examined criticism, distress of caregivers, other patients', and caregivers' variables, and links between criticism and these variables in those with at-risk mental state (ARMS for psychosis and first-episode psychosis (FEP. The participants were 56 patients (mean age 18.8 ± 4.2 years with ARMS and their caregivers (49.4 ± 5.8 years and 43 patients (21.7 ± 5.2 years with FEP and their caregivers (49.3 ± 7.4 years. We investigated criticisms made by caregivers using the Japanese version of the Family Attitude Scale and caregiver depressive symptoms via the self-report Beck Depression Inventory. We also assessed psychiatric symptoms and functioning of the patients. Approximately one-third of caregivers of patients with ARMS or FEP had depressive symptoms, predominately with mild-to-moderate symptom levels, whereas only a small portion exhibited high criticism. The level of criticism and depression were comparable between ARMS and FEP caregivers. The link between criticism, caregivers' depression, and patients' symptoms were observed in FEP but not in ARMS caregivers. These findings imply that the interaction between criticism and caregivers' and patients' mental states may develop during or after the onset of established psychosis and interventions for the caregivers should be tailored to the patient's specific stage of illness. Interventions for FEP caregivers should target their emotional distress and include education about patient's general symptoms.

  8. Prefrontal and Striatal Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Levels and the Effect of Antipsychotic Treatment in First-Episode Psychosis Patients.

    de la Fuente-Sandoval, Camilo; Reyes-Madrigal, Francisco; Mao, Xiangling; León-Ortiz, Pablo; Rodríguez-Mayoral, Oscar; Jung-Cook, Helgi; Solís-Vivanco, Rodolfo; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Shungu, Dikoma C

    2018-03-15

    Abnormally elevated levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) have been reported in antipsychotic-free patients with schizophrenia. Whether such GABA elevations are also present in other brain regions and persist after antipsychotic treatment has not been previously investigated. Twenty-eight antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 18 healthy control subjects completed the study. Following baseline proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans targeting the mPFC and a second region, the dorsal caudate, patients with FEP were treated with oral risperidone for 4 weeks at an initial dose of 1 mg/day that was titrated as necessary based on clinical judgment. After the 4-week treatment period, both groups were brought back to undergo outcome magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans, which were identical to the scans conducted at baseline. At baseline, higher GABA levels were found both in the mPFC and in the dorsal caudate of patients with FEP compared with healthy control subjects. Following 4 weeks of antipsychotic treatment, GABA levels in patients with FEP decreased relative to baseline in the mPFC, but decreased only at the trend level relative to baseline in the dorsal caudate. For either brain region, GABA levels at 4 weeks or posttreatment did not differ between patients with FEP and healthy control subjects. The results of the present study documented elevations of GABA levels both in the mPFC and, for the first time, in the dorsal caudate of antipsychotic-naïve patients with FEP, which normalized in both regions following 4 weeks of antipsychotic treatment. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Neurological soft signs in psychoses. II: an explorative study of structural involvement amongst drug naive first episode patients

    Pranjal Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aims and objective of the study was to find out the different structural involvement in the three study groups, namely brief psychotic disorder, schizophreniform psychosis, and schizophrenia as reflected by the neurological soft signs (NSS. Material and methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Psychiatry, Silchar Medical College and Hospital, Silchar, Cachar, Assam. In this study, we had further classified the soft signs into groups related to their corresponding brain structures as per the aims and objectives. Results: Our study consisted of 30 patients distributed into three case groups, namely brief psychotic disorder having 14 cases, schizophrenia having 12 cases, and only four cases in the schizophreniform group. We have made a novel attempt to establish a functional relationship between the structural involvement and the three groups of disorders under study through the evaluation of NSS at the onset of symptoms, which at times may not be possible to diagnose through currently available radio-imaging techniques. We have definitely found a predominant involvement of the cerebellum in the brief psychotic disorder and schizophrenia groups, and the involvement of parietal lobe in the schizophreniform psychosis group; although the results were not statistically significant. Conclusion: We hope that in future larger studies with more number of patients will shed definite lights in the present study findings.

  10. Health services determinants of the duration of untreated psychosis among African-American first-episode patients.

    Compton, Michael T; Ramsay, Claire E; Shim, Ruth S; Goulding, Sandra M; Gordon, Tynessa L; Weiss, Paul S; Druss, Benjamin G

    2009-11-01

    The duration of untreated psychosis is associated with poor outcomes in multiple domains in the early course of nonaffective psychotic disorders, although relatively little is known about determinants of this critical period, particularly health services-level determinants. This study examined three hypothesized predictors of duration of untreated psychosis (lack of insurance, financial problems, and broader barriers) among urban, socioeconomically disadvantaged African Americans, while controlling for the effects of three patient-level predictors (mode of onset of psychosis, living with family versus alone or with others before hospitalization, and living above versus below the federally defined poverty level). Analyses included data from 42 patient-family member dyads from a larger sample of 109 patients with a first episode of nonaffective psychosis. The duration of untreated psychosis and all other variables were measured in a rigorous, standardized fashion in a study designed specifically to examine determinants of treatment delay. Survival analyses and Cox regression assessed the effects of the independent predictors on time from onset of psychosis to hospital admission for initial evaluation and treatment. The median duration of untreated psychosis was 24.5 weeks. When the analyses controlled for the three patient-level covariates, patients without health insurance, with financial problems, or with barriers to seeking help had a significantly longer duration of untreated psychosis. Health services-related factors, such as lack of insurance, are predictive of longer treatment delay. Efforts to eliminate uninsurance and underinsurance, as well as minimize barriers to treatment, would be beneficial for improving the prognosis of young patients with emerging nonaffective psychotic disorders.

  11. Neurochemical metabolites in prefrontal cortex in patients with mild/moderate levels in first-episode depression

    Sozeri-Varma G

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Gülfizar Sözeri-Varma,1 Nalan Kalkan-Oğuzhanoglu,1 Muharrem Efe,1 Yilmaz Kiroglu,2 Taçlan Duman11Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, TurkeyBackground: Previous studies have determined the neurochemical metabolite abnormalities in major depressive disorder (MDD. The results of studies are inconsistent. Severity of depression may relate to neurochemical metabolic changes. The aim of this study is to investigate neurochemical metabolite levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC of patients with mild/moderate MDD.Methods: Twenty-one patients with mild MDD, 18 patients with moderate MDD, and 16 matched control subjects participated in the study. Patients had had their first episode. They had not taken treatment. The severity of depression was assessed by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D. Levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, choline-containing compounds (Cho, and creatine-containing compounds (Cr were measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS at 1.5 T, with an 8-cm3 single voxel placed in the right PFC.Results: The moderate MDD patients had lower NAA/Cr levels than the control group. No differences were found in neurochemical metabolite levels between the mild MDD and control groups. No correlation was found between the patients’ neurochemical metabolite levels and HAM-D scores.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that NAA/Cr levels are low in moderate-level MDD in the PFC. Neurochemical metabolite levels did not change in mild depressive disorder. Our results suggest that the severity of depression may affect neuronal function and viability. Studies are needed to confirm this finding, including studies on severely depressive patients.Keywords: major depressive disorder, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, choline

  12. Changes of grey matter volume in first-episode drug-naive adult major depressive disorder patients with different age-onset

    Zonglin Shen

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The GMV of the brain areas that were related to mood regulation was decreased in the first-episode, drug-naive adult patients with MDD. Adult patients with EOD and LOD exhibited different GMV changes relative to each age-matched comparison group, suggesting depressed adult patients with different age-onset might have different pathological mechanism.

  13. Is there an optimal factor structure of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in patients with first-episode psychosis?

    Langeveld, Johannes; Andreassen, OA; Auestad, B

    2013-01-01

    -defined first-episode psychosis sample. The aim of this paper is to examine the statistical fit of five different PANSS models in a first-episode, non-affective psychosis sample. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed on PANSS data (n = 588). A main criterion for best fit was defined as the Expected Cross...... Validation Index (ECVI). No tested model revealed an optimally satisfactory model fit index. The Wallwork/Fortgang five-factor model demonstrated the most optimal psychometric properties. The corresponding subscales of all evaluated five-factor models were strongly intercorrelated. The Wallwork/Fortgang five...

  14. Estimating the Cost and Effect of Early Intervention on In-Patient Admission in First Episode Psychosis.

    Behan, Caragh; Cullinan, John; Kennelly, Brendan; Turner, Niall; Owens, Elizabeth; Lau, Adam; Kinsella, Anthony; Clarke, Mary

    2015-06-01

    Early intervention in psychosis is an accepted policy internationally. When 'A Vision for Change', the national blueprint for mental health policy in Ireland, was published in 2007 there was one Irish pilot service for early intervention in psychosis. The National Clinical Mental Health Programme Plan (2011) identified early intervention in psychosis as one of three areas for roll out nationally. There is limited economic evaluation in the field of mental health in Ireland to guide service development. This is in part due to lack of robust patient level data. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the introduction of an early intervention service in psychosis resulted in any change to the number and duration of admissions in people with first-episode psychosis. We examined two prospective epidemiological cohorts of individuals presenting with first-episode psychosis to an urban community mental health service (population 172,000). The historical cohort comprised of individuals presenting from 1995 to 1998 and received treatment as usual (n=132). The early intervention cohort presented to the same catchment area between 2008 and 2011 (n=97) following the introduction of an early intervention service in 2005. We found significant reductions in the rates admitted for treatment across the two time periods. Reduction in the rate of admission was larger in this catchment than the reduction in the rate of admission in the country as a whole. There were significant reductions in the duration of untreated psychosis arising from the early intervention programme. Significant reductions in length of stay were accounted for by differences in baseline age and marital status. The average cost of admission declined from 15,821 to 9,398 in the early intervention cohort. The comparison pre and post early intervention service showed cost savings consistent with other studies internationally. Key issues are whether changes in the admission pattern were due to the

  15. Differences in omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption in people at ultra-high risk of psychosis, first-episode schizophrenia, and in healthy controls.

    Pawełczyk, Tomasz; Trafalska, Elżbieta; Pawełczyk, Agnieszka; Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena

    2017-12-01

    Supplementation with omega-3 PUFA showed efficacy in reducing the risk of transition into psychosis in UHR individuals. It is uncertain whether dietary patterns can be partly responsible for n-3 deficiencies observed in susceptible participants before the diagnosis of schizophrenia. The study was designed to assess differences in omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA consumption in healthy controls (HC), UHR participants and FES patients as well as to verify the hypothesis that dietary changes in PUFA consumption are present before active psychosis develops, that is, in UHR individuals. Dietary habits during the previous year were assessed in 34 patients at UHR of psychosis, 33 patients diagnosed with FES and 33 HC participants using a validated Food-Frequency Questionnaire and the Polish Food Composition Tables. Significant differences in omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA intake were observed between study groups. UHR and FES groups reported significantly higher consumption of omega-6 PUFA in comparison with HC. FES patients also reported a higher consumption of alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3) in comparison with HC. No significant differences were seen in consumption of long-chain marine PUFA. Differences in omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA consumption exist before development of psychotic symptoms, fulfilling the criteria of schizophrenia. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. 首发精神分裂症儿童少年的共患病%Comorbidity in children and adolescents with first-episode schizophrenia

    刘芳; 刘靖; 姚旭东

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the occurrence of comorbidity in children and adolescents with first-episode schizophrenia and explore the clinical features of schizophrenia with comorbidity and risk factors of comorbidity. Methods: Fifty-two children and adolescents meeting criteria for schizophrenia of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-Ⅳ) were included in this cross-sectional study. They were assessed with the self-made general condition questionnaire, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), KiddieSade-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL), Chinese version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents ( MINI Kid) ( Parent Version), Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS) and the Social Disability Screening Schedule (SDSS). Results: There were 57.7% (30/52) of children and adolescents with firstepisode schizophrenia having comorbidities. There were 14 (26. 9% ) with current comorbidities, 10 ( 19. 2% ) with previous comorbidities, 6 (11.5% ) with current and previous comorbidities. There were 24 (46.2%) having 1 comorbidity, 4 (7. 7% ) having 2 comorbidities, 2 (3.8%) having 3 comorbidities. The comorbidities included 19 with depression disorder (4 with suicide behavior), 5 with generalized anxiety disorder, 1 with panic disorder, 2 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, 2 with social phobia, 5 with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 7 with tic disorder (5 with transient tic disorder and 2 with de la Tourette's syndrome), 2 with pervasive developmental disorder (both were Asperger's syndromes). The previous comorbidities included 5 with depression disorder, 1 with panic disorder, 2 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, 1 with social phobia, 2 with ADHD, 7 with tic disorder. The current comorbidities included 14 with depression disorder, 5 with generalized anxiety disorder, 2 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, 1 with social phobia, 3 with ADHD, 2 with pervasive

  17. Impaired action self-monitoring and cognitive confidence among ultra-high risk for psychosis and first-episode psychosis patients.

    Gawęda, Ł; Li, E; Lavoie, S; Whitford, T J; Moritz, S; Nelson, B

    2018-01-01

    Self-monitoring biases and overconfidence in incorrect judgments have been suggested as playing a role in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Little is known about whether self-monitoring biases may contribute to early risk factors for psychosis. In this study, action self-monitoring (i.e., discrimination between imagined and performed actions) was investigated, along with confidence in judgments among ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis individuals and first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. Thirty-six UHR for psychosis individuals, 25 FEP patients and 33 healthy controls (CON) participated in the study. Participants were assessed with the Action memory task. Simple actions were presented to participants verbally or non-verbally. Some actions were required to be physically performed and others were imagined. Participants were asked whether the action was presented verbally or non-verbally (action presentation type discrimination), and whether the action was performed or imagined (self-monitoring). Confidence self-ratings related to self-monitoring responses were obtained. The analysis of self-monitoring revealed that both UHR and FEP groups misattributed imagined actions as being performed (i.e., self-monitoring errors) significantly more often than the CON group. There were no differences regarding performed actions as being imagined. UHR and FEP groups made their false responses with higher confidence in their judgments than the CON group. There were no group differences regarding discrimination between the types of actions presented (verbal vs non-verbal). A specific type of self-monitoring bias (i.e., misattributing imagined actions with performed actions), accompanied by high confidence in this judgment, may be a risk factor for the subsequent development of a psychotic disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Determinants of duration of untreated psychosis among first-episode psychosis patients in Denmark: A nationwide register-based study.

    Hastrup, Lene Halling; Haahr, Ulrik Helt; Jansen, Jens Einar; Simonsen, Erik

    2018-02-01

    Information on determinants of duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is still needed to inform campaigns targeting people with first episode psychosis (FEP). This nation-wide study analysed the association between demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, and geographic area), premorbid and illness-related factors (global functional level, substance misuse, and contact to police), healthcare factors (referral source and first FEP contact) and DUP. The study population of 1266 patients aged 15-25years diagnosed with FEP (ICD10 F20.0-F20.99) was drawn from the Danish National Indicator Project during 2009-2011. The study population was combined with data from national administrative registers. A multinomial regression model was estimated to analyse the impact of demographic, premorbid and illness-related, and healthcare factors on DUP. One third of the population had a DUP below 6months. DUP longer than 12months was associated with older age at onset, being female, having cannabis misuse, and living in peripheral municipalities. Being charged by the criminal authorities during one year before FEP was associated with a DUP over 6months. DUP is related to a number of demographic, premorbid and healthcare factors. These findings suggest that future information campaigns should focus on increasing the awareness of early signs of psychosis not only among mental health professionals but also other professionals in contact with adolescents such as the police. It may also be useful to consider how to target information campaigns towards persons living in peripheral areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multisite prediction of 4-week and 52-week treatment outcomes in patients with first-episode psychosis: a machine learning approach

    Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Kahn, René S.; Chekroud, Adam M.; Leucht, Stefan; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas; Derks, Eske M.; Fleischhacker, Wolfgang W.; Hasan, Alkomiet

    2016-01-01

    Background At present, no tools exist to estimate objectively the risk of poor treatment outcomes in patients with first-episode psychosis. Such tools could improve treatment by informing clinical decision-making before the commencement of treatment. We tested whether such a tool could be

  20. Negative symptoms in first episode non-affective psychosis.

    Malla, Ashok K; Takhar, Jatinder J; Norman, Ross M G; Manchanda, Rahul; Cortese, Leonard; Haricharan, Raj; Verdi, Mary; Ahmed, Rashid

    2002-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of negative symptoms and to examine secondary sources of influence on negative symptoms and the role of specific negative symptoms in delay associated with seeking treatment in first episode non-affective psychosis. One hundred and ten patients who met Diagnostic Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) criteria for a first episode of schizophrenia spectrum psychoses were rated for assessment of negative, positive, depressive and extrapyramidal symptoms, the premorbid adjustment scale and assessment of demographic and clinical characteristics including duration of untreated psychosis (DUP). Alogia/flat affect and avolition/anhedonia were strongly influenced by parkinsonian and depressive symptoms, respectively. A substantial proportion (26.8%) of patients showed at a least moderate level of negative symptoms not confounded by depression and Parkinsonism. DUP was related only to avolition/anhedonia while flat affect/alogia was related to male gender, diagnosis of schizophrenia, age of onset and the length of the prodrome. Negative symptoms that are independent of the influence of positive symptoms, depression and extra pyramidal symptoms (EPS) are present in a substantial proportion of first episode psychosis patients and delay in seeking treatment is associated mainly with avolition and anhedonia.

  1. Multi-center MRI prediction models:Predicting sex and illness course in first episode psychosis patients

    Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E; Lappin, Julia; Morgan, Craig; Reinders, Antje A; Gutierrez-Tordesillas, Diana; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Schaufelberger, Maristela S; Rosa, Pedro G; Zanetti, Marcus V; Busatto, Geraldo F; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; McGorry, Patrick D; Velakoulis, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies have attempted to use brain measures obtained at the first-episode of psychosis to predict subsequent outcome, with inconsistent results. Thus, there is a real need to validate the utility of brain measures in the prediction of outcome using large datasets, from independent samples, obtained with different protocols and from different MRI scanners. This study had three main aims: 1) to investigate whether structural MRI data from multiple ce...

  2. Neurological soft signs in psychoses. I: a comparative study of prevalence amongst drug naive first episode patients

    Pranjal Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aims and objective of the study was to find out the prevalence of neurological soft signs (NSS amongst the three groups of psychiatric disorder which were brief psychotic disorder, schizophreniform psychosis, and schizophrenia. Material and methods: The study was conducted over a period of seven months starting from 1st of May, 2010 to 30th November, 2010. NSS were assessed by the Heidelberg Manual. Results: We found that all the patients from each of the three groups have shown at least one or more neurological abnormalities. The present study found a significant association between types of NSS namely in group of motor coordination, motor sequencing, and sensory integration, and the different category of disorders under study whereas the severity of neurological impairment was not found to be significantly associated within the three groups. Conclusion: We hope that in future larger studies observing for long period of time will shed definite lights in the present study findings.

  3. Cerebral and cerebellar gray matter reduction in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Peng Jing, E-mail: ppengjjing@sina.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Liu Jiangtao, E-mail: Liujiangtao813@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Nie Binbin, E-mail: niebb@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Yang, E-mail: Liyang2007428@hotmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Shan Baoci, E-mail: shanbc@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Gang, E-mail: gangwang@gmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: likuncheng1955@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate cerebral and cerebellar gray matter abnormalities in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). Materials and methods: We examined the structural difference in regional gray matter density (GMD) between 22 first-episode MDD patients and 30 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls by optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based on magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Compared with healthy controls, MDD patients showed decreased GMD in the right medial and left lateral orbitofrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), bilateral temporal pole, right superior temporal gyrus, bilateral anterior insular cortex, left parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum. In addition, in MDD patients, there was a negative correlation between GMD values of the right DLPFC and the score of the depression rating scale. Conclusions: Our findings provided additional support for the involvement of limbic-cortical circuits in the pathophysiology of MDD and preliminary evidence that a defect involving the cerebellum may also be implicated.

  4. Cerebral and cerebellar gray matter reduction in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Peng Jing; Liu Jiangtao; Nie Binbin; Li Yang; Shan Baoci; Wang Gang; Li Kuncheng

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate cerebral and cerebellar gray matter abnormalities in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). Materials and methods: We examined the structural difference in regional gray matter density (GMD) between 22 first-episode MDD patients and 30 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls by optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based on magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Compared with healthy controls, MDD patients showed decreased GMD in the right medial and left lateral orbitofrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), bilateral temporal pole, right superior temporal gyrus, bilateral anterior insular cortex, left parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum. In addition, in MDD patients, there was a negative correlation between GMD values of the right DLPFC and the score of the depression rating scale. Conclusions: Our findings provided additional support for the involvement of limbic-cortical circuits in the pathophysiology of MDD and preliminary evidence that a defect involving the cerebellum may also be implicated.

  5. Epidemiological and clinical characterization following a first psychotic episode in major depressive disorder: comparisons with schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder in the Cavan-Monaghan First Episode Psychosis Study (CAMFEPS).

    Owoeye, Olabisi; Kingston, Tara; Scully, Paul J; Baldwin, Patrizia; Browne, David; Kinsella, Anthony; Russell, Vincent; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; Waddington, John L

    2013-07-01

    While recent research on psychotic illness has focussed on the nosological, clinical, and biological relationships between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, little attention has been directed to the most common other psychotic diagnosis, major depressive disorder with psychotic features (MDDP). As this diagnostic category captures the confluence between dimensions of psychotic and affective psychopathology, it is of unappreciated heuristic potential to inform on the nature of psychotic illness. Therefore, the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of MDDP were compared with those of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder within the Cavan-Monaghan First Episode Psychosis Study (n = 370). Epidemiologically, the first psychotic episode of MDDP (n = 77) was uniformly distributed across the adult life span, while schizophrenia (n = 73) and bipolar disorder (n = 73) were primarily disorders of young adulthood; the incidence of MDDP, like bipolar disorder, did not differ between the sexes, while the incidence of schizophrenia was more common in males than in females. Clinically, MDDP was characterized by negative symptoms, executive dysfunction, neurological soft signs (NSS), premorbid intellectual function, premorbid adjustment, and quality of life similar to those for schizophrenia, while bipolar disorder was characterized by less prominent negative symptoms, executive dysfunction and NSS, and better quality of life. These findings suggest that what we currently categorize as MDDP may be more closely aligned with other psychotic diagnoses than has been considered previously. They indicate that differences in how psychosis is manifested vis-à-vis depression and mania may be quantitative rather than qualitative and occur within a dimensional space, rather than validating categorical distinctions.

  6. Epidemiological and clinical characterization following a first psychotic episode in major depressive disorder: Comparisons with Schizophrenia and Bipolar I Disorder in the Cavan-Monaghan First Episode Psychosis Study (CAMFEPS).

    Owoeye, Olabisi

    2013-05-28

    While recent research on psychotic illness has focussed on the nosological, clinical, and biological relationships between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, little attention has been directed to the most common other psychotic diagnosis, major depressive disorder with psychotic features (MDDP). As this diagnostic category captures the confluence between dimensions of psychotic and affective psychopathology, it is of unappreciated heuristic potential to inform on the nature of psychotic illness. Therefore, the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of MDDP were compared with those of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder within the Cavan-Monaghan First Episode Psychosis Study (n = 370). Epidemiologically, the first psychotic episode of MDDP (n = 77) was uniformly distributed across the adult life span, while schizophrenia (n = 73) and bipolar disorder (n = 73) were primarily disorders of young adulthood; the incidence of MDDP, like bipolar disorder, did not differ between the sexes, while the incidence of schizophrenia was more common in males than in females. Clinically, MDDP was characterized by negative symptoms, executive dysfunction, neurological soft signs (NSS), premorbid intellectual function, premorbid adjustment, and quality of life similar to those for schizophrenia, while bipolar disorder was characterized by less prominent negative symptoms, executive dysfunction and NSS, and better quality of life. These findings suggest that what we currently categorize as MDDP may be more closely aligned with other psychotic diagnoses than has been considered previously. They indicate that differences in how psychosis is manifested vis-à-vis depression and mania may be quantitative rather than qualitative and occur within a dimensional space, rather than validating categorical distinctions.

  7. Primeiro episódio da esquizofrenia e assistência de enfermagem Primer episodio de la esquizofrenia y asistencia de enfermería First episode of schizophrenia and nursing care

    Bianca Cristina Ciccone Giacon

    2006-06-01

    disponibles y pocos recursos sociales. Tal condición muestra la necesidad de estudios relacionados al primer episodio.Schizophrenia is one of the main health problems in current days, requiring considerable investment from the health system. Intervening in the first episode offers a unique opportunity in the treatment of schizophrenia and influences the course of the illness. This article consists of a critical literature review aimed at examining knowledge on first episode schizophrenia and discussing the contribution of nursing care. A research was carried out in bibliographical databases. The data collected made possible the organization of information on the general concept of schizophrenia, its first episode, types of intervention and nursing performance. We found out that in Brazil there are few studies related to first episode schizophrenia in Nursing, few available specialized services, and few social resources. This situation reveals the need for more studies on first episode schizophrenia.

  8. Structural brain abnormalities in early onset first-episode psychosis

    Pagsberg, A K; Baaré, W F C; Raabjerg Christensen, A M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain morphometry in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis offer a unique opportunity for pathogenetic investigations. METHODS: We compared high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain in 29 patients (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder......, delusional disorder or other non-organic psychosis), aged 10-18 to those of 29 matched controls, using optimized voxel-based morphometry. RESULTS: Psychotic patients had frontal white matter abnormalities, but expected (regional) gray matter reductions were not observed. Post hoc analyses revealed...

  9. Overlapping and disease specific trait, response, and reflection impulsivity in adolescents with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt M.; Rydkjaer, J.; Fagerlund, B.; Pagsberg, A. K.; Jespersen, R. Av F.; Glenthøj, Birte Y.; Oranje, B.

    BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are developmental disorders with shared clinical characteristics such as cognitive impairments and impulsivity. Impulsivity is a core feature of ADHD and an important factor in aggression, violence, and substance use in

  10. Childhood maltreatment is associated with increased body mass index and increased C-reactive protein levels in first-episode psychosis patients.

    Hepgul, N; Pariante, C M; Dipasquale, S; DiForti, M; Taylor, H; Marques, T R; Morgan, C; Dazzan, P; Murray, R M; Mondelli, V

    2012-09-01

    The high incidence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with psychosis is mainly attributed to antipsychotic treatment. However, it is also possible that psychological stress plays a role, inducing a chronic inflammatory process that may predispose to the development of metabolic abnormalities. We investigated the association between childhood maltreatment and inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers in subjects with first-episode psychosis and healthy controls. Body mass index (BMI), weight and waist circumference were measured in 95 first-episode psychosis patients and 97 healthy controls. Inflammatory and metabolic markers were measured in a subsample of 28 patients and 45 controls. In all the subjects we collected information on childhood maltreatment and recent stressors. Patients with childhood maltreatment had higher BMI [25.0 (S.E.=0.6) kg/m2] and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels [1.1 (S.E.=0.6) mg/dl] when compared with healthy controls [23.4 (S.E.=0.4) kg/m2, p=0.030 and 0.2 (S.E.=0.1) mg/dl, p=0.009, respectively]. In contrast, patients without childhood maltreatment were not significantly different from healthy controls for either BMI [24.7 (S.E.=0.6) kg/m2, p=0.07] or CRP levels [0.5 (S.E.=0.2) mg/dl, p=0.25]. After controlling for the effect of BMI, the difference in CRP levels across the three groups remained significant (F 2,58=3.6, p=0.035), suggesting that the increase in inflammation was not driven by an increase in adipose tissue. Childhood maltreatment is associated with higher BMI, and increased CRP levels, in patients with a first-episode psychosis. Further studies need to confirm the mechanisms underlying the putative causal relationship between childhood maltreatment and higher BMI, and whether this is indeed mediated by increased inflammation.

  11. Anhedonia correlates with abnormal functional connectivity of the superior temporal gyrus and the caudate nucleus in patients with first-episode drug-naive major depressive disorder.

    Yang, Xin-Hua; Tian, Kai; Wang, Dong-Fang; Wang, Yi; Cheung, Eric F C; Xie, Guang-Rong; Chan, Raymond C K

    2017-08-15

    Recent empirical findings have suggested that imbalanced neural networks may underlie the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the contribution of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the caudate nucleus to its pathophysiology remains unclear. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) date were acquired from 40 patients with first-episode drug-naive MDD and 36 matched healthy controls during wakeful rest. We used whole-brain voxel-wise statistical maps to quantify within-group resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) and between-group differences of bilateral caudate and STG seeds. Compared with healthy controls, first-episode MDD patients were found to have reduced connectivity between the ventral caudate and several brain regions including the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and the middle temporal gyrus (MTG), as well as increased connectivity with the cuneus. We also found increased connectivity between the left STG and the precuneus, the angular gyrus and the cuneus. Moreover, we found that increased anhedonia severity was correlated with the magnitude of ventral caudate functional connectivity with the cuneus and the MTG in MDD patients. Due to our small sample size, we did not correct the statistical threshold in the correlation analyses between clinical variables and connectivity abnormalities. The present study suggests that anhedonia is mainly associated with altered ventral caudate-cortical connectivity and highlights the importance of the ventral caudate in the neurobiology of MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Depressive symptoms in first-episode psychosis

    Sönmez, Nasrettin; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Evensen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The present study examined if any patient characteristics at baseline predicted depressive symptoms at 10 years and whether patients prone to depressive symptoms in the first year of treatment had a different prognosis in the following years. METHOD: A total of 299 first-episode psychosis...

  13. Decreased striatal dopamine transporter binding assessed with [123I] FP-CIT in first-episode schizophrenic patients with and without short-term antipsychotic-induced parkinsonism.

    Mateos, Jose J; Lomeña, Francisco; Parellada, Eduardo; Font, Mireia; Fernandez, Emili; Pavia, Javier; Prats, Alberto; Pons, Francisca; Bernardo, Miquel

    2005-09-01

    Drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) is one of the main causes of treatment drop-out in schizophrenic patients causing a high incidence of relapse that leads patients to a bad clinical prognosis. The dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway is involved in the movement control, so the study of the dopamine transporter (DAT) could be of great value to determine its implication in the appearance of DIP. The goal of the study is to determine the striatal DAT binding assessed with [(123)I] FP-CIT SPECT in first-episode neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic in-patients with DIP after short-term antipsychotic treatment. The [(123)I] FP-CIT binding ratios of ten schizophrenic in-patients who developed DIP during the first 4-week period of risperidone treatment (6+/-2 mg/day) were compared with ten schizophrenic in-patients treated with the same doses of risperidone and who do not developed DIP and with ten age-matched healthy subjects. Quantitative analyses of SPECTs were performed using regions of interest located in caudate, putamen and occipital cortex. Parkinsonism was assessed by the Simpson-Angus Scale and the psychopathological status by the Clinical General Impression and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scales. Whole striatal [(123)I] FP-CIT binding ratios were significantly lower in patients with and without DIP than in healthy subjects (p<0.001). This was also observed in whole putamen (p<0.001) and caudate nucleus (p<0.001). Females showed higher whole striatal [(123)I] FP-CIT binding ratios than males (p<0.05). No differences in psychopathological scales were observed between patients with and without DIP. Our first-episode schizophrenic patients with and without DIP after short-term risperidone treatment have a decreased striatal DAT binding assessed with [(123)I] FP-CIT. This alteration could be related to the schizophrenic disease or may be secondary to the antipsychotic treatment.

