WorldWideScience

Sample records for firegoose two-way integration

  1. Enabling a systems biology knowledgebase with gaggle and firegoose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baliga, Nitin S. [Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-12-12

    The overall goal of this project was to extend the existing Gaggle and Firegoose systems to develop an open-source technology that runs over the web and links desktop applications with many databases and software applications. This technology would enable researchers to incorporate workflows for data analysis that can be executed from this interface to other online applications. The four specific aims were to (1) provide one-click mapping of genes, proteins, and complexes across databases and species; (2) enable multiple simultaneous workflows; (3) expand sophisticated data analysis for online resources; and enhance open-source development of the Gaggle-Firegoose infrastructure. Gaggle is an open-source Java software system that integrates existing bioinformatics programs and data sources into a user-friendly, extensible environment to allow interactive exploration, visualization, and analysis of systems biology data. Firegoose is an extension to the Mozilla Firefox web browser that enables data transfer between websites and desktop tools including Gaggle. In the last phase of this funding period, we have made substantial progress on development and application of the Gaggle integration framework. We implemented the workspace to the Network Portal. Users can capture data from Firegoose and save them to the workspace. Users can create workflows to start multiple software components programmatically and pass data between them. Results of analysis can be saved to the cloud so that they can be easily restored on any machine. We also developed the Gaggle Chrome Goose, a plugin for the Google Chrome browser in tandem with an opencpu server in the Amazon EC2 cloud. This allows users to interactively perform data analysis on a single web page using the R packages deployed on the opencpu server. The cloud-based framework facilitates collaboration between researchers from multiple organizations. We have made a number of enhancements to the cmonkey2 application to enable and

  2. Planning for integration as a two way process : Perceptions from Toronto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadi, D.; Tasan-Kok, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Integration has evolved as a well-embraced discourse within theory and policy debates concerning the accommodation of newcomers. However, in today’s increasingly cosmopolitan cities of Europe planning for integration fails to properly address increasing diversity as it is often grounded in

  3. Integrating Technology into Teacher Preparation and Practice: A Two-way Mentoring Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Kerr

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a pilot case study exploring the opportunity for authentic professional development in the use of technology. Self-selected pre-service and in- service teachers were paired so as to reinforce and enhance, firstly, their computer skill development and, secondly, their ability to integrate these same skills into classroom teaching practices. It was proposed that both groups of participants would derive benefit from these pairings. Results overwhelming support this and suggest (a a model for better preparing teacher candidates to be able to integrate computer skills into classroom programming and (b a new, perhaps more efficient, method of professional development for busy, dedicated classroom teachers.

  4. Analysis of two way fluid structure interaction and local material properties of brazed joints for estimation of mechanical integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seok Hoon; Park, Sang Hu; Son, Chang Min; Ha, Man Young; Min, June Kee; Jeong, Ho Sung [Pusan Nat' l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jongrae [Korea Maritime Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Jun [Donghwa Entec Co., Ltd., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Recent years have witnessed a strong need for eco friendly and energy efficient systems owing to global environmental problems. A heat exchanger is a well known mechanical rig that has long been used in many energy systems. The use of a heat exchanger in an airplane engine has been attempted. In this case, the heat exchanger should be redesigned to be compact, lightweight, and highly reliable, and the issue of mechanical integrity gains importance. Therefore, in this study, we proposed a method for evaluating the mechanical integrity of a tube type heat exchanger. A U shaped single tube was used as an example, and its behavior and stress distribution were studied using fluid structure interaction (FSI) analysis.

  5. Two-way digital communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, William E.; Daly, Ed

    1996-03-01

    The communications industry has been rapidly converting from analog to digital communications for audio, video, and data. The initial applications have been concentrating on point-to-multipoint transmission. Currently, a new revolution is occurring in which two-way point-to-point transmission is a rapidly growing market. The system designs for video compression developed for point-to-multipoint transmission are unsuitable for this new market as well as for satellite based video encoding. A new system developed by the Space Communications Technology Center has been designed to address both of these newer applications. An update on the system performance and design will be given.

  6. Probability representations of a class of two-way diffusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, P.; Green, N.J.P. [Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Feng, J.F. [COGS, Sussex University, Brighton (United Kingdom); Wei, G. [Department of Mathematics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2002-07-19

    There has been little progress in the analysis of two-way diffusion in the last few decades due to the difficulties brought by the interface section similar to a free boundary condition. In this paper, however, the equivalent probability model is considered and the interface section is precisely described by an integral equation. The solution of two-way diffusion is then expressed in an integral form with the integrand being the solution of a classical first passage time model and the solution of a one-dimensional integral equation which is relatively easier to solve. The exact expression of the two-way diffusion enables us to find the explicit solution of the model with infinite horizontal boundaries and without drifting. (author)

  7. Technology transfer, a two-way street

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    Technology transfer through the Pollution Prevention ampersand Control Conferences, which have been cosponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency and by the professional societies of industry, greatly improved the environmental projects of the Department of Energy at Savannah River Site (SRS) in the mid-1980's. Those technologies, used in the liquid effluent treatment of the metal finishing liquid effluents from aluminum cleaning and nickel plating of fuel and targets for the nuclear production reactors, have been enhanced by the research and development of SRS engineers and scientists. The technology transfer has now become a two-way street to the benefit of our Nation's environment as these enhancements are being adopted in the metal finishing industry. These success stories are examples of the achievements anticipated in the 1990's as technology development in the federal facilities is shared with commercial industry

  8. The Analysis of Two-Way Functional Data Using Two-Way Regularized Singular Value Decompositions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianhua Z.

    2009-12-01

    Two-way functional data consist of a data matrix whose row and column domains are both structured, for example, temporally or spatially, as when the data are time series collected at different locations in space. We extend one-way functional principal component analysis (PCA) to two-way functional data by introducing regularization of both left and right singular vectors in the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the data matrix. We focus on a penalization approach and solve the nontrivial problem of constructing proper two-way penalties from oneway regression penalties. We introduce conditional cross-validated smoothing parameter selection whereby left-singular vectors are cross- validated conditional on right-singular vectors, and vice versa. The concept can be realized as part of an alternating optimization algorithm. In addition to the penalization approach, we briefly consider two-way regularization with basis expansion. The proposed methods are illustrated with one simulated and two real data examples. Supplemental materials available online show that several "natural" approaches to penalized SVDs are flawed and explain why so. © 2009 American Statistical Association.

  9. On Determinism and Unambiguity of Weighted Two-way Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Carnino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we first study the conversion of weighted two-way automata to one-way automata. We show that this conversion preserves the unambiguity but does not preserve the determinism. Yet, we prove that the conversion of an unambiguous weighted one-way automaton into a two-way automaton leads to a deterministic two-way automaton. As a consequence, we prove that unambiguous weighted two-way automata are equivalent to deterministic weighted two-way automata in commutative semirings.

  10. Two-Way Satellite Time Transfer Between USNO and PTB

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Piester, D; Bauch, A; Becker, J; Polewka, T; McKinley, A; Breakiron, L; Smith, A; Fonville, B; Matsakis, D

    2005-01-01

    Two completely independent two-way time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) links have been established between the institutions of USNO and PTB, with transponder frequencies in the Ku-band and X-band, respectively...

  11. Relativity on a two-way moving sidewalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaccarini, Antoine

    1989-01-01

    Some classical thought experiments in Special Relativity are performed on a two-way moving sidewalk. Since each of the two sides moves at constant speed, this device provides a simple, intuitive way to illustrate relative velocity, time dilation, and length contraction. It should, therefore allow for a better understanding of the basic concepts of the theory. Furthermore, being a closed system the two-way sidewalk exhibits some of the characteristics of a rotating disc, and might therefore be helpful in an introduction to General Relativity. (author)

  12. Two-way quantum key distribution at telecommunication wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rupesh; Lucamarini, Marco; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Natali, Riccardo; Mancini, Giorgio; Tombesi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    We report on a quantum key distribution effected with a two-way deterministic protocol over a standard telecommunication fiber. Despite the common belief of a prohibitive loss rate for such a scheme, our results show its feasibility on distances of few tenths of kilometers

  13. Two-way visible light communication and illumination with LEDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.; Pandharipande, A.; Willems, F.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Visible light communications (VLC) with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has attracted applications, such as data communications, lighting control, and light interaction. In this paper, we propose a system by which two LED devices are used for two-way VLC while also providing illumination. We consider

  14. Two-Way Regularized Fuzzy Clustering of Multiple Correspondence Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunmee; Choi, Ji Yeh; Hwang, Heungsun

    2017-01-01

    Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) is a useful tool for investigating the interrelationships among dummy-coded categorical variables. MCA has been combined with clustering methods to examine whether there exist heterogeneous subclusters of a population, which exhibit cluster-level heterogeneity. These combined approaches aim to classify either observations only (one-way clustering of MCA) or both observations and variable categories (two-way clustering of MCA). The latter approach is favored because its solutions are easier to interpret by providing explicitly which subgroup of observations is associated with which subset of variable categories. Nonetheless, the two-way approach has been built on hard classification that assumes observations and/or variable categories to belong to only one cluster. To relax this assumption, we propose two-way fuzzy clustering of MCA. Specifically, we combine MCA with fuzzy k-means simultaneously to classify a subgroup of observations and a subset of variable categories into a common cluster, while allowing both observations and variable categories to belong partially to multiple clusters. Importantly, we adopt regularized fuzzy k-means, thereby enabling us to decide the degree of fuzziness in cluster memberships automatically. We evaluate the performance of the proposed approach through the analysis of simulated and real data, in comparison with existing two-way clustering approaches.

  15. A two-way regularization method for MEG source reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Tian Siva; Huang, Jianhua Z.; Shen, Haipeng; Li, Zhimin

    2012-01-01

    The MEG inverse problem refers to the reconstruction of the neural activity of the brain from magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurements. We propose a two-way regularization (TWR) method to solve the MEG inverse problem under the assumptions that only a small number of locations in space are responsible for the measured signals (focality), and each source time course is smooth in time (smoothness). The focality and smoothness of the reconstructed signals are ensured respectively by imposing a sparsity-inducing penalty and a roughness penalty in the data fitting criterion. A two-stage algorithm is developed for fast computation, where a raw estimate of the source time course is obtained in the first stage and then refined in the second stage by the two-way regularization. The proposed method is shown to be effective on both synthetic and real-world examples. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2012.

  16. Separating variables in two-way diffusion equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.; Kruskal, M.D.

    1979-10-01

    It is shown that solutions to a class of diffusion equations of the two-way type may be found by a method akin to separation of variables. The difficulty with such equations is that the boundary data must be specified partly as initial and partly as final conditions. In contrast to the one-way diffusion equation, where the solution separates only into decaying eigenfunctions, the two-way equations separate into both decaying and growing eigenfunctions. Criteria are set forth for the existence of linear eigenfunctions, which may not be found directly by separating variables. A speculation with interesting ramifications is that the growing and decaying eigenfunctions are separately complete in an appropriate half of the problem domain

  17. A two-way regularization method for MEG source reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Tian Siva

    2012-09-01

    The MEG inverse problem refers to the reconstruction of the neural activity of the brain from magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurements. We propose a two-way regularization (TWR) method to solve the MEG inverse problem under the assumptions that only a small number of locations in space are responsible for the measured signals (focality), and each source time course is smooth in time (smoothness). The focality and smoothness of the reconstructed signals are ensured respectively by imposing a sparsity-inducing penalty and a roughness penalty in the data fitting criterion. A two-stage algorithm is developed for fast computation, where a raw estimate of the source time course is obtained in the first stage and then refined in the second stage by the two-way regularization. The proposed method is shown to be effective on both synthetic and real-world examples. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2012.

  18. Lexical need as a two-way reality cognition tool

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Kit; Elena Berg

    2014-01-01

    Lexical need as a two-way reality cognition tool In this paper a concept of lexical need is introduced and its application in research of cognitive aspects of translation is discussed. Further discussion elaborates mechanisms of development of translator’s lexical space in the course of translation. Authors discuss the importance and special nature of low-frequency lexical units and difficulties encountered when studying their usage and suggest that the lexical need concept help these stu...

  19. Two-Way Outsourcing, International Migration, and Wage Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Morihiro Yomogida; Laixun Zhao

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a general equilibrium model with a vertical production structure to examine the relationship between offshore outsourcing and international migration,especially emphasizing their effects on the wages of skilled and unskilled workers. Two-way outsourcing (simultaneous insourcing and outsourcing) in skilled-labor intensive services arises due to product differentiation and scale economies, and outsourcing in unskilled-labor intensive processing occurs because of factor endow...

  20. Two-way communication promote value-added services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This article reviews a number of developments in the efforts of electric utilities to establish two-way communications with their customers in order to develop products and services to fit each customer`s needs. In their efforts, utilities are facing an array of technology, including broadband, radio frequency, cellular, satellite, dial inbound, and power line carrier current. Individual efforts with each technology are noted. In many cases, the utilities are finding that existing cable and telephone companies are powerful allies in their efforts. Finding that their technology is marketable, the electric utilities are also diversifying horizontally and marketing their communications tools to other, both inside and outside of the utility industry.

  1. Energy Efficient Design for Two-Way AF Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional designs on two-way relay networks mainly focus on the spectral efficiency (SE rather than energy efficiency (EE. In this paper, we consider a system where two source nodes communicate with each other via an amplify-and-forward (AF relay node and study the power allocation schemes to maximize EE while ensuring a certain data rate. We propose an optimal energy-efficient power allocation algorithm based on iterative search technique. In addition, a closed-form suboptimal solution is derived with reduced complexity and negligible performance degradation. Numerical results show that the proposed schemes can achieve considerable EE improvement compared with conventional designs.

  2. Improve the teaching quality by two-way education mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Shi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Teaching activities contain teaching and learning, and both teachers and students have to work hard to improve the quality of teaching. This essay introduced the basic conception of “two-way and five-ring” mode first, and expatiated on the structure of this mode. The author used her own experiences to combine the teaching mode with the real situation of military school, emphasized teaching itself and talked about some spe-cific plans. This will give a certain extend help in improving the quality of teaching in military school.

  3. Lexical need as a two-way reality cognition tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Kit

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lexical need as a two-way reality cognition tool In this paper a concept of lexical need is introduced and its application in research of cognitive aspects of translation is discussed. Further discussion elaborates mechanisms of development of translator’s lexical space in the course of translation. Authors discuss the importance and special nature of low-frequency lexical units and difficulties encountered when studying their usage and suggest that the lexical need concept help these studies. Lexical need analysis can be also used to learn specifics of translator’s lexical space and then to take measures for selection of translators and improvement of their skills.

  4. Two-way radios and scanners for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Silver, H Ward

    2013-01-01

    Discover a fun new hobby with helpful possibilities Get directions, talk to folks overseas, or find out whether the fish are biting Want to check out the morning news in London, help out in emergencies, or tune in to the big race? Two-way radios open up a world of possibilities - literally. This handy guide tells you about the equipment you need, fills you in on radio etiquette, shows you how to stay legal, and gives you lots of cool ideas for family-friendly radio activities. Discover how to * Use the right radio lingo * Choose and operate different types of radios * Get a license if you n

  5. Two-Way Communication with a Single Quantum Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Santo, Flavio; Dakić, Borivoje

    2018-02-01

    In this Letter we show that communication when restricted to a single information carrier (i.e., single particle) and finite speed of propagation is fundamentally limited for classical systems. On the other hand, quantum systems can surpass this limitation. We show that communication bounded to the exchange of a single quantum particle (in superposition of different spatial locations) can result in "two-way signaling," which is impossible in classical physics. We quantify the discrepancy between classical and quantum scenarios by the probability of winning a game played by distant players. We generalize our result to an arbitrary number of parties and we show that the probability of success is asymptotically decreasing to zero as the number of parties grows, for all classical strategies. In contrast, quantum strategy allows players to win the game with certainty.

  6. Overlay cognitive radio systems with adaptive two-way relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a spectrum sharing mechanism with a two-phase two-way relaying protocol for an overlay cognitive network. The system comprises two primary users (PUs) and two secondary users (SUs). One of the SUs acts as a relay for the PUs and gains spectrum sharing as long as he respects outage probability constraints of the primary system. Moreover, we consider that the relaying node performs an optimal power allocation scheme that minimizes the outage performance of the secondary receiver. Closed form expressions for the outage probability are derived for the cases of Decode-and-Forward (DF), Amplify-and-Forward (AF), and adaptive relaying. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate and compare the obtained results. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. FVCOM one-way and two-way nesting using ESMF: Development and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jianhua; Chen, Changsheng; Beardsley, Robert C.

    2018-04-01

    Built on the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF), the one-way and two-way nesting methods were implemented into the unstructured-grid Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM). These methods help utilize the unstructured-grid multi-domain nesting of FVCOM with an aim at resolving the multi-scale physical and ecosystem processes. A detail of procedures on implementing FVCOM into ESMF was described. The experiments were made to validate and evaluate the performance of the nested-grid FVCOM system. The first was made for a wave-current interaction case with a two-domain nesting with an emphasis on qualifying a critical need of nesting to resolve a high-resolution feature near the coast and harbor with little loss in computational efficiency. The second was conducted for the pseudo river plume cases to examine the differences in the model-simulated salinity between one-way and two-way nesting approaches and evaluate the performance of mass conservative two-way nesting method. The third was carried out for the river plume case in the realistic geometric domain in Mass Bay, supporting the importance for having the two-way nesting for coastal-estuarine integrated modeling. The nesting method described in this paper has been used in the Northeast Coastal Ocean Forecast System (NECOFS)-a global-regional-coastal nesting FVCOM system that has been placed into the end-to-end forecast and hindcast operations since 2007.

  8. Unsupervised Two-Way Clustering of Metagenomic Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi Prabhakara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge facing metagenomics is the development of tools for the characterization of functional and taxonomic content of vast amounts of short metagenome reads. The efficacy of clustering methods depends on the number of reads in the dataset, the read length and relative abundances of source genomes in the microbial community. In this paper, we formulate an unsupervised naive Bayes multispecies, multidimensional mixture model for reads from a metagenome. We use the proposed model to cluster metagenomic reads by their species of origin and to characterize the abundance of each species. We model the distribution of word counts along a genome as a Gaussian for shorter, frequent words and as a Poisson for longer words that are rare. We employ either a mixture of Gaussians or mixture of Poissons to model reads within each bin. Further, we handle the high-dimensionality and sparsity associated with the data, by grouping the set of words comprising the reads, resulting in a two-way mixture model. Finally, we demonstrate the accuracy and applicability of this method on simulated and real metagenomes. Our method can accurately cluster reads as short as 100 bps and is robust to varying abundances, divergences and read lengths.

  9. Diabetes and hepatitis C : A two-way association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Salehi Hammerstad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and hepatitis C infection are both prevalent diseases worldwide, and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Most studies, but not all, have shown that patients with chronic hepatitis C are more prone to develop type 2 diabetes compared to healthy controls, as well as when compared to patients with other liver diseases including hepatitis B. Furthermore, epidemiological studies have revealed that patients with type 2 diabetes may also be at higher risk for worse outcomes of their hepatitis C infection, including reduced rate of sustained virologic response, progression to fibrosis and cirrhosis, and higher risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, hepatitis C infection and mainly its treatment, interferon α, can trigger the development of type 1 diabetes. In this review we discuss the existing data on this two-way association between diabetes and hepatitis C infection with emphasis on possible mechanisms. It remains to be determined whether the new curative therapies for chronic hepatitis C will improve outcomes in diabetic hepatitis C patients, and conversely whether treatment with Metformin will reduce complications from HCV infection. We propose an algorithm for diabetes screening and follow-up in hepatitis C patients.

  10. Two-way portable radios: monitoring exposure to EMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar Campos, Maria C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Hand-held two-way portable radios, also known as push-to-talk radios (PTT), radiate intense electromagnetic fields (EMF). Increasingly used for communications inside buildings, these devices should not be neglected as EMF sources in workplace environments. In contrast to mobile-phones, push-to-talk radios usually operate in a lower frequency range (450 < f < 470 MHz), where the reference levels, established by ICNIRP for human exposure, are more restrictive. The intrinsic hazard potential associated to these devices has motivated this assessment of occupational exposure to EMF. In spite of relatively low power levels, usually no more than a few watts, and the intermittency of transmissions, push-to-talk radios are operated close to the body, therefore exposure takes place in the near-field region. Measurements of electromagnetic field intensities were carried out for two push-to-talk models, operating at power levels of 2 W and 5 W, with a broad-band field monitor, EMR-300 (W and G), coupled to an E-field triaxial probe (type 8.0). Intensities were measured at various points surrounding the transmitter, to assess exposure levels of other workers sitting nearby during communications. Results show significant electric field intensities at points less than 10 cm away from the source. A personal monitor with triaxial E and H-field shaped probes, RadMan XT (Narda), was used as a dosimeter by workers operating both radio models, during 8 hours. This device measures E and H-field intensities and stores these values as a percentage of ICNIRP occupational limits, in a data logger. Results of both kind of measurements show that intense EMF are emitted during transmissions. Therefore, workers should be informed about possible EMF hazards and trained to properly operate these transmitters, in order to minimize exposure risks. (author)

  11. Two-way text messaging: an interactive mobile learning environment in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Salinda Premadasa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Short messaging service (SMS is perhaps the most popular mobile technology prevalent among students in higher education due to its ubiquitous nature and the capability of two-way communication. However, a major limitation in two-way text messaging is sending back a part of received data with the reply message. This limitation results in users of a mobile learning environment being unable to reply back to the correct destination. This article presents a two-way text messaging system that can be integrated into a learning management system (LMS to provide an interactive learning experience to the user community. Initially, a database is integrated into the LMS that holds message information such as recipient's phone number, message body and user data header. A specific port associated with the SMS is used to conceal and exchange data of a particular course unit. Subsequently, software in the student's mobile device captures this message and sends back the reply message to the appropriate course unit allowing both teachers and students to view messages sent and replies received pertaining to a particular course. Results indicate the educational impact of the proposed system in improving the learning environment and benefits it offers to the community in a campus-wide implementation.

  12. [Towards two-way communications? Myths and realities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignot-lefebvre, Y

    1979-01-01

    An evaluation of the role of audio-visual equipment in developing countries is presented. A technological revolution is going to break out: the revolution will affect the whole population. It is yet impossible to predict all of the consequences. Technology must be subject to intensive research, experiments and political discussions in each country as well as on an international, world-wide basis. Although this is often believed, technology itself is not a liberator. What is important is how it is used; it must be able to create real communication. Video, television, and computers could easily turn into gadgets used in favor of the most powerful. On the other hand, if integrated into a development program organized and controlled by the population concerned, technology could become a very valuable teaching and diffusion tool. Also, by encouraging the valorization of an authentic popular culture, thus allowing the people to regain their identity technology can liberate new creative impulses which in turn will provoke the social innovations which are so important.

  13. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo

  14. Two-way cooperative AF relaying in spectrum-sharing systems: Enhancing cell-edge performance

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Minghua

    2012-09-01

    In this contribution, two-way cooperative amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying technique is integrated into spectrumsharing wireless systems to improve spectral efficiency of secondary users (SUs). In order to share the available spectrum resources originally dedicated to primary users (PUs), the transmit power of a SU is optimized with respect to the average tolerable interference power at primary receivers. By analyzing outage probability and achievable data rate at the base station and at a cell-edge SU, our results reveal that the uplink performance is dominated by the average tolerable interference power at primary receivers, while the downlink always behaves like conventional one-way AF relaying and its performance is dominated by the average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). These important findings provide fresh perspectives for system designers to improve spectral efficiency of secondary users in next-generation broadband spectrum-sharing wireless systems. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Two-way text messaging: an interactive mobile learning environment in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Premadasa, H. K. Salinda; Meegama, R. G. N.

    2016-01-01

    Short messaging service (SMS) is perhaps the most popular mobile technology prevalent among students in higher education due to its ubiquitous nature and the capability of two-way communication. However, a major limitation in two-way text messaging is sending back a part of received data with the reply message. This limitation results in users of a mobile learning environment being unable to reply back to the correct destination. This article presents a two-way text messaging system that can ...

  16. Two-Way Text Messaging: An Interactive Mobile Learning Environment in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premadasa, H. K. Salinda; Meegama, R. G. N.

    2016-01-01

    Short messaging service (SMS) is perhaps the most popular mobile technology prevalent among students in higher education due to its ubiquitous nature and the capability of two-way communication. However, a major limitation in two-way text messaging is sending back a part of received data with the reply message. This limitation results in users of…

  17. Distributed cognitive two-way relay beamformer designs under perfect and imperfect CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla; Aissa, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present distributed two-way relay beamformer designs for a cognitive radio network (CRN) in which a pair of cognitive (or secondary) transceiver nodes communicate with each other assisted by a set of cognitive two-way relay nodes

  18. 77 FR 58579 - Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337... certain two-way global satellite communication devices, system and components thereof that infringe one or... within the United States after importation of certain two-way global satellite communication devices...

  19. 78 FR 31576 - Enforcement Proceeding; Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof; Notice of Institution of... importation of certain two-way global satellite communication devices, system and components thereof by reason... importation any two-way global satellite communication devices, system, and components thereof that infringe...

  20. The Multicultural Science Framework: Research on Innovative Two-Way Immersion Science Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi-Tabassum, Samina

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the different approaches to multicultural science teaching that have emerged in the past decade, focusing on the Spanish-English two-way immersion classroom, which meets the needs of Spanish speakers learning English and introduces students to the idea of collaboration across languages and cultures. Two urban two-way immersion classrooms…

  1. Inter-hospital communications and transport: turning one-way funnels into two-way networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokos, Ivan C; Sanddal, Nels D; Pancioli, Arthur M; Wolff, Catherine; Gaieski, David F

    2010-12-01

    The Inter-hospital Communications and Transport workgroup was charged with exploring the current status, barriers, and data necessary to optimize the initial destination and subsequent transfer of patients between and among acute care settings. The subtitle, "Turning Funnels Into Two-way Networks," is descriptive of the approach that the workgroup took by exploring how and when smaller facilities in suburban, rural, and frontier areas can contribute to the daily business of caring for emergency patients across the lower-acuity spectrum-in some instances with consultant support from academic medical centers. It also focused on the need to identify high-acuity patients and expedite triage and transfer of those patients to facilities with specialty resources. Draft research recommendations were developed through an iterative writing process and presented to a breakout session of Academic Emergency Medicine's 2010 consensus conference, "Beyond Regionalization: Integrated Networks of Emergency Care." Priority research areas were determined by informal consensus of the breakout group. A subsequent iterative writing process was undertaken to complete this article. A number of broad research questions are presented. 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  2. Outage performance of two-way DF relaying systems with a new relay selection metric

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal; Benjillali, Mustapha; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates a new constrained relay selection scheme for two-way relaying systems where two end terminals communicate simultaneously via a relay. The introduced technique is based on the maximization of the weighted sum rate of both

  3. Energy efficient design for MIMO two-way AF multiple relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.; Ghazzai, Hakim; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the energy efficient transmission and the power allocation problem for multiple two-way relay networks equipped with multi-input multi-output antennas where each relay employs an amplify-and-forward strategy. The goal

  4. A genetic algorithm for multiple relay selection in two-way relaying cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.; Ghazzai, Hakim; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a multiple relay selection scheme for two-way relaying cognitive radio networks where primary users and secondary users operate on the same frequency band. More specifically, cooperative relays using Amplifyand- Forward

  5. EEG/MEG Source Reconstruction with Spatial-Temporal Two-Way Regularized Regression

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Tian Siva; Huang, Jianhua Z.; Shen, Haipeng; Li, Zhimin

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we propose a spatial-temporal two-way regularized regression method for reconstructing neural source signals from EEG/MEG time course measurements. The proposed method estimates the dipole locations and amplitudes simultaneously

  6. Relay Selection and Resource Allocation in One-Way and Two-Way Cognitive Relay Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the problem of relay selection and resource power allocation in one- way and two-way cognitive relay networks using half duplex channels with different relaying protocols is investigated. Optimization problems for both single

  7. Towards an explanation of age-related difficulties in crossing a two-way street

    OpenAIRE

    Dommes , Aurélie; LE LAY , Tristan; Vienne , Fabrice; DANG , Nguyen-Thong; PERROT BEAUDOIN , Alexandra; Do , Manh Cuong

    2015-01-01

    Crossing a two-way street is a complex task that involves visual, cognitive and motor abilities, all of which are known to decline with ageing. In particular, older pedestrians may experience difficulties when crossing two-way streets because of incorrect gap acceptance choices and impossible or unperceived evasive actions. To understand the overrepresentation of older pedestrians in crash statistics, several experimental studies have sought to identify traffic-related factors as well as thos...

  8. Improvement of two-way continuous variable quantum cryptography by using additional noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Minjie; Pan Wei

    2010-01-01

    The performance of quantum key distribution such as one-way continuous variable protocols, can be increased by adding some noise on the reference side of error correction in the error-correction phase. For this reason, we here study this possibility in the case of two-way continuous variable system. Finally, the numerical results show that the using of additional noise gives two-way schemes better security performance in terms of secret key rates and resistance to channel excess noise.

  9. Ka-Band Waveguide Two-Way Hybrid Combiner for MMIC Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Chevalier, Christine T.; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Freeman, Jon C.

