WorldWideScience

Sample records for firms lobby weak

  1. Strong Firms Lobby, Weak Firms Bribe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Feldmann, Sven E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    We use survey responses by firms to examine the firm-level determinants and effects of political influence, their perception of corruption and prevalence of bribe paying. We find that: (a) measures of political influence and corruption/bribes are uncorrelated at the firm level; (b) firms...... that are larger, older, exporting, government-owned, are widely held and/or have fewer competitors, have more political influence, perceive corruption to be less of a problem and pay bribes less often; (c) influence increases sales and government subsidies and in general makes the firm have a more positive view...

  2. Strong Firms Lobby, Weak Firms Bribe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Feldmann, Sven E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    that are larger, older, exporting, government-owned, are widely held and/or have fewer competitors, have more political influence, perceive corruption to be less of a problem and pay bribes less often; (c) influence increases sales and government subsidies and in general makes the firm have a more positive view...

  3. Lobbying against Environmental Regulation vs. Lobbying for Loopholes

    OpenAIRE

    Polk, Andreas; Schmutzler, Armin

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the determinants of environmental policy when two firms engage in two types of lobbying against a restriction on allowed pollution: General lobbying increases the total amount of allowed pollution, which is beneficial for both firms. Private lobbying increases the individual pollution standard of the lobbying firm, but has a negative or zero effect on the allowed emissions of the competitor. We determine the lobbying equilibrium and discuss the resulting emission level. In many cas...

  4. Lobbies, professional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2010-01-01

    Lobbying might be defined as an attempt to influence the government decision-making process and to secure certain outcomes via individuals or firms (lobbyists) who act on behalf of a person or a special interest group. The First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution bars Congress from abridging...... the right of people “to petition the Government for redress of grievances.” Thus, for Americans, lobbying in the broadest sense of the word is a fundamental legal right....

  5. Learning and lobbying: Emerging market firms and corporate political activity in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. McGuire; J. Lindeque; G. Suder

    2012-01-01

    How do firms acquire the capabilities necessary to operate in the non-market environment? Though the field of non-market strategy has grown in prominence in the strategic management literature in recent years, most of the studies concern the political capabilities of developed country multinationals

  6. Possible Unintended Effects of Restrictions on Foreign Lobbying in a Customs Union

    OpenAIRE

    Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu; Lahiri, Sajal

    2012-01-01

    We consider the interactions between domestic lobbying and cross-border lobbying in a Customs Union (CU) in determining the Common External Tariff (CET). There are two types of cross-border lobbying: (i) lobbying from member-nation firms to the governments of other CU countries, and (ii) lobbying by firms from outside to the CU nation governments. Within this context, we analyze the effect of regulations on foreign lobbying on the equilibrium lobbying levels, and on the CET. If lobbying level...

  7. 14 CFR 1274.929 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 1274.929 Section... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.929 Restrictions on lobbying. Restrictions on Lobbying July 2002 This award is subject to the provisions of 14 CFR part 1271...

  8. University lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    In the past year, an increasing number of individual academic institutions have lobbied in Congress for new science facilities funds thus circumventing the traditional peer review process of evaluating the merits of such facilities. As an attempt to stem this rising tide, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) governing council and the Association of American Universities (AAU) recently and independently issued strong statements condemning lobbying by individual universities and enthusiastically supporting the peer review system.“Informed peer judgments on the scientific merits of specific proposals, in open competition, should be a central element in the awarding of all federal funds for science,” the NAS resolution stated. AAU, meanwhile, implored “scientists, leaders of America's universities, and members of Congress” to “refrain from actions that would make scientific decisions a test of political influence rather than a judgment on the quality of the work to be done.” Roughly 50 research institutions constitute AAU; the two AAU Canadian members did not vote on the consortium's statement.

  9. ECONOMIC THEORY OF LOBBYING: EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolstyh Pavel Aleksandrovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author continues to analyze lobbying with regards to economic paradigm. [The author has started discussing lobbying in terms of economic theory in the article Politico-economic theory of lobbying / / Historical, philosophical, political and legal sciences, culture and art. Theory and practice. Tambov: Gramota, 2013. No 1. Part 2. p. 177-189.] Researcher evaluates the cost effectiveness of the lobbying function. Lobbying is understood as activity of specifically authorized employees of corporations and lobbying firms representing their interests, trade associations. This activity is aimed at improving the profitability of integrated and sustainable business development by representing long-term, comfortable, predictable system of relationships with the relevant field-specific political stakeholders of the federal and regional levels. The article presents an in-depth analysis of economic concepts of lobbying function.

  10. ECONOMIC THEORY OF LOBBYING: EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Павел Александрович Толстых

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author continues to analyze lobbying with regards to economic paradigm. [The author has started discussing lobbying in terms of economic theory in the article Politico-economic theory of lobbying / / Historical, philosophical, political and legal sciences, culture and art. Theory and practice. Tambov: Gramota, 2013. No 1. Part 2. p. 177-189.] Researcher evaluates the cost effectiveness of the lobbying function. Lobbying is understood as activity of specifically authorized employees of corporations and lobbying firms representing their interests, trade associations. This activity is aimed at improving the profitability of integrated and sustainable business development by representing  long-term, comfortable, predictable system of relationships with the relevant field-specific political stakeholders of the federal and regional levels. The article presents an in-depth analysis of economic concepts of lobbying function.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-3

  11. EU Lobbying and Anti-Dumping Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2012-01-01

    of petitioning firms and Council voting in the case of anti-dumping policy. If the political position of countries in anti-dumping cases is influenced by domestic lobbying efforts, we expect that the empirical pattern of country distribution of petitioning firms in EU anti-dumping cases corresponds closely...... to the empirical pattern of EU country distribution in Council voting. Our results show a low petitioning intensity for anti-dumping investigations and a high voting intensity against anti-dumping measures in Northern Europe. Thus, it seems likely that domestic lobbying efforts have influenced the political...... position of countries in the special case of EU anti-dumping policy....

  12. Analisis Internal Perusahaan (Strength & Weakness, Menggunakankonsep Resource-Based View of the Firm dengan Kerangka VRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Wandrial

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Problems in the company's internal environmental analysis is to determine the strengths and weaknesses (internal resources, we did not have reasonable grounds to determine whether the company's internal resources as a strength or weakness. Before we can determine whether a resource can be categorized as strengths or weaknesses, we must have a certain criteria so that appropriate resources are said to be a strength or weakness

  13. Evaluation of Practicing sustainable Industrial Solid Waste Minimization by Manufacturing Firms in Malaysia: Strengths and Weaknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallak, Shadi Kafi; Bakri Ishak, Mohd; Mohamed, Ahmad Fariz

    2016-09-13

    Malaysia is facing an increasing trend in industrial solid waste generation due to industrial development.Thus there is a paramount need in taking a serious action to move toward sustainable industrial waste management. The main aim of this study is to assess practicing solid waste minimization by manufacturing firms in Shah Alam industrial state, Malaysia. This paper presents a series of descriptive and inferential statistical analysis regarding the level and effects of practicing waste minimization methods, and seriousness of barriers preventing industries from practicing waste minimization methods. For this purpose the survey questions were designed such that both quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (semi-structures interview) data were collected concurrently. Analysis showed that, the majority of firms (92%) dispose their wastes rather than practice other sustainable waste management options. Also waste minimization methods such as segregation of wastes, on-site recycle and reuse, improve housekeeping and equipment modification were found to have significant contribution in waste reduction (pmanufacturing firms as the main aim of this research. Implications This manuscript critically analysis waste minimization practices by manufacturing firms in Malaysia. Both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis were conducted to formulate SWOT and TOWS matrix in order to recommend policies and strategies for improvement of solid waste minimization by manufacturing industries. The results contribute to the knowledge and the findings of this study provide a useful baseline information and data on industrial solid waste generation and waste minimization practice.

  14. Playing The Lobby

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Playing a game can be defined as, in a fun way, to reach a goal by means of helpers and challenged by obstacles and opponents. In this workshop we will gain a new understanding of the lobby by making it into a game. The lobby of the museum can be understood as a game in which the players (the....... The object is surprisingly not to play the games, but to design them. Through the design process we are forced to discuss: What are the challenges of a particular lobby (e.g. ticketing, queueing, other visitors, guards, getting lost)? Which properties do the players have (e.g. patience, expectations, need...... of a toilet)? what boosters may they obtain in the lobby (e.g. coffee, help, souvenirs, signs)? And how can we make this an enjoyable experience? The object of the games is to understand the lobby in a new way to identify problems, and think of ways to improve the functions, flow, and services of the lobby....

  15. Putting a Face on the Issue: Corporate Stakeholder Mobilization in Professional Grassroots Lobbying Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Edward T

    2012-12-01

    Business scholars pay increasing attention to the expanded influence of stakeholders on firm strategies, legitimacy, and competitiveness. At the same time, analysts have noted that the transformed regulatory and legislative environments of recent decades have encouraged firms to become much more politically active. Surprisingly, relatively little research has tied together these two trends. The present study integrates perspectives on stakeholder management with research on corporate political activity to develop an understanding of the structural sources of stakeholder mobilization in professional grassroots lobbying campaigns. This study employs a unique, original data source to consider how the adoption of grassroots lobbying by a firm relates to its industry, degree of inside lobbying, partisan PAC contributions, and more. This research shows that corporate grassroots lobbying is shaped most significantly by a firm's degree of inside lobbying, as highly active firms take a diversified strategy for gaining influence. Firms in industries with a heavy public presence as well as those concerned with taxation, government appropriations, and economic development also adopt these strategies readily. PAC contributions to Republican, but not Democratic, candidates also heighten firms' propensity to lobby the public.

  16. Putting a Face on the Issue: Corporate Stakeholder Mobilization in Professional Grassroots Lobbying Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Edward T.

    2014-01-01

    Business scholars pay increasing attention to the expanded influence of stakeholders on firm strategies, legitimacy, and competitiveness. At the same time, analysts have noted that the transformed regulatory and legislative environments of recent decades have encouraged firms to become much more politically active. Surprisingly, relatively little research has tied together these two trends. The present study integrates perspectives on stakeholder management with research on corporate political activity to develop an understanding of the structural sources of stakeholder mobilization in professional grassroots lobbying campaigns. This study employs a unique, original data source to consider how the adoption of grassroots lobbying by a firm relates to its industry, degree of inside lobbying, partisan PAC contributions, and more. This research shows that corporate grassroots lobbying is shaped most significantly by a firm’s degree of inside lobbying, as highly active firms take a diversified strategy for gaining influence. Firms in industries with a heavy public presence as well as those concerned with taxation, government appropriations, and economic development also adopt these strategies readily. PAC contributions to Republican, but not Democratic, candidates also heighten firms’ propensity to lobby the public. PMID:24707060

  17. Spitsbergen Literature Lobby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Katherine Jones

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Spitsbergen (Svalbard Question became an international political issue regarding the terra nullius status of the Arctic region in the light of growing commercial enterprise undertaken from 1898 onwards. The Spitsbergen Commission set up by the Peace Conference in Paris to resolve this question in the aftermath of the Great War awarded sovereignty to Norway. Elen C. Singh’s concept of the Spitsbergen Literature Lobby illustrates behind-the-scenes activity intent on resolving Spitsbergen sovereignty in favour of one particular nation, and/or securing the commercial interests of several nations. Documents analysed in this article include the initial Norwegian Government submission to the Peace Conference and the contemporaneous diary of one of its main compilers; Spitsbergen Literature Lobby texts cited by Singh, and other strategic texts published 1906-1919; and selected Spitsbergen texts published in the light of Norwegian sovereignty. Subject matter comprised Spitsbergen summaries, history (including Spitsbergen bibliographies, cartography, legal/political issues and commercial issues. The specific and general influence of the lobby and the expertise of its constituent authors is examined, as are their individual and collaborative literary efforts, as well as the rationale behind the selection of strategic texts and a summary of their time-scale, location and language of publication.

  18. 7 CFR 3565.111 - Lobbying activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lobbying activities. 3565.111 Section 3565.111... AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Lender Requirements § 3565.111 Lobbying activities. An...) regarding lobbying activities....

  19. Campaign contributions, lobbying and post-Katrina contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Michael J; Long, Michael A; Stretesky, Paul B

    2010-07-01

    This research explores the relationship between political campaign contributions, lobbying and post-Hurricane Katrina cleanup and reconstruction contracts. Specifically, a case-control study design is used to determine whether campaign contributions to national candidates in the 2000-04 election cycles and/or the employment of lobbyists and lobbying firms increased a company's probability of receiving a post-hurricane contract. Results indicate that both a campaign contribution dichotomous variable and the dollar amount of contributions are significantly related to whether a company received a contract, but that lobbying activity was not. These findings are discussed in the context of previous research on the politics of natural disasters, government contracting and governmental and corporate deviance.

  20. 45 CFR 1612.4 - Grassroots lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grassroots lobbying. 1612.4 Section 1612.4 Public... LOBBYING AND CERTAIN OTHER ACTIVITIES § 1612.4 Grassroots lobbying. A recipient shall not engage in any grassroots lobbying....

  1. The Complexity of Probabilistic Lobbying

    CERN Document Server

    Erdélyi, Gábor; Goldsmith, Judy; Mattei, Nicholas; Raible, Daniel; Rothe, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    We propose various models for lobbying in a probabilistic environment, in which an actor (called "The Lobby") seeks to influence the voters' preferences of voting for or against multiple issues when the voters' preferences are represented in terms of probabilities. In particular, we provide two evaluation criteria and three bribery methods to formally describe these models, and we consider the resulting forms of lobbying with and without issue weighting. We provide a formal analysis for these problems of lobbying in a stochastic environment, and determine their classical and parameterized complexity depending on the given bribery/evaluation criteria. Specifically, we show that some of these problems can be solved in polynomial time, some are NP-complete but fixed-parameter tractable, and some are W[2]-complete. Finally, we provide (in)approximability results.

  2. Les lobbies environnementaux : intérêts d’une approche pluraliste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Orsini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspirée du courant transnationaliste, l’approche pluraliste est la théorie des relations internationales la plus à même de rendre compte de la spécificité des lobbies environnementaux, c’est-à-dire les lobbies impliqués dans la politique internationale de l’environnement. Après une brève présentation des différentes catégories de lobbies (ONG, firmes, experts, etc., nous expliquerons les postulats d’une approche pluraliste qui permettent notamment d’envisager les enjeux actuels de la participation des lobbies à la politique internationale de l’environnement.

  3. 50 CFR 600.227 - Lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobbying. 600.227 Section 600.227 Wildlife..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Council Membership § 600.227 Lobbying. (a) Council... Commerce implementing regulations published at 15 CFR part 28, “New Restrictions on Lobbying.”...

  4. Lobbying for Contingent Faculty Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Lobbying has become a dirty word thanks to well-publicized cases involving lobbyists such as Jack Abramoff. However, advocating for one's positions is a positive act of civic engagement. The right to petition the government is enshrined in the Constitution, and lawmakers depend on interaction with constituents to know what the people they…

  5. Lobbying during the revision of the European emissions trading system: Easier for Swedish industrial insiders than for Norwegian outsiders?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miard, Kadri

    2011-07-01

    This report examines and compares the lobbying routes taken by Swedish and Norwegian energy-intensive industry firms during the revision of the European Emissions Trading System. Two key explanatory factors are in focus here - whether the company has its origin in the EU member state Sweden or in non-member Norway; and the size of the company. Six companies are chosen as cases: Norsk Hydro, Norcem and Norske Skog from Norway; and SSAB, Cementa and Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget from Sweden. A key finding is the extensive use of European associations by all these firms in lobbying EU institutions. Also prevalent is the use of national associations, which would indicate benefits in the form of better institutional response to collective lobbying and resource-sharing aspects. Although Norwegian firms seem to have struggled more than Swedish firms when it comes to lobbying EU institutions, due to lack of access to the EU, not all differences can be explained by the fact of originating in an EU member state Sweden or non-member Norway. While company size has a positive effect on the number of available lobbying routes, this appears to depend on cross-border production and possibly other influences as well.(auth)

  6. Communicative Functions of the Museum Lobby

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Christian Hviid; Rudloff, Maja; Vestergaard, Vitus

    2014-01-01

    and the last impression that they take home and share with others. This article analyzes museum lobbies as communication spaces in order to identify the different functions afforded by such spaces. In an explorative study of five Danish museum lobbies, we offer a preliminary categorization of these functions...

  7. 20 CFR 632.121 - Lobbying activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lobbying activities. 632.121 Section 632.121 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Prevention of Fraud and Program Abuse § 632.121 Lobbying activities....

  8. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 93 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... ON LOBBYING Pt. 93, App. A Appendix A to Part 93—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for... Standard Form-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with its instructions. (3)...

  9. 15 CFR Appendix A to Part 28 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A... LOBBYING Pt. 28, App. A Appendix A to Part 28—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts...-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with its instructions. (3) The...

  10. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 712 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 712, App. A Appendix A to Part 712—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification... and submit Standard Form-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with...

  11. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 604 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 604, App. A Appendix A to Part 604—Certification Regarding Lobbying... and submit Standard Form-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with...

  12. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 1271 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix... ON LOBBYING Pt. 1271, App. A Appendix A to Part 1271—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification... and submit Standard Form-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with...

  13. 18 CFR Appendix A to Part 1315 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 1315 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 1315, App. A Appendix A to Part 1315—Certification Regarding Lobbying... and submit Standard Form-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with...

  14. 43 CFR Appendix A to Part 18 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A... LOBBYING Pt. 18, App. A Appendix A to Part 18—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts...-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with its instructions. (3) The...

  15. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 21 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A... ON LOBBYING Pt. 21, App. A Appendix A to Part 21—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for... Standard Form-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with its instructions. (3)...

  16. 6 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... LOBBYING Pt. 9, App. A Appendix A to Part 9—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts... Standard Form—LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with its instructions. (3)...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 34 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A... ASSISTANCE NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 34, App. A Appendix A to Part 34—Certification Regarding Lobbying... and submit Standard Form-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with...

  18. 13 CFR Appendix A to Part 146 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A... LOBBYING Pt. 146, App. A Appendix A to Part 146—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for... Standard Form-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with its instructions. (3)...

  19. 28 CFR Appendix A to Part 69 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A... LOBBYING Pt. 69, App. A Appendix A to Part 69—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts...-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with its instructions. (3) The...

  20. Lobbying in the EU Comitology System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Rikke Wetendorff; Nedergaard, Peter; Blom-Hansen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Comitology is an important part of the EU’s regulatory framework. Hence, lobbying by outside interests is to be expected. However, lobbying in the comitology system has received almost no scholarly attention. This paper provides the first understanding of the subject by analysing the access...... of business interests to actors in the comitology system. The analysis is designed as a most likely study of two cases, aviation safety and CO2 quotas. Based on Bouwen’s rationalist theory of access goods, the empirical analysis shows that lobbying is prevalent, especially by sectoral interests providing...

  1. Judicial lobbying: The politics of labor law constitutional interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Matias Iaryczower; Pablo Spiller; Mariano Tommasi

    2006-01-01

    This paper links the theory of interest groups influence over the legislature with that of congressional control over the judiciary. The resulting framework reconciles the theoretical literature of lobbying with the negative available evidence on the impact of lobbying over legislative outcomes, and sheds light to the determinants of lobbying in separation-of-powers systems. We provide conditions for judicial decisions to be sensitive to legislative lobbying, and find that lobbying falls the ...

  2. 2-Year Colleges Step Up Lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evelyn, Jamilah

    2001-01-01

    Describes how increased lobbying by community colleges is yielding payoffs in state legislatures and Congress and significantly more federal earmarks. Discusses how increased financial support may also be due to community colleges' responsiveness to states' economic needs. (EV)

  3. Material weakness Identification and Disclosure by Firms Listed in U.S. and its Enlightenment to China's Firms%在美上市公司内部控制重大缺陷认定、披露及对我国企业的借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈武朝

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the internal control material weakness identification, disclosure by firms listed in U.S. during the early implementation of"Sarbanes - Oxley Act", and finds that many material weaknesses were identified through the strong indicators that a material weakness in internal control over financial reporting exists, others were identified through the definition of material weakness. The disclosed material weaknesses relate to almost all components of COSO Internal Control-Integrated Framework, and almost all balance sheet and income statement items. This paper also finds that only part of the sample firms disclosed the company-level material weakness which caused those account balances or transaction -level process material weaknesses, while only part of the sample firms disclosed all balance sheet and income statement items affected by the identical account balance or transaction -level process material weakness. Finally, this paper analyses the enlightenment of material weakness identification, disclosure by firms listed in U.S. to China's listed firms to implement Basic Standard of Internal Control for Enterprises and its guidelines .%本文研究了《萨班斯-奥克斯利法案》执行初期在美国上市的公司财务报告内部控制重大缺陷的认定及披露。研究发现,许多重大缺陷是根据内部控制审计准则指出的表明公司内部控制可能存在重大缺陷的重要迹象来认定的;其他的则通过重大缺陷的定义来认定。披露的内部控制重大缺陷涉及到COSO《内部控制-整合框架》五要素的几乎所有内容,以及资产负债表和利润表的几乎所有项目。仅有部分公司披露导致交易或账户层面重大缺陷的企业层面内部控制重大缺陷,同时,仅有部分公司披露受账户或交易层面内部控制重大缺陷影响的所有账户。本文最后分析了在美上市公司重大缺陷认定及披露对我国上市公司执行

  4. Corporate lobbying: A review of the recent literature

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This survey covers recent literature on lobbying, with particular focus on corporate lobbying. Three main research traditions – contests for policy rent, persuasion games, and multiple means models - are analyzed in detail. Various strategic aspects of lobbying are presented in the context of a single unified model that encompasses both strategic communication and monetary contributions. Next, the review investigates into three particular issues in the lobbying literature: (i) Incentive to lo...

  5. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 138 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 138 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 138, App. A Appendix A to Part 138—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts,...

  6. 34 CFR Appendix A to Part 82 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 82 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 82, App. A Appendix A to Part 82—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts,...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 411 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 411 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 411, App. A Appendix A to Part 411—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for...

  8. 38 CFR Appendix A to Part 45 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 45 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 45, App. A Appendix A to Part 45—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and Cooperative Agreements The undersigned...

  9. 48 CFR 352.203-70 - Anti-lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anti-lobbying. 352.203-70... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 352.203-70 Anti-lobbying. As prescribed in 303.808-70, the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Anti-Lobbying...

  10. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 93 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 93 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 93, App. A Appendix A to Part 93—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and Cooperative Agreements...

  11. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 227 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 227 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 227, App. A Appendix A to Part 227—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for...

  12. 20 CFR Appendix A to Part 438 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 438 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 438, App. A Appendix A to Part 438—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants,...

  13. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 1230 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 1230, App. A Appendix A to Part 1230—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and Cooperative Agreements...

  14. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 311 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 311 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 311, App. A Appendix A to Part 311—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and...

  15. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 87 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A... Urban Development NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 87, App. A Appendix A to Part 87—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and Cooperative Agreements The...

  16. 7 CFR 761.5 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 761.5 Section 761.5... lobbying. A person who applies for or receives a loan made or guaranteed by the Agency must comply with the restrictions on lobbying in 7 CFR part 3018....

  17. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 1158 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 1158, App. A Appendix A to Part 1158—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans,...

  18. 7 CFR 1710.125 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 1710.125 Section 1710.125... and Basic Policies § 1710.125 Restrictions on lobbying. Borrowers are required to comply with certain requirements with respect to restrictions on lobbying activities. See 7 CFR part 3018....

  19. 7 CFR 1944.657 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Restrictions on lobbying. 1944.657 Section 1944.657...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.657 Restrictions on lobbying... funds for lobbying the Federal Government in connection with a specific grant....

  20. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 519 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 519 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 519, App. A Appendix A to Part 519—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans,...

  1. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 28 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... AGREEMENT REGULATIONS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 28, App. A Appendix A to Part 28—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and Cooperative Agreements The...

  2. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 18 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 18 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 18, App. A Appendix A to Part 18—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and Cooperative Agreements...

  3. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 3018 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part... OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 3018, App. A Appendix A to Part 3018—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and Cooperative Agreements...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 601 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 601 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 601, App. A Appendix A to Part 601—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants,...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 20 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 20 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 20, App. A Appendix A to Part 20—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts,...

  6. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 1168 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 1168, App. A Appendix A to Part 1168—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts,...

  7. 12 CFR 1805.808 - Lobbying restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lobbying restrictions. 1805.808 Section 1805.808 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Terms and Conditions of Assistance § 1805.808...

  8. The Effectiveness of Caps on Political Lobbying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matejka, M.; Onderstal, A.M.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze a lobby game, modelled as an all-pay auction in which interest groups submit bids in order to obtain a political prize.The bids are restricted to be below a cap imposed by the government.For both an incomplete and a complete information setting we show the following results

  9. Vote buying II: legislatures and lobbying

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    We examine the consequences of lobbying and vote buying, assuming this prac- tice were allowed and free of stigma. Two "lobbyists" compete for the votes of legislators by offering up-front payments to the legislators in exchange for their votes. We analyze how the lobbyists' budget constraints and legislator preferences determine the winner and the payments.

  10. 26 CFR 56.4911-6 - Records of lobbying and grass roots expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records of lobbying and grass roots... lobbying and grass roots expenditures. (a) Records of lobbying expenditures. An electing public charity must keep a record of its lobbying expenditures for the taxable year. Lobbying expenditures of which...

  11. Public health, public trust and lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynia, Matthew K

    2007-06-01

    Each year, infection with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) leads to millions of abnormal Pap smears and thousands of cases of cervical cancer in the US. Throughout the developing world, where Pap smears are less common, HPV is a leading cause of cancer death among women. So when the international pharmaceutical giant Merck developed a vaccine that could prevent infection with several key strains of HPV, the public health community was anxious to celebrate a major advance. But then marketing and lobbying got in the way. Merck chose to pursue an aggressive lobbying campaign, trying to make its new vaccine mandatory for young girls. The campaign stoked public mistrust about how vaccines come to be mandated, and now it's not just Merck's public image that has taken a hit. The public health community has also been affected. What is the lesson to be learned from this story? Public health communication relies on public trust.

  12. Legislative lobbying in context : towards a conceptual framework of interest group lobbying in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluver, Heike; Braun, C.; Beyers, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We outline a conceptual framework that identifies and characterizes the contextual nature of interest group politics in the European Union (EU) to better understand variation in interest group mobilization, lobbying strategies and interest group influence. We focus on two sets of contextual factors

  13. Interest group lobbying and the delegation of policy authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, R.

    2000-01-01

    In a signalling model of lobbying the politicians' decision whether to delegate policy authority and an interest group's choice between lobbying politicians or bureaucrats are investigated. Only bureaucrats are able to assess policy-relevant information coming from the interest group, but their

  14. Lobbying of commercial diplomats: institutional setting as a determining factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondarouk, T.V.; Ruel, H.J.M.; Ruel, H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to contribute to the understanding of how commercial diplomats lobby for public procurement contracts. The institutional environment has ramifications for the manner of lobbying and for the practice of commercial diplomacy. This research brings together these streams of l

  15. 7 CFR 2200.10 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 2200.10 Section 2200.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD... Restrictions on lobbying. (a) No funds received through a Loan guaranteed under this Program in this...

  16. 7 CFR 1724.8 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 1724.8 Section 1724.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Restrictions on lobbying. Borrowers shall comply with the restrictions and requirements in connection...

  17. Machiavelli in Brussels : The Art of Lobbying the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schendelen, van M.P.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Countless interest groups representing governments and non-governmental bodies try to lobby the European Union effectively in pursuit of the desired legislation, subsidies and more. Many lobby groups simply do what they see fit. Others manage their affairs in the EU arena more professionally, and it

  18. 14 CFR 1310.9 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 1310.9 Section... CONDITION OF GUARANTEED LOAN § 1310.9 Restrictions on lobbying. (a) While the Board is not part of the... Restrictions on Lobbying”) of title 31 (“Money and Finance: Treasury”) of the Code of Federal Regulations...

  19. 48 CFR 231.205-22 - Legislative lobbying costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Legislative lobbying costs. 231.205-22 Section 231.205-22 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Contracts With Commercial Organizations 231.205-22 Legislative lobbying costs. (a) Costs associated...

  20. 13 CFR 400.108 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 400.108 Section 400.108 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Board Procedures § 400.108 Restrictions on lobbying. (a) No funds received through...

  1. 13 CFR 500.108 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 500.108 Section 500.108 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN PROGRAM Board Procedures § 500.108 Restrictions on lobbying. (a) No...

  2. 20 CFR 638.814 - Lobbying; political activities; unionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lobbying; political activities; unionization. 638.814 Section 638.814 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 638.814 Lobbying; political activities; unionization. No funds provided under the Act may be used...

  3. 20 CFR 633.319 - Lobbying, political activities and unionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lobbying, political activities and unionization. 633.319 Section 633.319 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Lobbying, political activities and unionization. No funds provided under the Act may be used in any way:...

  4. An Aspirational Community Theory of the Firm

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    All of the three major theories of the firm, i.e., the transaction cost theory, knowledge-based theory and the entrepreneurship theory, offer some insightful analyses of the nature of the firm. However, they all have limitations and weaknesses in answering the fundamental question of the existence of the firm. In addition, they are all partial due to their particular focus on the multifaceted phenomenon of the firm. We argue that it is necessary and sufficient to develop a comprehensive yet i...

  5. Corporate philanthropy, lobbying, and public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesler, Laura E; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-12-01

    To counter negative publicity about the tobacco industry, Philip Morris has widely publicized its philanthropy initiatives. Although corporate philanthropy is primarily a public relations tool, contributions may be viewed as offsetting the harms caused by corporate products and practices. That such donations themselves have harmful consequences has been little considered. Drawing on internal company documents, we explored the philanthropy undertaken as part of Philip Morris's PM21 image makeover. Philip Morris explicitly linked philanthropy to government affairs and used contributions as a lobbying tool against public health policies. Through advertising, covertly solicited media coverage, and contributions to legislators' pet causes, Philip Morris improved its image among key voter constituencies, influenced public officials, and divided the public health field as grantees were converted to stakeholders.