  14. A randomized controlled trial of comprehensive early intervention care in patients with first-episode psychosis in Japan: 1.5-year outcomes from the J-CAP study.

    Nishida, Atsushi; Ando, Shuntaro; Yamasaki, Syudo; Koike, Shinsuke; Ichihashi, Kayo; Miyakoshi, Yuji; Maekawa, Sanae; Nakamura, Tomohisa; Natsubori, Tatsunobu; Ichikawa, Eriko; Ishigami, Hiroki; Sato, Kojiro; Matsunaga, Asami; Smith, Jo; French, Paul; Harima, Hirohiko; Kishi, Yoshiki; Fujita, Izumi; Kasai, Kiyoto; Okazaki, Yuji

    2018-04-08

    The first episode of psychosis represents a critical period wherein comprehensive early intervention in psychosis (EIP) may alter the course of illness. However, evidence from randomized controlled trials that have examined the impact of comprehensive EIP care on clinical and functional recovery assessed by independent blinded raters is limited. The objective of this study was to conduct a single-blinded multicenter trial comparing comprehensive EIP care and standard care in young patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) in Japan (J-CAP Study). A total of 77 participants with FEP (aged 15-35 years) were randomized to receive standard care or specialized comprehensive EIP care and were followed up for 1.5 years (trial no.: UMIN000005092). Function (measured with the Global Assessment of Functioning) and clinical remission (defined by internationally standardized criteria proposed by the Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group) were evaluated by independent raters who were blinded to group assignment. Dropout rate and other secondary outcomes were also examined. The specialized EIP care group had a higher clinical remission rate (odds ratio, 6.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-37.9) and lower treatment dropout rate (odds ratio, 0.038; 95% confidence interval, 0.002-0.923) than the standard care group, even after adjusting for baseline characteristics. Functional improvement in the specialized EIP care group was slightly higher than that in the standard care group, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.195). From the results, we conclude that comprehensive EIP care may provide advantages over standard care in patients with FEP. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Association between abnormal serum myelin-specific protein levels and white matter integrity in first-episode and drug-naïve patients with major depressive disorder.

    Jiang, Linling; Cheng, Yuqi; Jiang, Hongyan; Xu, Jian; Lu, Jin; Shen, Zonglin; Lu, Yi; Liu, Fang; Li, Luqiong; Xu, Xiufeng

    2018-05-01

    Although the structural abnormalities of white matter (WM) have been described in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), the neuropathological changes remain unclear. The current study aimed to investigate the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) levels and their correlations with WM integrity in first-episode, drug-naïve MDD patients. We obtained diffusion tensor images of 102 first-episode, drug-naïve MDD patients and 81 age- and sex-matched controls. Serum MOG and MAG levels of all participants were measured and compared between the two groups. The correlations between WM integrity and MOG and MAG levels were examined. MOG and MAG serum levels were significantly higher in MDD patients than in controls. Patients with MDD also showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial diffusivity in the WM of the bilateral thalamus, right hippocampus, right temporal lobe, and left pulvinar. At the whole-brain level, no regions showed any correlations of diffusivity parameters with MOG or MAG levels in healthy subjects. However, we observed two-way correlations between the MOG and MAG levels and the FA and mean diffusivity values in the WM of the left middle frontal lobe, right inferior parietal lobe, and right supplementary motor area in MDD patients. Further investigation with a larger sample size and longitudinal studies are required to better understand the neuropathology of WM integrity in MDD. Our findings represent the first evidence of a relationship between abnormal serum myelin-specific protein levels and impaired WM integrity, which may help to better understand the neurobiological mechanisms of MDD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasma homovanillic acid levels and therapeutic outcome in schizophrenics: comparisons of neuroleptic-naive first-episode patients and patients with disease exacerbation due to neuroleptic discontinuance.

    Akiyama, K; Tsuchida, K; Kanzaki, A; Ujike, H; Hamamura, T; Kondo, K; Mutoh, S; Miyanagi, K; Kuroda, S; Otsuki, S

    1995-11-15

    Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels were measured and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores were evaluated in 26 schizophrenic patients who had either never been medicated (neuroleptic-naive, first-episode subjects) or whose condition had become exacerbated following neuroleptic discontinuance (exacerbated subjects). All the subjects received medication with a fixed dose of a neuroleptic (haloperidol or fluphenazine, both 9 mg/day) for the first week and variable doses for the subsequent 4 weeks. In the neuroleptic-naive subjects, pHVA levels increased significantly 1 week after starting the protocol; this increase correlated significantly with clinical improvement of the BPRS positive symptom scores at week 5. In the neuroleptic-naive subjects, pHVA levels had declined to the baseline level by week 5. In the exacerbated subjects, there were no significant correlations between pHVA level changes at week 1 and later improvements of the BPRS positive symptom scores. These results suggest that the rise in pHVA levels occurring within 1 week after starting a fixed neuroleptic dose may predict a favorable clinical response in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients.

  17. Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, learning capacity and cognition in patients with first episode psychosis

    de Azua Sonia Ruiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive impairments are seen in first psychotic episode (FEP patients. The neurobiological underpinnings that might underlie these changes remain unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate whether Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF levels are associated with cognitive impairment in FEP patients compared with healthy controls. Methods 45 FEP patients and 45 healthy controls matched by age, gender and educational level were selected from the Basque Country area of Spain. Plasma BDNF levels were assessed in healthy controls and in patients. A battery of cognitive tests was applied to both groups, with the patients being assessed at 6 months after the acute episode and only in those with a clinical response to treatment. Results Plasma BDNF levels were altered in patients compared with the control group. In FEP patients, we observed a positive association between BDNF levels at six months and five cognitive domains (learning ability, immediate and delayed memory, abstract thinking and processing speed which persisted after controlling for medications prescribed, drug use, intelligence quotient (IQ and negative symptoms. In the healthy control group, BDNF levels were not associated with cognitive test scores. Conclusion Our results suggest that BDNF is associated with the cognitive impairment seen after a FEP. Further investigations of the role of this neurotrophin in the symptoms associated with psychosis onset are warranted.

  18. [Dysfunctional resting-state connectivity of default mode network in adolescent patients with first-episode drug-naive major depressive disorder].

    Li, S Y; Zhu, Y; Wang, Y L; Lü, P P; Zuo, W B; Li, F Y

    2017-12-05

    Objective: To study resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of default mode network (DMN) in adolescent patients with first-episode drug-naive major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: We enrolled thirty first-episode and drug-naive adolescent MDD patients and twenty-nine adolescent healthy control (HC) participants in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. There were no differences in age, sex, and education between the MDD and HC group. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) was performed. We selected posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) of DMN as regions of interests (ROI). The differences of these regions from the whole brain functional connectivity were analyzed. The relations between abnormalities in FCs of DMN and clinical variables were further investigated. Results: Compared to the HCs, the MDD patients had congruently reduced FCs between the PCC and cerebellum, temporal cortices, occipital cortices, fusiform, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. MPFC not only had reduced FCs with fusiform, temporal cortices, anterior cingulate cortex, but also had enhanced FCs with occipital cortices, parietal cortices, and precentral gyrus. In addition, the increased FC between the right MPFC and right precentral gyrus was positive correlated with Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) scores ( r =0.38, P =0.04). The reduced FC between the left middle temporal gyrus and left PCC as well as the enhanced FC between the right middle cingulum and right MPFC were positive correlated with the duration of depression since onset ( r =0.39, P =0.03; r =0.38, P =0.04). Conclusions: These findings show dysfunctional DMN connectivity of adolescent MDD patients. Neurodevelopmental abnormalities in DMN may present in adolescent MDD.

  19. Motivational deficits in effort-based decision making in individuals with subsyndromal depression, first-episode and remitted depression patients.

    Yang, Xin-Hua; Huang, Jia; Zhu, Cui-Ying; Wang, Ye-Fei; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K; Xie, Guang-Rong

    2014-12-30

    Anhedonia is a hallmark symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD). Preliminary findings suggest that anhedonia is characterized by reduced reward anticipation and motivation of obtaining reward. However, relatively little is known about reward-based decision-making in depression. We tested the hypothesis that anhedonia in MDD may reflect specific impairments in motivation on reward-based decision-making and the deficits might be associated with depressive symptoms severity. In study 1, individuals with and without depressive symptoms performed the modified version of the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT), a behavioral measure of cost/benefit decision-making. In study 2, MDD patients, remitted MDD patients and healthy controls were recruited for the same procedures. We found evidence for decreased willingness to make effort for rewards among individuals with subsyndromal depression; the effect was amplified in MDD patients, but dissipated in patients with remitted depression. We also found that reduced anticipatory and consummatory pleasure predicted decreased willingness to expend efforts to obtain rewards in MDD patients. For individuals with subsyndromal depression, the impairments were correlated with anticipatory anhedonia but not consummatory anhedonia. These data offer novel evidence that motivational deficits in MDD are correlated with depression severity and predicted by self-reported anhedonia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of goal attainment theory based education program on cardiovascular risks, behavioral modification, and quality of life among patients with first episode of acute myocardial infarction: Randomized study.

    Park, Moonkyoung; Song, Rhayun; Jeong, Jin-Ok

    2017-06-01

    Effect of goal-attainment-theory-based education program on cardiovascular risks, behavioral modification, and quality of life among patients with first episode of acute myocardial infarction: randomized study BACKGROUND: The behavioral modification strategies should be explored at the time of admission to lead the maximum effect of cardiovascular risk management. This randomized study aimed to elucidate the effects of a nurse-led theory-based education program in individuals with a first episode of acute myocardial infarction on cardiovascular risks, health behaviors, and quality of life over 6 months. The study involved a convenience sample of 64 patients with acute myocardial infarction who were randomly assigned to either the education group or the control group. The goal-attainment-based education program was designed to set the mutually agreed goals of risk management and the behavioral modification strategies for achieving those goals. Those in the control group received routine management only. The participants in both groups were contacted at 6-8 weeks and at 6 months after discharge to measure outcome variables. Repeated measure ANOVA was conducted using SPSSWIN (version 20.0) to determine the significance of differences in outcome variables over 6 months between the groups. Both groups showed significant positive changes in cardiovascular risks, health behaviors, and quality of life over 6 months. The 2-year risk of cardiovascular disease was significantly reduced in both study groups, but with no significant interaction effect (F=2.01, p=0.142). The performance and maintenance of health behaviors (F=3.75, p=0.029) and the mental component of quality of life (F=4.03, p=0.020) were significantly better in the education group than the control group. Applying a goal-oriented education program at an early stage of hospital management improved and maintained blood glucose, health behaviors, and mental component of the quality of life up to six months in

  1. Cortical and subcortical 5-HT2A receptor binding in neuroleptic-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients

    Erritzoe, David; Rasmussen, Hans; Kristiansen, Klaus Nyegaard

    2008-01-01

    MRIs and PET images. The cerebellum was used as a reference region. The binding potential of specific tracer binding (BP(p)) was used as the outcome measure. No significant difference was seen in cortical receptor distribution between patients and controls. An increase in 5-HT(2A) receptor binding...

  2. Determinants of duration of untreated psychosis among first-episode psychosis patients in Denmark: A nationwide register-based study

    Hastrup, Lene Halling; Haahr, Ulrik Helt; Jansen, Jens Einar

    2018-01-01

    area), premorbid and illness-related factors (global functional level, substance misuse, and contact to police), healthcare factors (referral source and first FEP contact) and DUP. Method: The study population of 1266 patients aged 15-25. years diagnosed with FEP (ICD10 F20.0-F20.99) was drawn from...

  3. First Episode of Psychosis in a Middle-Aged Patient with a 14-Year History of Conversion Disorder

    Vaios Peritogiannis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a middle-aged male patient with a long history of conversion disorder and histrionic personality, who presented with newly onset psychotic symptoms while being engaged to treatment with a community mental health team in a primary care setting. The symptoms could not be attributed to an organic cause. After a short course of olanzapine treatment which caused adverse effects, the symptomatology responded well to low dose amisulpride. Conversion symptoms were stable throughout the psychotic episode. This case illustrates the complex interplay between disorders classified in different categories (somatoform versus psychotic disorders.

  4. Evidence of a dissociation pattern in resting-state default mode network connectivity in first-episode, treatment-naive major depression patients.

    Zhu, Xueling; Wang, Xiang; Xiao, Jin; Liao, Jian; Zhong, Mingtian; Wang, Wei; Yao, Shuqiao

    2012-04-01

    Imaging studies have shown that major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with altered activity patterns of the default mode network (DMN). However, the neural correlates of the resting-state DMN and MDD-related pathopsychological characteristics, such as depressive rumination and overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) phenomena, still remain unclear. Using independent component analysis, we analyzed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from 35 first-episode, treatment-naive young adults with MDD and from 35 matched healthy control subjects. Patients with MDD exhibited higher levels of rumination and OGM than did the control subjects. We observed increased functional connectivity in the anterior medial cortex regions (especially the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex) and decreased functional connectivity in the posterior medial cortex regions (especially the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus) in MDD patients compared with control subjects. In the depressed group, the increased functional connectivity in the anterior medial cortex correlated positively with rumination score, while the decreased functional connectivity in the posterior medial cortex correlated negatively with OGM score. We report dissociation between anterior and posterior functional connectivity in resting-state DMNs of first-episode, treatment-naive young adults with MDD. Increased functional connectivity in anterior medial regions of the resting-state DMN was associated with rumination, whereas decreased functional connectivity in posterior medial regions was associated with OGM. These results provide new evidence for the importance of the DMN in the pathophysiology of MDD and suggest that abnormal DMN activity may be an MDD trait. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Baseline profiles of adolescent vs. adult-onset first-episode psychosis in an early detection program

    Joa, I; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Langeveld, J

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychotic disorders often start in adolescence. We aim to investigate premorbid and baseline differences characterizing patients with an onset of psychosis in adolescence versus adulthood. METHOD: We compare first-episode, DSM-IV non-affective psychosis with onset before (n = 43) and a...... the description of what used to be labeled process (versus reactive) schizophrenia....

  6. Schizophrenia.

    Kahn, René S; Sommer, Iris E; Murray, Robin M; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Weinberger, Daniel R; Cannon, Tyrone D; O'Donovan, Michael; Correll, Christoph U; Kane, John M; van Os, Jim; Insel, Thomas R

    2015-11-12

    Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder with a heterogeneous genetic and neurobiological background that influences early brain development, and is expressed as a combination of psychotic symptoms - such as hallucinations, delusions and disorganization - and motivational and cognitive dysfunctions. The mean lifetime prevalence of the disorder is just below 1%, but large regional differences in prevalence rates are evident owing to disparities in urbanicity and patterns of immigration. Although gross brain pathology is not a characteristic of schizophrenia, the disorder involves subtle pathological changes in specific neural cell populations and in cell-cell communication. Schizophrenia, as a cognitive and behavioural disorder, is ultimately about how the brain processes information. Indeed, neuroimaging studies have shown that information processing is functionally abnormal in patients with first-episode and chronic schizophrenia. Although pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia can relieve psychotic symptoms, such drugs generally do not lead to substantial improvements in social, cognitive and occupational functioning. Psychosocial interventions such as cognitive-behavioural therapy, cognitive remediation and supported education and employment have added treatment value, but are inconsistently applied. Given that schizophrenia starts many years before a diagnosis is typically made, the identification of individuals at risk and those in the early phases of the disorder, and the exploration of preventive approaches are crucial.

  7. Early detection strategies for untreated first-episode psychosis

    Johannessen, Jan Olav; McGlashan, T H; Larsen, Tor Ketil

    2001-01-01

    -year inclusion period (1997-2000) are described. It includes targeted information towards the general public, health professionals and schools, and ED teams to recruit appropriate patients into treatment as soon as possible. This plus easy access to psychiatric services via ED teams systematically changed......Some studies in first-episode schizophrenia correlate shorter duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) with better prognosis, suggesting that timing of treatment may be important. A three-site prospective clinical trial in Norway and Denmark is underway to investigate the effect of the timing......-episode cases. The study ultimately will compare early detected with usual detected patients. This paper describes the study's major independent intervention variable, i.e. a comprehensive education and detection system to change DUP in first onset psychosis. System variables and first results from the four...

  8. Childhood trauma and cognitive function in first-episode affective and non-affective psychosis.

    Aas, Monica

    2011-06-01

    A history of childhood trauma is reportedly more prevalent in people suffering from psychosis than in the general population. Childhood trauma has also been linked to cognitive abnormalities in adulthood, and cognitive abnormalities, in turn, are one of the key clinical features of psychosis. Therefore, this study investigated whether there was a relationship between childhood trauma and cognitive function in patients with first-episode psychosis. The potential impact of diagnosis (schizophrenia or affective psychosis) and gender on this association was also examined.

  9. Abnormal functional connectivity of the amygdala in first-episode and untreated adult major depressive disorder patients with different ages of onset.

    Ye, Jing; Shen, Zonglin; Xu, Xiufeng; Yang, Shuran; Chen, Wei; Liu, Xiaoyan; Lu, Yi; Liu, Fang; Lu, Jin; Li, Na; Sun, Xuejin; Cheng, Yuqi

    2017-03-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mental disorder with high morbidity. As a part of the limbic system, the amygdala is important in the processing of emotional information. Structural and functional connectivity (FC) abnormalities in the amygdala have been observed in MDD patients. The present study was carried out to identify the features of amygdala FC in adult MDD patients with different ages of onset. Sixty-nine first-episode and untreated MDD patients and 81 healthy controls (CTLs) were included in this study and underwent 3D structural imaging and resting-state functional MRI scanning. The patients and CTLs were divided into two groups according to age of onset: young adult (abnormal resting-state FC with other regions compared with matched controls. However, in old adult patients, compared with matched controls, the right amygdala showed more abnormal changes in the resting-state FC with other regions. MDD patients with different ages of onset showed different changes in the structure and FC of the amygdala. These results might help us to understand the high heterogeneity of MDD.

  10. Diminished caudate and superior temporal gyrus responses to effort-based decision making in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder.

    Yang, Xin-hua; Huang, Jia; Lan, Yong; Zhu, Cui-ying; Liu, Xiao-qun; Wang, Ye-fei; Cheung, Eric F C; Xie, Guang-rong; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-01-04

    Anhedonia, the loss of interest or pleasure in reward processing, is a hallmark feature of major depressive disorder (MDD), but its underlying neurobiological mechanism is largely unknown. The present study aimed to examine the underlying neural mechanism of reward-related decision-making in patients with MDD. We examined behavioral and neural responses to rewards in patients with first-episode MDD (N=25) and healthy controls (N=25) using the Effort-Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). The task involved choices about possible rewards of varying magnitude and probability. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with MDD would exhibit a reduced neural response in reward-related brain structures involved in cost-benefit decision-making. Compared with healthy controls, patients with MDD showed significantly weaker responses in the left caudate nucleus when contrasting the 'high reward'-'low reward' condition, and blunted responses in the left superior temporal gyrus and the right caudate nucleus when contrasting high and low probabilities. In addition, hard tasks chosen during high probability trials were negatively correlated with superior temporal gyrus activity in MDD patients, while the same choices were negatively correlated with caudate nucleus activity in healthy controls. These results indicate that reduced caudate nucleus and superior temporal gyrus activation may underpin abnormal cost-benefit decision-making in MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Obesity, dyslipidemia and brain age in first-episode psychosis

    Kolenic, M.; Franke, K.; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Matějka, M.; Čapková, J.; Pausova, Z.; Uher, R.; Alda, M.; Španiel, F.; Hájek, T.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 99, April (2018), s. 151-158 ISSN 0022-3956 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NV16-32791A; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1611 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : BrainAGE score * Dyslipidemia * First-episode psychosis * Obesity * Overweight * Schizophrenia Impact factor: 4.183, year: 2016

  12. Study of Attention Deficit in Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    SM Kafi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Attention deficit has significant effect on the life of patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the attention deficit in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: In the present post-hoc study, 132 patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were selected via non-randomized sampling at Shafa Hospital (Rasht, Iran and then divided into four equal groups: chronic schizophrenia patients, first-episode patients, chronic bipolar patients, and first-episode bipolar patients. Thirty-three healthy individuals were selected as the control group. Subjects were evaluated by Stroop color-word test. The gathered Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: Attention deficit among chronic schizophrenics and patients suffering from bipolar disease was higher than the control group (p <1. Chronic schizophrenic patients compared with schizophrenia bipolar disease and first round schizophrenia showed more attention deficit. There was no significant difference among the first bipolar disease and schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, as well as the first round schizophrenia (p<0.05. Conclusion: Attention deficit is more severe in schizophrenic patients than bipolar disorder, and chronicity is more effective in schizophrenic patients. Key words: Attention, Schizophrenia, Chronicity

  13. "There are too many steps before you get to where you need to be": help-seeking by patients with first-episode psychosis.

    Anderson, Kelly K; Fuhrer, Rebecca; Malla, Ashok K

    2013-08-01

    There has been substantial research on pathways to care in first-episode psychosis (FEP); however, few studies have used a qualitative research paradigm or have been done from the perspective of the person experiencing the psychotic episode. We sought to describe the experiences of patients with FEP on their pathway to care and to identify factors that help or hinder help-seeking efforts. Using a qualitative descriptive approach, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 16 patients recruited from an early intervention program. Data were analyzed using content analysis to organize the findings into themes. Self-stigma and a pervasive lack of knowledge regarding the symptoms of psychosis and availability of services were barriers to help-seeking. Participants highlighted the crucial role of significant others in initiating the help-seeking process. Participants typically described a complex series of contacts along the pathway to care which resulted in feelings of being misunderstood and losing control, but many individuals identified unexpected benefits of their experience. Our findings suggest a shift in the philosophy and orientation of service delivery towards the creation of services that address these concerns and are relevant to the young people who utilize them.

  14. The development of insight and its relationship with suicidality over one year follow-up in patients with first episode psychosis.

    Barrett, Elizabeth A; Mork, Erlend; Færden, Ann; Nesvåg, Ragnar; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid

    2015-03-01

    Insight into psychosis has been linked to suicidality, although inconsistently. The co-variation between insight and suicidality over time is under-investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate predictors of suicidality in patients with first episode of psychosis (FEP) over one year, focusing on the relationship between insight and suicidality. Patients with FEP (n=146) were interviewed as soon as possible after treatment starts and at one year follow-up. At baseline 37% of patients were suicidal, significantly reduced to 20% at follow-up. The effect of insight on suicidality was in different directions at different time-points, with insight at baseline increasing and insight at follow-up decreasing the risk of suicidality at follow-up. Patients with stable levels of insight across baseline and follow-up did not differ in risk for suicidality at follow-up. However, patients who lost insight from baseline to follow-up were more often suicidal at follow-up, whilst patients who gained insight were more seldom suicidal at follow-up. Other predictors of suicidality at follow-up were more depressive episodes before study entry, longer duration of untreated psychosis, more suicide attempts six months prior to follow-up, and depression at follow-up. The results indicate that the effect of insight on suicidality in FEP-patients depends on time of assessment and of changes in insight. Gaining insight during treatment was associated with reduced risk for suicidality, whilst losing insight had the opposite effect, underlining the need to monitor insight over time and tailor interventions according to illness phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rates of homicide during the first episode of psychosis and after treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Nielssen, Olav; Large, Matthew

    2010-07-01

    The observation that almost half of the homicides committed by people with a psychotic illness occur before initial treatment suggests an increased risk of homicide during the first episode of psychosis. The aim of this study was to estimate the rates of homicide during the first episode of psychosis and after treatment. A systematic search located 10 studies that reported details of all the homicide offenders with a psychotic illness within a known population during a specified period and reported the number of people who had received treatment prior to the offense. Meta-analysis of these studies showed that 38.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 31.1%-46.5%) of homicides occurred during the first episode of psychosis, prior to initial treatment. Homicides during first-episode psychosis occurred at a rate of 1.59 homicides per 1000 (95% CI = 1.06-2.40), equivalent to 1 in 629 presentations. The annual rate of homicide after treatment for psychosis was 0.11 homicides per 1000 patients (95% CI = 0.07-0.16), equivalent to 1 homicide in 9090 patients with schizophrenia per year. The rate ratio of homicide in the first episode of psychosis in these studies was 15.5 (95% CI = 11.0-21.7) times the annual rate of homicide after treatment for psychosis. Hence, the rate of homicide in the first episode of psychosis appears to be higher than previously recognized, whereas the annual rate of homicide by patients with schizophrenia after treatment is lower than previous estimates. Earlier treatment of first-episode psychosis might prevent some homicides.

  16. Cannabis use in male and female first episode of non-affective psychosis patients: Long-term clinical, neuropsychological and functional differences.

    Esther Setién-Suero

    Full Text Available Numerous studies show the existence of a high prevalence of cannabis use among patients with psychosis. However, the differences between men and women who debut with a first episode of psychosis (FEP regarding cannabis use have not been largely explored. The aim of this study was to identify the specific sex factors and differences in clinical evolution associated with cannabis use.Sociodemographic characteristics at baseline were considered in our sample of FEP patients to find differences depending on sex and the use of cannabis. Clinical, functional and neurocognitive variables at baseline, 1-year, and 3-years follow-up were also explored.A total of 549 patients, of whom 43% (N = 236 were cannabis users, 79% (N = 186 male and 21% (N = 50 female, were included in the study. There was a clear relationship between being male and being a user of cannabis (OR = 5.6. Cannabis users were younger at illness onset. Longitudinal analysis showed that women significantly improved in all three dimensions of psychotic symptoms, both in the subgroup of cannabis users and in the non-users subgroup. Conversely, subgroups of men did not show improvement in the negative dimension. In cognitive function, only men presented a significant time by group interaction in processing speed, showing a greater improvement in the subgroup of cannabis users.Despite knowing that there is a relationship between cannabis use and psychosis, due to the high prevalence of cannabis use among male FEP patients, the results showed that there were very few differences in clinical and neurocognitive outcomes between men and women who used cannabis at the start of treatment compared to those who did not.

  17. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in first-episode, drug-naïve depressive patients: A 5-year retrospective study.

    Kerang Zhang

    Full Text Available Despite different treatments and courses of illness, depressive symptoms appear similar in bipolar disorder (BD and major depressive disorder (MDD, causing BD with an onset of depressive episode being frequently misdiagnosed as MDD, and leading to inappropriate treatment and poor clinical outcomes. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore underlying neural basis to distinguish BD from MDD. The medical records of 80 first-episode, drug-naïve depressive patients with an initial diagnosis of MDD and illness duration of at least 5 years were reviewed retrospectively for this study. Fourteen bipolar depressed patients with a diagnosis conversion from MDD to BD, 14 patients with diagnosis of MDD, and 14 healthy subjects demographically matched with the BD group, were selected to participate in the study. Firstly, we examined whether there were differences among the three groups in whole brain fALFF during resting state. Secondly, clusters showing group differences in fALFF in any two groups were chosen as regions of interest (ROI and then correlation between clinical features and fALFF values of ROIs were calculated. The BD group showed increased fALFF in bilateral putamen relative to both the MDD group and controls, while the MDD group exhibited decreased fALFF in left superior frontal gyrus (SFG relative to both the BD group and controls (p < 0.05, corrected. Positive correlations between abnormality in the putamen and symptom severity were observed (significant for the MDD group, p = 0.043; marginally significant for the BD group, p = 0.060/0.076. These results implicate that abnormalities of key regions in the striatum and prefrontal areas may be trait markers for BD and MDD.

  18. Early detection of first-episode psychosis

    Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven.......Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven....

  19. Dopamine D2 receptor occupancy by olanzapine or risperidone in young patients with schizophrenia

    Lavalaye, J.; Linszen, D. H.; Booij, J.; Reneman, L.; Gersons, B. P.; van Royen, E. A.

    1999-01-01

    A crucial characteristic of antipsychotic medication is the occupancy of the dopamine (DA) D2 receptor. We assessed striatal DA D2 receptor occupancy by olanzapine and risperidone in 36 young patients [31 males, 5 females; mean age 21.1 years (16-28)] with first episode schizophrenia, using

  20. The McLean-Harvard First-Episode Project: Early Course in 114 Cases of First-Episode Nonaffective Psychoses.

    Tohen, Mauricio; Khalsa, Hari-Mandir K; Salvatore, Paola; Zarate, Carlos A; Strakowski, Stephen M; Sanchez-Toledo, Jesús Pérez; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2016-06-01

    Early course in contemporary, clinically treated, nonaffective psychotic disorders other than schizophrenia remains incompletely defined. We prospectively, repeatedly, and systematically assessed 114 patients hospitalized for a first episode of DSM-IV-TR nonaffective psychotic illness for ≥ 2 years (1989-1996) using structured (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, Patient Edition; Clinical Global Impressions scale; Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms; Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms; and the expanded version of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale) and unstructured (best-estimate procedure, life charting) naturalistic follow-up procedures and survival analysis. Duration of untreated psychosis (22 ± 38 months) was longest with schizophrenia. Within 2 years, syndromal remission sustained for ≥ 8 weeks (recovery) was attained by 75 subjects (65.8%); median latency to syndromal recovery was 9.4 (95% CI, 5.7-13.3) weeks and was shorter with cycloid features, initial diagnosis of brief psychosis or schizophreniform disorder, and shorter initial hospitalization. Functional recovery within 2 years was achieved by 28 of 68 subjects (41.2%), more often without initial mood-psychomotor instability or homicidal ideation. New episodes occurred in 52 of 114 subjects (45.6%) and were more likely with less affective flattening, younger age, and white race. Median time to new episodes (43.7 [27.9-70.6] weeks) was earlier with initial first-rank auditory hallucinations, substance abuse, and functional nonrecovery. Diagnosis changed to other nonaffective, schizoaffective, or affective disorders within 2 years in 62 of 108 cases (57.4%). Three-quarters of patients presenting in first lifetime, nonaffective psychotic episodes achieved recovery within 2 years, but only 41% returned to baseline functioning, and nearly half experienced new episodes. Patients with schizophrenia had the longest duration of untreated psychosis. A majority changed diagnosis

  1. Five years of specialised early intervention versus two years of specialised early intervention followed by three years of standard treatment for patients with a first episode psychosis

    Albert, Nikolai; Melau, Marianne; Jensen, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    assessment. Randomisation was centralised and computerised with concealed randomisation sequence carried out at an external site. SETTING: Participants were recruited from six OPUS teams in Denmark between 2009 and 2012. OPUS teams provide SEI treatment to all patients diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum...... of three core elements-modified assertive community treatment, family involvement, and social skill training-with a patient-case manager ratio of no more than 12:1. For participants randomised to five years of OPUS treatment, the treatment was largely unchanged. Participants randomised to the control group......, alogia, and affective blunting). Secondary outcomes were remission of both negative and psychotic symptoms, psychotic symptoms, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, compliance with medical treatment, adherence with treatment, client satisfaction, days in hospital care, and labour market affiliation...