    2010-01-01

    The design, simulation, and characterization of a novel Ka-band (32.05 0.25 GHz) rectangular waveguide two-way branch-line hybrid unequal power combiner (with port impedances matched to that of a standard WR-28 waveguide) has been created to combine input signals, which are in phase and with an amplitude ratio of two. The measured return loss and isolation of the branch-line hybrid are better than 22 and 27 dB, respectively. The measured combining efficiency is 92.9 percent at the center frequency of 32.05 GHz. This circuit is efficacious in combining the unequal output power from two Ka-band GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (pHEMT) monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers (PAs) with high efficiency. The component parts include the branch-line hybrid-based power combiner and the MMIC-based PAs. A two-way branch-line hybrid is a four-port device with all ports matched; power entering port 1 is divided in phase, and into the ratio 2:1 between ports 3 and 4. No power is coupled to port 2. MMICs are a type of integrated circuit fabricated on GaAs that operates at microwave frequencies, and performs the function of signal amplification. The power combiner is designed to operate over the frequency band of 31.8 to 32.3 GHz, which is NASA's deep space frequency band. The power combiner would have an output return loss better than 20 dB. Isolation between the output port and the isolated port is greater than 25 dB. Isolation between the two input ports is greater than 25 dB. The combining efficiency would be greater than 90 percent when the ratio of the two input power levels is two. The power combiner is machined from aluminum with E-plane split-block arrangement, and has excellent reliability. The flexibility of this design allows the combiner to be customized for combining the power from MMIC PAs with an arbitrary power output ratio. In addition, it allows combining a low-power GaAs MMIC with a high-power GaN MMIC. The arbitrary

  10. Rayleigh-Bénard turbulence modified by two-way coupled inertial, nonisothermal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungwon John; O'Keefe, Kevin; Richter, David H.

    2018-03-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) combined with the Lagrangian point particle model is used to study Rayleigh-Bénard convection in order to understand modifications due to the interaction of inertial, nonisothermal particles with buoyancy-driven turbulence. In this system, turbulence can be altered through direct momentum coupling, as well as through buoyancy modification via thermal coupling between phases. We quantify the effect of the dispersed phase by changes to the total integrated turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and Nusselt number (Nu). The dispersed particles experience gravitational settling and are introduced at the lower wall so that turbulence must overcome the settling velocity for the particles to vertically distribute throughout the domain. We focus primarily on particle inertia, settling velocity, mass fraction, and the ratio of the particle to fluid specific heat. Furthermore, individual contributions by the momentum coupling and thermal coupling are studied to see which most significantly changes Nu and TKE. Our results show that particles with Stokes number of order unity maximize Nu, corresponding to a peak of clustering and attenuation of TKE. Increased mass fractions lead to a linear increase of Nu and decrease of TKE. With varying specific heat ratio, Nu and TKE exhibit monotonic behaviors, where in the high limit particles become isothermal and depend upon the initialized particle temperature. It is also shown that particles two-way coupled only through momentum attenuate Nu and weaken TKE, while thermal-only coupling also weakens TKE but enhances Nu. When both couplings are present, however, thermal coupling overwhelms the momentum coupling attenuation, and the net result is an enhancement of Nu.

  11. Effective Two-way Communication of Environmental Hazards: Understanding Public Perception in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorono-Leturiondo, Maria; O'Hare, Paul; Cook, Simon; Hoon, Stephen R.; Illingworth, Sam

    2017-04-01

    Climate change intensified hazards, such as floods and landslides, require exploring renewed ways of protecting at-risk communities (World Economic Forum 2016). Scientists are being encouraged to explore new pathways to work closely with affected communities in search of experiential knowledge that is able to complement and extend scientific knowledge (see for instance Whatmore and Landström 2011 and Höpner et al. 2010). Effective two-way communication of environmental hazards is, however, a challenge. Besides considering factors such as the purpose of communication, or the characteristics of the different formats; effective communication has to carefully acknowledge the personal framework of the individuals involved. Existing experiences, values, beliefs, and needs are critical determinants of the way they perceive and relate to these hazards, and in turn, of the communication process in which they are involved (Longnecker 2016 and Gibson et al. 2016). Our study builds on the need to analyze how the public perceives environmental hazards in order to establish forms of communication that work. Here we present early findings of a survey analysing the UK public's perception and outline how survey results can guide more effective two-way communication practices between scientists and affected communities. We explore the perception of environmental hazards in terms of how informed and concerned the public is, as well as how much ownership they claim over these phenomena. In order to gain a more accurate image, we study environmental hazards in relation to other risks threatening the UK, such as large-scale involuntary migration or unemployment (World Economic Forum 2016, Bord et al. 1998). We also explore information consumption in relation to environmental hazards and the public's involvement in advancing knowledge. All these questions are accompanied by an extensive demographics section that allows us to ascertain how the context or environment in which an

  12. Two-Way Multi-Antenna Relaying with Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaphat Srivantana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose various kinds of two-way multi-antenna relaying with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT and investigate their performance. Specifically, we first consider a two-way relay network where two single-antenna end nodes communicate with each other through a multi-antenna relay node that is energy constrained. This relay node harvests energy from the two end nodes and use the harvested energy for forwarding their information. Six relaying schemes that support the considered network then build on the power splitting-based relaying and time switching-based relaying protocols. The average bit error rates of these schemes are evaluated and compared by computer simulations considering several network parameters, including the number of relay antennas, power splitting ratio, and energy harvesting time. Such evaluation and comparison provide useful insights into the performance of SWIPT-based two-way multi-antenna relaying.

  13. Effect of a timebase mismatch in two-way optical frequency transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampellini, Anna; Clivati, Cecilia; Levi, Filippo; Mura, Alberto; Calonico, Davide

    2017-12-01

    Two-way frequency transfer on optical fibers is a powerful technique for the comparison of distant clocks over long and ultra-long hauls. In contrast to traditional Doppler noise cancellation, it is capable of sustaining higher link attenuation, mitigating the need of optical amplification and regeneration and thus reducing the setup complexity. We investigate the ultimate limitations of the two-way approach on a 300 km multiplexed fiber haul, considering fully independent setups and acquisition systems at the two link ends. We derive a theoretical model to predict the performance deterioration due to a bad synchronisation of the measurements, which is confirmed by experimental results. This study demonstrates that two-way optical frequency transfer is a reliable and performing technique, capable of sustaining remote clocks comparisons at the 10-19 resolution, and is relevant for the development of a fiber network of continental scale for frequency metrology in Europe.

  14. Perspektif Karyawan Perbankan pada Komunikasi Internal dengan Two-Way Symmetrical Communication dan Internal Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Angeline

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the internal communication in the two branches of foreign banks in Kelapa Gading from the perspectives of two-way symmetrical communication and internal marketing. The second problem investigated is the effectiveness of the use of email as a means of internal communication. Data were collected through interviews and literature. The results showed that the perception of employees not in accordance with the concept of two-way communication and internal marketing, but this policy has led the organization to these concepts. In the use of email, employee perceptions still see that the email is an effective internal communication media despite having many weaknesses.  

  15. The influence of an atmospheric Two-Way coupled model system on the predictability of extratropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Mareike; Thürkow, Markus; Weiher, Stefan; Kirchner, Ingo; Ulbrich, Uwe; Will, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    A general bias of global atmosphere ocean models, and also of the MPI-ESM, is an under-representation of the high latitude cyclone activity and an overestimation of the mid latitude cyclone activity in the North Atlantic, thus representing the extra-tropical storm track too zonal. We will show, that this effect can be antagonized by applying an atmospheric Two-Way Coupling (TWC). In this study we present a newly developed Two-Way Coupled model system, which is based on the MPI-ESM, and show that it is able to capture the mean storm track location more accurate. It also influences the sub-decadal deterministic predictability of extra-tropical cyclones and shows significantly enhanced skill compared to the "uncoupled" MPI-ESM standalone system. This study evaluates a set of hindcast experiments performed with said Two-Way Coupled model system. The regional model COSMO CLM is Two-Way Coupled to the atmosphere of the global Max-Plack-Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) and therefore integrates and exchanges the state of the atmosphere every 10 minutes (MPI-TWC-ESM). In the coupled source region (North Atlantic), mesoscale processes which are relevant for the formation and early-stage development of cyclones are expected to be better represented, and therefore influence the large scale dynamics of the target region (Europe). The database covers 102 "uncoupled" years and 102 Two-Way Coupled years of the recent climate (1960-2010). Results are validated against the ERA-Interim reanalysis. Besides the climatological point of view, the design of this single model ensemble allows for an analysis of the predictability of the first and second leadyears of the hindcasts. As a first step to understand the improved predictability of cyclones, we will show a detailed analysis of climatologies for specific cyclone categories, sorted by season and region. Especially for cyclones affecting Europe, the TWC is capable to counteract the AOGCM's biases in the North Atlantic. Also

  16. ROTRAC electric shunters in two-way technology; ROTRAC-Elektro-Rangierfahrzeuge mit Zweiwege-Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manthey, Maik [Linde Material Handling GmbH, Aschaffenburg (Germany); Zwiehoff, Stephan [G. Zwiehoff GmbH, Rosenheim (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    In view of their relatively small size, the remote-controlled ROTRAC electric shunters generate an amazingly high pulling force which is brought about by components known from fork lift truck production. Thanks to the two-way technology applied, the shunters can be easily manoeuvred even between rails. (orig.)

  17. Comparative analysis of the performance of One-Way and Two-Way urban road networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Carmen

    2017-10-01

    The fact that the number of vehicles is increasing year after year represents a challenge in road traffic management because it is necessary to adjust the road traffic, in order to prevent any incidents, using mostly the same road infrastructure. At this moment one-way road network provides efficient traffic flow for vehicles but it is not ideal for pedestrians. Therefore, a proper solution must be found and applied when and where it is necessary. Replacing one-way road network with two-way road network may be a viable solution especially if in the area is high pedestrian traffic. The paper aims to highlight the influence of both, one-way and two-way urban road networks through an experimental research which was performed by using traffic data collected in the field. Each of the two scenarios analyzed were based on the same traffic data, the same geometrical conditions of the road (lane width, total road segment width, road slopes, total length of the road network) and also the same signaling conditions (signalised intersection or roundabout). The analysis which involves two-way scenario reveals changes in the performance parameters like delay average, stops average, delay stop average and vehicle speed average. Based on the values obtained, it was possible to perform a comparative analysis between the real, one-way, scenario and the theoretical, two-way, scenario.

  18. Outage Analysis and Optimization of SWIPT in Network-Coded Two-Way Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihong Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the outage performance of simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT in network-coded two-way relay systems, where a relay first harvests energy from the signals transmitted by two sources and then uses the harvested energy to forward the received information to the two sources. We consider two transmission protocols, power splitting two-way relay (PS-TWR and time switching two-way relay (TS-TWR protocols. We present two explicit expressions for the system outage probability of the two protocols and further derive approximate expressions for them in high and low SNR cases. To explore the system performance limits, two optimization problems are formulated to minimize the system outage probability. Since the problems are nonconvex and have no known solution methods, a genetic algorithm- (GA- based algorithm is designed. Numerical and simulation results validate our theoretical analysis. It is shown that, by jointly optimizing the time assignment and SWIPT receiver parameters, a great performance gain can be achieved for both PS-TWR and TS-TWR. Moreover, the optimized PS-TWR always outperforms the optimized TS-TWR in terms of outage performance. Additionally, the effects of parameters including relay location and transmit powers are also discussed, which provide some insights for the SWIPT-enabled two-way relay networks.

  19. Independent attacks in imperfect settings: A case for a two-way quantum key distribution scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaari, J.S.; Bahari, Iskandar

    2010-01-01

    We review the study on a two-way quantum key distribution protocol given imperfect settings through a simple analysis of a toy model and show that it can outperform a BB84 setup. We provide the sufficient condition for this as a ratio of optimal intensities for the protocols.

  20. Two-Way Tables: Issues at the Heart of Statistics and Probability for Students and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane; Callingham, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Some problems exist at the intersection of statistics and probability, creating a dilemma in relation to the best approach to assist student understanding. Such is the case with problems presented in two-way tables representing conditional information. The difficulty can be confounded if the context within which the problem is set is one where…

  1. Optimal relay selection and power allocation for cognitive two-way relaying networks

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla; Aï ssa, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an optimal scheme for power allocation and relay selection in a cognitive radio network where a pair of cognitive (or secondary) transceiver nodes communicate with each other assisted by a set of cognitive two-way relays

  2. Sociolinguistic Variation and Acquisition in Two-Way Language Immersion: Negotiating the Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Rebecca Lurie

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates the acquisition of sociolinguistic knowledge in the early elementary school years of a Mandarin-English two-way immersion program in the United States. Using ethnographic observation and quantitative analysis of data, the author explores how input from teachers and classmates shapes students' language acquisition. The book…

  3. General immunity and superadditivity of two-way Gaussian quantum cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, Carlo; Pirandola, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    We consider two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution, studying its security against general eavesdropping strategies. Assuming the asymptotic limit of many signals exchanged, we prove that two-way Gaussian protocols are immune to coherent attacks. More precisely we show the general superadditivity of the two-way security thresholds, which are proven to be higher than the corresponding one-way counterparts in all cases. We perform the security analysis first reducing the general eavesdropping to a two-mode coherent Gaussian attack, and then showing that the superadditivity is achieved by exploiting the random on/off switching of the two-way quantum communication. This allows the parties to choose the appropriate communication instances to prepare the key, accordingly to the tomography of the quantum channel. The random opening and closing of the circuit represents, in fact, an additional degree of freedom allowing the parties to convert, a posteriori, the two-mode correlations of the eavesdropping into noise. The eavesdropper is assumed to have no access to the on/off switching and, indeed, cannot adapt her attack. We explicitly prove that this mechanism enhances the security performance, no matter if the eavesdropper performs collective or coherent attacks.

  4. Bandwidth and power allocation for two-way relaying in overlay cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.; Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of both bandwidth and power allocation for two-way multiple relay systems in overlay cognitive radio (CR) setup is investigated. In the CR overlay mode, primary users (PUs) cooperate with cognitive users (CUs) for mutual

  5. Obtaining local reflectivity at two-way travel time by filtering acoustic reflection data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, E.C.; Zhang, L.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Mihai Popovici, A.; Fomel, S.

    2017-01-01

    A modified implementation of Marchenko redatuming leads to a filter that removes internal multiples from reflection data. It produces local reflectivity at two-way travel time. The method creates new primary reflections resulting from emitted events that eliminate internal multiples. We call these

  6. Two-Way Multiuser Mixed RF/FSO Relaying: Performance Analysis and Power Allocation

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Eryani, Yasser F.; Salhab, Anas; Zummo, Salam A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of two-way multiuser mixed radio frequency/free space optical (RF/FSO) relay networks with opportunistic user scheduling and asymmetric channel fading is studied. RF links are used to conduct data transmission between

  7. Discussing Difference: Color-Blind Collectivism and Dynamic Dissonance in Two-Way Immersion Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolte, Laurel

    2017-01-01

    This comparative case study (based on observational, interview, and picture-sort data) examines how teachers and students talk about cultural, linguistic, racial, and socioeconomic difference in two elementary Spanish-English two-way immersion programs. In addition, I analyze how those discourses are associated with both contextual conditions and…

  8. Translanguaging and Positioning in Two-Way Dual Language Classrooms: A Case for Criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamman, Laura

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the role of translanguaging practices and pedagogies in two-way dual language classrooms. Much of the recent expansion of dual language programs across the US has occurred in mid-sized cities and rural communities where English monolingualism is the norm; however, the extant literature on flexible language practices in…

  9. Two-Way Interactive Television: An Emerging Technology for University Level Business School Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiens, Richard A.; Hulse, Deborah B.

    1996-01-01

    An organizational behavior course was delivered via two-way interactive television to a campus site (71 students) and three remote locations (48 students). Remote students were slightly older and predominantly female. There were no significant differences in academic performance between on-campus and remote students. (SK)

  10. Towards Understanding the Two Way Interaction Effects of Extraversion and Openness to Experience on Career Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Ridhi; Rangnekar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined potential two-way interaction effects of the Big Five personality traits extraversion and openness to experience on career commitment measured in terms of three components of career identity, career resilience, and career planning. Participants included 450 managers from public and private sector organizations in North…

  11. Two-way shape memory effect induced by repetitive compressive loading cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Yoo, Young-Ik; Lee, Jung-Ju

    2009-01-01

    The NiTi alloy can be trained by repetitive loading or heating cycles. As a result of the training, a two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) can be induced. Considerable research has been reported regarding the TWSME trained by tensile loading. However, the TWSME trained by compressive loading has not been investigated nearly as much. In this paper, the TWSME is induced by compressive loading cycles and the two-way shape memory strain is evaluated by using two types of specimen: a solid cylinder type and a tube type. The TWSME trained by compressive loading is different from that trained by tensile loading owing to the severe tension/compression asymmetry as described in previous research. After repetitive compressive loading cycles, strain variation upon cooling is observed, and this result proves that the TWSME is induced by compressive loading cycles. By performing compressive loading cycles, plastic deformation in NiTi alloy occurs more than for tensile loading cycles, which brings about the appearance of TWSME. It can be said that the TWSME is induced by compressive loading cycles more easily. The two-way shape memory strain increases linearly as the maximum strain of compressive loading cycles increases, regardless of the shape and the size of the NiTi alloy; this two-way shape memory strain then shows a tendency towards saturation after some repeated cycles

  12. Two-way CSI-assisted AF relaying with HPA nonlinearity

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian; Aissa, Sonia; Alouiniz, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate half-duplex two-way dual-hop channel state information (CSI)-assisted amplify-andforward (AF) relaying in the presence of high-power amplifier (HPA) nonlinearity at relays. The expression for the end-toend signal

  13. Study on stress characteristics of Francis hydraulic turbine runner based on two-way FSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, W R; Xiao, R F; Yang, W; Wang, F J; Liu, J

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, cracking phenomenon occurs in many large-sized turbines both nationally and internationally, which has threatened the stable operation of hydraulic turbines. Consequently, Stress characteristics calculation and analysis of a Francis hydraulic turbine runner by application of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) technology become significantly important. In order to introduce two-way coupling technology to hydraulic machinery, two-way FSI technology is applied in this article to calculate and analyze stress characteristics. Through coordinate system transformation, the continuity equations and Navier-Stokes equations in the Cartesian coordinates system are firstly transformed to ALE coordinates system. The fluid field control equations are then constructed and discrete equations can be obtained by using flow-condition-based interpolation (FBIC-C). The structure static mechanics equations used are established in rotation coordinate system, and modeled with the finite method. Two-way coupling is computed by using iteration method. The fluid equations and structure equations are iterated until coupling coefficients converge. According to structure result, the maximum stress, displacement as well as its location can be found. As a result, the most easily wear position can be discovered which provides valuable basis for optimized design and stable operation of Francis hydraulic turbines. After comparing the results with that of one-way coupling, it is discovered that displacements is the key factors which affects the results of one-way and two-way coupling.

  14. Two-way and three-way negativities of three-qubit entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S. Shelly; Sharma, N. K.

    2007-01-01

    We propose to quantify three-qubit entanglement using global negativity along with K-way negativities, where K=2 and 3. The principle underlying the definition of K-way negativity for pure and mixed states of N subsystems is a positive partial transpose sufficient condition. However, K-way partial transpose with respect to a subsystem is defined so as to shift the focus to K-way coherences instead of K subsystems of the composite system. A quantum state of a three-qubit system is characterized by the coherences measured by global, two-way, and three-way negativities. For a canonical state of three-qubit system, entanglement measures for genuine tripartite entanglement, W-like entanglement, and bipartite entanglement can be related to two-way and three-way negativities

  15. Improvement of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution using optical amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yi-Chen; Yu, Song; Gu, Wanyi; Li, Zhengyu; Sun, Maozhu; Peng, Xiang; Guo, Hong; Weedbrook, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The imperfections of a receiver's detector affect the performance of two-way continuous-variable (CV) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols and are difficult to adjust in practical situations. We propose a method to improve the performance of two-way CV-QKD by adding a parameter-adjustable optical amplifier at the receiver. A security analysis is derived against a two-mode collective entangling cloner attack. Our simulations show that the proposed method can improve the performance of protocols as long as the inherent noise of the amplifier is lower than a critical value, defined as the tolerable amplifier noise. Furthermore, the optimal performance can approach the scenario where a perfect detector is used. (paper)

  16. Improved two-way six-state protocol for quantum key distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaari, J.S., E-mail: jesni_shamsul@yahoo.com [Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahari, Asma' Ahmad [Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2012-10-01

    A generalized version for a qubit based two-way quantum key distribution scheme was first proposed in the paper [Phys. Lett. A 358 (2006) 85] capitalizing on the six quantum states derived from three mutually unbiased bases. While boasting of a higher level of security, the protocol was not designed for ease of practical implementation. In this work, we propose modifications to the protocol, resulting not only in improved security but also in a more efficient and practical setup. We provide comparisons for calculated secure key rates for the protocols in noisy and lossy channels. -- Highlights: ► Modification for efficient generalized two-way QKD is proposed. ► Calculations include secure key rates in noisy and lossy channels for selected attack scenario. ► Resulting proposal provides for higher secure key rate in selected attack scheme.

  17. Measure of departure from marginal point-symmetry for two-way contingency tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouji Yamamoto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available For two-way contingency tables, Tomizawa (1985 considered the point-symmetry and marginal point-symmetry models, and Tomizawa, Yamamoto and Tahata (2007 proposed a measure to represent the degree of departure from point-symmetry. The present paper proposes a measure to represent the degree of departure from marginal pointsymmetry for two-way tables. The proposed measure is expressed by using Cressie-Read power-divergence or Patil-Taillie diversity index. This measure would be useful for comparing the degrees of departure from marginal point-symmetry in several tables. The relationship between the degree of departure from marginal point-symmetry and the measure is shown when it is reasonable to assume underlying bivariate normal distribution. Examples are shown.

  18. Improved two-way six-state protocol for quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaari, J.S.; Bahari, Asma' Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    A generalized version for a qubit based two-way quantum key distribution scheme was first proposed in the paper [Phys. Lett. A 358 (2006) 85] capitalizing on the six quantum states derived from three mutually unbiased bases. While boasting of a higher level of security, the protocol was not designed for ease of practical implementation. In this work, we propose modifications to the protocol, resulting not only in improved security but also in a more efficient and practical setup. We provide comparisons for calculated secure key rates for the protocols in noisy and lossy channels. -- Highlights: ► Modification for efficient generalized two-way QKD is proposed. ► Calculations include secure key rates in noisy and lossy channels for selected attack scenario. ► Resulting proposal provides for higher secure key rate in selected attack scheme.

  19. Response of stiff piles to random two-way lateral loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmar, Christian LeBlanc; Byrne, B.W.; Houlsby, G. T.

    2010-01-01

    A model for predicting the accumulated rotation of stiff piles under random two-way loading is presented. The model is based on a strain superposition rule similar to Miner's rule and uses rainflow-counting to decompose a random time-series of varying loads into a set of simple load reversals. Th....... The method is consistent with the work of LeBlanc et al. (2010) and is supported by 1g laboratory tests. An example is given for an offshore wind turbine indicating that accumulated pile rotation during the life of the turbine is dominated by the worst expected load.......A model for predicting the accumulated rotation of stiff piles under random two-way loading is presented. The model is based on a strain superposition rule similar to Miner's rule and uses rainflow-counting to decompose a random time-series of varying loads into a set of simple load reversals...

  20. Decoy-state quantum key distribution with two-way classical postprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiongfeng; Fung, C.-H.F.; Chen Kai; Lo, H.-K.; Dupuis, Frederic; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Decoy states have recently been proposed as a useful method for substantially improving the performance of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols when a coherent-state source is used. Previously, data postprocessing schemes based on one-way classical communications were considered for use with decoy states. In this paper, we develop two data postprocessing schemes for the decoy-state method using two-way classical communications. Our numerical simulation (using parameters from a specific QKD experiment as an example) results show that our scheme is able to extend the maximal secure distance from 142 km (using only one-way classical communications with decoy states) to 181 km. The second scheme is able to achieve a 10% greater key generation rate in the whole regime of distances. We conclude that decoy-state QKD with two-way classical postprocessing is of practical interest

  1. Bidirectional Active Learning: A Two-Way Exploration Into Unlabeled and Labeled Data Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Shupeng; Yun, Xiaochun

    2015-12-01

    In practical machine learning applications, human instruction is indispensable for model construction. To utilize the precious labeling effort effectively, active learning queries the user with selective sampling in an interactive way. Traditional active learning techniques merely focus on the unlabeled data set under a unidirectional exploration framework and suffer from model deterioration in the presence of noise. To address this problem, this paper proposes a novel bidirectional active learning algorithm that explores into both unlabeled and labeled data sets simultaneously in a two-way process. For the acquisition of new knowledge, forward learning queries the most informative instances from unlabeled data set. For the introspection of learned knowledge, backward learning detects the most suspiciously unreliable instances within the labeled data set. Under the two-way exploration framework, the generalization ability of the learning model can be greatly improved, which is demonstrated by the encouraging experimental results.

  2. Towards an explanation of age-related difficulties in crossing a two-way street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommes, Aurélie; Lay, Tristan Le; Vienne, Fabrice; Dang, Nguyen-Thong; Beaudoin, Alexandra Perrot; Do, Manh Cuong

    2015-12-01

    Crossing a two-way street is a complex task that involves visual, cognitive and motor abilities, all of which are known to decline with ageing. In particular, older pedestrians may experience difficulties when crossing two-way streets because of incorrect gap acceptance choices and impossible or unperceived evasive actions. To understand the overrepresentation of older pedestrians in crash statistics, several experimental studies have sought to identify traffic-related factors as well as those related to the abilities of the individuals themselves. However, none of these studies has required participants to actually walk across an experimental two-way street with curbs, which is a particularly challenging situation for older pedestrians. To fill this research gap, a quasi-experiment was conducted in a simulator including a total of 58 healthy aged participants (25 younger-old [age 60-72] and 33 older-old [age 72-92]) and 25 young adults (aged 18-25 years). Participants carried out a street-crossing task in a simulated two-way traffic environment; curbs were present on both sides of the experimental street. Participants also undertook a battery of tests to assess their visual and cognitive abilities. In addition, during the experiment, the participants' gait parameters were recorded. In line with earlier findings, the older-old group of participants made a higher number of decisions that led to collisions with approaching cars compared with the other groups. The two groups of older participants experienced specific difficulties when vehicles were in the far lane or when they approached rapidly. A regression analysis identified visual acuity, speed of processing (assessed using the UFOV(®) test), and step length as significant predictors of collisions. Our results have implications for understanding the difficulties experienced by older pedestrians and allow to draw up several recommendations for improving their safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  3. Relay Selection and Resource Allocation in One-Way and Two-Way Cognitive Relay Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2013-05-08

    In this work, the problem of relay selection and resource power allocation in one- way and two-way cognitive relay networks using half duplex channels with different relaying protocols is investigated. Optimization problems for both single and multiple relay selection that maximize the sum rate of the secondary network without degrading the quality of service of the primary network by respecting a tolerated interference threshold were formulated. Single relay selection and optimal power allocation for two-way relaying cognitive radio networks using decode-and-forward and amplify-and-forward protocols were studied. Dual decomposition and subgradient methods were used to find the optimal power allocation. The transmission process to exchange two different messages between two transceivers for two-way relaying technique takes place in two time slots. In the first slot, the transceivers transmit their signals simultaneously to the relay. Then, during the second slot the relay broadcasts its signal to the terminals. Moreover, improvement of both spectral and energy efficiency can be achieved compared with the one-way relaying technique. As an extension, a multiple relay selection for both one-way and two-way relaying under cognitive radio scenario using amplify-and-forward were discussed. A strong optimization tool based on genetic and iterative algorithms was employed to solve the 
formulated optimization problems for both single and multiple relay selection, where discrete relay power levels were considered. Simulation results show that the practical and low-complexity heuristic approaches achieve almost the same performance of the optimal relay selection schemes either with discrete or continuous power distributions while providing a considerable saving in terms of computational complexity.

  4. Key rate of quantum key distribution with hashed two-way classical communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shun; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh; Uyematsu, Tomohiko; Kawano, Yasuhito

    2007-01-01

    We propose an information reconciliation protocol that uses two-way classical communication. The key rates of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols that use our protocol are higher than those using previously known protocols for a wide range of error rates for the Bennett-Brassard 1984 and six-state protocols. We also clarify the relation between the proposed and known QKD protocols, and the relation between the proposed protocol and entanglement distillation protocols

  5. Two-way regularization for MEG source reconstruction via multilevel coordinate descent

    KAUST Repository

    Siva Tian, Tian

    2013-12-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) source reconstruction refers to the inverse problem of recovering the neural activity from the MEG time course measurements. A spatiotemporal two-way regularization (TWR) method was recently proposed by Tian et al. to solve this inverse problem and was shown to outperform several one-way regularization methods and spatiotemporal methods. This TWR method is a two-stage procedure that first obtains a raw estimate of the source signals and then refines the raw estimate to ensure spatial focality and temporal smoothness using spatiotemporal regularized matrix decomposition. Although proven to be effective, the performance of two-stage TWR depends on the quality of the raw estimate. In this paper we directly solve the MEG source reconstruction problem using a multivariate penalized regression where the number of variables is much larger than the number of cases. A special feature of this regression is that the regression coefficient matrix has a spatiotemporal two-way structure that naturally invites a two-way penalty. Making use of this structure, we develop a computationally efficient multilevel coordinate descent algorithm to implement the method. This new one-stage TWR method has shown its superiority to the two-stage TWR method in three simulation studies with different levels of complexity and a real-world MEG data analysis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  6. Two-way against one-way nesting for climate downscaling in Europe and the Mediterranean region using LMDZ4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan; Li, Laurent; Le Treut, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    In the 21st century, the estimated surface temperature warming projected by General Circulation Models (GCMs) is between 0.3 and 4.8 °C, depending on the scenario considered. GCMs exhibit a good representation of climate on a global scale, but they are not able to reproduce regional climate processes with the same level of accuracy. Society and policymakers need model projections to define climate change adaptation and mitigation policies on a global, regional and local scale. Climate downscaling is mostly conducted with a regional model nested into the outputs of a global model. This one-way nesting approach is generally used in the climate community without feedbacks from Regional Climate Models (RCMs) to GCMs. This lack of interaction between the two models may affect regional modes of variability, in particular those with a boundary conflict. The objective of this study is to evaluate a two-way nesting configuration that makes an interactive coupling between the RCM and the GCM, an approach against the traditional configuration of one-way nesting system. An additional aim of this work is to examine if the two-way nesting system can improve the RCM performance. The atmospheric component of the IPSL integrated climate model (LMDZ) is configured at both regional (LMDZ-regional) and global (LMDZ-global) scales. The two models have the same configuration for the dynamical framework and the physical forcings. The climatology values of sea surface temperature (SST) are prescribed for the two models. The stretched-grid of LMDZ-global is applied to a region defined by Europe, the Mediterranean, North Africa and Western North Atlantic. To ensure a good statistical significance of results, all simulations last at least 80 years. The nesting process of models is performed by a relaxation procedure of a time scale of 90 minutes. In the case of two-way nesting, the exchange between the two models is every two hours. The relaxation procedure induces a boundary conflict

  7. Approach of the Two-way Influence Between Lean and Green Manufacturing and its Connection to Related Organisational Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Salvador

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Initiatives toward Lean and Green Manufacturing are given mainly due to organisational response to current market’s economic and environmental pressures. This paper, therefore, aims to present a brief discussion based on a literature review of the potential two-way influence between Lean and Green Manufacturing and its role on the main organisational areas with a closer relationship to such approaches, which were observed to be more extensively discussed in the literature. Naturally lean practises seem more likely to deploy into green outcomes, though the other way around can also occur. There is some blur on the factual integration of both themes, as some authors suggest. Notwhithstanding, they certainly present certain synergy. Thereupon, further research is needed to unveil the real ties, overlaps and gaps between these approaches.