  6. Corporate Philanthropy, Lobbying, and Public Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesler, Laura E.

    2008-01-01

    To counter negative publicity about the tobacco industry, Philip Morris has widely publicized its philanthropy initiatives. Although corporate philanthropy is primarily a public relations tool, contributions may be viewed as offsetting the harms caused by corporate products and practices. That such donations themselves have harmful consequences has been little considered. Drawing on internal company documents, we explored the philanthropy undertaken as part of Philip Morris's PM21 image makeover. Philip Morris explicitly linked philanthropy to government affairs and used contributions as a lobbying tool against public health policies. Through advertising, covertly solicited media coverage, and contributions to legislators’ pet causes, Philip Morris improved its image among key voter constituencies, influenced public officials, and divided the public health field as grantees were converted to stakeholders. PMID:18923118

  7. ICT, Complementary Firm Strategies and Firm Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rasel, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral thesis analyses from different perspectives the relationship between information and communication technologies (ICT), complementary firm strategies and firm performance. One chapter examines the role of ICT and decentralized workplace organization for productivity. Two chapters analyse the association between firms' ICT use, international trade activities and productivity. The empirical analyses are based on data from firms located in Germany from the manufacturing or service s...

  8. LOBBY ACTIVITIES AND THEIR EVOLUTION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Vasilcovschi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with the 20th century, lobby activities started to be developed and today the influence of the lobbying is used by nearly every group that has an important place at the international level. In this paper we describe the evolution of the concept of lobby at the international level and how this activity can influence European decision-makers. We consider that every citizen has the right to know how public decisions are designed, which interests are behind the allocation of resources, in which manner are expenses organized at central level and which are the techniques of influence. In this paper we explain how lobby activities help to analyse and design the decisions that affect the general interest.

  9. Offshoring and Firm Overlap

    OpenAIRE

    Schmerer, Hans-Jörg; Capuano, Stella; Egger, Hartmut; Koch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We set up a model of offshoring with heterogeneous producers that captures two empirical regularities on offshoring firms: larger, more productive firms are more likely to make use of the offshoring opportunity; the fraction of firms that engages in offshoring is positive and smaller than one in any size or revenue category. These patterns generate an overlap of offshoring and non-offshoring firms, which is non-monotonic in the costs of offshoring. In an empirical exercise, we employ firm-lev...

  10. Book Review: Lobbying the European Union: Institutions, Actors and Issues, David Coen and Jeremy Richardson (eds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Pop

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The volume "Lobbying the European Union: Institutions, Actors and Issues", collects 16 articles on interest group politics at EU level, focusing on the main elements of European lobbying - the existing relations between the EU institutions and the special interests, the main differences between NGO and business lobbying, the specific lobbying strategies adopted in EU's main policy sectors or lobbying regulations. The volume captures the main changes that took place on the European lobbying scene in the last two decades, period in which most EU institutions developed new points of access for lobbyists, while the interest groups became more specialized. The success of an EU lobbying campaign seems to be determined by a combination of various factors such as: a good knowledge of the EU environment, a wise usage of both financial resources and expertise, direct lobbying complemented by an efficient usage of domestic routes and the capability of creating smart alliances.

  11. 18 CFR Appendix B to Part 1315 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 1315 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Part 1315, App. B Appendix B to Part 1315—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying EC05OC91.023 EC05OC91.024 EC05OC91.025...

  12. 41 CFR 102-37.215 - When must a SASP make a certification regarding lobbying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... certification regarding lobbying? 102-37.215 Section 102-37.215 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Property § 102-37.215 When must a SASP make a certification regarding lobbying? You are subject to the anti-lobbying certification and disclosure requirements in part 105-69 of this title when all of the...

  13. 41 CFR Appendix B to Part 105 - 69-Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 105 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Administration 69-NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 105-69, App. B Appendix B to Part 105-69—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying EC21OC91.008 EC21OC91.009 EC21OC91.010...

  14. 38 CFR Appendix B to Part 45 - Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 45 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 45, App. B Appendix B to Part 45—Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying EC21OC91.022 EC21OC91.023 EC21OC91.024...

  15. Higher Education Association Lobbying: Grassroots Outreach as a Signal of Constituent Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Stacy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to gain a better understanding of lobbying by the major DC-based higher education associations. To understand this phenomenon, this study looked at the lobbying tactics used by the associations and how they decide on what lobbying tactics to use. A qualitative, multiple case study approach was used with a sample comprised of…

  16. 41 CFR Appendix A to Part 105 - 69-Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 105 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Administration 69-NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 105-69, App. A Appendix A to Part 105-69—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and Cooperative Agreements The...

  17. 7 CFR 249.22 - Nonprocurement debarment/suspension, drug-free workplace, and lobbying restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... workplace, and lobbying restrictions. 249.22 Section 249.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of.../suspension, drug-free workplace, and lobbying restrictions. The State agency must ensure compliance with the... lobbying (part 3018 of this title), where applicable....

  18. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 601 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 601 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 601, App. B Appendix B to Part 601—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying EC01OC91.009...

  19. 24 CFR Appendix B to Part 87 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying... and Urban Development NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 87, App. B Appendix B to Part 87—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying EC12OC91.004 EC12OC91.005 EC12OC91.006...

  20. 20 CFR 641.824 - What lobbying requirements apply to the use of SCSEP funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What lobbying requirements apply to the use... Requirements § 641.824 What lobbying requirements apply to the use of SCSEP funds? SCSEP recipients and subrecipients must comply with the restrictions on lobbying codified in the Department's regulations at 29...

  1. 28 CFR Appendix B to Part 69 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 69 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 69, App. B Appendix B to Part 69—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying EC21OC91.027...

  2. 22 CFR Appendix B to Part 712 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 712 Foreign Relations OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 712, App. B Appendix B to Part 712—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying...

  3. 43 CFR Appendix B to Part 18 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 18 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 18, App. B Appendix B to Part 18—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying EC01JA91.000...

  4. 20 CFR Appendix B to Part 438 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 438 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 438, App. B Appendix B to Part 438—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying ER27MY03.000 ER27MY03.001...

  5. 7 CFR Appendix B to Part 3018 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to... FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 3018, App. B Appendix B to Part 3018—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying EC13SE91.000 EC13SE91.001 EC13SE91.002...

  6. 45 CFR Appendix B to Part 1168 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 1168, App. B Appendix B to Part 1168—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying EC01JA91.013 EC01JA91.014...

  7. 22 CFR Appendix B to Part 138 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 138 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 138, App. B Appendix B to Part 138—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying EC06OC91.000 EC06OC91.001...

  8. 26 CFR 56.4911-8 - Excess lobbying expenditures of affiliated group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excess lobbying expenditures of affiliated... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PUBLIC CHARITY EXCISE TAXES § 56.4911-8 Excess lobbying... expenditures, lobbying expenditures, and grass roots expenditures of an affiliated group of organizations,...

  9. 13 CFR Appendix B to Part 146 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 146 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 146, App. B Appendix B to Part 146—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying...

  10. 48 CFR 31.205-22 - Lobbying and political activity costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobbying and political... Organizations 31.205-22 Lobbying and political activity costs. (a) Costs associated with the following... efforts to influence state or local officials to engage in similar lobbying activity), or with...

  11. 44 CFR Appendix B to Part 18 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 18 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 18, App. B Appendix B to Part 18—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying EC02FE91.075 EC02FE91.076 EC02FE91.077...

  12. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 28 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B... AGREEMENT REGULATIONS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 28, App. B Appendix B to Part 28—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying EC23OC91.000 EC23OC91.001 EC23OC91.002...

  13. 6 CFR Appendix B to Part 9 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 9 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY RESTRICTIONS UPON LOBBYING Pt. 9, App. B Appendix B to Part 9—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying...

  14. 22 CFR Appendix B to Part 227 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 227 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 227, App. B Appendix B to Part 227—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying EC06OC91.012...

  15. 7 CFR 248.22 - Nonprocurement debarment/suspension, drug-free workplace, and lobbying restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... workplace, and lobbying restrictions. 248.22 Section 248.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of.../suspension, drug-free workplace, and lobbying restrictions. The State agency shall ensure compliance with the... lobbying (7 CFR part 3018), where applicable....

  16. 26 CFR 1.162-28 - Allocation of costs to lobbying activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of costs to lobbying activities. 1... Corporations § 1.162-28 Allocation of costs to lobbying activities. (a) Introduction—(1) In general. Section... described in section 162(e)(1) (A) and (D) (lobbying activities). To determine the nondeductible amount,...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 34 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B... ASSISTANCE NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 34, App. B Appendix B to Part 34—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying 34-437.eps 34-438.eps 34-439.eps...

  18. 45 CFR Appendix B to Part 93 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 93 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 93, App. B Appendix B to Part 93—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying...

  19. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 1271 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 1271 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 1271, App. B Appendix B to Part 1271—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying...

  20. 22 CFR Appendix B to Part 519 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 519 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 519, App. B Appendix B to Part 519—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying EC13OC91.003 EC13OC91.004...

  1. 31 CFR Appendix B to Part 21 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 21 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 21, App. B Appendix B to Part 21—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying...

  2. 48 CFR 970.3102-05-22 - Lobbying and political activity costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobbying and political... and Procedures 970.3102-05-22 Lobbying and political activity costs. (b) Costs of the following activities are excepted from 48 CFR 31.205-22, Lobbying and political activity costs, coverage, provided...

  3. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 411 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 411 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 411, App. B Appendix B to Part 411—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying EC23SE91.003...

  4. 15 CFR Appendix B to Part 28 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 28 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 28, App. B Appendix B to Part 28—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying EC20SE91.001...

  5. Dollars, lobbying, and secrecy: how campaign contributions and lobbying affect public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Whitney North; Seymour, Gabriel North

    2013-01-01

    Public policy is too often determined not by the merits of the case but, rather, by individuals, corporations, and even countries who buy influence and alter public policy for the benefit of only a few. As a wrap-up for this conference on "Corporate Interference with Science and Health: Fracking, Food and Wireless," it is our intent to provide a personal story of how money can buy favors and determine policies that are often counter to the public interest and can even lead to failure to protect the health of the public. Given our background in law specific to the US, the basis of our evidence comes from legal rulings as well as legislative actions that have had an impact on policies in the US. While the specifics of governments vary, related activities surrounding money, lobbying, who knows who, and how decisions are made in secret to benefit a few are events that occur everywhere.

  6. Transformation of Manufacturing Firms to Servitisation Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Chih-Cheng; Ma, Zheng; Tanev, Stoyan

    2014-01-01

    It is crucial for the manufacturing SMEs to reconsider their business strategy in order to be able to launch customer-centric solutions. This ability is associated with a paradigm shift from a product-orientation to service-orientation. One of the major challenges to success in transforming...... a traditional manufacturing firm to service-oriented firms is the conspicuous lack of publications in this research stream. Applying a case study research approach, this study explores the transformation model for manufacturing SMEs to servitisation firms by adopting a network approach, and reveals...

  7. Transformation of Manufacturing Firms to Servitisation Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Chih-Cheng; Ma, Zheng; Tanev, Stoyan

    2014-01-01

    a traditional manufacturing firm to service-oriented firms is the conspicuous lack of publications in this research stream. Applying a case study research approach, this study explores the transformation model for manufacturing SMEs to servitisation firms by adopting a network approach, and reveals......It is crucial for the manufacturing SMEs to reconsider their business strategy in order to be able to launch customer-centric solutions. This ability is associated with a paradigm shift from a product-orientation to service-orientation. One of the major challenges to success in transforming...

  8. Performance of Patenting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    -patenting firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political......Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non...

  9. Tourism-dominated spaces – the strategic potential of hotel lobbies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    and not least by economists. The architectural voice in the general tourism-related discussion, in a very wide sense, has been relatively vague. The aim of this article is to discuss the strategic potential of a specific tourism programme, namely the hotel lobby as well as the immediate urban context...... of this lobby. From a qualitative architectural point of view the article examines the evolution of specific lobby-qualities at Miami Beach; from the pre-war Art Deco hotel lobby to the post-war MiMo resort lobby. In particular, the study highlights ‘extraordinary’ qualities of tourism-dominated spaces (as...

  10. Tourism-dominated spaces – the strategic potential of hotel lobbies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    and not least by economists. The architectural voice in the general tourism-related discussion, in a very wide sense, has been relatively vague. The aim of this article is to discuss the strategic potential of a specific tourism programme, namely the hotel lobby as well as the immediate urban context...... of this lobby. From a qualitative architectural point of view the article examines the evolution of specific lobby-qualities at Miami Beach; from the pre-war Art Deco hotel lobby to the post-war MiMo resort lobby. In particular, the study highlights ‘extraordinary’ qualities of tourism-dominated spaces (as...

  11. 26 CFR 1.501(h)-3 - Lobbying or grass roots expenditures normally in excess of ceiling amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Lobbying or grass roots expenditures normally in... § 1.501(h)-3 Lobbying or grass roots expenditures normally in excess of ceiling amount. (a) Scope... in § 56.4911-7(e)) either normally makes lobbying expenditures in excess of its lobbying...

  12. 45 CFR 2543.87 - Byrd anti-lobbying amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Byrd anti-lobbying amendment. 2543.87 Section 2543.87 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON...

  13. Which is your favorite hotel lobby in China?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> We ve set aside this page for our readers to write about their favorite hotel lobby in China. Please fell free to fax your ideas to us at 010-63982126 or email them via apple_chenyu@263.net . The author of the most interesting

  14. 43 CFR 20.506 - Appropriations, legislation and lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appropriations, legislation and lobbying. 20.506 Section 20.506 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Other Employee Conduct Provisions § 20.506 Appropriations, legislation and...

  15. 7 CFR 1726.17 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 1726.17 Section 1726.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General § 1726.17 Restrictions on...

  16. Legislative Bargaining and Lobbying in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of legislative bargaining in the EU on public goodsprovision and lobbying. We argue that delegation to a single policy maker at thecentralized level -which we call supranational policy making- increases lobbyingexpenditures. When policy in the center is formulated by

  17. Transnational diaspora lobbying: Europeanization and the Kurdish question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkowitz, L.; Mügge, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Turkey's European Union (EU) negotiations are generally believed to positively affect the rights of ethnic minorities in Turkey. Through a detailed case study, this article examines how members of the Kurdish diaspora in Europe aim to influence this process through lobbying, and to what extent ‘Euro

  18. The impact of lobbying on the allocation of political authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falconieri, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the internal organizational design of politicalinstitutions in presence of lobbying. We consider a legislature ascomposed of two bodies: the floor and an informational committee. Thefloor has the (formal) power to choose the policy to be implemented.The policy outcome is ex ante u

  19. Lobbying and advocacy for the public's health: what are the limits for nonprofit organizations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, J S

    1999-09-01

    Nonprofit organizations play an important role in advocating for the public's health in the United States. This article describes the rules under US law for lobbying by nonprofit organizations. The 2 most common kinds of non-profits working to improve the public's health are "public charities" and "social welfare organizations." Although social welfare organizations may engage in relatively unlimited lobbying, public charities may not engage in "substantial" lobbying. Lobbying is divided into 2 main categories. Direct lobbying refers to communications with law-makers that take a position on specific legislation, and grassroots lobbying includes attempts to persuade members of the general public to take action regarding legislation. Even public charities may engage in some direct lobbying and a smaller amount of grassroots lobbying. Much public health advocacy, however, is not lobbying, since there are several important exceptions to the lobbying rules. These exceptions include "non-partisan analysis, study, or research" and discussions of broad social problems. Lobbying with federal or earmarked foundation funds is generally prohibited.

  20. Thermodynamics of firms' growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Eduardo; Hernando, Alberto; Hernando, Ricardo; Plastino, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of firms' growth and firms' sizes is a topic under intense scrutiny. In this paper, we show that a thermodynamic model based on the maximum entropy principle, with dynamical prior information, can be constructed that adequately describes the dynamics and distribution of firms' growth. Our theoretical framework is tested against a comprehensive database of Spanish firms, which covers, to a very large extent, Spain's economic activity, with a total of 1 155 142 firms evolving along a full decade. We show that the empirical exponent of Pareto's law, a rule often observed in the rank distribution of large-size firms, is explained by the capacity of economic system for creating/destroying firms, and that can be used to measure the health of a capitalist-based economy. Indeed, our model predicts that when the exponent is larger than 1, creation of firms is favoured; when it is smaller than 1, destruction of firms is favoured instead; and when it equals 1 (matching Zipf's law), the system is in a full macroeconomic equilibrium, entailing ‘free’ creation and/or destruction of firms. For medium and smaller firm sizes, the dynamical regime changes, the whole distribution can no longer be fitted to a single simple analytical form and numerical prediction is required. Our model constitutes the basis for a full predictive framework regarding the economic evolution of an ensemble of firms. Such a structure can be potentially used to develop simulations and test hypothetical scenarios, such as economic crisis or the response to specific policy measures. PMID:26510828

  1. Immigration and Firm Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    William W. Olney

    2008-01-01

    Research generally focuses on how immigration affects native workers, while the impact of immigration on domestic firms is often overlooked. This paper addresses this important omission by examining whether firms respond to immigration by expanding their production activities within a city in order to utilize the abundant supply of low-skilled workers. Using data on immigration and the universe of establishments in U.S. cities, the results indicate that firms respond to immigration at the ext...

  2. Thermodynamics of firms' growth

    CERN Document Server

    Zambrano, Eduardo; Fernandez-Bariviera, Aurelio; Hernando, Ricardo; Plastino, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of firms' growth and firms' sizes is a topic under intense scrutiny. In this paper we show that a thermodynamic model based on the Maximum Entropy Principle, with dynamical prior information, can be constructed that adequately describes the dynamics and distribution of firms' growth. Our theoretical framework is tested against a comprehensive data-base of Spanish firms, which covers to a very large extent Spain's economic activity with a total of 1,155,142 firms evolving along a full decade. We show that the empirical exponent of Pareto's law, a rule often observed in the rank distribution of large-size firms, is explained by the capacity of the economic system for creating/destroying firms, and can be used to measure the health of a capitalist-based economy. Indeed, our model predicts that when the exponent is larger that 1, creation of firms is favored; when it is smaller that 1, destruction of firms is favored instead; and when it equals 1 (matching Zipf's law), the system is in a full mac...

  3. Which firms use measures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esben Rahbek Gjerdrum; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2012-01-01

    measurement practices. Design/methodology/approach – This paper hypothesises that firms dominated by organic capabilities and operating in unpredictable markets are more likely to adopt comprehensive PM systems. The statistical test of these hypotheses is based on a 2008 survey of 299 Danish firms. Findings....... Originality/value – Much has been said about how changes in the environment and business structure require firms to develop new ways to measure performance. Less has been done to study whether firms adopting comprehensive PM systems actually match the characteristics of the “new economy”. The findings from...

  4. Procurement with specialized firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Jan; Schottmüller, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes optimal procurement mechanisms when firms are specialized. The procurement agency has incomplete information concerning the firms’ cost functions and values high quality as well as low price. Lower type firms are cheaper (more expensive) than higher type firms when providing low...... (high) quality. With specialized firms, distortion is limited and a mass of types earns zero profits. The optimal mechanism can be inefficient: types providing lower second best welfare win against types providing higher second best welfare. As standard scoring rule auctions cannot always implement...

  5. Default Risk and Firm Value of Shipping & Logistics Firms in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jung Nam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As shipping and logistics industry is one of the core industries in Korea, the volume was ranked in the fifth highest in the world. However, shipping and logistics industry of Korea has suffered from default risk since Global Financial Crisis in 2008. This study examines the relationship between the default risk, as measured by the Altman K-Score, and firm value, as measured by the Return on Assets (ROA, of shipping and logistics firms in Korea and compares the impact of default risk on firm value between good financial health firms and poor financial health firms. As the trends of KScores over a ten-year periods, shipping and logistics firms in Korea register weak-to-moderate financial healthy rage. We find that Altman K-Score is significantly linked with firm value and also higher performing firms as measured by the ROA exhibit higher financial health as measured by KScore. Although nine years have been passed since Global Financial Crisis 2008, Korean shipping and logistics industry is still under the financial depression. This study proposes that systematic financial alert system of Korean shipping and logistics industry should be required to decrease default risk reflecting significance of Korean economy.

  6. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Schjerning, Bertel; R. Markusen, James

    2013-01-01

    Three types of theories have been used to explain the wage premium in foreign firms: the theories of heterogeneous workers, heterogeneous learning, and heterogeneous firms. We set up a model that explicitly encompasses two of these theories, and that can illustrate the third. This unifying....... In particular, the theory of heterogeneous workers can explain up to 75 percent of the premium....

  7. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    large domestic firms. The empirical implications of the model are tested on matched employer-employee data from Denmark. Consistent with the theory, we find considerable evidence of higher wages and wage growth in large and/or foreign-owned firms. These effects survive controlling for individual...

  8. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Schjerning, Bertel; R. Markusen, James

    2013-01-01

    Three types of theories have been used to explain the wage premium in foreign firms: the theories of heterogeneous workers, heterogeneous learning, and heterogeneous firms. We set up a model that explicitly encompasses two of these theories, and that can illustrate the third. This unifying framew...

  9. The market for firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Jerome Dean; Keiding, Hans

    2010-01-01

    and as a consequence a higher sales value of the firm. Buyers take this signaling into consideration, but irrespective of their countermoves, the equilib- rium result may be a lowering of ex ante product prices, and an ex post market overvaluation of the firm. This model is utilized to suggest possible explanations...

  10. Green OA Self-Archiving Needs a Lobbying Organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Harnad, Stevan

    2007-01-01

    Some university libraries and administrations think OA is all about journal affordability, digital preservation, digital curation (IRs) and interoperability (OAI). Some OA publishers think OA is all about conversion to Gold OA and the funding of Gold OA fees (CERN, etc.). Some copyright reformers think OA is all about reforming copyright law. And some traditional publishers lobby against Green OA mandates (and sometimes also against Gold OA) as a threat to their industry. There exists no reco...

  11. Corruption and firm performance: Evidence from Greek firms

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between corruption and firm performance in Greece using firm level data. Corruption is overall negatively associated with firm size and growth at the firm level. We focus on the effect of ‘administrative corruption’, whereby firms engage in corrupt practices and bribery of government officials. We contrast the firm experience of corruption and the contextual experience of corruption at the sectoral level and find that the latter, contextual corruptio...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 20 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 20 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 20, App. B Appendix B to Part 20—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying EC02FE91.097 EC02FE91.098 EC02FE91.099...

  13. 29 CFR Appendix B to Part 93 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 93 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 93, App. B Appendix B to Part 93—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying EC21OC91.005 EC21OC91.006 EC21OC91.007...

  14. 34 CFR Appendix B to Part 82 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 82 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 82, App. B Appendix B to Part 82—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying EC21OC91.056 EC21OC91.057 EC21OC91.058...

  15. 22 CFR Appendix B to Part 311 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 311 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 311, App. B Appendix B to Part 311—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying EC13OC91.000 EC13OC91.001 EC13OC91.002...

  16. 45 CFR Appendix B to Part 1158 - Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying B Appendix B to... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 1158, App. B Appendix B to Part 1158—Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying EC01JA91.010 EC01JA91.011 EC01JA91.012...

  17. Global Sourcing and Firm Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohler, Wilhelm; Smolka, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the sourcing strategies of firms active in the Spanish manufacturing sector. We show that firms that select strategies of vertical integration and of foreign sourcing ex post tend to have been more productive, ex ante, than other firms.......We analyze the sourcing strategies of firms active in the Spanish manufacturing sector. We show that firms that select strategies of vertical integration and of foreign sourcing ex post tend to have been more productive, ex ante, than other firms....

  18. Firms, crowds, and innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felin, Teppo; Lakhani, Karim R; Tushman, Michael L

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to suggest a (preliminary) taxonomy and research agenda for the topic of "firms, crowds, and innovation" and to provide an introduction to the associated special issue. We specifically discuss how various crowd-related phenomena and practices-for example, crowdsourcing, crowdfunding, user innovation, and peer production-relate to theories of the firm, with particular attention on "sociality" in firms and markets. We first briefly review extant theories of the firm and then discuss three theoretical aspects of sociality related to crowds in the context of strategy, organizations, and innovation: (1) the functions of sociality (sociality as extension of rationality, sociality as sensing and signaling, sociality as matching and identity), (2) the forms of sociality (independent/aggregate and interacting/emergent forms of sociality), and (3) the failures of sociality (misattribution and misapplication). We conclude with an outline of future research directions and introduce the special issue papers and essays.

  19. The Multinational Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Glenn; Hull Kristensen, Peer; Whitley, Richard

    In contrast to the traditional view of multinational firms as cohesive rational actors maximizing the use of resources across national boundaries, the contributors to this volume argue that they are complex social arenas where competing groups draw on resources from their own socially......-embedded locations in developing new transnational social relationships. As firms seek to manage across national and institutional boundaries, they stretch their existing capacities and routines and develop new sets of transnational social relationships through different groups competing and cooperating...

  20. Executive compensation and firm performance: Evidence from Indian firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehul Raithatha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the relationship between executive compensation and firm performance among Indian firms. The evidence suggests that firm performance measured by accounting, as well as market-based measures, significantly affects executive compensation. We also test for the presence of persistence in executive compensation by employing the system-generalised methods of moments (GMM estimator. We find significant persistence in executive compensation among the sample firms. Further, we report the absence of pay–performance relationship among the smaller sample firms and business group affiliated firms. Thus, our findings cast doubts over the performance-based executive compensation practices of Indian business group affiliated firms.

  1. The Politics of Global Value Chains: Import-dependent Firms and EU-Asia Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Poletti, Arlo

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, the European Commission released its Global Europe Communication, in which it announced a shift from a multilateral to a bilateral trade strategy. One of the key pillars of this new strategy was to strengthen the bilateral trade relations with key Asian countries. In contrast to existing analyses that focus on European Union (EU) decision makers' agency, we propose an explanation for this notable shift in the EU's trade policy that stresses the political role of import-dependent firms. In light of the increasing integration of such firms into global value chains, the article argues that a plausible case can be made, both theoretically and empirically, that import-dependent firms had a clear stake in the signing of preferential trade agreements between the EU and Asian countries and that their lobbying efforts significantly affected the EU's decision to start negotiations with South Korea, India and Vietnam.

  2. The Politics of Global Value Chains: Import-dependent Firms and EU–Asia Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Poletti, Arlo

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, the European Commission released its Global Europe Communication, in which it announced a shift from a multilateral to a bilateral trade strategy. One of the key pillars of this new strategy was to strengthen the bilateral trade relations with key Asian countries. In contrast to existing analyses that focus on European Union (EU) decision makers’ agency, we propose an explanation for this notable shift in the EU’s trade policy that stresses the political role of import-dependent firms. In light of the increasing integration of such firms into global value chains, the article argues that a plausible case can be made, both theoretically and empirically, that import-dependent firms had a clear stake in the signing of preferential trade agreements between the EU and Asian countries and that their lobbying efforts significantly affected the EU’s decision to start negotiations with South Korea, India and Vietnam. PMID:28018131

  3. Weak Convergence and Weak Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narita Keiko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we deal with weak convergence on sequences in real normed spaces, and weak* convergence on sequences in dual spaces of real normed spaces. In the first section, we proved some topological properties of dual spaces of real normed spaces. We used these theorems for proofs of Section 3. In Section 2, we defined weak convergence and weak* convergence, and proved some properties. By RNS_Real Mizar functor, real normed spaces as real number spaces already defined in the article [18], we regarded sequences of real numbers as sequences of RNS_Real. So we proved the last theorem in this section using the theorem (8 from [25]. In Section 3, we defined weak sequential compactness of real normed spaces. We showed some lemmas for the proof and proved the theorem of weak sequential compactness of reflexive real Banach spaces. We referred to [36], [23], [24] and [3] in the formalization.

  4. Legal regime of lobby activities. A comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu-Horia MAICAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A very important aspect is that countries with specific rules and regulations regulating the activities of lobbyists and interest groups are more the exception than the rule. The interest groups are pursuing their goals in the political arena by lobbying, or attempting to influence policy-making, are consistent with the spirit of democracy. In practice, interest group influence can sometimes lead to political corruption, the inequality of representation, and the overcrowding of political institutions. As a consequence, some political systems find it appropriate to regulate interest representation.

  5. A pot of tea in the Hilton lobby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tricia Carswell

    2004-01-01

    <正> The noise in my apartment was relentless: day in, day out, the construction crew chinked and drilled and hammered as they laboured on the plumbing and electrical lines in the unfinished part of the building. As usual, the volume seemed to get louder when it was time to do my tutoring lessons. I had to escape... go outside, into the blazing heat of the sun, and once there, to where? As is common with my lady friends, we are acquainted with the lobbies of nearly every hotel within a one-mile radius of our favourite haunts.Three reasons why women are on a

  6. The Value of Business Networks; an Analysis of Firm Financing in Transition Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwarotimi Owolabi; Sarmistha Pal

    2009-01-01

    The paper argues that the networked firms have an advantage in securing bank finance in countries with weak legal and judicial institutions. An analysis of recent BEEPS data from sixteen CEE transition countries lends some support to this hypothesis. Firms affiliated to business associations are more likely to have bank finance while small and medium firms are less likely to secure it. Importance of being associated with business networks is particularly evident among firms who borrow from fo...

  7. 26 CFR 56.4911-1 - Tax on excess lobbying expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... expenditure test election under section 501(h) is in effect (an “electing public charity”). An electing public..., the amount of an electing public charity's excess lobbying expenditures is the greater of— (1) The... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on excess lobbying expenditures. 56.4911-1...

  8. 45 CFR Appendix B to Part 604 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 604 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 604, App. B Appendix B to Part 604—Disclosure Form To Report...

  9. Balancing Inside and Outside Lobbying: The Political Strategies of Lobbyists at Global Diplomatic Conferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanegraaff, M.; Beyers, J.; De Bruycker, I.

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to explain the use of inside and outside lobbying by organised interests at global diplomatic conferences. At first sight, the lobbying at these venues is puzzling as it does not seem to be a very fruitful way to acquire influence. The use of outside strategies especially is perpl

  10. 38 CFR 58.16 - VA Form 10-0144-Certification Regarding Lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false VA Form 10-0144-Certification Regarding Lobbying. 58.16 Section 58.16 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FORMS § 58.16 VA Form 10-0144—Certification Regarding Lobbying. ER06JA00.013...

  11. The Role of State Higher Education Governance Structures in State-Level Higher Education Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkum, Kurt Richard

    2009-01-01

    Lobbying and lobbyists are integral components of federal and state public policymaking for higher education at the federal and state levels. While the actions and goals of lobbyists appear to be straightforward, the lobbying tactics selected by lobbyists vary for different situations and in different contexts (Browne, 1985; Cook, 1998; Gladieux &…

  12. Show them your teeth first! A game-theoretic analysis of lobbying and presure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, R.; van Winden, F.A.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the choice of an interest group between lobbying words and pressure actions in order to influence a policymaker. Both lobbying and pressure are modeled as strategic means of transmitting information that is relevant to the policymaker. However, only pressure is directly costl

  13. Campaign Spending with Office-Seeking Politicians, Rational Voters and Multiple Lobbies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prat, A.