  2. Mass spectrum analysis of serum biomarker proteins from patients with schizophrenia.

    Zhou, Na; Wang, Jie; Yu, Yaqin; Shi, Jieping; Li, Xiaokun; Xu, Bin; Yu, Qiong

    2014-05-01

    Diagnosis of schizophrenia does not have a clear objective test at present, so we aimed to identify the potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of schizophrenia by comparison of serum protein profiling between first-episode schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. The combination of a magnetic bead separation system with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) was used to analyze the serum protein spectra of 286 first-episode patients with schizophrenia, 41 chronic disease patients and 304 healthy controls. FlexAnlysis 3.0 and ClinProTools(TM) 2.1 software was used to establish a diagnostic model for schizophrenia. The results demonstrated that 10 fragmented peptides demonstrated an optimal discriminatory performance. Among these fragmented peptides, the peptide with m/z 1206.58 was identified as a fragment of fibrinopeptide A. Receiver operating characteristic analysis for m/z 1206.58 showed that the area under the curve was 0.981 for schizophrenia vs healthy controls, and 0.999 for schizophrenia vs other chronic disease controls. From our result, we consider that the analysis of serum protein spectrum using the magnetic bead separation system and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS is an objective diagnostic tool. We conclude that fibrinopeptide A has the potential to be a biomarker for diagnosis of schizophrenia. This protein may also help to elucidate schizophrenia disease pathogenesis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. White matter tracts in first-episode psychosis: A DTI tractography study of the uncinate fasciculus

    Price, Gary; Cercignani, Mara; Parker, Geoffrey J.M.; Altmann, Daniel R.; Barnes, Thomas R.E.; Barker, Gareth J.; Joyce, Eileen M.; Ron, Maria A.

    2008-01-01

    A model of disconnectivity involving abnormalities in the cortex and connecting white matter pathways may explain the symptoms and cognitive abnormalities of schizophrenia. Recently, diffusion imaging tractography has made it possible to study white matter pathways in detail, and we present here a study of patients with first-episode psychosis using this technique. We studied the uncinate fasciculus (UF), the largest white matter tract that connects the frontal and temporal lobes, two brain regions significantly implicated in schizophrenia. Nineteen patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 23 controls were studied using a probabilistic tractography algorithm (PICo). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and probability of connection were obtained for every voxel in the tract, and the group means and distributions of these variables were compared. The spread of the FA distribution in the upper tail, as measured by the squared coefficient of variance (SCV), was reduced in the left UF in the patient group, indicating that the number of voxels with high FA values was reduced in the core of the tract and suggesting the presence of changes in fibre alignment and tract coherence in the patient group. The SCV of FA was lower in females across both groups and there was no correlation between the SCV of FA and clinical ratings. PMID:17988894

  4. Integrated treatment ameliorates negative symptoms in first episode psychosis--results from the Danish OPUS trial

    Thorup, Anne Amalie Elgaard; Petersen, L; Jeppesen, P

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effect of integrated treatment on negative, psychotic and disorganised symptoms in patients with first episode psychosis.......To investigate the effect of integrated treatment on negative, psychotic and disorganised symptoms in patients with first episode psychosis....

  5. The economic cost of pathways to care in first episode psychosis.

    Heslin, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined the economic cost of psychoses other than schizophrenia and there have been no studies of the economic cost of pathways to care in patients with their first episode of psychosis. The aims of this study were to explore the economic cost of pathways to care in patients with a first episode of psychosis and to examine variation in costs. Data on pathways to care for first episode psychosis patients referred to specialist mental health services in south-east London and Nottingham between 1997-2000. Costs of pathway events were estimated and compared between diagnostic groups. The average costs for patients in south-east London were £54 (CI £33-£75) higher, compared to patients in Nottingham. Across both centres unemployed patients had £25 (CI £7-£43) higher average costs compared to employed patients. Higher costs were associated with being unemployed and living in south-east London and these differences could not be accounted for by any single factor. This should be considered when the National Health Service (NHS) is making decisions about funding.

  6. Caregiver psychoeducation for first-episode psychosis.

    McWilliams, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    International best-practice guidelines for the management of first-episode psychosis have recommended the provision of psychoeducation for multifamily groups. While there is ample evidence of their efficacy in multiepisode psychosis, there is a paucity of evidence supporting this approach specifically for first-episode psychosis. We sought to determine whether a six-week caregiver psychoeducation programme geared specifically at first-episode psychosis improves caregiver knowledge and attitudes.

  7. Emotional perception and theory of mind in first episode psychosis: the role of obsessive-compulsive symptomatology.

    Ntouros, Evangelos; Bozikas, Vasilios P; Andreou, Christina; Kourbetis, Dimitris; Lavrentiadis, Grigoris; Garyfallos, George

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms on emotional perception and theory of mind (ToM) in patients with first-episode psychosis. Participants were 65 patients with non-affective first episode psychosis (FEP) and 47 healthy controls. The patient group was divided into two subgroups, those with (FEP+; n=38) and those without obsessive-compulsive symptomatology (FEP-; n=27). Emotion perception and ToM were assessed with the Perception of Social Inference Test. Severity of psychotic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), respectively. Deficits in emotion recognition and theory of mind were confirmed in patients with non-affective first-episode psychosis compared to healthy controls. In patients, comorbidity with obsessive-compulsive symptoms was associated with worse performance on certain aspects of social cognition (ToM 2nd order) compared to FEP- patients. Our findings of impaired emotion perception and ToM in patients with first-episode psychosis support the hypothesis that deficits are already present at illness onset. Presence of OCS appears to have further deleterious effects on social cognition, suggesting that these patients may belong to a schizo-obsessive subtype of schizophrenia characterized by more extensive neurobiological impairment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Retrospective study on structural neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis

    Ricardo Coentre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. No consensus between guidelines exists regarding neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis. The purpose of this study is to assess anomalies found in structural neuroimaging exams (brain computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in the initial medical work-up of patients presenting first-episode psychosis. Methods. The study subjects were 32 patients aged 18–48 years (mean age: 29.6 years, consecutively admitted with first-episode psychosis diagnosis. Socio-demographic and clinical data and neuroimaging exams (CT and MRI were retrospectively studied. Diagnostic assessments were made using the Operational Criteria Checklist +. Neuroimaging images (CT and MRI and respective reports were analysed by an experienced consultant psychiatrist. Results. None of the patients had abnormalities in neuroimaging exams responsible for psychotic symptoms. Thirty-seven percent of patients had incidental brain findings not causally related to the psychosis (brain atrophy, arachnoid cyst, asymmetric lateral ventricles, dilated lateral ventricles, plagiocephaly and falx cerebri calcification. No further medical referral was needed for any of these patients. No significant differences regarding gender, age, diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, in-stay and cannabis use were found between patients who had neuroimaging abnormalities versus those without. Discussion. This study suggests that structural neuroimaging exams reveal scarce abnormalities in young patients with first-episode psychosis. Structural neuroimaging is especially useful in first-episode psychosis patients with neurological symptoms, atypical clinical picture and old age.

  9. A history of childhood trauma is associated with slower improvement rates: Findings from a one-year follow-up study of patients with a first-episode psychosis.

    Aas, Monica; Andreassen, Ole A; Aminoff, Sofie R; Færden, Ann; Romm, Kristin L; Nesvåg, Ragnar; Berg, Akiah O; Simonsen, Carmen; Agartz, Ingrid; Melle, Ingrid

    2016-05-04

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether childhood trauma was associated with more severe clinical features in patients with first-episode psychosis, both at the initial assessment and after one year. Ninety-six patients with a first-episode of a DSM-IV diagnosis of psychosis, in addition to 264 healthy controls from the same catchment area, were recruited to the TOP NORMENT study. A history of childhood trauma was obtained using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Function and symptom severity were measured using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale divided into function (GAF-F) and symptoms (GAF-S), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). All clinical assessments were completed at two time points: At an initial assessment within the first year of initiating treatment for psychosis and after one year. Childhood trauma was associated with significantly reduced global functioning and more severe clinical symptoms at both baseline and follow-up, whereas emotional neglect was associated with a significantly reduced improvement rate for global functioning (GAF-F) over the follow-up period. Our data indicate that patients with first-episode psychosis who report a history of childhood trauma constitute a subgroup characterized by more severe clinical features over the first year of treatment, as well as slower improvement rates.

  10. Gender differences in first episode psychosis

    Koster, A.; Lajer, M.; Lindhardt, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the description of 1 episode schizophrenia patients, female gender is associated with better social function and a higher degree of compliance, while males exhibit more negative symptoms and a higher degree of abuse. The question is raised whether gender specific differences exist which should...

  11. Subjective quality of life in first-episode psychosis

    Gardsjord, Erlend Strand; Romm, Kristin Lie; Friis, Svein

    2016-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Subjective quality of life (S-QoL) is an important outcome measure in first episode psychosis (FEP). The aims of this study were to describe S-QoL-development the first 10-years in FEP patients and to identify predictors of this development. METHODS: A representative sample of 272...... patients with a first episode psychotic disorder was included from 1997 through 2000. At 10year follow-up 186 patients participated. QoL was measured by the Lehman's Quality of Life Interview. Linear mixed model analyses were performed to investigate longitudinal effects of baseline psychiatric symptoms...

  12. Prevalence of item level negative symptoms in first episode psychosis diagnoses.

    Lyne, John

    2012-03-01

    The relevance of negative symptoms across the diagnostic spectrum of the psychoses remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to report on prevalence of item and subscale level negative symptoms across the first episode psychosis (FEP) diagnostic spectrum in an epidemiological sample, and to ascertain whether items and subscales were more prevalent in a schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses group compared to an \\'all other psychotic diagnoses\\' group. We measured negative symptoms in 330 patients presenting with FEP using the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), and ascertained diagnosis using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV. Prevalence of SANS items and subscales were tabulated across all psychotic diagnoses, and logistic regression analysis determined which items and subscales were predictive of schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses. SANS items were most prevalent in schizophrenia spectrum conditions but frequently presented in other FEP diagnoses, particularly substance induced psychotic disorder and Major Depressive Disorder. Brief psychotic disorder and bipolar disorders had low levels of negative symptoms. SANS items and subscales which significantly predicted schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses, were also frequently present in some of the other psychotic diagnoses. Conclusions: SANS items have high prevalence in FEP, and while commonest in schizophrenia spectrum conditions are not restricted to this diagnostic subgroup.

  13. Very Low-Dose Risperidone in First-Episode Psychosis: A Safe and Effective Way to Initiate Treatment

    Patrick D. McGorry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients experiencing a first psychotic episode have high rates of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs when treated with the doses of neuroleptics used in multiepisode or chronic schizophrenia. There is some evidence that lower doses may be equally, if not more, effective but less toxic in this population. Here, we report the results of a biphasic open label trial designed to assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of low-dose (2–4 mg/day risperidone treatment in a group of 96 first-episode nonaffective psychosis patients. At the end of the trial, 62% of patients met the response criteria although approximately 80% had achieved a response at some time during the study. Reports of EPS remained low, and there were no dystonic reactions. We conclude that even at a dose of 2 mg/day, risperidone was highly effective in reducing acute symptomatology in a real world sample of young first-episode psychosis patients.

  14. The validity of dysthymia to predict clinical depressive symptoms as measured by the Hamilton Depression Scale at the 5-year follow-up of patients with first episode depression.

    Bech, Per; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

    2016-11-01

    In long-term follow-up studies on depression, the Eysenck Neuroticism Scale (ENS) at the score level of dysthymia has been found to be valid at predicting poor outcome. The ENS dysthymia level was compared with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) level to predict the prevalence of depressive symptoms at the 5-year follow-up of patients initially diagnosed with first episode depression using the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) to express depressive symptoms. A total of 301 in- or outpatients aged 18-70 years with a recent single depressive episode were assessed by ENS, BDI, and HAM-D from 2005-2007. At 5-year follow-up from 2011-2013, the participants were re-assessed by HAM-D. The HAM-D was used to measure depressive symptoms at the 5-year follow-up. The Mokken analysis was used to indicate scalability of the BDI and ENS. A total of 185 participants were available for the psychometric analysis of the ESN and BDI, and the scalability was found acceptable. In total, 99 patients were available for the predictive analysis. Both the ENS and the BDI were significantly associated with depressive symptoms (HAM-D17 ≥ 8) at the 5-year follow-up (p Dysthymia as measured by the two self-rating scales ENS and BDI can be considered part of a 'double depression' in patients with first episode depression, implying an existence of depressive symptoms at the 5-year follow-up. Evaluation of dysthymia or neuroticism is important to perform, even in patients with first episode depression, in order to identify 'double depression'.

  15. Diagnostic Stability of ICD/DSM First Episode Psychosis Diagnoses: Meta-analysis

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Cappucciati, Marco; Rutigliano, Grazia; Heslin, Margaret; Stahl, Daniel; Brittenden, Zera; Caverzasi, Edgardo; McGuire, Philip; Carpenter, William T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Validity of current International Classification of Disease/Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (ICD/DSM) first episode psychosis diagnoses is essential in clinical practice, research, training and public health. Method: We provide a meta-analytical estimate of prospective diagnostic stability and instability in ICD-10 or DSM-IV first episode diagnoses of functional psychoses. Independent extraction by multiple observers. Random effect meta-analysis conducted with the “metaprop,” “metaninf,” “metafunnel,” “metabias,” and “metareg” packages of STATA13.1. Moderators were tested with meta-regression analyses. Heterogeneity was assessed with the I 2 index. Sensitivity analyses tested robustness of results. Publication biases were assessed with funnel plots and Egger’s test. Findings: 42 studies and 45 samples were included, for a total of 14 484 first episode patients and an average follow-up of 4.5 years. Prospective diagnostic stability ranked: schizophrenia 0.90 (95% CI 0.85–0.95), affective spectrum psychoses 0.84 (95% CI 0.79–0.89), schizoaffective disorder 0.72 (95% CI 0.61–0.73), substance-induced psychotic disorder 0.66 (95% CI 0.51–0.81), delusional disorder 0.59 (95% CI 0.47–0.71), acute and transient psychotic disorder/brief psychotic disorder 0.56 (95% CI 0.62–0.60), psychosis not otherwise specified 0.36 (95% CI 0.27–0.45, schizophreniform disorder 0.29 (95% CI 0.22–0.38). Diagnostic stability within schizophrenia spectrum psychoses was 0.93 (95% CI 0.89–0.97); changes to affective spectrum psychoses were 0.05 (95% CI 0.01–0.08). About 0.10 (95% CI 0.05–0.15) of affective spectrum psychoses changed to schizophrenia spectrum psychosis. Across the other psychotic diagnoses there was high diagnostic instability, mostly to schizophrenia. Interpretation: There is meta-analytical evidence for high prospective diagnostic stability in schizophrenia spectrum and affective spectrum psychoses

  16. Typology of people with first-episode psychosis.

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Zheng, Huili; Soh, Pauline; Poon, Lye Yin; Vaingankar, Janhavi A; Chong, Siow Ann; Verma, Swapna

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to create a typology of patients with first-episode psychosis based on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, service use and outcomes using cluster analysis. Data from all respondents who were accepted into the Early Psychosis Intervention Programme (EPIP), Singapore from 2007 to 2011 were analysed. A two-step clustering method was carried out to classify the patients into distinct clusters. Two clusters were identified. Cluster 1 comprised largely of younger people with mean age of 25.5 (6.0) years at treatment contact, who were predominantly male (55.3%), single (98.3%) and living with parents (86.3%). Cluster 1 had a higher proportion of people diagnosed with the schizophrenia spectrum disorder (71.4%) and with a positive family history of psychiatric illness. Patients in cluster 2 were generally older with a mean age of 33.6 (4.7) years and the majority were women (74.2%). Cluster 1 had people with higher Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores at baseline as compared with cluster 2. After a 1-year follow up, their scores were still poorer than their counterparts in cluster 2, especially for PANSS negative score. The functioning level of people in cluster 1 showed less improvement than the people in cluster 2 after a year of treatment. There is a compelling need to develop new therapies and intensively treat young people presenting with psychosis as this group tends to have poorer outcomes even after 1 year of treatment. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Functional alterations of fronto-limbic circuit and default mode network systems in first-episode, drug-naïve patients with major depressive disorder: A meta-analysis of resting-state fMRI data.

    Zhong, Xue; Pu, Weidan; Yao, Shuqiao

    2016-12-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms of depression are increasingly being explored through resting-state brain imaging studies. However, resting-state fMRI findings have varied, perhaps because of differences between study populations, which included the disorder course and medication use. The aim of our study was to integrate studies of resting-state fMRI and explore the alterations of abnormal brain activity in first-episode, drug-naïve patients with major depressive disorder. Relevant imaging reports in English were searched, retrieved, selected and subjected to analysis by activation likelihood estimation, a coordinate-based meta-analysis technique (final sample, 31 studies). Coordinates extracted from the original reports were assigned to two categories based on effect directionality. Compared with healthy controls, the first-episode, medication-naïve major depressive disorder patients showed decreased brain activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, superior temporal gyrus, posterior precuneus, and posterior cingulate, as well as in visual areas within the occipital lobe, lingual gyrus, and fusiform gyrus, and increased activity in the putamen and anterior precuneus. Not every study that has reported relevant data met the inclusion criteria. Resting-state functional alterations were located mainly in the fronto-limbic system, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and putamen, and in the default mode network, namely the precuneus and superior/middle temporal gyrus. Abnormal functional alterations of the fronto-limbic circuit and default mode network may be characteristic of first-episode, drug-naïve major depressive disorder patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Social recovery therapy in combination with early intervention services for enhancement of social recovery in patients with first-episode psychosis (SUPEREDEN3): a single-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    Fowler, David; Hodgekins, Jo; French, Paul; Marshall, Max; Freemantle, Nick; McCrone, Paul; Everard, Linda; Lavis, Anna; Jones, Peter B; Amos, Tim; Singh, Swaran; Sharma, Vimal; Birchwood, Max

    2018-01-01

    Provision of early intervention services has increased the rate of social recovery in patients with first-episode psychosis; however, many individuals have continuing severe and persistent problems with social functioning. We aimed to assess the efficacy of early intervention services augmented with social recovery therapy in patients with first-episode psychosis. The primary hypothesis was that social recovery therapy plus early intervention services would lead to improvements in social recovery. We did this single-blind, phase 2, randomised controlled trial (SUPEREDEN3) at four specialist early intervention services in the UK. We included participants who were aged 16-35 years, had non-affective psychosis, had been clients of early intervention services for 12-30 months, and had persistent and severe social disability, defined as engagement in less than 30 h per week of structured activity. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1), via computer-generated randomisation with permuted blocks (sizes of four to six), to receive social recovery therapy plus early intervention services or early intervention services alone. Randomisation was stratified by sex and recruitment centre (Norfolk, Birmingham, Lancashire, and Sussex). By necessity, participants were not masked to group allocation, but allocation was concealed from outcome assessors. The primary outcome was time spent in structured activity at 9 months, as measured by the Time Use Survey. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN61621571. Between Oct 1, 2012, and June 20, 2014, we randomly assigned 155 participants to receive social recovery therapy plus early intervention services (n=76) or early intervention services alone (n=79); the intention-to-treat population comprised 154 patients. At 9 months, 143 (93%) participants had data for the primary outcome. Social recovery therapy plus early intervention services was associated with an increase in structured

  19. The association between working alliance and clinical and functional outcome in a cohort of 400 patients with first-episode psychosis

    Melau, Marianne; Harder, Susanne; Jeppesen, Pia

    2015-01-01

    2009 and December 2011. Symptoms were assessed using Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), Working Alliance Inventory (WAI), and General...... Self-Efficacy (GSE). Linear regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, cognition, and self-efficacy. RESULTS: Results revealed significant associations between working alliance and fewer negative (β = -0.12; 95% CI, -0.19 to -0.04) and disorganized symptoms (β = -0.06; 95% CI, -0.11 to -0...... and functional outcome more strongly than working alliance. CONCLUSIONS: Better working alliance was weakly associated with fewer negative and disorganized symptoms and better social functioning. A strong working alliance may be a prerequisite for adherence to the specialized early intervention services...

  20. Neuropsychological functioning in early-onset first-episode psychosis: comparison of diagnostic subgroups.

    Zabala, Arantzazu; Rapado, Marta; Arango, Celso; Robles, Olalla; de la Serna, Elena; González, Cristina; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José Manuel; Andrés, Patricia; Mayoral, María; Bombín, Igor

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the nature and extent of cognitive impairment in first-episode early-onset psychosis (FE-EOP) soon after their stabilisation and to search for potential differences according to specific diagnostic sub-groups of patients. As part of a Spanish multicentre longitudinal study, 107 FE-EOP patients and 98 healthy controls were assessed on the following cognitive domains: attention, working memory, executive functioning, and verbal learning and memory. Three diagnostic categories were established in the patient sample: schizophrenia (n = 36), bipolar disorder (n = 19), and other psychosis (n = 52). Patients performed significantly worse than controls in all cognitive domains. The three diagnostic sub-groups did not differ in terms of impaired/preserved cognitive functions or degree of impairment. FE-EOP patients show significant cognitive impairment that, during this early phase, seems to be non-specific to differential diagnosis.

  1. Frontal fasciculi and psychotic symptoms in antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia before and after 6 weeks of selective dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade

    Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Raghava, Jayachandra M; Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard

    2016-01-01

    /3 receptor blockade would restore white matter. METHODS: Between December 2008 and July 2011, antipsychotic-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia and matched healthy controls underwent baseline examination with 3 T MRI diffusion tensor imaging and clinical assessments. We assessed group differences...... with first-episode schizophrenia and 38 controls in our analysis, and 28 individuals in each group completed the study. At baseline, whole brain TBSS analyses revealed lower FA in patients in the right anterior thalamic radiation (ATR), right cingulum, right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and right...

  2. Measuring quality of life in first-episode psychosis

    Melle, I; Friis, Svein; Haahr, U

    2005-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) measures are increasingly recognized as necessary parts of outcome assessments in psychosis. The present paper is a comprehensive study of patients with first-episode psychosis where QoL is measured by the commonly used Lehman Quality of Life Interview (L-QoLI). The aim...

  3. Positive and negative caregiver experiences in first-episode psychosis

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Lysaker, Paul H.; Harder, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    influenced their reports of both positive and negative caregiving experiences. Design A prospective consecutive cross-sectional study. Methods Forty caregivers of patients with first-episode psychosis were interviewed using semi-structured interview and questionnaires. Results Greater levels of distress...

  4. Predictors of recovery in first episode psychosis

    Austin, Stephen F; Mors, Ole; Secher, Rikke Gry

    2013-01-01

    Recovery, the optimal goal in treatment, is the attainment of both symptomatic and functional remission over a sustained period of time. Identification of factors that promote recovery can help develop interventions that facilitate good outcomes for people with first episode psychosis....

  5. Family Intervention in First-Episode Psychosis

    Anvar Sadath

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Family interventions have produced benefits on clinical and family outcomes in long standing psychosis. However, little is known about the efficacy of such interventions in the early stages of psychosis. This article reviews published research over the last two decades on family intervention in first-episode psychosis. Electronic databases, such as PubMed, PsycINFO, and ScienceDirect, have been systematically searched. In addition, an exhaustive Internet search was also carried out using Google and Google Scholar to identify the potential studies that evaluated family interventions in first-episode psychosis. We have identified seven reports of five randomized controlled trials (RCTs and five non-randomized and uncontrolled studies of family intervention. Our review on 12 reports of family intervention studies has shown mixed effects on outcomes in first-episode psychosis. Most of the reports showed no added benefits or very short-term benefits on primary clinical or family outcome variables. There is a dearth of family intervention studies in first-episode psychosis. More RCTs are needed to reach reliable conclusions.

  6. How successful are first episode programs?

    Nordentoft, Merete; Rasmussen, Jesper Østrup; Melau, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It has been hypothesized that the first 5 years after first episode of psychosis are a critical period with opportunities for ameliorating the course of illness. On the basis of this rationale, specialized assertive early intervention services were developed. We wanted to inves...

  7. Childhood trauma and cognitive function in first-episode affective and non-affective psychosis.

    Aas, Monica; Dazzan, Paola; Fisher, Helen L; Morgan, Craig; Morgan, Kevin; Reichenberg, Abraham; Zanelli, Jolanta; Fearon, Paul; Jones, Peter B; Murray, Robin M; Pariante, Carmine M

    2011-06-01

    A history of childhood trauma is reportedly more prevalent in people suffering from psychosis than in the general population. Childhood trauma has also been linked to cognitive abnormalities in adulthood, and cognitive abnormalities, in turn, are one of the key clinical features of psychosis. Therefore, this study investigated whether there was a relationship between childhood trauma and cognitive function in patients with first-episode psychosis. The potential impact of diagnosis (schizophrenia or affective psychosis) and gender on this association was also examined. Data were available for 138 first-episode psychosis patients and 138 geographically-matched controls recruited from a catchment area based organisation. History of childhood trauma was obtained using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Cognitive function was assessed through a comprehensive and standardised neuropsychological test battery. A history of childhood trauma was associated with worse cognitive performances, predominantly in affective psychoses, and in male patients. No association between a history of childhood trauma and cognition was found amongst female patients, or female controls. The results need replication, but underline the necessity of investigating biological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying these subjects' sensitivity to the negative effect of childhood stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mnemonic Discrimination Deficits in First-Episode Psychosis and a Ketamine Model Suggests Dentate Gyrus Pathology Linked to N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Hypofunction.

    Kraguljac, Nina Vanessa; Carle, Matthew; Frölich, Michael A; Tran, Steve; Yassa, Michael A; White, David Matthew; Reddy, Abhishek; Lahti, Adrienne Carol

    2018-03-01

    Converging evidence from neuroimaging and postmortem studies suggests that hippocampal subfields are differentially affected in schizophrenia. Recent studies report dentate gyrus dysfunction in chronic schizophrenia, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we sought to examine if this deficit is already present in first-episode psychosis, and if N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction, a putative central pathophysiological mechanism in schizophrenia, experimentally induced by ketamine, would result in a similar abnormality. We applied a mnemonic discrimination task selectively taxing pattern separation in two experiments: 1) a group of 23 first-episode psychosis patients and 23 matched healthy volunteers and 2) a group of 19 healthy volunteers before and during a ketamine challenge (0.27 mg/kg over 10 minutes, then 0.25 mg/kg/hour for 50 minutes, 0.01 mL/s). We calculated response bias-corrected pattern separation and recognition scores. We also examined the relationships between task performance and symptom severity as well as ketamine levels. We report a deficit in pattern separation but not recognition performance in first-episode psychosis patients compared with healthy volunteers (p = .04) and in volunteers during the ketamine challenge compared with baseline (p = .003). Exploratory analyses revealed no correlation between task performance and Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status total scores or positive symptoms in first-episode psychosis patients, or with ketamine serum levels. We observed a mnemonic discrimination deficit but intact recognition in both datasets. Our findings suggest a tentative mechanistic link between dentate gyrus dysfunction in first-episode psychosis and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Predictors of the post-thrombotic syndrome with non-invasive venous examinations in patients 6 weeks after a first episode of deep vein thrombosis

    Tick, L.W.; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria; Rosendaal, F.R.; Faber, W.R.; Bousema, M.T.; Mackaay, A.J.C.; van Balen, P.; Kramer, H.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a chronic complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) affecting a large number of patients. Because of its potential debilitating effects, identification of patients at high risk for the development of this syndrome is relevant, and only a few predictors

  10. Frontal dopamine D(2/3) receptor binding in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients correlates with positive psychotic symptoms and gender

    Glenthoj, Birte Y; Mackeprang, Torben; Svarer, Claus

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine extrastriatal dopamine D(2/3) receptor binding and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients, and to relate binding potential (BP) values to psychopathology. METHODS: Twenty-five drug-naive schizophrenic patients and 20 healthy controls were examined...

  11. Schizophrenia patients differentiation based on MR vascular perfusion and volumetric imaging

    Spanier, A. B.; Joskowicz, L.; Moshel, S.; Israeli, D.

    2015-03-01

    Candecomp/Parafac Decomposition (CPD) has emerged as a framework for modeling N-way arrays (higher-order matrices). CPD is naturally well suited for the analysis of data sets comprised of observations of a function of multiple discrete indices. In this study we evaluate the prospects of using CPD for modeling MRI brain properties (i.e. brain volume and gray-level) for schizophrenia diagnosis. Taking into account that 3D imaging data consists of millions of pixels per patient, the diagnosis of a schizophrenia patient based on pixel analysis constitutes a methodological challenge (e.g. multiple comparison problem). We show that the CPD could potentially be used as a dimensionality redaction method and as a discriminator between schizophrenia patients and match control, using the gradient of pre- and post Gd-T1-weighted MRI data, which is strongly correlated with cerebral blood perfusion. Our approach was tested on 68 MRI scans: 40 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 28 matched controls. The CPD subject's scores exhibit statistically significant result (P schizophrenia with MRI, the results suggest that the CPD could potentially be used to discriminate between schizophrenia patients and matched control. In addition, the CPD model suggests for brain regions that might exhibit abnormalities in schizophrenia patients for future research.

  12. Serum proBDNF/BDNF and response to fluvoxamine in drug-naïve first-episode major depressive disorder patients.

    Yoshimura, Reiji; Kishi, Taro; Hori, Hikaru; Atake, Kiyokazu; Katsuki, Asuka; Nakano-Umene, Wakako; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Iwata, Nakao; Nakamura, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the association between serum proBDNF, a precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and response to fluvoxamine in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR): physically healthy and free of current alcohol or drug abuse, comorbid anxiety, or personality disorders. Fifty-one patients with MDD (M/F, 19:32; age, 38 ± 19 years) and 51 healthy controls (M/F, 22:29; age, 34 ± 17 years) were studied using DSM-IV-TR: physically healthy and free of current alcohol or drug abuse, comorbid anxiety, or personality disorders. Serum levels of proBDNF and MDNF were measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum mature BDNF levels in the MDD patients were significantly lower than those in the healthy controls (t = 3.046, p = 0.0018). On the other hand, no difference was found in serum proBDNF between the MDD patients and the healthy controls (t = -0.979, p = 0.833). A trend of negative correlation was found between baseline serum BDNF and baseline scores of the 17 items of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD17) (r = -0.183, p = 0.071). No correlation was however found between HAMD17 scores and proBDNF at baseline (r = 0.092, p = 0.421). Furthermore, no correlation was observed between baseline HAMD17 scores and baseline proBDNF/BDNF (r = -0.130, p = 0.190). No changes were observed in serum levels of proBDNF and BDNF during the treatment periods. These results suggest that there is no association between serum proBDNF/BDNF and fluvoxamine response in MDD patients at least within 4 weeks of the treatment.