  8. Two-Way Gene Interaction From Microarray Data Based on Correlation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi Majd, Hamid; Talebi, Atefeh; Gilany, Kambiz; Khayyer, Nasibeh

    2016-06-01

    Gene networks have generated a massive explosion in the development of high-throughput techniques for monitoring various aspects of gene activity. Networks offer a natural way to model interactions between genes, and extracting gene network information from high-throughput genomic data is an important and difficult task. The purpose of this study is to construct a two-way gene network based on parametric and nonparametric correlation coefficients. The first step in constructing a Gene Co-expression Network is to score all pairs of gene vectors. The second step is to select a score threshold and connect all gene pairs whose scores exceed this value. In the foundation-application study, we constructed two-way gene networks using nonparametric methods, such as Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and Blomqvist's measure, and compared them with Pearson's correlation coefficient. We surveyed six genes of venous thrombosis disease, made a matrix entry representing the score for the corresponding gene pair, and obtained two-way interactions using Pearson's correlation, Spearman's rank correlation, and Blomqvist's coefficient. Finally, these methods were compared with Cytoscape, based on BIND, and Gene Ontology, based on molecular function visual methods; R software version 3.2 and Bioconductor were used to perform these methods. Based on the Pearson and Spearman correlations, the results were the same and were confirmed by Cytoscape and GO visual methods; however, Blomqvist's coefficient was not confirmed by visual methods. Some results of the correlation coefficients are not the same with visualization. The reason may be due to the small number of data.

  9. Investigation of pedestrian crashes on two-way two-lane rural roads in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulu, Getu Segni; Washington, Simon; Haque, Md Mazharul; King, Mark J

    2015-05-01

    Understanding pedestrian crash causes and contributing factors in developing countries is critically important as they account for about 55% of all traffic crashes. Not surprisingly, considerable attention in the literature has been paid to road traffic crash prediction models and methodologies in developing countries of late. Despite this interest, there are significant challenges confronting safety managers in developing countries. For example, in spite of the prominence of pedestrian crashes occurring on two-way two-lane rural roads, it has proven difficult to develop pedestrian crash prediction models due to a lack of both traffic and pedestrian exposure data. This general lack of available data has further hampered identification of pedestrian crash causes and subsequent estimation of pedestrian safety performance functions. The challenges are similar across developing nations, where little is known about the relationship between pedestrian crashes, traffic flow, and road environment variables on rural two-way roads, and where unique predictor variables may be needed to capture the unique crash risk circumstances. This paper describes pedestrian crash safety performance functions for two-way two-lane rural roads in Ethiopia as a function of traffic flow, pedestrian flows, and road geometry characteristics. In particular, random parameter negative binomial model was used to investigate pedestrian crashes. The models and their interpretations make important contributions to road crash analysis and prevention in developing countries. They also assist in the identification of the contributing factors to pedestrian crashes, with the intent to identify potential design and operational improvements. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Outage performance of two-way DF relaying systems with a new relay selection metric

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2012-04-01

    This paper investigates a new constrained relay selection scheme for two-way relaying systems where two end terminals communicate simultaneously via a relay. The introduced technique is based on the maximization of the weighted sum rate of both users. To evaluate the performance of the proposed system, the outage probability is derived in a general case (where an arbitrary channel is considered), and then over independently but not necessarily identically distributed (i.n.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels. The analytical results are verified through simulations. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Eavesdropping on the two-way quantum communication protocols with invisible photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Qingyu [State Key Laboratory of Magnetics Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institution of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)]. E-mail: qycai@wipm.ac.cn

    2006-02-20

    The crucial issue of quantum communication protocol is its security. In this Letter, we show that all the deterministic and direct two-way quantum communication protocols, sometimes called ping-pong (PP) protocols, are insecure when an eavesdropper uses the invisible photon to eavesdrop on the communication. With our invisible photon eavesdropping (IPE) scheme, the eavesdropper can obtain full information of the communication with zero risk of being detected. We show that this IPE scheme can be implemented experimentally with current technology. Finally, a possible improvement of PP communication protocols security is proposed00.

  12. Relay selection and resource allocation for two-way DF-AF cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.; Bader, Faouzi; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, the problem of relay selection and optimal resource allocation for two-way relaying cognitive radio networks using half duplex amplify-and-forward and decode-and-forward protocols is investigated. The primary and secondary users are assumed to access the spectrum simultaneously, in a way that the interference introduced to the primary users should be below a certain tolerated limit. Dual decomposition and subgradient methods are used to find the optimal power allocation. A suboptimal approach based on a genetic algorithm is also presented. Simulation results show that the proposed suboptimal algorithm offers a performance close to the optimal performance with a considerable complexity saving. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. Sum-Rate Optimization in a Two-Way Relay Network with Buffering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Huaping; Popovski, Petar; De Carvalho, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    A Relay Station (RS) uses a buffer to store and process the received data packets before forwarding them. Recently, the buffer has been exploited in one-way relaying to opportunistically schedule the two different links according to their channel quality. The intuition is that, if the channel...... to the destination is poor, then RS stores more data from the source, in order to use it when the channel to the destination is good. We apply this intuition to the case of half-duplex two-way relaying, where the interactions among the buffers and links become more complex. We investigate the sum-rate maximization...

  14. Eavesdropping on the two-way quantum communication protocols with invisible photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Qingyu

    2006-01-01

    The crucial issue of quantum communication protocol is its security. In this Letter, we show that all the deterministic and direct two-way quantum communication protocols, sometimes called ping-pong (PP) protocols, are insecure when an eavesdropper uses the invisible photon to eavesdrop on the communication. With our invisible photon eavesdropping (IPE) scheme, the eavesdropper can obtain full information of the communication with zero risk of being detected. We show that this IPE scheme can be implemented experimentally with current technology. Finally, a possible improvement of PP communication protocols security is proposed

  15. On the performance of spectrum sharing systems with two-way relaying and multiuser diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2012-08-01

    In this letter, we consider a spectrum sharing network with two-way relaying and multi-user diversity. More specifically, one secondary transmitter with the best channel quality is selected and splits its partial power to relay its received signals to the primary users by using the amplify-and-forward relaying protocol. We derive a tight approximation for the resulting outage probability. Based on this formula, the performance of the spectral sharing region and the cell coverage are analyzed. Numerical results are given to verify our analysis and are discussed to illustrate the advantages of our newly proposed scheme. © 1997-2012 IEEE.

  16. Relay selection and resource allocation for two-way DF-AF cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2013-08-01

    In this letter, the problem of relay selection and optimal resource allocation for two-way relaying cognitive radio networks using half duplex amplify-and-forward and decode-and-forward protocols is investigated. The primary and secondary users are assumed to access the spectrum simultaneously, in a way that the interference introduced to the primary users should be below a certain tolerated limit. Dual decomposition and subgradient methods are used to find the optimal power allocation. A suboptimal approach based on a genetic algorithm is also presented. Simulation results show that the proposed suboptimal algorithm offers a performance close to the optimal performance with a considerable complexity saving. © 2013 IEEE.

  17. Mechanical properties of two-way grid shells optimized considering roundness and elastic stiffness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Toshiyuki; Yuta, Nishikawa; Rie, Tateishi; Ohsaki, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    A single-layer two-way grid shell defined by Bezier surface is optimized by coordinates of the control points as design variables. The purpose of this paper is to find optimal shapes considering roundness and elastic stiffness, and to investigate their mechanical properties. The distance of the center of curvature from the specified point is used for formulating the objective function for generating a round shape. Consider next a problem of minimizing the compliance as mechanical performance measure. The compliance is defined by the external work against the static loads applied to the nodes. The mechanically optimal shape is different from the round shape. Therefore, the multi objective optimization problem is formulated for optimizing the two objectives, which are roundness and the elastic stiffness defined by using the compliance. The constraint method is used for obtaining Pareto optimal solutions between the two objectives. We optimize single-layer two-way grid shells with square and rectangle plans. Mechanical properties of the optimal shapes are investigated by compliance and the distributions of axial force and bending moment. The round shape is significantly dominated by the bending moment and its compliance is large. The bending moment of the mechanically optimal shape is not very large, and the latticed shell has large stiffness through axial deformation. A trade-off shape is round enough, and the influence of the bending moment is smaller than that of the optimal round shape and the elastic stiffness is moderately large

  18. Two-way Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation of a Micro Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Bao Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-way Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI analyses performed on a micro horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT which coupled the CFX solver with Structural solver in ANSYS Workbench was conducted in this paper. The partitioned approach-based non-conforming mesh methods and the k-ε turbulence model were adopted to perform the study. Both the results of one-way and two-way FSI analyses were presented and compared with each other, and discrepancy of the results, especially the mechanical properties, were analysed. Grid convergence which is crucial to the results was performed, and the relationship between the inner flow field domain (rotational domain and the number of grids (number of cells, elements was verified for the first time. Dynamical analyses of the wind turbine were conducted using the torque as a reference value, to verify the rationality of the model which dominates the accuracy of results. The optimal case was verified and used to conduct the study, thus, the results derived from the simulation of the FSI are accurate and credible.

  19. Distributed Role Selection With ANC and TDBC Protocols in Two-Way Relaying Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Haiyang

    2015-09-28

    This paper advocates a distributed role selection strategy to coordinate two-way relaying transmissions among three cooperative nodes. For such, the local channel state information comparison and decision feedback mechanism are merged into classical analog network coding (ANC) and time division broadcast (TDBC) protocols such that the cooperative role of each node can be designated in a distributed fashion. We refer to this distributed role selection rule as d-ROSE. In both ANC-based and TDBC-based two-way relaying scenarios, strict proof for the equivalence of d-ROSE and optimal ROSE is given, which indicates that albeit the different form, their final role decision is essentially the same. Outage analysis for the d-ROSE strategy is carried out and the scaling law of the system outage behavior at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is characterized, which manifests that d-ROSE can enhance the system diversity gain to one-order higher relative to the ANC and TDBC protocols. It is also shown that d-ROSE can reduce the signaling overhead upto 60% to perform the outage-optimal role selection. Finally, the impacts of node placement on the outage performance as well as the average signaling overhead of d-ROSE are numerically evaluated and some useful conclusions are drawn. © 2015 IEEE.

  20. Bandwidth and power allocation for two-way relaying in overlay cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the problem of both bandwidth and power allocation for two-way multiple relay systems in overlay cognitive radio (CR) setup is investigated. In the CR overlay mode, primary users (PUs) cooperate with cognitive users (CUs) for mutual benefits. In our framework, we propose that the CUs are allowed to allocate a part of the PUs spectrum to perform their cognitive transmission. In return, acting as an amplify-and-forward two-way relays, they are used to support PUs to achieve their target data rates over the remaining bandwidth. More specifically, CUs acts as relays for the PUs and gain some spectrum as long as they respect a specific power budget and primary quality-of-service constraints. In this context, we first derive closed-form expressions for optimal transmit power allocated to PUs and CUs in order to maximize the cognitive objective. Then, we employ a strong optimization tool based on particle swarm optimization algorithm to find the optimal relay amplification gains and optimal cognitive released bandwidths as well. Our numerical results illustrate the performance of our proposed algorithm for different utility metrics and analyze the impact of some system parameters on the achieved performance.

  1. Distributed cognitive two-way relay beamformer designs under perfect and imperfect CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we present distributed two-way relay beamformer designs for a cognitive radio network (CRN) in which a pair of cognitive (or secondary) transceiver nodes communicate with each other assisted by a set of cognitive two-way relay nodes. The secondary nodes share the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU) node, and each node is assumed to be equipped with a single transmit/receive antenna. The interference to the PU resulting from the transmission from the cognitive nodes is kept below a specified limit. First, we consider relay beamformer designs assuming the availability of perfect channel state information (CSI). For this case, a mean-square error (MSE)-constrained beamformer that minimizes the total relay transmit power, and an MSE-balancing beamformer with a constraint on the total relay transmit power are proposed. Next, we consider relay beamformer designs assuming that the available CSI is imperfect. For this case too, we consider the same problems as those in the case of perfect CSI, and propose beamformer designs that are robust to the errors in the CSI. We show that the proposed designs can be reformulated as convex optimization problems that can be solved efficiently. Through numerical simulations, we illustrate the performance of the proposed designs. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. On the Achievable Rate-Regions for the Gaussian Two-way Diamond Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Askarian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this channel,we study rate region of a Gaussian two-way diamond channel which operates in half-duplex mode. In this channel, two transceiver (TR nodes exchange their messages with the help of two relay nodes. We consider a special case of the Gaussian two-way diamond channels which is called Compute-and-Forward Multiple Access Channel (CF-MAC. In the CF-MAC, the TR nodes transmit their messages to the relay nodes which are followed by a simultaneous communication from the relay nodes to the TRs. Adopting rate splitting method in the terminal encoders and then using Compute-and-Forward (CF relaying and decoding the sum of messages at the relay nodes, an achievable rate region for this channel is obtained. To this end, we use a superposition coding based on lattice codes. Using numerical results, we show that our proposed scheme has better performance than other similar methods and achieves a tighter gap to the outer bound.

  3. Interesting new two-way communication system between power supplier and customer; Spennende toveisteknologi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, Stein Arne

    2002-07-01

    The Norwegian company Wireless Reading Systems (WRS) have developed a special solution for two-way communication, with relatively low costs of both investment and operation. This two-way technology is based on radio communication and so is wireless. What is unique lies in the small chip that is easily mounted on the electric meter. It reads the numbers on the electric meter optically and transmits the data to a server. The reader is a semiconductor in a very compact form and includes two processors, internal memory and a camera, with the optics directly on the electronics. The chip also includes a small radio. The device is called the Recaps Terminal. It has a serial input and can be connected directly to some kWh-meters. The Recaps can also be used to count pulses, it can be used as alarm monitor, to control relays etc. The data coming from the terminals at the customers are transmitted as radio signals to a so-called Cecaps base station. This is a concentrator that covers 500-2000 Recaps units in a geographic area. This concentrator communicates with C31 data centre by way of WLAN, LAN, GSM or other means. The supervising unit in the system is the C31 data centre, which is a central data system for receiving readings and controlling the radio network.

  4. PL/SQL and Bind Variable: the two ways to increase the efficiency of Network Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh KUMAR SHARMA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern data analysis applications are driven by the Network databases. They are pushing traditional database and data warehousing technologies beyond their limits due to their massively increasing data volumes and demands for low latency. There are three major challenges in working with network databases: interoperability due to heterogeneous data repositories, proactively due to autonomy of data sources and high efficiency to meet the application demand. This paper provides the two ways to meet the third challenge of network databases. This goal can be achieved by network database administrator with the usage of PL/SQL blocks and bind variable. The paper will explain the effect of PL/SQL block and bind variable on Network database efficiency to meet the modern data analysis application demand.

  5. Collaboration or negotiation: two ways of interacting suggest how shared thinking develops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Arauz, Rebeca; Rogoff, Barbara; Dayton, Andrew; Henne-Ochoa, Richard

    2018-03-09

    This paper contrasts two ways that shared thinking can be conceptualized: as negotiation, where individuals join their separate ideas, or collaboration, as people mutually engage together in a unified process, as an ensemble. We argue that these paradigms are culturally based, with the negotiation model fitting within an assumption system of separate entities-an assumption system we believe to be common in psychology and in middle-class European American society-and the collaboration model fitting within a holistic worldview that appears to be common in Indigenous-heritage communities of the Americas. We discuss cultural differences in children's interactions-as negotiation or collaboration-that suggest how these distinct paradigms develop. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Outage Performance of Decode-and-Forward in Two-Way Relaying with Outdated CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2015-01-07

    In this paper, we analyze the outage behavior of decode-and-forward relaying in the context of selective two-way cooperative systems. First, a new relay selection metric is proposed to take into consideration both transmission rates and instantaneous link conditions between cooperating nodes. Afterwards, the outage probability of the proposed system is derived for Nakagami-m fading channels in the case when perfect channel state information is available and then extended to the more realistic scenario where the available channel state information (CSI) is outdated due to fast fading. New expressions for the outage probability are obtained, and the impact of imperfect CSI on the performance is evaluated. Illustrative numerical results, Monte Carlo simulations, and comparisons with similar approaches are presented to assess the accuracy of our analytical derivations and confirm the performance gain of the proposed scheme.

  7. Mechanical properties of two-way different configurations of prestressed concrete members subjected to axial loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chaobi; Chen, Jian Yun; Xu, Qiang; Li, Jing [School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China)

    2015-08-15

    In order to analyze the mechanical properties of two-way different configurations of prestressed concrete members subjected to axial loading, a finite element model based on the nuclear power plant containments is demonstrated. This model takes into account the influences of different principal stress directions, the uniaxial or biaxial loading, and biaxial loading ratio. The displacement-controlled load is applied to obtain the stress-strain response. The simulated results indicate that the differences of principal stress axes have great effects on the stress-strain response under uniaxial loading. When the specimens are subjected to biaxial loading, the change trend of stress with the increase of loading ratio is obviously different along different layout directions. In addition, correlation experiments and finite element analyses were conducted to verify the validity and reliability of the analysis in this study.

  8. A practical two-way system of quantum key distribution with untrusted source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ming-Juan; Liu Xiang

    2011-01-01

    The most severe problem of a two-way 'plug-and-play' (p and p) quantum key distribution system is that the source can be controlled by the eavesdropper. This kind of source is defined as an “untrusted source . This paper discusses the effects of the fluctuation of internal transmittance on the final key generation rate and the transmission distance. The security of the standard BB84 protocol, one-decoy state protocol, and weak+vacuum decoy state protocol, with untrusted sources and the fluctuation of internal transmittance are studied. It is shown that the one-decoy state is sensitive to the statistical fluctuation but weak+vacuum decoy state is only slightly affected by the fluctuation. It is also shown that both the maximum secure transmission distance and final key generation rate are reduced when Alice's laboratory transmittance fluctuation is considered. (general)

  9. A novel two-way-controllable magneto-rheological fluid damper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydar, Gokhan; Wang, Xiaojie; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a disc type, radial flow-mode magneto-rheological (MR) fluid damper comprising a permanent magnet and an electromagnet is designed, built and tested. The proposed MR fluid damper has an MR valve with which two-way controllability through cancellation or enhancement of the magnetic field is obtained. This added feature provides damping forces less than or greater than that of a passive viscous original equipment manufacturer damper. A three-dimensional electromagnetic finite element analysis has been performed to realize this unique function in the proposed design. Experimental and theoretical studies have been conducted in order to demonstrate that this new design can provide softer damping properties by cancelling the effect of the permanent magnet, while at the same time enhancing the field effect, resulting in a harder damping device. Softer and harder damping refer to decrease and increase in the damping, respectively

  10. Two-way CSI-assisted AF relaying with HPA nonlinearity

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian

    2015-09-11

    In this paper, we investigate half-duplex two-way dual-hop channel state information (CSI)-assisted amplify-andforward (AF) relaying in the presence of high-power amplifier (HPA) nonlinearity at relays. The expression for the end-toend signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is derived as per the modified system model by taking into account the interference caused by relaying scheme and HPA nonlinearity. The system performance of the considered relaying network is evaluated in terms of average symbol error probability (SEP) in Nakagami-m fading channels, by making use of the moment-generating function (MGF) approach. Numerical results are provided and show the effects of several parameters, such as quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) order, number of relays, HPA parameters, and Nakagami parameter, on performance. © 2015 IEEE.

  11. Comparative study between EDXRF and ASTM E572 methods using two-way ANOVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummenauer, A.; Veit, H. M.; Zoppas-Ferreira, J.

    2018-03-01

    Comparison with reference method is one of the necessary requirements for the validation of non-standard methods. This comparison was made using the experiment planning technique with two-way ANOVA. In ANOVA, the results obtained using the EDXRF method, to be validated, were compared with the results obtained using the ASTM E572-13 standard test method. Fisher's tests (F-test) were used to comparative study between of the elements: molybdenum, niobium, copper, nickel, manganese, chromium and vanadium. All F-tests of the elements indicate that the null hypothesis (Ho) has not been rejected. As a result, there is no significant difference between the methods compared. Therefore, according to this study, it is concluded that the EDXRF method was approved in this method comparison requirement.

  12. Precoder Design and Power Allocation for MIMO Cognitive Radio Two-Way Relaying Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2016-08-11

    In this paper, we study a multiple-antenna two-way relaying (TWR) cognitive radio (CR) system. A space alignment (SA) technique is adopted by the secondary users (SUs) to avoid interference with the primary users (PUs). We derive the optimal power allocation that maximizes the TWR achievable SU sum- rate while respecting the total power budget and the relay power constraints. We also analyze the case in which the relay is able to optimize its gain matrix structure to enhance the SU sum-rate. In the numerical results, we quantify the sum-rate gain of using the SA in the TWR CR and we show that the SU sum-rate is very limited when the relay power is low or the PU power and its resulting interference are high. In addition, we optimize the relay gain using an iterative algorithm and compare between different relay matrix structures.

  13. On the thermal degradation of the two way memory effect in Cu-Al-Be alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Zuniga, H.; Rios-Jara, D.

    1994-01-01

    The mechanisms associated to such a degradation of the Two Way Shape Memory Effect (TWSME) are still being discussed. In Cu-Al-Ni alloys two different steps, with different rates of degradation of the TWSME, were observed on aging at temperatures between 200 and 220 C. The first step was associated with the annihilation of the dislocations created during the training process. The second step was attributed to an oriented bainitic type precipitation. In Cu-Zn-Al alloys, the observed degradation of the TWSME with aging at temperatures between 100 and 140 C, was also associated with two mechanisms: first to the annihilation of dislocations and next to the precipitation of an α phase. In the present work, the same type of study was performed for Cu-Al-Be alloys. However, in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations of the effect of temperature were included, which revealed the actual mechanisms driving the TWSME degradation process

  14. Energy efficient design for MIMO two-way AF multiple relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper studies the energy efficient transmission and the power allocation problem for multiple two-way relay networks equipped with multi-input multi-output antennas where each relay employs an amplify-and-forward strategy. The goal is to minimize the total power consumption without degrading the quality of service of the terminals. In our analysis, we start by deriving closed-form expressions of the optimal powers allocated to terminals. We then employ a strong optimization tool based on the particle swarm optimization technique to find the optimal power allocated at each relay antenna. Our numerical results illustrate the performance of the proposed scheme and show that it achieves a sub-optimal solution very close to the optimal one.

  15. On achievable rate of two-way relaying cognitive radio with space alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2015-09-11

    We study a multiple-antenna two-way relaying (TWR) spectrum sharing system. A space alignment (SA) technique is adopted by the secondary users (SU\\'s) to avoid interference with the primary users (PU\\'s). We derive the optimal power allocation that maximizes the TWR achievable sum-rate of the SU while respecting the total power budget and the relay power constraints. In the numerical results, we quantify the sum-rate gain of using the SA in the TWR CR and we show that the SU sum-rate is very limited when the relay power is low or the PU\\'s power and its resulting interference is high. © 2015 IEEE.

  16. Mechanical Design of Downhole Tractor Based on Two-Way Self-locking Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Delei; Shang, Jianzhong; Luo, Zirong; Wu, Guoheng; Liu, Yiying

    2018-03-01

    Based on the technology of horizontal well tractor, a kind of downhole tractor was developed which can realize Two-Way self-locking function. Aiming at the needs of horizontal well logging to realize the target of small size, high traction and high reliability, the tractor selects unique heart-shaped CAM as the locking mechanism. The motion principle of telescopic downhole tractor, the design of mechanical structure and locking principle of the locking mechanism are all analyzed. The mathematical expressions of traction are obtained by mechanical analysis of parallel support rod in the locking mechanism. The force analysis and contour design of the heart-shaped CAM are performed, which can lay the foundation for the development of tractor prototype.

  17. Observation of the two-way shape memory effect in an atomistic model of martensitic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Jagla

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We study a system of classical particles in two dimensions interacting through an isotropic pair potential that displays a martensitic phase transition between a triangular and a rhomboidal structure upon the change of a single parameter. Previously it was shown that this potential is able to reproduce the shape memory effect and super-elasticity, among other well known features of the phenomenology of martensites. Here we extend those previous studies and describe the development of the more subtle two-way shape memory effect. We show that in a poly-crystalline sample, the effect is mostly due to the existence of retained martensite within the austenite phase. We also study the case of a single crystal sample where the effect is associated to particular orientations of the dislocations, either induced by training or by an ad hoc construction of a starting sample.

  18. Data Quality Assessment of In Situ and Altimeter Observations Through Two-Way Intercomparison Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinehut, Stephanie; Valladeau, Guillaume; Legeais, Jean-Francois; Rio, Marie-Helene; Ablain, Michael; Larnicol, Gilles

    2013-09-01

    This proceeding presents an overview of the two-way inter-comparison activities performed at CLS for both space and in situ observation agencies and why this activity is a required step to obtain accurate and homogenous data sets that can then be used together for climate studies or in assimilation/validation tools. We first describe the work performed in the frame of the SALP program to assess the stability of altimeter missions through SSH comparisons with tide gauges (GLOSS/CLIVAR network). Then, we show how the SSH comparison between the Argo array and altimeter time series allows the detection of drifts or jumps in altimeter (SALP program) but also for some Argo floats (Ifremer/Coriolis center). Lastly, we describe how the combine use of altimeter and wind observations helps the detection of drogue loss of surface drifting buoys (GDP network) and allow the computation of a correction term for wind slippage.

  19. Frequency transfer via a two-way optical phase comparison on a multiplexed fiber network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calosso, C E; Bertacco, E; Calonico, D; Clivati, C; Costanzo, G A; Frittelli, M; Levi, F; Mura, A; Godone, A

    2014-03-01

    We performed a two-way remote optical phase comparison on optical fiber. Two optical frequency signals were launched in opposite directions in an optical fiber and their phases were simultaneously measured at the other end. In this technique, the fiber noise is passively canceled, and we compared two optical frequencies at the ultimate 10(-21) stability level. The experiment was performed on a 47 km fiber that is part of the metropolitan network for Internet traffic. The technique relies on the synchronous measurement of the optical phases at the two ends of the link, which is here performed by digital electronics. This scheme offers some advantages with respect to active noise cancellation schemes, as the light travels only once in the fiber.

  20. Dependence of synchronization transitions on mean field approach in two-way coupled neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J. C.; Luo, M.; Huang, C. S.

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates the synchronization transitions in two-way coupled neural system by mean field approach. Results show that, there exists a critical noise intensity for the synchronization transitions, i.e., above (or below) the critical noise intensity, the synchronization transitions are decreased (or hardly change) with increasing the noise intensity. Meanwhile, the heterogeneity effect plays a negative role for the synchronization transitions, and above critical coupling strength, the heterogeneity effect on synchronization transitions can be negligible. Furthermore, when an external signal is introduced into the coupled system, the novel frequency-induced and amplitude-induced synchronization transitions are found, and there exist an optimal frequency and an optimal amplitude of external signal which makes the system to display the best synchronization transitions. In particular, it is observed that the synchronization transitions can not be further affected above critical frequency of external signal.

  1. Symmetry breaking in optimal timing of traffic signals on an idealized two-way street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaggio, Mark J; Ottino-Löffler, Bertand J; Hu, Peiguang; Abrams, Daniel M

    2013-09-01

    Simple physical models based on fluid mechanics have long been used to understand the flow of vehicular traffic on freeways; analytically tractable models of flow on an urban grid, however, have not been as extensively explored. In an ideal world, traffic signals would be timed such that consecutive lights turned green just as vehicles arrived, eliminating the need to stop at each block. Unfortunately, this "green-wave" scenario is generally unworkable due to frustration imposed by competing demands of traffic moving in different directions. Until now this has typically been resolved by numerical simulation and optimization. Here, we develop a theory for the flow in an idealized system consisting of a long two-way road with periodic intersections. We show that optimal signal timing can be understood analytically and that there are counterintuitive asymmetric solutions to this signal coordination problem. We further explore how these theoretical solutions degrade as traffic conditions vary and automotive density increases.