    1998-01-01

    I introduce a microfounded model of campaign finance with office-seeking politicians, a continuum of voters, and a large number of heterogeneous lobbies. Lobbies make contributions to politicians according to a common agency framework. Politicians use contributions to finance their electoral expendi

  14. The business fluctuations and the lobbying evolution in European Union, Canada and USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oanta Ilie Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Business fluctuations are associated with business cycles but are not implying the regularity. We consider that the lobbying activities can influence the periods of economic recession and expansion from business fluctuations. The role of lobbying is to affect the decisions made by officials in the government or international corporations and agencies or organizations. In this paper we describe the structure of lobbying practice in European Union, Canada and United States of America and the characteristics of business fluctuations. Specifically, this paper looks at the lobbying activities evolution in European Union, Canada and United States of America and also at a potential relationship between lobbying and business fluctuations, from periods of boom to periods of recession.

  15. Modern Competitive Strategy Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Bartes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problems of an ever increasing number of cases of successful application of old combat strategies in business practice. Nevertheless, the author refuses the so called “direct conflict“ of firms, when it is really fought for victory on the market. His approach is based on the philosophy of “victory without fight“, in other words – of achieving the aim without direct conflict with the rival firm.In the end he comes to the conclusion that combat philosophies are more and more often incorporated into classical approach of strategic firm control and become the integral part of philosophy of management. At the close happens to opinion that the one from basic factors absolutely necessary to creation such strategy at company, is necessary present so-called „creative intelligence“.

  16. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    by developing a model that allows for two "pure" explanations for the wage premium. The first is a heterogenous-worker explanation along the lines of Yeaple (2005), where firms that select more scaleintensive technologies select ex-ante more productive workers. In this case, the wage premium is a pure selection...... phenomenon. The second explanation builds on the heterogeneous-firm model of Melitz (2003) combined with on-the-job learning as in Markusen (2001). Productivity differences between firms are internalized by ex-ante homogeneous workers, so the wage premium is a pure learning phenomenon due to ex-post higher...... by selection are in the neighborhood of 30-65% of the total premium, with the remainder consistent with learning. There is also considerable support for a number of other predictions specific to the worker-learning explanation....

  17. Innovation in Family Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filser, Matthias; Brem, Alexander; Gast, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, research on innovation in family firms has received growing attention by scholars and practitioners around the globe with a wide range of aspects explored within the current body of literature. Despite the constantly growing number of scientific publications, research lacks...... a comprehensive and critical review of past and present research achievements. First, conducting a bibliometric analysis with a focus on innovation in family firms, we identify five topical clusters that help to understand the foundations of recent findings: namely ownership and governance, structural settings......, organizational culture and behaviour, resources, and innovation and strategy. Second, based on a thorough literature review the major research avenues are reflected. The comparison of the results of both analyses showed the following areas for future research on family firm innovation: members‘ individual human...

  18. Collaborative Communities of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Both small and medium-size entrepreneurial firms face liabilities such as resource scarcity and scale diseconomies, making it difficult for them to innovate on a continuous basis. In response, experimentation with new ways of organizing for innovation has increased. One successful result is an or......Both small and medium-size entrepreneurial firms face liabilities such as resource scarcity and scale diseconomies, making it difficult for them to innovate on a continuous basis. In response, experimentation with new ways of organizing for innovation has increased. One successful result...

  19. Climate Change and Political Action: the Citizens' Climate Lobby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P. H.; Secord, S.

    2014-12-01

    Recognizing the reality of global warming and its origin in greenhouse gas emissions, what does one do about it? Individual action is commendable, but inadequate. Collective action is necessary--Citizens' Climate Lobby proposes a "fee-and-dividend" approach in which a fee is imposed on carbon-based fuel at its sources of production. The fee increases annually in a predictable manner. The funds collected are paid out to consumers as monthly dividends. The approach is market-based, in that the cost of the fee to producers is passed on to consumers in the cost of carbon-based fuels. Downstream energy providers and consumers then make their choices regarding investments and purchases. Citizens' Climate Lobby (CCL) builds national consensus by growing local Chapters, led and populated by volunteers. The Chapters are charged with public education and presenting the fee-and-dividend proposal to their respective Representatives and Senators. CCL builds trust by its non-partisan approach, meeting with all members of Congress regardless of party affiliation and stance on climate-related issues. CCL also builds trust by a non-confrontational approach, seeking to understand rather than to oppose. CCL works both locally, through its local Chapters, and nationally, with an annual conference in Washington DC during which all Congressional offices are visited. CCL recognizes that a long-term, sustained effort is necessary to address climate change.

  20. INFLUENCE OF FIRM SIZE ON ITS BUSINESS SUCCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Pervan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A firm may use different methods and diverse (nonfinancial analysis/indicators in order to evaluate its business success. However, one of the most widely applied methods refers to financial analyses that use profitability ratios as the key measures of firm’s overall efficiency and performance. In this research we focused our attention on firm size and evaluated its influence on firm profitability. Other than by the size of a firm, a firm performance is affected by a variety of internal and external variables. Therefore, apart from mere investigating the relationship between firm size and performance, we also explored the impact of some other variables crucial in determining firm profitability. The analysis was conducted for the 2002-2010 period and the results revealed that firm size has a significant positive (although weak influence on firm profitability. Additionally, results showed that assets turnover and debt ratio also statistically significantly influence firms’ performance while current ratio didn’t prove to be an important explanatory variable of firms’ profitability.

  1. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    Many papers have documented a wage premium in foreign-owned and large firms. However, there is very little formal theory in the literature and empirical analyses are typically not based on hypotheses which are rigorously derived from theory. This paper contributes to the theory-empirics gap by de...

  2. Firms, crowds, and innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felin, Teppo; Lakhani, Karim R; Tushman, Michael L

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to suggest a (preliminary) taxonomy and research agenda for the topic of “firms, crowds, and innovation” and to provide an introduction to the associated special issue. We specifically discuss how various crowd-related phenomena and practices—for example, crowdsourcing, crowdfunding, user innovation, and peer production—relate to theories of the firm, with particular attention on “sociality” in firms and markets. We first briefly review extant theories of the firm and then discuss three theoretical aspects of sociality related to crowds in the context of strategy, organizations, and innovation: (1) the functions of sociality (sociality as extension of rationality, sociality as sensing and signaling, sociality as matching and identity), (2) the forms of sociality (independent/aggregate and interacting/emergent forms of sociality), and (3) the failures of sociality (misattribution and misapplication). We conclude with an outline of future research directions and introduce the special issue papers and essays. PMID:28690428

  3. Whom do new firms hire?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    ’s productivity is based on its pre-entry experience and persistent shocks, and over time firms learn about their productivity. The model predicts that more productive firms are larger and hire more talented employees, which gives rise to various predictions about how pre-entry experience, firm growth rates......Using the matched employer-employee data set for Denmark and information on the founders of new firms, we analyze the hiring choices of all new firms that entered from 2003 to 2010. We develop a theoretical model in which the quality of a firm’s employees determines its average cost, a firm...

  4. Weak Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Without the weak force, the sun wouldn't shine. The weak force causes beta decay, a form of radioactivity that triggers nuclear fusion in the heart of the sun. The weak force is unlike other forces: it is characterised by disintegration. In beta decay, a down quark transforms into an up quark and an electron is emitted. Some materials are more radioactive than others because the delicate balance between the strong force and the weak force varies depending on the number of particles in the atomic nucleus. We live in the midst of a natural radioactive background that varies from region to region. For example, in Cornwall where there is a lot of granite, levels of background radiation are much higher than in the Geneva region. Text for the interactive: Move the Geiger counter to find out which samples are radioactive - you may be surprised. It is the weak force that is responsible for the Beta radioactivity here. The electrons emitted do not cross the plastic cover. Why do you think there is some detected radioa...

  5. Are Private Firms Really More Tax Aggressive Than Public Firms ?

    OpenAIRE

    Pierk, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    This paper tests the notion that private firms are more tax aggressive than public firms. Tax avoidance measures, e.g. effective tax rates, cannot be used to compare private and public firms when private and public firms have different levels of importance on financial accounting earnings (Hanlon and Heitzman 2010). To disentangle financial reporting incentives from tax aggressiveness, I use the fact that European groups must prepare two sets of financial statements: first, gro...

  6. The historical impact of ISO 9000 on Lebanese firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezher, Toufic; Ajam, Maher; Shehab, Mohamad

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the impact of the new ISO 9001:2000 standard on the Quality Management Systems (QMS) of Lebanese firms that were already certified under ISO 9000:1994. To get an accurate feedback of stakeholders in a firm, three different questionnaires were developed and distributed to management, employees, and customers respectively. Empirical results indicate that ISO 9001:2000 has improved the QMS performance of Lebanese firms over that of the 1994 edition. Nevertheless, results showed that the new standard still has some weaknesses when it comes to improving suppliers' relationships and empowering employees.

  7. Optoelectronics-related competence building in Japanese and Western firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Kumiko

    1992-05-01

    In this paper, an analysis is made of how different firms in Japan and the West have developed competence related to optoelectronics on the basis of their previous experience and corporate strategies. The sample consists of a set of seven Japanese and four Western firms in the industrial, consumer electronics and materials sectors. Optoelectronics is divided into subfields including optical communications systems, optical fibers, optoelectronic key components, liquid crystal displays, optical disks, and others. The relative strengths and weaknesses of companies in the various subfields are determined using the INSPEC database, from 1976 to 1989. Parallel data are analyzed using OTAF U.S. patent statistics and the two sets of data are compared. The statistical analysis from the database is summarized for firms in each subfield in the form of an intra-firm technology index (IFTI), a new technique introduced to assess the revealed technology advantage of firms. The quantitative evaluation is complemented by results from intensive interviews with the management and scientists of the firms involved. The findings show that there is a marked variation in the way firms' technological trajectories have evolved giving rise to strength in some and weakness in other subfields for the different companies, which are related to their accumulated core competencies, previous core business activities, organizational, marketing, and competitive factors.

  8. The Corporate Governance of Privately Controlled Brazilian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica C. R. Gorga

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of the corporate governance practices of Brazilian public companies, based primarily on an extensive 2005 survey of 116 companies. We focus on the 88 responding Brazilian private firms which are not majority owned by the state or a foreign company. We identify areas where Brazilian corporate governance is relatively strong and weak. Board independence is an area of weakness: The boards of most Brazilian private firms are comprised entirely or almost entirely of insiders or representatives of the controlling family or group. Many firms have zero independent directors. At the same time, minority shareholders have legal rights to representation on the boards of many firms, and this representation is reasonably common. Financial disclosure lags behind world standards. Only a minority of firms provide a statement of cash flows or consolidated financial statements. However, many provide English language financial statements, and an English language version of their website. Audit committees are uncommon, but many Brazilian firms use an alternate approach to ensuring financial statement accuracy – establishing a fiscal board. A minority of firms provide takeout rights to minority shareholders on a sale of control. Controlling shareholders often use shareholders agreements to ensure control.

  9. Firm-Specific Learning and the Nature of the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the limits of a purely transaction cost explanation of the existence of the firm by pointing to additional factors. A simple heuristic model shows that firm-specific learning effects can overcome the costs of monitoring employees, and explain the existence of the firm even ...

  10. The Innovative Capacity of Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neely Andy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is widely accepted as a crucial competitive weapon in today's global market place. Yet the levels of innovation achieved by different firms, even within the same industry, can vary widely. The key question raised by this observation is why. Why are some firms more innovative than others? What are the factors that determine a firm's capacity to innovate and how can these be managed to enhance the firm's innovative potential? This paper sets out to address these and related issues. It reports the results of a study of competitiveness and innovation of firms in the East of England. In the paper it is argued that the innovative capacity of a firm is a function of the firm's culture, resources, competences and networks. Justification for this framework is provided by a review of the relevant literature and a series of case studies examining the capacity to innovate of a sample of firms in the East of England.

  11. Evaluating and regulating the impacts of lobbying in the EU? The case study of green industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    How should we evaluate and regulate the impacts of lobbying in the European Union (EU)? The current lack of transparency around lobbying activities and the absence of formal regulation mean that a hidden lobbying problem may prevail. The tentative case study of green industries in the EU...... is illustrative. The wind turbine industry, for example, benefits from ambitious environmental target levels for greenhouse gas reductions that will increase the future market for renewable energy. In contrast, for example, no environmental target levels exist that increase the future market shares of organic...

  12. Mega numbers, lobbying and providing care for individuals with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H Barry; Perlman, Steven P

    2009-10-01

    Lobbying is a competitive effort directed to reaching legislators who are attempting to balance the demands of individuals, organized groups, political parties, and the complex economic realities of our times. Unfortunately, the use of all-inclusive "mega numbers" (whether it is the millions of individuals with disabilities or the billions of dollars for needed services) is difficult for any person to place in proper perspective. As a result, the estimated 1.5 million children and adults with autism spectrum disorders and their families in the United States become just "numbers" - not actual people. The need is to somehow personalize these numbers if we are to bring increased attention to these individuals with special needs. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and private research foundation data are used to illustrate an approach to better personalize the information for individual politicians and health practitioners.

  13. Belgian firms visiting CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2009-01-01

    25 – 26 MAY 2009 09.00 to 17.00 Monday 25 May 09.00 to 17.00 Tuesday 26 May Individual interviews will take place in technicians’ offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each departmental secretariat or from the GS Department web pages here. List of Companies:Automation Services and Consulting BVBA Burrick NV, (PLC) Cissoid DB Engineering Design, Drafting & Services BVBA Entelec Control Systems GILLAM-Fei S.A. HPC ICSENSE IWT – Enterprise Europe Flanders Jema SA Mecasoft SA SA Polmans Rapid-Torc Resarm Engineering Plastics SA Sentera Europa NV SLC BVBA Stocker Industrie SA Technord Tecnubel Winlock BVBA For further information please contact Caroline Laignel (GS-DI 73722) or Karine Robert (GS-SEM-LS 74407).

  14. Entrepreneurship and the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    While characteristically "Austrian" themes such as entrepreneurship, economic calculation, tacit knowledge and the temporal structure of capital are clearly relevant to the business firm, Austrian economists have said relatively little about management, organization and strategy. This work features...... topics. These include knowledge management, authority and hierarchy, modularity, corporate restructuring, telecommunications regulation and competitive advantage. They clearly show how Austrian ideas can usefully engage, challenge and extend more mainstream perspectives on economic organization....

  15. Foreign Firms Partner Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID HENDRICKSON

    2006-01-01

    @@ There is an important strategic adjustment occurring on the part of foreign dairy companies seeking to capitalize on the China market. Rather than going it alone,with local partnerships little more than an entry mechanism,global giants such as Danone,Arla, and Fonterra are taking advantage of the country's more relaxed foreign investment rules by upping their stakes in established local firms and expanding the role they play in business and industrial operations.

  16. Measuring Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Gillen, David

    2014-01-01

    Set in the airport industry, this paper measures firm performance using both desirable and bad outputs (i.e. airport delays). We first estimate a model that does not include the bad outputs and then a model that includes bad outputs. The results show important differences in the efficiency...... and productivity results depending on whether bad outputs are or are not included in the model. The differences reflect the resource cost to society and the potential cost to an airport if such externalities were internalized. Finally, the paper provides measures of shadow prices for the bad output, in our case...

  17. Weak relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Selleri, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Weak Relativity is an equivalent theory to Special Relativity according to Reichenbach’s definition, where the parameter epsilon equals to 0. It formulates a Neo-Lorentzian approach by replacing the Lorentz transformations with a new set named “Inertial Transformations”, thus explaining the Sagnac effect, the twin paradox and the trip from the future to the past in an easy and elegant way. The cosmic microwave background is suggested as a possible privileged reference system. Most importantly, being a theory based on experimental proofs, rather than mutual consensus, it offers a physical description of reality independent of the human observation.

  18. The Identity of Ownership on Firm Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandskov, Jesper; Madsen, Tage Koed; Pedersen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    The paper develops an integrative ownership-internationalization model that explores the influences of various owner types (i.e. investor-owned firms, family-owned firms, employee-owned firms, cooperative–owned firms, and state-owned firms) on firm internationalization. Based on a comparative...

  19. Danish firms visit CERN

    CERN Document Server

    FP Department

    2011-01-01

    30 – 31 JANUARY 2012 09:00 to 17:00 Monday 30 January 09:00 to 17:00 Tuesday 31 January Individual interviews will take place in technicians’ offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details available from the secretariat of their department or from the GS Department web page. List of Companies: · Axcon APS · BB Electronics A/S · B.Rustfrit Stal A/S · CIM Industrial Systems A/S · Danfysik A/S · Develco A/S · Eletronic A/S · GPV Group · Innoware A/S · JLI Vision A/S · NECAS A/S· NKT Cables A/S · Noliac A/S · Prodan A/S · Röttger’s Vaerktoj A/S · Vengcon APS For further information please contact Claudia Bruggmann Furlan  GS-IS-LS 73312 or Caroline Laignel GS-DI 73722.

  20. Firm Search for External Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The innovation performance of modern firms is increasingly determined by their ability to search and absorb external knowledge. However, after a certain threshold firms "oversearch" their environment and innovation performance declines. In this paper, we argue that prior literature has largely...... ignored the institutional context that provides or denies access to external knowledge at the country level. Combining institutional and knowledge search theory, we suggest that the market orientation of the institutional environment and the magnitude of institutional change influence when firms begin...... to experience the negative performance effects of oversearch. Based on a comprehensive sample of almost 8,000 firms from ten European countries, we find that institutions matter considerably for firms' search activity. Higher market orientation of institutions increases the effectiveness of firms' search...

  1. The financing of innovative firms

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Bronwyn H.

    2009-01-01

    To what extent are new and/or innovative firms fundamentally different from established firms, and therefore require a different form of financing? The theoretical background for this proposition is presented, and the empirical evidence on its importance is reviewed. Owing to the intangible nature of their investment, asymmetric-information and moral-hazard, these firms are more likely to be financed by equity than debt and behave in some cases as though they are cash-constrained, especially ...

  2. TAXATION AND FINANCE CONSTRAINED FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    Iris Claus

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops an open economy model to assess the long-run effects of taxation where firms are finance constrained. Finance constraints arise because of imperfect information between borrowers and lenders. Only borowers (firms) can costlessly observe actual returns from production. Imperfect information and finance constraints magnify the effects of taxation. A reduction (rise) in income taxation increases (lowers) firms' internal funds and their ability to assess external finance to ex...

  3. Historical Examples of Lobbying: The Case of Strasbourg Astronomical Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Andre

    2012-08-01

    Several astronomical observatories have been established in Strasbourg in very differing contexts. In the late 17th century, an observing post (scientifically sterile) was put on top of a tower, the Hospital Gate, essentially for the prestige of the city and the notoriety of the university. In the 19th century, the observatory built on the Académie hosting the French university was the first attempt to set up in the city a real observatory equipped with genuine instrumentation with the purpose of carrying out serious research, but the succession of political regimes in France and the continual bidding for moving the university to other locations, together with the faltering of later scholars, torpedoed any significant scientific usage of the place. After the 1870-1871 Franco-Prussian war, the German authorities set up a prestigious university campus with a whole range of institutes together with a modern observatory consisting of several buildings and hosting a flotilla of excellent instruments, including the then largest refractor of the country. This paper illustrates various types of lobbying used in the steps above while detailing, from archive documents largely unexploited so far, original research on the two first observatories.

  4. Outside Lobbying and Policy Change: The Role of Incumbents’ Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Direnç KANOL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the case that an incumbent is a dogmatic ideologue whose ideology is not in line with that of protesters, outside lobbying activities (Social Movement Organizations cannot have a substantial impact on policy regardless of the positive effect of any important characteristic of these activities. Three causal mechanisms are suggested to explain this phenomenon. Firstly, the more distant the position of a policy-maker than the position of a lobbyists is, the less will she be willing to yield to lobbyists’ demands. Secondly, these politicians do not give up on preferred ideological stance that is crucial to them even in the case of a threat to their re-election prospects. Or, thirdly, they may value being re-elected as much as mainstream politicians but they depend on the votes from their core supporters rather than the median voter. Therefore, shifting policy ends up with punishment in the next elections. This argument is explored by selecting a ‘most likely’ crucial case and applying process tracing method.

  5. Credit rationing and firm size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. CALCAGNINI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the likelihood of credit rationing faced by firms of different size. Contrary to common thought, several recent contributions on this topic argue that, when rationing credit, size alone is not a sufficient condition for discriminating between firms. We show that this result can be predicted using a framework based on the Stiglitz-Weiss model. In particular, in an environment of asymmetric information, we highlight how the likelihood of credit rationing depends upon the shape of the distribution function of project returns, especially its asymmetry and Kurtosis. Our empirical results do not support the hypothesis that small firms face more credit rationing than larger firms.

  6. Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms investigates the different elements of the experiences of emerging economy firms and sheds essential light on a large variety of aspects associated with their functioning in both home and host contexts. For example, firms must be able to overcome the liability...... of foreign and emerging issues when they expand their activities in various contexts, enter, exit, and re-enter overseas markets; they have to overcome institutional barriers, adapt the cultural challenges in foreign markets, undergo the impact of large multinational firms from developed economies...

  7. Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissak, Tiia; Zhang, Xiaotian

    2015-01-01

    Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms investigates the different elements of the experiences of emerging economy firms and sheds essential light on a large variety of aspects associated with their functioning in both home and host contexts. For example, firms must be able to overcome the liability...... of foreign and emerging issues when they expand their activities in various contexts, enter, exit, and re-enter overseas markets; they have to overcome institutional barriers, adapt the cultural challenges in foreign markets, undergo the impact of large multinational firms from developed economies...

  8. Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissak, Tiia; Zhang, Xiaotian

    2015-01-01

    of foreign and emerging issues when they expand their activities in various contexts, enter, exit, and re-enter overseas markets; they have to overcome institutional barriers, adapt the cultural challenges in foreign markets, undergo the impact of large multinational firms from developed economies......Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms investigates the different elements of the experiences of emerging economy firms and sheds essential light on a large variety of aspects associated with their functioning in both home and host contexts. For example, firms must be able to overcome the liability...

  9. Sequential Divestiture and Firm Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple Cournot models of divestiture tend to generate incentives to divest which are too strong, predicting that firms will break up into an infinite number of divisions resulting in perfect competition. This paper shows that if the order of divestitures is endogenized, firms will always choose sequential, and hence very limited, divestitures. Divestitures favor the larger firm and the follower in a sequential game. Divestitures in which the larger firm is the follower generate greater industry profit and social welfare, but a smaller consumer surplus.

  10. The causal effect of board size in the performance of small and medium-sized firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    correlation between family size and board size and show this correlation to be driven by firms where the CEO's relatives serve on the board. Second, we find empirical evidence of a small adverse board size effect driven by the minority of small and medium-sized firms that are characterized by having......Empirical studies of large publicly traded firms have shown a robust negative relationship between board size and firm performance. The evidence on small and medium-sized firms is less clear; we show that existing work has been incomplete in analyzing the causal relationship due to weak...... identification strategies. Using a rich data set of almost 7000 closely held corporations we provide a causal analysis of board size effects on firm performance: We use a novel instrument given by the number of children of the chief executive officer (CEO) of the firms. First, we find a strong positive...

  11. Belgian Firms Visit CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Fifteen Belgian firms visited CERN last 2 and 3 April to present their know-how. Industrial sectors ranging from precision machining to electrical engineering and electronics were represented. And for the first time, companies from the Flemish and Brussels regions of the country joined their Walloon compatriots, who have come to CERN before. The visit was organised by Mr J.-M. Warêgne, economic and commercial attaché at the Belgian permanent mission for the French-speaking region, Mr J. Van de Vondel, his opposite number for the Flemish region, and Mrs E. Solowianiuk, economic and commercial counsellor at the Belgian permanent mission for the Brussels-Capital region.

  12. Scientific Auditing Firms

    CERN Document Server

    Sarma, Gopal P

    2016-01-01

    The "crisis of reproducibility" has been a significant source of controversy, heated debate, and calls for reform to institutional science in recent years. As a long-term solution to address both the present crisis and future obstacles, I propose the creation of a new form of research organization whose purpose would be to conduct random audits of the scientific literature. I suggest that data analytics of a digitized scientific corpus may play a critical role in allowing broadly educated scientists to identify linchpin results to investigate in further detail across all disciplines. I argue that a simple "mock" trial run of a simplified auditing firm consisting of several researchers over a short time period would provide valuable insight into the feasibility of this proposal.

  13. Inside the Family Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Nielsen, Kasper; Pérez-González, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses a unique dataset from Denmark to investigate (1) the role of family characteristics in corporate decision making, and (2) the consequences of these decisions on firm performance. We focus on the decision to appoint either a family or an external chief executive officer (CEO). We...... show that a departing CEO's family characteristics have a strong predictive power in explaining CEO succession decisions: family CEOs are more frequently selected the larger the size of the family, the higher the ratio of male children and when the departing CEOs had only had one spouse. We...... then analyze the impact of family successions on performance. We overcome endogeneity and omitted variables problems of previous papers in the literature by using the gender of a departing CEO's first-born child as an instrumental variable (IV) for family successions. This is a plausible IV as male first...

  14. Inside the Family Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Nielsen, Kasper; Pérez-González, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses a unique dataset from Denmark to investigate (1) the role of family characteristics in corporate decision making, and (2) the consequences of these decisions on firm performance. We focus on the decision to appoint either a family or an external chief executive officer (CEO). We...... show that a departing CEO's family characteristics have a strong predictive power in explaining CEO succession decisions: family CEOs are more frequently selected the larger the size of the family, the higher the ratio of male children and when the departing CEOs had only had one spouse. We...... then analyze the impact of family successions on performance. We overcome endogeneity and omitted variables problems of previous papers in the literature by using the gender of a departing CEO's first-born child as an instrumental variable (IV) for family successions. This is a plausible IV as male first...

  15. Patenting activities and firm performance : Does firm size matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andries, P.; Faems, D.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas prior research has provided valuable insights into the willingness of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and large firms to engage in patenting, a comparison of the performance implications of patenting activities across small and large firms is still lacking. This gap is important be

  16. Unpacking Firm Effects: Modeling Political Alliances in Variance Decomposition of Firm Performance in Turbulent Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bandeira de Mello

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, firm heterogeneity in turbulent environments is addressed. It is argued that previous studies have not taken into account effects of a turbulent environment, like the Brazilian context, in which firms must face a weak and erratic government. In such an environment, the large portion of variance usually attributed to firm effects may be explained, not by the usual assumptions of mainstream scholars, but by a more ‘political’ view offirm differences, namely, the ability to manage valuable political alliances. To account for these differences, a multivariate performance measure was construed and a new factor, ‘politics effects’, has been introduced to the usual model. Company donations for campaign funds in elections was used as a proxy for this factor. A sample of 607 observations, of 177 firms in 15 sectors was used. Results suggest that the presence of politics effects were found to be not significant (using COV and Hierarchical ANOVA. However, different from previous studies, transient industry effects appear to be more important than stable effects. Findings also indicate that a better model specification for turbulent environments is needed and highlight the importance of the cost of capital.

  17. Firm Traits and Web Based Disclosures in Top Nigerian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello Ayuba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of the internet as a medium of dissemination of information to stakeholders is increasingly gaining grounds. This study extends existing literature on web disclosures by investigating the characteristics that predict the extent of web-based disclosures. In this study, corporate websites of top Nigerian firms are used as sources of data, while a regression analysis is employed to examine the extent of prediction. Results indicate that the firm size and industry type are significant determinants of web disclosures. However, other firm traits such as ownership dispersion and financial performance do not significantly explain the extent of internet disclosures. The study recommends that a regulatory template for corporate web disclosures be put in place by government regardless of the size or industry classification of the firm. This is with a view to considerably reduce agency conflicts arising from information asymmetry in publicly listed firms in Nigeria.

  18. Muscle Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Ryabykh, Sergey; Ochirova, Polina; Kenis, Vladimir; Hofstätter, Jochen G.; Grill, Franz; Ganger, Rudolf; Kircher, Susanne Gerit

    2017-01-01

    Marked ligamentous hyperlaxity and muscle weakness/wasting associated with awkward gait are the main deficits confused with the diagnosis of myopathy. Seven children (6 boys and 1 girl with an average age of 8 years) were referred to our department because of diverse forms of skeletal abnormalities. No definitive diagnosis was made, and all underwent a series of sophisticated investigations in other institutes in favor of myopathy. We applied our methodology through the clinical and radiographic phenotypes followed by targeted genotypic confirmation. Three children (2 boys and 1 girl) were compatible with the diagnosis of progressive pseudorheumatoid chondrodysplasia. The genetic mutation was correlated with the WISP 3 gene actively expressed by articular chondrocytes and located on chromosome 6. Klinefelter syndrome was the diagnosis in 2 boys. Karyotyping confirmed 47,XXY (aneuploidy of Klinefelter syndrome). And 2 boys were finally diagnosed with Morquio syndrome (MPS type IV A) as both showed missense mutations in the N-acetylgalactosamine-sulfate sulfatase gene. Misdiagnosis can lead to the initiation of a long list of sophisticated investigations. PMID:28210640

  19. Does internationalization foster firm performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The research in this dissertation concerns the impact of internationalization of business activities on several dimensions of firm performance. We show that the productivity ranking by trade status of Dutch manufacturing firms in increasing order of productivity is: non-traders, importers, exporters

  20. Competitive Advantage of Interconnected Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Andersson, Ulf

    We model the complex interplay between firm-level variables, notably capabilities and performance, and relationship-level variables: relationship-specific assets and network context. We test how the network context of individual exchange relationships as well as firm-level capabilities jointly af...

  1. The Internationalisation of Service Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagoeva, Denitsa Hazarbassanova

    The question the thesis aims at resolving is: How do the value creation logics of firms impact their internationalisation? The overall aim of this PhD project is to explore and test an approach to understanding the internationalisation of service firms, based not on opposing them to manufacturing...