  13. Is Adolescent-Onset First-Episode Psychosis Different from Adult Onset?

    Ballageer, Trevor; Malla, Ashok; Manchanda, Rahul; Takhar, Jatinder; Haricharan, Raj

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether first-episode psychosis patients with onset during adolescence (ages 15-18) differ significantly from those with young-adult onset (ages 19-30). Method: Consecutive patients presenting with first-episode psychosis (N = 242) were assessed for demographic and illness characteristics such as duration of untreated…

  14. Risk of Recurrent Pancreatitis and Progression to Chronic Pancreatitis After a First Episode of Acute Pancreatitis

    Ahmed Ali, Usama; Issa, Yama; Hagenaars, Julia C.; Bakker, Olaf J.; van Goor, Harry; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B.; Bollen, Thomas L.; van Ramshorst, Bert; Witteman, Ben J.; Brink, Menno A.; Schaapherder, Alexander F.; Dejong, Cornelis H.; Spanier, B. W. Marcel; Heisterkamp, Joos; van der Harst, Erwin; van Eijck, Casper H.; Besselink, Marc G.; Gooszen, Hein G.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; Boermeester, Marja A.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with a first episode of acute pancreatitis can develop recurrent or chronic pancreatitis (CP). However, little is known about the incidence or risk factors for these events. We performed a cross-sectional study of 669 patients with a first episode of acute pancreatitis admitted to 15 Dutch

  15. Risk of Recurrent Pancreatitis and Progression to Chronic Pancreatitis After a First Episode of Acute Pancreatitis

    Ahmed Ali, Usama; Issa, Yama; Hagenaars, Julia C.; Bakker, Olaf J.; van Goor, Harry; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B.; Bollen, Thomas L.; van Ramshorst, Bert; Witteman, Ben J.; Brink, Menno A.; Schaapherder, Alexander F.; Dejong, Cornelis H.; Spanier, B. W Marcel; Heisterkamp, Joos; van der Harst, Erwin; van Eijck, Casper H.; Besselink, Marc G.; Gooszen, Hein G.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; Boermeester, Marja A.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims: Patients with a first episode of acute pancreatitis can develop recurrent or chronic pancreatitis (CP). However, little is known about the incidence or risk factors for these events. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of 669 patients with a first episode of acute

  16. Integrated treatment of first-episode psychosis: effect of treatment on family burden: OPUS trial

    Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone; Thorup, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The families of patients with first-episode psychosis often play a major role in care and often experience lack of support.......The families of patients with first-episode psychosis often play a major role in care and often experience lack of support....

  17. Risk of Recurrent Pancreatitis and Progression to Chronic Pancreatitis After a First Episode of Acute Pancreatitis

    Ali, U.A.; Issa, Y.; Hagenaars, J.C.; Bakker, O.J.; Goor, H. van; Nieuwenhuijs, V.B.; Bollen, T.L.; Ramshorst, B. van; Witteman, B.J.; Brink, M.A.; Schaapherder, A.F.; Dejong, C.H.; Spanier, B.W.; Heisterkamp, J.; Harst, E. van der; Eijck, C.H. van; Besselink, M.G.; Gooszen, H.G.; Santvoort, H.C. van; Boermeester, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with a first episode of acute pancreatitis can develop recurrent or chronic pancreatitis (CP). However, little is known about the incidence or risk factors for these events. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 669 patients with a first episode of acute

  18. Theory of mind in a first-episode psychosis population using the Hinting Task.

    Lindgren, Maija; Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Heiskanen, Inkeri; Voutilainen, Greta; Pulkkinen, Ulla; Mehtälä, Tuukka; Jokela, Markus; Kieseppä, Tuula; Suvisaari, Jaana; Therman, Sebastian

    2018-05-01

    Deficiencies in theory of mind (ToM) are common in psychosis and may largely explain impaired social functioning. Currently, it is unclear whether impairments in ToM are explained by the more general cognitive deficits related to psychosis or whether ToM is impaired in psychosis independently of other cognitive deficits. This study examined ToM using the Hinting Task in young adults (n = 66) with first-episode psychosis and matched controls (n = 62). The participants were administered a broad neuropsychological assessment. Participants with psychosis performed worse than controls on the Hinting Task. However, 75% of the variance between the groups was explained by general cognitive deficits, especially impaired processing speed and episodic memory. Hinting Task performance of the best functioning patient group did not differ from that of the control group. When the psychosis group was divided according to diagnosis, the Hinting Task difference between individuals with schizophrenia and controls remained significant even when general cognitive performance was controlled for, suggesting specific verbal ToM deficits in schizophrenia. In contrast, those with other psychotic disorders did not differ from controls. Our results suggest that ToM deficits can be seen in early phases of psychotic disorders, schizophrenia in particular, and are partly independent of other cognitive functions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Do schizophrenia patients age early?

    Shivakumar, Venkataram; Kalmady, Sunil V; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Ravi, Vasanthapuram; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2014-08-01

    The etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia is poorly understood. Within the proposed "neurodegeneration paradigm", observations have been put forth for "accelerated aging" in this disorder. This proposition is largely based on the neuroscience research that demonstrates progressive changes in brain as well as other systemic abnormalities supportive of faster aging process in patients with this disorder. In this review, we have summarized the literature related to the concept of early aging in schizophrenia. These studies include P300 abnormalities & visual motion discrimination, neuroimaging findings, telomere dynamics as well as neuropathology of related brain regions. We also propose a role of vitamin D, neuroimmunological changes and elevated oxidative stress as well as mitochondrial dysfunction in addition to the above factors with 'vitamin-D deficiency' as the central paradox. Put together, the evidence supporting early aging in schizophrenia is compelling and this requires further systematic studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychosis among "healthy" siblings of schizophrenia patients

    Arajärvi, Ritva; Ukkola, Jonna; Haukka, Jari; Suvisaari, Jaana; Hintikka, Jukka; Partonen, Timo; Lönnqvist, Jouko

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Schizophrenia aggregates in families and accurate diagnoses are essential for genetic studies of schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated whether siblings of patients with schizophrenia can be identified as free of any psychotic disorder using only register information. We also analyzed the emergence of psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia during seven to eleven years of follow-up. Methods A genetically homogenous population isolate in no...

  1. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes in relat...... than imprison, individuals with schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that greater alertness is needed in the judicial system for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia....

  2. Suicidal behavior and mortality in first-episode psychosis

    Nordentoft, Merete; Madsen, Trine; Fedyszyn, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    is particularly high during the first year of the initial contact with mental health services, being almost twice as high as in the later course of the illness. The most consistently reported risk factor for suicide among people with psychotic disorders is a history of attempted suicide and depression. Suicide......Suicide is a serious public health problem, with more than 800,000 deaths taking place worldwide each year. Mental disorders are associated with increased risk of suicide. In schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, the lifetime risk of suicide death is estimated to be 5.6%. The risk...... risk in psychosis in Denmark decreased over time, most likely because of improved quality of inpatient and outpatient services. There is a high proportion of young people with first-episode psychosis who attempted suicide before their first contact with mental health services. This finding suggests...

  3. Comparison of Plasma Neurosteroid and Prolactin Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia and Healthy Individuals

    Forough Riahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The present study aimed to compare plasma levels of cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, and prolactin in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. Method. A total of 100 patients with schizophrenia disorder (69 men and 31 women and 190 healthy individuals (94 men and 96 women participated in this cross-sectional study. They were tested for hormone levels and completed demographic questionnaires. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and one-way analysis of variance. Results. Serum testosterone level was significantly higher in men with schizophrenia than in healthy men. Women with schizophrenia had a significantly higher level of testosterone and lower level of prolactin compared to healthy women. There were no significant differences in hormone levels across various subtypes of schizophrenia. No significant differences also were observed in hormones levels in patients with first-episode schizophrenia disorder compared to those in patients with recurrent episodes. Conclusion. This study indicated that abnormal testosterone and prolactin levels might be associated with pathophysiology of schizophrenia disorder.

  4. Abnormal brain connectivity in first-episode psychosis: A diffusion MRI tractography study of the corpus callosum

    Price, Gary; Cercignani, Mara; Parker, Geoffrey J.M.; Altmann, Daniel R.; Barnes, Thomas R.E.; Barker, Gareth J.; Joyce, Eileen M.; Ron, Maria A.

    2007-01-01

    A model of disconnectivity involving abnormalities in the cortex and connecting white matter pathways may explain the clinical manifestations of schizophrenia. Recently, diffusion imaging tractography has made it possible to study white matter pathways in detail and we present here a study of patients with first-episode psychosis using this technique. We selected the corpus callosum for this study because there is evidence that it is abnormal in schizophrenia. In addition, the topographical organization of its fibers makes it possible to relate focal abnormalities to specific cortical regions. Eighteen patients with first-episode psychosis and 21 healthy subjects took part in the study. A probabilistic tractography algorithm (PICo) was used to study fractional anisotropy (FA). Seed regions were placed in the genu and splenium to track fiber tracts traversing these regions, and a multi-threshold approach to study the probability of connection was used. Multiple linear regressions were used to explore group differences. FA, a measure of tract coherence, was reduced in tracts crossing the genu, and to a lesser degree the splenium, in patients compared with controls. FA was also lower in the genu in females across both groups, but there was no gender-by-group interaction. The FA reduction in patients may be due to aberrant myelination or axonal abnormalities, but the similar tract volumes in the two groups suggest that severe axonal loss is unlikely at this stage of the illness. PMID:17275337

  5. Imaging Microglial Activation in Untreated First-Episode Psychosis: A PET Study With [18F]FEPPA.

    Hafizi, Sina; Tseng, Huai-Hsuan; Rao, Naren; Selvanathan, Thiviya; Kenk, Miran; Bazinet, Richard P; Suridjan, Ivonne; Wilson, Alan A; Meyer, Jeffrey H; Remington, Gary; Houle, Sylvain; Rusjan, Pablo M; Mizrahi, Romina

    2017-02-01

    Neuroinflammation and abnormal immune responses are increasingly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies targeting the translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) have been limited by high nonspecific binding of the first-generation radioligand, low-resolution scanners, small sample sizes, and psychotic patients being on antipsychotics or not being in the first episode of their illness. The present study uses the novel second-generation TSPO PET radioligand [ 18 F]FEPPA to evaluate whether microglial activation is elevated in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of untreated patients with first-episode psychosis. Nineteen untreated patients with first-episode psychosis (14 of them antipsychotic naive) and 20 healthy volunteers underwent a high-resolution [ 18 F]FEPPA PET scan and MRI. Dynamic PET data were analyzed using the validated two-tissue compartment model with arterial plasma input function with total volume of distribution (V T ) as outcome measure. All analyses were corrected for TSPO rs6971 polymorphism (which is implicated in differential binding affinity). No significant differences were observed between patients and healthy volunteers in microglial activation, as indexed by [ 18 F]FEPPA V T , in either the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or the hippocampus. There were no significant correlations between [ 18 F]FEPPA V T and duration of illness, clinical presentation, or neuropsychological measures after adjusting for multiple testing. The lack of significant differences in [ 18 F]FEPPA V T between groups suggests that microglial activation is not present in first-episode psychosis.

  6. Substance abuse in first-episode non-affective psychosis

    Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Abuse of alcohol and drugs is an important and clinically challenging aspect of first-episode psychosis. Only a few studies have been carried out on large-sized and reliably characterized samples. These are reviewed, and the results are compared with a sample of 300 first-episode psychosis patients...... recruited for the TIPS (Early Treatment and Identification of Psychosis) study from Norway and Denmark. Prevalence rates from the literature vary from 6% to 44% for drugs and 3% to 35% for alcohol. In our sample, 23% abused drugs and 15% abused alcohol during the last 6 months. When compared to non......-abusers, the drug-abusing group is characterized by the following: male gender, younger age, better premorbid social, poor premorbid academic functioning, and more contact with friends in the last year before onset. Alcohol abusers were the oldest group and they had the least contact with friends. A group...

  7. First-episode psychosis: An update

    Schizophrenia is a devastating illness for the majority of its sufferers. Despite ... The concerns raised include stigma, ... to reduce the rate of conversion to psychosis and also delay ..... produce superior outcomes compared with generic mental.

  8. The optimization of treatment and management of schizophrenia in Europe (OPTiMiSE) trial

    Leucht, Stefan; Winter-van Rossum, Inge; Heres, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Commission sponsored "Optimization of Treatment and Management of Schizophrenia in Europe" (OPTiMiSE) trial which aims to provide a treatment algorithm for patients with a first episode of schizophrenia. METHODS: We searched Pubmed (October 29, 2014) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined...... switching the drug in nonresponders to another antipsychotic. We described important methodological choices of the OPTiMiSE trial. RESULTS: We found 10 RCTs on switching antipsychotic drugs. No trial was conclusive and none was concerned with first-episode schizophrenia. In OPTiMiSE, 500 first episode...

  9. Sensory Gating Deficits in First-Episode Psychosis: Evidence From Neurophysiology, Psychophysiology, and Neuropsychology.

    Morales-Muñoz, Isabel; Jurado-Barba, Rosa; Fernández-Guinea, Sara; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Roberto; Jiménez-Arriero, Miguel Ángel; Criado, José R; Rubio, Gabriel

    2016-12-01

    Sensory gating deficits are commonly found in patients with schizophrenia. However, there is still scarce research on this issue. Thirty-eight patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) were compared to thirty-eight controls. A condition-test paradigm of event-related potentials (ERP), prepulse inhibition (PPI), and some specific tasks of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) were used (i.e., TMT, BACS-SC, and Fluency for processing speed and CPT-IP for attention and vigilance). The ERP components measured were P50, N1, and P2. The PPI intervals examined were 30, 60, and 120 msec. Regarding the MCCB, processing speed and attention/vigilance cognitive domains were selected. FEP patients showed significant deficits in N1 and P2 components, at 30 and 60 PPI levels and in all the MCCB subtests selected. We obtained significant relationships in N1 with PPI-60, and with one MCCB subtest for processing speed. In addition, this same subtest showed significant association with P2. Therefore, sensory gating functioning is widely impaired since the very early stages of schizophrenia.

  10. The validity of dysthymia to predict clinical depressive symptoms as measured by the Hamilton Depression Scale at the 5-year follow-up of patients with first episode depression

    Bech, Per; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In long-term follow-up studies on depression, the Eysenck Neuroticism Scale (ENS) at the score level of dysthymia has been found to be valid at predicting poor outcome. AIMS: The ENS dysthymia level was compared with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) level to predict the prevalence...... of depressive symptoms at the 5-year follow-up of patients initially diagnosed with first episode depression using the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) to express depressive symptoms. METHODS: A total of 301 in- or outpatients aged 18-70 years with a recent single depressive episode were assessed by ENS, BDI......, and HAM-D from 2005-2007. At 5-year follow-up from 2011-2013, the participants were re-assessed by HAM-D. The HAM-D was used to measure depressive symptoms at the 5-year follow-up. The Mokken analysis was used to indicate scalability of the BDI and ENS. RESULTS: A total of 185 participants were available...

  11. Short-term effects of escitalopram on regional brain function in first-episode drug-naive patients with major depressive disorder assessed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Wang, L; Li, K; Zhang, Q; Zeng, Y; Dai, W; Su, Y; Wang, G; Tan, Y; Jin, Z; Yu, X; Si, T

    2014-05-01

    Most knowledge regarding the effects of antidepressant drugs is at the receptor level, distal from the nervous system effects that mediate their clinical efficacy. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study investigated the effects of escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), on resting-state brain function in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Fourteen first-episode drug-naive MDD patients completed two fMRI scans before and after 8 weeks of escitalopram therapy. Scans were also acquired in 14 matched healthy subjects. Data were analyzed using the regional homogeneity (ReHo) approach. Compared to controls, MDD patients before treatment demonstrated decreased ReHo in the frontal (right superior frontal gyrus), temporal (left middle and right inferior temporal gyri), parietal (right precuneus) and occipital (left superior occipital gyrus and right cuneus) cortices, and increased ReHo in the left dorsal medial prefrontal gyrus and left anterior lobe of the cerebellum. Compared to the unmedicated state, ReHo in the patients after treatment was decreased in the left dorsal medial prefrontal gyrus, the right insula and the bilateral thalamus, and increased in the right superior frontal gyrus. Compared to controls, patients after treatment displayed a ReHo decrease in the right precuneus and a ReHo increase in the left anterior lobe of the cerebellum. Successful treatment with escitalopram may be associated with modulation of resting-state brain activity in regions within the fronto-limbic circuit. This study provides new insight into the effects of antidepressants on functional brain systems in MDD.

  12. Clinical and functional implications of a history of childhood ADHD in first-episode psychosis.

    Rho, Aldanie; Traicu, Alexandru; Lepage, Martin; Iyer, Srividya N; Malla, Ashok; Joober, Ridha

    2015-07-01

    There is mounting evidence indicating that a childhood history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with an increased risk for psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. However, the implications of such a history on the symptomatic and functional outcomes of patients with psychotic disorders are still not well documented. This study examined the prevalence of childhood ADHD in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) consecutively admitted to a specialized early intervention clinic covering a well-defined catchment area, and compared patients with and without a history of childhood ADHD on socio-demographic, clinical, and functional outcomes over a six to twelve months period. Out of 179 patients with FEP, 27 (15%) were treated for ADHD during childhood, consistent with previous literature indicating an association between childhood ADHD and psychosis. FEP patients with childhood history of ADHD had lower academic achievement, earlier onset of psychosis, and higher rates of childhood conduct and learning disorder. While the two groups had similar scores on psychopathology and functioning at baseline, patients with childhood ADHD showed significantly less improvement in positive and negative symptoms, as well as social and occupational functioning. These results strongly indicate that a history of childhood ADHD in FEP is more frequent than that reported in the general population and predictive of poorer clinical response to treatment. This emphasizes the need for actively screening for a history of ADHD in FEP patients and for treatments that are tailored for these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevention of negative symptom psychopathologies in first-episode schizophrenia

    Melle, Ingrid; Larsen, Tor K; Haahr, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    The duration of untreated psychosis (DUP)-the time from onset of psychotic symptoms to the start of adequate treatment--is consistently correlated with better course and outcome, but the mechanisms are poorly understood....

  14. Early detection and intervention in first-episode schizophrenia

    Larsen, Tor Ketil; Friis, Svein; Haahr, U

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on early intervention in psychosis and to evaluate relevant studies. METHOD: Early intervention was defined as intervention in the prodromal phase (primary prevention) and intervention after the onset of psychosis, i.e. shortening of duration of untreated psych...

  15. [The cellular factors of innate immunity in nonpsychotic patients at high risk for schizophrenia].

    Vasilyeva, E F; Kushner, S G; Factor, M I; Omelchenko, M A; Bogdanova, E D; Petrakova, L N; Brusov, O S

    Changes in the parameters of innate immunity in patients with schizophrenia are observed already in the first episode. The study was performed to find out whether these changes take place prior to disease manifestation, and what role do they play in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Thirty-five male nonpsychotic patients at high risk of psychosis, aged between 17 to 23 years, were examined. Phagocyte activity (PA) of neutrophils in the blood serum was evaluated by the number of active neutrophils, i.e. phagocytic index (PhI), and phagocytic number (PhN), which was determined by counting latex particles absorbed with a single phagocytic cell. Cytotoxic activity of natural killer lymphocytes (NK CA) was evaluated by the number of cell targets K-562, which remained non-degraded after the contact with natural killer cells. The influence of monocytes on NKCA was determined as well. Compared to controls, patients had the lower PhI level (pschizophrenia.

  16. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes...... in relation to the different periods in the patients' lives: not yet known to the psychiatric hospital system, known to the system but not yet diagnosed with schizophrenia, and after being diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: Information from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register was correlated...... with data from the Danish National Crime Register. RESULTS: One of the more prominent findings was that 16% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia receive a prison sentence or a suspended prison sentence, despite the fact that Denmark is a co-signatory of the European Prison Rules and should treat, rather...

  17. Decoding emotion of the other differs among schizophrenia patients and schizoaffective patients: A pilot study.

    Tadmor, Hagar; Levin, Maya; Dadon, Tzameret; Meiman, Meital E; Ajameeh, Alaa; Mazzawi, Hosam; Rigbi, Amihai; Kremer, Ilana; Golani, Idit; Shamir, Alon

    2016-09-01

    The deficit in ability to attribute mental states such as thoughts, beliefs, and intentions of another person is a key component in the functional impairment of social cognition in schizophrenia. In the current study, we compared the ability of persons with first episode schizophrenia (FE-SZ) and individuals with schizophrenia displaying symptomatic remission (SZ-CR) to decode the mental state of others with healthy individuals and schizoaffective patients. In addition, we analyzed the effect of dopamine-related genes polymorphism on the ability to decode the mental state of another, and searched for different genetic signatures. Our results show that overall, individuals with schizophrenia performed worse in the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" (eyes) test, a simple well-defined task to infer the mental state of others than healthy individuals. Within the schizophrenia group, schizoaffective scored significantly higher than FE-SZ, SZ-CR, and healthy individuals. No difference was observed in performance between FE-SZ and SZ-CR subjects. Interestingly, FE-SZ and SZ-CR, but not schizoaffective individuals, performed worse in decoding negative and neutral emotional valance than the healthy control group. At the genetic level, we observed a significant effect of the DAT genotype, but not D4R genotype, on the eyes test performance. Our data suggest that understanding the mental state of another person is a trait marker of the illness, and might serve as an intermediate phenotype in the diagnostic process of schizophrenia disorders, and raise the possibility that DA-related DAT gene might have a role in decoding the mental state of another person.

  18. Decoding emotion of the other differs among schizophrenia patients and schizoaffective patients: A pilot study

    Hagar Tadmor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The deficit in ability to attribute mental states such as thoughts, beliefs, and intentions of another person is a key component in the functional impairment of social cognition in schizophrenia. In the current study, we compared the ability of persons with first episode schizophrenia (FE-SZ and individuals with schizophrenia displaying symptomatic remission (SZ-CR to decode the mental state of others with healthy individuals and schizoaffective patients. In addition, we analyzed the effect of dopamine-related genes polymorphism on the ability to decode the mental state of another, and searched for different genetic signatures. Our results show that overall, individuals with schizophrenia performed worse in the “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” (eyes test, a simple well-defined task to infer the mental state of others than healthy individuals. Within the schizophrenia group, schizoaffective scored significantly higher than FE-SZ, SZ-CR, and healthy individuals. No difference was observed in performance between FE-SZ and SZ-CR subjects. Interestingly, FE-SZ and SZ-CR, but not schizoaffective individuals, performed worse in decoding negative and neutral emotional valance than the healthy control group. At the genetic level, we observed a significant effect of the DAT genotype, but not D4R genotype, on the eyes test performance. Our data suggest that understanding the mental state of another person is a trait marker of the illness, and might serve as an intermediate phenotype in the diagnostic process of schizophrenia disorders, and raise the possibility that DA-related DAT gene might have a role in decoding the mental state of another person.

  19. [Impairment of attention and executive functions in patients with paranoid schizophrenia].

    Tsygankov, B D; Khannanova, A N; Nekrasova, S V

    2013-01-01

    To study changes in attention and executive functions during psychopharmacotherapy in patients with paranoid schizophrenia, we have examined 120 patients with a first episode of paranoid schizophrenia treated with typical and atypical neuroleptics. Clinical and statistical analyses have revealed the heterogeneity within treatment groups that allowed to define two subgroups. These subgroups were characterized by a differed disease course (favorable or poor type). Before remission was achieved, the effect of atypical neuroleptics on cognitive performance was higher compared to typical neuroleptics. After remission, when doses of neuroleptics were decreased, a type of disease course played a main role. At 6 months after remission, attention and executive functions have improved in subgroups with favorable course of disease regardless of treatment.

  20. Predictors of suicide attempt in early-onset, first-episode psychoses: a longitudinal 24-month follow-up study.

    Sanchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Baeza, Inmaculada; Arango, Celso; González-Pinto, Ana; de la Serna, Elena; Parellada, Mara; Graell, Motserrat; Paya, Beatriz; Llorente, Cloe; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    To study the prevalence of suicide attempts and factors associated with risk for suicide during the first episode of psychosis, and to identify early predictors of suicide attempts over a 24-month follow-up period in an early-onset, first-episode psychosis cohort. 110 subjects in their first episode of psychosis aged between 9 and 17 years were assessed by using the DSM-IV diagnostic interview Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version and a battery of clinical instruments at baseline and at 12 and 24 months. Patients were enrolled in the study from March 2003 through November 2005. Suicide attempts and level of suicidality at each assessment were evaluated by using the Clinical Global Impression for Severity of Suicidality and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Subjects were classified as being at high, low, or no risk of suicide, depending on their scores on certain items of these scales. Clinical associations between the outcome measures high risk for suicide during acute episode and suicide attempts during follow-up were investigated by 2 sets of logistic regression analyses. The 24-month prevalence of suicide attempters was 12.4%. History of suicide attempts prior to psychotic episode (OR = 20.13; 95% CI, 1.83-220.55; P = .01), severe depressive symptoms (OR = 8.78; 95% CI, 1.15-67.11; P = .003), and antidepressant treatment (OR = 15.56; 95% CI, 2.66-90.86; P = .002) were associated with being classified as high suicide risk at baseline. The categorization of high suicide risk at baseline predicted suicide attempts during follow-up (OR = 81.66; 95% CI, 11.61-574.35; P = .000). Suicide is a major concern in early-onset first-episode psychosis. Suicidal behavior and depressive symptoms at psychosis onset are important signs to be aware of to prevent suicide attempts during the early period after first-episode psychosis. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  1. Abnormal neural hierarchy in processing of verbal information in patients with schizophrenia.

    Lerner, Yulia; Bleich-Cohen, Maya; Solnik-Knirsh, Shimrit; Yogev-Seligmann, Galit; Eisenstein, Tamir; Madah, Waheed; Shamir, Alon; Hendler, Talma; Kremer, Ilana

    2018-01-01

    Previous research indicates abnormal comprehension of verbal information in patients with schizophrenia. Yet the neural mechanism underlying the breakdown of verbal information processing in schizophrenia is poorly understood. Imaging studies in healthy populations have shown a network of brain areas involved in hierarchical processing of verbal information over time. Here, we identified critical aspects of this hierarchy, examining patients with schizophrenia. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined various levels of information comprehension elicited by naturally presented verbal stimuli; from a set of randomly shuffled words to an intact story. Specifically, patients with first episode schizophrenia ( N  = 15), their non-manifesting siblings ( N  = 14) and healthy controls ( N  = 15) listened to a narrated story and randomly scrambled versions of it. To quantify the degree of dissimilarity between the groups, we adopted an inter-subject correlation (inter-SC) approach, which estimates differences in synchronization of neural responses within and between groups. The temporal topography found in healthy and siblings groups were consistent with our previous findings - high synchronization in responses from early sensory toward high order perceptual and cognitive areas. In patients with schizophrenia, stimuli with short and intermediate temporal scales evoked a typical pattern of reliable responses, whereas story condition (long temporal scale) revealed robust and widespread disruption of the inter-SCs. In addition, the more similar the neural activity of patients with schizophrenia was to the average response in the healthy group, the less severe the positive symptoms of the patients. Our findings suggest that system-level neural indication of abnormal verbal information processing in schizophrenia reflects disease manifestations.

  2. Abnormal neural hierarchy in processing of verbal information in patients with schizophrenia

    Yulia Lerner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates abnormal comprehension of verbal information in patients with schizophrenia. Yet the neural mechanism underlying the breakdown of verbal information processing in schizophrenia is poorly understood. Imaging studies in healthy populations have shown a network of brain areas involved in hierarchical processing of verbal information over time. Here, we identified critical aspects of this hierarchy, examining patients with schizophrenia. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined various levels of information comprehension elicited by naturally presented verbal stimuli; from a set of randomly shuffled words to an intact story. Specifically, patients with first episode schizophrenia (N = 15, their non-manifesting siblings (N = 14 and healthy controls (N = 15 listened to a narrated story and randomly scrambled versions of it. To quantify the degree of dissimilarity between the groups, we adopted an inter-subject correlation (inter-SC approach, which estimates differences in synchronization of neural responses within and between groups. The temporal topography found in healthy and siblings groups were consistent with our previous findings – high synchronization in responses from early sensory toward high order perceptual and cognitive areas. In patients with schizophrenia, stimuli with short and intermediate temporal scales evoked a typical pattern of reliable responses, whereas story condition (long temporal scale revealed robust and widespread disruption of the inter-SCs. In addition, the more similar the neural activity of patients with schizophrenia was to the average response in the healthy group, the less severe the positive symptoms of the patients. Our findings suggest that system-level neural indication of abnormal verbal information processing in schizophrenia reflects disease manifestations.

  3. Gender differences in first-episode psychosis at 5-year follow-up - two different courses of disease?

    Thorup, A; Albert, Nancy; Bertelsen, M

    2014-01-01

    , level of functioning and symptom patterns. We aimed to investigate how gender differences at onset of psychosis develop during the first 5years of treatment. METHOD: A total of 578 patients with a first-episode psychosis in the schizophrenia spectrum were included in the Danish OPUS trial - a randomized......OBJECTIVE: Gender differences in psychosis have been investigated, and the results have contributed to a better understanding of the disease, but many questions are unanswered. In clinical terms, women and men with psychosis differ in terms of access to social support, tendency of substance abuse...... clinical trial comparing 2years of intensive early-intervention programme with standard treatment. All patients were assessed with validated instruments at inclusion, and after 2 and 5years. Data were analysed for significant gender differences. RESULTS: Males have significantly higher levels of negative...

  4. Neuropsychological Impairment in Prodromal, First-Episode, and Chronic Psychosis: Assessing RBANS Performance

    Stone, William S.; Woodberry, Kristen A.; Seidman, Larry J.; Tang, YingYing; Guo, Qian; Zhuo, KaiMing; Qian, ZhenYing; Cui, HuiRu; Zhu, YiKang; Jiang, LiJuan; Chow, Annabelle; Tang, YunXiang; Li, ChunBo; Jiang, KaiDa; Yi, ZhengHui; Xiao, ZePing; Wang, JiJun

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive deficits are observed throughout all developmental phases of psychosis. However, prior studies have usually focused on a limited illness period and used a wide variety of cognitive instruments. Therefore, it has been difficult to characterize or highlight cognitive functioning in different stages of psychosis. Method We administered the RBANS (Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status) tests to 4 participant subgroups, including healthy volunteers (controls, HC, n = 28), subjects at high risk for clinical psychosis (prodrome, CHR, n = 27), first-episode schizophrenia patients (FE-Sz, n = 26), and mid-term and long-term chronic schizophrenia patients (Ch-Sz, n =147). Comparison, correlation, and regression analyses of RBANS index scores were assessed among groups. We examined clinical outcomes over 2 years between the CHR and HC subjects, and RBANS domains were used as possible predictors for conversion to psychosis. Results Performance on all RBANS domains was significantly impaired during a post-onset stage of psychosis (FE-Sz and Ch-Sz), and RBANS scores declined along with disease progression. Regression analyses showed that for CHR and HC subjects, baseline impairment in delayed memory (DM) significantly predicted conversion to psychosis. Additionally, partial correlations showed that for FE-Sz and Ch-Sz subjects, DM was the only correlate with a later stage of psychosis. Conclusions Cognitive deficits broadly emerged, and diminished functioning followed along with disease progression. Impairment in DM is perhaps one domain that helps us understand the development of psychosis. A critical need is to monitor and treat memory functioning for psychotic patients throughout all phases of the disease. PMID:25973925

  5. [Treatment of the first episode of spontaneous pneumothorax].