  2. A genetic algorithm for multiple relay selection in two-way relaying cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate a multiple relay selection scheme for two-way relaying cognitive radio networks where primary users and secondary users operate on the same frequency band. More specifically, cooperative relays using Amplifyand- Forward (AF) protocol are optimally selected to maximize the sum rate of the secondary users without degrading the Quality of Service (QoS) of the primary users by respecting a tolerated interference threshold. A strong optimization tool based on genetic algorithm is employed to solve our formulated optimization problem where discrete relay power levels are considered. Our simulation results show that the practical heuristic approach achieves almost the same performance of the optimal multiple relay selection scheme either with discrete or continuous power distributions. Copyright © 2013 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc.

  3. A low complexity algorithm for multiple relay selection in two-way relaying Cognitive Radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, a multiple relay selection scheme for two-way relaying cognitive radio network is investigated. We consider a cooperative Cognitive Radio (CR) system with spectrum sharing scenario using Amplify-and-Forward (AF) protocol, where licensed users and unlicensed users operate on the same frequency band. The main objective is to maximize the sum rate of the unlicensed users allowed to share the spectrum with the licensed users by respecting a tolerated interference threshold. A practical low complexity heuristic approach is proposed to solve our formulated optimization problem. Selected numerical results show that the proposed algorithm reaches a performance close to the performance of the optimal multiple relay selection scheme either with discrete or continuous power distributions while providing a considerable saving in terms of computational complexity. In addition, these results show that our proposed scheme significantly outperforms the single relay selection scheme. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Optimal relay selection and power allocation for cognitive two-way relaying networks

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we present an optimal scheme for power allocation and relay selection in a cognitive radio network where a pair of cognitive (or secondary) transceiver nodes communicate with each other assisted by a set of cognitive two-way relays. The secondary nodes share the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU), and each node is assumed to be equipped with a single transmit/receive antenna. The interference to the PU resulting from the transmission from the cognitive nodes is kept below a specified limit. We propose joint relay selection and optimal power allocation among the secondary user (SU) nodes achieving maximum throughput under transmit power and PU interference constraints. A closed-form solution for optimal allocation of transmit power among the SU transceivers and the SU relay is presented. Furthermore, numerical simulations and comparisons are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed scheme. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Performance analysis of two-way amplify and forward relaying with adaptive modulation

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, Kyusung

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, we study two-way amplify-and-forward relaying in conjunction with adaptive modulation over a multiple relay network. In order to keep the diversity order equal to the number of relays and maintain a low complexity, we consider the best relay selection scheme in this work. Based on the proposed selection criterion for the best relay, we analyze the average spectral efficiency by its approximated upper bound. In addition, we extend the proposed scheme to the case where a direct path between source and destination exists. Our numerical examples show that the proposed system offers a considerable gain in the spectral efficiency while satisfying the error rates requirements. ©2009 IEEE.

  6. A two-way nesting procedure for an ocean model with application to the Norwegian Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heggelund, Yngve; Berntsen, Jarle

    2000-11-01

    Two-way nesting for a {sigma}-coordinate ocean model is implemented. The test case is a traveling low pressure along the west coast of Norway. Different methods for interaction between the coarse grid and the fine grid have been investigated. It is found that both a Dirichlet type and a FRS-type boundary condition for the fine grid give reasonable results for this test case. The FRS-type boundary condition gives a smoother transition between the coarse and fine grid, but more noise in the interior of the fine grid. With no feedback from the fine grid to the coarse grid, phase differences between the solutions on the two grids cause unphysical vortices to be found at the interface between the grids. (author)

  7. Development of a Portable Two-Way Communication and Information Device for Deafblind People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozioko, Oliver; Hersh, Marion

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents research on the development of a wearable two-way communication and information device for deafblind people who use tactile communications methods, namely the British deafblind manual alphabet and/or Braille. The device has two components: a glove worn by the deafblind person and a handheld display with keypad to be used by their hearing and sighted communication partner. Users can send messages using pressure sensors embedded in the glove and receive them by means of vibration on the palm. The two components are linked by Bluetooth and the use of Bluetooth to communicate with computers, mobile phones and other Bluetooth enabled devices is being investigated. The design was informed by feedback obtained from a survey of deafblind people and interviews with staff in two organisations for deafblind people. Research and development of the device is still ongoing.

  8. Symmetry breaking in optimal timing of traffic signals on an idealized two-way street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaggio, Mark J.; Ottino-Löffler, Bertand J.; Hu, Peiguang; Abrams, Daniel M.

    2013-09-01

    Simple physical models based on fluid mechanics have long been used to understand the flow of vehicular traffic on freeways; analytically tractable models of flow on an urban grid, however, have not been as extensively explored. In an ideal world, traffic signals would be timed such that consecutive lights turned green just as vehicles arrived, eliminating the need to stop at each block. Unfortunately, this “green-wave” scenario is generally unworkable due to frustration imposed by competing demands of traffic moving in different directions. Until now this has typically been resolved by numerical simulation and optimization. Here, we develop a theory for the flow in an idealized system consisting of a long two-way road with periodic intersections. We show that optimal signal timing can be understood analytically and that there are counterintuitive asymmetric solutions to this signal coordination problem. We further explore how these theoretical solutions degrade as traffic conditions vary and automotive density increases.

  9. Towards Efficient Wireless Body Area Network Using Two-Way Relay Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maham Waheed

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of lightweight, ultra-thin, low power and intelligent body-borne sensors leads to novel advances in wireless body area networks (WBANs. Depending on the placement of the nodes, it is characterized as in/on body WBAN; thus, the channel is largely affected by body posture, clothing, muscle movement, body temperature and climatic conditions. The energy resources are limited and it is not feasible to replace the sensor’s battery frequently. In order to keep the sensor in working condition, the channel resources should be reserved. The lifetime of the sensor is very crucial and it highly depends on transmission among sensor nodes and energy consumption. The reliability and energy efficiency in WBAN applications play a vital role. In this paper, the analytical expressions for energy efficiency (EE and packet error rate (PER are formulated for two-way relay cooperative communication. The results depict better reliability and efficiency compared to direct and one-way relay communication. The effective performance range of direct vs. cooperative communication is separated by a threshold distance. Based on EE calculations, an optimal packet size is observed that provides maximum efficiency over a certain link length. A smart and energy efficient system is articulated that utilizes all three communication modes, namely direct, one-way relay and two-way relay, as the direct link performs better for a certain range, but the cooperative communication gives better results for increased distance in terms of EE. The efficacy of the proposed hybrid scheme is also demonstrated over a practical quasi-static channel. Furthermore, link length extension and diversity is achieved by joint network-channel (JNC coding the cooperative link.

  10. Towards Efficient Wireless Body Area Network Using Two-Way Relay Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Maham; Ahmad, Rizwan; Ahmed, Waqas; Drieberg, Micheal; Alam, Muhammad Mahtab

    2018-02-13

    The fabrication of lightweight, ultra-thin, low power and intelligent body-borne sensors leads to novel advances in wireless body area networks (WBANs). Depending on the placement of the nodes, it is characterized as in/on body WBAN; thus, the channel is largely affected by body posture, clothing, muscle movement, body temperature and climatic conditions. The energy resources are limited and it is not feasible to replace the sensor's battery frequently. In order to keep the sensor in working condition, the channel resources should be reserved. The lifetime of the sensor is very crucial and it highly depends on transmission among sensor nodes and energy consumption. The reliability and energy efficiency in WBAN applications play a vital role. In this paper, the analytical expressions for energy efficiency (EE) and packet error rate (PER) are formulated for two-way relay cooperative communication. The results depict better reliability and efficiency compared to direct and one-way relay communication. The effective performance range of direct vs. cooperative communication is separated by a threshold distance. Based on EE calculations, an optimal packet size is observed that provides maximum efficiency over a certain link length. A smart and energy efficient system is articulated that utilizes all three communication modes, namely direct, one-way relay and two-way relay, as the direct link performs better for a certain range, but the cooperative communication gives better results for increased distance in terms of EE. The efficacy of the proposed hybrid scheme is also demonstrated over a practical quasi-static channel. Furthermore, link length extension and diversity is achieved by joint network-channel (JNC) coding the cooperative link.

  11. Two-Way Multiuser Mixed RF/FSO Relaying: Performance Analysis and Power Allocation

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Eryani, Yasser F.

    2018-03-21

    In this paper, the performance of two-way multiuser mixed radio frequency/free space optical (RF/FSO) relay networks with opportunistic user scheduling and asymmetric channel fading is studied. RF links are used to conduct data transmission between users and relay node, while a FSO link is used to conduct data transmission on the last-mile communication link between the relay node and base station. The RF links are assumed to follow a Rayleigh fading model, while the FSO links are assumed to follow a unified Gamma-Gamma atmospheric turbulence fading model with pointing error. First, closed-form expressions for the exact outage probability, asymptotic (high signal-to-noise ratio) outage probability, average symbol error rate, and average ergodic channel capacity are derived assuming a heterodyne detection scheme. The asymptotic results are used to conduct a power optimization algorithm where expressions for optimal transmission power values for the transmitting nodes are provided. Additionally, performance comparisons between the considered two-way-relaying (TWR) network and the oneway- relaying (OWR) network are provided and discussed. Also, the impact of several system parameters, including number of users, pointing errors, atmospheric turbulence conditions, and outage probability threshold on the overall network performance are investigated. All the theoretical results are validated by Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that the TWR scheme almost doubles the network ergodic capacity compared to that of the OWR scheme with the same outage performance. Additionally, it is shown that under weak-to-moderate weather turbulence conditions and small pointing error, the outage probability is dominated by the RF downlink with a neglected effect for the user selection process at the RF uplink transmission. However, for severe pointing error, the outage probability is dominated by the FSO uplink/downlink transmission.

  12. Two-Way Social Media Messaging in Postoperative Cataract Surgical Patients: Prospective Interventional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguansak, Thuss; Morley, Katharine E; Morley, Michael G; Thinkhamrop, Kavin; Thuanman, Jaruwan; Agarwal, Isha

    2017-12-19

    Social media offers a new way to provide education, reminders, and support for patients with a variety of health conditions. Most of these interventions use one-way, provider-patient communication. Incorporating social media tools to improve postoperative (postop) education and follow-up care has only been used in limited situations. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of two-way social media messaging to deliver reminders and educational information about postop care to cataract patients. A total of 98 patients undergoing their first eye cataract surgery were divided into two groups: a no message group receiving usual pre- and postop care and a message group receiving usual care plus messages in a mobile social media format with standardized content and timing. Each patient in the message group received nine messages about hand and face hygiene, medication and postop visit adherence, and links to patient education videos about postop care. Patients could respond to messages as desired. Main outcome measures included medication adherence, postop visit adherence, clinical outcomes, and patients' subjective assessments of two-way messaging. The number, types, content, and timing of responses by patients to messages were recorded. Medication adherence was better in the message group at postop day 7, with high adherence in 47 patients (96%, 47/49) versus 36 patients (73%, 36/49) in the no message group (P=.004), but no statistically significant differences in medication adherence between the groups were noted at preop and postop day 30. Visit adherence was higher at postop day 30 in the message group (100%, 49/49) versus the no message group (88%, 43/49; P=.03) but was 100% (49/49) in both groups at postop day 1 and 7. Final visual outcomes were similar between groups. A total of 441 standardized messages were sent to the message group. Out of 270 responses generated, 188 (70%) were simple acknowledgments or "thank you," and 82 (30

  13. 77 FR 51045 - Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof, DN 2907; the... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2907] Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating...

  14. Third Space Openings at a Two-Way Immersion Elementary School in North Carolina: Lessons from Parent Language Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Alison M.

    2016-01-01

    Two-way immersion schools are growing in popularity throughout the United States. An emerging issue is to what extent these schools are able to connect with parents from multiple communities. This article describes an effort to connect parents with the school and one another through parent language classes at a Spanish/English two-way immersion…

  15. Two-Way Communication between Scientists and the Public: A View from Science Communication Trainers in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shupei; Oshita, Tsuyoshi; AbiGhannam, Niveen; Dudo, Anthony; Besley, John C.; Koh, Hyeseung E.

    2017-01-01

    The current study explores the degree to which two-way communication is applied in science communication contexts in North America, based on the experiences of science communication trainers. Interviews with 24 science communication trainers suggest that scientists rarely focus on applying two-way communication tactics, such as listening to their…

  16. Mutual research capacity strengthening: a qualitative study of two-way partnerships in public health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redman-MacLaren Michelle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Capacity building has been employed in international health and development sectors to describe the process of ‘experts’ from more resourced countries training people in less resourced countries. Hence the concept has an implicit power imbalance based on ‘expert’ knowledge. In 2011, a health research strengthening workshop was undertaken at Atoifi Adventist Hospital, Solomon Islands to further strengthen research skills of the Hospital and College of Nursing staff and East Kwaio community leaders through partnering in practical research projects. The workshop was based on participatory research frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies, which sought to challenge historical power imbalances and inequities. Our research question was, “Is research capacity strengthening a two-way process?” Methods In this qualitative study, five Solomon Islanders and five Australians each responded to four open-ended questions about their experience of the research capacity strengthening workshop and activities: five chose face to face interview, five chose to provide written responses. Written responses and interview transcripts were inductively analysed in NVivo 9. Results Six major themes emerged. These were: Respectful relationships; Increased knowledge and experience with research process; Participation at all stages in the research process; Contribution to public health action; Support and sustain research opportunities; and Managing challenges of capacity strengthening. All researchers identified benefits for themselves, their institution and/or community, regardless of their role or country of origin, indicating that the capacity strengthening had been a two-way process. Conclusions The flexible and responsive process we used to strengthen research capacity was identified as mutually beneficial. Using community-based participatory frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies is assisting to redress

  17. Conservative adaptivity and two-way self-nesting using discrete wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubos, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    In simulating atmosphere and oceans, multiscale modelling is desirable to track high-intensity weather patterns, to investigate the interactions between the various spatio-temporal scales of the climate system, and to perform assessments of climate change at scales small enough to derive impacts on society and ecosystems. The mainstream approach to multiscale modelling is to nest a fine, limited-area model into a coarse, global model. These models are then coupled, either one-way or two-way, in order to combine the global coverage of the global model and the fine details of the fine model. In the long simulations typical of climate studies, initial conditions are unimportant, except for the few quantities like mass that are exactly conserved. In this context it is crucial that numerical models conserve at least mass exactly at the discrete level. However even with elaborate strategies like adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) conservation is not straightforwardly achieved. Although the continuous wavelet transform has become a standard tool of geophysical data analysis, it is less known that discrete wavelets and the associated transforms provide the basis for spatially adaptive numerical methods. Such methods are now well-developed in the fluid dynamics community. Since they allow spatial adaptivity, they can also be seen as two-way self-nesting methods. However since they are not specifically designed for geophysical purposes they are usually not exactly conservative. I present a fairly general framework in which a wavelet-based layer is added to an existing conservative scheme (finite-volume or finite-difference) to make it spatially adaptive without breaking the exact conservation of linear invariants. Discrete wavelet transforms involve an upscaling operation by which fields are transferred from a fine grid to a coarser grid with half the resolution. The method requires that mass fluxes be upscaled in a way that is consistent with the upscaling of mass. This

  18. An improved two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol with added noise in homodyne detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Maozhu; Peng Xiang; Guo Hong

    2013-01-01

    We propose an improved two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV QKD) protocol by adding proper random noise on the receiver’s homodyne detection, the security of which is analysed against general collective attacks. The simulation result under the collective entangling cloner attack indicates that despite the correlation between two-way channels decreasing the secret key rate relative to the uncorrelated channels slightly, the performance of the two-way protocol is still far beyond that of the one-way protocols. Importantly, the added noise in detection is beneficial for the secret key rate and the tolerable excess noise of this two-way protocol. With the reasonable reconciliation efficiency of 90%, the two-way CV QKD with added noise allows the distribution of secret keys over 60 km fibre distance. (paper)

  19. Two-way shape memory behavior of shape memory polyurethanes with a bias load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seok Jin; Yu, Woong-Ryeol; Youk, Ji Ho

    2010-01-01

    Thermo-responsive shape memory polyurethane (SMPU) is a smart material that can respond to external heat by changing its macroscopic shape from a temporary configuration to a memorized permanent one. The temporary shape can be processed using mechanical forces above a certain temperature (the transition temperature) and can be maintained until the material acquires a certain thermal energy. Thereafter, the material will recover its memorized permanent shape. However, it is unclear what will occur if the thermal energy is then dissipated, i.e., the material temperature decreases. There are two possibilities: the material will respond to the dissipated energy, resulting in another macroscopic shape change; or nothing will happen beyond the thermal contraction. The former is called two-way shape memory (TWSM) behavior and the latter is called one-way shape memory behavior. This paper reports novel findings showing that TWSM behavior can be imparted to SMPUs using a thermo-mechanical treatment, i.e., imposing a constant stress on them after their temporary shaping. A series of experiments were carried out to characterize the TWSM behavior of SMPUs and to explain its mechanism

  20. Artificial muscles made of chiral two-way shape memory polymer fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qianxi; Fan, Jizhou; Li, Guoqiang

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the unusual improvement of the tensile actuation of hierarchically chiral structured artificial muscle made of two-way shape memory polymer (2W-SMP) fiber. Experimental results show that the chemically cross-linked poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) 2W-SMP fibers possess an average negative coefficient of thermal expansion (NCTE) that is at least one order higher than that of the polyethylene fiber used previously. As expected, the increase in axial thermal contraction of the precursor fiber leads to an increase in the recovered torque ( 4.4 Nmm ) of the chiral fiber and eventually in the tensile actuation of the twisted-then-coiled artificial muscle ( 67.81 ±1.82 % ). A mechanical model based on Castigliano's second theorem is proposed, and the calculated result is consistent with the experimental result (64.17% tensile stroke). The model proves the significance of the NCTE and the recovered torque on tensile actuation of the artificial muscle and can be used as a guidance for the future design.

  1. Two-way DF relaying assisted D2D communication: ergodic rate and power allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yiyang; Wang, Yuxi; Jin, Shi; Wong, Kai-Kit; Zhu, Hongbo

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the ergodic rate for a device-to-device (D2D) communication system aided by a two-way decode-and-forward (DF) relay node. We first derive closed-form expressions for the ergodic rate of the D2D link under asymmetric and symmetric cases, respectively. We subsequently discuss two special scenarios including weak interference case and high signal-to-noise ratio case. Then we derive the tight approximations for each of the considered scenarios. Assuming that each transmitter only has access to its own statistical channel state information (CSI), we further derive closed-form power allocation strategy to improve the system performance according to the analytical results of the ergodic rate. Furthermore, some insights are provided for the power allocation strategy based on the analytical results. The strategies are easy to compute and require to know only the channel statistics. Numerical results show the accuracy of the analysis results under various conditions and test the availability of the power allocation strategy.

  2. Training and two-way shape memory in NiTi alloys: influence on thermal parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahoz, R.; Puertolas, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) was studied in a near equiatomic commercial alloy. A training procedure based on a constant load applied in the temperature range of the parent → martensite transformation was carried out on NiTi wires. The efficiency of the method was determined from deformation-temperature measurements by MTA at different training stress and number of cycles. A maximum of two shape memory strain was obtained for a stress training of 115 MPa, independently of number of training cycles. A correlation was established between the TWSME arisen and the permanent strain generated during the training. The A s and A f transitions present a positive shift and the M s and M f a negative one with increasing training stress. All the transitions temperatures decrease with the training cycling. In the trained material, the P→M and M→P temperatures and the latent heat of these conversions undergoes a strong decrease with increasing training stress, with a strong asymmetry between the forward and the reversed transitions. The changes of these thermal parameters as a function of the training parameters were studied on a thermodynamic frame

  3. Thermomechanical behavior of a two-way shape memory composite actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Qi; Westbrook, Kristofer K; Dunn, Martin L; Jerry Qi, H; Mather, Patrick T

    2013-01-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are a class of smart materials that can fix a temporary shape and recover to their permanent (original) shape in response to an environmental stimulus such as heat, electricity, or irradiation, among others. Most SMPs developed in the past can only demonstrate the so-called one-way shape memory effect; i.e., one programming step can only yield one shape memory cycle. Recently, one of the authors (Mather) developed a SMP that exhibits both one-way shape memory (1W-SM) and two-way shape memory (2W-SM) effects (with the assistance of an external load). This SMP was further used to develop a free-standing composite actuator with a nonlinear reversible actuation under thermal cycling. In this paper, a theoretical model for the PCO SMP based composite actuator was developed to investigate its thermomechanical behavior and the mechanisms for the observed phenomena during the actuation cycles, and to provide insight into how to improve the design. (paper)

  4. Application of high-precision two-way ranging to Galileo Earth-1 encounter navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmeier, V. M.; Thurman, S. W.

    1992-01-01

    The application of precision two-way ranging to orbit determination with relatively short data arcs is investigated for the Galileo spacecraft's approach to its first Earth encounter (December 8, 1990). Analysis of previous S-band (2.3-GHz) ranging data acquired from Galileo indicated that under good signal conditions submeter precision and 10-m ranging accuracy were achieved. It is shown that ranging data of sufficient accuracy, when acquired from multiple stations, can sense the geocentric angular position of a distant spacecraft. A range data filtering technique, in which explicit modeling of range measurement bias parameters for each station pass is utilized, is shown to largely remove the systematic ground system calibration errors and transmission media effects from the Galileo range measurements, which would otherwise corrupt the angle-finding capabilities of the data. The accuracy of the Galileo orbit solutions obtained with S-band Doppler and precision ranging were found to be consistent with simple theoretical calculations, which predicted that angular accuracies of 0.26-0.34 microrad were achievable. In addition, the navigation accuracy achieved with precision ranging was marginally better than that obtained using delta-differenced one-way range (delta DOR), the principal data type that was previously used to obtain spacecraft angular position measurements operationally.

  5. Ser derivation and power optimization of a two-way multirelay cooperative communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.U.; Shah, S.I.; Fareed, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider Rayleigh fading based cooperative communication system with AaF (Amplify and Forward) relaying using multiple relays. We take spectrally efficient two-way model of cooperative communication terminals and formulate performance evaluation framework in terms of SER (Symbol Error Rate). We not only consider fading channel for this performance evaluation but also consider the effect of relay terminal location into our model which does not require any CSI (Channel State Information) at transmitting nodes. We have proposed power allocation framework for these nodes and analytically derived SER performance results. We have numerically evaluated this framework for power optimization as well as minimizing required SER. Significant performance improvement as compared with equal power sharing among the cooperating terminals is achieved using our proposed framework. It is shown that virtual cooperative antenna configurations is able to demonstrate up to 3dB gain as compared with co-located antenna configurations. Thus incorporating relay location information for performance evaluation results significant power savings. (author)

  6. Rate Optimization of Two-Way Relaying with Wireless Information and Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thinh Phu Do

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer in two-phase decode-and-forward two-way relaying networks, where a relay harvests the energy from the signal to be relayed through either power splitting or time splitting. Here, we formulate the resource allocation problems optimizing the time-phase and signal splitting ratios to maximize the sum rate of the two communicating devices. The joint optimization problems are shown to be convex for both the power splitting and time splitting approaches after some transformation if required to be solvable with an existing solver. To lower the computational complexity, we also present the suboptimal methods optimizing the splitting ratio for the fixed time-phase and derive a closed-form solution for the suboptimal method based on the power splitting. The results demonstrate that the power splitting approaches outperform their time splitting counterparts and the suboptimal power splitting approach provides a performance close to the optimal one while reducing the complexity significantly.

  7. Wireless Energy Harvesting Two-Way Relay Networks with Hardware Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chunling; Li, Fangwei; Liu, Huaping

    2017-11-13

    This paper considers a wireless energy harvesting two-way relay (TWR) network where the relay has energy-harvesting abilities and the effects of practical hardware impairments are taken into consideration. In particular, power splitting (PS) receiver is adopted at relay to harvests the power it needs for relaying the information between the source nodes from the signals transmitted by the source nodes, and hardware impairments is assumed suffered by each node. We analyze the effect of hardware impairments [-20]on both decode-and-forward (DF) relaying and amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying networks. By utilizing the obtained new expressions of signal-to-noise-plus-distortion ratios, the exact analytical expressions of the achievable sum rate and ergodic capacities for both DF and AF relaying protocols are derived. Additionally, the optimal power splitting (OPS) ratio that maximizes the instantaneous achievable sum rate is formulated and solved for both protocols. The performances of DF and AF protocols are evaluated via numerical results, which also show the effects of various network parameters on the system performance and on the OPS ratio design.

  8. A Novel Secure Transmission Scheme in MIMO Two-Way Relay Channels with Physical Layer Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Security issue has been considered as one of the most pivotal aspects for the fifth-generation mobile network (5G due to the increasing demands of security service as well as the growing occurrence of security threat. In this paper, instead of focusing on the security architecture in the upper layer, we investigate the secure transmission for a basic channel model in a heterogeneous network, that is, two-way relay channels. By exploiting the properties of the transmission medium in the physical layer, we propose a novel secure scheme for the aforementioned channel mode. With precoding design, the proposed scheme is able to achieve a high transmission efficiency as well as security. Two different approaches have been introduced: information theoretical approach and physical layer encryption approach. We show that our scheme is secure under three different adversarial models: (1 untrusted relay attack model, (2 trusted relay with eavesdropper attack model, and (3 untrusted relay with eavesdroppers attack model. We also derive the secrecy capacity of the two different approaches under the three attacks. Finally, we conduct three simulations of our proposed scheme. The simulation results agree with the theoretical analysis illustrating that our proposed scheme could achieve a better performance than the existing schemes.

  9. Cross-Layer Design for Two-Way Relaying Networks with Multiple Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zhuo wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we developed a cross-layer design for two-way relaying (TWR networks with multiple antennas, where two single antenna source nodes exchange information with the aid of one multiple antenna relay node. The proposed cross-layer design considers adaptive modulation (AM and space-time block coding (STBC at the physical layer with an automatic repeat request (ARQ protocol at the data link layer, in order to maximize the spectral efficiency under specific delay and packet error ratio (PER constraints. An MMSE-interference cancellation (IC receiver is employed at the relay node, to remove the interference in the fist phase of the TWR transmission. The transmission mode is updated for each phase of the TWR transmission on a frame-by-frame basis, to match the time-varying channel conditions and exploit the system performance and throughput gain. Simulation results show that retransmission at the data link layer could alleviate rigorous error-control requirements at the physical layer, and thereby allows higher data transmission. As a result, cross-layer design helps to achieve considerable system spectral efficiency gain for TWR networks, compared to those without cross-layer design.

  10. Two-way QKD with single-photon-added coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Mario; Mundarain, Douglas

    2017-12-01

    In this work we present a two-way quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme that uses single-photon-added coherent states and displacement operations. The first party randomly sends coherent states (CS) or single-photon-added coherent states (SPACS) to the second party. The latter sends back the same state it received. Both parties decide which kind of states they are receiving by detecting or not a photon on the received signal after displacement operations. The first party must determine whether its sent and received states are equal; otherwise, the case must be discarded. We are going to show that an eavesdropper provided with a beam splitter gets the same information in any of the non-discarded cases. The key can be obtained by assigning 0 to CS and 1 to SPACS in the non-discarded cases. This protocol guarantees keys' security in the presence of a beam splitter attack even for states with a high number of photons in the sent signal. It also works in a lossy quantum channel, becoming a good bet for improving long-distance QKD.

  11. SER Derivation and Power Optimization of a Two-Way MultiRelay Cooperative Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel-Ur-Rehman Rehman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider Rayleigh fading based cooperative communication system with AaF (Amplify and Forward relaying using multiple relays. We take spectrally efficient two-way model of cooperative communication terminals and formulate performance evaluation framework in terms of SER (Symbol Error Rate. We not only consider fading channel for this performance evaluation but also consider the effect of relay terminal location into our model which does not require any CSI (Channel State Information at transmitting nodes. We have proposed power allocation framework for these nodes and analytically derived SER performance results. We have numerically evaluated this framework for power optimization as well as minimizing required SER. Significant performance improvement as compared with equal power sharing among the cooperating terminals is achieved using our proposed framework. It is shown that virtual cooperative antenna configurations is able to demonstrate up to 3dB gain as compared with co-located antenna configurations. Thus incorporating relay location information for performance evaluation results significant power savings

  12. Thermomechanical cycling and two-way memory effect induced in Cu-Zn-Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, J.

    1999-01-01

    The two-way shape memory effect (TWME) has been induced by thermomechanical cycling in Cu-Zn-Al alloys using a dedicated hydraulic mechanical testing soft machine with complete computer control of force, elongation and temperature. The results concerning single crystals (composition Cu-16.9 wt.% Zn-7.7 wt.% Al, nominal M s of 273 K) and polycrystals (Cu-15.8 wt.% Zn-8.3 wt.% Al, nominal M s of 230 K, mean grain size of 1 mm) are reported for two training protocols (sequence of one thermomechanical cycle of education followed by one stress free thermal cycle to check the TWME or twenty consecutive thermomechanical cycles followed by one or two checking thermal cycles). The capacity of the trained specimen for producing work under an antagonist compressive stress is also studied and the behaviour of the deformation of the specimen under such a condition at different temperatures is analysed in terms of a competition between the contributions of the different variants: trained variants with an intrinsic deformation in the direction of the tensile stress of the training process, trained variants with an intrinsic deformation which is not well orientated with respect to this direction (in the polycrystal) and new variants with an intrinsic deformation in the direction of the compressive stress which can replace the educated variants. (orig.)

  13. Sparse Channel Estimation for MIMO-OFDM Two-Way Relay Network with Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate channel impulse response (CIR is required for equalization and can help improve communication service quality in next-generation wireless communication systems. An example of an advanced system is amplify-and-forward multiple-input multiple-output two-way relay network, which is modulated by orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing. Linear channel estimation methods, for example, least squares and expectation conditional maximization, have been proposed previously for the system. However, these methods do not take advantage of channel sparsity, and they decrease estimation performance. We propose a sparse channel estimation scheme, which is different from linear methods, at end users under the relay channel to enable us to exploit sparsity. First, we formulate the sparse channel estimation problem as a compressed sensing problem by using sparse decomposition theory. Second, the CIR is reconstructed by CoSaMP and OMP algorithms. Finally, computer simulations are conducted to confirm the superiority of the proposed methods over traditional linear channel estimation methods.