  2. Does internationalization foster firm performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The research in this dissertation concerns the impact of internationalization of business activities on several dimensions of firm performance. We show that the productivity ranking by trade status of Dutch manufacturing firms in increasing order of productivity is: non-traders, importers, exporters

  3. Intra-Firm Adoption Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.M. van Everdingen (Yvonne); B. Wierenga (Berend)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe subject of this paper is intra-firm adoption decisions, a relatively unexplored research area in the marketing literature. In particular, we investigate which factors influence the intra-firm adoption decisions regarding the common European currency of the treasury, purchasing and sa

  4. Pharmaceutical lobbying in Brazil: a missing topic in the public health research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paumgartten, Francisco José Roma

    2016-12-22

    In the US, where registration of lobbyists is mandatory, the pharmaceutical industry and private health-care providers spend huge amounts of money seeking to influence health policies and government decisions. In Brazil, where lobbying lacks transparency, there is virtually no data on drug industry expenditure to persuade legislators and government officials of their viewpoints and to influence decision-making according to commercial interests. Since 1990, however, the Associação da Indústria Farmacêutica de Pesquisa (Interfarma - Pharmaceutical Research Industry Association), Brazilian counterpart of the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), main lobbying organization of the US pharmaceutical industry, has played a major role in the advocacy of interests of major drug companies. The main goals of Interfarma lobbying activities are: shortening the average time taken by the Brazilian regulatory agency (ANVISA) to approve marketing authorization for a new drug; making the criteria for incorporation of new drugs into SUS (Brazilian Unified Health System) more flexible and speeding up technology incorporation; changing the Country's ethical clearance system and the ethical requirements for clinical trials to meet the need of the innovative drug industry, and establishing a National Policy for Rare Diseases that allows a prompt incorporation of orphan drugs into SUS. Although lobbying affects community health and well-being, this topic is not in the public health research agenda. The impacts of pharmaceutical lobbying on health policies and health-care costs are of great importance for SUS and deserve to be investigated.

  5. Foreign Entry and Heterogeneous Growth of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    distance from foreign firms. Domestic firms with smaller technological distance from their foreign counterparts tend to experience faster productivity growth, while firms with larger technological distance tend to lag further behind. We test this hypothesis using a unique firm-level data of Chinese...... manufacturing. Our empirical results confirm that foreign entry indeed generates strong heterogeneous growth patterns among domestic firms....

  6. Two logics of NGO advocacy: understanding inside and outside lobbying on EU environmental policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junk, Wiebke Marie

    2016-01-01

    Contributions by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to European governance supposedly enhance participatory democracy. It matters for this democratic surplus how NGOs foster relationships to both policy-makers and publics by engaging in inside and outside lobbying on European Union policies....... This article investigates the factors that explain this lobbying behaviour. It contrasts organization-level hypotheses on the NGOs’ relational and resource characteristics with issue-level hypotheses on the complexity, salience and beneficiary group of the policy issue. Expectations are formulated under...... the assumption that different logics of influence and reputation drive inside and outside lobbying by NGOs. The findings suggest that issue-level characteristics have more explanatory power than organization-level factors. More salient, less complex issues and issues involving a public good have significantly...

  7. Pharmaceutical lobbying under postcommunism: universal or country-specific methods of securing state drug reimbursement in Poland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozierański, Piotr; McKee, Martin; King, Lawrence

    2012-04-01

    This paper aims to fill in the gap in research on the effect of pharmaceutical lobbying on drug reimbursement policy, particularly in Poland, a post-communist country. To this end, we conducted in-depth, semi-structured, anonymous, elite interviews in Poland, supplemented by a review of legislation, policy documents, official reports and press articles, as well as observations. Overall, 109 representatives of stakeholders involved in reimbursement policy were interviewed. We identified two key lobbying methods: informal persuasion and third-party endorsements. These methods are coupled with two supplementary ones: lobbying through parliament and ministries, as well as diplomatic pressure. Pharmaceutical lobbying methods in Poland clearly resemble those used in other European countries. What is notable about the Polish case is extensive reliance on informal lobbying and diplomatic pressure.

  8. Extracting Firm Information from Administrative Records: The ASSD Firm Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Martina; Segalla, Esther; Weber, Andrea; Zulehner, Christine

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how firm information can be extracted from administrative social security records. We use the Austrian Social Security Database (ASSD) and derive firms from employer identifiers in the universe of private sector workers. To correctly pin down entry end exits we use a worker flow approach which follows clusters of workers as they move across administrative entities. This procedure enables us to define different types of entry and exit such as start-ups, spinoffs, closur...

  9. The Role of Firm Ownership on Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobdari, Bersant; Gregoric, Aleksandra; Sinani, Evis

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates how different types of owners influence the extent of firm internationalization, measured by the share of firm exports in total sales. The results of the analysis carried out using firm level data of Estonian and Slovenian firms, show that the firms under the control...... in internationalization process. Finally, high market share also leads to increased internationalization through exports as firms seek to expand in foreign markets after having dominated the domestic ones....

  10. Web traffic and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Aguenaou, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Does the traffic generated by websites of firms signal anything to stock market participants? Does higher web-traffic translate into availability of more information and therefore lower agency problems? And if answers to above questions are in affirmative, does higher web-traffic traffic translate...... into better firm performance? This paper aims to answer these questions by documenting a positive relationship between the extent of web-traffic and firm performance in the MENA region during the 2010. We argue that higher web-traffic lowers the agency problems in firms by disseminating more information...... to stock market participants. Consequently, lower agency problems translate into better performance. Furthermore, we also show that agency reducing role of web-traffic is more pronounced in regimes where information environment is already bad. For example, our results show stronger impact of web-traffic...

  11. Government Control of Privatized Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolotti, Bernardo; Faccio, Mara

    2007-01-01

    We study the change in government control of privatized firms in OECD countries. Results indicate that governments typically transfer ownership rights without relinquishing proportional control. Control is commonly retained by leveraging state investments through pyramids, dual-class shares, and golden shares. Indeed, at the end of 2000, after the largest privatization wave in history, governments retain control of 62.4% of privatized firms. In civil law countries, governments tend to retain ...

  12. Consumer Networks and Firm Reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Lünser, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    Arguing that consumers are the carriers of firms' reputations, we examine the role of consumer networks for trust in markets that suffer from moral hazard. When consumers are embedded in a network, they can exchange information with their neighbours about their private experiences with different...... sellers. We find that such information exchange fosters firms' incentives for reputation building and, thus, enhances trust and efficiency in markets. This efficiency-enhancing effect is already achieved with a rather low level of network density...

  13. PROFITABILITY AND SIZE OF FIRM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: The profit ratio as a measure of the relative ability of firms to expand; the profit dratio as a measure of efficiency; other uses of the... profit ratio; earlier studies using the profit ratio; valid conclusions of earlier studies; assets vs. net worth; methodology of this study...distribution of post-tax profit ratex; effect of taxes on the relative ability to expand; relative profitability of income firms; variability of profit rates

  14. Gross job flows and firms

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Schuh; Robert K. Triest

    1999-01-01

    This paper extends the work of Dunne, Roberts, and Samuelson [3] and Davis, Haltiwanger, and Schuh [2] on gross job flows among manufacturing plants. Gross job creation, destruction, and reallocation have been shown to be important in understanding the birth, growth, and death of plants, and the relation of plant life cycles to the business cycle. However, little is known about job flows between firms or how job flows among plants occur within firms (corporate restructuring). We use informati...

  15. Consumer Networks and Firm Reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Lünser, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    Arguing that consumers are the carriers of firms' reputations, we examine the role of consumer networks for trust in markets that suffer from moral hazard. When consumers are embedded in a network, they can exchange information with their neighbours about their private experiences with different ...... sellers. We find that such information exchange fosters firms' incentives for reputation building and, thus, enhances trust and efficiency in markets. This efficiency-enhancing effect is already achieved with a rather low level of network density...

  16. 13 CFR 119.18 - What are the restrictions against lobbying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the restrictions against lobbying? 119.18 Section 119.18 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FOR INVESTMENT IN MICROENTREPRENEURS (âPRIMEâ OR âTHE ACTâ) § 119.18 What are the restrictions against...

  17. Organizing a Grassroots Lobbying Effort: Working a Bill from Beginning to End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Terry

    2009-01-01

    This article provides information related to organizing a grassroots lobbying effort within a state association and working for the passage of a bill. This information resulted from experience working for the successful passage of the pay parity bill for nationally certified school psychologists in West Virginia during the 2008 legislative…

  18. Mass media, 'monsters' and mental health clients: the need for increased lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutcliffe, J R; Hannigan, B

    2001-08-01

    A review of the limited empirical and theoretical literature indicates that current mass media representations of mental health service users appear to emphasize violence, dangerousness and criminality. This is despite the empirical evidence that indicates a decline over the last 40 years in the number of homicides carried out by people identified as suffering from mental health problems. Such inappropriate representations do much to increase stigma, ostracism, harassment and victimization of these individuals by the public. Furthermore, it can be argued that there is another repercussion of these representations and that is the subsequent government position/policy and the resulting legislation concerning care of people with mental health problems. Consequently, this paper argues that there is a clear need for psychiatric/mental health (P/MH) nurses to become more mindful of the wider, socio-political environment in which their practice occurs, particularly if psycho-social approaches to practice are adopted in their fullest sense, and as a result increase their political lobby. Such increased lobbying should occur on behalf of, and in collaboration with, service users, and accordingly the authors describe a range of activities under the broad headings of pro-active and reactive lobbying. Furthermore, it is incumbent upon P/MH nurse educationalists to prepare aspirant P/MH nurses for this lobbying role and equip them with the skills necessary to do so.

  19. 26 CFR 56.4911-3 - Expenditures for direct and/or grass roots lobbying communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... newspaper. The advertisement urges passage of pending legislation to build three additional nuclear powered... lobbying message. Example 5. Assume the same facts as in Example (4), except that J places in the newspaper... members of J, rather than in newspaper advertisement, and the invitation to become a member of J is...

  20. Professionals and students in a lobbying experiment. Professional rules of conduct and subject surrogacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potters, J.; van Winden, F.A.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Lobbying is studied in a series of signaling game experiments. Students as well as professional lobbyists are used as subjects. In contrast with some earlier studies, comparing students and professionals, we find significant differences in the behavior of the two subject pools. Professional subjects

  1. The Consequences of Astroturf Lobbying for Trust and Authenticity : Findings and Implications from an Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lock, I.; Seele, P.

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to authentic grassroots activism, in astroturfing, lobbyists sponsor an interest group that pretends to be a grassroots movement. In a vignette-based experiment, we investigate for the first time how astroturfing, compared to grassroots lobbying, reflects on stakeholders’ perceptions of

  2. Strategic Strengths and Weaknesses of Small and Medium Sized High-Tech Firms-A Focus on Strategy Development%高新技术中小企业的战略优势与劣势-战略发展分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roland Helm; Reinhard Meckl

    2004-01-01

    工业国家的中小型高科技企业有很大的创新潜力,同时对所在地区的经济发展起到了积极的作用.由于公司规模大小不一,所以很难有时间从众多的案例中找到具体的管理技巧.本文主要对创新公司的战略等问题的具体内容和方法进行调查研究.%Young small and medium sized high-tech firms in industrialized countries have a great potential for innovation development and for the economic development of the geographical regions where they are. Due to the size of the firms, many cases management has not had the time to develop special management skills. We take a look on firms in an innovations cluster and look in a descriptive way on some strategic issues, i.e. what they do and how they do this.

  3. Merger incentives and the failing firm defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Kort, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The merger incentives between profitable firms differ fundamentally from the incentives of a profitable firm to merge with a failing firm. We investigate these incentives under different modes of price competition and Cournot behavior. Our main finding is that firms strictly prefer exit of the faili

  4. Merger incentives and the failing firm defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Kort, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The merger incentives between profitable firms differ fundamentally from the incentives of a profitable firm to merge with a failing firm. We investigate these incentives under different modes of price competition and Cournot behavior. Our main finding is that firms strictly prefer exit of the

  5. Why do Worker-Firm Matches Dissolve?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.; van Ours, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    In a dynamic labor market worker-firm matches dissolve frequently causing workers to separate and firms to look for replacements.A separation may be initiated by the worker (a quit) or the firm (a layoff), or may result from a joint decision.A dissolution of a worker-firm match may be ineffcient if

  6. Weak Galois and Weak Cocleft Coextensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.N. Alonso (A)lvarez; J.M. Fernández Vilaboa; R. González Rodríguez; A.B. Rodríguez Raposo

    2007-01-01

    For a weak entwining structure (A, C,ψ) living in a braided monoidal category with equalizers and coequalizers, we formulate the notion of weak A-Galois coextension with normal basis and we show that these Galois coextensions are equivalent to the weak A-cocleft coextensions introduced by the authors.

  7. Family firm research – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Part I of the article discusses the fundaments of family firms: the prevalence of and the agency conflicts within family firms. Part II summarizes the findings of recent U.S. family firm studies. It reviews the evidence on the family firm premium (how, which, and when family firms are associated with a valuation premium, the manifestation of the agency conflict between majority and minority shareholders in family firms, earnings quality and corporate disclosure, and the determinants of family ownership and control. Part III discusses the prevalence and characteristics of Chinese family firms and reviews the findings of related studies. The article concludes with some suggestions for future research.

  8. The Internationalisation of Service Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagoeva, Denitsa Hazarbassanova

    The question the thesis aims at resolving is: How do the value creation logics of firms impact their internationalisation? The overall aim of this PhD project is to explore and test an approach to understanding the internationalisation of service firms, based not on opposing them to manufacturing...... Monetary Fund, the World Bank and OECD, 2014). The attention to internationalisation of services has significantly increased and yet, many questions remain open (e.g. Pla-Barber and Ghauri, 2012).......The question the thesis aims at resolving is: How do the value creation logics of firms impact their internationalisation? The overall aim of this PhD project is to explore and test an approach to understanding the internationalisation of service firms, based not on opposing them to manufacturing...... ones, looking at descriptive service characteristics nor industry effects, but on the way they create value. Why and how are service firms different? and What are the drivers behind their internationalisation? are the questions motivating this PhD project. It explores if the value creation...

  9. Process Ambidexterity for Entrepreneurial Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia D. Bot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Technology-based entrepreneurial firms must effectively support both mainstream exploitation and new-stream exploration in order to remain competitive for the long term. The processes that support exploitation and exploration initiatives are different in terms of logistics, payoff horizons, and capabilities. Few firms are able to strike a balance between the two, where mainstream exploitation usually trumps new-stream exploration. The ultimate goal is for the firm to operate effectively in a repeatable, scalable, and systematic manner, rather than relying on good luck and hoping either to come up with the next innovation or for the product to function according to its requirements. This article builds on the author’s years of experience in building businesses and transforming medium and large-sized, entrepreneurial technology firms, leading large-scale breakthrough and sustained performance improvements by using and evolving Lean Six Sigma methodologies, and reviews of technology innovation management and entrepreneurship literature. This article provides a process-based perspective to understanding and addressing the issues on balancing mainstream exploitation and new-stream exploration in medium and large-sized entrepreneurial firms and extending it to startups. The resulting capability is known as process ambidexterity and requires disciplined, agile, and lean business management.

  10. Structural design on the lobby of Haigeng Hotel%海埂酒店大堂结构设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄珏

    2011-01-01

    海埂酒店大堂平面超长、大开洞,平面扭转不规则,竖向错层较多,地下室及层1使用功能复杂,分析计算及构造做法有一定难度。结构计算时采用SATWE,PMSAP,MIDAS三种软件对计入双向水平地震作用下的扭转影响进行分析计算和比较,并验算了罕遇地震下的薄弱层弹塑性变形,所有计算指标均能满足现行规范的要求。采用了钢筋混凝土、钢骨混凝土、钢三种不同材料的结构构件与组合,节点构造复杂,施工有一定难度。通过对结构选型、参数取值、分析计算结果、细部大样的整理和分析,论述了结构设计中遇到的问题及采用的解决方法。%The lobby of Haigeng Hotel has an over-long plane,large openings,irregular plane torsion and multiple vertical staggered floors.The basement and the first floor are of complex functions,which result in difficulties in analysis and structural methods.By using SATWE,PMSAP and MIDAS in structural calculation,analytical calculation and comparison were made according to the torsion effect considering bi-directional horizontal earthquake action,and the elastic-plastic distortion of weak layers under rare earthquake was also checked.All calculation indexes meet the requirements of current specifications.Structural members and combinations of three materials including reinforced concrete,skeleton reinforced concrete and steel are used in this structure,and the joints are complex,which bring certain difficulties in construction.By analyzing structural form selection,parameter selection,analysis and calculation results,details,the problems in the structural design of the lobby of Haigeng Hotel were discussed.

  11. The structure of boards of directors and firm performance in Finnish banking : focus on size and gender diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Sääksmäki, Kasimir

    2015-01-01

    Banking and financial services in general are much regulated industries worldwide and therefore it is important to find out how the composition of boards of directors affects firm performance. Banking and finance sector has a remarkable role in financing other industries and households, which makes it a powerful industry. The recent banking crises have shown the consequences of weak firm performance, which has led to more interest on different factors and predictors behind firm performance in...

  12. Who benefits from firm-sponsored training?

    OpenAIRE

    Dostie, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Workers participating in firm-sponsored training receive higher wages as a result. But given that firms pay the majority of costs for training, shouldn't they also benefit? Empirical evidence shows that this is in fact the case. Firm-sponsored training leads to higher productivity levels and increased innovation, both of which benefit the firm. Training can also be complementary to, and enhance, other types of firm investment, particularly in physical capital, such as information and communic...

  13. Earnings Management Priorities of Private Family Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolmohammadi, Mohammad; Kvaal, Erlend; Langli, John Christian

    2010-01-01

    We compare earnings management priorities of private family and private non-family firms. Our study is made possible by the availability of a new and unique database on family relationships between CEOs, board members and owners of private Norwegian firms. We hypothesize and find that compared with private non-family firms, private family firms are likely to manage earnings downward. However, we also find that highly leveraged private family firms make more income increasing accounting choice...

  14. Knowledge management in the firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Nielsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    /methodology/approach – The dimensions of knowledge management are identified and related to learning, organizational configurations, human resources management and institutional environments in order to identify and percent the most important approaches to knowledge management and the development over time. Findings – Creating...... to innovation and illustrates how combinations of these might benefit firm performance. It also stresses the preconditions of employee involvement and participation to knowledge management and not least the importance of interaction with environmental resources. To improve performance firms should be aware...... the theoretical arguments should also be valid for the public sector. Originality/value – The paper relates knowledge management to theoretical approaches on learning, organization and innovation and shows the growing importance of these constructs in firm performance....

  15. How Firms Make Boundary Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Becker, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We report findings from an analysis of 234 firm boundary decisions that a manufacturing firm has made during a 10 year period. Extensive interviews with all major decision makers located both at the headquarters and subsidiaries allow us to examine (a) who was involved in each boundary decision......, and (b) how the firm arrived at a particular transactional choice in each decision. We find that decision makers extensively adapt decision structures in order to effectively make governance mode choices. They adapt hierarchy span, i.e. the number of hierarchical levels involved, and expertise span, i.......e. the number of same-level decision makers with dissimilar knowledge basis. We observe that decision makers heavily rely on varying hierarchy and expertise span in order to improve the quality of the decision outcome. Central to the adaption of decision structures is that decision makers, over time...

  16. Firm Culture and Leadership as Firm Performance Predictors : a Resource-Based Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilderom, C.P.M.; van den Berg, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we tested part of the resource-based view of the firm by examining two 'soft' resources, firm culture and top leadership, as predictors of 'hard' or bottom-line firm performance.Transformational top leadership was found to predict firm performance directly while the link between firm

  17. Firm Culture and Leadership as Firm Performance Predictors : a Resource-Based Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilderom, C.P.M.; van den Berg, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we tested part of the resource-based view of the firm by examining two 'soft' resources, firm culture and top leadership, as predictors of 'hard' or bottom-line firm performance.Transformational top leadership was found to predict firm performance directly while the link between firm

  18. The Relationship between Offshoring Strategies and Firm Performance: Impact of innovation, absorptive capacity and firm size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. Roza-van Vuren (Marja)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHow do offshoring strategies impact firm performance? And how are innovation, absorptive capacity and firm size influencing this relationship? This research investigates how firms of varying size, well-established firms and growing firms may profit from relocating business activities to

  19. A demographic approach to firm dynamics: formation of new firms and survival of old ones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, P.; Geenhuizen, van M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper introduces a new approach to firm dynamics, named demography of firms. It is the study of demographic events in a population of firms. Thepaper argues that withina demographic approach, attention should be paid to a broad range of firm dynamics, including both new firm formation and survi

  20. The Relationship between Offshoring Strategies and Firm Performance: Impact of innovation, absorptive capacity and firm size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. Roza-van Vuren (Marja)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHow do offshoring strategies impact firm performance? And how are innovation, absorptive capacity and firm size influencing this relationship? This research investigates how firms of varying size, well-established firms and growing firms may profit from relocating business activities to

  1. Firm-Specific Learning and the Nature of the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn

    2007-01-01

    in the absence of transaction costs related to the market mode of organisation. Comparing the relative importance of transaction cost and capabilities explanations for the existence of the firm, there is no a priori reason to assume the supremacy of one type of explanation over the other. We argue...... that a conjoint research program, encompassing both transaction costs and capabilities, must be developed and tested empirically. Cet article discute les limites d'une explication de l'existence de la firme fondée exclusivement sur les coûts de transaction en indiquant quelques facteurs additionnels susceptibles...... d'intervenir. Un modèle heuristique simple montre que les effets d'apprentissage spécifiques à la firme peuvent surmonter les coûts de surveillance des employés et expliquer l'existence de la firme même en l'absence de coûts de transaction liés au mode d'organisation de marché. Une comparaison de l'importance...

  2. Audit firm rotation, audit firm tenure and earnings conservatism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, S.T.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Sotiropoulos, I.; Vasileiou, K.Z.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the debate around the possibility of mandating audit firm rotation. Specifically, it examines conservatism as an attribute of earnings quality, which has not attracted particular attention in the auditor rotation research. Applying regression analyses on a sample,

  3. Social security and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina; Lee, Sangheon

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between job quality and firm performance has been much debated with mixed evidence, and the evidence is particularly limited in the case of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in emerging economies. This paper investigates how social security provision as a key determining factor......) in that the benefits may not realize in the immediate term. Thus, specific policy measures such as subsidising social insurance contributions for small firms during an initial period until the business becomes viable could potentially encourage active participation in mandatory schemes. A series of robustness check...

  4. Drivers of Discretionary Firm Donations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bandeira-de-Mello

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Discretionary firm donation is usually related to the stakeholder theory and corporate social performance. Although theoretical explanations for this social behavior are pervasive in related literature, empirical modeling remains underdeveloped. We developed an explanatory structural model of discretionary firm donation using firm and industry level indicators. Unlike previous research, we estimated the explanatory power of the construct we called stakeholder orientation. Our tentative model was tested on a Brazilian sample of 101 publicly traded donor firms, using data on firm donations to social projects and to political candidates in electoral campaigns. The main results suggest that discretionary donation seems to be a strategy for managing conflicting claims in highly stakeholder oriented firms; the characteristics of the firm are more important than industry effects in explaining firm donations; and large firms, showing slack resources, and with a less concentrated ownership structure tend to engage in discretionary donation more intensively.

  5. Why Do Distressed Firms Acquire?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Q. Zhang (Quxian)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAcquisitions made by distressed firms in recent years are economically important. This paper explores the rationale behind such acquisitions using a natural experiment. Exploiting a recent tax change which reduces debt restructuring costs for certain creditors and decreases bankruptcy

  6. Improving the firm's environmental conduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Koed Madsen, Tage

    2001-01-01

    lead to strategic advantage and, thus, economic gains at the firm level. In view of the great importance of this claim, the purpose of the present article was to apply resource-based insights in order to develop this reasoning further and provide an empirical test of three hypotheses related...

  7. Firm default and aggregate fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobson, Tor; Linde, Jesper; Roszbach, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between macroeconomic fluctuations and corporate defaults while conditioning on industry affiliation and an extensive set of firm-specific factors. By using a panel data set for virtually all incorporated Swedish businesses over 1990-2009, a period which includes

  8. Small firm transformation through IS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levy, Margi; Powell, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Globally, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are encouraged, particularly by governments, to embrace c-business. Fully adopting e-business involves substantial change in firms, both internally and externally. However, there is little understanding of the mechanisms by which such business

  9. Small firm transformation through IS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levy, Margi; Powell, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Globally, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are encouraged, particularly by governments, to embrace c-business. Fully adopting e-business involves substantial change in firms, both internally and externally. However, there is little understanding of the mechanisms by which such business tran

  10. The Identity of Ownership on Firm Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandskov, Jesper; Madsen, Tage Koed; Pedersen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    The paper develops an integrative ownership-internationalization model that explores the influences of various owner types (i.e. investor-owned firms, family-owned firms, employee-owned firms, cooperative–owned firms, and state-owned firms) on firm internationalization. Based on a comparative...... analysis of the various owner types, we discuss how each owner group’s main objectives, risk behavior and provision of resources influence their internationalization strategies and decisions (i.e. scale, scope and speed decisions)....

  11. Persistent Patterns in Trading Firms' Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Neda; Doyne Farmer, J.

    2007-03-01

    To understand the dynamics of price formation in financial markets, we take the approach of investigating the actions of market participants. We examine the impact of the participating firms on the price and find that different firms have different patterns of impact. Each firm can be representative of many traders with different trading habits and strategies but nevertheless we observe statistically significant differences in the firms' market impacts. We also investigate a method of clustering the firms based on a simplified conception of strategies. We find consistent clusters and patterns in firm strategies and show that these relations are statistically significant.

  12. Entrepreneurship and the Economics of the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    The study of entrepreneurship and the study of economic organizing lack contact. In fact, the modern theory of the firm virtually ignores entrepreneurship, while the literature on entrepreneurship often sees little value in the economic theory of the firm. In contrast, we argue in this chapter...... that entrepreneurship theory and the theory of the firm can be usefully integrated, and that doing so would improve both bodies of theory. Adding the entrepreneur to the theory of the firm provides a dynamic view that the overly static analysis of firm organizing cannot support. Moreover, adding the firm to the study...

  13. Firm Based Trade Models and Turkish Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer ARGIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among all international trade models, only The Firm Based Trade Models explains firm’s action and behavior in the world trade. The Firm Based Trade Models focuses on the trade behavior of individual firms that actually make intra industry trade. Firm Based Trade Models can explain globalization process truly. These approaches include multinational cooperation, supply chain and outsourcing also. Our paper aims to explain and analyze Turkish export with Firm Based Trade Models’ context. We use UNCTAD data on exports by SITC Rev 3 categorization to explain total export and 255 products and calculate intensive-extensive margins of Turkish firms.

  14. MANAGEMENT OF THE WORKING CAPITAL AND FIRM PERFORMANCE IN THE ROMANIAN PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA RAISA MILOŞ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to reveal the connection between working capital and firm performance, in the case of some selected Romanian pharmaceutical companies, listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange. Regression analysis was performed in order to check our hypothesis. The main conclusion of our study is that there is a negative, but weak relationship between working capital and firm performance. In other words, the shorter the period between production and sale of products, the larger firm’s profitability.

  15. Working for India or against Islam? Islamophobia in Indian American Lobbies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Therwath

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, the Indian American community has gained an unprecedented visibility in the international arena. It is indeed often projected as a model community and now constitutes growing and influential ethnic lobbies in Washington. But, in the face of its sheer division, Islamophobia did provide a unifying force sometimes bigger than the interest of Indian Americans or of their country of origin. Other factors can also be summoned. Among them, a leniency of many post-1965 migrants towards Hindu nationalist ideology and the wish to align with Jewish pressure groups in the context of the war against terrorism and to further the India-Israel-US strategic partnership play a major role in explaining Islamophobic overtones in the Indian American lobbies.

  16. Medicaid Long-Term Care: State Variation and the Intergovernmental Lobby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Frank J; Cantor, Joel C; Farnham, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    Medicaid is vastly more important than Medicare or private insurance in funding long-term care (LTC). However, states vary tremendously in their commitment to Medicaid LTC. This article advances knowledge of the origins, nature, and implications of this variation. After examining the degree of variation in state spending on Medicaid LTC, we show how federal policy has over the past fifty years steadily increased state discretion to shape these services. This decentralization largely reflects the potency of the intergovernmental lobby-governors and other state officials-in influencing federal policy. While fueling state variation, the intergovernmental lobby has also provided valuable political support that has helped Medicaid grow and resist retrenchment. After considering policy options that could mitigate Medicaid LTC inequities rooted in state differences, we assess how the catalytic forces that have fueled growth in Medicaid LTC may be insufficient to protect the program from future erosion.

  17. Diversification and firm performance: A study of Indian manufacturing firms

    OpenAIRE

    Ravichandran, Archana; Bhaduri, Saumitra

    2015-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of diversification and its impact on productivity or performance of a firm have been debated upon by academics and business professionals all over, although views on the topic still differ widely. While popular views are that related diversification increases value and unrelated diversification decreases value, the results of research conducted on the effects of overall diversification (without distinguishing between related and unrelated diversification) on p...

  18. On Weak Regular *-semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Hua LI; Hai Bin KAN; Bing Jun YU

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a special kind of partial algebras called projective partial groupoids is defined.It is proved that the inverse image of all projections of a fundamental weak regular *-semigroup under the homomorphism induced by the maximum idempotent-separating congruence of a weak regular *-semigroup has a projective partial groupoid structure. Moreover, a weak regular *-product which connects a fundamental weak regular *-semigroup with corresponding projective partial groupoid is defined and characterized. It is finally proved that every weak regular *-product is in fact a weak regular *-semigroup and any weak regular *-semigroup is constructed in this way.

  19. A profile of anti-vaccination lobbying on the South African internet, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Rosemary Joyce; von Gogh, Lauren Jennifer; Moloi, Molelekeng H; François, Guido

    2015-11-01

    The South African Vaccination and Immunisation Centre receives many requests to explain the validity of internet-based anti-vaccination claims. Previous global studies on internet-based anti-vaccination lobbying had not identified anti-vaccination web pages originating in South Africa (SA). To characterise SA internet-based anti-vaccination lobbying. In 2011, searches for anti-vaccination content were performed using Google, Yahoo and MSN-Bing, limited to English-language SA web pages. Content analysis was performed on web pages expressing anti-vaccination sentiment about infant vaccination. This was repeated in 2012 and 2013 using Google, with the first 700 web pages per search being analysed. Blogs/forums, articles and e-shops constituted 40.3%, 55.2% and 4.5% of web pages, respectively. Authors were lay people (63.5%), complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners (23.1%), medical professionals practising CAM (7.7%) and medical professionals practising only allopathic medicine (5.8%). Advertisements appeared on 55.2% of web pages. Of these, 67.6% were sponsored by or linked to organisations with financial interests in discrediting vaccines, with 80.0% and 24.0% of web pages sponsored by these organisations claiming respectively that vaccines are ineffective and that vaccination is profit driven. The vast majority of web pages (92.5%) claimed that vaccines are not safe, and 77.6% of anti-vaccination claims originated from the USA. South Africans are creating web pages or blogs for local anti-vaccination lobbying. Research is needed to understand what influence internet-based anti-vaccination lobbying has on the uptake of infant vaccination in SA.