    Moubachir, H; Zaghba, N; Benjelloun, H; Bakhatar, A; Yassine, N

    2016-11-01

    The management of a first episode of spontaneous pneumothorax is controversial and the best technique to be used as an initial intervention, aspiration or intercostal drainage, is still debated. We present a retrospective case series during two and a half consecutive years describing the immediate management of spontaneous pneumothoraces, comparing aspiration versus thoracic drainage. One hundred and thirty-three clinical files from patients with spontaneous pneumothoraces were analyzed (17 primary and 116 secondary). The pneumothoraces were of varying size and different etiologies. Patients were initially treated with simple aspiration in 68 cases, with an immediate success rate of 37.5%, intercostal drainage in 49 cases, and by rest alone in 16 cases. In case of secondary pneumothorax, aspiration appeared to offer advantages as an initial strategy over intercostal drainage in terms of hospital stay (11 versus 22 days), and with significant effectiveness (37.5%). Copyright © 2016 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics in schizophrenia: patient functioning and quality of life

    Montemagni C

    2016-04-01

    SGA-LAIs are still lacking. Lastly, some data on their use, especially in first-episode or recent-onset schizophrenia and in refractory or treatment-resistant schizophrenia, is available. Keywords: outcome, first-episode schizophrenia, recent-onset schizophrenia, treatment resistant schizophrenia

  7. Language Disorder In Schizophrenia Patient: A Case Study Of Five Schizophrenia Paranoid Patients In Simeulue District Hospital

    Kurnia, Beby Febri

    2015-01-01

    Language disorder in schizophrenia patients is an acquired language disorder due to thought disorder. This analysis analyzed language disorder in schizophrenia paranoid patients in Simeulue District Hospital. The objective of this analysis were: (1) to find out the types of schizophrenic speech found in schizophrenia paranoid patients, (2) to find out the most dominant type of schizophrenia speech found in schizophrenia paranoid patients, and (3) to find out which patient has most severe lang...

  8. Frontal D2/3 Receptor Availability in Schizophrenia Patients Before and After Their First Antipsychotic Treatment

    Nørbak-Emig, Henrik; Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Fagerlund, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    the relation between frontal D2/3 receptor availability and treatment effect on positive symptoms. METHODS: Twenty-five antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients were examined with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, tested with the cognitive test battery Cambridge Neuropsychological Test......BACKGROUND: We have previously reported associations between frontal D2/3 receptor binding potential positive symptoms and cognitive deficits in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients. Here, we examined the effect of dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade on cognition. Additionally, we explored.......56, P=.003; D2/3 receptor binding potential right frontal cortex rho = 0.48, P=.016). CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the hypothesis of a negative influence of D2/3 receptor blockade on specific cognitive functions in schizophrenia. This is highly clinically relevant given the well-established association...

  9. Emotion regulation strategies in Patients with schizophrenia

    van der Meer, Lisette; van't Wout, Mascha; Aleman, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients might experience difficulties in applying two widely used emotion regulation strategies, reappraisal and suppression. We investigated the relationships among emotion regulation strategies, alexithymia (i.e. inability to identify and verbalize feelings) and the role of

  10. Conflict adaptation in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia.

    Abrahamse, Elger; Ruitenberg, Marit; Boddewyn, Sarah; Oreel, Edith; de Schryver, Maarten; Morrens, Manuel; van Dijck, Jean-Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Cognitive control impairments may contribute strongly to the overall cognitive deficits observed in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. In the current study we explore a specific cognitive control function referred to as conflict adaptation. Previous studies on conflict adaptation in schizophrenia showed equivocal results, and, moreover, were plagued by confounded research designs. Here we assessed for the first time conflict adaptation in schizophrenia with a design that avoided the major confounds of feature integration and stimulus-response contingency learning. Sixteen patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and sixteen healthy, matched controls performed a vocal Stroop task to determine the congruency sequence effect - a marker of conflict adaptation. A reliable congruency sequence effect was observed for both healthy controls and patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. These findings indicate that schizophrenia is not necessarily accompanied by impaired conflict adaptation. As schizophrenia has been related to abnormal functioning in core conflict adaptation areas such as anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, further research is required to better understand the precise impact of such abnormal brain functioning at the behavioral level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Adjunctive Taurine in First-Episode Psychosis: A Phase 2, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    O'Donnell, Colin P; Allott, Kelly A; Murphy, Brendan P; Yuen, Hok Pan; Proffitt, Tina-Marie; Papas, Alicia; Moral, Jennifer; Pham, Tee; O'Regan, Michaela K; Phassouliotis, Christina; Simpson, Raelene; McGorry, Patrick D

    2016-12-01

    Taurine is an inhibitory neuromodulatory amino acid in the central nervous system that activates the GABA- and glycine-insensitive chloride channel and inhibits the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. It also functions as a neuroprotective agent and has a role in neural development and neurogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of adjunctive taurine in improving symptomatology and cognition among patients with a DSM-IV first-episode psychotic disorder. 121 patients with first-episode psychosis, aged 18-25 years, attending early intervention services consented to participate in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted from January 2007 to May 2009. Patients taking low-dose antipsychotic medication were randomly assigned to receive once-daily taurine 4 g or placebo for 12 weeks. The coprimary outcomes were change in symptomatology (measured by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale [BPRS] total score) and change in cognition (measured by the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia [MATRICS] Consensus Cognitive Battery composite score) at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included tolerability and safety and additional clinical and functioning measures. 86 participants (n = 47 taurine; n = 39 placebo) were included in the final analysis. Taurine significantly improved symptomatology measured by the BPRS total score (95% CI, 1.8-8.5; P = .004) and psychotic subscale (95% CI, 0.1-1.5; P = .026) compared to placebo. Additionally, improvements were observed in the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (95% CI, 0.1-3.0; P = .047) and Global Assessment of Functioning (95% CI, 0.3-8.8; P = .04) scores. There was no group difference in composite cognitive score (95% CI, -1.7 to 1.0; P = .582). A significant group difference was found on one safety and tolerability item (psychic item 2, asthenia/lassitude/increased fatigability) of the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser, with the taurine group showing a

  12. Psychosis among "healthy" siblings of schizophrenia patients

    Partonen Timo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia aggregates in families and accurate diagnoses are essential for genetic studies of schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated whether siblings of patients with schizophrenia can be identified as free of any psychotic disorder using only register information. We also analyzed the emergence of psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia during seven to eleven years of follow-up. Methods A genetically homogenous population isolate in north-eastern Finland having 365 families with 446 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia was initially identified in 1991 using four nationwide registers. Between 1998 and 2002, 124 patients and 183 siblings in 110 families were contacted and interviewed using SCID-I, SCID-II and SANS. We also compared the frequency of mental disorders between siblings and a random population comparison group sample. Results Thirty (16% siblings received a diagnosis of psychotic disorder in the interview. 14 siblings had had psychotic symptoms already before 1991, while 16 developed psychotic symptoms during the follow-up. Over half of the siblings (n = 99, 54% had a lifetime diagnosis of any mental disorder in the interview. Conclusion Register information cannot be used to exclude psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia. The high rate of emergence of new psychotic disorders among initially healthy siblings should be taken into account in genetic analysis.

  13. Suicide in the Early Stage of Schizophrenia

    Ventriglio, Antonio; Gentile, Alessandro; Bonfitto, Iris; Stella, Eleonora; Mari, Massimo; Steardo, Luca; Bellomo, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a relevant leading cause of death among patients affected by schizophrenia. Even if suicidal ideation may be present in different stages of disease, some differences have been described between the risk of suicide in patients experiencing first episode of psychosis and those with long-term schizophrenia. It is particularly higher during the first year of illness and reaches a steady decline over the following years. Suicidal ideation and attempts may also be common among subjects w...

  14. Rates of First Episode of Psychosis in a Defined Catchment Area in Greece

    Peritogiannis, Vaios; Mantas, Christos; Tatsioni, Athina; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2013-01-01

    This is the first Greek study presenting epidemiologic data on first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients in a defined catchment area. Data for first episode psychotic patients during a two-year period (2008 and 2009) were obtained by all the mental health providers in the area, public or private. A total of 132 FEP patients were examined in the 2-year period in the catchment area. Most of the patients (61.4%) were diagnosed and treated by private practicing psychiatrists. Statistical analysis sh...

  15. Psychosocial functioning in first-episode psychosis and associations with neurocognition, social cognition, psychotic and affective symptoms

    Stouten, Luyken H.; Veling, Wim; Laan, Winfried; van der Helm, Mischa; van der Gaag, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Most studies on the determinants of psychosocial functioning in first-episode psychosis used few predictors. This study examines the effects of multiple cognitive domains and multiple symptoms on psychosocial functioning. Methods: A total of 162 patients with a first-episode psychosis were

  16. Biosocial characteristics of patients with paranoid schizophrenia

    Gergana K. Panayotova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is known as a complex disorder that combines both genetic and environmental factors. Different genes have been tested as candidates for association with schizophrenia and different environmental factors have been examined in many studies on epidemiology of schizophrenia. Specific environmental factors, such as nonspecific stress, mental and physical abuse, maternal diet during pregnancy, drug use, living in an urban setting, migration, seasonal effects on birth and exposure to infections, have been discussed as possible risk for schizophrenia. The present preliminary study is focused on the relations between biological and social characteristics of patients with paranoid schizophrenia with different cognitive levels, emotional and creative styles. Descriptive statistics, the Student's t-test and SPSS software, were used to analyse the relations mentioned. Differences between sexes and these concerning age of individuals (risk level of inheritance, ABO blood group distribution, triggering factors, aggressive behavior, single or multiple suicide attempts, levels of education and creative talents were indicated and discussed. The study identifies important trends and discuses essential biosocial relations in context of the knowledge for schizophrenia in Bulgaria. Future comparative investigations, including genetic markers and psychogenetic approaches, should be used in complex, in order to characterize the reasons for developing paranoid schizophrenia and the possible relations between biological, psychological and social factors better.

  17. Personality disorders in first-episode psychosis

    Simonsen, Erik; Haahr, Ulrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2008-01-01

    or more personality disorders, while one-third of the patients did not fulfil the criteria for any personality disorder. The schizoid and the avoidant were the most frequent personality disorders and both were associated with social withdrawal during childhood and adolescence. The limitation of the study...

  18. Reassessing the long-term risk of suicide after a first episode of psychosis.

    Dutta, Rina; Murray, Robin M; Hotopf, Matthew; Allardyce, Judith; Jones, Peter B; Boydell, Jane

    2010-12-01

    The long-term risk of suicide after a first episode of psychosis is unknown because previous studies often have been based on prevalence cohorts, been biased to more severely ill hospitalized patients, extrapolated from a short follow-up time, and have made a distinction between schizophrenia and other psychoses. To determine the epidemiology of suicide in a clinically representative cohort of patients experiencing their first episode of psychosis. Retrospective inception cohort. Geographic catchment areas in London, England (between January 1, 1965, and December 31, 2004; n = 2056); Nottingham, England (between September 1, 1997, and August 31, 1999; n = 203); and Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland (between January 1, 1979, and December 31, 1998; n = 464). All 2723 patients who presented for the first time to secondary care services with psychosis in the 3 defined catchment areas were traced after a mean follow-up period of 11.5 years. Deaths by suicide and open verdicts according to the International Classification of Diseases (seventh through tenth editions). The case fatality from suicide was considerably lower than expected from previous studies (1.9% [53/2723]); the proportionate mortality was 11.9% (53/444). Although the rate of suicide was highest in the first year after presentation, risk persisted late into follow-up, with a median time to suicide of 5.6 years. Suicide occurred approximately 12 times more than expected from the general population of England and Wales (standardized mortality ratio, 11.65; 95% confidence interval, 8.73-15.24), and 49 of the 53 suicides were excess deaths. Even a decade after first presentation-a time when there may be less intense clinical monitoring of risk-suicide risk remained almost 4 times higher than in the general population (standardized mortality ratio, 3.92; 95% confidence interval, 2.22-6.89). The highest risk of suicide after a psychotic episode occurs soon after presentation, yet physicians should still be

  19. Cannabis use and cognitive function in first episode psychosis: differential effect of heavy use.

    Núñez, Christian; Ochoa, Susana; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Baños, Iris; Barajas, Ana; Dolz, Montserrat; Sánchez, Bernardo; Del Cacho, Núria; Usall, Judith

    2016-03-01

    First episode patients and patients with schizophrenia exhibit increased rates of cannabis use compared to the general population. Contrary to what has been reported in studies with healthy people, most of the published studies so far have reported no impairments or even beneficial effects on neurocognition associated with cannabis consumption in psychotic patients. However, these studies did not address the effects of very high cannabis consumption. Our aim in this study was to assess the effects on neurocognition of medium and heavy cannabis consumption in first psychotic episode patients. A total of 74 patients were included in the study and assigned to three different groups according to their mean cannabis consumption during the last year (non-users, medium users, and heavy users). Participants were administered verbal memory and other neurocognitive tasks. Heavy cannabis users were significantly impaired in all the verbal memory measures with respect to non-users, including immediate (p = .026), short-term (p = .005), and long-term (p = .002) memory. There were no significant differences between medium and non-users. Moreover, non-users performed better than all cannabis users in the arithmetic task (p = .020). Heavy cannabis consumption was associated with more commission errors in the continuous performance task (CPT) (p = .008) and more time to complete trail making test A (TMT-A) (p = .008), compared to the group of medium users. Heavy cannabis consumption seems to impair verbal memory in first psychotic episode patients. Heavy users also perform worse than medium users in other neurocognitive tasks. Based on the results and the available evidence, a dose-related effect of cannabis consumption is suggested.

  20. Depression and quality of life in first-episode psychosis.

    Renwick, Laoise

    2012-07-01

    Quality of life (QOL) has gained recognition as a valid measure of outcome in first-episode psychosis (FEP). This study aimed to determine the influence of specific groups of depressive symptoms on separate domains of subjectively appraised QOL.

  1. Unrecognised myocardial infarction in patients with schizophrenia

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Juel, Jacob; Alzuhairi, Karam

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with a reduction of the lifespan by 20 years, with type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease contributing the most to the increased mortality. Unrecognised or silent myocardial infarction (MI) occurs in ~30% of the population, but the rates of unrecognised...... MI in patients with schizophrenia have only been sparsely investigated. METHOD: Electrocardiograms (ECG) from three psychiatric hospitals in Denmark were manually interpreted for signs of previous MI. Subsequently, ECGs were linked to the National Patient Registry in order to determine whether...... with unrecognised MI in a stepwise multiple logistic regression model compared with patients with no history of MI, OR: 1.03 per year of age, 95% CI: 1.00-1.06, p=0.021. CONCLUSION: Unrecognised MI is common among patients with schizophrenia and may contribute to the increased mortality found in this patient group....

  2. Childhood adversities and clinical symptomatology in first-episode psychosis.

    Lindgren, Maija; Mäntylä, Teemu; Rikandi, Eva; Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Morales-Muñoz, Isabel; Kieseppä, Tuula; Mantere, Outi; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2017-12-01

    In addition to severe traumatic experiences, milder, more common childhood adversities reflecting psychosocial burden may also be common in people with psychotic disorders and have an effect on symptomatology and functioning. We explored eleven negative childhood experiences and their influence on clinical symptoms among young adults with first-episode psychosis (FEP, n = 75) and matched population controls (n = 51). Individuals with FEP reported more adversities than controls. Specifically serious conflicts within the family, bullying at school, maternal mental health problems, and one's own and parents' serious illness during childhood were experienced by the patients more often than by controls. In the FEP group, the severity of adversity was associated with increased anxiety, manic, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, but not with the severity of positive psychotic symptoms. Adversity produced a more pronounced effect on symptoms in male patients than in female patients. To conclude, in line with earlier studies of more chronic psychosis, a majority of the participants with FEP reported exposure to childhood adversities, with the FEP group reporting more adversities than controls. High levels of mood and anxiety symptoms in patients with FEP may be related to cumulative exposure to childhood adversities. This should be taken into account in the treatment for FEP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Reducing the duration of untreated first-episode psychosis

    Melle, Ingrid; Larsen, Tor K; Haahr, Ulrik

    2004-01-01

    Most studies on first-episode psychosis show an association between a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and poorer short-term outcome, but the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood.......Most studies on first-episode psychosis show an association between a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and poorer short-term outcome, but the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood....

  4. Visual Hallucinations in First-Episode Psychosis: Association with Childhood Trauma.

    Solesvik, Martine; Joa, Inge; Larsen, Tor Ketil; Langeveld, Johannes; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Bjørnestad, Jone; Anda, Liss Gøril; Gisselgård, Jens; Hegelstad, Wenche Ten Velden; Brønnick, Kolbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Hallucinations are a core diagnostic criterion for psychotic disorders and have been investigated with regard to its association with childhood trauma in first-episode psychosis samples. Research has largely focused on auditory hallucinations, while specific investigations of visual hallucinations in first-episode psychosis remain scarce. The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of visual hallucinations, and to explore the association between visual hallucination and childhood trauma in a first-episode psychosis sample. Subjects were included from TIPS-2, a first episode psychosis study in south Rogaland, Norway. Based on the medical journal descriptions of the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), a separate score for visual and auditory hallucinations was created (N = 204). Patients were grouped according to hallucination severity (none, mild, and psychotic hallucinations) and multinomial logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with visual hallucination group. Visual hallucinations of a psychotic nature were reported by 26.5% of patients. The experience of childhood interpersonal trauma increased the likelihood of having psychotic visual hallucinations. Visual hallucinations are common in first-episode psychosis, and are related to childhood interpersonal trauma.

  5. Subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients

    Surekha Kumari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is limited information from India on subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare patterns of subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted at the OPD level, and follow-up was done at the Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Sciences (RINPAS during the period May 2008 to November 2008. Tools utilized were sociodemographic data sheet, Family Burden Interview Schedule developed by Pai and R. L. Kapur (1981. The sample comprised of 50 samples of spouses (25 male and 25 female spouses of schizophrenia patients. Results: The findings suggest that both the groups, viz., male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients, showed moderate level of subjective burden, i.e., 13 (52% and 15 (60% male and female spouses, respectively, which was statistically found to be insignificant. Conclusion : No significant difference was found between male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients with regard to the level of subjective burden.

  6. Antipsychotic medication non-adherence among schizophrenia ...

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... Non-adherence can cause high rates of relapse within 5 years of recovery from the first episode.7. Thus, lack of .... schizophrenia patients at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa,. Ethiopia, June 2014 (n = 412). 0. No substance use. Alcohol. Cigarre e. Chat. Alcohol/Cigarete/Chat. Cigarrete/ ...

  7. Changing the name of schizophrenia: patient perspectives and implications for DSM-V.

    Constantin Tranulis

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of schizophrenia is increasingly contested by researchers, clinicians, patients and family members. Preeminent researchers proposed its replacement with the salience syndrome concept, arguing for increased validity and less stigmatizing potential. This is the first study exploring the effects on stigma of this nosological proposal. METHODS: TWO STUDIES WERE CONDUCTED: one with 161 undergraduate students regarding their stigmatizing attitudes linked to the label of schizophrenia or salience syndrome, the other involved in-depth qualitative interviews with 19 participants treated in a first episode psychosis program. The interviews explored the subjective validity, acceptability and effects on stigma of a diagnosis of schizophrenia or salience syndrome. RESULTS: Overall, no significant differences were found between labels in study 1. For study 2, the majority of participants preferred a diagnosis of salience syndrome, considering it less stigmatizing mostly because of its novelty and the concealing potential of the new diagnostic entity, though many found it hard to relate to and somewhat difficult to understand. DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that the label change does not impact the stigmatizing potential for individuals who are not familiar with mental illness - they appear to base their attitudes on descriptions rather than the label alone. For those suffering from mental illness, a name change for schizophrenia to "salience syndrome" might offer only a temporary relief from stigma. Claims of de-stigmatizing effects should be grounded in sound scientific models of stigma and ideally in empirical data.

  8. Hyperglycemia and diabetes in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders

    Cohen, D; Stolk, RP; Grobbee, DE; Gispen-De Wied, CC

    OBJECTIVE - Pharmacoepidemiological studies have shown an increased prevalence of diabetes in patients with schizophrenia. To address this issue, we decided to assess glucose metabolism in a population of patients With schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Oral

  9. Increased suicidal risk among smoking schizophrenia patients.

    Iancu, Iulian; Sapir, Anna Piccone; Shaked, Ginette; Poreh, Amir; Dannon, Pinhas Nadim; Chelben, Joseph; Kotler, Moshe

    2006-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients display a high suicidal risk, although this risk is difficult to predict. One of the variables associated with increased suicide risk is smoking. In the present study, we assessed the suicidal risk in schizophrenia patients, smokers and nonsmokers. We also evaluated the impact of various variables such as psychotic symptoms, impulsivity, and extra-pyramidal side effects on suicidal risk. Sixty-one schizophrenia patients responded to a battery of measures, including the suicidal risk scale (SRS), the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), the impulsivity control scale, and the Simpson Angus Scale for extrapyramidal side effects. The effect of smoking on the various measures, especially suicidal risk, was examined. Schizophrenia patients who smoke obtained higher PANSS scores (both total score and positive and negative subscales), but did not differ on the Simpson Angus scale of extrapyramidal side effects. They also exhibited higher suicide risk as reflected by higher scores on the SRS, and a trend for higher impulsivity as measured by the impulsivity control scale. Women that smoked had higher SRS scores as compared with female nonsmokers, and also higher than in males, smokers and nonsmokers. Smoking and a history of suicide attempt predicted in our regression analysis a higher SRS score. When conducting separate analyses for the male and female patients, the significant contributors were the PANSS total score among the males and the number of pack-years among the female patients. Despite hints toward the role of smoking in suicidal behavior in Schizophrenia, especially among female patients, more studies are needed to elucidate the association between smoking and suicidality in schizophrenia patients.

  10. A mentally retarded patient with schizophrenia.

    Rabia, K; Khoo, Em

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most incapacitating forms of mental disorder that runs a chronic and relapsing course. It typically starts in adolescence or early adulthood and can be life-long. It is more common in people with learning disabilities than in the general population. Its prodromal features include depression, anxiety, suspiciousness, social isolation and bizarre behaviour. It may result in significant functional, social and economic impairments. The care of patients with schizophrenia places a considerable burden on all carers including patient's family, health and social services. Treatment includes pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions. In this case report we describe a thirteen-year-old patient with schizophrenia who has a background history of mental retardation.

  11. Antipsychotic treatment in child and adolescent first-episode psychosis: a longitudinal naturalistic approach.

    Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Parellada, Mara; Soutullo, César A; Baeza, Immaculada; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Graell, Montserrat; Paya, Beatriz; Moreno, Dolores; de la Serna, Elena; Arango, Celso

    2008-08-01

    The Child and Adolescent First-Episode Psychosis Study (CAFEPS) is a naturalistic longitudinal study of early-onset first psychotic episodes. This report describes the antipsychotic treatment during the first year and compares the most frequently used agents after 6 months. Participants were 110 patients, aged 9-17 years, with a first psychotic episode attended consecutively at six different centers. The Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), Clinical Global Impressions (CGI), Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS), and Global Assessment of Function (GAF) scales were administered at baseline and at 6 months and the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser (UKU) Side Effects Rating Scale only at 6 months. Diagnoses at baseline were 38.2% psychotic disorder not otherwise specified, 39.1% schizophrenia-type disorder, 11.8% depressive disorder with psychotic symptoms, and 10.9% bipolar disorder, manic episode with psychotic symptoms. The most frequently used antipsychotic agents were risperidone (n = 50), quetiapine (n = 18), and olanzapine (n = 16). Patients who were prescribed olanzapine or quetiapine had more negative and general symptoms. Using the baseline score as covariate, no significant differences were found in the reductions on any scale in patients treated with risperidone, quetiapine, or olanzapine for 6 months. Weight increase was greater with olanzapine than with risperidone (p = 0.020) or quetiapine (p = 0.040). More neurological side effects appeared with risperidone than with olanzapine (p = 0.022). All side effects were mild or moderate. Second-generation antipsychotics, especially risperidone, quetiapine, and olanzapine, are the most used in our context in first psychotic episodes in children and adolescents. These three obtain similar clinical improvement, but differ in their side effects.

  12. Brain derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) is associated with childhood abuse but not cognitive domains in first episode psychosis.

    Theleritis, Christos; Fisher, Helen L; Shäfer, Ingo; Winters, Laura; Stahl, Daniel; Morgan, Craig; Dazzan, Paola; Breedvelt, Josefien; Sambath, Irene; Vitoratou, Silia; Russo, Manuela; Reichenberg, Abraham; Falcone, M Aurora; Mondelli, Valeria; O'Connor, Jennifer; David, Anthony; McGuire, Philip; Pariante, Carmine; Di Forti, Marta; Murray, Robin M; Bonaccorso, Stefania

    2014-10-01

    The Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) modulates cognitive processes and is associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. Childhood trauma (CT) is frequent in patients with psychosis and severely affects course and outcome. We investigated the hypothesis that BDNF is associated with both CT and cognitive deficits in a sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP) cases and unaffected controls. Participants with FEP and healthy controls were recruited between August 2008 and July 2011 from South London, UK. Childhood traumatic events were detected using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA-Q). Neuropsychological data were also collected. BDNF plasma levels were measured from fasting blood samples. Data were available on 87 FEP patients and 152 controls. Our results showed a significant effect of separation (F=5.5; df=1,115; p=.02), physical (F=4.7; df=1, 118; p=.03) and sexual abuse (F=5.4; df=1,117; p=.02) on BDNF levels with lower levels among those who experienced the traumatic event compared to those who did not. Physical abuse predicted lower plasma levels of BDNF (β=-.30; p=.03) whereas sexual and/or physical abuse showed a trend (β=-.26; p=.06) in FEP patients but not in unaffected controls. No association between BDNF plasma levels and cognitive functions was found among patients with FEP and controls. Our findings suggest the possible involvement of BDNF in the onset of first-episode psychosis in individuals exposed to early trauma and propose BDNF as a potential clinical biomarker to detect the detrimental effects of CT on human brain plasticity. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of contact with schizophrenia on implicit attitudes towards schizophrenia patients held by clinical residents

    Omori Ataru

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with schizophrenia and their families have suffered greatly from stigmatizing effects. Although many efforts have been made to eradicate both prejudice and stigma, they still prevail even among medical professionals, and little is known about how contact with schizophrenia patients affects their attitudes towards schizophrenia. Methods We assessed the impact of the renaming of the Japanese term for schizophrenia on clinical residents and also evaluated the influence of contact with schizophrenia patients on attitudes toward schizophrenia by comparing the attitudes toward schizophrenia before and after a one-month clinical training period in psychiatry. Fifty-one clinical residents participated. Their attitudes toward schizophrenia were assessed twice, before and one month after clinical training in psychiatry using the Implicit Association Test (IAT as well as Link’s devaluation-discrimination scale. Results The old term for schizophrenia, “Seishin-Bunretsu-Byo”, was more congruent with criminal than the new term for schizophrenia, “Togo-Shitcho-Sho”, before clinical training. However, quite opposite to our expectation, after clinical training the new term had become even more congruent with criminal than the old term. There was no significant correlation between Link's scale and IAT effect. Conclusions Renaming the Japanese term for schizophrenia still reduced the negative images of schizophrenia among clinical residents. However, contact with schizophrenia patients unexpectedly changed clinical residents’ attitudes towards schizophrenia negatively. Our results might contribute to an understanding of the formation of negative attitudes about schizophrenia and assist in developing appropriate clinical training in psychiatry that could reduce prejudice and stigma concerning schizophrenia.

  14. A MENTALLY RETARDED PATIENT WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    KHOO EM

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most incapacitating forms of mental disorder that runs a chronic and relapsing course. It typically starts in adolescence or early adulthood and can be life-long. It is more common in people with learning disabilities than in the general population. Its prodromal features include depression, anxiety, suspiciousness, social isolation and bizarre behaviour. It may result in significant functional, social and economic impairments. The care of patients with schizophrenia places a considerable burden on all carers including patient’s family, health and social services. Treatment includes pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions. In this case report we describe a thirteen-year-old patient with schizophrenia who has a background history of mental retardation.

  15. A pilot study of cognitive insight and structural covariance in first-episode psychosis.

    Kuang, Corin; Buchy, Lisa; Barbato, Mariapaola; Makowski, Carolina; MacMaster, Frank P; Bray, Signe; Deighton, Stephanie; Addington, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive insight is described as a balance between one's self-reflectiveness (recognition and correction of dysfunctional reasoning), and self-certainty (overconfidence). Neuroimaging studies have linked the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) to cognitive insight in people with psychosis. However, the relationship between cognitive insight and structural connectivity between the VLPFC and other brain areas is unknown. Here, we investigated the modulation of cognitive insight on structural covariance networks involving the VLPFC in a first-episode psychosis sample. Fifteen patients with a first-episode psychosis provided magnetic resonance (MR) scans and completed the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS). MR scans were also available for 15 historical controls. Seed-based analysis of structural covariance was conducted using the Mapping Anatomical Correlations Across the Cerebral Cortex (MACACC) methodology, whereby Pearson correlation coefficients were extracted between seed regions in left and right VLPFC and cortical thickness across the brain. Structural covariance maps between groups were compared at each vertex. In first-episode subjects, we evaluated the modulation of BCIS scores on cortical covariance between VLPFC and every other vertex. Findings showed no significant group difference between first-episode psychosis subjects and controls in thickness covariance seeded from left or right VLPFC. However, in first-episode psychosis subjects, a positive association with self-certainty was found in networks seeded from both left and right VLPFC with thickness in medial frontal cortex and right pars triangularis. No significant associations were found for self-reflectiveness. These results suggest that self-certainty, but not self-reflectiveness, positively modulated cortical covariance in a frontal network in patients with a first-episode psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. First episode of consciousness loss: setting new standards in acute care management

    Cuciureanu Dan Iulian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a high prevalence of patients addressed to the emergency department presenting a first episode of consciousness loss. The high prevalence of patients admitted to the emergency departments (ED with a first episode of consciousness loss (ECL is well established. Although there are studies assessing acute management in these patients, there is still need for more data on clinical and paraclinical characteristics which may prompt early etiological diagnosis, especially in countries where integrated medical procedures are lacking and access to specialized medical care is still limited. Sudden death syndrome, early cerebral morphological changes emerging in chronic epilepsy is the main motivation for an early diagnosis of epilepsy. The aim of our study was to evaluate demographic, clinical and paraclinical data in adult patients referred to our emergency hospital presenting a first episode of consciousness loss, in order to avoid misdiagnosis (with personal and social high impact and unnecessary anti-epileptic treatment versus underestimation of epilepsy diagnosis. Conclusion: There is a clear need to improve multidisciplinary circuits in patients with a first episode of consciousness loss at a local level, in order to promote accurate and prompt diagnosis. We consider necessary to build a unitary online platform in order to establish an early and complete diagnosis.

  17. Sex differences in cognitive functioning in at-risk mental state for psychosis, first episode psychosis and healthy control subjects.