  14. Application of two way indicator species analysis in lowland plant types classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooch, Yahya; Jalilvand, Hamid; Bahmanyar, Mohammad Ali; Pormajidian, Mohammad Reza

    2008-03-01

    A TWINSPAN classification of 60 sample plots from the Khanikan forest (North of Iran) is presented. Plant types were determined from field observations and sample plot data arranged and analyzed in association tables. The types were defined on the basis of species patterns of presence, absence and coverage values. Vegetation was sampled with randomized-systematic method. Vegetation data including density and cover percentage were estimated quantitatively within each quadrate and using the two-way indicator species analysis. The objectives of the study were to plant type's classification for Khanikan lowland forest in North of Iran, Identification of indicator species in plant types and increase our understanding in regarding to one of Multivariate analysis methods (TWINSPAN). Five plant types were produced for the study area by TWINSPAN, i.e., Menta aquatica, Oplismenus undulatifolius, Carex grioletia, Viola odarata and Rubus caesius. Therefore, at each step of the process, the program identifies indicator species that show strongly differential distributions between groups and so can severe to distinguish the groups. The final result, incorporating elements of classification can provide a compact and powerful summary of pattern in the data set.

  15. Two way assessment of other physical work demands while measuring the whole body vibration magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemessen, Ivo J. H.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2008-03-01

    Direct observation, instead of using self-administered questionnaires might give more reliable and specific information about physical work demands at the workplace. This information is of use in a population already at risk of developing low back pain (LBP) due to whole body vibration (WBV) exposure. The aims of this study are to assess the WBV exposure in an exposed population and to assess other physical work demands in two ways, by direct observation and with the use of a self-administered questionnaire. We therefore assessed the WBV magnitude and 5 WBV-related physical work demands by using the PalmTrac system and a self-administered questionnaire in a group of drivers ( N=10). The main findings are 7 out of 10 drivers are exceeding the EU action value. About 50% of the drivers under-estimated the time 'bending', 60% the time 'walking+standing' and 60% over-estimated the time when 'lifting.' We concluded that 7 drivers from this group are at risk of developing LBP and substantial differences exists for the 5 physical work demands comparing the PalmTrac method with the questionnaire. Direct observational assessment in WBV measurements yields extra information. This is useful for preventive activities necessary as drivers are exceeding the EU action value.

  16. Multi-pair cognitive two-way relaying and power allocation under imperfect CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Aï ssa, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a robust joint relay precoder design and transceiver power allocation for a cognitive radio network under imperfect channel state information. The secondary (or cognitive) network consists of multiple pairs of single-antenna transceiver nodes and a non-regenerative two-way relay with multiple antennas which aids the intra-pair communication process of the transceiver nodes. The secondary nodes share the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU) while guaranteeing that the interference to the PU receiver is maintained below a specified threshold. The proposed robust design is based on the minimization of the sum mean-square error (MSE) of the transceiver nodes under constraints on the secondary users' transmit powers and interference to PU the receiver. Though the original problem is non-convex, we show that the proposed design can be solved using alternating optimization of convex subproblems which have analytic or efficient numerical solutions. We illustrate the performance of the proposed designs through some selected numerical simulations. © 2013 IEEE.

  17. Source-receiver two-way wave extrapolation for prestack exploding-reflector modelling and migration

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-10-08

    Most modern seismic imaging methods separate input data into parts (shot gathers). We develop a formulation that is able to incorporate all available data at once while numerically propagating the recorded multidimensional wavefield forward or backward in time. This approach has the potential for generating accurate images free of artiefacts associated with conventional approaches. We derive novel high-order partial differential equations in the source-receiver time domain. The fourth-order nature of the extrapolation in time leads to four solutions, two of which correspond to the incoming and outgoing P-waves and reduce to the zero-offset exploding-reflector solutions when the source coincides with the receiver. A challenge for implementing two-way time extrapolation is an essential singularity for horizontally travelling waves. This singularity can be avoided by limiting the range of wavenumbers treated in a spectral-based extrapolation. Using spectral methods based on the low-rank approximation of the propagation symbol, we extrapolate only the desired solutions in an accurate and efficient manner with reduced dispersion artiefacts. Applications to synthetic data demonstrate the accuracy of the new prestack modelling and migration approach.

  18. Two-way actuation behavior of shape memory polymer/elastomer core/shell composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Tae-Hyung; Lee, Jeong-Min; Yu, Woong-Ryeol; Youk, Ji Ho; Ryu, Hee Wook

    2012-01-01

    Semi-crystalline shape memory polymers (SMPs) show net two-way shape memory (2W-SM) behavior under constant stresses by the recoverable creep strain upon heating and stress-induced crystallization under the application of creep stress upon cooling. The applied constant stress is the key factor in this 2W-SM behavior. A core/shell structure is manufactured for the purpose of imparting a constant stress upon SMPs. An SMP in film or fiber form is dipped into a solution of an elastomer, photoinitiator, and curing agent and then dried out. After this dip coating process is repeatedly carried out, the SMP/elastomer core/shell composite is deformed into a temporary shape after being heated up above the transition temperature of the SMP. Under constant strain conditions, the composite is cooled down, after which the shell elastomer is cured using ultraviolet light. Then, the SMP/elastomer core/shell composite extends and contracts upon cooling and heating, respectively, without any external load. This cyclic deformation behavior is characterized, demonstrating that the current method offers a simple macroscopic processing technique to manufacture 2W-SM polymer composites. (paper)

  19. Multi-pair cognitive two-way relaying and power allocation under imperfect CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a robust joint relay precoder design and transceiver power allocation for a cognitive radio network under imperfect channel state information. The secondary (or cognitive) network consists of multiple pairs of single-antenna transceiver nodes and a non-regenerative two-way relay with multiple antennas which aids the intra-pair communication process of the transceiver nodes. The secondary nodes share the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU) while guaranteeing that the interference to the PU receiver is maintained below a specified threshold. The proposed robust design is based on the minimization of the sum mean-square error (MSE) of the transceiver nodes under constraints on the secondary users\\' transmit powers and interference to PU the receiver. Though the original problem is non-convex, we show that the proposed design can be solved using alternating optimization of convex subproblems which have analytic or efficient numerical solutions. We illustrate the performance of the proposed designs through some selected numerical simulations. © 2013 IEEE.

  20. Cognitive two-way relay beamforming: Design with resilience to channel state uncertainties

    KAUST Repository

    Ubaidulla, P.

    2016-07-26

    In this paper, we propose a robust distributed relay beamformer design for cognitive radio network operating under uncertainties in the available channel state information. The cognitive network consists of a pair of transceivers and a set of non-regenerative two-way relays that assist the communication between the transceiver pair. The secondary nodes share the spectrum with a licensed primary user node while ensuring that the interference to the primary receiver is maintained below a certain threshold. The proposed robust design maximizes the worst-case signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio at the secondary transceivers while satisfying constraints on the interference to the primary user and on the total relay transmit power. Though the robust design problem is not a convex problem in its original form, we show that it can be reformulated as a convex optimization problem, which can be solved efficiently. Numerical results are provided and illustrate the merits of the proposed design for various operating conditions and parameters. © 2016 IEEE.

  1. Robust distributed two-way relay beamforming in cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we present distributed beamformer designs for a cognitive radio network (CRN) consisting of a pair of cognitive (or secondary) transceiver nodes communicating with each other through a set of secondary non-regenerative two-way relays. The secondary network shares the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU), and operates under a constraint on the maximum interference to the PU, in addition to its own resource and quality of service (QoS) constraints. We propose beamformer designs assuming that the available channel state information (CSI) is imperfect, which reflects realistic scenarios. The performance of proposed designs is robust to the CSI errors. Such robustness is critical in CRNs given the difficulty in acquiring perfect CSI due to loose cooperation between the PUs and the secondary users (SUs), and the need for strict enforcement of PU interference limit. We consider a mean-square error (MSE)-constrained beamformer that minimizes the total relay transmit power and an MSE-balancing beamformer with a constraint on the total relay transmit power. We show that the proposed designs can be reformulated as convex optimization problems that can be solved efficiently. Through numerical simulations, we illustrate the improved performance of the proposed robust designs compared to non-robust designs. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. EEG/MEG Source Reconstruction with Spatial-Temporal Two-Way Regularized Regression

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Tian Siva

    2013-07-11

    In this work, we propose a spatial-temporal two-way regularized regression method for reconstructing neural source signals from EEG/MEG time course measurements. The proposed method estimates the dipole locations and amplitudes simultaneously through minimizing a single penalized least squares criterion. The novelty of our methodology is the simultaneous consideration of three desirable properties of the reconstructed source signals, that is, spatial focality, spatial smoothness, and temporal smoothness. The desirable properties are achieved by using three separate penalty functions in the penalized regression framework. Specifically, we impose a roughness penalty in the temporal domain for temporal smoothness, and a sparsity-inducing penalty and a graph Laplacian penalty in the spatial domain for spatial focality and smoothness. We develop a computational efficient multilevel block coordinate descent algorithm to implement the method. Using a simulation study with several settings of different spatial complexity and two real MEG examples, we show that the proposed method outperforms existing methods that use only a subset of the three penalty functions. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  3. Secure Communication for Two-Way Relay Networks with Imperfect CSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Sun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a two-way relay network, where two legitimate users exchange messages through several cooperative relays in the presence of an eavesdropper, and the Channel State Information (CSI of the eavesdropper is imperfectly known. The Amplify-and-Forward (AF relay protocol is used. We design the relay beamforming weights to minimize the total relay transmit power, while requiring the Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNRs of the legitimate users to be higher than the given thresholds and the achievable rate of the eavesdropper to be upper-bounded. Due to the imperfect CSI, a robust optimization problem is summarized. A novel iterative algorithm is proposed, where the line search technique is applied, and the feasibility is preserved during iterations. In each iteration, two Quadratically-Constrained Quadratic Programming (QCQP subproblems and a one-dimensional subproblem are optimally solved. The optimality property of the robust optimization problem is analyzed. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs very close to the non-robust model with perfect CSI, in terms of the obtained relay transmit power; it~achieves higher secrecy rate compared to the existing work. Numerically, the proposed algorithm converges very quickly, and more than 85% of the problems are solved optimally.

  4. Two-way coupling of magnetohydrodynamic simulations with embedded particle-in-cell simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, K. D.; Keppens, R.; Lapenta, G.

    2017-12-01

    We describe a method for coupling an embedded domain in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation with a particle-in-cell (PIC) method. In this two-way coupling we follow the work of Daldorff et al. (2014) [19] in which the PIC domain receives its initial and boundary conditions from MHD variables (MHD to PIC coupling) while the MHD simulation is updated based on the PIC variables (PIC to MHD coupling). This method can be useful for simulating large plasma systems, where kinetic effects captured by particle-in-cell simulations are localized but affect global dynamics. We describe the numerical implementation of this coupling, its time-stepping algorithm, and its parallelization strategy, emphasizing the novel aspects of it. We test the stability and energy/momentum conservation of this method by simulating a steady-state plasma. We test the dynamics of this coupling by propagating plasma waves through the embedded PIC domain. Coupling with MHD shows satisfactory results for the fast magnetosonic wave, but significant distortion for the circularly polarized Alfvén wave. Coupling with Hall-MHD shows excellent coupling for the whistler wave. We also apply this methodology to simulate a Geospace Environmental Modeling (GEM) challenge type of reconnection with the diffusion region simulated by PIC coupled to larger scales with MHD and Hall-MHD. In both these cases we see the expected signatures of kinetic reconnection in the PIC domain, implying that this method can be used for reconnection studies.

  5. A correction procedure for thermally two-way coupled point-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Jeremy; Ganguli, Swetava; Mani, Ali; Lele, Sanjiva

    2017-11-01

    Development of a robust procedure for the simulation of two-way coupled particle-laden flows remains a challenge. Such systems are characterized by O(1) or greater mass of particles relative to the fluid. The coupling of fluid and particle motion via a drag model means the undisturbed fluid velocity evaluated at the particle location (which is needed in the drag model) is no longer equal to the interpolated fluid velocity at the particle location. The same issue arises in problems of dispersed flows in the presence of heat transfer. The heat transfer rate to each particle depends on the difference between the particle's temperature and the undisturbed fluid temperature. We borrow ideas from the correction scheme we have developed for particle-fluid momentum coupling by developing a procedure to estimate the undisturbed fluid temperature given the disturbed temperature field created by a point-particle. The procedure is verified for the case of a particle settling under gravity and subject to radiation. The procedure is developed in the low Peclet, low Boussinesq number limit, but we will discuss the applicability of the same correction procedure outside of this regime when augmented by appropriate drag and heat exchange correlations. Supported by DOE, J. H. Supported by NSF GRF

  6. Two-way coupled simulation of a flow laden with metallic particulates in overexpanded TIC nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshfegh, Abouzar; Shams, Mehrzad; Ebrahimi, Reza; Farnia, Mohammad Ali

    2009-01-01

    A simulation of non-reacting dilute gas-solid flow in a truncated ideal contour nozzle with consideration of external stream interactions is performed. The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach involving a two-way momentum and thermal coupling between gas and particles phases is also adopted. Of interests are to investigate the effects of particles diameter and mass flow fraction on the flow pattern, Mach number, pressure and temperature contours and their distributions along the nozzle centerline and wall. The main goal is to determine the separation point quantitatively when the particles characteristics change. Particles sample trajectories are illustrated throughout the flow field and a qualitative discussion on the way that physical properties of the nozzle exit flow and particles trajectories oscillate is prepared. The existence of solid particulates delays the separation prominently in the cases studied. The bigger particles and the higher particles mass flow fractions respectively advance and delay the separation occurrence. The particles trajectories oscillate when they expose to the crisscrossing (or diamond-shape) shock waves generated outside the nozzle to approach the exit jet conditions to the ambient. The simulation code is validated and verified, respectively, against a one-phase 2D convergent-divergent nozzle flow and a two-phase Jet Propulsion Laboratory nozzle flow, and acceptable agreements are achieved.

  7. Multiple player tracking in sports video: a dual-mode two-way bayesian inference approach with progressive observation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Junliang; Ai, Haizhou; Liu, Liwei; Lao, Shihong

    2011-06-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is a very challenging task yet of fundamental importance for many practical applications. In this paper, we focus on the problem of tracking multiple players in sports video which is even more difficult due to the abrupt movements of players and their complex interactions. To handle the difficulties in this problem, we present a new MOT algorithm which contributes both in the observation modeling level and in the tracking strategy level. For the observation modeling, we develop a progressive observation modeling process that is able to provide strong tracking observations and greatly facilitate the tracking task. For the tracking strategy, we propose a dual-mode two-way Bayesian inference approach which dynamically switches between an offline general model and an online dedicated model to deal with single isolated object tracking and multiple occluded object tracking integrally by forward filtering and backward smoothing. Extensive experiments on different kinds of sports videos, including football, basketball, as well as hockey, demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  8. Joint Preprocesser-Based Detectors for One-Way and Two-Way Cooperative Communication Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Abuzaid, Abdulrahman I.

    2014-05-01

    Efficient receiver designs for cooperative communication networks are becoming increasingly important. In previous work, cooperative networks communicated with the use of L relays. As the receiver is constrained, channel shortening and reduced-rank techniques were employed to design the preprocessing matrix that reduces the length of the received vector from L to U. In the first part of the work, a receiver structure is proposed which combines our proposed threshold selection criteria with the joint iterative optimization (JIO) algorithm that is based on the mean square error (MSE). Our receiver assists in determining the optimal U. Furthermore, this receiver provides the freedom to choose U for each frame depending on the tolerable difference allowed for MSE. Our study and simulation results show that by choosing an appropriate threshold, it is possible to gain in terms of complexity savings while having no or minimal effect on the BER performance of the system. Furthermore, the effect of channel estimation on the performance of the cooperative system is investigated. In the second part of the work, a joint preprocessor-based detector for cooperative communication networks is proposed for one-way and two-way relaying. This joint preprocessor-based detector operates on the principles of minimizing the symbol error rate (SER) instead of minimizing MSE. For a realistic assessment, pilot symbols are used to estimate the channel. From our simulations, it can be observed that our proposed detector achieves the same SER performance as that of the maximum likelihood (ML) detector with all participating relays. Additionally, our detector outperforms selection combining (SC), channel shortening (CS) scheme and reduced-rank techniques when using the same U. Finally, our proposed scheme has the lowest computational complexity.

  9. Interactive Two-Way mHealth Interventions for Improving Medication Adherence: An Evaluation Using The Behaviour Change Wheel Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Nicole; Guo, Michael; Amico, K Rivet; Atkins, Lou; Lester, Richard T

    2018-04-12

    Medication adherence is an important but highly complex set of behaviors, which for life-threatening and infectious diseases such as HIV carry critical consequences for individual and public health. There is growing evidence that mobile phone text messaging interventions (mHealth) connecting providers with patients positively impact medication adherence, particularly two-way engagement platforms that require bidirectional communication versus one-way in which responses are not mandatory. However, mechanisms of action have not been well defined. The Behavior Change Wheel is a comprehensive framework for behavior change that includes an all-encompassing model of behavior known as Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior and is complemented by a taxonomy of behavior change techniques. Evaluating mHealth interventions for medication adherence using these tools could provide useful insights that may contribute to optimizing their integration into the healthcare system and successful scaling-up. This study aimed to help address the current knowledge gap regarding how two-way mHealth interventions for medication adherence may work by applying the Behavior Change Wheel to characterize WelTel: an interactive digital health outreach platform with robust evidence for improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy. To characterize how WelTel may promote medication adherence, we applied the Behavior Change Wheel to systematically (1) generate a behavioral diagnosis through mapping known antiretroviral therapy adherence barriers onto the Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior model of behavior, (2) specify the behavior change techniques that WelTel delivers, (3) link identified behavior change techniques to corresponding intervention functions of the Behavior Change Wheel, and (4) connect these behavior change techniques and intervention functions to respective Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior influences on behavior to determine potential mechanisms of action. Our

  10. Interactive Two-Way mHealth Interventions for Improving Medication Adherence: An Evaluation Using The Behaviour Change Wheel Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, K Rivet; Atkins, Lou; Lester, Richard T

    2018-01-01

    Background Medication adherence is an important but highly complex set of behaviors, which for life-threatening and infectious diseases such as HIV carry critical consequences for individual and public health. There is growing evidence that mobile phone text messaging interventions (mHealth) connecting providers with patients positively impact medication adherence, particularly two-way engagement platforms that require bidirectional communication versus one-way in which responses are not mandatory. However, mechanisms of action have not been well defined. The Behavior Change Wheel is a comprehensive framework for behavior change that includes an all-encompassing model of behavior known as Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior and is complemented by a taxonomy of behavior change techniques. Evaluating mHealth interventions for medication adherence using these tools could provide useful insights that may contribute to optimizing their integration into the healthcare system and successful scaling-up. Objective This study aimed to help address the current knowledge gap regarding how two-way mHealth interventions for medication adherence may work by applying the Behavior Change Wheel to characterize WelTel: an interactive digital health outreach platform with robust evidence for improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Methods To characterize how WelTel may promote medication adherence, we applied the Behavior Change Wheel to systematically (1) generate a behavioral diagnosis through mapping known antiretroviral therapy adherence barriers onto the Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior model of behavior, (2) specify the behavior change techniques that WelTel delivers, (3) link identified behavior change techniques to corresponding intervention functions of the Behavior Change Wheel, and (4) connect these behavior change techniques and intervention functions to respective Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior influences on behavior to determine

  11. University vinculación: A two-way strategy for sustainable development and academic relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Hernández Arámburo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The public university of the twenty-first century is faced with numerous pressing issues, but none greater than the need to promote social transformation through sustainable development. The authors of this article understand sustainable development as that which brings us closer to a comprehensive social order in which humanity has the challenge of viewing reality in all its complexity, but acting simply in order to solve the socio-environmental problems we suffer. In this article, we ask the following questions: What is the university’s role within complex social structures? How can it produce a vinculación, or two-way interaction, between university and the wider environment that contributes towards sustainable development? Put most simply, where does the university fit in? This article discusses the project of the Universidad Veracruzana: that is, the establishment of a university-wide vinculación or strategic process for attending to society’s needs and problems, via the deliberate inclusion of formal processes into the university’s substantive functions of teaching, research, outreach and cultural diffusion. Furthermore, these processes include feedback mechanisms that impact on the university’s work. Over many years of engagement, the Universidad Veracruzana has built a very particular vision of the way in which a process can be organized in order to respond to the challenge of social transformation. The subsequent systematization of this experience has led to the development of the University Social Action Model, which is a strategy to clarify the social commitment of the university based on four levels of support: altruism, assistance, advice, and the promotion of self-management for social transformation. This article provides detail on how the model works in practice, as evidenced by the award-winning work of the University Brigades and Casas UV. The ultimate goal of this model is to help shift the role of the university

  12. Examining Interior Grid Nudging Techniques Using Two-Way Nesting in the WRF Model for Regional Climate Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates interior nudging techniques using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for regional climate modeling over the conterminous United States (CONUS) using a two-way nested configuration. NCEP–Department of Energy Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Pro...

  13. Formation of two-way shape memory effect in rapid-quenched TiNiCu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelyakov, A.V.; Bykovsky, Yu.A.; Matveeva, N.M.; Kovneristy, Yu.K.

    1995-01-01

    Recently we have developed a number of devices for an optical radiation control based on the shape memory effect. A blind of rapid-quenched TiNiCu alloy having a two-way shape memory in bending was used as a basic element. So far as the rapid quenched alloy used is amorphous in initial state, it needs thermal annealing to form shape memory. This paper describes procedure of thermo-mechanical treatment, that allows to form desired two-way shape memory immediately during thermal annealing of amorphous alloy without training. It was shown that degree of two-way shape recovery depends critically on initial strain, temperature and duration of the annealing. It was experimentally determined optimum parameters of thermo-mechanical treatment to achieve maximum two-way shape memory. (orig.)

  14. Deterministic one-way simulation of two-way, real-time cellular automata and its related problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeo, H; Morita, K; Sugata, K

    1982-06-13

    The authors show that for any deterministic two-way, real-time cellular automaton, m, there exists a deterministic one-way cellular automation which can simulate m in twice real-time. Moreover the authors present a new type of deterministic one-way cellular automata, called circular cellular automata, which are computationally equivalent to deterministic two-way cellular automata. 7 references.

  15. Outage performance of opportunistic two-way amplify-and-forward relaying with outdated channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, Kyusung; Ju, Minchul; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the outage performance of an amplify-and-forward (AF)-based two-way relaying (TWR) system with multiple relays where a single relay selection is performed based on outdated channel state information (CSI). Specifically, we

  16. Dealing with Activism in Canada: An Ideal Cultural Fit for the Two-Way Symmetrical Public Relations Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiniven, John E.

    2002-01-01

    Notes that disputes are seen as much less confrontational, much less zero-sum games in Canada than in the United States. Interviews 15 communications and public relations practitioners and professors with experiences on both sides of the 49th parallel and reviews relevant literature. Concludes that the greater acceptance of two-way symmetrical…

  17. Teacher and Student Language Practices and Ideologies in a Third-Grade Two-Way Dual Language Program Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Kathryn I.; Palmer, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth exploration of the language ecologies of two classrooms attempting to implement a two-way dual language (TWDL) program and its mediating conditions. Drawing on ethnographic methods and a sociocultural understanding of language, we examined both teachers' and students' language ideologies and language practices,…

  18. Optimal transmit power allocation for MIMO two-way cognitive relay networks with multiple relays using AF strategy

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.; Ghazzai, Hakim; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, we consider a multiple-input multiple-output two-way cognitive radio system under a spectrum sharing scenario, where primary and secondary users operate on the same frequency band. The secondary terminals aims to exchange different

  19. Meaning Making and Translanguaging in a Two-Way Dual-Language Program on the U.S.-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquinca, Alberto; Araujo, Blanca; de la Piedra, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes meaning-making practices in a two-way dual-language (TWDL) program on the U.S.-Mexico border among "transfronterizo" and Mexican-origin youth. In the article, we show that emergent bilingual learners and their teacher participate in activities that mediate understanding of science content knowledge. We show how the…

  20. A Latent Class Multidimensional Scaling Model for Two-Way One-Mode Continuous Rating Dissimilarity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, J. Fernando; Macias, Rodrigo; Heiser, Willem J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a cluster-MDS model for two-way one-mode continuous rating dissimilarity data. The model aims at partitioning the objects into classes and simultaneously representing the cluster centers in a low-dimensional space. Under the normal distribution assumption, a latent class model is developed in terms of the set of…

  1. Moments Based Framework for Performance Analysis of One-Way/Two-Way CSI-Assisted AF Relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Minghua

    2012-09-01

    When analyzing system performance of conventional one-way relaying or advanced two-way relaying, these two techniques are always dealt with separately and, thus, their performance cannot be compared efficiently. Moreover, for ease of mathematical tractability, channels considered in such studies are generally assumed to be subject to Rayleigh fading or to be Nakagami-$m$ channels with integer fading parameters, which is impractical in typical urban environments. In this paper, we propose a unified moments-based framework for general performance analysis of channel-state-information (CSI) assisted amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying systems. The framework is applicable to both one-way and two-way relaying over arbitrary Nakagami-$m$ fading channels, and it includes previously reported results as special cases. Specifically, the mathematical framework is firstly developed under the umbrella of the weighted harmonic mean of two Gamma-distributed variables in conjunction with the theory of Pad\\\\\\'e approximants. Then, general expressions for the received signal-to-noise ratios of the users in one-way/two-way relaying systems and the corresponding moments, moment generation function, and cumulative density function are established. Subsequently, the mathematical framework is applied to analyze, compare, and gain insights into system performance of one-way and two-way relaying techniques, in terms of outage probability, average symbol error probability, and achievable data rate. All analytical results are corroborated by simulation results as well as previously reported results whenever available, and they are shown to be efficient tools to evaluate and compare system performance of one-way and two-way relaying.

  2. Impact of I/Q imbalance on the performance of two-way CSI-assisted AF relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian; Aï ssa, Sonia; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate half-duplex two-way dual-hop channel state information (CSI)-assisted amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying in the presence of in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance. A compensation approach for the I/Q imbalance is proposed, which employs the received signals together with their conjugations to detect the desired signal. We also derive the average symbol error probability of the considered half-duplex two-way dual-hop CSI-assisted AF relaying networks with and without compensation for I/Q imbalance in Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results are provided and show that the proposed compensation method mitigates the impact of I/Q imbalance to a certain extent. © 2013 IEEE.

  3. Quantum hacking of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution using Trojan-horse attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hong-Xin; Bao Wan-Su; Li Hong-Wei; Chou Chun

    2016-01-01

    We present a Trojan-horse attack on the practical two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution system. Our attack mainly focuses on the imperfection of the practical system that the modulator has a redundancy of modulation pulse-width, which leaves a loophole for the eavesdropper inserting a Trojan-horse pulse. Utilizing the unique characteristics of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution that Alice only takes modulation operation on the received mode without any measurement, this attack allows the eavesdropper to render all of the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure without being detected. After analyzing the feasibility of the attack, the corresponding countermeasures are put forward. (paper)

  4. Quantum hacking of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution using Trojan-horse attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-Xin; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Hong-Wei; Chou, Chun

    2016-08-01

    We present a Trojan-horse attack on the practical two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution system. Our attack mainly focuses on the imperfection of the practical system that the modulator has a redundancy of modulation pulse-width, which leaves a loophole for the eavesdropper inserting a Trojan-horse pulse. Utilizing the unique characteristics of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution that Alice only takes modulation operation on the received mode without any measurement, this attack allows the eavesdropper to render all of the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure without being detected. After analyzing the feasibility of the attack, the corresponding countermeasures are put forward. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB338002) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11304397 and 61505261).

  5. Near-optimal power allocation with PSO algorithm for MIMO cognitive networks using multiple AF two-way relays

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the problem of power allocation for a multiple-input multiple-output two-way system is investigated in underlay Cognitive Radio (CR) set-up. In the CR underlay mode, secondary users are allowed to exploit the spectrum allocated to primary users in an opportunistic manner by respecting a tolerated temperature limit. The secondary networks employ an amplify-and-forward two-way relaying technique in order to maximize the sum rate under power budget and interference constraints. In this context, we formulate an optimization problem that is solved in two steps. First, we derive a closed-form expression of the optimal power allocated to terminals. Then, we employ a strong optimization tool based on particle swarm optimization algorithm to find the power allocated to secondary relays. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed solution and analyze the impact of some system parameters on the achieved performance. © 2014 IEEE.

  6. Impact of I/Q imbalance on the performance of two-way CSI-assisted AF relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate half-duplex two-way dual-hop channel state information (CSI)-assisted amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying in the presence of in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance. A compensation approach for the I/Q imbalance is proposed, which employs the received signals together with their conjugations to detect the desired signal. We also derive the average symbol error probability of the considered half-duplex two-way dual-hop CSI-assisted AF relaying networks with and without compensation for I/Q imbalance in Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results are provided and show that the proposed compensation method mitigates the impact of I/Q imbalance to a certain extent. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. Two Ways to Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    One popular approach to teacher leadership is to identify certain teachers as particularly successful, then have others learn from them. Collaborative leadership, in contrast, looks at leadership as a quality that anyone can have. In this model, the goal is not to figure out who is best. Instead, teachers share their unique talents and interests…

  8. Channel Estimation and Optimal Training Design for Correlated MIMO Two-Way Relay Systems in Colored Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Rui; Tao, Meixia; Mehrpouyan, Hani; Hua, Yingbo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, while considering the impact of antenna correlation and the interference from neighboring users, we analyze channel estimation and training sequence design for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) two-way relay (TWR) systems. To this end, we propose to decompose the bidirectional transmission links into two phases, i.e., the multiple access (MAC) phase and the broadcasting (BC) phase. By considering the Kronecker-structured channel model, we derive the optimal linear minimum mean-sq...