  20. Heterogeneity in Firm Performance During Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bruni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available What happens to firms during periods of deep economic crisis? Did different types of firms perform differently under the economic crisis? With the aid of a rich database and focusing on the literature regarding the growth of firms, this paper investigates the relative profitability performance of Italian firms during the current economic crisis, exploring those factors, which help certain firms to do relatively better even in the slowdown period. Some preliminary results show that the Italian firms that are relatively young in age, with relatively better current liquidity and more focused on domestic market have performed better than other firms. Furthermore, firms operating in high-tech and in highly concentrated sectors have enjoyed a better performance in this period.

  1. How do Economic Crises Impact Firm Boundaries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    How economic crises impact the boundaries of firms has been offered virtually no attention in the literature on the theory of the firm. I review the best-known theories of the firm and identify the variables that matter for the explanation of firm boundaries. I then examine how an economic crisis...... may impact these variables and change efficient firm boundaries. The various theories of the firm have difficulties explaining how firms efficiently adapt their boundaries to such prominent characteristics of economic crisis as declining demand and increased costs of external finance. However, all...... these theories stress uncertainty as an antecedent of firm organization, and as uncertainty is also an important characteristic of an economic crisis I examine how uncertainty is allowed to play out in the various theories in order to identify what predictions we can derive from the theory regarding changes...

  2. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intence competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results....... an export wage premium, but it accrues to workers in firms with high skill intensities.Keywords: Exports, Wages, Human Capital, Rent Sharing, Matched Worker-Firm DataJEL Classification: J30, F10, I20...

  3. Does Labour Diversity affect Firm Productivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario; Pytlikova, Mariola

    that labor diversity in education significantly enhances a firm's value added. Conversely, diversity in ethnicity and demographics induces negative effects on firm productivity. Hence, the negative effects, coming from communication and integration costs connected to a more culturally and demographically......Using a matched employer-employee dataset, we analyze how workforce diversity in cultural background, education and demographic characteristics affects productivity of firms in Denmark. Implementing a structural estimation of the firms' production function (Ackerberg et al., 2006) we find...

  4. Socioemotional wealth preservation in family firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Kalm

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we review literature on socioemotional wealth. We explain how the concept of socioemotional wealth builds on previous family firm research showing that family-owners derive utility from the nonfinancial aspects of their firm. We also discuss how family firms' need for socioemotional wealth preservation explains behavioral differences between family and nonfamily firms in managerial decision making. Finally, we discuss the current state of socioemotional wealth research and propose potential directions for future research.

  5. Risk/Return Performance of Diversified Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Richard A. Bettis; Vijay Mahajan

    1985-01-01

    Based on a sample of 80 firms, this paper examines the risk/return performance of related and unrelated diversified firms at the level of accounting data. The results suggest that although on the average related diversified firms outperform unrelated diversified firms, related diversification offers no guarantee of a favorable risk/return performance. (Many low performers are related diversifiers.) In fact, different diversification strategies can result in similar risk/return performance. Ho...

  6. International Taxation and Multinational Firm Location Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios Cobos, Salvador; Huizinga, Harry; Laeven, Luc; Gaëtan J.A. Nicodème

    2008-01-01

    Using a large international firm-level data set, we estimate separate effects of host and parent country taxation on the location decisions of multinational firms. Both types of taxation are estimated to have a negative impact on the location of new foreign subsidiaries. In fact, the impact of parent country taxation is estimated to be relatively large, possibly reflecting its international discriminatory nature. For the cross-section of multinational firms, we find that parent firms tend to ...

  7. HRM in professional service firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances

    2012-01-01

    Professional service firms (PSFs) present HR professionals with a number of unique challenges, as they share characteristics of both service and knowledge intensive organizations. While many of these firms are relying on High Commitment Work Practices (HCWPs) to enhance critical employee behaviors...... such as service quality and turnover, the analysis presented in this paper raises questions about traditional understandings of commitment in professional service environments. In particular, data from three Danish financial investment PSFs suggest that employees are more committed to developing and promoting...... on employee commitment. In the context of PSFs, we question the applicability of social exchange theory and instead draw upon the Ability-Motivation-Opportunity (AMO) framework (1982) to analyze how specific HRM practices contribute to the development of commitment, and to successful organizational outcomes...

  8. Technology Licensing and Firm Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, Solon

    that facilitate or constrain firms' ability to deal with licensed-in technologies have received little attention. This paper starts investigating in a longitudinal setting the effect of technology licensing on the number of patents produced by the licensee within the three years subsequent to the technology...... acquisition. The findings indicate that technology licensing is positively related to the number of inventions produced by the licensee in the years subsequent to the licensing deal. Subsequently, I investigate the moderating effect that organizational slack and myopia have on this main relationship....... The findings also suggest that high levels of Organizational Slack (available financial resources) strengthen the positive effect of licensing on innovation. However, higher levels of Organizational Myopia (the extent to which a firm draws on its own knowledge) can decrease the main effect of licensing....

  9. Simple models of firms emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbuch, Gérard; Mangalagiu, Diana; Ben-Av, Radel; Solomon, Sorin

    2008-09-01

    We present a dynamical model of the emergence of firms as opposed to a flat labour market where entrepreneurs would recruit workers for each business opportunity. The model uses a preferential choice of partners based on previous collaborations experience. A sharp transition in the parameter space separates an ordered regime, where preferential links establish, from a disordered regime corresponding to a fast turnover of employees.

  10. Communication in an "Officeless firm"

    OpenAIRE

    Burchell, Brendan J.; Lai, Yi

    2008-01-01

    New technologies permit new types of organisations. This article describes and analyses one such organisation, an "officeless firm", where all employees work from their own homes and there is no central office. Drawing upon observations and interviews, the modes of communication and the nature of the interpersonal relationships that have permitted this organisation to succeed are described, along with the challenges that face this organisation in the future as it attempts to grow.

  11. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a unique panel dataset on firm-level corruption. It contains quantitative information on bribe payments by a sample of formal and informal Vietnamese firms. We show that bribe incidence is highly associated with firm-level differences in (i) visibility, (ii) sunk costs, (iii...

  12. Reputational penalties to firms in antitrust investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den S.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Verschoor, W.F.C.; Vries, de A.

    2012-01-01

    We estimate the impact of legal penalties imposed on Dutch listed firms targeted by competition authorities from 1998 to 2008 on a firm's stock market value. On average, firms lose 2.3 percent of their market values when an antitrust investigation is uncovered. This corresponds to a total value loss

  13. Policies facilitating firm adjustment to globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekman, Bernard; Javorcik, Beata Smarzynska

    2004-01-01

    The authors focus on policies facilitating firm adjustment to globalization. They briefly review the effects of trade and investment liberalization on firms, focusing on within-industry effects. They postulate that governments' role in supporting the process is to (1) ensure that firms face "right" incentives to adjust, and (2) intervene in areas where market failures are present. Their ma...

  14. Family firm research——A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang; Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews family firm studies in the finance and accounting literature,primarily those conducted using data from the United States and China. Family owners have unique features such as concentrated ownership, long investment horizon, and reputation concerns. Given the distinguishing features of family ownership and control, family firms face unique agency conflicts. We discuss the agency problems in family firms and review the findings of recent family firm studies. We call for more research to understand the unique family effects and encourage more research on Chinese family firms.Part I of the article discusses the fundaments of family firms: the prevalence of and the agency conflicts within family firms. Part II summarizes the findings of recent U.S. family firm studies. It reviews the evidence on the family firm premium(how, which, and when family firms are associated with a valuation premium), the manifestation of the agency conflict between majority and minority shareholders in family firms, earnings quality and corporate disclosure, and the determinants of family ownership and control. Part III discusses the prevalence and characteristics of Chinese family firms and reviews the findings of related studies. The article concludes with some suggestions for future research.

  15. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a unique panel dataset on firm-level corruption. It contains quantitative information on bribe payments by a sample of formal and informal Vietnamese firms. We show that bribe incidence is highly associated with firm-level differences in (i) visibility, (ii) sunk costs, (iii) abil...

  16. Reputational penalties to firms in antitrust investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den S.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Verschoor, W.F.C.; Vries, de A.

    2012-01-01

    We estimate the impact of legal penalties imposed on Dutch listed firms targeted by competition authorities from 1998 to 2008 on a firm's stock market value. On average, firms lose 2.3 percent of their market values when an antitrust investigation is uncovered. This corresponds to a total value loss

  17. Essays on Firm Behavior in Developing Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeberese, Ama Baafra

    The performance of firms is central to growth in developing economies. A burgeoning literature within development economics seeks to understand the behavior of firms in developing countries and the constraints to their performance. This dissertation explores two types of constraints---infrastructure-related constraints and trade-related constraints---faced by manufacturing firms in developing countries. Despite the widely acknowledged importance of infrastructure for economic growth, there has been relatively little research on how infrastructure affects the decisions of firms. Electricity, in particular, is commonly cited by firms in developing countries as a major obstacle to their performance. In the first two chapters, I analyze the responses of firms to two types of electricity constraints, namely electricity prices and electricity shortages. Chapter 1 provides evidence on how electricity prices affect a firm's industry choice and productivity growth using data on Indian manufacturing firms. I construct an instrument for electricity price as the interaction between the price of coal paid by power utilities, which is arguably exogenous to firm characteristics, and the initial share of thermal generation in a state's total electricity generation capacity. I find that, in response to an exogenous increase in electricity price, firms reduce their electricity consumption and switch to industries with less electricity-intensive production processes. I also find that firm output, machine intensity and labor productivity decline with an increase in electricity price. In addition to these level effects, I show that firm output and productivity growth rates are negatively affected by high electricity prices. These results suggest that electricity constraints faced by firms may limit a country's growth by leading firms to operate in industries with fewer productivity-enhancing opportunities. Chapter 2 examines the impact of electricity shortages on firm investment. I

  18. Founder Control,Ownership Structure and Firm Value:Evidence from Entrepreneurial Listed Firms in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijun Xia

    2008-01-01

    In emerging markets, the deviation between the ultimate controlling shareholders’ voting rights and their cash flow rights(hereafter "DVC") in the listed firms is quite prevalent. DVC could be introduced due to the ultimate controlling shareholders’ opportunistic incentives, as well as by their incentives to improve firm efficiency. This study uses 229 listed firms ultimately controlled by individuals or families(hereafter "entrepreneurial firms") for 2004 in China, to investigate the effect of DVC on firm value and to determine whether it is different between founder and non-founder controlled firms. We find that DVC has a positive effect on firm value for founder controlled firms. This result implies that investors believe that their interests are better protected by founder controlled firms than by non-founder controlled firms.

  19. Toward an Integrative Theory of the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    This paper argues that the existing four major theories of the firm, i.e., the transaction cost theory, resource-based view, the entrepreneurial theory, and the stakeholder theory, are all insightful yet partial because each of them has a particular focus on the phenomenon of the firm. To better...... understand the nature and behaviors of the firm, we need a comprehensive yet integrative theory. Toward this end, this paper proposes a relationship-based theory of the firm (R’BT) which claims that it is the relationships between the entrepreneur and other individuals or firms that determine the existence...

  20. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    . Using a very rich matched worker-firm longitudinal dataset we find that firms with high export intensities pay higher wages. However, an interaction term between export intensity and skill intensity has a positive impact on wages and it absorbs the direct effect of the export intensity. That is, we find......This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intense competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results...... an export wage premium, but it accrues to workers in firms with high skill intensities...

  1. Does Labor Diversity Affect Firm Performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola; Pozzoli, Dario; Parrotta, Pierpaolo

    /education significantly enhances firm performance as measured by firm TFP. Conversely, diversity in demographics and ethnicity brings mixed results – both dimensions of workforce diversity have either no or negative effects on firm TFP. Hence, it seems as if the negative effects, coming from communication and integration...... costs connected to a more demographically and culturally diverse workforce, counteract the positive effects of diversity on firm TFP, coming from creativity and knowledge spillovers. However, we find that ethnic diversity is valuable for firms operating in industries characterized by above-average trade...... openness, giving support to the hypothesis that an ethnically diverse workforce provides information and access to global markets....

  2. Performance of Patenting Firms in Danish Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    -patenting firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political......Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non...

  3. Firm Exit, Technological Progress and Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    productivity firms survive longer, most firm closures are young firms, higher productivity exporters are more likely to continue to export compared to less productive exporters and market exits as well as firm closures are typically preceded by periods of contracting market shares. The present paper shows...... that the simple inclusion of exogenous economy wide technological progress into the standard Melitz (2003) model generates a tractable dynamic framework that generates endogenous exit decisions of firms in line with the stylized facts. Furthermore, we derive the effects of faster technological progress and trade...

  4. Endogenous Markups, Firm Productivity and International Trade:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellone, Flora; Musso, Patrick; Nesta, Lionel

    In this paper, we test key micro-level theoretical predictions ofMelitz and Ottaviano (MO) (2008), a model of international trade with heterogenous firms and endogenous mark-ups. At the firm-level, the MO model predicts that: 1) firm markups are negatively related to domestic market size; 2......) markups are positively related to firm productivity; 3) markups are negatively related to import penetration; 4) markups are positively related to firm export intensity and markups are higher on the export market than on the domestic ones in the presence of trade barriers and/or if competitors...

  5. Do Treasure Islands Create Firm Value?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Tat-kei; Ng, Travis

    They do! Otherwise, their use would not have been so prevalent among firms. How much firm value they create, however, is still an open question. Exploiting a political event in the U.K. that suddenly raised the cost of using tax havens, we find that there was a 0.87% reduction in cumulative...... abnormal return (CAR) among the sampled firms, corresponding to about £532 million in market capitalization. The firms of stronger corporate governance registered a stronger reduction in CAR. A simple linear extrapolation suggests that the firm value contributed by tax havens can be as much as £31 billion....

  6. Women in Top Management and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Nina; Smith, Valdemar; Verner, Mette

    -observations for all Danish firms with more than 50 employees over the period 1994-2003, the analysis suggests that the proportion of women in top management jobs has from none to positive influence on firm performance. However, the results show that the strength of the effects of women in top management depends...... on how top CEOs are defined and on the method of estimation of the model. Next, the results point towards a positive influence on firm performance of the staff representation in the supervisory board of the firm but more women representing the shareholders in the supervisory board of the firm seems...

  7. The theory of the firm. Vol. 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Firms have for a long time been part of the explanatory set-up of economics. However, it is only recently that economists have felt the need for an economic theory addressing: why firms are different; why firms exist; what determines their boundaries relative to "the market"; and what determines...... their internal organization. This collection documents the rise of the modern theory of the firm during the last two to three decades. It reprints classic writings from a diversity of perspectives, including not only contractual theories of the firm, but also knowledge-based theories and theories of the firm...... as an information processor. In addition, the collection features perspectives from business strategy and business history as well as methodological and doctrinal historical perspectives. Including over 60 classic papers, these volumes collect together contributions on the theory of the firm, beginning with Ronald...

  8. Cofinitely weak supplemented modules

    OpenAIRE

    Alizade, Rafail; Büyükaşık, Engin

    2003-01-01

    We prove that a module M is cofinitely weak supplemented or briefly cws (i.e., every submodule N of M with M/N finitely generated, has a weak supplement) if and only if every maximal submodule has a weak supplement. If M is a cws-module then every M-generated module is a cws-module. Every module is cws if and only if the ring is semilocal. We study also modules, whose finitely generated submodules have weak supplements.

  9. GENERALIZED WEAK FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁夏畦; 罗佩珠

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the authors introduce some new ideas on generalized numbers and generalized weak functions. They prove that the product of any two weak functions is a generalized weak function. So in particular they solve the problem of the multiplication of two generalized functions.

  10. White blood cell deformation and firm adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmary, Alex; Eggleton, Charles

    2011-11-01

    For a white blood cell (WBC) to arrive at infection sites, it forms chemical attachments with activated endothelial cells. First, it bonds with P-selectin, which holds it to the wall, but weakly; this allows the WBC to roll under the shear flow of the blood around it. Later, the WBCs bond with the stronger intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1); it is these ICAM bonds that allow the WBCs to fully resist the flow and stop rolling, allowing them to crawl through the endothelial wall. We model this numerically. Our model uses the immersed boundary method to represent the interaction of the shear flow with the deformable cell membrane. Receptors are on the tips of microvilli-little fingers sticking off of the cell membrane. The microvilli also deform. The receptors stochastically form and break bonds with molecules on the wall. Using this method, the history of each microvillus and its bonds can be found, as well as the distribution of the adhesion traction forces and how all of these vary with the deformability of the white blood cell. At higher shear rates, the white blood cell membrane deforms more, increasing its contact area with the surface; this effect is larger for softer membranes. We investigate how the deformability of the WBC affects the ease with which it forms firm adhesion.

  11. The firm-nature relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Madsen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    Taking the stakeholder concept of the firm as a starting point, the paper presents data and analyses from a longitudinal study initiated in 1995 and repeated every four years. In discussing state-of-the-art insights and experiences, the paper identifies challenges which, if adequately addressed......, may help bring the discipline out of its theoretical and epistemological deadlock. The paper concludes that, unless academia proactively brings the environmental management discipline within its domain, reductionists are likely to dominate the agenda-setting in the ongoing environmental debate......, reducing it to a question of self-regulated eco-modernist actions. In closing, the paper addresses implications for academia and industry....

  12. Founder Control, Ownership Structure and Firm Value: Evidence from Entrepreneurial Listed Firms in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Xia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In emerging markets, the deviation between the ultimate controlling shareholders' voting rights and their cash flow rights (hereafter “DVC” in the listed firms is quite prevalent. DVC could be introduced due to the ultimate controlling shareholders' opportunistic incentives, as well as by their incentives to improve firm efficiency. This study uses 229 listed firms ultimately controlled by individuals or families (hereafter “entrepreneurial firms” for 2004 in China, to investigate the effect of DVC on firm value and to determine whether it is different between founder and non-founder controlled firms. We find that DVC has a positive effect on firm value for founder controlled firms. This result implies that investors believe that their interests are better protected by founder controlled firms than by non-founder controlled firms.

  13. Firm Projects, NPV and Risk

    CERN Document Server

    Hudakova, J

    2005-01-01

    An investor is estimating net present value of a firm project and performs risk analysis. Usually it is created portfolio hierarchies and make comparison of variants of project based on these hierarchies. Then one finds that portfolio which corresponds to the particular needs of individual groups within the firm. We have formulated a new type of NPV analysis based on the fact that normal distribution of NPV is observed for some projects in some industries. The expected risk of the project is given by variance, in which there is the standard deviation of the year n cash flow, the standard deviation of the investment I in the time zero, the correlation coefficient of the year n cash flow deviation from the average and of the investment I at time zero deviation from the mean investment at time zero, the correlation coefficient of the year n cash flow deviation from the average and of the year n' cash flow deviation from the average. The aim function of the investor into the project was found. The investor is cha...

  14. Assessing the firm performance through the financial ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILESCU LAURA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of every firm is the creation of value, respectively the investment for which the efficiency resulted is above the profitability ratio required by the shareholders. In this paper are presented the fianancial indicators used for a proper value measuring of the firm’s performance, which are grouped in three categories: accounting, economical and stock exchange. For each group of indicators are presented the weak and strong points and there is underlined the importance of each indicator in order to reflect the value creation.

  15. ASPECTS OF OBSTACLES FOR APPLYING TARGET COSTING: A SURVEY OF MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru STEFEA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to determine the aspects of obstacles for applying Target Costing(TC system in Egyptian case and the significant differences among effects of these obstacles . The study used the survey method to describe and analyze the obstacles in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 388 (21 Egyptian manufacturing firms in 2013. Finally, the study found that there is a significant divergence among obstacles for applying Target Costing (TC system in Egyptian manufacturing firms (Internal and external.The external dimensions are the most influence of internal dimensions, where the weakness of the competition is the highest effect in the external dimensions case but resistance top management is the highest effect in external dimensions case.

  16. The alcohol industry lobby and Hong Kong’s zero wine and beer tax policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Sungwon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whereas taxation on alcohol is becoming an increasingly common practice in many countries as part of overall public health measures, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government is bucking the trend and lowered its duties on wine and beer by 50 percent in 2007. In 2008, Hong Kong removed all duties on alcohol except for spirits. The aim of this paper is to examine the case of Hong Kong with its history of changes in alcohol taxation to explore the factors that have driven such an unprecedented policy evolution. Methods The research is based on an analysis of primary documents. Searches of official government documents, alcohol-related industry materials and other media reports on alcohol taxation for the period from 2000 to 2008 were systematically carried out using key terms such as “alcohol tax” and “alcohol industry”. Relevant documents (97 were indexed by date and topic to undertake a chronological and thematic analysis using Nvivo8 software. Results Our analysis demonstrates that whereas the city’s changing financial circumstances and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government’s strong propensity towards economic liberalism had, in part, contributed to such dramatic transformation, the alcohol industry’s lobbying tactics and influence were clearly the main drivers of the policy decision. The alcohol industry’s lobbying tactics were two-fold. The first was to forge a coalition encompassing a range of catering and trade industries related to alcohol as well as industry-friendly lawmakers so that these like-minded actors could find common ground in pursuing changes to the taxation policy. The second was to deliberately promote a blend of ideas to garner support from the general public and to influence the perception of key policy makers. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the success of aggressive industry lobbying coupled with the absence of robust public health advocacy was the

  17. The alcohol industry lobby and Hong Kong’s zero wine and beer tax policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Whereas taxation on alcohol is becoming an increasingly common practice in many countries as part of overall public health measures, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government is bucking the trend and lowered its duties on wine and beer by 50 percent in 2007. In 2008, Hong Kong removed all duties on alcohol except for spirits. The aim of this paper is to examine the case of Hong Kong with its history of changes in alcohol taxation to explore the factors that have driven such an unprecedented policy evolution. Methods The research is based on an analysis of primary documents. Searches of official government documents, alcohol-related industry materials and other media reports on alcohol taxation for the period from 2000 to 2008 were systematically carried out using key terms such as “alcohol tax” and “alcohol industry”. Relevant documents (97) were indexed by date and topic to undertake a chronological and thematic analysis using Nvivo8 software. Results Our analysis demonstrates that whereas the city’s changing financial circumstances and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government’s strong propensity towards economic liberalism had, in part, contributed to such dramatic transformation, the alcohol industry’s lobbying tactics and influence were clearly the main drivers of the policy decision. The alcohol industry’s lobbying tactics were two-fold. The first was to forge a coalition encompassing a range of catering and trade industries related to alcohol as well as industry-friendly lawmakers so that these like-minded actors could find common ground in pursuing changes to the taxation policy. The second was to deliberately promote a blend of ideas to garner support from the general public and to influence the perception of key policy makers. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the success of aggressive industry lobbying coupled with the absence of robust public health advocacy was the main driving force behind the

  18. The logic of two-level games with endogenous lobbying : the case of international environmental agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Haffoudhi, Houda

    2005-01-01

    URL des Cahiers :http://mse.univ-paris1.fr/MSEFramCahier2005.htm; Cahiers de la Maison des Sciences Economiques 2005.54 - ISSN : 1624-0340; International environmental agreements (IEAs) are increasingly important in a globalized economy. The aim of our paper is study the effect of political pressure groups-lobbies on the size and stability of IEAs. To this purpose we use the framework of two-level games to explain how national political situation influences the decisions of governments at the...

  19. How did the 2007-2008 Financial Crisis Influence Turkish Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Ebru AKSOY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper investigates whether 2007-2008 global financial crisis hadan effecton Turkish firms. For this purpose, we investigated the firm-specific factors affecting the stock returns of firms in the BIST-XU100 in the 2004-2009 periods. The period was divided into two sub-samples, namely pre-crisisand during-crisis periods. Moreover, the effects of firm size, market-to-book ratio (MB, and price-to-earnings (PE ratio on stock return were examined using feasible generalized least-squares (FGLS and panel-corrected standard errors (PCSE models. In the literature, the US subprime mortgage crisis meltdown and spillover effects were studied on different countries and different stock markets. In this study, not only crisis effects but also effects of firm-specific factors were considered. Integration levels of the series were investigated by panel unit root tests. The models were used for both sub-samples, and the results of the two models werecompared. The results showed that. Size and MB variables were significant in all the periods and had positive effects on the stock return of the firms, and the global financial crisis hada significant but weak effect on Turkish firms.Keywords.Financial Crisis, Stock Market, FGLS, PCSE.JEL.C23, G01, G20.

  20. Decomposing Firm-level Sales Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    , and that for the median product it drives 31% of the sales variation. When we remove first-time exports from our sample, the median value increases to 40%, implying that firm-destination-specific effects are most important the first year. We conclude that while firm-specific productivity can account for some......We measure the contribution of firm-specific effects to overall sales variation within a destination and find it remarkably low. Our empirical decomposition is structurally motivated by a heterogeneity model of exporting involving destination-specific, firm-specific, and firm......-destination-specific latent effects with incidental truncation. We use a highly detailed dataset with exports by products and destinations for all Danish manufacturing fi…rms. We fi…nd the contribution of firm-specific heterogeneity to within-destination sales variation varies greatly across HS6 products...

  1. Decomposing Firm-level Sales Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    , and that for the median product it drives 31% of the sales variation. When we remove first-time exports from our sample, the median value increases to 40%, implying that firm-destination-specific effects are most important the first year. We conclude that while firm-specific productivity can account for some......We measure the contribution of firm-specific effects to overall sales variation within a destination and find it remarkably low. Our empirical decomposition is structurally motivated by a heterogeneity model of exporting involving destination-specific, firm-specific, and firm......-destination-specific latent effects with incidental truncation. We use a highly detailed dataset with exports by products and destinations for all Danish manufacturing fi…rms. We fi…nd the contribution of firm-specific heterogeneity to within-destination sales variation varies greatly across HS6 products...

  2. Foreign Exchange Exposures of Korean Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungbin Cho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We measure foreign exchange exposures as sensitivity of firm's value to FX premium in the CAPM plus FX premium model, and try to find determinants of the exposures; using data of non-financial companies listed in the Korea Exchange from the year 2007 to 2008. Main findings are as follows. If Korean won depreciates, only a small number of firms is benefitted while majority of firms are harmed to the contrary of common knowledge. As a firm's export increases, the foreign exchange exposure increases up to a certain level and after that it declines. And, smaller firms of negative foreign exchange exposures are more sensitive to foreign exchange changes. These suggest heterogeneous effects of foreign exchange rates on industries and firms.

  3. Paradoxes and Innovation in Family Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingram, Amy E.; Lewis, Marianne W.; Barton, Sid

    2016-01-01

    Scholars stress that family firms are inherently paradoxical, and that tensions, such as tradition versus change, family liquidity versus business growth, and founder control versus successor autonomy, can both inhibit and foster innovation. Further, theorists propose that firms led by paradoxical...... thinkers are more likely to manage these tensions and fuel innovative behavior. Leveraging family business and organizational paradox literatures, this multi-stage exploratory study develops measures of paradoxical tensions and paradoxical thinking in family firms, and tests these propositions. Findings...

  4. Accounting Firms: Global Spread with Limited Transnationalization

    OpenAIRE

    Jochen Zimmermann; Jan-Christoph Volckmer

    2012-01-01

    As financial markets have increasingly globalised, the regulatory framework is still nationally fragmented. One core regulatory element is the provision of assurance services by accounting firms. The Big 4 - the leading international providers of audit services Ð are not as international as are accounting standards or their clients. The paper traces three facets of the transnationalization of accounting firms: explanations for internationalization rooted in the theory of the firm, their modes...

  5. Do African Manufacturing Firms Learn from Exporting?

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Collier; Marcel Fafchamps; Francis Teal; Stefan Dercon

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we use firm-level panel data for the manufacturing sector in four African countries to estimate the effect of exporting on efficiency. Estimating simultaneously a production function and an export regression that control for unobserved firm effects, we find both significant efficiency gains from exporting, supporting the learning-byexporting hypothesis, and evidence for self-selection of more efficient firms into exporting. The evidence of learning-by-exporting suggests that Af...

  6. Does Innovation Mediate Good Firm Performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Llanto, Gilberto M.; del Prado, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Private firms invest in physical capital and human resource but they are also advised to invest in innovations to be more productive and profitable. Innovations refer to the development, deployment, and economic utilization of new products, processes, and services. It is important for firms to know whether investment in innovations is investment well-spent. Our empirical results provided an affirmative response to the question raised in this paper: "Does innovation mediate good firm performan...

  7. Does Labour Diversity affect Firm Productivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario; Pytlikova, Mariola

    Using a matched employer-employee dataset, we analyze how workforce diversity in cultural background, education and demographic characteristics affects productivity of firms in Denmark. Implementing a structural estimation of the firms' production function (Ackerberg et al., 2006) we find...... that labor diversity in education significantly enhances a firm's value added. Conversely, diversity in ethnicity and demographics induces negative effects on firm productivity. Hence, the negative effects, coming from communication and integration costs connected to a more culturally and demographically...... diverse workforce, seem to outweigh the positive effects coming from creativity and knowledge spillovers....

  8. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intense competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results....... Using a very rich matched worker-firm longitudinal dataset we find that firms with high export intensities pay higher wages. However, an interaction term between export intensity and skill intensity has a positive impact on wages and it absorbs the direct effect of the export intensity. That is, we find...

  9. Shared vision promotes family firm performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, John E

    2015-01-01

    A clear picture of the influential drivers of private family firm performance has proven to be an elusive target. The unique characteristics of private family owned firms necessitate a broader, non-financial approach to reveal firm performance drivers. This research study sought to specify and evaluate the themes that distinguish successful family firms from less successful family firms. In addition, this study explored the possibility that these themes collectively form an effective organizational culture that improves longer-term firm performance. At an organizational level of analysis, research findings identified four significant variables: Shared Vision (PNS), Role Clarity (RCL), Confidence in Management (CON), and Professional Networking (OLN) that positively impacted family firm financial performance. Shared Vision exhibited the strongest positive influence among the significant factors. In addition, Family Functionality (APGAR), the functional integrity of the family itself, exhibited a significant supporting role. Taken together, the variables collectively represent an effective family business culture (EFBC) that positively impacted the long-term financial sustainability of family owned firms. The index of effective family business culture also exhibited potential as a predictive non-financial model of family firm performance.