    Ittig, S; Studerus, E; Papmeyer, M; Uttinger, M; Koranyi, S; Ramyead, A; Riecher-Rössler, A

    2015-02-01

    Several sex differences in schizophrenia have been reported including differences in cognitive functioning. Studies with schizophrenia patients and healthy controls (HC) indicate that the sex advantage for women in verbal domains is also present in schizophrenia patients. However, findings have been inconsistent. No study focused on sex-related cognitive performance differences in at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS) individuals yet. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate sex differences in cognitive functioning in ARMS, first episode psychosis (FEP) and HC subjects. We expected a better verbal learning and memory performance of women in all groups. The neuropsychological data analysed in this study were collected within the prospective Früherkennung von Psychosen (FePsy) study. In total, 118 ARMS, 88 FEP individuals and 86 HC completed a cognitive test battery covering the domains of executive functions, attention, working memory, verbal learning and memory, IQ and speed of processing. Women performed better in verbal learning and memory regardless of diagnostic group. By contrast, men as compared to women showed a shorter reaction time during the working memory task across all groups. The results provide evidence that women generally perform better in verbal learning and memory, independent of diagnostic group (ARMS, FEP, HC). The finding of a shorter reaction time for men in the working memory task could indicate that men have a superior working memory performance since they responded faster during the target trials, while maintaining a comparable overall working memory performance level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Normal brain activation in schizophrenia patients during associative emotional learning

    Swart, Marte; Liemburg, Edith Jantine; Kortekaas, Rudie; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Aleman, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Emotional deficits are among the core features of schizophrenia and both associative emotional learning and the related ability to verbalize emotions can be reduced. We investigated whether schizophrenia patients demonstrated impaired function of limbic and prefrontal areas during associative

  19. Does duration of untreated psychosis bias study samples of first-episode psychosis?

    Friis, S; Melle, I; Larsen, T K

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: While findings are contradictory, many studies report that long Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP) correlates with poorer outcome in first episode psychosis. In an outcome study of first-episode psychosis, we compared the patients who refused to participate in a follow-along with th......OBJECTIVE: While findings are contradictory, many studies report that long Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP) correlates with poorer outcome in first episode psychosis. In an outcome study of first-episode psychosis, we compared the patients who refused to participate in a follow......-along with those who consented to estimate the importance of this factor in sample recruitment bias. Our questions were: (i) What is the percentage of refusers? (ii) Are there systematic differences between refusers and consenters on DUP and/or other admission variables? (iii) What is the risk of refusal...... for different values of DUP? METHOD: In an unselected group of consecutively admitted patients we compared follow-along refusers and consenters on the following admission variables: sex, age, diagnostic group, substance abuse, being in-patient, coming from an early detection site and DUP. We conducted...

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging findings at the first episode of acute optic neuritis

    Soelberg, K; Skejoe, H P B; Grauslund, J

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Optic neuritis (ON) is a focal demyelinating event, which may evolve into multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To study MRI characteristics in the acute phase of the first ON episode. METHODS: A prospective population-based study was performed on 31 patients with a first episode of acu...

  1. Regional Gray Matter Volume Deficits in Adolescents with First-Episode Psychosis

    Janssen, Joost; Parellada, Mara; Moreno, Dolores; Graell, Montserrat; Fraguas, David; Zabala, Arantzazu; Vazquez, Veronica Garcia; Desco, Manuel; Arango, Celso

    2008-01-01

    The regional gray matter volumes of adolescents with first-episode psychosis are compared with those of a control group. Magnetic resonance imaging was conducted on 70 patients with early onset FEP and on 51 individuals without FEP. Findings revealed that volume deficits in the left medial frontal gray matter were common in individuals with…

  2. Mismatch Negativity in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Aleš Urban

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficit is considered to be a part of core dysfuncions in schizophrenia. It is associated with social impairment and influences the long-term course of the disorder. In addition to neuropsychological methods, event-related potentials can be used to study cognitive functions. In patients with schizophrenia an association was found between amplitude changes in slow negative component of evoked responses and infrequent deviations in a series of uniform stimuli. This amplitude change is known as „mismatch negativity“ (MMN. It is supposed to be independent of the focused attention and effort that otherwise interfere with neuropsychological testing. Recently accumulated knowledge on MMN as a possible preattentive measure of cognition supports its potential significance for neuropsychological assessment. It may be helpful in more precise diagnosis and functional evaluation of schizophrenia.

  3. 10 year course of IQ in first-episode psychosis

    Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Sundet, Kjetil; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of patients suffering from schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSDs) exhibit a general intellectual impairment at illness onset, but the subsequent intellectual course remains unclear. Relationships between accumulated time in psychosis and long-term intellectual functionin...... performance on test of immediate verbal recall/working memory (WAIS-R Digit Span). This indicates a relationship between accumulated duration of psychosis and long-term intellectual course, irrespective of diagnostic category, in a significant subgroup of patients.......A substantial proportion of patients suffering from schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSDs) exhibit a general intellectual impairment at illness onset, but the subsequent intellectual course remains unclear. Relationships between accumulated time in psychosis and long-term intellectual functioning...... categories were defined: core versus non-core SSDs. No significant change in IQ was found for the total sample. Intellectual course was not related to DUP or stringency of diagnostic category. However, a subgroup with long DAT demonstrated a significant intellectual decline, mainly associated with a weaker...

  4. Cannabis use and first-episode psychosis:relationship with manic and psychotic symptoms, and with age at presentation

    Stone, J. M.; Fisher, H L; Major, B; Chisholm, B; Woolley, J; Lawrence, J; Rahaman, N; Joyce, J; Hinton, M.; Johnson, S; Young, A H

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cannabis use has been reported to be associated with an earlier onset of symptoms in patients with first-episode psychosis, and a worse outcome in those who continue to take cannabis. In general, studies have concentrated on symptoms of psychosis rather than mania. In this study, using a longitudinal design in a large naturalistic cohort of patients with first-episode psychosis, we investigated the relationship between cannabis use, age of presentation to services, daily functioni...

  5. A Neuroanatomical Signature for Schizophrenia Across Different Ethnic Groups

    Gong, Qiyong; Dazzan, Paola; Scarpazza, Cristina; Kasai, Kyioto; Hu, Xinyu; Marques, Tiago R.; Iwashiro, Norichika; Huang, Xiaoqi; Murray, Robin M.; Koike, Shinsuke; David, Anthony S.; Yamasue, Hidenori; Lui, Su; Mechelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disabling clinical syndrome found across the world. While the incidence and clinical expression of this illness are strongly influenced by ethnic factors, it is unclear whether patients from different ethnicities show distinct brain deficits. In this multicentre study, we used structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging to investigate neuroanatomy in 126 patients with first episode schizophrenia who came from 4 ethnically distinct cohorts (White Caucasians, African-Caribbeans, Ja...

  6. Cannabis use and family history in adolescent first episode ...

    Objectives: To investigate the clinical correlates of cannabis use in adolescents with first episode psychosis (FEP). Methods: Inpatient psychiatric records provided demographic, lifetime cannabis use, family history of mental illness, and clinical data on 45 FEP adolescents, aged 12–18 years, admitted to a psychiatric unit in ...

  7. First-episode psychosis: An update | Chiliza | South African Journal ...

    Interest in the subject of first-episode psychosis has increased considerably in the last two decades. At present, a number of centres around the world focus on early identification and intervention in people with psychotic disorders. Researchers have focused particularly on people who are possibly experiencing the ...

  8. Rates of first episode of psychosis in a defined catchment area in Greece.

    Peritogiannis, Vaios; Mantas, Christos; Tatsioni, Athina; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2013-01-01

    This is the first Greek study presenting epidemiologic data on first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients in a defined catchment area. Data for first episode psychotic patients during a two-year period (2008 and 2009) were obtained by all the mental health providers in the area, public or private. A total of 132 FEP patients were examined in the 2-year period in the catchment area. Most of the patients (61.4%) were diagnosed and treated by private practicing psychiatrists. Statistical analysis showed no differences between the two sectors in terms of patients' age, gender, family and social status, profession and duration of untreated psychosis (median duration 6 months). Patients who were abusing substances and had no family psychiatric history were less likely been treated in the public sector. Immigrants comprised only a small proportion of the patients, probably because they have difficulties in accessing the mental health system.

  9. White Matter Changes in First Episode Psychosis and their Relation to the Size of Sample Studied: A DTI Study

    Melicher, T.; Horáček, J.; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Španiel, F.; Tintěra, J.; Ibrahim, I.; Mikoláš, P.; Novák, T.; Mohr, P.; Höschl, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 162, 1-3 (2015), s. 22-28 ISSN 0920-9964 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23940S Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 1392213 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : first episode psychosis * schizophrenia * diffusion tensor imaging * Tract-Based Spatial Statistics * fractional anisotropy Subject RIV: FL - Psychiatry, Sexuology Impact factor: 4.453, year: 2015

  10. Treating first episode psychosis--the service users' perspective: a focus group evaluation.

    O'Toole, M S; Ohlsen, R I; Taylor, T M; Purvis, R; Walters, J; Pilowsky, L S

    2004-06-01

    UK national guidance has prioritized developing specialist services for first episode psychosis. Such services are in the early stages of development and a definitive treatment model has yet to be established. The aim of this study was to explore service users' experiences of a first episode intervention designed along evidence-based 'best practice' guidelines and to establish specific elements seen as effective to help inform future service planning and provision. Twelve users of a specialist first episode service participated in focus groups. These were then analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, a specialized form of content analysis. Key elements identified by the service users included the 'human' approach as a key to the recovery process, being involved in treatment decisions, flexibility of appointments, high nurse to patient ratio, reduction in psychotic symptoms, increased confidence and independence and the provision of daily structure. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic qualitative evaluation of users' experience of a specialist first episode treatment intervention. Our findings indicate that adherence to best practice guidelines was appreciated. Regular focus groups provide a continuous audit cycle incorporating service improvements in line with government recommendations, centrally informed by the service users' and caregivers' perspective.

  11. Influence of childhood trauma on diagnosis and substance use in first-episode psychosis.

    Tomassi, S; Tosato, S; Mondelli, V; Faravelli, C; Lasalvia, A; Fioravanti, G; Bonetto, C; Fioritti, A; Cremonese, C; Lo Parrino, R; De Santi, K; Meneghelli, A; Torresani, S; De Girolamo, G; Semrov, E; Pratelli, M; Cristofalo, D; Ruggeri, M

    2017-09-01

    Background Childhood trauma has been significantly associated with first-episode psychosis, affective dysfunction and substance use. Aims To test whether people with first-episode psychosis who had experienced childhood trauma, when compared with those who had not, showed a higher rate of affective psychosis and an increased lifetime rate of substance use. Method The sample comprised 345 participants with first-episode psychosis (58% male, mean age 29.8 years, s.d. = 9.7). Results Severe sexual abuse was significantly associated with a diagnosis of affective psychosis (χ 2 = 4.9, P = 0.04) and with higher rates of lifetime use of cannabis (68% v 41%; P = 0.02) and heroin (20% v 5%; P = 0.02). Severe physical abuse was associated with increased lifetime use of heroin (15% v 5%; P = 0.03) and cocaine (32% v 17%; P = 0.05). Conclusions Patients with first-episode psychosis exposed to childhood trauma appear to constitute a distinctive subgroup in terms of diagnosis and lifetime substance use. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  12. Persistent suicide risk in clinically improved schizophrenia patients: challenge of the suicidal dimension

    Amresh Shrivastava

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Amresh Shrivastava1, Megan E Johnston2, Nilesh Shah3, Marco Innamorati4, Larry Stitt5, Meghana Thakar3, David Lester6, Maurizio Pompili4,71Silver Mind Hospital and Mental Health Foundation of India, Mumbai, India; 2Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Lokmanya Tilak Municipal General Hospital, University of Mumbai, India; 4Department of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Sensory Functions, Suicide Prevention Center, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; 5Department of Biostatistics, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada; 6The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, Pomona, NJ, USA; 7McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USABackground: Suicide is a major problem in schizophrenia, estimated to affect 9%–13% of patients. About 25% of schizophrenic patients make at least one suicide attempt in their lifetime. Current outcome measures do not address this problem, even though it affects quality of life and patient safety. The aim of this study was to assess suicidality in long-term clinically improved schizophrenia patients who were treated in a nongovernmental psychiatric treatment centre in Mumbai, India.Method: Participants were 61 patients out of 200 consecutive hospitalized first-episode patients with schizophrenia diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders who were much improved on the Clinical Global Impression Scale-Improvement (CGI-I scale at the endpoint of a 10-year follow-up. Clinical assessment tools included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia, CGI-I, Global Assessment of Functioning, and suicidality.Results: Many of the patients, although clinically improved, experienced emerging suicidality during the 10-year follow-up period. All of the patients reported significant suicidality (ie, suicide attempts, suicidal crises, or suicidal ideation at the end of the study, whereas only 83% had

  13. Utilising symptom dimensions with diagnostic categories improves prediction of time to first remission in first-episode psychosis.

    Ajnakina, Olesya; Lally, John; Di Forti, Marta; Stilo, Simona A; Kolliakou, Anna; Gardner-Sood, Poonam; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine; Reis Marques, Tiago; Mondelli, Valeria; MacCabe, James; Gaughran, Fiona; David, Anthony S; Stamate, Daniel; Murray, Robin M; Fisher, Helen L

    2018-03-01

    There has been much recent debate concerning the relative clinical utility of symptom dimensions versus conventional diagnostic categories in patients with psychosis. We investigated whether symptom dimensions rated at presentation for first-episode psychosis (FEP) better predicted time to first remission than categorical diagnosis over a four-year follow-up. The sample comprised 193 FEP patients aged 18-65years who presented to psychiatric services in South London, UK, between 2006 and 2010. Psychopathology was assessed at baseline with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and five symptom dimensions were derived using Wallwork/Fortgang's model; baseline diagnoses were grouped using DSM-IV codes. Time to start of first remission was ascertained from clinical records. The Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) was used to find the best fitting accelerated failure time model of dimensions, diagnoses and time to first remission. Sixty percent of patients remitted over the four years following first presentation to psychiatric services, and the average time to start of first remission was 18.3weeks (SD=26.0, median=8). The positive (BIC=166.26), excited (BIC=167.30) and disorganised/concrete (BIC=168.77) symptom dimensions, and a diagnosis of schizophrenia (BIC=166.91) predicted time to first remission. However, a combination of the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia with all five symptom dimensions led to the best fitting model (BIC=164.35). Combining categorical diagnosis with symptom dimension scores in FEP patients improved the accuracy of predicting time to first remission. Thus our data suggest that the decision to consign symptom dimensions to an annexe in DSM-5 should be reconsidered at the earliest opportunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional deterioration from the premorbid period to 2 years after the first episode of psychosis in early-onset psychosis.

    Del Rey-Mejías, Ángel; Fraguas, David; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Pina-Camacho, Laura; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Inmaculada; Espliego, Ana; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; González-Pinto, Ana; de la Serna, Elena; Payá, Beatriz; Graell, Montserrat; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze changes in functional adjustment from childhood to 2 years after the first episode of psychosis (FEP) in patients with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and affective psychoses (AFP) and a good or intermediate level of premorbid adjustment. We followed 106 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) with FEP for 2 years after recruitment. Premorbid adjustment in childhood was assessed in 98 patients with the childhood subscale of the Cannon-Spoor Premorbid Adjustment Scale (c-PAS). Global functioning was assessed 2 years after the FEP with the Children's Global Assessment Scale (c-GAS) or the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF), as appropriate. Functional deterioration was defined as a downward shift in the level of functional adjustment from childhood to 2 years after the FEP. In patients with good or intermediate premorbid adjustment, functional deterioration was observed in 28.2 % (26.5 % of the AFP group, 29.4 % of the SSD group). Longer duration of untreated psychosis (Beta = 0.01; P = 0.01) and higher symptom severity at the FEP, as measured with the Clinical Global Impression Scale (Beta = 1.12; P = 0.02), significantly predicted the presence of functional deterioration, accounting for 21.4 % of the variance. Irrespective of diagnosis (SSD or AFP), almost one-third of adolescents with FEP and good or intermediate premorbid adjustment showed functional deterioration from the premorbid period to 2 years after the FEP.

  15. Neurocognitive recovery of patients with paranoid schizophrenia

    Olena Molchanova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. At present neurocognitive impairment is considered a core feature of schizophrenia. This statement is grounded on cognitive impairment stability, the persistence of cognitive impairment independently of the disease stage and other symptoms of schizophrenia. The relevance of the search for cognitive remediation methods is determined by the influence of cognitive functioning on the functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia. In order to solve this problem, scientists are actively investigating such direction in the treatment of patients with this psychopathology as «neurocognitive therapy» or neurocognitive training. Objective.To evaluate the effectiveness of neurocognitive training in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Methods and materials. The patients who matched inclusion criteria were assessed on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Personal and Social Performance scale (PSP, neuropsychological tests (Trail Making Test part A and B, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Luria test at the baseline, 1st and 6th month. All patients who were included in the study were randomly assigned into two groups. The intervention group (n=40 underwent a standard supportive treatment and neurocognitive training. The control group (n=31 received supportive medication treatment alone. Results. After 1st month, a statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups was found both for the overall PANSS score improvement and improvement in several items, which represented the cognitive decline. Total PSP score increased significantly in the intervention group from 41-50 to 51-60 (р=0.0001. In Wisconsin Card Sorting Test the proportion of incorrect answers decreased by 31.4% (р=0.0001, perseverative errors by 20.1% (р=0.042, the number of completed categories increased by 33.5% (р=0.002. Conclusion. The proposed neurocognitive training program showed positive results, which was reflected in a statistically

  16. Attributional style in fist episode of schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders with and without paranoid ideation.

    Zaytseva, Yulia; Burova, Vitalina; Garakh, Zanna; Gurovich, Isaac Ya

    2013-09-01

    In the present study we evaluated attributional style which refers to how individuals explain the causes for positive and negative events in their lives in patients with first episode of schizophrenia with and without paranoid ideation. 43 patients with first episode of psychosis and 37 matched normal controls completed Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ) (Combs et al. 2007). Between group comparison of AIHQ scores showed a notable tendency to show aggressive response in overall patients group. We obtained significant elevation of hostility and blame biases scores in intentional and accidental situations in patients with paranoid ideation while the patients with non-paranoid ideation showed greater hostility and blame biases only in accidental situations as compared to controls. Correlations with positive and negative symptoms were obtained. Our findings suggest that patients with first episode of psychosis exhibit difficulties of the attribution biases which are interconnected with symptoms and thus indicate a trait-deficit of attributional style.

  17. Antipsychotics, brain morphology and duration of untreated illness in schizophrenia

    Boonstra, G.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: This thesis addresses the necessity of prophylactic antipsychotic treatment in first-episode schizophrenia patients and the effect of discontinuation of antipsychotics on brain volume and side-effects as well as the usage of these medications in general practice. Furthermore, the influence of

  18. The relationship between insight and neurological dysfunction in first-episode psychosis.

    Hill, M

    2012-04-01

    Impaired insight is commonly seen in psychosis and some studies have proposed that is a biologically based deficit. Support for this view comes from the excess of neurological soft signs (NSS) observed in patients with psychoses and their neural correlates which demonstrate a degree of overlap with the regions of interest implicated in neuroimaging studies of insight. The aim was to examine the relationship between NSS and insight in a sample of 241 first-episode psychosis patients.

  19. Successful treatment with risperidone increases 5-HT 3A receptor gene expression in patients with paranoid schizophrenia - data from a prospective study.

    Chen, Hongying; Fan, Yong; Zhao, Lei; Hao, Yong; Zhou, Xiajun; Guan, Yangtai; Li, Zezhi

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between peripheral 5-HT3A receptor mRNA level and risperidone efficiency in paranoid schizophrenia patients is still unknown. A total 52 first-episode and drug-naive paranoid schizophrenia patients who were treated with risperidone and 53 matched healthy controls were enrolled. Patients were naturalistically followed up for 8 weeks. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was applied to assess symptom severity of the patients at baseline and at the end of 8th week. There was no difference in 5-HT3A receptor mRNA level between paranoid schizophrenia patients and healthy controls at baseline ( p  = .24). Among 47 patients who completed 8-week naturalistic follow-up, 37 were responders to risperidone treatment. 5-HT3A receptor mRNA level of paranoid schizophrenia patients did not change in overall patients after 8-week treatment with risperidone ( p  = .29). However, 5-HT3A receptor mRNA level in responders increased significantly ( p  = .04), but not in nonresponders ( p  = .81). Successful treatment with risperidone increases 5-HT3A receptor gene expression in patients with paranoid schizophrenia, indicating that 5-HT3A receptor may be involved in the mechanism of risperidone effect.

  20. Incidence of stressful life events and influence of sociodemographic and clinical variables on the onset of first-episode psychosis.

    Butjosa, Anna; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Del Cacho, Núria; Barajas, Ana; Baños, Iris; Usall, Judith; Dolz, Montserrat; Sánchez, Bernardo; Carlson, Janina; Maria Haro, Josep; Ochoa, Susana

    2016-11-30

    This study presents a quantitative analysis of the incidence of stressful life events (SLEs) and the variables gender, age at onset, family history and psychotic symptoms in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). A descriptive, cross-sectional methodology was used to interview 68 patients with FEP between 13 and 47 years of age. The Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview Life Events Scale collected one-year period prior to onset of FEP - used to analyse the subcategories academic, work, love and marriage, children, residence, legal affairs, finances and social activities-, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia scale were used to assess the relevance of certain SLEs during adolescence. Age at onset showed a significant negative correlation with the categories academic and social activities. By contrast, it showed a positive correlation with work and children. A significant relationship was found between paternal family history and social activities and between maternal family history and academic and love and marriage. Finally, an inverse relationship was observed between negative symptoms and the categories children and finance. Depressive symptoms were significantly correlated with the category academic. Our results show the importance of SLEs during adolescence and suggest that there is a clear need to develop preventive actions that promote effective strategies for dealing with the accumulation of psychosocial stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychosis: clinical insight and beliefs in immigrants in their first episode.

    Berg, Akiah Ottesen; Barrett, Elizabeth Ann; Nerhus, Mari; Büchman, Camilla; Simonsen, Carmen; Faerden, Ann; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid

    2018-04-01

    Lack of insight into illness is frequent in psychotic disorders and seen as part of their primary pathology. The recognition of symptoms as psychotic, and beliefs about treatment alternatives, is also influenced by socio-cultural factors. Here we examined clinical insight into illness and beliefs about psychosis in immigrants in their first episode of psychosis compared with a reference group. A total of 277 first-episode psychosis participants were recruited to this cross-sectional study; 40 first- and 40 second-generation immigrants from Europe, Americas and Oceania (n = 37), Asia including Turkey (n = 28) or Africa (n = 15). The Birchwood Insight Scale was used to measure clinical insight and 'The Attitudes and Beliefs about Mental Health Problems' schizophrenia version to assess socio-cultural beliefs. Immigrants did not differ from the reference sample in clinical insight. After controlling for education level, first-generation immigrants were less likely to recognize psychotic symptoms (odds ratio (OR) 2.9; Wald = 8.977, degrees of freedom (d.f.) 1, P = 0.003) and viewed hospitalization (OR 5.2; Wald = 20.388, d.f. 1, P = 0.001) and treatment by a psychiatrist (OR 4.9; Wald = 6.609, d.f. 1, P = 0.01)) as less beneficial than the reference group. Immigrants from Asia held more alternative explanations (OR 0.3; Wald = 6.567, d.f. 1, P = 0.010). There were significantly stronger associations between clinical insight and socio-cultural beliefs in the reference group. Socio-cultural beliefs about psychosis in immigrants in first-episode psychosis call for more tailored information to this group, and emphasize the importance of treatment interventions involving both a cultural and personal perspective of insight. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Risk for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy: population based cohort study

    Qin, Ping; Xu, Huylan; Laursen, Thomas Munk

    2005-01-01

    .20) in people with a history of epilepsy. The effect of epilepsy was the same in men and in women and increased with age. Family history of psychosis and a family history of epilepsy were significant risk factors for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis, and the effect of epilepsy, both in cases......OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether age at onset of epilepsy, type of epilepsy, family history of psychosis, or family history of epilepsy affect the risk of schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy. DESIGN: Comparison of population based data. SETTING: Danish...... and families, was greater among people with no family history of psychosis. In addition, the increased risk for schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis did not differ by type of epilepsy but increased with increasing number of admissions to hospital and, particularly, was significantly greater for people...

  3. Comorbidities and risk factors among patients with schizophrenia.

    Harrison, Christopher; Charles, Janice; Britt, Helena

    2015-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are charged with maintaining a holistic approach to their patients' health. While most patients with schizophrenia attend public mental health services and/or non-government organisations supporting people with mental illness, 88.2% of people with a psychotic illness (the majority being schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder) had visited a GP in the previous year. For at least 30-40% of people living with schizophrenia in Australia, ongoing management is provided by their GP alone. Moreover, there is evidence that patients with schizophrenia value the help provided by GPs. Patients with schizophrenia have reduced life expectancy. Overseas research (primarily from the UK and US) has found that the poor physical health of patients with schizophrenia can be attributed to a number of factors such as modifiable lifestyle risk factors and side effects of medication, compounded by causes intrinsic to the illness such as mental stress and loss of initiative.

  4. [Face recognition in patients with schizophrenia].

    Doi, Hirokazu; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-01

    It is well known that patients with schizophrenia show severe deficiencies in social communication skills. These deficiencies are believed to be partly derived from abnormalities in face recognition. However, the exact nature of these abnormalities exhibited by schizophrenic patients with respect to face recognition has yet to be clarified. In the present paper, we review the main findings on face recognition deficiencies in patients with schizophrenia, particularly focusing on abnormalities in the recognition of facial expression and gaze direction, which are the primary sources of information of others' mental states. The existing studies reveal that the abnormal recognition of facial expression and gaze direction in schizophrenic patients is attributable to impairments in both perceptual processing of visual stimuli, and cognitive-emotional responses to social information. Furthermore, schizophrenic patients show malfunctions in distributed neural regions, ranging from the fusiform gyrus recruited in the structural encoding of facial stimuli, to the amygdala which plays a primary role in the detection of the emotional significance of stimuli. These findings were obtained from research in patient groups with heterogeneous characteristics. Because previous studies have indicated that impairments in face recognition in schizophrenic patients might vary according to the types of symptoms, it is of primary importance to compare the nature of face recognition deficiencies and the impairments of underlying neural functions across sub-groups of patients.

  5. Associations between five-factor model of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and plasma levels of monoamine metabolite in patients with schizophrenia.

    Watanabe, Kenya; Miura, Itaru; Kanno-Nozaki, Keiko; Horikoshi, Sho; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Yabe, Hirooki

    2015-12-15

    The five-factor model of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia symptoms is the most common multiple-factor model used in analyses; its use may improve evaluation of symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Plasma monoamine metabolite levels are possible indicators of clinical symptoms or response to antipsychotics in schizophrenia. We investigated the association between five-factor model components and plasma monoamine metabolites levels to explore the model's biological basis. Plasma levels of homovanillic acid (HVA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography in 65 Japanese patients with schizophrenia. Significant negative correlation between plasma 5-HIAA levels and the depression/anxiety component was found. Furthermore, significant positive correlation was found between plasma MHPG levels and the excitement component. Plasma HVA levels were not correlated with any five-factor model component. These results suggest that the five-factor model of the PANSS may have a biological basis, and may be useful for elucidating the psychopathology of schizophrenia. Assessment using the five-factor model may enable understanding of monoaminergic dysfunction, possibly allowing more appropriate medication selection. Further studies of a larger number of first-episode schizophrenia patients are needed to confirm and extend these results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Predisposition to depressive symptoms in patients with paranoid schizophrenia: constitutional-biological, socio-demographic factors and the debut of the disease

    Kh. S. Zhyvago

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify the constitutional-biological, socio-demographic (microsocial and clinical-dynamic (the debut of the disease factors of predisposition to the depressive symptoms development in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Materials and methods. A clinical-anamnestic, socio-demographic, clinical-psychopathological and pathopsychological examinations of 82 patients with paranoid schizophrenia with depressive symptoms identified and compared with 47 patients with paranoid schizophrenia without depressive symptoms. The study was managed using the PANSS, CDSS, HDRS scales and a questionnaire for the assessment of social functioning and quality of the mentally ill life. Groups did not differ in the basic demographic indicators. The study of constitutional and biological predisposition factors included the study of heredity and premorbid characterological features of patients. Socio-demographic (before the onset of the disease microsocial conditions and the current stage factors –family relationships; characteristics of living conditions; financial position; the quality of nutrition. To factors of the disease onset were attributed: age debut; factors that preceded the first episode; syndromes of the first episode; the first reference to a psychiatrist; suicidal statements and intentions. Results. It was evaluated the prognostic significance of individual predisposing factors to depression in patients with paranoid schizophrenia and found the following factors of predisposition (p<0.05: the heredity of schizophrenia and affective disorders; low level of erudition, combined with emotional and volitional immaturity, anxiety, prone to mood swings; low income and the cost of food, clothing and leisure; poor living conditions; unstable or conflictual family relationships; the presence of the first episode of affective symptoms, such as depressive, which is stored in the further course of the disease, as well as anhedonia, sleep and appetite

  7. Examining the Factors Associated with Paid Employment of Clients Enrolled in First Episode of Psychosis Programs

    Carolyn S. Dewa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating mental disorders. For a significant portion of individuals who suffer from this disorder, onset occurs in young adulthood, arresting important social and educational development that is necessary for future successful labor force participation. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature about clients enrolled in first episode psychosis programs and psychosocial outcomes by examining the factors associated with paid employment among young adults who have experienced their first psychotic episodes. In this paper, we consider the association of socioeconomic factors to employment. Our results suggest that in addition to treatment, socioeconomic factors such as receipt of public disability benefits and educational attainment are associated with employment status. These results can help to inform future directions for the enhancement of psychosocial programs in FEP models to promote paid employment.

  8. Mismatch negativity and P3a amplitude in young adolescents with first-episode psychosis

    Rydkjær, J.; Møllegaard Jepsen, J. R.; Pagsberg, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Deficient mismatch negativity (MMN) has been proposed as a candidate biomarker in schizophrenia and may therefore be potentially useful in early identification and intervention in early onset psychosis. In this study we explored whether deficits in the automatic orienting and reorienting...... responses, measured as MMN and P3a amplitude, are present in young adolescents with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and whether findings are specific to psychosis compared to young adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method MMN and P3a amplitude were assessed in young adolescents...... (age 12-17 years) with either FEP (N = 27) or ADHD (N = 28) and age- and gender-matched healthy controls (N = 43). The MMN paradigm consisted of a four-tone auditory oddball task with deviant stimuli based on frequency, duration and their combination. Results Significantly less MMN was found...

  9. The care needs of elderly patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    Meesters, P.D.; Comijs, H.C.; Dröes, R.M.; de Haan, L.; Smit, J.H.; Eikelenboom, P.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Stek, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Elderly patients constitute the fastest growing segment of the schizophrenia population. Still, their needs for care are poorly understood. This study aimed to gain insight into the care needs of older patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Setting and Participants: Patients,

  10. Treatment patterns for schizoaffective disorder and schizophrenia among Medicaid patients.

    Olfson, Mark; Marcus, Steven C; Wan, George J

    2009-02-01

    This study compared background characteristics, pharmacologic treatment, and service use of adults treated for schizoaffective disorder and adults treated for schizophrenia. Medicaid claims data from two states were analyzed with a focus on adults treated for schizoaffective disorder or schizophrenia. Patient groups were compared regarding demographic characteristics, pharmacologic treatment, and health service use during 180 days before and after a claim for either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. A larger proportion of patients were treated for schizophrenia (N=38,760; 70.1%) than for schizoaffective disorder (N=16,570; 29.9%). During the 180 days before the index diagnosis claim, significantly more patients with schizoaffective disorder than those with schizophrenia were treated for depressive disorder (19.6% versus 11.4%, pschizoaffective disorder, 87.3%; schizophrenia, 87.0%), although patients with schizoaffective disorder were significantly more likely than patients with schizophrenia to receive antidepressants (61.7% versus 44.0%, pschizoaffective disorder were also significantly more likely than patients with schizophrenia to receive psychotherapy (23.4% versus 13.0%, pSchizoaffective disorder is commonly diagnosed among Medicaid beneficiaries. These patients often receive complex pharmacologic regimens, and many also receive treatment for mood disorders. Differences in service use patterns between schizoaffective disorder and schizophrenia argue for separate consideration of their health care needs.