  9. Standardizing information exchange towards the end user. Present data models with two way communication over the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saele, Hanne; Graabak, Ingeborg; Tangen, Grethe

    2000-01-01

    The two-way communication towards the end consumer is in little use so far. There are probably several reasons for this but one important reason may be the lack of standardized interfaces for the information exchange towards the end user. The lack of such standards results in substantial system investment risks for the network companies because the systems may not be developed further and maintained should the deliverer leave the market. The communication channel Internet has expanded quickly and in Norway of today (1999) 25 to 30 % of the households have an Internet connection. The use of existing infrastructure and already tried out technology for information transferrals may contribute to making two-way communication more reasonable and functional. In the report various alternatives of standardized information exchange towards the end users are evaluated. Various formats are discussed with the following demands in mind: 1) Shall be suited for all types of communication media. 2) An international standard followed by everyone. 3) Reliable information transferral and flexible. The focus is on what kind of information is being transferred and how this is organized, and not on how the information is transferred. The discussed alternatives are evaluated both regarding traditional solutions for two- way communication and the use of the Internet. The following format alternatives are discussed: EDIEL/EDIFACT, ODEL(GS2), LonWorks/Echelon, UCA, DLMS/COSEM, COBRA and DCOM. The formats represent communication at various levels but they are mentioned in the report because they are often mentioned as possible standard formats towards the end user: ODEL, DLSM/COSEM and UCA. EDIEL is not suited for this interface. The market for two-way communication systems is international and it does not seem to be practical to establish a joint Norwegian/Swedish standard. The work with establishing one standard should therefore be continued through international standardization

  10. Two-way laser ranging and time transfer experiments between LOLA and an Earth-based satellite laser ranging station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, D.; Sun, X.; Neumann, G. A.; Barker, M. K.; Mazarico, E. M.; Hoffman, E.; Zagwodzki, T. W.; Torrence, M. H.; Mcgarry, J.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) has established time-of-flight measurements with mm precision to targets orbiting the Earth and the Moon using single-ended round-trip laser ranging to passive optical retro-reflectors. These high-precision measurements enable advances in fundamental physics, solar system dynamics. However, the received signal strength suffers from a 1/R4 decay, which makes it impractical for measuring distances beyond the Moon's orbit. On the other hand, for a two-way laser transponder pair, where laser pulses are both transmitted to and received from each end of the laser links, the signal strength at both terminals only decreases by 1/R2, thus allowing a greater range of distances to be covered. The asynchronous transponder concept has been previously demonstrated by a test in 2005 between the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) aboard the MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, Geochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft and NASA's Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) at a distance of ˜0.16 AU. In October 2013, regular two-way transponder-type range measurements were obtained over 15 days between the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft and NASA's ground station at White Sands, NM. The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) provides us a unique capability to test time-transfer beyond near Earth orbit. Here we present results from two-way transponder-type experiments between LOLA and GGAO conducted in March 2014 and 2017. As in the time-transfer by laser link (T2L2) experiments between a ground station and an earth-orbiting satellite, LOLA and GGAO ranged to each other simultaneously in these two-way tests at lunar distance. We measured the time-of-flight while cross-referencing the spacecraft clock to the ground station time. On May 4th, 2017, about 20 minutes of two-way measurements were collected. The

  11. Improved simulation of tropospheric ozone by a global-multi-regional two-way coupling model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale nonlinear chemical and physical processes over pollution source regions affect the tropospheric ozone (O3, but these processes are not captured by current global chemical transport models (CTMs and chemistry–climate models that are limited by coarse horizontal resolutions (100–500 km, typically 200 km. These models tend to contain large (and mostly positive tropospheric O3 biases in the Northern Hemisphere. Here we use the recently built two-way coupling system of the GEOS-Chem CTM to simulate the regional and global tropospheric O3 in 2009. The system couples the global model (at 2.5° long.  ×  2° lat. and its three nested models (at 0.667° long.  ×  0.5° lat. covering Asia, North America and Europe, respectively. Specifically, the nested models take lateral boundary conditions (LBCs from the global model, better capture small-scale processes and feed back to modify the global model simulation within the nested domains, with a subsequent effect on their LBCs. Compared to the global model alone, the two-way coupled system better simulates the tropospheric O3 both within and outside the nested domains, as found by evaluation against a suite of ground (1420 sites from the World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG, the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Global Monitoring Division (GMD, the Chemical Coordination Centre of European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency Air Quality System (AQS, aircraft (the High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO and Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In- Service Aircraft (MOZAIC and satellite measurements (two Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI products. The two-way coupled simulation enhances the correlation in day-to-day variation of afternoon mean surface O3

  12. Performance analysis of amplify-and-forward two-way relaying with co-channel interference and channel estimation error

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the performance of a two-way amplify-and-forward relaying network (AF TWRN) in the presence of unequal power co-channel interferers (CCI). Specifically, we consider AF TWRN with an interference-limited relay and two noisy-nodes with channel estimation error and CCI. We derive the approximate signal-to-interference plus noise ratio expressions and then use these expressions to evaluate the outage probability and error probability. Numerical results show that the approximate closed-form expressions are very close to the exact ones. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. The biological basis of a universal constraint on color naming: cone contrasts and the two-way categorization of colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Youping; Kavanau, Christopher; Bertin, Lauren; Kaplan, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have provided evidence for the existence of universal constraints on color categorization or naming in various languages, but the biological basis of these constraints is unknown. A recent study of the pattern of color categorization across numerous languages has suggested that these patterns tend to avoid straddling a region in color space at or near the border between the English composite categories of "warm" and "cool". This fault line in color space represents a fundamental constraint on color naming. Here we report that the two-way categorization along the fault line is correlated with the sign of the L- versus M-cone contrast of a stimulus color. Moreover, we found that the sign of the L-M cone contrast also accounted for the two-way clustering of the spatially distributed neural responses in small regions of the macaque primary visual cortex, visualized with optical imaging. These small regions correspond to the hue maps, where our previous study found a spatially organized representation of stimulus hue. Altogether, these results establish a direct link between a universal constraint on color naming and the cone-specific information that is represented in the primate early visual system.

  14. Joint Bandwidth and Power Allocation for MIMO Two-Way Relays-Assisted Overlay Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad; Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Kamal, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the achievable cognitive sum rate of an overlay cognitive radio (CR) system assisted with multiple antennas two-way relays in which primary users (PUs) cooperate with cognitive users (CUs) for mutual benefits. In this context, the problem of both bandwidth and power allocation is investigated. We propose that the CUs are allowed to allocate a part of the PUs spectrum to perform their cognitive transmission. In return, acting as amplify-and-forward two-way relays, they are exploited to support PUs to reach their target data rates over the remaining bandwidth. Power expressions for optimal transmit power allocated per PU and CU antenna are derived under primary quality-of-service constraint in addition to bandwidth and power budget constraints. More specifically, CUs act as relays for the PUs transmission and gain some spectrum as long as they respect these constraints. After deriving the optimal transmit powers, we employ a strong optimization tool based on swarm intelligence to optimize the full and complex relay amplification gain matrices in addition to the bandwidths released to primary and cognitive transmission. Furthermore, three different utility functions are considered in our optimization problems depending on the level of fairness among CUs.

  15. Joint terminals and relay optimization for two-way power line information exchange systems with QoS constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaolin; Rong, Yue

    2015-12-01

    The quality-of-service (QoS) criteria (measured in terms of the minimum capacity requirement in this paper) are very important to practical indoor power line communication (PLC) applications as they greatly affect the user experience. With a two-way multicarrier relay configuration, in this paper we investigate the joint terminals and relay power optimization for the indoor broadband PLC environment, where the relay node works in the amplify-and-forward (AF) mode. As the QoS-constrained power allocation problem is highly non-convex, the globally optimal solution is computationally intractable to obtain. To overcome this challenge, we propose an alternating optimization (AO) method to decompose this problem into three convex/quasi-convex sub-problems. Simulation results demonstrate the fast convergence of the proposed algorithm under practical PLC channel conditions. Compared with the conventional bidirectional direct transmission (BDT) system, the relay-assisted two-way information exchange (R2WX) scheme can meet the same QoS requirement with less total power consumption.

  16. Simulation and Analysis of Autonomous Time Synchronization Based on Asynchronism Two-way Inter-satellite Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, L.; Yang, X. H.; Sun, B. Q.; Qin, W. J.; Kong, Y.

    2013-09-01

    The measurement of the inter-satellite link is one of the key techniques in the autonomous operation of satellite navigation system. Based on the asynchronism inter-satellite two-way measurement mode in GPS constellation, the reduction formula of the inter-satellite time synchronization is built in this paper. Moreover, the corrective method of main systematic errors is proposed. Inter-satellite two-way time synchronization is simulated on the basis of IGS (International GNSS Service) precise ephemeris. The impacts of the epoch domestication of asynchronism inter-satellite link pseudo-range, the initial orbit, and the main systematic errors on satellite time synchronization are analyzed. Furthermore, the broadcast clock error of each satellite is calculated by the ``centralized'' inter-satellite autonomous time synchronization. Simulation results show that the epoch domestication of asynchronism inter-satellite link pseudo-range and the initial orbit have little impact on the satellite clock errors, and thus they needn't be taken into account. The errors caused by the relativistic effect and the asymmetry of path travel have large impact on the satellite clock errors. These should be corrected with theoretical formula. Compared with the IGS precise clock error, the root mean square of the broadcast clock error of each satellite is about 0.4 ns.

  17. Joint Bandwidth and Power Allocation for MIMO Two-Way Relays-Assisted Overlay Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad

    2015-10-08

    This paper studies the achievable cognitive sum rate of an overlay cognitive radio (CR) system assisted with multiple antennas two-way relays in which primary users (PUs) cooperate with cognitive users (CUs) for mutual benefits. In this context, the problem of both bandwidth and power allocation is investigated. We propose that the CUs are allowed to allocate a part of the PUs spectrum to perform their cognitive transmission. In return, acting as amplify-and-forward two-way relays, they are exploited to support PUs to reach their target data rates over the remaining bandwidth. Power expressions for optimal transmit power allocated per PU and CU antenna are derived under primary quality-of-service constraint in addition to bandwidth and power budget constraints. More specifically, CUs act as relays for the PUs transmission and gain some spectrum as long as they respect these constraints. After deriving the optimal transmit powers, we employ a strong optimization tool based on swarm intelligence to optimize the full and complex relay amplification gain matrices in addition to the bandwidths released to primary and cognitive transmission. Furthermore, three different utility functions are considered in our optimization problems depending on the level of fairness among CUs.

  18. Symmetric extension of bipartite quantum states and its use in quantum key distribution with two-way postprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myhr, Geir Ove

    2010-01-01

    Just like we can divide the set of bipartite quantum states into separable states and entangled states, we can divide it into states with and without a symmetric extension. The states with a symmetric extension - which includes all the separable states - behave classically in many ways, while the states without a symmetric extension - which are all entangled - have the potential to exhibit quantum effects. The set of states with a symmetric extension is closed under local quantum operations assisted by one-way classical communication (1-LOCC) just like the set of separable states is closed under local operations assisted by two-way classical communication (LOCC). Because of this, states with a symmetric extension often play the same role in a one-way communication setting as the separable states play in a two-way communication setting. We show that any state with a symmetric extension can be decomposed into a convex combination of states that have a pure symmetric extension. A necessary condition for a state to have a pure symmetric extension is that the spectra of the local and global density matrices are equal. This condition is also sufficient for two qubits, but not for any larger systems. We present a conjectured necessary and sufficient condition for two-qubit states with a symmetric extension. Proofs are provided for some classes of states: rank-two states, states on the symmetric subspace, Bell-diagonal states and states that are invariant under S x S, where S is a phase gate. We also show how the symmetric extension problem for multi-qubit Bell-diagonal states can be simplified and the simplified problem implemented as a semidefinite program. Quantum key distribution protocols such as the six-state protocol and the BB84 protocol effectively gives Alice and Bob Bell-diagonal states that they measure in the standard basis to obtain a raw key which they may then process further to obtain a secret error-free key. When the raw key has a high error rate, the

  19. Symmetric extension of bipartite quantum states and its use in quantum key distribution with two-way postprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myhr, Geir Ove

    2010-11-08

    Just like we can divide the set of bipartite quantum states into separable states and entangled states, we can divide it into states with and without a symmetric extension. The states with a symmetric extension - which includes all the separable states - behave classically in many ways, while the states without a symmetric extension - which are all entangled - have the potential to exhibit quantum effects. The set of states with a symmetric extension is closed under local quantum operations assisted by one-way classical communication (1-LOCC) just like the set of separable states is closed under local operations assisted by two-way classical communication (LOCC). Because of this, states with a symmetric extension often play the same role in a one-way communication setting as the separable states play in a two-way communication setting. We show that any state with a symmetric extension can be decomposed into a convex combination of states that have a pure symmetric extension. A necessary condition for a state to have a pure symmetric extension is that the spectra of the local and global density matrices are equal. This condition is also sufficient for two qubits, but not for any larger systems. We present a conjectured necessary and sufficient condition for two-qubit states with a symmetric extension. Proofs are provided for some classes of states: rank-two states, states on the symmetric subspace, Bell-diagonal states and states that are invariant under S x S, where S is a phase gate. We also show how the symmetric extension problem for multi-qubit Bell-diagonal states can be simplified and the simplified problem implemented as a semidefinite program. Quantum key distribution protocols such as the six-state protocol and the BB84 protocol effectively gives Alice and Bob Bell-diagonal states that they measure in the standard basis to obtain a raw key which they may then process further to obtain a secret error-free key. When the raw key has a high error rate, the

  20. Head-on crashes on two-way interurban roads: a public health concern in road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabarria, Marta; Santamariña-Rubio, Elena; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Gotsens, Mercè; Novoa, Ana M; Borrell, Carme; Pérez, Katherine

    2015-09-01

    To describe the magnitude and characteristics of crashes and drivers involved in head-on crashes on two-way interurban roads in Spain between 2007 and 2012, and to identify the factors associated with the likelihood of head-on crashes on these roads compared with other types of crash. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the National Crash Register. The dependent variables were head-on crashes with injury (yes/no) and drivers involved in head-on crashes (yes/no). Factors associated with head-on crashes and with being a driver involved in a head-on crash versus other types of crash were studied using a multivariate robust Poisson regression model to estimate proportion ratios (PR) and confidence intervals (95% CI). There were 9,192 head-on crashes on two-way Spanish interurban roads. A total of 15,412 men and 3,862 women drivers were involved. Compared with other types of crash, head-on collisions were more likely on roads 7 m or more wide, on road sections with curves, narrowings or drop changes, on wet or snowy surfaces, and in twilight conditions. Transgressions committed by drivers involved in head-on crashes were driving in the opposite direction and incorrectly overtaking another vehicle. Factors associated with a lower probability of head-on crashes were the existence of medians (PR=0.57; 95%CI: 0.48-0.68) and a paved shoulder of less than 1.5 meters (PR=0.81; 95%CI: 0.77-0.86) or from 1.5 to 2.45 meters (PR=0.90; 95%CI: 0.84-0.96). This study allowed the characterization of crashes and drivers involved in head-on crashes on two-way interurban roads. The lower probability observed on roads with median strips point to these measures as an effective way to reduce these collisions. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Give me five! – reasons for two-way communication between experts and citizens in relation to air pollution risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Loroño-Leturiondo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a major environmental concern for many populations worldwide. Communication efforts so far have been based on a one-way provision of evidence and information from experts to society, and have arguably failed in their mission to foster a more aware and engaged society, or to result in cleaner air. Globally we are facing both an air quality crisis and a communication emergency. This paper focuses on the communication of air pollution risk, from the threats it poses (e.g. severe impacts to human health to the opportunities it can create (e.g. behavioural or technological alternatives that lead to cleaner air. It supports the case for moving away from one-way communication, and identifies five key benefits of a practical two-way communication between experts and citizens in order to engender positive change and improve global air quality.

  2. Outage performance of opportunistic two-way amplify-and-forward relaying with outdated channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, Kyusung

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we study the outage performance of an amplify-and-forward (AF)-based two-way relaying (TWR) system with multiple relays where a single relay selection is performed based on outdated channel state information (CSI). Specifically, we propose a single relay selection scheme in AF-based TWR system under outdated CSI conditions. With this policy, we offer a statistical analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio per hop and analyze the outage probability with asymmetric outage thresholds based on CSI-assisted AF protocol. Additionally, we provide the exact and asymptotic expressions based on the provided statistical/joint statistical analyses of a dual-hop AF transmission. Finally, we verify our analytical results with some selected computer-based simulation results. © 1972-2012 IEEE.

  3. Performance analysis of two-way amplify and forward relaying with adaptive modulation over multiple relay network

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, Kyusung

    2011-02-01

    In this letter, we propose two-way amplify-and-forward relaying in conjunction with adaptive modulation in order to improve spectral efficiency of relayed communication systems while monitoring the required error performance. We also consider a multiple relay network where only the best relay node is utilized so that the diversity order increases while maintaining a low complexity of implementation as the number of relays increases. Based on the best relay selection criterion, we offer an upper bound on the signal-to-noise ratio to keep the performance analysis tractable. Our numerical examples show that the proposed system offers a considerable gain in spectral efficiency while satisfying the error rate requirements. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. Give me five! - reasons for two-way communication between experts and citizens in relation to air pollution risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loroño-Leturiondo, Maria; O'Hare, Paul; Cook, Simon; Hoon, Stephen R.; Illingworth, Sam

    2018-04-01

    Air pollution is a major environmental concern for many populations worldwide. Communication efforts so far have been based on a one-way provision of evidence and information from experts to society, and have arguably failed in their mission to foster a more aware and engaged society, or to result in cleaner air. Globally we are facing both an air quality crisis and a communication emergency. This paper focuses on the communication of air pollution risk, from the threats it poses (e.g. severe impacts to human health) to the opportunities it can create (e.g. behavioural or technological alternatives that lead to cleaner air). It supports the case for moving away from one-way communication, and identifies five key benefits of a practical two-way communication between experts and citizens in order to engender positive change and improve global air quality.

  5. Comparison of two-way satellite time transfer and GPS common-view time transfer between OCA and TUG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Dieter; Thyr, U.; Ressler, H.; Robnik, R.; Grudler, P.; Baumont, Francoise S.; Veillet, Christian; Lewandowski, Wlodzimierz W.; Hanson, W.; Clements, A.

    1992-01-01

    For about one year the time scales UTC(OCA) and UTC(TUG) were compared by means of GPS and two-way satellite time transfer. At the end of the experiment both links were independently 'calibrated' by measuring the differential delays of the GPS receivers and of the satellite earth stations by transportation of a GPS receiver and of one of the satellite terminals. The results obtained by both methods differ by about 3 ns, but reveal a seasonal variation of about 8 ns peak-to-peak which is likely the result of a temperature-dependence of the delays of the GPS receivers used. For the comparison of both methods the stabilities of the timescales are of great importance. Unfortunately, during the last three months of the experiment a less stable clock had to be used for the generation of UTC(TUG).

  6. On the performance of two-way multiuser mixed RF/FSO relay networks with opportunistic scheduling & asymmetric channel gains

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Eryani, Yasser F.; Salhab, Anas M.; Zummo, Salam A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of two-way relaying (TWR) multiuser mixed radio frequency/free space optical (RF/FSO) relay networks with opportunistic user scheduling and asymmetric channel fading is studied. First, closed-form expressions for the exact outage probability, asymptotic (high signal-to-noise ration (SNR)) outage probability, and average ergodic channel capacity are derived assuming heterodyne detection (HD) scheme. Additionally, impacts of several system parameters including number of users, pointing errors, and atmospheric turbulence conditions on the overall network performance are investigated. All the theoretical results are validated by Monte-Carlo simulations. The results show that the TWR scheme almost doubles the network ergodic capacity compared to that of one-way relaying (OWR) scheme with the same outage performance. Additionally, the overall diversity order of the network is shown to be affected not only by the number of users, but it is also a function of the pointing error and atmospheric turbulence conditions.

  7. Performance analysis of two-way amplify and forward relaying with adaptive modulation over multiple relay network

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, Kyusung; Ko, Youngchai; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    In this letter, we propose two-way amplify-and-forward relaying in conjunction with adaptive modulation in order to improve spectral efficiency of relayed communication systems while monitoring the required error performance. We also consider a multiple relay network where only the best relay node is utilized so that the diversity order increases while maintaining a low complexity of implementation as the number of relays increases. Based on the best relay selection criterion, we offer an upper bound on the signal-to-noise ratio to keep the performance analysis tractable. Our numerical examples show that the proposed system offers a considerable gain in spectral efficiency while satisfying the error rate requirements. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. The two way shape memory effect: influence of stabilization in single and polycrystals of Cu-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cingolani, E.; Arneodo Larochette, P.; Ahlers, M.

    2000-01-01

    The possibility to obtain a two way shape memory effect (TWME) by stabilizing the martensite through diffusion controlled processes has been analysed in single and polycrystals of Cu-Zn-Al and in single crystals of Cu-Al-Be and Cu-Al-Ni. It is shown that the four systems behave very differently: Whereas in the Cu-Zn-Al single crystals sufficient vacancies remain available during extended times to obtain a perfect TWME, in Cu-Al-Be they anneal out fast, leading to a perfect TWME only right after quenching, and in Cu-Al-Ni they remain immobile below about 200 C. In polycrystals of Cu-Zn-Al the stabilization has only a negligible effect on the TWME, due to the formation of stable martensite configurations at the grain boundaries. (orig.)

  9. Optimal transmit power allocation for MIMO two-way cognitive relay networks with multiple relays using AF strategy

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2014-02-01

    In this letter, we consider a multiple-input multiple-output two-way cognitive radio system under a spectrum sharing scenario, where primary and secondary users operate on the same frequency band. The secondary terminals aims to exchange different messages with each other using multiple relays where each relay employs an amplify-and-forward strategy. The main objective of our work is to maximize the secondary sum rate allowed to share the spectrum with the primary users by respecting a primary user tolerated interference threshold. In this context, we derive an analytical expression of the optimal power allocated to each antenna of the terminals. We then discuss the impact of some system parameters on the performance in the numerical result section. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. On the performance of two-way multiuser mixed RF/FSO relay networks with opportunistic scheduling & asymmetric channel gains

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Eryani, Yasser F.

    2017-07-20

    In this paper, the performance of two-way relaying (TWR) multiuser mixed radio frequency/free space optical (RF/FSO) relay networks with opportunistic user scheduling and asymmetric channel fading is studied. First, closed-form expressions for the exact outage probability, asymptotic (high signal-to-noise ration (SNR)) outage probability, and average ergodic channel capacity are derived assuming heterodyne detection (HD) scheme. Additionally, impacts of several system parameters including number of users, pointing errors, and atmospheric turbulence conditions on the overall network performance are investigated. All the theoretical results are validated by Monte-Carlo simulations. The results show that the TWR scheme almost doubles the network ergodic capacity compared to that of one-way relaying (OWR) scheme with the same outage performance. Additionally, the overall diversity order of the network is shown to be affected not only by the number of users, but it is also a function of the pointing error and atmospheric turbulence conditions.

  11. All-optical two-way relaying free-space optical communications for HAP-based broadband backhaul networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Minh Q.; Nguyen, Nga T. T.; Pham, Hien T. T.; Dang, Ngoc T.

    2018-03-01

    High-altitude platforms (HAPs) are flexible, non-pollutant and cost-effective infrastructures compared to satellite or old terrestrial systems. They are being researched and developed widely in Europe, USA, Japan, Korea, and so on. However, the current limited data rates and the overload of radio frequency (RF) spectrum are problems which the developers for HAPs are confronting because most of them use RF links to communicate with the ground stations (GSs) or each other. In this paper, we propose an all-optical two-way half-duplex relaying free-space optical (FSO) communication for HAP-based backhaul networks, which connect the base transceiver station (BTS) to the core network (CN) via a single HAP. Our proposed backhaul solution can be deployed quickly and flexibly for disaster relief and for serving users in both urban environments and remote areas. The key subsystem of HAP is an optical regenerate-and-forward (ORF) equipped with an optical hard-limiter (OHL) and an optical XOR gate to perform all-optical processing and help mitigate the background noise. In addition, two-way half-duplex relaying can be provided thanks to the use of network coding scheme. The closed-form expression for the bit error rate (BER) of our proposed system under the effect of path loss, atmospheric turbulence, and noise induced by the background light is formulated. The numerical results are demonstrated to prove the feasibility of our proposed system with the verification by using Monte-Carlo (M-C) simulations.

  12. Effect of indentation temperature on nickel-titanium indentation-induced two-way shape-memory surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinckmann, Stephan A.; Frensemeier, Mareike; Laursen, Christopher M.; Maier, Hans J.; Britz, Dominik; Schneider, Andreas S.; Mücklich, Frank; Frick, Carl P.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of temperature on indentation-induced one-way and two-way shape memory properties in Ti-50.3 at% Ni alloy. Indentation temperatures ranged from below the martensite finish temperature (M f ) to above the austenite finish temperature (A f ) with the explicit intent of varying the indented phase. Samples used in the study were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The topographical behavior of the shape memory effect was investigated through Vickers indentation and laser scanning 3D confocal measurements. The magnitudes of deformation recovery associated with the one-way and two-way shape-memory effect (OWSME, TWSME) decreased with increasing indentation temperatures, which is a reflection of the decreasing volume of material experiencing martensitic reorientation during indentation. Indented and subsequently planarized samples exhibited TWSME protrusions when thermally cycled. Laser scanning measurements were used to characterize the height of the protrusions as increasing depths of material were polished away, which provided insight into the overall affected volume beneath the indent. As indentation temperatures increased, both the height of the protrusions, and consequently the polish depth necessary to completely remove the effect, decreased. TEM investigations revealed that directly underneath a nanoindent the microstructure was very fine due to the high-strain deformation; this was contrasted with a much coarser grain size in the undeformed bulk material. Overall these results strongly imply that the deformation recovery associated with the OWSME and TWSME can be maximized by indenting at temperatures at M f or below because the volume of deformed microstructure beneath the indent is maximized. This finding has important practical value for any potential application that utilizes indentation-induced phase transformation deformation recovery in NiTi.

  13. Effect of indentation temperature on nickel-titanium indentation-induced two-way shape-memory surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinckmann, Stephan A. [University of Wyoming, Mechanical Engineering Department, Laramie (United States); Frensemeier, Mareike [INM - Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Saarbrücken (Germany); Laursen, Christopher M. [University of Wyoming, Mechanical Engineering Department, Laramie (United States); Maier, Hans J. [Leibniz Universität Hannover, Institut für Werkstoffkunde (Materials Science), Garbsen (Germany); Britz, Dominik [Saarland University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Saarbrücken (Germany); Schneider, Andreas S. [AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Department for Research, Development and Plate-Design, Dillingen (Germany); Mücklich, Frank [Saarland University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Saarbrücken (Germany); Frick, Carl P., E-mail: cfrick@uwyo.edu [University of Wyoming, Mechanical Engineering Department, Laramie (United States)

    2016-10-15

    This study investigated the effect of temperature on indentation-induced one-way and two-way shape memory properties in Ti-50.3 at% Ni alloy. Indentation temperatures ranged from below the martensite finish temperature (M{sub f}) to above the austenite finish temperature (A{sub f}) with the explicit intent of varying the indented phase. Samples used in the study were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The topographical behavior of the shape memory effect was investigated through Vickers indentation and laser scanning 3D confocal measurements. The magnitudes of deformation recovery associated with the one-way and two-way shape-memory effect (OWSME, TWSME) decreased with increasing indentation temperatures, which is a reflection of the decreasing volume of material experiencing martensitic reorientation during indentation. Indented and subsequently planarized samples exhibited TWSME protrusions when thermally cycled. Laser scanning measurements were used to characterize the height of the protrusions as increasing depths of material were polished away, which provided insight into the overall affected volume beneath the indent. As indentation temperatures increased, both the height of the protrusions, and consequently the polish depth necessary to completely remove the effect, decreased. TEM investigations revealed that directly underneath a nanoindent the microstructure was very fine due to the high-strain deformation; this was contrasted with a much coarser grain size in the undeformed bulk material. Overall these results strongly imply that the deformation recovery associated with the OWSME and TWSME can be maximized by indenting at temperatures at M{sub f} or below because the volume of deformed microstructure beneath the indent is maximized. This finding has important practical value for any potential application that utilizes indentation-induced phase transformation deformation recovery in NiTi.

  14. Comparison of hydro-environmental impacts for ebb-only and two-way generation for a Severn Barrage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Reza; Falconer, Roger A.; Bockelmann-Evans, Bettina

    2014-10-01

    Marine renewable energy is playing an increasing significant role in many parts of the world, mainly due to a rise in the awareness of climate change, and its detrimental effects, and the increasing cost of natural resources. The Severn Estuary, located between South West England and South Wales, has a tidal range of up to 14 m which makes it the second highest tidal range in the world. There are a number of barrage proposals amongst various marine renewable energy schemes proposed to be built in the estuary. The Cardiff-Weston STPG (Severn Tidal Power Group) Barrage, which would be one of the world's largest tidal renewable energy schemes if built, is one of the most publicised schemes to-date. This barrage would generate about 17 TWh/annum of power, which is approximately 5% of the UK's electricity consumption, whilst causing significant hydro-environmental and ecological impact on the estuary. This study mainly focuses on investigating the hydro-environmental impacts of the STPG barrage for the option of two-way generation, and compares this with the commonly investigated option of ebb-only generation. The impacts of the barrage were modelled by implementing a linked 1-D/2-D hydro-environmental model, with the capability of modelling several key environmental processes. The model predictions show that the hydro-environmental impacts of the barrage on the Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel, such as changes in the maximum velocity and reduction in suspended sediment and bacteria levels, were less significant for the two-way generation scheme when compared with the corresponding impacts for ebb-only generation.