  10. Shared Vision promotes family firm performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Edward Neff

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A clear picture of the influential drivers of private family firm performance has proven to be an elusive target. The unique characteristics of private family owned firms necessitate a broader, non-financial approach to reveal firm performance drivers. This research study sought to specify and evaluate the themes that distinguish successful family firms from less successful family firms. In addition, this study explored the possibility that these themes collectively form an effective organizational culture that improves longer-term firm performance. At an organizational level of analysis, research findings identified four significant variables: Shared Vision (PNS, Role Clarity (RCL, Confidence in Management (CON, and Professional Networking (OLN that positively impacted family firm financial performance. Shared Vision exhibited the strongest positive influence among the significant factors. In addition, Family Functionality (APGAR, the functional integrity of the family itself exhibited a significant supporting role. Taken together, the variables collectively represent an effective family business culture (EFBC that positively impacted the long-term financial sustainability of family owned firms. The index of effective family business culture also exhibited potential as a predictive non-financial model of family firm performance.

  11. International working capital practices of Ghanaian firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Abor

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available International working capital management is important to firms frequently operating in the international market. This article investigates the international working capital practices of top Ghanaian firms involved in international trade. The objective of the study is to ascertain the extent to which Ghanaian firms use international working capital management vehicles. The article focuses on two main areas of international working capital management; international cash management and international sales and accounts receivables management. The results of this study reveal low level of use of international working capital vehicles among Ghanaian firms. Recommendations are made in this regard.

  12. Industrial environmental practices in Polish Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kræmer, Trine Pipi

    The study investigates how discursive developments in Poland interact with industrial environmental practices in five production firms. The analysis of the discursive development covers the period from the end of World War I to the turn of the century. The areas in focus are identity, industry......, and environment. The five case firms all had a Communist past. The firms represent three different industrial sectors; i.e. textile, energy, and publishing and printing industries. Furthermore, the firms are both private and state owned as well as in the process of privatisation....

  13. EAS Test Firm Accrediting Bodies (TFAB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — EAS (Equipment Authorization System). The accreditation bodies for testing laboratories are referred to as Test Firm Accrediting Bodies (TFABs). They are responsible...

  14. On Weakly Semicommutative Rings*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN WEI-XING; CUI SHU-YING

    2011-01-01

    A ring R is said to be weakly scmicommutative if for any a, b ∈ R,ab = 0 implies aRb C_ Nil(R), where Nil(R) is the set of all nilpotcnt elements in R.In this note, we clarify the relationship between weakly semicommutative rings and NI-rings by proving that the notion of a weakly semicommutative ring is a proper generalization of NI-rings. We say that a ring R is weakly 2-primal if the set of nilpotent elements in R coincides with its Levitzki radical, and prove that if R is a weakly 2-primal ring which satisfies oα-condition for an endomorphism α of R (that is, ab = 0 (←→) aα(b) = 0 where a, b ∈ R) then the skew polynomial ring R[π; αα]is a weakly 2-primal ring, and that if R is a ring and I is an ideal of R such that I and R/I are both weakly semicommutative then R is weakly semicommutative.Those extend the main results of Liang et al. 2007 (Taiwanese J. Math., 11(5)(2007),1359-1368) considerably. Moreover, several new results about weakly semicommutative rings and NI-rings are included.

  15. Improving the firm's environmental conduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Koed Madsen, Tage

    2001-01-01

    lead to strategic advantage and, thus, economic gains at the firm level. In view of the great importance of this claim, the purpose of the present article was to apply resource-based insights in order to develop this reasoning further and provide an empirical test of three hypotheses related...... to the claim. Our empirical test filled a gap in previous research and offered evidence in support of this claim as well as support for two related hypotheses developed on the basis of the resource-based view.......  It has recently been argued that growing societal pressures for better environmental conduct could induce environmental innovation, thereby entailing lower costs due to increased value and/or more efficient resource allocation. This has led to the claim that improved environmental conduct may...

  16. Knowledge management in the firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Nielsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    of the importance of deliberately combining various approaches to innovation and learning in order to include a maximum of actors as sources in building knowledge assets and strategies. Research limitations/implications – Most of the empirical examples are from private sector enterprises, even though......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to set focus on, and discuss the concept of knowledge, and show how the interrelations between knowledge and other concepts, such as learning, have become a decisive element in managing human resources and firm performance. Design....../methodology/approach – The dimensions of knowledge management are identified and related to learning, organizational configurations, human resources management and institutional environments in order to identify and percent the most important approaches to knowledge management and the development over time. Findings – Creating...

  17. Tourists' attitudes towards ban on smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyachaiyo, V; Lim, A

    2009-06-01

    Thailand is internationally renowned for its stringent tobacco control measures. In Thailand, a regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies was issued in late 2006, causing substantial apprehension within the hospitality industry. A survey of tourists' attitudes toward the ban was conducted. A cross-sectional survey of 5550 travellers staying in various hotels in Bangkok, Surat Thani, Phuket, Krabi and Songkhla provinces, October 2005 to December 2006. Travellers aged 15 years or older with a check-in duration of at least one day and willing to complete the questionnaire were requested by hotel staff to fill in the 5-minute questionnaire at check-in or later at their convenience. Secondhand cigarette smoke was recognised as harmful to health by 89.7% of respondents. 47.8% of travellers were aware of the Thai regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned restaurants. 80.9% of the respondents agreed with the ban, particularly female non-smokers. 38.6% of survey respondents indicated that they would be more likely to visit Thailand again because of the regulation, 53.4% that the regulation would not affect their decision and 7.9% that they would be less likely to visit Thailand again. Banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand is widely supported by tourists. Enforcement of the regulation is more likely to attract tourists than dissuade them from holidaying in Thailand.

  18. Tourists’ attitudes towards ban on smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyachaiyo, V; Lim, A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Thailand is internationally renowned for its stringent tobacco control measures. In Thailand, a regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies was issued in late 2006, causing substantial apprehension within the hospitality industry. A survey of tourists’ attitudes toward the ban was conducted. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 5550 travellers staying in various hotels in Bangkok, Surat Thani, Phuket, Krabi and Songkhla provinces, October 2005 to December 2006. Travellers aged 15 years or older with a check-in duration of at least one day and willing to complete the questionnaire were requested by hotel staff to fill in the 5-minute questionnaire at check-in or later at their convenience. Results: Secondhand cigarette smoke was recognised as harmful to health by 89.7% of respondents. 47.8% of travellers were aware of the Thai regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned restaurants. 80.9% of the respondents agreed with the ban, particularly female non-smokers. 38.6% of survey respondents indicated that they would be more likely to visit Thailand again because of the regulation, 53.4% that the regulation would not affect their decision and 7.9% that they would be less likely to visit Thailand again. Conclusion: Banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand is widely supported by tourists. Enforcement of the regulation is more likely to attract tourists than dissuade them from holidaying in Thailand. PMID:19364754

  19. The Effects of Firm Experience and Relational Resources on Firm Product Development Capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Given that the focus of strategic management research is understanding the determinants of firm performance, and that product development capabilities have been shown to influence firm performance, the research question this dissertation attempts to answer is: what factors influence a firm's product development capabilities? Building on the resource based view and evolutionary theory, this dissertation proposes that firms leverage knowledge generating resources to modify or develop their rou...

  20. THE ROLE OF THE SUSTAINABILITY REPORT IN CAPITALISTIC FIRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazzola Patrizia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim and the central topic of this research is the understanding of the importance of Sustainable growth strategy approach as a driver to achieving top-line growth and bottom-line results. The main contributions of this line of research are to demonstrate the idea that the sustainability report is an instrument for social interaction and social cost/benefit analysis and to show that such an instrument can describe, comment on and sum up the firm's own behaviour aimed at sustainable growth. The work integrates the CSR management literature with a large body of research in accounting and finance. This study draws from theoretical research about the nature of the corporation, its role in society and contributions by recent research on corporate social, environmental, ethical responsibility and accountability. Our research demonstrates that the economic existence of the capitalistic firm as a producer of economic and financial values must be appreciated, in terms of the sustainability of the development path of the firm, and evaluated by a wide range of social performance measures of outcome or benefit. It also shows how the Sustainability report emphasizes the link between firm and territory, and affirms the concept of the firm as an entity that, by pursuing its own prevailing interests, contributes to improving the quality of life of the members of the society in which it operates. This paper contributes primarily to the academic debate by reviewing past attempts to theorise CSR and stakeholder dialogue, identifying gaps and weaknesses, and proposing the Sustainable Growth implementation processes for the creation of value. It also highlights the relationship between CSR activity and corporate image and performance. The research shed light on aspects of CSR activity for which little is known and much less is being understood; namely, the channels and the mechanisms through which the CSR impact is perceived and realized for creation of value

  1. A Firm-Specific Analysis of the Exchange-Rate Exposure of Dutch Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Jong (Abe); J. Ligterink; V. Macrae

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe examine the relationship between exchange-rate changes and stock returns for a sample of Dutch firms over 1994-1998. We find that over 50% of the firms are significantly exposed to exchange-rate risk. Furthermore, all firms with significant exchange-rate exposure benefit from a

  2. A firm-specific exposure analyis of the exchange-rate exposure of Dutch firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, A.; Ligterink, J.; Macrae, V.

    2006-01-01

    We examine the relationship between exchange-rate changes and stock returns for a sample of Dutch firms over 1994-1998. We find that over 50 per cent of the firms are significantly exposed to exchange-rate risk. Furthermore, all firms with significant exchange-rate exposure benefit from a

  3. A firm-specific exposure analyis of the exchange-rate exposure of Dutch firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, A.; Ligterink, J.; Macrae, V.

    2006-01-01

    We examine the relationship between exchange-rate changes and stock returns for a sample of Dutch firms over 1994-1998. We find that over 50 per cent of the firms are significantly exposed to exchange-rate risk. Furthermore, all firms with significant exchange-rate exposure benefit from a depreciati

  4. Idiopathic isolated orbicularis weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVie, O P; Majid, M A; Husssin, H M; Ung, T; Manners, R M; Ormerod, I; Pawade, J; Harrad, R A

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Orbicularis weakness is commonly associated with seventh nerve palsy or neuromuscular and myopathic conditions such as myotonic dystrophy and myasethenia gravis. We report four cases of idiopathic isolated orbicularis weakness. Methods All four cases were female and the presenting symptoms of ocular irritation and epiphora had been present for over 7 years in three patients. All patients had lagophthalmos and three had ectropion. Three patients underwent full investigations which excluded known causes of orbicularis weakness. Two patients underwent oribularis oculi muscle biopsy and histological confirmation of orbicularis atrophy. Results All patients underwent surgery to specifically address the orbicularis weakness with satisfactory outcomes and alleviation of symptoms in all cases. Isolated orbicularis weakness may be a relatively common entity that is frequently overlooked. Conclusion Early recognition of this condition may lead to better management and prevent patients undergoing unnecessary surgical procedures. PMID:22322997

  5. Foreign Entry and Heterogeneous Growth of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technological...

  6. Identifying High Growth Firms in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna; Sato, Takahiro

    Over the past two decades, considerable interest has grown in high growth firms (HGFs). However, the concept of HGFs still remains controversial. One of the most controversial issues is size and age of these firms. The present study argues that the current literature on HGFs may offer little help...

  7. Managing firm competitiveness in global markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehlhar, M.; Regmi, A.; Stefanou, S.E.; Zoumas, B.

    2006-01-01

    The globalization profile of US food firms is mixed. US sales from foreign direct investment is now over six times the level of exports, while US processed food trade balance has moved from +$9 billion in 1995 to - $7 billion in 2004. Competitive forces drive firms to seek new areas of growth, with

  8. Foreign Entry and Heterogeneous Growth of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technologic...

  9. Trade credit: Elusive insurance of firm growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bams, Dennis; Bos, Jaap; Pisa, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Firms depend heavily on trade credit. This paper introduces a trade credit network into a structural model of the economy. In an empirical analysis of the model, we find that trade credit is an elusive insurance: as long as a firm is financially unconstrained and times are good, more trade credit en

  10. Agency Costs, Firm Value, and Corporate Investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Teixeira de Vasconcelos (Manuel)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOften firms lack the necessary internal resources to pursue all profitable investment opportunities at their disposal. One of the most important roles of financial markets is to allocate resources from different economic agents to the firms that will better employ them, thereby enabling

  11. Impacts of IST on firms and organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2003-01-01

    A review of socio-economic research on the impact and role of IST in firms and organisations. The study is carried out in ESTO for IPTS.......A review of socio-economic research on the impact and role of IST in firms and organisations. The study is carried out in ESTO for IPTS....

  12. Trade credit: Elusive insurance of firm growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bams, Dennis; Bos, Jaap; Pisa, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Firms depend heavily on trade credit. This paper introduces a trade credit network into a structural model of the economy. In an empirical analysis of the model, we find that trade credit is an elusive insurance: as long as a firm is financially unconstrained and times are good, more trade credit

  13. Agency Costs, Firm Value, and Corporate Investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Teixeira de Vasconcelos (Manuel)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOften firms lack the necessary internal resources to pursue all profitable investment opportunities at their disposal. One of the most important roles of financial markets is to allocate resources from different economic agents to the firms that will better employ them, thereby enabling

  14. Electronic Commerce, Digital Information, and the Firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Howard

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the social context of electronic commerce (ecommerce) focuses on information imperatives, or rules that are critical for ecommerce firms. Concludes with a discussion of the organizational changes that can be expected to accompany the incorporation of these imperatives into the mission and core business processes of ecommerce firms.…

  15. Architectural firms: workforce, business strategy and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedapo Adewunmi Oluwatayo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The intent of this research was to investigate the relationship between the workforce, business strategy and performance of architectural firms. Data was collected from 92 firms randomly selected from the cities where architectural firms were most concentrated in Nigeria using questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analysis was carried out to investigate the direct and indirect impacts of the workforce of architectural firms on their performance. The findings confirm the significant positive impact. With business strategy controlled, the specific characteristics of the workforce and its management which influenced performance were the number of architects, the work structure, and the age and experience of the principal partners. The impact of the number of non- architecture professionals and staff participation in decision-making on performance was moderated by the business strategy adopted by the firms. The results suggest that workforce characteristics are more important than the management of the workforce in determining performance of architectural firms. This is contrary to the results of previous studies which suggest higher importance of the management. This probably indicates the peculiarity of architectural firm as a professional service firm in the construction industry.

  16. Tax Compliance over the Firm Life Course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.C.; Verbeeten, F.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a new model of tax compliance over the firm life course, focusing on the dynamics in the underlying motivations and capacities for tax compliance. We review and structure the relevant literature on the early life course of firms: the traditional stages of growth models and a le

  17. Market Imperfections and Firm-Sponsored Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picchio, M.; van Ours, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent human capital theories predict that labor market frictions and product market competition influence firm-sponsored training. Using matched worker-firm data from Dutch manufacturing, our paper empirically assesses the validity of these predictions. We find that a decrease in labor market frict

  18. New workplace practices and firm performance:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristini, Annalisa; Pozzoli, Dario

    that the adoption of innovation practices has spread substantially more across the British manufacturing firms than across the Italian ones; however our results also indicate that the practices' association with the firms' VA is much lower in Britain than in Italy. The counterfactual analysis shows that had...

  19. Internationalization of Emerging Economies and Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    countries and firms. The impact of country and firm specific factors, the role of institutions and governments, the strive for compensation of initial disadvantages, the struggle for finding ways to counterbalance for late coming into the international arena in the process of internationalization...... are brought under scrutiny in this volume. The chapters provide insights from diverse contexts ranging from Brazil to Malaysia....

  20. Psychic Distance, Innovation, and Firm Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azar, Goudarz; Drogendijk, Rian

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests that internationalization improves a firm's ability to innovate, but the effect of internationalizing into specific target markets or destinations on the innovation ability of firms has not been fully investigated. This study examined whether the psychic distance between t

  1. Electronic Commerce, Digital Information, and the Firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Howard

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the social context of electronic commerce (ecommerce) focuses on information imperatives, or rules that are critical for ecommerce firms. Concludes with a discussion of the organizational changes that can be expected to accompany the incorporation of these imperatives into the mission and core business processes of ecommerce firms.…

  2. Strategic Resources and Family Firm Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matser, I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Most companies in the Netherlands can be labeled as family firms (according to the GEEF definition (Mandle, 2008; Flören et al., 2010). The family firm can be regarded as an open system model comprising three overlapping, interacting, and interdependent subsystems: owners, family, and managers (Moor

  3. Knowledge Sharing in Knowledge-Intensive Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Akshey; Michailova, Snejina

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a study of the knowledge-sharing difficulties experienced by three departments in a knowledge-intensive firm. The case organization is a global consulting firm that has been on the forefront of knowledge management and has won several knowledge management related international accla...

  4. Trade credit: Elusive insurance of firm growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bams, Dennis; Bos, Jaap; Pisa, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Firms depend heavily on trade credit. This paper introduces a trade credit network into a structural model of the economy. In an empirical analysis of the model, we find that trade credit is an elusive insurance: as long as a firm is financially unconstrained and times are good, more trade credit en

  5. Market Imperfections and Firm-Sponsored Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picchio, M.; van Ours, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent human capital theories predict that labor market frictions and product market competition influence firm-sponsored training. Using matched worker-firm data from Dutch manufacturing, our paper empirically assesses the validity of these predictions. We find that a decrease in labor market frict

  6. A new approach to firm evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Vermeulen (Erik); J. Spronk (Jaap); D. van der Wijst (Nico)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, a method is developed to evaluate firms on the basis of the risks they face. In accordance with the multi-factor method, risk is represented as a vector of sensitivities to unexpected changes of risk factors. Subsequently, the sensitivities themselves are related to firm c

  7. Managing firm competitiveness in global markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehlhar, M.; Regmi, A.; Stefanou, S.E.; Zoumas, B.

    2006-01-01

    The globalization profile of US food firms is mixed. US sales from foreign direct investment is now over six times the level of exports, while US processed food trade balance has moved from +$9 billion in 1995 to - $7 billion in 2004. Competitive forces drive firms to seek new areas of growth, with

  8. An Aspirational Community Theory of the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    contractual labor and aspirational labor, the former being defined as services provided by a laborer in fulfillment of a contract while the latter as services provided by a laborer in pursuit of an aspiration; and argue that firms exist because while the market may be effective and efficient for allocating...... propose an aspirational community theory of the firm (ACT) as a candidate theory by conceptualizing the firm as an aspirational community, the core of which is a group of like-minded people sharing similar or same aspiration/vision. To explain the existence of the firm, we make a distinction between...... contractual labor it is less effective and efficient than the firms for allocating aspirational labor....

  9. Choice of Ownership Structure and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Derek C; Kalmi, Panu; Mygind, Niels

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use rich panel data for a representative sample of Estonian enterprises to analysediverse issues related to the determinants of ownership structures and ownership changes afterprivatisation. A key focus is to determine whether ownership changes are related to economicefficiency....... While employee owned firms are found to be much more prone than other firms toswitch ownership categories, often `employee owned' firms remain `insider-owned' as ownershippasses from current employees to managers and former employees. Logit analyses of thedeterminants of ownership structures...... and ownership changes provides mixed support for severalhypotheses. As predicted: (i) wealth and resource constraints play a crucial role in thedetermination of ownership, with foreigners buying firms with the highest equity levels andinsiders buying firms with the lowest equity valuations; (ii) risk aversion...

  10. Commercialization of Innovations and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar

    The decision on investment in R&D is very important and highly risky for firms' performance and survival in their business. This paper focuses on the commercialization of firms' investment in innovation and how these decisions affect their performance. The study uses a large innovation survey...... of Danish firms holding information on their R&D investment as well as their expenses on marketing which gives knowledge of the commercialization of their innovations. The results suggest a highly significant commercialization of innovation, which means that firms' follows a strategy of investment both...... in innovation and marketing making R&D and marketing complements in their investment decision. However, there is only week evidence for the hypothesis that commercialization of innovations also creates more value for the firms in the short run.  ...

  11. Commercialization of Innovations and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar

    The decision on investment in R&D is very important and highly risky for firms' performance and survival in their business. This paper focuses on the commercialization of firms' investment in innovation and how these decisions affect their performance. The study uses a large innovation survey...... of Danish firms holding information on their R&D investment as well as their expenses on marketing which gives knowledge of the commercialization of their innovations. The results suggest a highly significant commercialization of innovation, which means that firms' follows a strategy of investment both...... in innovation and marketing making R&D and marketing complements in their investment decision. However, there is only week evidence for the hypothesis that commercialization of innovations also creates more value for the firms in the short run....

  12. How does firm performance influence market orientation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Stieglitz, Nils

    This paper contributes by investigating how firm performance influences its market orientation. We draw on the aspiration-level model from the behavioral theory of the firm to develop testable propositions that substantiate and extend prior market orientation research. Specifically, we address ho...... performance influences firms' market-oriented search behavior (responsive or proactive) and the allocation of attention (customer and competitor orientation) as well as the formation of aspiration levels. Research and managerial implications are discussed.......This paper contributes by investigating how firm performance influences its market orientation. We draw on the aspiration-level model from the behavioral theory of the firm to develop testable propositions that substantiate and extend prior market orientation research. Specifically, we address how...

  13. Effect of firm variables on patent price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sreekumaran Nair

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, using singleton patent auction price data from Ocean Tomo, LLC, we analyse the effect of firm variables on patent price. Patents owned by small firms attract higher price than patents owned by large firms, if they engage in multi-country filings. The patents owned by small firms get cited more than the patents owned by large firms. The patents owned by individual inventors attract a higher price than the patents owned by organisations when multi-country filings are not included. We believe that the lack of resources is preventing individual inventors from engaging in multi-country filings and maximising the revenue from their invention. A larger representative data should be used to replicate the results before generalising it.

  14. A Law and Economics Analysis of Lobbying Regulation: Towards an optimal structure through the Cost Indicator Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Krsmanovic (Dusko)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ During recent years, lobbying has become an inevitable term in our daily life. The term is often used (and abused) for illustration of different situations ranging from daily politics, elections, campaigns, advocacy and even corruption! It does not surprise

  15. A Law and Economics Analysis of Lobbying Regulation: Towards an optimal structure through the Cost Indicator Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Krsmanovic (Dusko)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ During recent years, lobbying has become an inevitable term in our daily life. The term is often used (and abused) for illustration of different situations ranging from daily politics, elections, campaigns, advocacy and even corruption! It does not surprise then that mo

  16. Smoke screen? The globalization of production, transnational lobbying and the international political economy of plain tobacco packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Louise; Eckhardt, Jappe

    2017-01-01

    In 2012 Australia became the first country in the world to introduce plain tobacco packaging in an effort to reduce tobacco consumption. This move was vehemently opposed by the tobacco industry, which challenged it on several levels: nationally, bilaterally and multilaterally at the World Trade Organization (WTO). The political behavior of the tobacco companies in this case is puzzling both in terms of scale, operating at multiple levels at the same time and in terms of the countries mobilized in their defence. WTO litigation is typically the result of Multi National Enterprises (MNEs) lobbying their own government, but here third countries were mobilized. Lobbying in third country contexts, with the objective of accessing multilateral dispute settlement systems, has been little studied. We thus know very little about the driving factors behind such activities, how target governments are selected and what lobbying strategies are used. This paper draws on emerging research on transnational lobbying and a case study of the PP case to explore these issues in detail and, by doing so, aims to further our theoretical understanding of the political economy of international trade in the context of increasing regime complexity and globalization of production.

  17. Weak decays. [Lectures, phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcicki, S.

    1978-11-01

    Lectures are given on weak decays from a phenomenological point of view, emphasizing new results and ideas and the relation of recent results to the new standard theoretical model. The general framework within which the weak decay is viewed and relevant fundamental questions, weak decays of noncharmed hadrons, decays of muons and the tau, and the decays of charmed particles are covered. Limitation is made to the discussion of those topics that either have received recent experimental attention or are relevant to the new physics. (JFP) 178 references

  18. Weakly asymptotically hyperbolic manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Paul T; Lee, John M; Allen, Iva Stavrov

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a class of "weakly asymptotically hyperbolic" geometries whose sectional curvatures tend to $-1$ and are $C^0$, but are not necessarily $C^1$, conformally compact. We subsequently investigate the rate at which curvature invariants decay at infinity, identifying a conformally invariant tensor which serves as an obstruction to "higher order decay" of the Riemann curvature operator. Finally, we establish Fredholm results for geometric elliptic operators, extending the work of Rafe Mazzeo and John M. Lee to this setting. As an application, we show that any weakly asymptotically hyperbolic metric is conformally related to a weakly asymptotically hyperbolic metric of constant negative curvature.

  19. Knowledge Management Systems: A Comparison of Law Firms and Consulting Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter Gottschalk

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports results from a survey of Norwegian law firms on the use of information technology to support inter-organizational knowledge management. Two predictors of IT support were significant: firm cooperation and knowledge cooperation. Inter-organizational trust was not a significant predictor. Software and systems most frequently used include word processing, electronic mail and legal databases. It has been argued that law firms are old fashioned and not ready for extensive use of information technology. An impression is created that other professional service firms such as consulting firms are much more advanced. To evaluate the relative performance of law firms in the area of IT support for knowledge trans-fer an identical survey was conducted among a limited number of consulting firms in Norway. Survey results indicate that the average IT use in consulting firms was slightly higher than in law firms, but the most interesting differences were found in the different systems and software used rather than the level of IT use. Consulting firms are high-level users of general information sources on the Internet, while law firms are high-level users of structured information in databases.

  20. Strange Weak Values

    CERN Document Server

    Hosoya, Akio

    2010-01-01

    We develop a formal theory of the weak values with emphasis on the consistency conditions and a probabilistic interpretation in the counter-factual processes. We present the condition for the choice of the post-selected state to give a negative weak value of a given projection operator and strange values of an observable in general. The general framework is applied to Hardy's paradox and the spin $1/2$ system to explicitly address the issues of counter-factuality and strange weak values. The counter-factual arguments which characterize the paradox specifies the pre-selected state and a complete set of the post-selected states clarifies how the strange weak values emerge.

  1. Ownership Structure and Firm Financial Performance: Evidence from Panel Data in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirosha Hewa Wellalage

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of equity ownership structure on financial performance of Sri Lankan listed businesses. Using dynamic panel generalised method of moment this study finds an inverse hump shape relationship between insider ownership and firm financial performance. The results of this study confirm that the effect of insider ownership on firm performance is more positive and significant where legal protection for investors is weak. It suggests that although new legislative reforms have been enacted, Sri Lankan companies are highly dependent on internal governance mechanisms. There is potential merit in promulgating new rules to control the expropriation of minority shareholders.

  2. How Firms Innovate: R&D, Non-R&D, and Technology Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, C.; Arundel, A.V.; Hollanders, H.J.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Non-R&D innovation is a common economic phenomenon, though R&D has been the central focus of policy making and scholarly research in the field of innovation. An analysis of the third European Community Innovation Survey (CIS-3) results for 15 countries finds that almost half of innovative European firms did not perform R&D in-house. Firms with weak in-house innovative capabilities and which source information from suppliers and competitors tend to innovate through non-R&D activities. In contr...

  3. Job Creation by Firms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Rikke Falkner; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels

    (firm) is the legal entity. A company can have many sites, and one of the ways companies can grow is by expanding with multiple sites. This can happen by mergers and acquisitions but can also happen by creating "daughter workplaces". It is therefore essential to look at workplaces and firms at the same...... time. A complication here is that firms switch ID over time because of change of ownership, mergers and divisions. Data must be corrected so that these administrative issues will not affect the survival of firms. The data are used in a way where we can cover firm birth and firm death, spin......-offs and mergers. The analysis will make it possible to differentiate between net and gross creation of jobs because we can follow each single individual in and out of jobs. We have for Denmark found that size on its own does not have a big impact, but young firms are much more likely to contribute to a positive...

  4. Views of CEOs on Firm Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Berginc

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Researching the managerial perspective of performance can contribute to a better understanding of firm performance, and offer a valuable contribution to research on objective performance measurement. The aim of this article is to examine how managers evaluate firm performance and which factors, in their opinion, have the biggest influence on performance. We particularly wanted to investigate the influence of top management and owners on firm performance. We conducted a qualitative study among the CEOs of some of the most successful Slovenian firms. The results show that CEOs connect positive performance with long-term growth and satisfying the needs of key stakeholders (employees, customers and owners, but short-term positive financial performance represents the basic foundation. The second most important factor is a united top management, capable of generating new ideas and acting as a role model to employees. This can lead to a higher degree of engagement by employees and a better understanding of the firm's goals. Owners can contribute to a positive firm performance with their active, strategic and long-term orientation, and with their ability to set clear goals and to trust top management in the long run. Another important factor that influences firm performance is the ownership structure. In the opinion of CEOs, dominant and private ownership has a more positive impact on firm performance than dispersed and state ownership. The present research findings provide several examples of good and bad practice, and highlight opportunities for further research, from an in-depth study of individual factors of firm performance to the search for a more comprehensive model of performance factors, based on a larger sample of CEOs and other managers.

  5. The doomsday lobby hype and panic from sputniks, martians, and marauding meteors

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, James T

    2010-01-01

    From the race-to-space in the 1950s to the current furor over global warming, James Bennett traces the subtle and not-so-subtle ways in which government has co-opted scientific research and reinforced a culture in which challengers to proscribed wisdom are frozen out. Ripped from the headlines, Bennett offers a compelling, entertaining, and thought-provoking perspective on political influence in scientific research and its implications for a democratic society. Praise for The Doomsday Lobby "During the Nineteenth Century, almost entirely on private funding, American science grew from practically nothing to world class. Now, however, over fifty percent of American science is funded by the federal government. Dr. Bennett traces the path, "crisis" after "crisis," by which American science became practically an arm of the federal government. His tale is a cautionary one, warning against future "crisis mongers" who would extend the government's already majority control of American science even further. His warning...

  6. A Theoretical and Empirical Study of Corporate Lobbying in the European Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Bouwen

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to empirically test a theory of access that investigates the logic behind the apparent ad hoc lobbying behavior of business interests in the European Parliament. The theoretical framework tries to explain the degree of access of different organizational forms of business interest representation (companies, associations and consultants to the European Parliament in terms of a theory of the supply and demand of "access goods". The generated hypotheses are analyzed in an empirical study of the EU financial services sector. On the basis of 14 exploratory and 27 semi-structured interviews the hypotheses are checked in the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs of the European Parliament.