  11. Prevalence of schizophrenia in patients with psoriasis: a nationwide study

    Hung-Pin Tu

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Schizophrenia is more prevalent in patients with psoriasis. Although the exact mechanisms remain to be clarified, the finding that psoriatic patients with comorbid cerebrovascular disease or chronic pulmonary disease have higher odds for schizophrenia may imply psoriatic patients with those comorbidities are likely to have higher inflammatory burden, which would contribute to the development of schizophrenia if a disruption of the blood–brain barrier is present. Further investigations are indicated to validate the hypothesis explaining the association between known comorbidies of psoriasis and schizophrenia.

  12. Pleasure Experience and Emotion Expression in Patients with Schizophrenia

    CHU, Min-yi; LI, Xu; LV, Qin-yu; Yl, Zheng-hui; CHEUNG, Eric F. C.; CHAN, Raymond C. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Impairments in emotional experience and expression have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. However, most previous studies have been limited to either emotional experience (especially anhedonia) or expression. Few studies have examined both the experience and expression of emotion in schizophrenia patients at the same time. Aims The present study aimed to examine pleasure experience and emotion expression in patients with schizophrenia. In particular, we specifically examined the relationship between emotion impairments (both pleasure experience and expression) and negative symptoms. Methods One hundred and fifty patients completed the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale and Emotional Expressivity Scale. Results Schizophrenia patients exhibited deficits in experiencing pleasure, but showed intact reported emotion expression. Patients with prominent negative symptoms showed reduced anticipatory pleasure, especially in abstract anticipatory pleasure. Conclusion The present findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia have deficits in pleasure experience, while their abilities to express emotion appear intact. Such deficits are more severe in patients with prominent negative symptoms. PMID:29276350

  13. Sexual dysfunctions in people with first-episode psychosis assessed according to a gender perspective.

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Usall, Judith; Dolz, Montse; Limoncin, Erika; Gravina, Giovanni L; Carosa, Eleonora; Sánchez, Bernardo; Barajas, Ana; Baños, Iris; Huerta, Elena; Farreny, Aida; Franchi, Camilla; Group, Genipe; Ochoa, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic mental disorders often can suffer from sexual dysfunction. Nevertheless, the sexual functioning of new patients with first-episode psychosis has been little explored. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in sexual functioning in people with first-episode psychosis. A group of 40 males and 37 females with first-episode psychosis took part in the research. We administered a psychiatric protocol composed of the PANSS, UKU and SCID-DSM-IV diagnosis. We found that the 42.5% of the male group had sexual dysfunctions while the percentage of the female group was 37.8%. The correlation between sexual dysfunctions and psychopathology did not reveal any association in males. However, in females, general psychopathology and positive symptoms are linked to the alteration of vaginal lubrication: (r=0.547; p=0.003) and (r=0.485; p=0.011), although orgasm alteration was also associated with general psychopathology (r=0.500; p=0.013). Moreover, we found a relation between the alteration of vaginal lubrication with depression(r=0.627; p<0.0001) and disorder of volition (r=0.600; p<0.001). These data suggest that the association between sexual dysfunctions and psychopathology regarded only women. Therefore, during the taking charge of patients it is fundamental to consider the gender-specific relationship between psychopathology and sexual problems.

  14. Regional homogeneity associated with overgeneral autobiographical memory of first-episode treatment-naive patients with major depressive disorder in the orbitofrontal cortex: A resting-state fMRI study.

    Liu, Yansong; Zhao, Xudong; Cheng, Zaohuo; Zhang, Fuquan; Chang, Jun; Wang, Haosen; Xie, Rukui; Wang, Zhiqiang; Cao, Leiming; Wang, Guoqiang

    2017-02-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is involved in the onset and maintenance of depression. Recent studies have shown correlations between OGM and alterations of some brain regions by using task-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, the correlation between OGM and spontaneous brain activity in depression remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) show abnormal regional homogeneity (ReHo) and, if so, whether the brain areas with abnormal ReHo are associated with OGM. Twenty five patients with MDD and 25 age-matched, sex-matched, and education-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state fMRI. All participants were also assessed by 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and autobiographical memory test. The ReHo method was used to analyze regional synchronization of spontaneous neuronal activity. Patients with MDD, compared to healthy controls, exhibited extensive ReHo abnormalities in some brain regions, including the frontal, temporal, and occipital cortex. Moreover, ReHo value of the orbitofrontal cortex was negatively correlated with OGM scores in patients with MDD. The sample size of this study was relatively small, and the influence of physiological noise was not completely excluded. These results suggest that abnormal ReHo of spontaneous brain activity in the orbitofrontal cortex may be involved in the pathophysiology of OGM in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Early treatment resistance in a Latin-American cohort of patients with schizophrenia.

    Mena, Cristian; Gonzalez-Valderrama, Alfonso; Iruretagoyena, Barbara; Undurraga, Juan; Crossley, Nicolas A

    2018-03-08

    Failure to respond to antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia is a common clinical scenario with significant morbidity. Recent studies have highlighted that many patients present treatment-resistance from disease onset. We here present an analysis of clozapine prescription patterns, used as a real-world proxy marker for treatment-resistance, in a cohort of 1195 patients with schizophrenia from a Latin-American cohort, to explore the timing of emergence of treatment resistance and possible subgroup differences. Survival analysis from national databases of clozapine monitoring system, national disease notification registers, and discharges from an early intervention ward. Echoing previous studies, we found that around 1 in 5 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia were eventually prescribed clozapine, with an over-representation of males and those with a younger onset of psychosis. The annual probability of being prescribed clozapine was highest within the first year (probability of 0.11, 95% confidence interval of 0.093-0.13), compared to 0.018 (0.012-0.024) between years 1 and 5, and 0.006 (0-0.019) after 5years. Age at psychosis onset, gender, dose of clozapine used, and compliance with hematological monitoring at 12months, was not related to the onset of treatment resistance. A similar pattern was observed in a subgroup of 230 patients discharged from an early intervention ward with a diagnosis of non-affective first episode of psychosis. Our results highlight that treatment resistance is frequently present from the onset of psychosis. Future studies will shed light on the possible different clinical and neurobiological characteristics of this subtype of psychosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. 'Working behind the scenes'. An ethical view of mental health nursing and first-episode psychosis.

    Moe, Cathrine; Kvig, Erling I; Brinchmann, Beate; Brinchmann, Berit S

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore and reflect upon mental health nursing and first-episode psychosis. Seven multidisciplinary focus group interviews were conducted, and data analysis was influenced by a grounded theory approach. The core category was found to be a process named 'working behind the scenes'. It is presented along with three subcategories: 'keeping the patient in mind', 'invisible care' and 'invisible network contact'. Findings are illuminated with the ethical principles of respect for autonomy and paternalism. Nursing care is dynamic, and clinical work moves along continuums between autonomy and paternalism and between ethical reflective and non-reflective practice. 'Working behind the scenes' is considered to be in a paternalistic area, containing an ethical reflection. Treating and caring for individuals experiencing first-episode psychosis demands an ethical awareness and great vigilance by nurses. The study is a contribution to reflection upon everyday nursing practice, and the conclusion concerns the importance of making invisible work visible.

  17. COMT Val158Met, but not BDNF Val66Met, is associated with white matter abnormalities of the temporal lobe in patients with first-episode, treatment-naïve major depressive disorder: a diffusion tensor imaging study

    Hayashi K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Hayashi,1 Reiji Yoshimura,1 Shingo Kakeda,2 Taro Kishi,3 Osamu Abe,4 Wakako Umene-Nakano,1 Asuka Katsuki,1 Hikaru Hori,1 Atsuko Ikenouchi-Sugita,1 Keita Watanabe,2 Satoru Ide,2 Issei Ueda,2 Junji Moriya,2 Nakao Iwata,3 Yukunori Korogi,2 Marek Kubicki,5 Jun Nakamura1 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan; 3Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Japan; 4Department of Radiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 5Psychiatry Neuroimaging Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: We investigated the association between the Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene, the Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene, and white matter changes in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD and healthy subjects using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. We studied 30 patients with MDD (17 males and 13 females, with mean age ± standard deviation [SD] =44±12 years and 30 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (17 males and 13 females, aged 44±13 years. Using DTI analysis with a tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS approach, we investigated the differences in fractional anisotropy, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity distribution among the three groups (patients with the COMT gene Val158Met, those with the BDNF gene Val66Met, and the healthy subjects. In a voxel-wise-based group comparison, we found significant decreases in fractional anisotropy and axial diffusivity within the temporal lobe white matter in the Met-carriers with MDD compared with the controls (P<0.05. No correlations in fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity, or radial diffusivity were observed between the MDD patients and the controls, either among those with the BDNF Val/Val genotype or among the BDNF Met-carriers. These results suggest an association

  18. Predictors of functional and clinical outcome in early-onset first-episode psychosis: the child and adolescent first episode of psychosis (CAFEPS) study.

    Parellada, Mara; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Pina-Camacho, Laura; Moreno, Dolores; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Otero, Soraya; de la Serna, Elena; Moreno, Carmen; Baeza, Inmaculada; Graell, Montserrat; Arango, Celso

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to study baseline clinical and biological predictors of 2-year outcome in a cohort of children and adolescents with a first episode of psychosis. Standard instruments were used to evaluate symptoms and functioning in 110 children and adolescents (mean age = 15.47 years) with first episode of psychosis at admission (between 2003 and 2005) and after 2-year follow-up. Clinical assessments included diagnostic assessment to yield DSM-IV diagnosis, developmental, premorbid, and past-year data, together with structural neuroimaging and other biological parameters (genetics and oxidative stress). Eighty-three subjects had assessments at baseline (including the Strauss-Carpenter Outcome Scale [SCOS]) and at 2-year follow-up. Association and multistep regression analyses were conducted to show correlates and predictors of primary outcome measures: functional outcome (Children's Global Assessment Scale [CGAS]), improvement (CGAS change), and primary negative symptoms (Proxy for the Deficit Syndrome Scale). The SCOS predicted 27.46% (P < .001) of the variance in CGAS score at 2 years. Baseline severity (measured by CGAS) predicted 30.9% (P < .001) of CGAS improvement after 2 years, and SCOS total score predicted an added 24.1% (P < .001). A diagnosis of nonaffective psychosis, primary negative symptoms, and less white matter at baseline predicted more primary negative symptoms at follow-up. The prediction of functional outcome was not increased by genetic, oxidative stress, or neurostructural markers. Baseline clinical assessments have a better predictive value than biological assessments for 2-year follow-up functioning of children and adolescents with a first episode of psychosis. Patients with primary negative symptoms at baseline continue to have negative symptoms 2 years later, and neurostructural markers predict these. Clinicians must still rely on clinical variables to judge the functional prognosis of early-onset first psychotic episodes

  19. Intrinsic motivation and amotivation in first episode and prolonged psychosis.

    Luther, Lauren; Lysaker, Paul H; Firmin, Ruth L; Breier, Alan; Vohs, Jenifer L

    2015-12-01

    The deleterious functional implications of motivation deficits in psychosis have generated interest in examining dimensions of the construct. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding whether dimensions of motivation differ over the course of psychosis. Therefore, this study examined two motivation dimensions, trait-like intrinsic motivation, and the negative symptom of amotivation, and tested the impact of illness phase on the 1) levels of these dimensions and 2) relationship between these dimensions. Participants with first episode psychosis (FEP; n=40) and prolonged psychosis (n=66) completed clinician-rated measures of intrinsic motivation and amotivation. Analyses revealed that when controlling for group differences in gender and education, the FEP group had significantly more intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation than the prolonged psychosis group. Moreover, intrinsic motivation was negatively correlated with amotivation in both FEP and prolonged psychosis, but the magnitude of the relationship did not statistically differ between groups. These findings suggest that motivation deficits are more severe later in the course of psychosis and that low intrinsic motivation may be partially independent of amotivation in both first episode and prolonged psychosis. Clinically, these results highlight the importance of targeting motivation in early intervention services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Caregiver burden among relatives of patients with schizophrenia in ...

    Background. Caring for patients with schizophrenia places an enormous burden on the caregivers. The magnitude of this problem remains largely unknown in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the nature of the burden reported by caregiving relatives of patients with schizophrenia.

  1. Facilitating recruitment of patients with schizophrenia to a clinical trial

    Grønbech, Bettina Ellen; Aagaard, Jørgen; Jensen, Svend Eggert

    People with severe mental illness, such as schizophrenia have higher rates of mortality especially due to cardiovascular disease. We have established a clinical trial named “Coronary artery disease and schizophrenia”. However, patients with schizophrenia have cognitive disturbances, which make re...... recruitment of patients challenging. The purpose of this study is to understand which type of recruitment strategy is needed in clinical trials....

  2. An intervention study to prevent relapse in patients with schizophrenia

    van Meijel, B.; Kruitwagen, C.; van der Gaag, M.; Kahn, R.S.; Grypdonck, M.H.E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the use of relapse prevention plans (RPPs) in nursing practice is an effective intervention in reducing relapse rates among patients with schizophrenia. Design and Methods: Experimental design. Patients with schizophrenia (or a related psychotic disorder) and nurses

  3. Burnout is associated with poor recovery of physical performance and low quality of life in patients after their first episode of acute coronary syndrome: A hospital-based prospective cohort study.

    Zhang, Min; Shi, Yunke; Yang, Yanfei; Liu, Ling; Xiao, Jianming; Guo, Tuo; Li, Jian

    2017-01-15

    "Burnout" is an affective response that is different to depression or anxiety. Studies on the relationship between burnout and physical recovery after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the long-term are lacking, hence the rationale of this study. Participants were patients after their first onset of ACS divided into the high burnout group (HBG) and low burnout group (LBG) based on the upper quartile of their burnout score on the day before discharge. At three times (1month, 6months, and 1year) after ACS, participants were scheduled for assessment of physical function and quality of life (QoL). To determine the association between burnout and physical function at different times, as well as for burnout and the QoL scores, generalized estimating equations were conducted. Of the 208 participants, 68 participants were assigned to HBG, and 140 were assigned to LBG. QoL scores in both groups at three times showed that HBG had lower scores than LBG (pburnout have poor physical recovery and low quality of life after ACS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Criterion and construct validity of the CogState Schizophrenia Battery in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

    Taisuke Yoshida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The CogState Schizophrenia Battery (CSB, a computerized cognitive battery, covers all the same cognitive domains as the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery but is briefer to conduct. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the criterion and construct validity of the Japanese language version of the CSB (CSB-J in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty Japanese patients with schizophrenia and 40 Japanese healthy controls with matching age, gender, and premorbid intelligence quotient were enrolled. The CSB-J and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Japanese-language version (BACS-J were performed once. The structure of the CSB-J was also evaluated by a factor analysis. Similar to the BACS-J, the CSB-J was sensitive to cognitive impairment in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between the CSB-J composite score and the BACS-J composite score. A factor analysis showed a three-factor model consisting of memory, speed, and social cognition factors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggests that the CSB-J is a useful and rapid automatically administered computerized battery for assessing broad cognitive domains in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

  5. [Microcirculation in patients with paranoid schizophrenia].

    Sakharov, A V; Ozornin, A S; Golygina, S E; Vinogradova, A O; Shvets, M S

    2018-01-01

    To study microcirculation in patients with paranoid schizophrenia by laser Doppler flowmetry. Fifty-three patients at the age from 18 to 38 years with a diagnosis of 'paranoid schizophrenia' (F20.0) were examined in the acute psychotic state and after 3 weeks of therapy. The control group consisted of 20 healthy volunteers. To assess microcirculation, the noninvasive technique of laser Doppler flowmetry using a laser blood flow analyzer was used. Significant changes in the microcirculation persisting even over three weeks of therapy in patients were identified. The total microcirculation index was increased by 1.4 times which indicated the acceleration of blood flow. An increase in the average fluctuations of perfusion by 3.7 times and in the coefficient of variation by 1.9 times, which reflect the excessive strengthening of local mechanisms of regulation of microcirculation, were found. There were an increase in the myogenic tone and neurogenic tone of metarteriole and precapillary sphincters as well as bypass index.

  6. No relationship between baseline salivary alpha-amylase and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Score in drug-naïve patients with short-illness-duration first episode major depressive disorder: An exploratory study.

    Szarmach, Joanna; Cubała, Wiesław-Jerzy; Landowski, Jerzy; Chrzanowska, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Salivary α-amylase (sAA) activity alternations are observed in major depressive disorder (MDD) being associated with depression severity and its specific psychopathological dimensions with anxiety being attributed to distress. No data is available on sAA in MDD according to Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The exploratory study examines whether and to what extent baseline sAA level is interrelated to the psychopathological features including severity of symptoms and specific psychopathological dimensions. The basal, non-stimulated sAA activity was studied in 20 non-late-life adult, treatment-naïve MDD patients with short-illness-duration and in 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls along with psychometric assessments with Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Significantly lower ( p =0.011) sAA activity was observed in MDD as compared to controls. No significant correlations were observed between sAA activity and the total HAMD-17 score as well as with regard to the specific core depression, insomnia, anxiety and somatic HAM-D psychopathological dimensions. No significant correlations were also found between sAA and STAIX-1 and STAIX-2 scores. Low baseline sAA levels in MDD with no correlations between sAA and psychopathological features including severity of symptoms and specific psychopathological dimensions was found. Key words: Salivary alpha-amylase, major depressive disorder, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression.

  7. Visual integration dysfunction in schizophrenia arises by the first psychotic episode and worsens with illness duration

    Keane, Brian P.; Paterno, Danielle; Kastner, Sabine; Silverstein, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Visual integration dysfunction characterizes schizophrenia, but prior studies have not yet established whether the problem arises by the first psychotic episode or worsens with illness duration. To investigate the issue, we compared chronic schizophrenia patients (SZs), first episode psychosis patients (FEs), and well-matched healthy controls on a brief but sensitive psychophysical task in which subjects attempted to locate an integrated shape embedded in noise. Task difficulty depended on th...

  8. Family Burden, Emotional Distress and Service Satisfaction in First Episode Psychosis. Data from the GET UP Trial

    Mirella Ruggeri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Literature has documented the role of family in the outcome of chronic schizophrenia. In the light of this, family interventions (FIs are becoming an integral component of treatment for psychosis. The First Episode of Psychosis (FEP is the period when most of the changes in family atmosphere are observed; unfortunately, few studies on the relatives are available.Objective: To explore burden of care and emotional distress at baseline and at 9-month follow-up and the levels of service satisfaction at follow-up in the two groups of relatives (experimental treatment EXP vs. treatment as usual TAU recruited in the cluster-randomized controlled GET UP PIANO trial.Methods: The experimental treatment was provided by routine public Community Mental Health Centers (Italian National Health Service and consisted of Treatment as Usual plus evidence-based additional treatment (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for psychosis for patients, Family Intervention for psychosis, and Case Management. TAU consisted of personalized outpatient psychopharmacological treatment, combined with non-specific supportive clinical management and informal support/educational sessions for families. The outcomes on relatives were assessed by the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire (IEQ-EU, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, and the Verona Service Satisfaction Scale (VSSS-EU. Differences within and between groups were evaluated.Results: At baseline, 75 TAU and 185 EXP caregivers were assessed. In the experimental group 92% of relatives participated in at least 1 family session. At follow-up both groups experienced improvement in all IEQ and GHQ items, but caregivers belonging to the EXP arm experienced a significantly greater change in 10 IEQ items (mainly pertaining to the “Tension” dimension and in GHQ items. Due to the low sample size, a significant effectiveness was only observed for 2 IEQ items and 1 GHQ-12 item. With respect to VSSS data at follow

  9. Family Burden, Emotional Distress and Service Satisfaction in First Episode Psychosis. Data from the GET UP Trial.

    Ruggeri, Mirella; Lasalvia, Antonio; Santonastaso, Paolo; Pileggi, Francesca; Leuci, Emanuela; Miceli, Maurizio; Scarone, Silvio; Torresani, Stefano; Tosato, Sarah; De Santi, Katia; Cristofalo, Doriana; Comacchio, Carla; Tomassi, Simona; Cremonese, Carla; Fioritti, Angelo; Patelli, Giovanni; Bonetto, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Background: Literature has documented the role of family in the outcome of chronic schizophrenia. In the light of this, family interventions (FIs) are becoming an integral component of treatment for psychosis. The First Episode of Psychosis (FEP) is the period when most of the changes in family atmosphere are observed; unfortunately, few studies on the relatives are available. Objective: To explore burden of care and emotional distress at baseline and at 9-month follow-up and the levels of service satisfaction at follow-up in the two groups of relatives (experimental treatment EXP vs. treatment as usual TAU) recruited in the cluster-randomized controlled GET UP PIANO trial. Methods: The experimental treatment was provided by routine public Community Mental Health Centers (Italian National Health Service) and consisted of Treatment as Usual plus evidence-based additional treatment (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for psychosis for patients, Family Intervention for psychosis, and Case Management). TAU consisted of personalized outpatient psychopharmacological treatment, combined with non-specific supportive clinical management and informal support/educational sessions for families. The outcomes on relatives were assessed by the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire (IEQ-EU), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), and the Verona Service Satisfaction Scale (VSSS-EU). Differences within and between groups were evaluated. Results: At baseline, 75 TAU and 185 EXP caregivers were assessed. In the experimental group 92% of relatives participated in at least 1 family session. At follow-up both groups experienced improvement in all IEQ and GHQ items, but caregivers belonging to the EXP arm experienced a significantly greater change in 10 IEQ items (mainly pertaining to the "Tension" dimension) and in GHQ items. Due to the low sample size, a significant effectiveness was only observed for 2 IEQ items and 1 GHQ-12 item. With respect to VSSS data at follow-up, caregivers in the

  10. Evidence for regional hippocampal damage in patients with schizophrenia

    Singh, Sadhana; Khushu, Subash; Kumar, Pawan; Goyal, Satnam; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N.

    2018-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients show cognitive and mood impairments, including memory loss and depression, suggesting damage in the brain regions. The hippocampus is a brain structure that is significantly involved in memory and mood function and shows impairment in schizophrenia. In the present study, we examined the regional hippocampal changes in schizophrenia patients using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), Freesurfer, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) procedures. 1 H MRS and high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were collected in both healthy control subjects (N = 28) and schizophrenia patients (N = 28) using 3-Tesla whole body MRI system. Regional hippocampal volume was analyzed using VBM and Freesufer procedures. The relative ratios of the neurometabolites were calculated using linear combination model (LCModel). Compared to controls, schizophrenia patients showed significantly decreased gray matter volume in the hippocampus. Schizophrenia patients also showed significantly reduced glutamate (Glu) and myo-inositol (mI) ratios in the hippocampus. Additionally, significant positive correlation between gray matter volume and Glu/tCr was also observed in the hippocampus in schizophrenia. Our findings provide an evidence for a possible association between structural deficits and metabolic alterations in schizophrenia patients. (orig.)

  11. Increased plasma agmatine levels in patients with schizophrenia.

    Uzbay, Tayfun; Goktalay, Gokhan; Kayir, Hakan; Eker, Salih S; Sarandol, Asli; Oral, Sema; Buyukuysal, Levent; Ulusoy, Gokhan; Kirli, Selcuk

    2013-08-01

    Agmatine is an endogenous substance, synthesized from l-arginine, and it is proposed to be a new neurotransmitter. Preclinical studies indicated that agmatine may have an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This study was organized to investigate plasma agmatine in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. Eighteen patients with schizophrenia and 19 healthy individuals constituted the subjects. Agmatine levels in the plasma were measured using the HPLC method. The S100B protein level, which is a peripheral biomarker for brain damage, was also measured using the ELISA method. While plasma levels of agmatine in patients with schizophrenia were significantly increased (p agmatine levels as a clinical diagnostic test would significantly differentiate between patients with schizophrenia and those in the control group (predictive value: 0.969; p  0.05). A multiple regression analysis revealed that the age of the patient and the severity of the illness, as indicated by the PANSS score, significantly contributed the plasma agmatine levels in patients with schizophrenia. These results support the hypothesis that an excess agmatine release is important in the development of schizophrenia. The findings also imply that the plasma agmatine level may be a potential biomarker of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evidence for regional hippocampal damage in patients with schizophrenia

    Singh, Sadhana; Khushu, Subash; Kumar, Pawan [DRDO, NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), Delhi (India); Goyal, Satnam; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N. [RML Hospital, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), New Delhi (India)

    2018-02-15

    Schizophrenia patients show cognitive and mood impairments, including memory loss and depression, suggesting damage in the brain regions. The hippocampus is a brain structure that is significantly involved in memory and mood function and shows impairment in schizophrenia. In the present study, we examined the regional hippocampal changes in schizophrenia patients using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), Freesurfer, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) procedures. {sup 1}H MRS and high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were collected in both healthy control subjects (N = 28) and schizophrenia patients (N = 28) using 3-Tesla whole body MRI system. Regional hippocampal volume was analyzed using VBM and Freesufer procedures. The relative ratios of the neurometabolites were calculated using linear combination model (LCModel). Compared to controls, schizophrenia patients showed significantly decreased gray matter volume in the hippocampus. Schizophrenia patients also showed significantly reduced glutamate (Glu) and myo-inositol (mI) ratios in the hippocampus. Additionally, significant positive correlation between gray matter volume and Glu/tCr was also observed in the hippocampus in schizophrenia. Our findings provide an evidence for a possible association between structural deficits and metabolic alterations in schizophrenia patients. (orig.)

  13. Verbal memory improvement in first-episode psychosis APOE-ε4 carriers: a pleiotropic effect?

    Vila-Rodriguez F

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fidel Vila-Rodriguez,1 Donna J Lang,2 Heather Baitz,3 Kristina Gicas,3 Allen E Thorton,3 Thomas S Ehmann,1 Geoff N Smith,1 Alasdair M Barr,4 Ivan J Torres,1 Lili C Kopala,1 G William MacEwan,1 Daniel J Müller,5 James L Kennedy,5 William G Honer11Department of Psychiatry, 2Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 3Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, 4Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, 5Department of Psychiatry, Centre for Mental Health and Addictions, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaBackground: Verbal memory impairment is a core feature in schizophrenia even at early stages of the disease, but its etiopathogenesis is not fully understood. The APOE-ε4 is the main genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. Our primary goal was to ascertain whether APOE-ε4 status had a pleiotropic effect in early stages of the illness.Participants and methods: A total of 86 first-episode psychosis (FEP outpatients and 39 healthy volunteers were recruited. Demographic and clinical data, APOE genotyping, and a neuropsychological test battery including the California Verbal Learning Test – second edition (CVLT-II were administered and assessed at study entry and at 1-year follow-up. Data were analyzed using mixed-model repeated measures, where the dependent variable was verbal memory indexed by California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT Trials 1–5 total recall score.Results: FEP-APOE-ε4 carriers and FEP-APOE-ε4 noncarriers had similar symptom severity, clinical outcomes, premorbid and current intelligence quotient, and exposure to antipsychotics. There was a main effect of group on CVLT 1–5 (FEP =43.30 vs control =58.25; F[1, 119.7]=42.97; P<0.001 as well as an APOE-ε4 by group by time (F[4, 116.2]=2.73, P=0.033 interaction with only FEP-APOE-ε4 carriers showing improved verbal

  14. Ten year neurocognitive trajectories in first-episode psychosis

    Simonsen, Erik; Barder, Helene E.; Sundet, Kjetil

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neurocognitive impairment is commonly reported at onset of psychotic disorders. However, the long-term neurocognitive course remains largely uninvestigated in first episode psychosis (FEP) and the relationship to clinically significant subgroups even more so. We report 10 year...... years) were followed-up neurocognitively over five assessments spanning 10 years. The test battery was divided into four neurocognitive indices; Executive Function, Verbal Learning, Motor Speed, and Verbal Fluency. The sample was grouped into those relapsing or not within the first, second and fifth...... year. Results: The four neurocognitive indices showed overall stability over the 10 year period. Significant relapse by index interactions were found for all indices except Executive Function. Follow-up analyses identified a larger significant decrease over time for the encoding measure within Verbal...

  15. Profiling of Amino Acids and Their Derivatives Biogenic Amines Before and After Antipsychotic Treatment in First-Episode Psychosis

    Liisa Leppik

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SCH is a heterogeneous disorder, deriving from a potential multitude of etiopathogenetic factors. During the past few years there has been an increasing interest in the role of circulating amino acids (AAs and biogenic amines (BAs in the pathophysiology of SCH. In the present study, we aimed to provide an insight into the potential role of alterations in levels of AAs and BAs as well as examine their more specific metabolic shifts in relation to early stage of SCH. We measured 21 AAs and 17 BAs in serum samples of patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP before and after 7-month antipsychotic treatment in comparison to control subjects (CSs. According to multivariate analysis, antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients had significantly higher levels of taurine and spermine, whereas values of proline (Pro, alpha-aminoadipic acid (alpha-AAA, kynurenine (Kyn, valine (Val, tyrosine (Tyr, citrulline (Citr, tryptophan (Trp, and histidine (His were diminished compared to CSs. Increased levels of taurine and spermine, as well as reduced levels of alpha-AAA and Kyn probably reflect the compromised function of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors in patients. The decreased levels of Pro (AA modulating the function of glutamate decarboxylase likely reflect the imbalanced function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA system in the brain of FEP patients. The alterations in ratio between Tyr and phenylalanine (Phe can be taken as a sign of compromised function of dopaminergic system. These metabolic shifts were reinstated by 7-month antipsychotic treatment. Serum metabolic profiles can be regarded as important indicators to investigate clinical course of SCH and treatment response.

  16. Extrastriatal dopamine D-2/3 receptors and cortical grey matter volumes in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia patients before and after initial antipsychotic treatment

    Nørbak-Emig, Henrik; Pinborg, Lars H.; Raghava, Jayachandra M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Long-term dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade, common to all antipsychotics, may underlie progressive brain volume changes observed in patients with chronic schizophrenia. In the present study, we examined associations between cortical volume changes and extrastriatal dopamine D2/3 recept...... binding potentials (BPND) in first-episode schizophrenia patents at baseline and after antipsychotic treatment. METHODS: Twenty-two initially antipsychotic-naïve patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), [(123)I]epidepride single-photon emission computerised tomography (SPECT......), and psychopathology assessments before and after 3 months of treatment with either risperidone (N = 13) or zuclopenthixol (N = 9). Twenty healthy controls matched on age, gender and parental socioeconomic status underwent baseline MRI and SPECT. RESULTS: Neither extrastriatal D2/3 receptor BPND at baseline, nor...

  17. Risk factors for violence among patients with schizophrenia

    Bo, Sune; Abu-Akel, Ahmad; Kongerslev, Mickey

    2011-01-01

    with schizophrenia. We identified two different trajectories for violent behavior in schizophrenia: one pertains to patients with no prior history of violence or criminal behavior and for whom positive symptoms appear to explain violent behavior, and another where personality pathology, including psychopathy...