  15. Influence of compressive load conditions and thickness on the two-way shape memory behavior in tube-shaped NiTi alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Young Ik; Shin, Dong Kil; Lee, Jung Ju; Lee, Chang Ho

    2012-01-01

    The two-way shape memory behavior of Ni 55 Ti 45 was investigated to develop a tube-shaped NiTi actuator which could generate a large amount of force. The two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) was induced by thermal cycling under various amounts of constant compressive stress. Six specimens with the same outer diameter and different thickness were used to apply the TWSME to an actuator. A fast saturation tendency of the recovery strain was shown through training at each level of constant stress, after which the two-way shape memory strain was quantitatively measured during thermal cycling for each level of applied stress. From the results, the maximum two-way strain value was obtained after training at a constant level of stress and then decreased thereafter. In addition, the two-way strain was found to depend on the thickness of the tube-shaped specimen. All specimens could be divided into two groups depending on the rate of increase in the two-way strain. After two-way strain was obtained, the two-way recovery stress was measured to verify the performance of the sample as an actuator. The results showed that the two-way recovery stress behavior was similar to the two-way strain; if the optimal thickness of the specimen and the stress applied for training are used for the development of the TWSME, tube-shaped NiTi using the TWSME can replace one-way shape memory alloys. (paper)

  16. Two-way communication between SecY and SecA suggests a Brownian ratchet mechanism for protein translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, William John; Corey, Robin Adam; Oatley, Peter; Sessions, Richard Barry; Baldwin, Steve A; Radford, Sheena E; Tuma, Roman; Collinson, Ian

    2016-05-16

    The essential process of protein secretion is achieved by the ubiquitous Sec machinery. In prokaryotes, the drive for translocation comes from ATP hydrolysis by the cytosolic motor-protein SecA, in concert with the proton motive force (PMF). However, the mechanism through which ATP hydrolysis by SecA is coupled to directional movement through SecYEG is unclear. Here, we combine all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with single molecule FRET and biochemical assays. We show that ATP binding by SecA causes opening of the SecY-channel at long range, while substrates at the SecY-channel entrance feed back to regulate nucleotide exchange by SecA. This two-way communication suggests a new, unifying 'Brownian ratchet' mechanism, whereby ATP binding and hydrolysis bias the direction of polypeptide diffusion. The model represents a solution to the problem of transporting inherently variable substrates such as polypeptides, and may underlie mechanisms of other motors that translocate proteins and nucleic acids.

  17. Two Ways to Examine Differential Constitutive Equations: Initiated on Steady or Initiated on Unsteady (LAOS Shear Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zelenkova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The exponential Phan–Tien and Tanner (PTT, Giesekus, Leonov, and modified extended Pom–Pom (mXPP differential constitutive models are evaluated in two ways: with regard to steady shear characteristics and with regard to large amplitude oscillatory shear characteristics of a solution of poly(ethylene oxide in dimethyl sulfoxide. Efficiency of the models with nonlinear parameters optimized with respect to steady shear measurements is evaluated by their ability to describe large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS characteristics. The reciprocal problem is also analyzed: The nonlinear parameters are optimized with respect to the LAOS measurements, and the models are confronted with the steady shear characteristics. In this case, optimization is based on the LAOS measurements and equal emphasis is placed on both real and imaginary parts of the stress amplitude. The results show that the chosen models are not adequately able to fit the LAOS characteristics if the optimization of nonlinear parameters is based on steady shear measurements. It follows that the optimization of nonlinear parameters is much more responsible if it is carried out with respect to the LAOS data. In this case, when the optimized parameters are used for a description of steady shear characteristics, efficiency of the individual models as documented differs.

  18. Determination of turbine runner dynamic behaviour under operating condition by a two-way staggered fluid-structureinteraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dompierre, F; Sabourin, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the application of the two-way fluid-structure interaction method introduced by ANSYS to calculate the dynamic behaviour of a Francis turbine runner under operating condition. This time-dependant calculation directly takes into account characteristics of the flow and particularly the pressure fluctuations caused by the rotor-stator interaction. This formulation allows the calculation of the damping forces of the whole system implicitly. Thereafter, the calculated dynamic stress can be used for a fatigue analysis. A verification of the mechanical and fluid simulations used as input for the fluid-structure interaction calculation is first performed. Subsequently, a connection of these two independent simulations is made. A validation according to the hydraulic conditions is made with the measurements from the scale model testing. Afterwards, the static displacement of the runner under the hydraulic load is compared with the results of a classical static analysis for verification purposes. Finally, the natural frequencies deduced by the post-processing of the dynamic portion of the runner displacement with respect to time are compared with the natural frequencies obtained from a classical acoustic modal analysis. All comparisons show a good agreement with experimental data or results obtained with conventional methods.

  19. Secrecy in Wireless Information and Power Transfer for One-Way and Two-Way Untrusted Relaying with Friendly Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An untrusted relay system combined with a simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT scheme is considered in one-way and two-way relaying transmission strategies. In the system, two source nodes can only communicate with each other via an untrusted energy harvesting relay node, which sends the message by using its harvested energy from the source nodes. Specifically, we classify the intermediate relay as an eavesdropper into two modes: active eavesdropper and nonactive eavesdropper, depending on whether it has sufficient energy of its own to transmit the message or not. Under a simplified three-node fading wiretap channel setup, the transmit power allocation and power splitting ratio are jointly optimized to minimize the outage probability in the delay-sensitive case and to maximize the average rate in the delay-insensitive case, subject to the average and peak total power constraints. Applying the dual-decomposition method, the optimization problem can be efficiently solved in the delay-sensitive scenario. Moreover, an iterative algorithm is proposed to derive the solution to maximize the average rate in the delay-insensitive scenario. Numerical results demonstrate the performance of system outage probability in the two modes versus different rates and how efficiently the secrecy rate is improved compared with traditional schemes.

  20. One-way versus two-way text messaging on improving medication adherence: meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, David S; Butt, Shahena; Bestwick, Jonathan P

    2015-10-01

    Mobile telephone text messaging is a simple potential solution to the failure to take medications as directed. There is uncertainty over the effectiveness of 1-way text messaging (sending text message reminders only) compared with 2-way text messaging (sending reminders and receiving replies confirming whether medication has been taken) as a means of improving medication adherence. A meta-analysis of 8 randomized trials (1994 patients) that tested the effectiveness of text messaging on medication adherence was performed. The trials were divided into 2 groups: trials using 1-way text messaging versus no text messaging and trials using 2-way text messaging versus no text messaging. The summary estimates of the effect of the 2 methods of text messaging (1-way or 2-way) were compared. The summary relative risk estimate was 1.04 (95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.11) for 1-way text messaging and 1.23 (95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.35) for 2-way text messaging. The difference in effect between the 2 methods was statistically significant (P = .007). Two-way text messaging is associated with substantially improved medication adherence compared with 1-way text messaging. This has important implications in the provision of mobile-based messaging in the management of patients taking medication for the prevention of chronic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental and numerical analysis of pre-compressed masonry walls in two-way-bending with second order effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milani, Gabriele, E-mail: milani@stru.polimi.it [Department of Architecture, Built Environment and Construction Engineering (ABC), Politecnico diMilano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Olivito, Renato S. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile - Università della Calabria Via P Bucci 39 B - 87036 RENDE (CS) (Italy); Tralli, Antonio [Department of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2014-10-06

    The buckling behavior of slender unreinforced masonry (URM) walls subjected to axial compression and out-of-plane lateral loads is investigated through a combined experimental and numerical homogenizedapproach. After a preliminary analysis performed on a unit cell meshed by means of elastic FEs and non-linear interfaces, macroscopic moment-curvature diagrams so obtained are implemented at a structural level, discretizing masonry by means of rigid triangular elements and non-linear interfaces. The non-linear incremental response of the structure is accounted for a specific quadratic programming routine. In parallel, a wide experimental campaign is conducted on walls in two way bending, with the double aim of both validating the numerical model and investigating the behavior of walls that may not be reduced to simple cantilevers or simply supported beams. Panels investigated are dry-joint in scale square walls simply supported at the base and on a vertical edge, exhibiting the classical Rondelet’s mechanism. The results obtained are compared with those provided by the numerical model.

  2. Experimental and numerical analysis of pre-compressed masonry walls in two-way-bending with second order effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, Gabriele; Olivito, Renato S.; Tralli, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The buckling behavior of slender unreinforced masonry (URM) walls subjected to axial compression and out-of-plane lateral loads is investigated through a combined experimental and numerical homogenizedapproach. After a preliminary analysis performed on a unit cell meshed by means of elastic FEs and non-linear interfaces, macroscopic moment-curvature diagrams so obtained are implemented at a structural level, discretizing masonry by means of rigid triangular elements and non-linear interfaces. The non-linear incremental response of the structure is accounted for a specific quadratic programming routine. In parallel, a wide experimental campaign is conducted on walls in two way bending, with the double aim of both validating the numerical model and investigating the behavior of walls that may not be reduced to simple cantilevers or simply supported beams. Panels investigated are dry-joint in scale square walls simply supported at the base and on a vertical edge, exhibiting the classical Rondelet’s mechanism. The results obtained are compared with those provided by the numerical model

  3. Assessing Fan Flutter Stability in Presence of Inlet Distortion Using One-Way and Two-Way Coupled Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    Concerns regarding noise, propulsive efficiency, and fuel burn are inspiring aircraft designs wherein the propulsive turbomachines are partially (or fully) embedded within the airframe; such designs present serious concerns with regard to aerodynamic and aeromechanic performance of the compression system in response to inlet distortion. Previously, a preliminary design of a forward-swept high-speed fan exhibited flutter concerns in clean-inlet flows, and the present author then studied this fan further in the presence of off-design distorted in-flows. Continuing this research, a three-dimensional, unsteady, Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code is again applied to analyze and corroborate fan performance with clean inlet flow and now with a simplified, sinusoidal distortion of total pressure at the aerodynamic interface plane. This code, already validated in its application to assess aerodynamic damping of vibrating blades at various flow conditions using a one-way coupled energy-exchange approach, is modified to include a two-way coupled timemarching aeroelastic simulation capability. The two coupling methods are compared in their evaluation of flutter stability in the presence of distorted in-flows.

  4. Accessibility to information and communications technology for the social participation of youths with disabilities: a two-way street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuer, Naomi; Keter, Ayala; Sachs, Dalia

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined by mixed method the effectiveness of an accessibility to Information and Communications Technology (ICT) program that provided computers, assistive technology, tutors, and internet connection to 65 youths with severe disabilities (aged 13.22 ± 3.4 years) in their homes. The quantitative evaluation included assessment of computer task performance, computer skills, and participation in social ICT leisure activities before and after the program. Findings revealed low baseline and significant progress on most outcome measures 6 months after the program, mostly among those youths who had tutors. Additional in-depth interviews were conducted 1 year later with 10 participants to explore their ICT use and its impact on their social participation. The analysis revealed a significant contribution of the ICT use, while critical thinking about its risks and some disappointment with the social needs that ICT does not address. Our findings raise awareness of 'two-way streets' policies and programs to ensure e-inclusion. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Digital Communication and Politics in Aragon. A two-way communication formula for the interaction between politicians and citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ruiz-Carreras

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents blogs as an innovative and rich tool for political communication. Blogs can facilitate two-way communication and true interaction between citizens and politicians. The article analyses in depth the content, uses, and characteristics of five weblogs written by Aragonese politicians. Although the study detects some weaknesses in the current political use of blogs, it encourages political parties to use blogs and other online resources, not only during electoral campaigns to improve the reputation of political leaders but also continuously and particularly in situations of special interest for the citizenship. The study shows that the use of blogs by Aragonese politicians is no longer just a transitory phenomenon and has become a reality. The article also demonstrates that politicians use blogs mostly as a pre-electoral tooland to a much lesser extent as an element of communication to promote democracy. It has been observed that politicians’ blogs are used as a tool to overcome situations of crisis and to compensate negative opinions caused by questionable acts.

  6. Determination of turbine runner dynamic behaviour under operating condition by a two-way staggered fluid-structureinteraction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dompierre, F; Sabourin, M, E-mail: frederick.dompierre@power.alstom.co [Alstom Power Systems, Hydro 1350 chemin Saint-Roch, Sorel-Tracy (Quebec), J3R 5P9 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    This paper presents the application of the two-way fluid-structure interaction method introduced by ANSYS to calculate the dynamic behaviour of a Francis turbine runner under operating condition. This time-dependant calculation directly takes into account characteristics of the flow and particularly the pressure fluctuations caused by the rotor-stator interaction. This formulation allows the calculation of the damping forces of the whole system implicitly. Thereafter, the calculated dynamic stress can be used for a fatigue analysis. A verification of the mechanical and fluid simulations used as input for the fluid-structure interaction calculation is first performed. Subsequently, a connection of these two independent simulations is made. A validation according to the hydraulic conditions is made with the measurements from the scale model testing. Afterwards, the static displacement of the runner under the hydraulic load is compared with the results of a classical static analysis for verification purposes. Finally, the natural frequencies deduced by the post-processing of the dynamic portion of the runner displacement with respect to time are compared with the natural frequencies obtained from a classical acoustic modal analysis. All comparisons show a good agreement with experimental data or results obtained with conventional methods.

  7. Performance Analysis of Amplify-and-Forward Two-Way Relaying with Co-Channel Interference and Channel Estimation Error

    KAUST Repository

    Liang Yang,

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we consider the performance of a two-way amplify-and-forward relaying network (AF TWRN) in the presence of unequal power co-channel interferers (CCI). Specifically, we first consider AF TWRN with an interference-limited relay and two noisy-nodes with channel estimation errors and CCI. We derive the approximate signal-to-interference plus noise ratio expressions and then use them to evaluate the outage probability, error probability, and achievable rate. Subsequently, to investigate the joint effects of the channel estimation error and CCI on the system performance, we extend our analysis to a multiple-relay network and derive several asymptotic performance expressions. For comparison purposes, we also provide the analysis for the relay selection scheme under the total power constraint at the relays. For AF TWRN with channel estimation error and CCI, numerical results show that the performance of the relay selection scheme is not always better than that of the all-relay participating case. In particular, the relay selection scheme can improve the system performance in the case of high power levels at the sources and small powers at the relays.

  8. Two-Way 4D Printing: A Review on the Reversibility of 3D-Printed Shape Memory Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Yilin Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of additive manufacturing and advances in shape memory materials have fueled the progress of four-dimensional (4D printing. With the right external stimulus, the need for human interaction, sensors, and batteries will be eliminated, and by using additive manufacturing, more complex devices and parts can be produced. With the current understanding of shape memory mechanisms and with improved design for additive manufacturing, reversibility in 4D printing has recently been proven to be feasible. Conventional one-way 4D printing requires human interaction in the programming (or shape-setting phase, but reversible 4D printing, or two-way 4D printing, will fully eliminate the need for human interference, as the programming stage is replaced with another stimulus. This allows reversible 4D printed parts to be fully dependent on external stimuli; parts can also be potentially reused after every recovery, or even used in continuous cycles—an aspect that carries industrial appeal. This paper presents a review on the mechanisms of shape memory materials that have led to 4D printing, current findings regarding 4D printing in alloys and polymers, and their respective limitations. The reversibility of shape memory materials and their feasibility to be fabricated using three-dimensional (3D printing are summarized and critically analyzed. For reversible 4D printing, the methods of 3D printing, mechanisms used for actuation, and strategies to achieve reversibility are also highlighted. Finally, prospective future research directions in reversible 4D printing are suggested.

  9. Responses to two-way selection on growth in mass-spawned F1 progeny of Argopecten irradians concentricus (Say)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Jin; Li, Yanhong; Zhu, Xiaowen; Liu, Zhigang

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, the effect of one-generation divergent selection on the growth and survival of the bay scallop ( Argopecten irradians concentricus) was examined to evaluate the efficacy of a selection program currently being carried out in Beibu Bay in the South China Sea. A total of 146 adult scallops were randomly selected from the same cultured population of A. i. concentricus, and divided into two groups in shell length (anterior-posterior measurement): large (4.91-6.02 cm, n=74) and small (3.31-4.18 cm, n=72). At the same time, a control group was also randomly sampled (4.21-4.88 cm, n =80). Mass-spawned F 1 progenies from the three size groups were obtained and reared under identical conditions at all growth phases. The effects of two-way (or upward-downward) selection on fertilization rate, hatching rate, survival rate, daily growth in shell length and body weight were assessed in the three size groups. Results show that significant differences ( Pfertilization rate ( P>0.05), among the three groups. The hatching rate, survival rate and daily growth of the progeny of large-sized parents were greater than those of the control group ( Pbody weight were 0.32 ± 0.04 cm and 2.18 ± 0.05 g, respectively, for the upward selection, and -0.14 ± 0.03 cm and -2.77 ± 0.06 g, respectively, for the downward selection. The realized heritability estimates of shell length and body weight were 0.38 ± 0.06 cm and 0.22 ± 0.07 g for the upward selection, and 0.24 ± 0.06 cm and 0.37 ± 0.09 g for the downward selection, respectively. The change in growth by bidirectional selection suggests that high genetic variation may be present in the cultured bay scallop population in China.

  10. Pin level neutronic - thermal hydraulic two-way-coupling using DYN3D-SP3 and SUBCHANFLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Armando Gomez; Espinoza, Victor Sanchez; Imke, Uwe; Juan, Rafael Macian

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays several Reactor Dynamic Codes, (RDC) are able to solve the diffusion equation or even the transport equation (SP3 approximation) considering feedback parameters coming from the thermalhydraulic (TH) core behavior. These kinds of codes (DYN3D, PARCS, among others) usually contain a 1D two phase flow thermalhydraulic model capable to pass them assembly averaged feedback parameters. At fuel assembly base this nodal coupling is completely a two way coupling. The Neutronic part calculates the mean power of the whole assembly and passes it to the TH part in order to actualize the heat source. In turn, the TH model passes the assembly-based feedback parameters to the neutronic code for actualizing the nodal cross sections. The process will be repeated until convergence. At pin level, the current situation is somehow different. Although the neutronic solver can pass the pin power distribution in every sub - node (pin distribution), the 1-D TH model will average the pin power distribution to assembly-based scale and will give back assembly averaged feedbacks to the neutronic part for cross sections up-date (one and a half way coupling), leading to information loss in the calculation. A new coupled program system DYNSUB was developed by coupling DYN3D-SP3 and SUBCHANFLOW at pin level. DYNSUB was used to analyze stationary PWR minicore problems at pin-level. The comparison of the Keff predicted by DYNSUB with the one calculated by DYN3D-SP3 (coarse TH solution) shows small differences of up to 26 pcm. Differences up to 4.5% were found in the radial distribution of the pin power. The local safety parameters such as cladding and fuel temperature predicted with DYNSUB shows larger deviations compared with the ones obtained with DYN3D-SP3. These differences may increase when analyzing transients. (author)

  11. A Novel Dual-cre Motif Enables Two-Way Autoregulation of CcpA in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Liu, Yanqiang; Yang, Yunpeng; Jiang, Weihong; Gu, Yang

    2018-04-15

    The master regulator CcpA (catabolite control protein A) manages a large and complex regulatory network that is essential for cellular physiology and metabolism in Gram-positive bacteria. Although CcpA can affect the expression of target genes by binding to a cis -acting catabolite-responsive element ( cre ), whether and how the expression of CcpA is regulated remain poorly explored. Here, we report a novel dual- cre motif that is employed by the CcpA in Clostridium acetobutylicum , a typical solventogenic Clostridium species, for autoregulation. Two cre sites are involved in CcpA autoregulation, and they reside in the promoter and coding regions of CcpA. In this dual- cre motif, cre P , in the promoter region, positively regulates ccpA transcription, whereas cre ORF , in the coding region, negatively regulates this transcription, thus enabling two-way autoregulation of CcpA. Although CcpA bound cre P more strongly than cre ORF in vitro , the in vivo assay showed that cre ORF -based repression dominates CcpA autoregulation during the entire fermentation. Finally, a synonymous mutation of cre ORF was made within the coding region, achieving an increased intracellular CcpA expression and improved cellular performance. This study provides new insights into the regulatory role of CcpA in C. acetobutylicum and, moreover, contributes a new engineering strategy for this industrial strain. IMPORTANCE CcpA is known to be a key transcription factor in Gram-positive bacteria. However, it is still unclear whether and how the intracellular CcpA level is regulated, which may be essential for maintaining normal cell physiology and metabolism. We discovered here that CcpA employs a dual- cre motif to autoregulate, enabling dynamic control of its own expression level during the entire fermentation process. This finding answers the questions above and fills a void in our understanding of the regulatory network of CcpA. Interference in CcpA autoregulation leads to improved cellular

  12. Numerical simulation of the optimal two-mode attacks for two-way continuous-variable quantum cryptography in reverse reconciliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yichen; Zhao, Yijia; Yu, Song; Li, Zhengyu; Guo, Hong

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the security of the two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol in reverse reconciliation against general two-mode attacks, which represent all accessible attacks at fixed channel parameters. Rather than against one specific attack model, the expression of secret key rates of the two-way protocol are derived against all accessible attack models. It is found that there is an optimal two-mode attack to minimize the performance of the protocol in terms of both secret key rates and maximal transmission distances. We identify the optimal two-mode attack, give the specific attack model of the optimal two-mode attack and show the performance of the two-way protocol against the optimal two-mode attack. Even under the optimal two-mode attack, the performances of two-way protocol are still better than the corresponding one-way protocol, which shows the advantage of making double use of the quantum channel and the potential of long-distance secure communication using a two-way protocol. (paper)

  13. Assimilation of Sea Surface Temperature in a doubly, two-way nested primitive equation model of the Ligurian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A.; Alvera-Azcarate, A.; Rixen, M.; Beckers, J.-M.; Testut, C.-E.; Brankart, J.-M.; Brasseur, P.

    2003-04-01

    The GHER 3D primitive equation model is implemented with three different resolutions: a low resolution model (1/4^o) covering the whole Mediterranean Sea, an intermediate resolution model (1/20^o) of the Liguro-Provençal basin and a high resolution model (1/60^o) simulating the fine mesoscale structures in the Ligurian Sea. Boundary conditions and the averaged fields (feedback) are exchanged between two successive nesting levels. The model of the Ligurian Sea is also coupled with the assimilation package SESAM. It allows to assimilate satellite data and in situ observations using the local adaptative SEEK (Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman) filter. Instead of evolving the error space by the numerically expensive Lyapunov equation, a simplified algebraic equation depending on the misfit between observation and model forecast is used. Starting from the 1st January 1998 the low and intermediate resolution models are spun up for 18 months. The initial conditions for the Ligurian Sea are interpolated from the intermediate resolution model. The three models are then integrated until August 1999. During this period AVHRR Sea Surface Temperature of the Ligurian Sea is assimilated. The results are validated by using CTD and XBT profiles of the SIRENA cruise from the SACLANT Center. The overall objective of this study is pre-operational. It should help to identify limitations and weaknesses of forecasting methods and to suggest improvements of existing operational models.

  14. An overview of applications of the mesomechanical approach to shape memory phenomena – completed by a new application to two-way shape memory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kafka, Vratislav

    19 2008, č. 1 (2008), s. 3-17 ISSN 1045-389X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : shape memory * mesomechanics * two-way shape memory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2008

  15. Reasons for Enrollment at a Spanish-English Two-Way Immersion Charter School among Highly Motivated Parents from a Diverse Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Erin F.; Feinauer, Erika

    2011-01-01

    This study builds on previous work to examine parent reasons for enrolling their children in a two-way immersion (TWI) charter school. This work goes beyond ethno linguistic background variables (language, ethnicity), to include other key variables such as education level, income, religion, household distance from school, and family structure.…

  16. Exploring Associations among Writing Self-Perceptions, Writing Abilities, and Native Language of English-Spanish Two-Way Immersion Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Sabina R.; Howard, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    The current study, with 409 fourth graders in two-way immersion programs, explored the writing self-perceptions of native English and native Spanish speakers and the relationship between self-perceptions and writing performance. An adapted version of the Writer Self-Perception Scale (WSPS) was administered along with a writing task. Native English…

  17. Joint implementation along two ways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vos, R.

    1997-01-01

    In the test phase to the year 2000 joint implementation (JI) must prove to be a valuable tool for the climate change policy. The Dutch Ministries of Housing, Planning and Environmental Protection (VROM) and Economic Affairs (EZ) would like to form a basis for a JI-protocol during the Climate Conference in Kyoto, Japan, which will be held at the end of 1997. However, the Ministry of Development Cooperation wants to follow a more careful approach towards the cooperation with developing countries. Special attention is paid to a JI-project in Romania

  18. Two-Way Tether Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, George F.

    1994-01-01

    Safety-tether device enables crewmembers on spacecraft to retrieve crewmember drifting away from spacecraft. Alternatively, drifting crewmember who carries device uses it to grasp and return to spacecraft. Also used on Earth. For example, rescuer on vessel or pier uses it to retrieve and haul drowning or unconscious person to safety; drifting person or rescuer in water uses it to grasp and hold onto support.

  19. Two ways to support reflexivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Knudsen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    A current challenge to public managers is the lack of a well-defined role. How can master’s programmes prepare managers to live up to an undefined function? In this paper we argue that the lack of role description enhances the need for reflexivity and show how it is done at Master in Educational...... Management (MEM). MEM provides the participating managers with a new language that can give them a critical distance to the overload of expectations they meet at work and MEM teaches the participants to translate this new language into practice. The pedagogy used for this is labelled ‘experimental management...

  20. Asymptotic Performance Analysis of Two-Way Relaying FSO Networks with Nonzero Boresight Pointing Errors Over Double-Generalized Gamma Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2018-01-01

    In this correspondence, an asymptotic performance analysis for two-way relaying free-space optical (FSO) communication systems with nonzero boresight pointing errors over double-generalized gamma fading channels is presented. Assuming amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying, two nodes having the FSO ability can communicate with each other through the optical links. With this setup, an approximate cumulative distribution function (CDF) expression for the overall signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is presented. With this statistic distribution, we derive the asymptotic analytical results for the outage probability and average bit error rate. Furthermore, we provide the asymptotic average capacity analysis for high SNR by using the momentsbased method.

  1. Asymptotic Performance Analysis of Two-Way Relaying FSO Networks with Nonzero Boresight Pointing Errors Over Double-Generalized Gamma Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2018-05-07

    In this correspondence, an asymptotic performance analysis for two-way relaying free-space optical (FSO) communication systems with nonzero boresight pointing errors over double-generalized gamma fading channels is presented. Assuming amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying, two nodes having the FSO ability can communicate with each other through the optical links. With this setup, an approximate cumulative distribution function (CDF) expression for the overall signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is presented. With this statistic distribution, we derive the asymptotic analytical results for the outage probability and average bit error rate. Furthermore, we provide the asymptotic average capacity analysis for high SNR by using the momentsbased method.

  2. The effect of internal and external stress on two-way shape-memory behaviour in Co49Ni21.6Ga29.4 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, G D; Dai, X F; Luo, H Z; Liu, H Y; Meng, F B; Li, Y; Yu, X; Chen, J L; Wu, G H

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the internal stress on the two-way shape memory in Co 49 Ni 21.6 Ga 29.4 single crystals has been investigated. We found that the internal stress generated natively by the solidifying process works as a tensile force along the growth direction. Applying different compressive pre-stresses along the [0 0 1] direction, the shape-memory strain can be continuously changed from +1.0% to -2.3%. In the [1 1 0] direction, the strain monotonically increases from -2.0% to -4.0% due to a strong detwinning produced by the consistent effect of the external and internal stresses.

  3. Research and development on a single-frequency simultaneous two-way cellular wireless device; Ichishuha doji sohoko ido musenki ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A cellular wireless device performs signal transmission and receiving using only one assigned frequency because of effective frequency utilization, and therefore, is inconvenient in actual use. For this reason, a cellular wireless device operating on a new principle was developed to make simultaneous two-way calls possible on one frequency. The operation principle is such that one frequency is used, voice signal is divided on the transmission side at every 0.4 second, compressed in time to 1/2, and transmitted in 0.2 second upon modulation; and the receiving side extends the signal to a double length upon demodulation to take out the original voice signal. Thus, the transmission time is reduced to half, and the remaining half time thus obtained is assigned to the receiving time from a caller in the similar method to perform a two-way simultaneous call. Both hands can be used freely during a call, making the safe call possible even while driving a vehicle or performing a work. High confidentiality can be maintained by means of voice processing, compression, and extension. Size of the device was reduced, reliability and clarity were optimized, and a large number of frequency can be switched easily. Field test have proved that the device meets the criteria specified in the Electric Wave Law. The device was begun of business use in 1992. It can be connected with portable type telephone sets and those used in business compounds. 2 figs.

  4. Effect of electrothermal annealing on the transformation behavior of TiNi shape memory alloy and two-way shape memory spring actuated by direct electrical current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.G.; Zu, X.T.; Feng, X.D.; Zhu, S.; Deng, J.; Wang, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the effect of electrothermal annealing on the transformation characterization of TiNi shape memory alloy and the electrothermal actuating characteristics of a two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) extension spring were investigated with direct electrical current. The results showed that with increasing direct electrical current density, the B2→R-phase transformation shifts to a lower temperature and R-phase→B19' shifts to a higher temperature in the cooling process. When annealing electrical current density reached 12.2 A/mm 2 , the R-phase disappeared and austenite transformed into martensite directly. The electrothermal annealing was an effective method of heat treatment in a selected part of shape memory alloy device. The electrothermal actuating characteristics of a TWSME spring showed that the time response and the maximum elongation greatly depended on the magnitude of the electrical current

  5. The training and re-training procedures for the two way memory effect and its degradation in a Cu-Al-Be alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga, H.F.; Belkahla, S.; Nika, V.; Guenin, G.