  7. Managing the Knowledge-Intensive Firm

    CERN Document Server

    Ejler, Nicolaj; Czerniawska, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a substantial rise in the number of knowledge-intensive firms. The core assets of these businesses are the people themselves and so, successful managers of knowledge-intensive firms must inspire their employees and target their individual ambitions, to ensure high performance.This book examines what sets knowledge-intensive firms apart from other types of organizations, and the resultant organizational and strategic differences in business models, talent management, and client-handling approaches. A new model for transforming the management of knowledge-int

  8. The innovative behaviour of tourism firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Jon; Orfila-Sintes, Francina; Sørensen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    are investigated by analysing quantitative as well as qualitative data comparing Spain and Denmark. A taxonomy of tourism firms is suggested and the firms’ characteristics which influence their innovativeness are presented. Additionally, the role of innovation networks is discussed, as is the role of innovation......Tourism firms operate in a competitive sector where innovating is often a condition for survival. This article presents a theoretical framework for understanding tourist firms’ innovative behaviour and innovation systems in tourism. The innovativeness of tourism firms and its determinants...

  9. Does Labor Diversity Affect Firm Performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola; Pozzoli, Dario; Parrotta, Pierpaolo

    Using an employer-employee dataset, we analyze how diversity in cultural background, skills and demographic characteristics affects total factor productivity (TFP) of firms in Denmark. Implementing structural estimation of firms’ production function, we find evidence that labor diversity in skill...... openness, giving support to the hypothesis that an ethnically diverse workforce provides information and access to global markets....... costs connected to a more demographically and culturally diverse workforce, counteract the positive effects of diversity on firm TFP, coming from creativity and knowledge spillovers. However, we find that ethnic diversity is valuable for firms operating in industries characterized by above-average trade...

  10. Agility in a small software firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Mathiassen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Danish software firm, TeachTech Inc., through the lens of Haeckel's sense-and-respond approach. Our analysis suggests that: the firm has appropriate sense-and-respond cycles, but improving process modularity and human resource flexibility, could increase its ability to respond faster and more effectively......; the firm focuses on specific business goals, but these are not clearly explicated and expressed as empowering governing values enabling a quick and coordinated response; complex and demanding challenges are related to dynamically reassigning commitments and the supporting mechanisms are insufficient...

  11. Pro-social Motivation beyond Firm Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai; Milagres, Rosileia

    2014-01-01

    An influential body of literature in macro-management research (notably, organization theory and strategic management) associates pro-social motivation solely with firm-like organizations, suggesting that such motivation cannot thrive under more market-like arrangements. We question this argument...... on theoretical, as well as empirical, grounds. As to the latter, we discuss the specific case of a network of firms in Brazil, the Genolyptus network. We argue that this particular network manifests strong pro-social motivations. This implies that pro-social motivations may thrive beyond corporate boundaries......-social motivations in non-firm governance structures....

  12. Firm-Specific Foreign Exchange Exposure Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Brodin, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have used the stock market approach to find the aggregate number of (firms with) foreign exchange exposures in a given country, region, or industry. Methodologies have differed in many aspects but two of the most basic differences relate to observation frequency and the choice......-financial firms and find limited consistency in the detected exchange rate exposures when altering methodology in terms of observation frequency and choice of market index. The results put a question mark to the validity of the stock market approach for exchange rate exposure identification at the firm...

  13. Banking Firm, Equity and Value at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Broll

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the interaction between the solvency probability of a banking firm and the diversification potential of its asset portfolio when determining optimal equity capital. The purpose of this paper is to incorporate value at risk (VaR into the firm-theoretical model of a banking firm facing the risk of asset return. Given the necessity to achieve a confidence level for solvency, we demonstrate that diversification reduces the amount of equity. Notably, the VaR concept excludes a separation of equity policy and asset-liability management.

  14. Internationalisation of Firms in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    The last three decades have witnessed a substantial amount of research into the intrenationalisation process of firms. The focus of most of these studies have, however, been on the downstream aspects of internationalisation with the assumption that all firms initiate their internationalisation...... process with export and proceed in a path-dependent manner towards the location of production activities abroad. The present apper challenges this perspective, arguing that internationalisation of firms may be initiated through either or both upstream and downstream activities. It therefore proposes...

  15. Internationalisation of Firms in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    The last three decades have witnessed a substantial amount of research into the intrenationalisation process of firms. The focus of most of these studies have, however, been on the downstream aspects of internationalisation with the assumption that all firms initiate their internationalisation...... process with export and proceed in a path-dependent manner towards the location of production activities abroad. The present apper challenges this perspective, arguing that internationalisation of firms may be initiated through either or both upstream and downstream activities. It therefore proposes...

  16. Entrepreneurial Orientation in Small Established Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middel, Rick; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Laugen, Bjørge Timenes

    2010-01-01

    While research findings have provided important insights on radical innovation for small start-ups and large established organizations, there is still a gap in knowledge on the ability of the well-established small firm to engage in radical innovation. This paper addresses this gap in knowledge...... by discussing how small established firms exhibit entrepreneurial orientation and how does this influence their involvement in development of radical innovation. Through the case studies it became apparent that the small established firms do embody several characteristics which can be associated both......-taking and autonomy plays a very important role, and that the three dimensions are often intertwined....

  17. Coherence for weak units

    CERN Document Server

    Joyal, André

    2009-01-01

    We define weak units in a semi-monoidal 2-category $\\CC$ as cancellable pseudo-idempotents: they are pairs $(I,\\alpha)$ where $I$ is an object such that tensoring with $I$ from either side constitutes a biequivalence of $\\CC$, and $\\alpha: I \\tensor I \\to I$ is an equivalence in $\\CC$. We show that this notion of weak unit has coherence built in: Theorem A: $\\alpha$ has a canonical associator 2-cell, which automatically satisfies the pentagon equation. Theorem B: every morphism of weak units is automatically compatible with those associators. Theorem C: the 2-category of weak units is contractible if non-empty. Finally we show (Theorem E) that the notion of weak unit is equivalent to the notion obtained from the definition of tricategory: $\\alpha$ alone induces the whole family of left and right maps (indexed by the objects), as well as the whole family of Kelly 2-cells (one for each pair of objects), satisfying the relevant coherence axioms.

  18. The Relationship between Ownership Structure, Firm Specific Characteristics and Capital Structure: Evidence from Malaysian Middle-capital Public Listed Firms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanita Kadir Shahar; Azira Abdul Adzis; Nureliana Baderi

    2016-01-01

    .... By employing a total of 38 middle-capital firms covering period from 2008 to 2012, the results show that debt level in firms with high ownership concentration is significantly different from firms...

  19. Service-Oriented Strategies for Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian; McAloone, Tim C.; Matzen, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    This chapter establishes PSS (Product/Service-Systems) approaches in the context of manufacturing firms and their existing product-oriented business. PSS can be seen as a strategy for manufacturing firms to gain competitive advantage in the market, but what market conditions and organisational fa......, customers and partners in business planning and strategy to reap the full benefits. Finally a path to how manufacturers can make the change from product to service-orientation is traced.......This chapter establishes PSS (Product/Service-Systems) approaches in the context of manufacturing firms and their existing product-oriented business. PSS can be seen as a strategy for manufacturing firms to gain competitive advantage in the market, but what market conditions and organisational...

  20. Judo Economics in Markets with Multiple Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cracau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a sequential Bertrand game with one dominant market incumbent and multiple small entrants selling homogeneous products. Whilst the equilibrium for the case of a single entrant is well known from Gelman and Salop (1983, we derive properties of the N-firm equilibrium and present an algorithm that can be used to calculate this equilibrium. The algorithm is based on a recursive manipulation of polynomials that derive the optimisation problem that each of the market entrants is facing. Using this algorithm we derive the exact equilibrium for the cases of two and three small entrants. For more than three entrants only approximate results are possible. We use numerical results to gain further understanding of the equilibrium for an increasing number of firms and in particular for the case where N diverges to infinity. Similarly to the two-firm Judo equilibrium, we see that a capacity limitation for the small firms is necessary to achieve positive profits.

  1. Ethnic Diversity and Firms' Export Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario; Sala, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Media are reporting of companies that are increasing the diversity of their workforce to expand their business internationally. This paper investigates whether these examples constitute pieces of evidence that diversity promotes firms' internationalization. Indeed, diverse companies are like a co...

  2. Foreign Exchange Exposure of Korean Firms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ji-Seon Kim

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the movements of exchange rate and value of Korean firms, so-called foreign exchange rate exposure using newly devised model to find the strong evidence...

  3. Small Firm Internationalization, Innovation, and Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, M.A.; Roelfsema, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of internationalization on innovation and firm performance (employment growth and sales growth) taking the interdependencies among the variables into account. Given the potential endogeneity, this study uses theory-driven instrumental variables and structural equation

  4. EAS 2.948 Listed Test Firms

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — EAS (Equipment Authorization System). The following firms have submitted the information required by Section 2.948 of the FCC Rules for measuring devices subject to...

  5. Firm Performance-A Social Networks Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Tung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The study aims to offer a discussion on social networks and their effect on firm performance and also to illustrate the ways by which the firms utilize social capital through networks. Approach: The literature review and arguments were conducted to provide a systematic discussion of social networks and their effects. Results: The study had provided with a detailed understanding of the strategies that had been found to be highly significant in successful organizational performance. The results of this discussion suggested that social networks affect firm performance in a positive manner and can contribute to sustainable competitive advantage. Conclusion: It confirms that building up of social networks for big and small firms provides valuable links and solves numerous issues which auger well for the companies and should be treated with great importance.

  6. New Environmental Practices in Polish Production Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kræmer, Trine Pipi

    2002-01-01

    Based on five case studies in Poland, the paper discusses, how a specific environmental policy influences the firms? industrial environmental practices. The study illustrates, how the Polish environmental policy, dominated by environmental charges on emissions, is extremely effective in improving...

  7. Taxing the Financially Integrated Multinational Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    This paper develops a theoretical model of corporate taxation in the presence of financially integrated multinational firms. Under the assumption that multinational firms at least partly use internal loans to finance foreign investment, we find that the optimal corporate tax rate is positive from...... the perspective of a small, open economy. This finding contrasts the standard result that the optimal source based capital tax is zero. Intuitively, to the extent that multinational firms finance investment in country i with loans from affiliates in country j, the burden of corporate taxes in the latter country...... partly fall on investment and thus workers in the former country. This tax exporting mechanism introduces a scope for corporate taxes, which is not present in standard models of international taxation. Accounting for the internal capital markets of multinational firms thus represents a way to resolve...

  8. Customer profitability analysis in a particular firm

    OpenAIRE

    Turková, Karolína

    2015-01-01

    The bachelor thesis entitled "Customer profitability analysis in a particular firm" deals with approaches which are possible to use in an enterprise practice when analyzing customer profitability. The theoretical part describes tools and methods of management accounting which are used to analyze the profitability of customers. The application part consists of appraisal of the firm's current system of analyzing customer profitability and proposal of a new system. In the conclusion some recomme...

  9. Taxing the Financially Integrated Multinational Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    This paper develops a theoretical model of corporate taxation in the presence of financially integrated multinational firms. Under the assumption that multinational firms at least partly use internal loans to finance foreign investment, we find that the optimal corporate tax rate is positive from...... the tension between standard theory predicting zero capital taxes and the casual observation that countries tend to employ corporate taxes at fairly high rates....

  10. Structure, Employment and Performance in Biotech Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Lund Jensen, Rasmus; Dahlgren, Henrich; Valentin, Finn

    2007-01-01

    This report studies employment effects associated with the adoption of modern biotechnology in Danish industry. In this context we also examine industry structure, patterns of job creation, key outputs such as patents and the pipeline of projects in clinical trials. To see the development of Danish biotech firms in a relevant context we compare a Danish segment of biotech firms with a matching Swedish segment. From an overall assessment modern biotechnology, despite the three decades elap...

  11. The Firm as an Internal Capital Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen

    1996-01-01

    A review of current strategy literature shows that the portfolio view seems to have become unfashionable. This article argues in favor of a revitalization of the portfolio view, and attempts to show that with a few changes, it can be used together with the modern theories of the firm and its stra...... strategy. At the same time it shows how a heterodox portfolio model may be used to control the competence development of firms situated in turbulent and complex settings....

  12. Facilitated inter-firm collaboration in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2005-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, aid agencies have endorsed the need to support private enterprise development in developing countries as an instrument for overall economic development and poverty reduction. Facilitation of collaboration between developed and developing country firms has become one of the mo...... the mechanisms of third-party inter-firm facilitation and assesses how effective the catalyst institutions are in nurturing collaborations between companies in developed and developing countries. The discussions are illustrated with case examples drawn from Ghana....

  13. Downsizing, job insecurity and firm reputation

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Doh-Shin; Shapiro, Joel

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies how firms make layoff decisions in the presence of adverse shocks. In this uncertain environment, workers' expectations about their job security affect their on-the-job performance. This productivity effect of job insecurity forces firms to strike a balance between laying off redundant workers and maintaining survivors' commitment when deciding on the amount and timing of downsizing. This framework offers an explanation of conservative employment practices (such as zero or ...

  14. Technological Opportunities and New Firm Creation

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Shane

    2001-01-01

    Research on the creation of new high-technology companies has typically focused either on industry-level factors such as market structure and technology regime or on individual-level factors such as the work experience of entrepreneurs. This study complements these approaches by examining the effect of technological opportunities on firm formation. In particular, the study shows that the probability that an invention will be commercialized through firm formation is influenced by its importanc...

  15. Bohai Prominent for Cooperation with Foreign Firms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Qingbing; Wang Zhan; Du Genqi

    1997-01-01

    @@ Bohai Oilfields started to cooperate with foreign firms earlier than other oil fields. From 1980 up to now, Bohai Oilfields has signed 14 petroleum cooperation contracts with 18 foreign oil firms from Japan, France, the United States and Britain. The total investment for cooperative exploration and development is nearly $1.5 billion. In addition, Bohai Oilfields,taking various forms for cooperation, has formed a number of specialized joint ventures for offshore operation in partnership with foreign technical companies.

  16. Strategic Intent, Confucian Harmony and Firm Success

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Romar

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that by using the Confucian concept of harmony as its strategicintent a firm can be both ethical and successful. Using the work of Peter F. Drucker,Michael Porter, and Gary Hamel and C. K. Prahalad the paper discusses the role ofstrategic intent as a contributing factor to firm success. The paper then discusses how theConfucian concept of harmony fulfills the concept of strategic intent and how harmony cancontribute to the development of a successful and ethical organization...

  17. Job Creation by Firms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Rikke Falkner; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels

    -offs and mergers. The analysis will make it possible to differentiate between net and gross creation of jobs because we can follow each single individual in and out of jobs. We have for Denmark found that size on its own does not have a big impact, but young firms are much more likely to contribute to a positive...... Denmark lost 186,000 jobs in the private sector. The question is where and how could these jobs be recreated. Are these issues specific to industries or are they universal? The data used is register data on workplaces and firms for the period 1980-2007. The base unit of data is the workplace. The company...... time. A complication here is that firms switch ID over time because of change of ownership, mergers and divisions. Data must be corrected so that these administrative issues will not affect the survival of firms. The data are used in a way where we can cover firm birth and firm death, spin...

  18. Foreign Exchange Exposure of Korean Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Seon Kim

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the movements of exchange rate and value of Korean firms, so-called foreign exchange rate exposure using newly devised model to find the strong evidence. I use weekly data on Korean Firms that are listed on Korea Stock Exchange (KSE for the period from January 1997 to December 2000. I find that about 70% Korean Firms are actually exposed to Won-dollar exchange rate movement at 10% significance level and these results are substantially different from the previous empirical study where little statistical significance was found. In comparing the foreign exchange exposures with three different exchange rates, in Won-dollar and Won-yen exchange exposures, value of Korean firms is positively related to depreciation of Korean Won and negatively related to depreciation of Korean Won with Won-euro exchange exposure. With magnitude of three exposures, results can be interpreted that Dollar exposure seems to be the most significant among three foreign exchange exposures and Korean Firms' value is more sensitive to Won-dollar exchange rate. I also find that exchange exposure is strongly related to firm size and industry especially Electricity & Gas industry is most significantly related.

  19. Innovation strategies of Mexican pharmaceutical firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Solleiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mexican pharmaceutical market is the most important in Latin America and a significant number of global firms have different business activities in this country: production, licensing of patents, alliances with Mexican firms, distribution facilities or partnerships, etc. In terms of innovation, global pharmaceutical industry has passed through structural changes mainly of technological and institutional nature. These changes have been influential along the whole value chain and have triggered transformations in firm's organization, market structure and sector's investments. Mexico's industry, in spite of having a very attractive domestic market, has serious limitations for technology development. Very little resources are invested in R&D and lack of articulation between research labs and industry provoke that Mexico has only exceptional innovation achievements and a high technological dependence. At the same time, some Mexican companies have developed new strategies to be competitive in open markets and have shown that a combination of competitive intelligence, rapid adoption of technologies, collaboration with advanced firms and research institutes, permanent training and continuous improvement are key factors for success. This paper deals with the results of a piece of research aimed at developing a model for the effective transfer of technology for Mexican pharmaceutical firms, with a strong component of knowledge and skills to manage the flows of information, people and technologies among firms, research labs, universities and other health organizations.

  20. The Variance Composition of Firm Growth Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Artur Ledur Brito

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Firms exhibit a wide variability in growth rates. This can be seen as another manifestation of the fact that firms are different from one another in several respects. This study investigated this variability using the variance components technique previously used to decompose the variance of financial performance. The main source of variation in growth rates, responsible for more than 40% of total variance, corresponds to individual, idiosyncratic firm aspects and not to industry, country, or macroeconomic conditions prevailing in specific years. Firm growth, similar to financial performance, is mostly unique to specific firms and not an industry or country related phenomenon. This finding also justifies using growth as an alternative outcome of superior firm resources and as a complementary dimension of competitive advantage. This also links this research with the resource-based view of strategy. Country was the second source of variation with around 10% of total variance. The analysis was done using the Compustat Global database with 80,320 observations, comprising 13,221 companies in 47 countries, covering the years of 1994 to 2002. It also compared the variance structure of growth to the variance structure of financial performance in the same sample.

  1. Financial planning and analysis techniques of mining firms: a note on Canadian practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, H.; Zanibbi, L.R. (Laurentian University, Sudbury, ON (Canada). School of Commerce and Administration)

    1992-06-01

    This paper reports on the results of a survey of the financial planning and analysis techniques in use in the mining industry in Canada. The study was undertaken to determine the current status of these practices within mining firms in Canada and to investigate the extent to which the techniques are grouped together within individual firms. In addition, tests were performed on the relationship between these groups of techniques and both organizational size and price volatility of end product. The results show that a few techniques are widely utilized in this industry but that the techniques used most frequently are not as sophisticated as reported in previous, more broadly based surveys. The results also show that firms tend to use 'bundles' of techniques and that the relative use of some of these groups of techniques is weakly associated with both organizational size and type of end product. 19 refs., 7 tabs.

  2. Inference from concave stochastic frontiers and the covariance of firm efficiency measures across firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dashti, Imad [Kuwait Univ., Economics Dept., Kuwait (Kuwait)

    2003-11-01

    This paper uses a Bayesian stochastic frontier model to obtain confidence intervals on firm efficiency measures of electric utilities rather than the point estimates reported in most previous studies. Results reveal that the stochastic frontier model yields imprecise measures of firm efficiency. However, the application produces much more precise inference on pairwise efficiency comparisons of firms due to a sometimes strong positive covariance of efficiency measures across firms. In addition, we examine the sensitivity to functional form by repeating the analysis for Cobb-Douglas, translog and Fourier frontiers, with and without imposing monotonicity and concavity. (Author)

  3. Corporate liquidity and firm value: evidence from China’s listed firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Jinmin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of liquidity is a promising area for research. This paper analyzes the correlation be-tween corporate liquidity and firm value by using evidence from China’s listed firms. This paper also investigates the relation among corporate liquidity, R&D and firm size. The authors find that firm’s sufficient liquidity can increase its market value. However, corporate liquidity has insignificant effect on firm’s R&D. What’s more, the authors further find that corporate liquidity also has diseconomies of scale. Excess corporate liquidity may ad-versely affect market value of large firms.

  4. WEAK CONVERGENCE OF SOME SERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper continues the study of [1] on weak functions.The weak convergence theory is investigated in complex analysis,Fourier transform and Mellin transform.A Mobius inverse formula of weak functions is obtained.

  5. On Weak Markov's Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within the...

  6. On closed weak supplemented modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qing-yi; SHI Mei-hua

    2006-01-01

    A module M is called closed weak supplemented if for any closed submodule N of M, there is a submodule K of M such that M=K+N and K(c)N<<M. Any direct summand of closed weak supplemented module is also closed weak supplemented.Any nonsingular image of closed weak supplemented module is closed weak supplemented. Nonsingular V-rings in which all nonsingular modules are closed weak supplemented are characterized in Section 4.

  7. Research and lobbying conflicting on the issue of a front-of-pack nutrition labelling in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, Chantal; Hercberg, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Front-of-pack nutrition labelling has been highlighted as a promising strategy to help consumers making healthier food choices at the point of purchase. In France, a simplified front-of-pack nutrition labelling system was proposed in 2014, the 5-Colour Nutrition Label (5-CNL). It is supported by studies evaluating the various dimensions of the validation of both its underlying classification algorithm and its format. Opposed by agro-industry and retailers, multiples lobbying strategies have been deployed to stop or at least delay the implementation of the 5-CNL. Various alternative nutrition labels were proposed, and a full-scale trial was successfully argued for. This paper retraces the various steps of the opposition between public health and agro-industry lobbies on the topic of front-of-pack nutrition labelling in France.

  8. Lobbying na Regulação Contábil: Evidências do Setor Petrolífero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilanei Morais dos Santos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo identificar os fatores determinantes à submissão de cartas comentários, como estratégia de lobbying no contexto da regulação contábil, à audiência pública do Discussion Paper Extractive Activities do International Accounting Standards Board IASB.Os resultados mostram o tamanho como fator determinante, em todas as modelagens utilizadas, indicando que grandes empresas petrolíferas possuem maior probabilidade para realizar lobbying. Essa propensão é verificada para posicionamentos essencialmente desfavoráveis às propostas apresentadas pelo IASB, o que implica em considerar que a revisão/substituição do International Financial Reporting Standard -IFRS6 será um processo complexo e sujeito a pressões por parte das empresas petrolíferas para manter o status quo.

  9. 2016.11.22 Updated Materials Physics and Applications Division Overview Presentation for TV monitor in 3-1415-Lobby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Susan M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-22

    These slides are the updated overview presentation for the TV monitor in 3-1415-Lobby at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). It gives an overview of the Materials Physics and Applications Division, including descriptions of the leaders, where researchers are fellows (such as APS or OSA), the newest LANL fellows at MPA, and many other researchers who have won prizes. Finally, MPA's research accomplishments and focuses are detailed.

  10. Design factors: the impact of facility aesthetics and layout accessibility on customers' emotions and behavioral intentions in hotel lobbies

    OpenAIRE

    Şahiner, Fulden

    2016-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 84-94). Thesis (M.S.): Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2016. The aim of the study is to emphasis the effect of physical environment of interior space on customer's emotions and behavioral intentions at hotel lobbies. Relevant literature in environmental psychology and marketing was reviewed, and conceptual sc...

  11. Individual firm and market dynamics of CSR activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirl, F.; Feichtinger, G.; Kort, P.M.

    This paper investigates how firms should plan corporate social responsibility (short CSR). This dynamic analysis starts with a firm's intertemporal optimization problem, and proceeds to analyze interactions with other firms, which are crucial: if CSR is profitable for firm A then it is most likely

  12. Survivor: The Role of Innovation in Firms' Survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cefis, E.; Marsili, O.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between innovation and the survival of manufacturing firms in the Netherlands. The determinants of the survival probability of a firm, traditionally identified in the size and age of a firm, are extended to include the ability of a firm to introduce an innovation

  13. Individual firm and market dynamics of CSR activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirl, F.; Feichtinger, G.; Kort, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how firms should plan corporate social responsibility (short CSR). This dynamic analysis starts with a firm's intertemporal optimization problem, and proceeds to analyze interactions with other firms, which are crucial: if CSR is profitable for firm A then it is most likely a

  14. Market-Oriented Product Innovation in Small Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhees, F.J.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Description: This thesis deals with product-innovation in small firms. It aims at a better understanding of the determinants of product innovation in small firms, particularly those determinants that are related to the market orientation of small firms. The focus of the study is on small firms that

  15. 46 CFR 201.22 - Firms and corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firms and corporations. 201.22 Section 201.22 Shipping... PROCEDURE Appearance and Practice Before the Administration (Rule 2) § 201.22 Firms and corporations. Except as regards law firms, practice before the Administration by firms or corporations on behalf of...

  16. A taxonomy of green supply chain management capability among electronics-related manufacturing firms in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Kuo-Chung; Lu, Chin-Shan; Li, Shaorui

    2010-05-01

    This study investigated crucial green supply chain management (GSCM) capability dimensions and firm performance based on electronics-related manufacturing firms in Taiwan. On the basis of a factor analysis, six green supply chain management dimensions were identified: green manufacturing and packaging, environmental participation, green marketing, green suppliers, green stock, and green eco-design. According to their factor scores in the GSCM dimensions, a cluster analysis subsequently assigned responding firms into four groups, namely, the weak GSCM oriented group, the green marketing oriented group, the green supplier oriented group, and the green stock oriented group. Differences in firm performance and GSCM dimensions among groups were examined. Results indicated that the green marketing oriented group performed best. Based on the resource-based view (RBV), the capability of the green marketing oriented group was considered to be the deployment of a collection of resources that enables it to successfully compete against rivals. The importance of green marketing as a GSCM capability and strategic asset/critical resources for electronics-related manufacturing firms to obtain a competitive edge is therefore highlighted in this study. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Debt and Taxes: Evidence from bank-financed unlisted firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jan; Mateus, Cesário

    This paper analyzes the capital structure decision of non-listed bank-financed firms using a rich and unique new data set of Portuguese firms. These firms are rarely studied in capital structure contexts and differ from large listed firms in terms of agency and asymmetric information problems...... it easier for small firms to exploit tax advantages of debt. The empirical analysis shows that debt tax shields and provisions for tax loss carry-forwards have an important impact on the capital structure of small firms. It is also found that the balance sheet variables used for large listed firms...

  18. Multi-level lobbying in the EU: The case of the Renewables Directive and the German energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ydersbond, Inga Margrete

    2012-11-01

    This study examines the lobbying strategies employed by the interest organizations of Germany's energy industries in the process leading up to the EU's Renewable Energy Directive. How did they lobby, and what does this reveal about their perceptions of power relations in the EU? This report focuses on the most controversial part of the Directive: legal prescriptions for support mechanisms to increase the production of renewable energy in Europe. The utilities and the renewables industries disagreed deeply, with the utilities industry favouring an EU-wide green certificate scheme, while the renewables industry pressed for national feed-in tariffs. Nine interest organizations representing these sectors, five German and four at the EU level, serve as cases in this study. Expectations as to lobbying behaviour based on the two theories/theory perspectives of liberal intergovernmentalism (LI) and multi-level governance (MLG) are formulated and tested in a most-likely case design. Result: observations are better described by the MLG perspective than by LI.(auth)

  19. Export potential of Brazilian industrial firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno César Pino Oliveira de Araújo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the recent astonishing export growth in Brazil came from firms which already exported. The export base was not able to grow at the same pace. Since expanding the export base may have several positive effects on firms' productivity and size, in this paper we provide a four-level classification of Brazilian industrial firms according to their potential to export, and we identify a subset of non-exporting firms which are potential exporters. The effects of export stimulating policies may be improved by focusing more closely on these firms.O recente crescimento das exportações no Brasil se baseou fortemente naquelas firmas já exportadoras, e a base exportadora não conseguiu acompanhar o mesmo ritmo de crescimento. Considerando que expandir a base exportadora pode ter efeitos positivos sobre a produtividade e tamanho das firmas, neste artigo classificamos as firmas industriais brasileiras em quatro níveis de acordo com o potencial exportador, e especialmente identificamos um subconjunto de firmas que não exportam mas que são potenciais exportadoras. Os efeitos das políticas de promoção às exportações podem ser maximizados se elas forem focalizadas nestas firmas.

  20. Innovative knowledge sharing, supply chain integration and firm performance of Australian manufacturing firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, Prakash J.; Power, Damien

    2014-01-01

    A number of reports show that innovation in Australian manufacturing firms is declining. We propose that better knowledge sharing practices can assist these firms to become more innovative. In this paper, we examine this proposition by empirically testing the relationship between knowledge sharing p

  1. A micro-simulation model of firms : Applications of concepts of the demography of the firm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wissen, L

    Recently, there is an increasing demand in spatial planning for models based on the demographic concepts of birth and death of firms. This article describes the structure of a spatial demographic simulation model of firms, and its application within The Netherlands. The model structure is

  2. Corporate Governance Provisions, Family Involvement, and Firm Performance in Publicly Traded Family Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Memili

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the moderation effects of corporate governance provisions on the link between family involvement (i.e., family ownership and family management in publicly-traded firms and firm performance by drawing upon agency theory, with a focus on principal-principal agency issues, and the extant family governance literature. We develop and test the hypotheses on 386 of the S&P 500 firms longitudinally. Findings support the hypotheses suggesting the moderation effects of the use of provisions (a protecting controlling owners in terms of their sustainability of controlling status, and (b protecting management legally on the inverted U-shaped relationship between family ownership and firm performance. We also found support for the moderation effects of provisions (c protecting controlling owners in terms of their voting rights, (d protecting noncontrolling owners, and (e protecting management monetarily on the inverted U-shaped relationship between family management and firm performance. By this, our study provides empirical support for the principal-principal agency perspective on the corporate governance in publicly-traded family firms. As such, it suggests new avenues of research for both the corporate governance literature, as well as for the theory of the family firm. Our study also offers insights to policy directed toward monitoring the actions of large shareholders such as family and enhancing the overall shareholder value in publicly-traded family firms.

  3. Cash flow rights versus voting rights: Corporate governance and firm value of Dutch listed firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Pepping; T. van der Goot

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the relation between different forms of ownership and firm performance on the Dutch stock market. By using unique data on both cash flow and voting rights in the possession of a firm's board of directors and its large shareholders, the paper presents detailed analyses of corporate

  4. Cash flow rights versus voting rights: Corporate governance and firm value of Dutch listed firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepping, C.; van der Goot, T.