  18. CANTAB Explicit Memory Is Less Impaired in Addicted Schizophrenia Patients

    Potvin, Stephane; Briand, Catherine; Prouteau, Antoinette; Bouchard, Roch-Hugo; Lipp, Olivier; Lalonde, Pierre; Nicole, Luc; Lesage, Alain; Stip, Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that in order to sustain the lifestyle of substance abuse, addicted schizophrenia patients would have less negative symptoms, better social skills, and less cognitive impairments. Mounting evidence supports the first two assumptions, but data lack regarding cognition in dual diagnosis schizophrenia. Seventy-six schizophrenia…

  19. Overconfidence in incorrect perceptual judgments in patients with schizophrenia

    Steffen Moritz

    2014-12-01

    Discussion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate overconfidence in errors among individuals with psychosis using a visual perception task. Speaking to the specificity of this abnormality for schizophrenia and its pathogenetic relevance, overconfidence in errors and knowledge corruption were elevated in patients with schizophrenia relative to both control groups and were correlated with paranoia.

  20. The development of subjective quality of life over the first 2 years in first-episode psychosis

    Melle, Ingrid; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Joa, Inge

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine changes in subjective quality of life (general s-QoL) in patients with first-episode psychosis from baseline to 2 years follow-up. A total of 201 of 252 patients had full quality of life assessment at both baseline and at 2 years. Repeated measure analyse...

  1. The abilities of improved schizophrenia patients to work and live independently in the community: a 10-year long-term outcome study from Mumbai, India

    Thakar Meghana

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outcome of first episode schizophrenia has several determinants. Socioecological factors, particularly living conditions, migration, community and culture, not only affect the level of risk but also the outcome. Mega cities around the world show a unique socioecological condition that has several challenges for mental health. The present study reports on the long-term status of patients with schizophrenia in such a mega city: Mumbai, India. Aim This study aims to reveal the long-term outcome of patients suffering from schizophrenia with special reference to clinical symptoms and social functioning. Methods The cohort for this study was drawn from a 10-year follow-up of first episode schizophrenia. Patients having completed 10 years of consistent treatment after first hospitalisation were assessed on psychopathological and recovery criteria. Clinical as well as social parameters of recovery were evaluated. Descriptive statistics with 95% confidence intervals are provided. Results Of 200 patients recruited at the beginning of this study, 122 patients (61% were present in the city of Mumbai at the end of 10-year follow-up study period. Among 122 available patients, 101 patients (50.5% were included in the assessment at the end of 10-year follow-up study period, 6 patients (3.0% were excluded from the study due to changed diagnosis, and 15 patients (7.5% were excluded due to admission into long-term care facilities. This indicates that 107 out of 122 available patients (87.7% were living in the community with their families. Out of 101 (50.5% patients assessed at the end of 10 years, 61 patients (30.5% showed improved recovery on the Clinical Global Impression Scale, 40 patients (20% revealed no improvement in the recovery, 43 patients (72.9% were able to live independently, and 24 patients (40% were able to find employment. Conclusion With 10 years of treatment, the recovery rate among schizophrenia patients in Mumbai was 30

  2. The abilities of improved schizophrenia patients to work and live independently in the community: a 10-year long-term outcome study from Mumbai, India.

    Srivastava, Amresh Kumar; Stitt, Larry; Thakar, Meghana; Shah, Nilesh; Chinnasamy, Gurusamy

    2009-10-13

    The outcome of first episode schizophrenia has several determinants. Socioecological factors, particularly living conditions, migration, community and culture, not only affect the level of risk but also the outcome. Mega cities around the world show a unique socioecological condition that has several challenges for mental health. The present study reports on the long-term status of patients with schizophrenia in such a mega city: Mumbai, India. This study aims to reveal the long-term outcome of patients suffering from schizophrenia with special reference to clinical symptoms and social functioning. The cohort for this study was drawn from a 10-year follow-up of first episode schizophrenia. Patients having completed 10 years of consistent treatment after first hospitalisation were assessed on psychopathological and recovery criteria. Clinical as well as social parameters of recovery were evaluated. Descriptive statistics with 95% confidence intervals are provided. Of 200 patients recruited at the beginning of this study, 122 patients (61%) were present in the city of Mumbai at the end of 10-year follow-up study period. Among 122 available patients, 101 patients (50.5%) were included in the assessment at the end of 10-year follow-up study period, 6 patients (3.0%) were excluded from the study due to changed diagnosis, and 15 patients (7.5%) were excluded due to admission into long-term care facilities. This indicates that 107 out of 122 available patients (87.7%) were living in the community with their families. Out of 101 (50.5%) patients assessed at the end of 10 years, 61 patients (30.5%) showed improved recovery on the Clinical Global Impression Scale, 40 patients (20%) revealed no improvement in the recovery, 43 patients (72.9%) were able to live independently, and 24 patients (40%) were able to find employment. With 10 years of treatment, the recovery rate among schizophrenia patients in Mumbai was 30.5%. Among the patients, 87.7% of patients lived in the

  3. Long-term memory deficits in schizophrenia : Primary or secondary dysfunction?

    Holthausen, EAE; Wiersma, D; Sitskoorn, MM; Dingemans, PM; Schene, AH; van den Bosch, RJ

    2003-01-01

    Long-term memory impairment is often found in schizophrenia. The question remains whether this is caused by other cognitive deficits. One hundred eighteen first-episode patients were compared with 45 control participants on several memory tasks. The role of processing speed and central executive

  4. Long-term memory deficits in schizophrenia: Primary or secondary dysfunction?

    Holthausen, Esther A. E.; Wiersma, Durk; Sitskoorn, Margriet M.; Dingemans, Peter M.; Schene, Aart H.; van den Bosch, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    Long-term memory impairment is often found in schizophrenia. The question remains whether this is caused by other cognitive deficits. One hundred eighteen first-episode patients were compared with 45 control participants on several memory tasks. The role of processing speed and central executive

  5. “Everyone Needs a Friend Sometimes” – Social Predictors of Long-term Remission In first Episode psychosis

    Jone Bjornestad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPredictors of long-term symptomatic remission are crucial to the successful tailoring of treatment in first episode psychosis. There is lack of studies distinguishing the predictive effects of different social factors. This prevents a valid evaluating of their independent effects.ObjectivesTo test specific social baseline predictors of long-term remission. We hypothesized that first, satisfaction with social relations predicts remission; second, that frequency of social interaction predicts remission; and third, that the effect of friend relationship satisfaction and frequency will be greater than that of family relations satisfaction and frequency.Material and MethodsA sample of first episode psychosis (n=186 completed baseline measures of social functioning, as well as clinical assessments. We compared groups of remitted and non-remitted individuals using generalized estimating equations analyses.ResultsFrequency of social interaction with friends was a significant positive predictor of remission over a two-year period. Neither global perceived social satisfaction nor frequency of family interaction showed significant effects. ConclusionsThe study findings are of particular clinical importance since frequency of friendship interaction is a possibly malleable factor. Frequency of interaction could be affected through behavioral modification and therapy already from an early stage in the course, and thus increase remission rates.KeywordsFirst-Episode Psychosis, Schizophrenia, Social factors, Baseline predictors, Long-term remission.

  6. Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis use: predictors of negative outcomes in first episode psychosis.

    Itxaso González-Ortega

    Full Text Available Although depressive symptoms in first episode psychosis have been associated with cannabis abuse, their influence on the long-term functional course of FEP patients who abuse cannabis is unknown. The aims of the study were to examine the influence of subclinical depressive symptoms on the long-term outcome in first episode-psychosis patients who were cannabis users and to assess the influence of these subclinical depressive symptoms on the ability to quit cannabis use.64 FEP patients who were cannabis users at baseline were followed-up for 5 years. Two groups were defined: (a patients with subclinical depressive symptoms at least once during follow-up (DPG, and (b patients without subclinical depressive symptoms during follow-up (NDPG. Psychotic symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, depressive symptoms using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17, and psychosocial functioning was assessed using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF. A linear mixed-effects model was used to analyze the combined influence of cannabis use and subclinical depressive symptomatology on the clinical outcome.Subclinical depressive symptoms were associated with continued abuse of cannabis during follow-up (β= 4.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78 to 11.17; P = .001 and with worse functioning (β = -5.50; 95% CI: -9.02 to -0.33; P = .009.Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis abuse during follow-up could be predictors of negative outcomes in FEP patients.

  7. Neuropsychological correlates of remission in chronic schizophrenia subjects: The role of general and task-specific executive processes

    Thais Rabanea-Souza

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The present findings suggest that executive function deficits are present in chronic schizophrenic patients. In addition, specific executive processes might be associated to symptom remission. Future studies examining prospectively first-episode, drug naive patients diagnosed with schizophrenia may be especially elucidative.

  8. Approaches to improve adherence to pharmacotherapy in patients with schizophrenia

    Shuler, Kimberly M

    2014-01-01

    Kimberly M Shuler Shuler Counseling and Consulting, Fayetteville, AR, USA Purpose: In patients with schizophrenia, nonadherence to prescribed medications increases the risk of patient relapse and hospitalization, key contributors to the costs associated with treatment. The objectives of this review were to evaluate the impact of nonadherence to pharmacotherapy in patients with schizophrenia as it relates to health care professionals, particularly social workers, and to identify effective tea...

  9. Systematic Suicide Risk Assessment for Patients With Schizophrenia

    Pedersen, Charlotte Gjørup; Wallenstein Jensen, Signe Olrik; Gradus, Jaimie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Systematic suicide risk assessment is recommended for patients with schizophrenia; however, little is known about the implementation of suicide risk assessment in routine clinical practice. The study aimed to determine the use of systematic suicide risk assessment at discharge...... and predictors of suicide attempt among hospitalized patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. Methods: A one-year follow-up study was conducted of 9,745 patients with schizophrenia who were discharged from psychiatric wards and registered in a national population-based schizophrenia registry between 2005 and 2009....... Results: The proportion of patients receiving suicide risk assessment at discharge from a psychiatric ward increased from 72% (95% confidence interval [CI]=71%-74%) in 2005, when the national monitoring began, to 89% (CI.89%-90%) in 2009. Within one year after discharge, 1% of all registered patients had...

  10. Model of Management (Mo.Ma) for the patient with schizophrenia: crisis control, maintenance, relapse prevention, and recovery with long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs).

    Brugnoli, Roberto; Rapinesi, Chiara; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Marcellusi, Andrea; Mennini, Francesco S; De Filippis, Sergio; Carrus, Dario; Ballerini, Andrea; Francomano, Antonio; Ducci, Giuseppe; Del Casale, Antonio; Girardi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disease that affects approximately 1% of the population with a relevant chronic impact on social and occupational functioning and daily activities. People with schizophrenia are 2-2.5 times more likely to die early than the general population. Non-adherence to antipsychotic medications, both in chronic and first episode schizophrenia, is one of the most important risk factors for relapse and hospitalization, that consequently contributes to increased costs due to psychiatric hospitalization. Atypical long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics can improve treatment adherence and decrease re-hospitalization rates in patients with schizophrenia since its onset. The primary goals in the management of schizophrenia are directed not only at symptom reduction in the short and long term, but also at maintaining physical and mental functioning, improving quality of life, and promoting patient recovery. To propose a scientific evidence-based integrated model that provides an algorithm for recovery of patients with schizophrenia and to investigate the effectiveness and safety of antipsychotics LAI in the treatment, maintenance, relapse prevention, and recovery of schizophrenia. After an accurate literature review we identified, collected and analyzed the crucial points in taking care schizophrenia patients, through which we defined the steps described in the model of management and the choice of the better treatment option. Results. In the management model we propose, the choice of a second generation long acting antipsychotic, could allow from the earliest stages of illness better patient management, especially for young individuals with schizophrenia onset, a better recovery and significant reductions of relapse and health care costs. LAI formulations of antipsychotics are valuable, because they help patients to remain adherent to their medication through regular contact with healthcare professionals and to prevent covert non-adherence. The

  11. White matter integrity as a predictor of response to treatment in first episode psychosis.

    Reis Marques, Tiago; Taylor, Heather; Chaddock, Chris; Dell'acqua, Flavio; Handley, Rowena; Reinders, A A T Simone; Mondelli, Valeria; Bonaccorso, Stefania; Diforti, Marta; Simmons, Andrew; David, Anthony S; Murray, Robin M; Pariante, Carmine M; Kapur, Shitij; Dazzan, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The integrity of brain white matter connections is central to a patient's ability to respond to pharmacological interventions. This study tested this hypothesis using a specific measure of white matter integrity, and examining its relationship to treatment response using a prospective design in patients within their first episode of psychosis. Diffusion tensor imaging data were acquired in 63 patients with first episode psychosis and 52 healthy control subjects (baseline). Response was assessed after 12 weeks and patients were classified as responders or non-responders according to treatment outcome. At this second time-point, they also underwent a second diffusion tensor imaging scan. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to assess fractional anisotropy as a marker of white matter integrity. At baseline, non-responders showed lower fractional anisotropy than both responders and healthy control subjects (P psychosis. These data, together with earlier findings on cortical grey matter, suggest that grey and white matter integrity at the start of treatment is an important moderator of response to antipsychotics. These findings can inform patient stratification to anticipate care needs, and raise the possibility that antipsychotics may restore white matter integrity as part of the therapeutic response.

  12. Examination of anomalous self-experience in first-episode psychosis: interrater reliability

    Møller, Paul; Haug, Elisabeth; Raballo, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    -rater correlation above 0.80 (Spearman's rho, p values at an item level were very good in 9 items, good in 20 items, moderate in 11 items and fair in 4 items. Conclusion: The EASE provides a reliable and internally......) is a phenomenologically inspired checklist, specifically designed to support the comprehensive assessment of these characteristic subjective experiences. Aim: To assess the interrater reliability of the EASE. Sampling and Methods: Twenty-five first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients were interviewed with the EASE...

  13. Supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy versus treatment as usual for first-episode psychosis

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Harder, Susanne; Knudsen, Per

    2012-01-01

    manualized individual supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy (SPP) in addition to treatment as usual or with treatment as usual alone (TaU). Symptoms and functional outcomes were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF). The study.......000) and GAF(symptom) (p = 0.010) significantly favored SPP in combination with TaU over TaU alone. In spite of limitations, this study speaks in favor of including supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy in the treatment for patients with schizophrenic first-episode psychoses....

  14. The Phenomenology of Emotion Experience in First-Episode Psychosis

    Vodušek, V V; Parnas, J; Tomori, M

    2014-01-01

    -depth interviews were conducted twice with each of the 20 participants (firstly at admission and secondly 6 months later). Data collection and analysis were guided by the principles of phenomenological study of lived experience. RESULTS: The emotion experiences described by our participants vary greatly in both......BACKGROUND: Although it has been suggested that disturbances in emotion experience and regulation play a central role in the aetiology and psychopathology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, the phenomenology of emotion experience in schizophrenia remains under-researched. SAMPLING AND METHODS: In...... quality and intensity, but appear to have a common phenomenology. Anxiety is reported as the basic emotion which buffers, transforms and sometimes supplants all others. Emotions in general are experienced as foreign, unstable and perturbing, thereby contributing greatly to feelings of ambivalence...

  15. Language disturbance and functioning in first episode psychosis.

    Roche, Eric; Segurado, Ricardo; Renwick, Laoise; McClenaghan, Aisling; Sexton, Sarah; Frawley, Timothy; Chan, Carol K; Bonar, Maurice; Clarke, Mary

    2016-01-30

    Language disturbance has a central role in the presentation of psychotic disorders however its relationship with functioning requires further clarification, particularly in first episode psychosis (FEP). Both language disturbance and functioning can be evaluated with clinician-rated and performance-based measures. We aimed to investigate the concurrent association between clinician-rated and performance-based measures of language disturbance and functioning in FEP. We assessed 108 individuals presenting to an Early Intervention in Psychosis Service in Ireland. Formal thought disorder (FTD) dimensions and bizarre idiosyncratic thinking (BIT) were rated with structured assessment tools. Functioning was evaluated with a performance-based instrument, a clinician-rated measure and indicators of real-world functioning. The disorganisation dimension of FTD was significantly associated with clinician-rated measures of occupational and social functioning (Beta=-0.19, P<0.05 and Beta=-0.31, P<0.01, respectively). BIT was significantly associated with the performance-based measure of functioning (Beta=-0.22, P<0.05). Language disturbance was of less value in predicting real-world measures of functioning. Clinician-rated and performance-based assessments of language disturbance are complementary and each has differential associations with functioning. Communication disorders should be considered as a potential target for intervention in FEP, although further evaluation of the longitudinal relationship between language disturbance and functioning should be undertaken. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A descriptive review of qualitative studies in first episode psychosis.

    Boydell, Katherine M; Stasiulis, Elaine; Volpe, Tiziana; Gladstone, Brenda

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a descriptive review of published qualitative research studies on first episode psychosis (FEP). A review was undertaken to describe the findings of qualitative studies in early psychosis. Keyword searches in Medline, CINAHL, ASSIA, PsychINFO databases, as well as manual searches of other relevant journals and reference lists of primary papers, were conducted. Thirty-one qualitative papers (representing 27 discrete studies) were identified. The majority reported research concerning young people based in community settings. The research studies were organized according to the following generic social processes: (i) achieving identity; (ii) acquiring perspectives; (iii) doing activity; and, (iv) experiencing relationships. The papers reviewed are based on first-person accounts obtained from individuals who have experienced FEP, their family members and service providers. This descriptive review contributes to our understanding of the complex social processes of achieving identity, acquiring perspectives, doing activities and developing relationships as experienced by young people and the significant others in their world. The cumulative findings highlight the contextually rich and detailed information made possible through qualitative studies of FEP. They begin to account for the active engagement of individuals affected by psychosis in making sense of their experience and suggest that this experience should be understood from within young people's own framework of meaning.

  17. Do patients think cannabis causes schizophrenia? - A qualitative study on the causal beliefs of cannabis using patients with schizophrenia

    Schaub Michael

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a considerable amount of debate among the research community whether cannabis use may cause schizophrenia and whether cannabis use of patients with schizophrenia is associated with earlier and more frequent relapses. Considering that studies exploring patients' view on controversial topics have contributed to our understanding of important clinical issues, it is surprising how little these views have been explored to add to our understanding of the link between cannabis and psychosis. The present study was designed to elucidate whether patients with schizophrenia who use cannabis believe that its use has caused their schizophrenia and to explore these patients other beliefs and perceptions about the effects of the drug. Methods We recruited ten consecutive patients fulfilling criteria for paranoid schizophrenia and for a harmful use of/dependence from cannabis (ICD-10 F20.0 + F12.1 or F12.2 from the in- and outpatient clinic of the Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich. They were interviewed using qualitative methodology. Furthermore, information on amount, frequency, and effects of use was obtained. A grounded theory approach to data analysis was taken to evaluate findings. Results None of the patients described a causal link between the use of cannabis and their schizophrenia. Disease models included upbringing under difficult circumstances (5 or use of substances other than cannabis (e. g. hallucinogens, 3. Two patients gave other reasons. Four patients considered cannabis a therapeutic aid and reported that positive effects (reduction of anxiety and tension prevailed over its possible disadvantages (exacerbation of positive symptoms. Conclusions Patients with schizophrenia did not establish a causal link between schizophrenia and the use of cannabis. We suggest that clinicians consider our findings in their work with patients suffering from these co-occurring disorders. Withholding treatment or excluding

  18. Do atmospheric conditions influence the first episode of primary spontaneous pneumothorax?

    Heyndrickx, Maxime; Le Rochais, Jean-Philippe; Icard, Philippe; Cantat, Olivier; Zalcman, Gérard

    2015-09-01

    Several studies suggest that changes in airway pressure may influence the onset of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of atmospheric changes on the onset of the first episode of PSP. We retrospectively analysed cases of pneumothorax admitted to our department between 1 January 2009 and 31 October 2013. Patients with recurrent pneumothorax, traumatic pneumothorax, older than 35 years or presenting history of underlying pulmonary disease were excluded. Meteorological data were collected from the Météo-France archives. Variation (Δ) of mean atmospheric pressure, and relative humidity, were calculated for each day between the day at which symptoms began (D-day), the day before first symptoms (D-1), 2 days before the first symptoms (D-2) and 3 days before the first symptoms (D-3). Six hundred and thirty-eight cases of pneumothorax were observed during the period of this study; 106 of them (16.6%) were a first episode of PSP. We did not observe any significant differences between days with or without PSP admission for any of the weather parameters that we tested. We could not find any thresholds in the variation of atmospheric pressure that could be used to determine the probability of PSP occurrence. Variation of atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, rainfall, wind speed and temperature were not significantly related to the onset of the first episode of PSP in healthy patients. These results suggest that the scientific community should focus on other possible aetiological factors than airway pressure modifications. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving detection of first-episode psychosis by mental health-care services using a self-report questionnaire

    Boonstra, Nynke; Wunderink, Lex; Sytema, Sjoerd; Wiersma, Durk

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the utility of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE)-42, a self-report questionnaire, to improve detection of first-episode psychosis in new referrals to mental health services. Method: At first contact with mental health-care services patients were asked to

  20. Prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms among patients with schizophrenia

    Smita Hemrom

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia are well recognized but are a less-researched entity. These symptoms have important implications for management and prognosis. Aim: To find out the prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms among patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia diagnosed according to DCR of ICD-10 criteria were selected for the study. Padua inventory and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale were applied to find out the prevalence and nature of obsessive compulsive symptoms . Results: It was found that 10% of schizophrenic patients had obsessive compulsive symptoms. Conclusion: Obsessive compulsive symptoms are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. The presence of comorbidity should be explored for adequate management.

  1. Risk of Recurrent Pancreatitis and Progression to Chronic Pancreatitis After a First Episode of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Ahmed Ali, Usama; Issa, Yama; Hagenaars, Julia C; Bakker, Olaf J; van Goor, Harry; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B; Bollen, Thomas L; van Ramshorst, Bert; Witteman, Ben J; Brink, Menno A; Schaapherder, Alexander F; Dejong, Cornelis H; Spanier, B W Marcel; Heisterkamp, Joos; van der Harst, Erwin; van Eijck, Casper H; Besselink, Marc G; Gooszen, Hein G; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Boermeester, Marja A

    2016-05-01

    Patients with a first episode of acute pancreatitis can develop recurrent or chronic pancreatitis (CP). However, little is known about the incidence or risk factors for these events. We performed a cross-sectional study of 669 patients with a first episode of acute pancreatitis admitted to 15 Dutch hospitals from December 2003 through March 2007. We collected information on disease course, outpatient visits, and hospital readmissions, as well as results from imaging, laboratory, and histology studies. Standardized follow-up questionnaires were sent to all available patients to collect information on hospitalizations and interventions for pancreatic disease, abdominal pain, steatorrhea, diabetes mellitus, medications, and alcohol and tobacco use. Patients were followed up for a median time period of 57 months. Primary end points were recurrent pancreatitis and CP. Risk factors were evaluated using regression analysis. The cumulative risk was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Recurrent pancreatitis developed in 117 patients (17%), and CP occurred in 51 patients (7.6%). Recurrent pancreatitis developed in 12% of patients with biliary disease, 24% of patients with alcoholic etiology, and 25% of patients with disease of idiopathic or other etiologies; CP occurred in 3%, 16%, and 10% of these patients, respectively. Etiology, smoking, and necrotizing pancreatitis were independent risk factors for recurrent pancreatitis and CP. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores at admission also were associated independently with recurrent pancreatitis. The cumulative risk for recurrent pancreatitis over 5 years was highest among smokers at 40% (compared with 13% for nonsmokers). For alcohol abusers and current smokers, the cumulative risks for CP were similar-approximately 18%. In contrast, the cumulative risk of CP increased to 30% in patients who smoked and abused alcohol. Based on a retrospective analysis of patients admitted to Dutch hospitals, a first

  2. Low serum vitamin D concentrations in patients with schizophrenia.

    Itzhaky, Dganit; Amital, Daniela; Gorden, Katya; Bogomolni, Alisa; Arnson, Yoav; Amital, Howard

    2012-02-01

    Vitamin D is increasingly associated with the pathology of cognition and mental illness. Vitamin D receptors have been detected on neurons that regulate behavior. To assess vitamin D serum concentrations in patients with major depression and schizophrenia as compared to healthy controls and to determine if a correlation exists between serum levels of vitamin D and disease activity. We recruited 50 patients with schizophrenia and compared them to 33 patients with major depression and 50 controls with no major psychopathology. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia and the Hamilton Depression scale for depression were administered on the same day the blood samples were drawn. We used LIAISON 25-OH vitamin D (DiaSorin) immunoassay to measure serum concentrations of 25-OH vitamin D. Lower serum vitamin D concentrations were detected among patients with schizophrenia (15.0 +/- 7.3 ng/ml) compared to patients with depression (19.6 +/- 8.3 ng/ml) and to controls (20.2 +/- 7.8 ng/ml, P vitamin D levels. Serum vitamin D levels were lower in patients with schizophrenia as compared to patients with depression and to healthy controls. No correlation was found between serum concentration and disease activity. Additional studies are needed to elucidate the role of vitamin D in the autoimmune mechanism and in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

  3. [Management of pregnant women with first episode of genital herpes. Guidelines for clinical practice from the French college of gynecologists and obstetricians (CNGOF)].

    Sananès, N

    2017-12-01

    To provide guidelines for the management of first episode genital herpes during pregnancy and in the immediate postpartum period. MedLine and Cochrane Library databases search and review of the main foreign guidelines. In case of first episode genital herpes during pregnancy, antiviral treatment with acyclovir (200mg 5 times daily) or valacyclovir (1000mg twice daily) for 5 to 10 days is recommended (grade C). The patient should be tested for HIV if not previously done (grade B). Daily suppressive antiviral treatment with acyclovir (400mg 3 times daily) or valacyclovir (500mg twice daily) is recommended from 36 weeks for women who have had a first episode genital herpes during pregnancy (grade B). A cesarean section should be performed in case of suspicion of first episode genital herpes at the onset of labor (grade B) or premature rupture of the membranes at term (professional consensus), or in case of first episode genital herpes less than 6 weeks before delivery (professional consensus). In the event of first episode genital herpes highlighted in the postpartum period, the neonatologist should be informed (professional consensus). The patient may be treated according the scheme described above. A cesarean section should be performed in case of first episode genital herpes less than 6 weeks before delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. What is the recurrence rate of postmenopausal bleeding in women who have a thin endometrium during a first episode of postmenopausal bleeding?

    van Doorn, H. C.; Timmermans, A.; Opmeer, B. C.; Kruitwagen, R. F. M. P.; Dijkhuizen, F. P. H. L. J.; Kooi, G. S.; van de Weijer, P. H. M.; Mol, B. W. J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence and significance of recurrent postmenopausal bleeding among women diagnosed with an endometrial thickness <= 4 mm after a first episode of postmenopausal bleeding. Methods. Consecutive patients not using hormone replacement therapy (HRT) presenting with a first

  5. The diagnostic yield of the first episode of a periodic health evaluation: a descriptive epidemiology study

    Kermott Cindy A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of a periodic health evaluation remain debatable. The incremental value added by such evaluations beyond the delivery of age appropriate screening and preventive medicine recommendations is unclear. Methods We retrospectively collected data on a cohort of consecutive patients presenting for their first episode of a comprehensive periodic health evaluation. We abstracted data on new diagnoses that were identified during this single episode of care and that were not trivial (i.e., required additional testing or intervention. Results The cohort consisted of 491 patients. The rate of new diagnoses per this single episode of care was 0.9 diagnoses per patient. The majority of these diagnoses was not prompted by patients’ complaints (71% and would not have been identified by screening guidelines (51%. Men (odds ratio 2.67; 95% CI, 1.76, 4.03 and those with multiple complaints at presentation (odds ratio 1.12; 95% CI, 1.05, 1.19 were more likely to receive a clinically relevant diagnosis at the conclusion of the visit. Age was not a predictor of receiving a diagnosis in this cohort. Conclusion The first episode of a comprehensive periodic health evaluation may reveal numerous important diagnoses or risk factors that are not always identified through routine screening.

  6. First-episode psychosis as the initial presentation of multiple sclerosis: a case report.

    Enderami, Athena; Fouladi, Rose; Hosseini, Seyed Hamzeh

    2018-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS). MS with episode of psychosis is a rare entity, and to the best of our knowledge, no case has been reported from Iran till date. We report a case of MS with first-episode psychosis in a 27-year-old single man with no history of psychiatric disorder or drug abuse. The patient developed neurological symptoms after 3 months and was finally diagnosed as a case of MS. His symptoms started with behavioral dysfunctions and progressively resulted in depression. Subsequently, treatment was performed with citalopram 20 mg daily, risperidone 2 mg three times a day, and biperiden 2 mg three times a day; however, no improvements in the symptoms were observed. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging has demonstrated periventricular and white matter multiple sclerotic plugs with lesions. Eventually, MS was diagnosed after the appearance of paresthesia, upper and lower limb muscle weakness, ataxia, and urinary incontinency as typical signs. Then, the medications were changed to methylprednisolone and interferon therapy, which resulted in improvements in the clinical conditions of the patient. Based on the fact that organic disorders such as MS may sometimes appear with initial pure psychiatric symptoms without any neurological signs and symptoms, examinations for symptoms linked to CNS dysfunction, cognitive changes, atypical symptoms, detailed neurological examination, and limited response to conventional antipsychotic drugs are highly recommended to be carried out for patients with first-episode psychosis and even in the followup period.

  7. Contribution of neurocognition to 18-month employment outcomes in first-episode psychosis.

    Karambelas, George J; Cotton, Sue M; Farhall, John; Killackey, Eóin; Allott, Kelly A

    2017-10-27

    To examine whether baseline neurocognition predicts vocational outcomes over 18 months in patients with first-episode psychosis enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of Individual Placement and Support or treatment as usual. One-hundred and thirty-four first-episode psychosis participants completed an extensive neurocognitive battery. Principal axis factor analysis using PROMAX rotation was used to determine the underlying structure of the battery. Setwise (hierarchical) multiple linear and logistic regressions were used to examine predictors of (1) total hours employed over 18 months and (2) employment status, respectively. Neurocognition factors were entered in the models after accounting for age, gender, premorbid IQ, negative symptoms, treatment group allocation and employment status at baseline. Five neurocognitive factors were extracted: (1) processing speed, (2) verbal learning and memory, (3) knowledge and reasoning, (4) attention and working memory and (5) visual organization and memory. Employment status over 18 months was not significantly predicted by any of the predictors in the final model. Total hours employed over 18 months were significantly predicted by gender (P = .027), negative symptoms (P = .032) and verbal learning and memory (P = .040). Every step of the regression model was a significant predictor of total hours worked overall (final model: P = .013). Verbal learning and memory, negative symptoms and gender were implicated in duration of employment in first-episode psychosis. The other neurocognitive domains did not significantly contribute to the prediction of vocational outcomes over 18 months. Interventions targeting verbal memory may improve vocational outcomes in early psychosis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Motivation and Social Cognition in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Fervaha, Gagan; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2015-07-01

    Social cognition, referring to one's ability to perceive and process social cues, is an import