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the relation between different forms of ownership and firm performance on the Dutch stock market. By using unique data on both cash flow and voting rights in the possession of a firm's board of directors and its large shareholders, the paper presents detailed analyses of corporate

  5. Do international acquisitions by emerging-economy firms create shareholder value? The case of Indian firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbi, Sathyajit R.; Aulakh, Preet S.; Ray, Sougata; Sarkar, M. B.; Chittoor, Raveendra

    2010-01-01

    While overseas acquisitions by emerging-economy firms are gaining increased attention from the business press, our understanding of whether and why this inorganic mode of international expansion creates value to acquirer firms is limited. We argue that international acquisitions facilitate internali

  6. When Intra-Firm and Inter-Firm Collaborations Co-Occur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleimer, Stephanie Christine; Sculman, Arthur D.

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that intra-firm collaboration and inter-firm collaboration are important for new service development (NSD) and new product development (NPD) success. However, evidence of the contributions of each to innovative outcomes is inconsistent. This inconsistency is associated...

  7. Corporate governance and firm value: Evidence from Chinese state-controlled listed firms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noel; W.Leung; Mei-Ai; Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The association between corporate governance and firm value has been extensively studied in Chinese listed firms. Based on the characteristics of their ultimate shareholders, Chinese listed firms can be categorised as(1) central statecontrolled,(2) local state-controlled or(3) non-state-controlled. Some scholars have described Chinese government policy as ‘zhuada fangxiao’, thus suggesting that the corporate governance mechanisms(CGMs) of central state-controlled listed firms(SCLFs) are better than those of local state-controlled listed firms. Therefore, this paper specifically examines the influence of CGMs on the value of central SCLFs and local SCLFs. Analysis of 2006 firm-year observations from 2007 to 2009 suggests that the aggregate ownership of other large shareholders and the remuneration of top executives exhibit different effects on firm value in central and local SCLFs. The results also provide evidence that there is no endogenous effect of firm value on the ownership of the largest shareholder in central and local SCLFs.

  8. Weak Polarized Electron Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens; Mantry, Sonny; Souder, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Scattering polarized electrons provides an important probe of the weak interactions. Precisely measuring the parity-violating left-right cross section asymmetry is the goal of a number of experiments recently completed or in progress. The experiments are challenging, since A_{LR} is small, typically between 10^(-4) and 10^(-8). By carefully choosing appropriate targets and kinematics, various pieces of the weak Lagrangian can be isolated, providing a search for physics beyond the Standard Model. For other choices, unique features of the strong interaction are studied, including the radius of the neutron density in heavy nuclei, charge symmetry violation, and higher twist terms. This article reviews the theory behind the experiments, as well as the general techniques used in the experimental program.

  9. Composite weak bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.

    1988-04-01

    Dynamical mechanism of composite W and Z is studied in a 1/N field theory model with four-fermion interactions in which global weak SU(2) symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. Issues involved in such a model are discussed in detail. Deviation from gauge coupling due to compositeness and higher order loop corrections are examined to show that this class of models are consistent not only theoretically but also experimentally.

  10. Diversification and Performance of Group-Affiliated Firms during Institutional Transitions: The Case of the Chinese Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Business groups play significant roles and evolve with the changing institutional environments in many emerging Asian economies. A study of how the institutional transition and the resultant ‘institutionally rooted evolution’ of business groups affect the diversification outcomes of affiliated firms will therefore help to deepen our understanding of this unique organizational form. Approach: This study uses the 2001-2005 data on listed firms from the Chinese textile industry and estimates the diversification effects of all firms in the sample and the differences in the diversification effects between group-affiliated firms and their stand-alone counterparts. Results: A positive relationship is found between the listed textile firms’ unrelated diversification and their firm value during the period 2001-2005. Furthermore, the results indicate that group affiliation has complicated impacts on the diversification-performance relationship of the listed firms. Although group-affiliated firms are more successful in pursuing unrelated diversification when compared with stand-alone firms, such a difference in performance outcomes is statistically weak (as measured by Tobin’s Q. Furthermore, it is found that group-affiliated firms perform related diversification worse than their stand-alone counterparts (as measured by both ROA and Tobin’s Q. Conclusion: At late stages of the institutional transition, as in China at present, the dominant influence of institutional environments on the diversification-performance link of firms still works and motivates business groups to evolve organizationally. Such an organizational evolution has complex implications for group-affiliated firms’ diversification: the weak performance advantage from unrelated diversification suggests that business groups’ organizational evolution may contribute to the persistence of the comparative strength of business groups’ internal markets

  11. Does Tobin's q Matter for Firms' Choices of Globalization Mode?

    OpenAIRE

    Jinji, Naoto; Zhang, Xingyuan; Haruna, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate empirically how firms' choices of globalization mode differ according to their productivity and Tobin's q using firm-level data of Japanese firms. Our findings support predictions by Helpman, Melitz, and Yeaple (2004) and by Chen, Horstmann, and Markusen (2008). That is, we find that firms with higher productivity tend to choose more foreign direct investment (FDI) and less exporting. We also find that firms with higher Tobin's q tend to choose more FDI and less ...

  12. Firm competition in a probabilistic framework of consumer choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hao; Xiao, Rui; Chen, Duanbing; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2014-04-01

    We develop a probabilistic consumer choice framework based on information asymmetry between consumers and firms. This framework makes it possible to study market competition of several firms by both quality and price of their products. We find Nash market equilibria and other optimal strategies in various situations ranging from competition of two identical firms to firms of different sizes and firms which improve their efficiency.

  13. Innovation in consulting firms: what are the foundations?

    OpenAIRE

    Lemus Aguilar, Isaac; Hidalgo Nuchera, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Innovation inside consulting firms has missed specific attention in academic research. Consulting firms usually are considered to be part of Knowledge-Intensive Business Services (KIBS), Professional Service Firms (PSF) or Project-based Firms (PbF). However, consultancies possess particular characteristics that might affect generalizations made in studies targeting all the categories stated before. Consulting firms usually help other companies to be innovative, but they also need to have inno...

  14. Facilitated inter-firm collaboration in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2005-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, aid agencies have endorsed the need to support private enterprise development in developing countries as an instrument for overall economic development and poverty reduction. Facilitation of collaboration between developed and developing country firms has become one of the most...... popular forms of assistance in this endeavour. Although such facilitative inter-firm collaborations vary in design, they all involve third-party organisations that identify partners and sponsor the first steps in the establishment of a business platform for the co-operation. This paper discusses...... the mechanisms of third-party inter-firm facilitation and assesses how effective the catalyst institutions are in nurturing collaborations between companies in developed and developing countries. The discussions are illustrated with case examples drawn from Ghana....

  15. Structure, Employment and Performance in Biotech Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Finn; Dahlgren, Johan Henrich; Lund Jensen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    as early adopters of biotech, but only parts of their activities relate to modern biotechnology. From the outside it is difficult to isolate what share of their employment is attributable to their activities within biotechnology.In pursuit of clarity on the role of biotechnology this report studies...... economy to perform in the transition towards knowledge and sciencebased competitiveness. That is so because DDFs to an unusual extent depend on the ability of their framework to perform as an innovation system, by which we refer to advantages growing out of interactions and complementarities between e.......g. universities, firms and venture capital. That makes DDFs a sensitive "seismograph" for the ability of the Danish innovation system to foster new science-based technologies.Key words: Employment, Biotechnology, Firm size distribution, Industry structure,Firm performanceJEL Codes: J21, L11, L22, L25, L65, O57...

  16. Cash flow forecast for South African firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies models in the extant literature that have been used to forecast operating cash flows to predict the cash flows of South African firms listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. Out-of-sample performance is examined for each model and compared between them. The reported results show that some accrual terms, i.e. depreciation and changes in inventory do not enhance cash flow prediction for the average South African firm in contrast to the reported results of studies in USA and Australia. Inclusion of more explanatory variables does not necessarily improve the models, according to the out-of-sample results. The paper proposes the application of moving average model in panel data, and vector regressive model for multi-period-ahead prediction of cash flows for South Africa firms.

  17. Intra-firm Horizontal Knowledge Transfer Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yaowu; WANG Yanhang

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge transfer is widely emphasized as a strategic issue for firm competition. A model for intra-firm horizontal knowledge transfer is proposed to model horizontal knowledge transfer to solve some demerits in current knowledge transfer researches. The concept model of intra-firm horizontal knowledge transfer was described and a framework was provided to define the main components of thetransfer process. Horizontal knowledge transfer is that knowledge is transferred from the source to the same hierarchical level recipients as the target. Horizontal knowledge transfer constitutes a strategic area of knowledge management research. However, little is known about the circumstances under which one particular mechanism is the most appropriate. To address these issues, some significant conclusions are drawn concerning knowledge transfer mechanisms in a real-world setting.

  18. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PRACTICES AT BRAZILIAN FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Galego-Álvarez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility practices have been on the rise in recent years in firms all over the world. Brazil, as one of the most important countries emerging on the international scene, is no exception to this, with more and more firms taking up these practices. The present study focuses on analyzing the corporate social responsibility practices that Brazilian companies engage into. The sample used is comprised of 500 firms grouped by geographical area; the theoretical framework is based on stakeholder and institutional theories; and the technique used for the analysis is the biplot, more specifically the HJ Biplot and cluster analysis. From the results obtained it is possible to infer that the CSR variables corresponding to environmental practices are more closely linked to companies located in the northern areas of Brazil. Social and community practices are related to companies primarily in the southern and northeastern regions of the country.

  19. Entry Mode and Performance of Nordic Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether the relationship between mode of international market entry and non-location bound international experience is weaker for firms that are large or have a high foreign to total sales ratio, labeled multinational experience. Empirical evidence based on 250 foreign...... market entries made by Norwegian, Danish and Swedish firms suggests that the association between equity mode choice and non-location bound international experience diminishes in the presence of higher levels of multinational experience. Furthermore, firms whose entry mode choice is predicted by the model...... including the proposed moderating effect, on average, yield higher post-entry performance. This study sheds light on inconsistent results found in previous research investigating the impact of international experience and has practical implications for managerial decision-making....

  20. Rate of Failure of Czech Family Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Machek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Family business is becoming a promising area of research in post-socialist countries, including the Czech Republic. Stability belongs to frequently cited properties of family firms. The goal of this article is to test the hypothesis whether family firms tend to have a lower rate of failure than their non-family counterparts. Using a sample of 1148 family and 5972 non-family firms in the Czech Republic, we find that there is no significant relationship between family involvement and rate of failure. A possible greater stability of family businesses is not necessarily linked with a lower rate of bankruptcy. We also discuss possible reasons and policy implications.

  1. The international entrepreneurial firms' social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Portugal Ferreira

    Full Text Available This paper investigates theoretically the importance and impact of the international entrepreneurial firms' (IEFs social networks on selected firms' strategies. We focus specifically on some core attributes of IEFs and the impact of social networks on such strategies as the choice of the foreign markets to operate and the foreign entry modes. The social networks are a major driver of the internationalization from inception and help in overcoming a variety of physical and social resource limitations as well as transactional hazards. We conclude that it is likely that both some fundamental characteristics of the IEFs and those of the foreign markets entered account for these firms reliance on their social networks.

  2. The Entrepreneur's Network and Firm Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Nee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diverse organizational forms coexist in China's market economy, adapting and evolving in intensely competitive production markets. We examine the networks of founding chief executive officers of private manufacturing firms in seven cities of the Yangzi River Delta region in China. Through sequence analysis of ties that entrepreneurs relied on for help in the founding and critical events of their businesses, we identify three discrete forms of network governance: traditional kin-based, hybrid nonkin, and rational capitalist. We find that in traditional kin-based network governance, structural holes are linked to higher returns on assets and returns on equity. By contrast, in the rational capitalist form, structural holes and higher firm performance are not linked. We thus show that the content of the tie matters critically in the relationship between structural holes and firm performance.

  3. Major methodological challenges for the economic theory of the firm in the economies of Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Boehlke

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the major methodological challenges in microeconomic theory of the firm in theeconomies of Central and Eastern Europe. The methodological weaknesses of the theory are not only thecause of cognitive limitation but also an important condition for an effective economic policy during thetransition period.

  4. The Weak Haagerup Property II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagerup, Uffe; Knudby, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The weak Haagerup property for locally compact groups and the weak Haagerup constant were recently introduced by the second author [27]. The weak Haagerup property is weaker than both weak amenability introduced by Cowling and the first author [9] and the Haagerup property introduced by Connes [6......] and Choda [5]. In this paper, it is shown that a connected simple Lie group G has the weak Haagerup property if and only if the real rank of G is zero or one. Hence for connected simple Lie groups the weak Haagerup property coincides with weak amenability. Moreover, it turns out that for connected simple...... Lie groups the weak Haagerup constant coincides with the weak amenability constant, although this is not true for locally compact groups in general. It is also shown that the semidirect product R2 × SL(2,R) does not have the weak Haagerup property....

  5. Weak martingale Hardy spaces and weak atomic decompositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU; Youliang; REN; Yanbo

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we define some weak martingale Hardy spaces and three kinds of weak atoms. They are the counterparts of martingale Hardy spaces and atoms in the classical martingale Hp-theory. And then three atomic decomposition theorems for martingales in weak martingale Hardy spaces are proved. With the help of the weak atomic decompositions of martingale, a sufficient condition for a sublinear operator defined on the weak martingale Hardy spaces to be bounded is given. Using the sufficient condition, we obtain a series of martingale inequalities with respect to the weak Lp-norm, the inequalities of weak (p ,p)-type and some continuous imbedding relationships between various weak martingale Hardy spaces. These inequalities are the weak versions of the basic inequalities in the classical martingale Hp-theory.

  6. Strategic Intent, Confucian Harmony and Firm Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Romar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that by using the Confucian concept of harmony as its strategicintent a firm can be both ethical and successful. Using the work of Peter F. Drucker,Michael Porter, and Gary Hamel and C. K. Prahalad the paper discusses the role ofstrategic intent as a contributing factor to firm success. The paper then discusses how theConfucian concept of harmony fulfills the concept of strategic intent and how harmony cancontribute to the development of a successful and ethical organization. The paperconcludes with a brief discussion of the applicability of Confucian ethics to the financialservices industry.

  7. Monopolistic Competition, International Trade and Firm Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Kvedaras, Virmantas

    This paper presents a dynamic international trade model based on monopolistic competition, where observed intra-industry differences at a given point in time reflect different stages of the firm's life cycle. New product varieties of still higher quality enter the market every period rendering old...... varieties obsolescent in a process of creative destruction. For given technology (variety) production costs decrease after an infant period due to learning. It is shown that several patterns of exports may arise depending primarily on the size of fixed trade costs. At a given point in time firms therefore...

  8. Monopolistic Competition, International Trade and Firm Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Kvedaras, Virmantas

    This paper presents a dynamic international trade model based on monopolistic competition, where observed intra-industry differences at a given point in time reflect different stages of the firm's life cycle. New product varieties of still higher quality enter the market every period rendering old...... varieties obsolescent in a process of creative destruction. For given technology (variety) production costs decrease after an infant period due to learning. It is shown that several patterns of exports may arise depending primarily on the size of fixed trade costs. At a given point in time firms therefore...

  9. Diversification patterns and survival as firms mature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coad, Alexander Jean-Luc; Guenther, C.

    2013-01-01

    lines). Second, we find that product portfolios of larger firms tend to be more diversified. Third, with respect to consecutive diversification activities, quantile autoregression plots show that firms experiencing diversification in one period are unlikely to repeat this behavior in the following year......We focus on the relationship between age and diversification patterns of German machine tool manufacturers in the post-war era. We distinguish between 'minor diversification' (adding a new product variation within a familiar submarket) and 'major diversification' (expanding the product portfolio...

  10. Beefing up operations in service firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, R B; Hayes, R H

    1991-01-01

    Many articles exhort service firm managers to empower workers and first-line supervisors, exploit technology, focus on the customer, and, above all, provide outstanding service. This article proposes a framework to help you evaluate your company's competitive standing in each of these areas. It discusses four types of companies on a continuum, from the company that is simply "available for service" to the firm that delivers world class service. The authors focus on operations, the function that controls the service encounter, and apply the manufacturing strategy paradigm to services as a means of implementing change.

  11. Dynamic Embeddedness in Chinese Firm Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lattemann, Christoph; Alon, Ilan; Spigarelli, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    the resource-based view (firm-specific advantages), institutional-based view (push/pull home and host country factors), and network-based view (network relations). We also explicitly incorporate ”time” as a variable into our framework by introducing and explaining the concept of “dynamic embeddedness......This paper presents a multi-level framework to analyze the motivations and location choices of Chinese OFDIs. We contribute to theory-integration on Chinese OFDI flows and patterns by suggesting a framework that combines country-, industry- and firm-level analyses and by reflecting aspects from...

  12. Markups and Firm-Level Export Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic

    We derive an estimating equation to estimate markups using the insight of Hall (1986) and the control function approach of Olley and Pakes (1996). We rely on our method to explore the relationship between markups and export behavior using plant-level data. We find significantly higher markups when...... we control for unobserved productivity shocks. Furthermore, we find significant higher markups for exporting firms and present new evidence on markup-export status dynamics. More specifically, we find that firms' markups significantly increase (decrease) after entering (exiting) export markets. We...

  13. Ontology-Based Model Of Firm Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliyska, Boryana; Stoenchev, Nikolay

    2010-10-01

    Competitiveness is important characteristics of each business organization (firm, company, corporation etc). It is of great significance for the organization existence and defines evaluation criteria of business success at microeconomical level. Each criterium comprises set of indicators with specific weight coefficients. In the work an ontology-based model of firm competitiveness is presented as a set of several mutually connected ontologies. It would be useful for knowledge structuring, standardization and sharing among experts and software engineers who develop application in the domain. Then the assessment of the competitiveness of various business organizations could be generated more effectively.

  14. Theoretical Perspectives on the Internationalization of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak; Strandskov, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to build a coherent framework of the four main theories relating to the internationalization of firms, in order to facilitate better business teaching and research. Yet, theories of the internationalization of firms are broad and rest on different underlying...... assumptions. With the purpose of clarifying the potential for integration of partial theories and fragments in a more logically connected theoretical area, this article offers a meta-theoretical overview of four perspectives within international business economics: Research and its related background, basic...

  15. Inversion assuming weak scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The study of weak scattering from inhomogeneous media or interface roughness has long been of interest in sonar applications. In an acoustic backscattering model of a stationary field of volume inhomogeneities, a stochastic description of the field is more useful than a deterministic description...... due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...

  16. The Weak Neutral Current

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens

    2013-01-01

    This is a review of electroweak precision physics with particular emphasis on low-energy precision measurements in the neutral current sector of the electroweak theory and includes future experimental prospects and the theoretical challenges one faces to interpret these observables. Within the minimal Standard Model they serve as determinations of the weak mixing angle which are competitive with and complementary to those obtained near the Z-resonance. In the context of new physics beyond the Standard Model these measurements are crucial to discriminate between models and to reduce the allowed parameter space within a given model. We illustrate this for the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model with or without R-parity.

  17. Measurement of weak radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsson , P

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.

  18. Weakly broken galileon symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirtskhalava, David [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Santoni, Luca; Trincherini, Enrico [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Vernizzi, Filippo [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette cédex, F-91191 (France)

    2015-09-01

    Effective theories of a scalar ϕ invariant under the internal galileon symmetryϕ→ϕ+b{sub μ}x{sup μ} have been extensively studied due to their special theoretical and phenomenological properties. In this paper, we introduce the notion of weakly broken galileon invariance, which characterizes the unique class of couplings of such theories to gravity that maximally retain their defining symmetry. The curved-space remnant of the galileon’s quantum properties allows to construct (quasi) de Sitter backgrounds largely insensitive to loop corrections. We exploit this fact to build novel cosmological models with interesting phenomenology, relevant for both inflation and late-time acceleration of the universe.

  19. Firm-specific factors and financial performance of firms in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathirawasam Chandrapala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the role of internal factors in generating financial performance of firms in the Czech Republic. The paper examines the impact of firm specific factors on company financial performance of 974 firms in the Czech Republic over the period 2005 to 2008, using data in the Albertina database. Pooled and panel cross-sectional time series techniques are used for the data analysis. Return on Assets (ROA is the dependent variable of the model and eight firm specific factors are introduced as the explanatory variables. Using Return on Assets as the dependent variable, it is established that the firm size, sales growth and capital turnover are having significant positive impact on financial performance of firms. At the same time, debt ratio and inventory reflect significant negative impact on financial performance of firms. Overall explanatory powers of the two models are low and further research is necessary to increase the statistical power of the model. The results from the present study may be very encouraging and useful for managers as well as investors to plan investment and operational activities to achieve profitability objectives more efficiently and effectively. The findings have important managerial implications.

  20. Predicting Material Weaknesses In Internal Control Systems After The Sarbanes-Oxley Act Using Multiple Criteria Linear Programming And Other Data Mining Approaches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wikil Kwak; Susan Eldridge; Yong Shi; Gang Kou

    2009-01-01

    ... (based on the existence of foreign currency translations), more often used Big 4 auditors, and had lower operating cash flows-to-total assets ratios than the non-material weakness control firms...

  1. Predicting Material Weaknesses In Internal Control Systems After The Sarbanes-Oxley Act Using Multiple Criteria Linear Programming And Other Data Mining Approaches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wikil Kwak; Susan Eldridge; Yong Shi; Gang Kou

    2009-01-01

      Our study proposes a multiple criteria linear programming (MCLP) and other data mining methods to predict material weaknesses in a firm's internal control system after the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) using 2003-2004 U.S. data...

  2. Weak Decay of Hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Alberico, W M

    2004-01-01

    The focus of these Lectures is on the weak decay modes of hypernuclei, with special attention to Lambda-hypernuclei. The subject involves many fields of modern theoretical and experimental physics, from nuclear structure to the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. The various weak decay modes of Lambda-hypernuclei are described: the mesonic mode and the non-mesonic ones. The latter are the dominant decay channels of medium--heavy hypernuclei, where, on the contrary, the mesonic decay is disfavoured by Pauli blocking effect on the outgoing nucleon. In particular, one can distinguish between one-body and two-body induced decays. Theoretical models employed to evaluate the (partial and total) decay widths of hypernuclei are illustrated, and their results compared with existing experimental data. Open problems and recent achievements are extensively discussed, in particular the determination of the ratio Gamma_n/Gamma_p, possible tests of the Delta I=1/2 rule in non-mesonic decays and the pu...

  3. ICU-Acquired Weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Sarah E; Bunnell, Aaron E; Hough, Catherine L

    2016-11-01

    Survivorship after critical illness is an increasingly important health-care concern as ICU use continues to increase while ICU mortality is decreasing. Survivors of critical illness experience marked disability and impairments in physical and cognitive function that persist for years after their initial ICU stay. Newfound impairment is associated with increased health-care costs and use, reductions in health-related quality of life, and prolonged unemployment. Weakness, critical illness neuropathy and/or myopathy, and muscle atrophy are common in patients who are critically ill, with up to 80% of patients admitted to the ICU developing some form of neuromuscular dysfunction. ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW) is associated with longer durations of mechanical ventilation and hospitalization, along with greater functional impairment for survivors. Although there is increasing recognition of ICUAW as a clinical entity, significant knowledge gaps exist concerning identifying patients at high risk for its development and understanding its role in long-term outcomes after critical illness. This review addresses the epidemiologic and pathophysiologic aspects of ICUAW; highlights the diagnostic challenges associated with its diagnosis in patients who are critically ill; and proposes, to our knowledge, a novel strategy for identifying ICUAW. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. IMPACT OF FINANCIAL CRISIS ON CONSTRUCTION FIRM`S COST OF CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiau (Macavei Laura Liana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The average cost of debt is negatively related with size, tangibility, firm growth, the leverage ratio, and the ratio of long- to short-term debt and positively to profitability. We find that the recent international crisis did have a significant impact on the set of firms in our sample, but affected the way in which leverage and the interest to debt ratio relate to firm fundamentals. In this article, we want to study the impact of financial crisis on the cost of capital using a sample of construction companies.

  5. Microsimulation of the firm and the economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.W. van Tongeren

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe article presents a microsimulation model of firm behavior in an economy-wide setting. A combination of microsimulation and general equilibrium modelling approaches is proposed as an alternative research method to incorporate typical industrial organization issues into economy-wide mo

  6. The financing behavior of Dutch firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Linda H.; Jiang, George J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates the financing behaviour of Dutch firms by testing whether a firm’s financing decisions are determined by certain factors identified in various theories. Since a firm’s financing decision is reflected in the changes of its leverage, our research focuses on the relationship bet

  7. Service-Oriented Strategies for Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian; McAloone, Tim C.; Matzen, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    This chapter establishes PSS (Product/Service-Systems) approaches in the context of manufacturing firms and their existing product-oriented business. PSS can be seen as a strategy for manufacturing firms to gain competitive advantage in the market, but what market conditions and organisational fa......, customers and partners in business planning and strategy to reap the full benefits. Finally a path to how manufacturers can make the change from product to service-orientation is traced.......This chapter establishes PSS (Product/Service-Systems) approaches in the context of manufacturing firms and their existing product-oriented business. PSS can be seen as a strategy for manufacturing firms to gain competitive advantage in the market, but what market conditions and organisational...... factors (e.g. structure, processes, capabilities, measurement and reward systems, people and competencies and culture) support service-orientation? The development of PSS is not just a task of initiating a service-oriented development project, but requires careful coordination with business units...

  8. Public Funds and Local Biotechnology Firm Creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolympiris, C.; Kalaitzandonakes, N.; Miller, D.

    2014-01-01

    A long stream of academic literature has established that public funding towards research and development matters for economic growth because it relates to increases in innovation, productivity and the like. The impact of public funding on the creation of new firms has received less attention in thi

  9. Managerial Voting Power and Firm Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröcker, M.; Glaser, M.; Sautner, Z.

    2014-01-01

    We use a measure of managerial voting power, derived from cooperative game theory, to show that managerial voting power is negatively related to firm value. We identify this effect by exploiting a German capital gains tax reform which caused an exogenous decrease in non‐managerial blockholdings and,

  10. Industry Diversity, Competition and Firm-Relatedness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cong; Madsen, Jakob; Steiner, Bodo

    2017-01-01

    as related and unrelated firm varieties in terms of employment and sales. We find that the employment growth effects of local competition and diversity are positive, while the effect of Marshallian specialization is negative. Diversification is found to be particularly important for employment growth during...... the Global Financial Crisis and immediately thereafter....

  11. New Approach to Interpret the Firm Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Amir Yazdanparast Abatari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  This article is a preliminary step to introduce a new approach for interpreting how a firm evolves. The core idea of this approach is to verify the firms as the dynamic organization which can change and gain different trait upon time. The change and adaption mechanism can be explained through evolutionary theory. This approach could be used as a good tool to interpret reaction of firms to future environmental and internal changes. To achieve this goal, the firm has been defined as a set of Resource, Ideas and capabilities (RIC. As evolutionary theory has been adopted, a wining rule needs to be determined for selection and struggle process. This winning rule has been developed using the transaction cost theory to verify the effect of this so called RIC mechanism, over 200 hours’ interview has been set up to identify and trace a changing capability in Iranian Construction industry. Applying this view to gathered information shows the power of this method for analyzing the firm’s capabilities.

  12. Business Model Design of Architectural Service Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos-de Vos, M.; Lieftink, B.; Volker, L.; Wamelink, J.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to significant changes in the architecture, engineering and construction industry, architectural firms have to adapt quickly to stay competitive. They need to innovate not only their products and services, but also make more fundamental changes in the way they create and appropriate value, there

  13. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the link between the education level of workers, export performance and wages. We argue that firms may escape intense competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results. Using a...

  14. Neighbourhood Effects on Firm Success and Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleutjes, B.W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this dissertation is to provide new insights on the relationship between local firms and their neighbourhoods. As a result of economic transitions and several societal developments over the past 50 years, residential neighbourhoods have developed from being places where people

  15. Debt and taxes for private firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jan; Mateus, Cèsario

    2011-01-01

    This paper tests for "pecking order" financing of small and medium size firms. The main sources and "pecking order" of financing for SMEs are equity (internally generated cash), trade credit paid on time, credit provided by institutions such as banks and leasing companies, other sources of debt...

  16. Internationalization of Emerging Economies and Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A contribution to the scarce body of literature on internationalization of emerging economies and their firms. Using a large variety of national contexts, it addresses the advancing business development of new emerging economies and their impact on the process of internationalization of emerging ...... are brought under scrutiny in this volume. The chapters provide insights from diverse contexts ranging from Brazil to Malaysia....

  17. Gendering dynamic capabilities in micro firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgen Bogodistov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gender issues are well-researched in the general management literature, particular in studies on new ventures. Unfortunately, gender issues have been largely ignored in the dynamic capabilities litera­ture. We address this gap by analyzing the effects of gender diversity on dynamic capabilities among micro firms. We consider the gender of managers and personnel in 124 Ukrainian tourism micro firms. We examine how a manager’s gender affects the firm’s sensing capacities and investigate how it moderates team gender diversity’s impact on sensing capacities. We also investigate how person­nel composition impacts seizing and reconfiguration capacities. We find that female managers have several shortcomings concerning a firm’s sensing capacity but that personnel gender diversity increa­ses this capacity. Team gender diversity has positive effects on a firm’s seizing and reconfiguration abilities. Our study advances research on gender diversity and its impact on firm capabilities and illustrates its relevance for staffing practices in micro firms.

  18. Rostering at a Dutch Security Firm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Freling (Richard); N. Piersma (Nanda); A.P.M. Wagelmans (Albert); A. van de Wetering

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe roster planning process at the Dutch security firm NVD was traditionally carried out by hand. A few years ago, because of changing labor laws in The Netherlands, this became practically impossible. We developed a decision support system which has four main modules. The first one chec

  19. Alliance Performance of Dutch Biotech Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbade, P.; Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2011-01-01

    In the biotechnology sector small R&D intensive firms play a fundamental role to keep innovation rates high. With less bureaucratic burdens, low level of hierarchy and high internal flexibility they are able to move fast and to make most efficient use of unique competences. Still their shortage

  20. Macroeconomic shocks and firms' labor adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses some recent research which aims at producing evidence on how firms adjust their employment in response to output shocks using micro-level data and with a particular focus on the relationship between worker and job flows. The evidence presented is mainly based on Danish data...