    1996-01-01

    The β phase of the Cu-Al-Be alloy, as other copper based alloys, presents a thermoelastic martensitic transformation. This transition (β → β) is responsible of different special effects: The shape memory effect (SME), the superelasticity, and the two way memory effect (TWME). The TWME corresponds to the memorization of two shapes: the low temperature one in the martensitic state and the high temperature one in the austenitic state. The change between one shape to the other is performed by simple temperature change. The TWME is not inherent to the martensitic transformation, it must be induced by a thermomechanical treatment called training. The aim of this work is first to demonstrate the ability of Cu-Al-Be alloys to display a good TWME, then to study its thermal degradation, and finally to explore the possibility of re-training a TWME aged sample

  6. Die weg van die Here in die woestyn oftewel God se grootpad in die wildernis: Oor A Story of two Ways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Loader

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The Lord�s way in the desert or: God�s highway in the Wilderness. On A Story of two Ways This paper contends that the history of the study of the Old Testament in South Africa, written by Professor J. H. le Roux, is a very important work, although flawed in certain respects. It is argued that the author himself reads his texts too �immanently', that he paints static portraits of scholars while discarding development, that an either-or picture is drawn in which such overriding concern for an �immanent�-historical opposition is manifested that the result is an oversimplified presentation with apologetic overtones, and that the criteria for inclusion in the hook are applied arbitrarily.

  7. In situ TEM observations of the thermal degradation of the two way memory effect in a Cu-Al-Be alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Zuniga, H.; Guenin, G.

    1995-01-01

    A Cu-Al-Be alloy with a martensitic transformation temperature (M S ) lower than room temperature, was trained to induce the two way memory effect (TWME) and the aging effects in austenitic phase were studied by in-situ observations in a Transmission Electron Microscope. The results show movements of dislocations at temperatures where the TWME deformation is well known to decrease after short aging times (about an hour). Since the Burgers vector of these dislocations does not change during aging, and precipitates have been not observed, we concluded that the TWME degrades as a result of modifications in the internal stresses field distribution associated with dislocation movements, that produces a more random orientation of martensitic plates on cooling. (orig.)

  8. Association between prepulse inhibition of the startle response and latent inhibition of two-way avoidance acquisition: A study with heterogeneous NIH-HS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-González, Ana; Esnal, Aitor; Río-Álamos, Cristóbal; Oliveras, Ignasi; Cañete, Toni; Blázquez, Gloria; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    This study presents the first evaluation of the associations between responses in two paradigms related to schizophrenia in the genetically heterogeneous NIH-HS rat stock. NIH-HS rats are a stock of genetically heterogeneous animals that have been derived from eight different inbred strains. A rotational breeding schedule has been followed for more than eighty generations, leading to a high level of genetic recombination that makes the NIH-HS rats a unique tool for studying the genetic basis of (biological, behavioral, disease-related) complex traits. Previous work has dealt with the characterization of coping styles, cognitive and anxiety/fear-related profiles of NIH-HS rats. In the present study we have completed their characterization in two behavioral models, prepulse inhibition (PPI) and latent inhibition (LI) of the two-way active avoidance response, that appear to be related to schizophrenia or to schizophrenia-relevant symptoms. We have found that these rats display PPI for each of the four prepulse intensities tested, allowing their stratification in high, medium and low PPI subgroups. When testing these three subgroups for LI of two-way active avoidance acquisition it has been observed that the LowPPI and MediumPPI subgroups present impaired LI, which, along with the fact that the HighPPI group presents significant LI, allows us to hypothesize that responses in these two paradigms are somehow related and that selection of NIH-HS rats for Low vs HighPPI could make a promising animal model for the study of clusters of schizophrenia-relevant symptoms and their underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Two-Way Interpretation about Climate Change: Preliminary Results from a Study in Select Units of the United States National Park System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forist, B. E.; Knapp, D.

    2014-12-01

    Much interpretation in units of the National Park System, conducted by National Park Service (NPS) rangers and partners today is done in a didactic, lecture style. This "one-way" communication runs counter to research suggesting that long-term impacts of park interpretive experiences must be established through direct connections with the visitor. Previous research in interpretation has suggested that interpretive experiences utilizing a "two-way" dialogue approach are more successful at facilitating long-term memories than "one-way" approaches where visitors have few, if any, opportunities to ask questions, offer opinions, or share interests and experiences. Long-term memories are indicators of connections to places and resources. Global anthropogenic change poses critical threats to NPS sites, resources, and visitor experiences. As climate change plays an ever-expanding role in public, political, social, economic, and environmental discourse it stands to reason that park visitors may also be interested in engaging in this discourse. Indeed, NPS Director Jonathan Jarvis stated in the agency's Climate Change Action Plan 2012 - 2014 that, "We now know through social science conducted in parks that our visitors are looking to NPS staff for honest dialogue about this critical issue." Researchers from Indiana University will present preliminary findings from a multiple park study that assessed basic visitor knowledge and the impact of two-way interpretation related to climate change. Observations from park interpretive program addressing climate change will be presented. Basic visitor knowledge of climate change impacts in the select parks as well as immediate and long-term visitor recollections will be presented. Select units of the National Park System in this research included Cape Cod National Seashore, Cape Hatteras National Seashore, North Cascades National Park, Shenandoah National Park, and Zion National Park.

  10. CO and NO2 pollution in a long two-way traffic road tunnel: investigation of NO2/NOx ratio and modelling of NO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrehus, O; Vassbotn, P

    2001-02-01

    The CO, NO and NO2 concentrations, visibility and air flow velocity were measured using continuous analysers in a long Norwegian road tunnel (7.5 km) with traffic in both directions in April 1994 and 1995. The traffic density was monitored at the same time. The NO2 concentration exceeded Norwegian air quality limits for road tunnels 17% of the time in 1994. The traffic through the tunnel decreased from 1994 to 1995, and the mean NO2 concentration was reduced from 0.73 to 0.22 ppm. The ventilation fan control, based on the CO concentration only, was unsatisfactory and the air flow was sometimes low for hours. Models for NO2 concentration based on CO concentration and absolute air flow velocity were developed and tested. The NO2/NOx ratio showed an increase for NOx levels above 2 ppm; a likely explanation for this phenomenon is NO oxidation by O2. Exposure to high NO2 concentrations may represent a health risk for people with respiratory and cardiac diseases. In long road tunnels with two-way traffic, this study indicates that ventilation fan control based on CO concentration should be adjusted for changes in vehicle CO emission and should be supplemented by air flow monitoring to limit the NO2 concentration.

  11. The formation of the two-way shape memory effect in rapidly quenched TiNiCu alloy under laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelyakov, A V; Sitnikov, N N; Borodako, K A; Menushenkov, A P; Fominski, V Yu; Sheyfer, D V

    2015-01-01

    The effect of pulsed laser radiation (λ = 248 nm, τ = 20 ns) on structural properties and shape memory behavior of the rapidly quenched Ti 50 Ni 25 Cu 25 alloy ribbon was studied. The radiation energy density was varied from 2 to 20 mJ mm −2 . The samples were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, microhardness measurements and shape memory bending tests. It was ascertained that the action of the laser radiation leads to the formation of a structural composite material due to amorphization or martensite modification in the surface layer of the ribbon. Two methods are proposed which allow one to generate the pronounced two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) in a local area of the ribbon by using only a single pulse of the laser radiation. With increasing energy density of laser treatment, the magnitude of the reversible angular displacement with realization of the TWSME increases. The developed techniques can be used for the creation of various micromechanical devices. (paper)

  12. Comparison of the effect of a single dose of omeprazole or lansoprazole on intragastric pH in Japanese participants: a two-way crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaki, Yasushi; Tokudome, Kentaro; Izawa, Shinya; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Yoshihiro; Iida, Akihito; Mizuno, Mari; Ogasawara, Naotaka; Sasaki, Makoto; Kasugai, Kunio

    2013-03-01

    It is known that the pharmacokinetic profile of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) after postprandial administration may differ among PPIs. The purpose of this study was to compare the inhibitory effects of gastric acid secretion by PPIs administered after a meal, based on a 24-hour intragastric pH monitoring. Ten healthy men who provided written informed consent participated in the study. They were given a 20-mg omeprazole tablet and a 30-mg lansoprazole orally dispersing tablet in a two-way crossover manner. At baseline, the anti-HP-IgG antibody levels in blood and the pepsinogen (PG) I/II ratio were measured. Participants were given a standardized meal and 200 mL of water at 9:30 am, 13:30 pm, and 18.30 pm. Participants took the PPI after breakfast. Two of the ten participants tested positive for Helicobacter pylori infection. The PG I/II ratio indicated negative gastric atrophy in all the participants. The percentage 24-hour intragastric pH > 4 holding times (median, range) with omeprazole and lansoprazole were 29.3, 19.3-50.0% and 27.8, 13.0-42.3%, respectively, which shows that with the administration of omeprazole, the pH was maintained at >4 for a longer period (p lansoprazole (p lansoprazole, a single postprandial dose of omeprazole showed a more rapid and sustained acid-inhibitory effect. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Investigation on iterative multiuser detection physical layer network coding in two-way relay free-space optical links with turbulences and pointing errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Almaalie, Zina; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Bhatnagar, Manav R; Le-Minh, Hoa; Aslam, Nauman; Liaw, Shien-Kuei; Lee, It Ee

    2016-11-20

    Physical layer network coding (PNC) improves the throughput in wireless networks by enabling two nodes to exchange information using a minimum number of time slots. The PNC technique is proposed for two-way relay channel free space optical (TWR-FSO) communications with the aim of maximizing the utilization of network resources. The multipair TWR-FSO is considered in this paper, where a single antenna on each pair seeks to communicate via a common receiver aperture at the relay. Therefore, chip interleaving is adopted as a technique to separate the different transmitted signals at the relay node to perform PNC mapping. Accordingly, this scheme relies on the iterative multiuser technique for detection of users at the receiver. The bit error rate (BER) performance of the proposed system is examined under the combined influences of atmospheric loss, turbulence-induced channel fading, and pointing errors (PEs). By adopting the joint PNC mapping with interleaving and multiuser detection techniques, the BER results show that the proposed scheme can achieve a significant performance improvement against the degrading effects of turbulences and PEs. It is also demonstrated that a larger number of simultaneous users can be supported with this new scheme in establishing a communication link between multiple pairs of nodes in two time slots, thereby improving the channel capacity.

  14. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  15. The effect of Coriolis-Stokes forcing on upper ocean circulation in a two-way coupled wave-current model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Zeng'an; XIE Li'an; HAN Guijun; ZHANG Xuefeng; WU Kejian

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the Stokes drift-driven ocean currents and Stokes drift-induced wind energy input into the upper ocean using a two-way coupled wave-current modeling system that consists of the Princeton Ocean Model generalized coordinate system (POMgcs),Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) wave model,and the Model Coupling Toolkit (MCT).The Coriolis-Stokes forcing (CSF) computed using the wave parameters from SWAN was incorporated with the momentum equation of POMgcs as the core coupling process.Experimental results in an idealized setting show that under the steady state,the scale of the speed of CSF-driven current was 0.001 m/s and the maximum reached 0.02 rn/s.The Stokes drift-induced energy rate input into the model ocean was estimated to be 28.5 GW,taking 14% of the direct wind energy rate input.Considering the Stokes drift effects,the total mechanical energy rate input was increased by approximately 14%,which highlights the importance of CSF in modulating the upper ocean circulation.The actual run conducted in Taiwan Adjacent Sea (TAS) shows that:1) CSF-based wave-current coupling has an impact on ocean surface currents,which is related to the activities of monsoon winds; 2) wave-current coupling plays a significant role in a place where strong eddies present and tends to intensify the eddy's vorticity; 3) wave-current coupling affects the volume transport of the Taiwan Strait (TS) throughflow in a nontrivial degree,3.75% on average.

  16. A multi-stage intelligent approach based on an ensemble of two-way interaction model for forecasting the global horizontal radiation of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, He; Dong, Yao; Xiao, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ensemble learning system is proposed to forecast the global solar radiation. • LASSO is utilized as feature selection method for subset model. • GSO is used to select the weight vector aggregating the response of subset model. • A simple and efficient algorithm is designed based on thresholding function. • Theoretical analysis focusing on error rate is provided. - Abstract: Forecasting of effective solar irradiation has developed a huge interest in recent decades, mainly due to its various applications in grid connect photovoltaic installations. This paper develops and investigates an ensemble learning based multistage intelligent approach to forecast 5 days global horizontal radiation at four given locations of India. The two-way interaction model is considered with purpose of detecting the associated correlation between the features. The main structure of the novel method is the ensemble learning, which is based on Divide and Conquer principle, is applied to enhance the forecasting accuracy and model stability. An efficient feature selection method LASSO is performed in the input space with the regularization parameter selected by Cross-Validation. A weight vector which best represents the importance of each individual model in ensemble system is provided by glowworm swarm optimization. The combination of feature selection and parameter selection are helpful in creating the diversity of the ensemble learning. In order to illustrate the validity of the proposed method, the datasets at four different locations of the India are split into training and test datasets. The results of the real data experiments demonstrate the efficiency and efficacy of the proposed method comparing with other competitors.

  17. Comparison the effect of two ways of tube feeding including bolus and continuous infusion on gastric residual volume and diarrhea in patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriari M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Proper nutritional support is one of the important caring aspects in patients who were hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit. Although the several studies have been done concerning the selection of proper nutrition method for patients, but there is no agreement on this issue. The aim of current study was the compare the effect of two ways of tube feeding including bolus and continuous infusion on gastric residual volume and diarrhea in patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit.  Materials and Method: The current clinical trial was conducted on patients who were hospitalized in intensive care unit in Alzahra hospital in Isfahan, 2013. Fifty patients were selected through convenient sampling and were randomly assigned into two groups of 25 people of intervention and control. Nutrition was done through infusion pump in intervention group and by bolus in control group. Gastric residual volume and diarrhea was assessed each four hours for four days. Data were gathered through checklist and were analyzed by SPSS18 using descriptive and inferential statistics including independent T-test, Fisher's exact test and repeated measures ANOVA.  Results: The results showed that the mean of gastric residual volume in control group was more than the intervention group on the third day (p=0.04. Also, the mean of gastric residual volume did not show significant difference at different times in intervention group, but the mean of gastric residual volume was significantly increased in control group at different times (p=0.04. Fisher's exact test showed no significant difference between two groups concerning the diarrhea frequency.  Conclusion: In nutritional support with continuous infusion method, gastric residual volume was not increased and gastric emptying rate was not diminished. Therefore, this method can be used as an appropriate nutritional support in intensive care unit.

  18. [Integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  19. Two-way pharmacokinetic interaction studies between saxagliptin and cytochrome P450 substrates or inhibitors: simvastatin, diltiazem extended-release, and ketoconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chirag G Patel, Li Li, Suzette Girgis, David M Kornhauser, Ernest U Frevert, David W BoultonBristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, USABackground: Many medicines, including several cholesterol-lowering agents (eg, lovastatin, simvastatin, antihypertensives (eg, diltiazem, nifedipine, verapamil, and antifungals (eg, ketoconazole are metabolized by and/or inhibit the cytochrome P450 (CYP 3A4 metabolic pathway. These types of medicines are commonly coprescribed to treat comorbidities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and the potential for drug-drug interactions of these medicines with new medicines for T2DM must be carefully evaluated.Objective: To investigate the effects of CYP3A4 substrates or inhibitors, simvastatin (substrate, diltiazem (moderate inhibitor, and ketoconazole (strong inhibitor on the pharmacokinetics and safety of saxagliptin, a CYP3A4/5 substrate; and the effects of saxagliptin on these agents in three separate studies.Methods: Healthy subjects were administered saxagliptin 10 mg or 100 mg. Simvastatin, diltiazem extended-release, and ketoconazole doses of 40 mg once daily, 360 mg once daily, and 200 mg twice daily, respectively, were used to determine two-way pharmacokinetic interactions.Results: Coadministration of simvastatin, diltiazem extended-release, or ketoconazole increased mean area under the concentration-time curve values (AUC of saxagliptin by 12%, 109%, and 145%, respectively, versus saxagliptin alone. Mean exposure (AUC of the CYP3A4-generated active metabolite of saxagliptin, 5-hydroxy saxagliptin, decreased with coadministration of simvastatin, diltiazem, and ketoconazole by 2%, 34%, and 88%, respectively. All adverse events were considered mild or moderate in all three studies; there were no serious adverse events or deaths.Conclusion: Saxagliptin, when coadministered with simvastatin, diltiazem extended-release, or ketoconazole, was safe and generally well tolerated in healthy subjects. Clinically

  20. Path integrals over phase space, their definition and simple properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarski, J.; Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld

    1981-10-01

    Path integrals over phase space are defined in two ways. Some properties of these integrals are established. These properties concern the technique of integration and the quantization rule isup(-I)deltasub(q) p. (author)

  1. 'Integration'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2011-01-01

    , while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions...... of equality in the three societies. Finally, it shows that family relations play a central role in immigrants’ and refugees’ establishment of a new life in the receiving societies, even though the welfare society takes on many of the social and economic functions of the family....

  2. A large-scale assessment of two-way SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility using 46,450 cases and 42,461 controls from the breast cancer association consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milne, Roger L.; Herranz, Jesús; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dennis, Joe; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Zamora, M. Pilar; Arias-Perez, José Ignacio; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Wang, Qin; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Clarke, Christina A.; Hopper, John L.; Dite, Gillian S.; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Flyger, Henrik; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Molenaar, J.

    2014-01-01

    Part of the substantial unexplained familial aggregation of breast cancer may be due to interactions between common variants, but few studies have had adequate statistical power to detect interactions of realistic magnitude. We aimed to assess all two-way interactions in breast cancer susceptibility

  3. Two-way and three-way approaches to ultra high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array dataset for the quantitative resolution of a two-component mixture containing ciprofloxacin and ornidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, Erdal; Ertekin, Zehra Ceren; Büker, Eda

    2016-09-01

    Two-way and three-way calibration models were applied to ultra high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array data with coeluted peaks in the same wavelength and time regions for the simultaneous quantitation of ciprofloxacin and ornidazole in tablets. The chromatographic data cube (tensor) was obtained by recording chromatographic spectra of the standard and sample solutions containing ciprofloxacin and ornidazole with sulfadiazine as an internal standard as a function of time and wavelength. Parallel factor analysis and trilinear partial least squares were used as three-way calibrations for the decomposition of the tensor, whereas three-way unfolded partial least squares was applied as a two-way calibration to the unfolded dataset obtained from the data array of ultra high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. The validity and ability of two-way and three-way analysis methods were tested by analyzing validation samples: synthetic mixture, interday and intraday samples, and standard addition samples. Results obtained from two-way and three-way calibrations were compared to those provided by traditional ultra high performance liquid chromatography. The proposed methods, parallel factor analysis, trilinear partial least squares, unfolded partial least squares, and traditional ultra high performance liquid chromatography were successfully applied to the quantitative estimation of the solid dosage form containing ciprofloxacin and ornidazole. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A large-scale assessment of two-way SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility using 46,450 cases and 42,461 controls from the breast cancer association consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milne, Roger L; Herranz, Jesús; Michailidou, Kyriaki

    2014-01-01

    susceptibility between 70,917 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected primarily based on prior evidence of a marginal effect. Thirty-eight international studies contributed data for 46,450 breast cancer cases and 42,461 controls of European origin as part of a multi-consortium project (COGS). First, SNPs......Part of the substantial unexplained familial aggregation of breast cancer may be due to interactions between common variants, but few studies have had adequate statistical power to detect interactions of realistic magnitude. We aimed to assess all two-way interactions in breast cancer...... 10(-10)). In summary, we observed little evidence of two-way SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility, despite the large number of SNPs with potential marginal effects considered and the very...

  5. Two Ways of Learning Brand Associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.J. van Osselaer (Stijn); C. Janiszewski (Chris)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractFour studies show that consumers have not one but two distinct learning processes that allow them to use brand names and other product features to predict consumption benefits. The first learning process is a relatively unfocused process in which all stimulus elements get

  6. Two-Way communication with energy exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovski, Petar; Simeone, Osvaldo

    2012-01-01

    one unit of energy, or an “off” signal (or “0”), which does not require any energy expenditure. Upon reception of a “1” signal, the recipient node “harvests” the energy contained in the signal and stores it for future communication tasks. Inner and outer bounds on the achievable rates are derived...

  7. Cooperation is a two-way street

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krol, J.

    2012-01-01

    The emergency response system in USA is described. The task of emergency management is assigned to the Office of Emergency Operations in the National Nuclear Security Administration of US Department of Energy, dedicated groups of specialists all over the country, US DOE Headquarters emergency center similar to Rosatom's Situation and Crisis Center. Problems worked out by the center, cooperation with national laboratories and Russian Rosatom are considered [ru

  8. Two-way cable television project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, H.; Guenther, P.; Kiel, F.; Kraus, F.; Mahnkopf, P.; Schnee, R.

    1982-02-01

    The market demand for a multiuser computer system with interactive services was studied. Mean system work load at peak use hours was estimated and the complexity of dialog with a central computer was determined. Man machine communication by broadband cable television transmission, using digital techniques, was assumed. The end to end system is described. It is user friendly, able to handle 10,000 subscribers, and provides color television display. The central computer system architecture with remote audiovisual terminals is depicted and software is explained. Signal transmission requirements are dealt with. International availability of the test system, including sample programs, is indicated.

  9. A large-scale assessment of two-way SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility using 46,450 cases and 42,461 controls from the breast cancer association consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Roger L; Herranz, Jesús; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dennis, Joe; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Zamora, M Pilar; Arias-Perez, José Ignacio; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Wang, Qin; Bolla, Manjeet K; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ziogas, Argyrios; Clarke, Christina A; Hopper, John L; Dite, Gillian S; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Dunning, Alison M; Shah, Mitul; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Sanchez, Marie; Mulot, Claire; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Hooning, Maartje J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Collée, J Margriet; Jager, Agnes; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W; Reed, Malcolm W R; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Soucy, Penny; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Hamann, Ute; Försti, Asta; Rüdiger, Thomas; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Fasching, Peter A; Häberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Mariani, Paolo; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federik; Burwinkel, Barbara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Lambrechts, Diether; Yesilyurt, Betul T; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Alnæs, Grethe Grenaker; Kristensen, Vessela; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; García-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Verhoef, Senno; Rutgers, Emiel J; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Couch, Fergus J; Toland, Amanda E; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Pharoah, Paul D P; Hall, Per; Benítez, Javier; Malats, Núria; Easton, Douglas F

    2014-04-01

    Part of the substantial unexplained familial aggregation of breast cancer may be due to interactions between common variants, but few studies have had adequate statistical power to detect interactions of realistic magnitude. We aimed to assess all two-way interactions in breast cancer susceptibility between 70,917 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected primarily based on prior evidence of a marginal effect. Thirty-eight international studies contributed data for 46,450 breast cancer cases and 42,461 controls of European origin as part of a multi-consortium project (COGS). First, SNPs were preselected based on evidence (P 10(-10)). In summary, we observed little evidence of two-way SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility, despite the large number of SNPs with potential marginal effects considered and the very large sample size. This finding may have important implications for risk prediction, simplifying the modelling required. Further comprehensive, large-scale genome-wide interaction studies may identify novel interacting loci if the inherent logistic and computational challenges can be overcome.

  10. A Two-Way Shape Memory Study on Ni-Rich NiTi Shape Memory Alloy by Combination of the All-Round Treatment and the R-Phase Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z. H.; Vokoun, D.; Leu, C. C.; Hu, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    Ni4Ti3 precipitates are formed in Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) after a certain heat treatment. Such a treatment then results in the changed phase transformation behavior of the alloy switching from the one-step reversible phase change B2 ↔ B19' to the two-step, B2 ↔ R ↔ B19', phase change. The present study reports a two-way shape memory (TWSM) due to an all-round treatment followed by an R-phase constraint aging at room temperature. The enhanced TWSM behavior was observed upon temperature cycling between 273 K (R-phase) and 77 K (B19' phase). The effect of various constraint strains in R-phase aging by employing different diameters of the constraint ring was studied. However, the TWSM effect due to constraining the R-phase will be eliminated after a temperature rise of specimen to the fully parent phase (373 K).

  11. On the effect of TiC particles on the tensile properties and on the intrinsic two way effect of NiTi shape memory alloys produced by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, K.; Voggenreiter, H.; Eggeler, G.

    1999-01-01

    The present study investigates the tensile properties of a nickel titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy (SMA) produced by powder metallurgy (PM) with and without TiC-particles. It discusses the effect of the addition of particles on the mechanical behavior in tension and studies the intrinsic two way effect (ε 2W ) after thermomechanical training. Special emphasis is placed on the stability of ε 2W after subsequent thermal cycling. The results are discussed on the basis of an analysis of the thermomechanical data and microstructural results. The present study shows that the PM route can produce NiTi SMAs with tensile properties which match those of materials produced by classical ingot metallurgy. Adding TiC particles to NiTi SMAs alters the phase transition temperatures (PTTs) and affects the SMA performance. Adding more than ten volume percent TiC particles results in early and brittle rupture during tensile loading. (orig.)

  12. Tensile strain induced narrowed bandgap of TiO{sub 2} films: Utilizing the two-way shape memory effect of TiNiNb substrate and in-situ mechanical bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Minshu, E-mail: dms1223@126.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum at Beijing, Beijing, 102249 (China); Center for Electrochemistry, Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, 78712 (United States); Cui, Lishan; Wan, Qiong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum at Beijing, Beijing, 102249 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Imposed tensile strain to anatase TiO{sub 2} nanofilm by using the two-way shape memory effect of NiTiNb substrate. • Imposed tensile strain to rutile TiO{sub 2} thin film by in-situ mechanical bending. • Tauc plot based on the PEC-tested auction spectrum was utilized to precisely determine the bandgap of TiO{sub 2}. • Tensile strain narrowed the bandgap of anatase TiO{sub 2} by 60 meV and rutile TiO{sub 2} by 70 meV. • Tensile strain contributes to a 1.5 times larger photocurrent for the water oxidation reaction. - Abstract: Elastic strain is one of the methods to alter the band gap of semiconductors. However, relevant experimental work is limited due to the difficulty in imposing strain. Two new methods for imposing tensile strain to TiO{sub 2} film were introduced here. One is by utilizing the two-way shape memory effect of NiTiNb substrate, and the other method is in-situ mechanical bending. The former method succeeded in imposing 0.4% tensile strain to anatase TiO{sub 2} nanofilm, and strain narrowed the bandgap of TiO{sub 2} by 60 meV. The latter method enabled rutile TiO{sub 2} thin film under the 0.5% biaxially tensile-strained state, which contributes to a narrowed bandgap with ΔE{sub g} of 70 meV. Also, photocurrents of both strained TiO{sub 2} films increased by 1.5 times compared to the strain-free films, which indirectly verified the previous DFT prediction proposed by Thulin and Guerra in 2008 that tensile strain could improve the mobility and separation of photo-excite carriers.

  13. [Experimental study on two-way application of traditional Chinese medicines capable of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis with neutral property in cold and hot blood stasis syndrome I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Er-Wei; Deng, Jia-Gang; Du, Zheng-Cai; Yan, Ke; Zheng, Zuo-Wen; Wang, Qin; Huang, Li-Zhen; Bao, Chuan-Hong; Deng, Xiu-Qiong; Lu, Xiao-Yan; Tang, Zhi-Ling

    2012-11-01

    To study the action characteristics of "two-way application and conditioned dominance" of traditional Chinese medicines with neutral property by observing the action characteristic of 10 traditional Chinese medicines capable of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis with neutral property in the microcirculation in rats with heat stagnation and blood stasis syndrome. The rat model with heat stagnation and blood stasis syndrome was established by injecting carrageenan and dry yeast, and the rat model with cold stagnation and blood stasis syndrome was built by the body freezing method. Ten traditional Chinese medicines with neutral property, including 5 with hot property and 5 with cold property, were selected for intervention to observe blood flow rate and flow state indicators in rat auricles and make a comparative analysis on action characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines with neutral property. ANOVA showed that among the 10 traditional Chinese medicines with neutral property, 6 such as Typhae Pollen, Sappan Lignum and Vaccariae Semen can obviously increase the blood flow rate (P traditional Chinese medicines with cold property can increase the blood flow rate (P medicines showed no notable effect; among the 5 traditional Chinese medicines with hot property, Carthamus tinctorius and Ligusticum chuanxiong can increase the blood flow rate (P traditional Chinese medicines with natural and cold properties showed similar effect on heat stagnation and blood stasis syndrome and better effect in increasing blood flow rate than those with hot property; those with natural and hot properties showed similar effect and better effect in increasing blood flow rate than those with cold property. Under the condition of heat stagnation and blood stasis syndrome, traditional Chinese medicines with neutral property have the similar action characteristics with those with cold property; wile under the condition of cold stagnation and blood stasis syndrome

  14. Utilization of two-way multicore cables and comparison of various electrode configurations in electrical prospecting; Denki tansa ni okeru sohokogata tashin cable no riyo to kakushu dekyoku haichi no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakura, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Matsushima, J [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    For more precise electrical prospecting, the new multicore cable was developed to allow high-density measurement by conventional equipment. Since conventional multicore cables are inferior in cost, length and weight, the new cable is composed of an n-conductor cable, two n-conductor male connectors and n lead wires. For connection of the multi-conductor cable and lead wires, cable sheath is peeled at n points at specific intervals. Sheath of the k-th conductor is peeled at k-th point from the terminal, and restored for insulation after connection of the conductor and lead wire. The male connectors are attached to the both ends of the multi-conductor cable. Since this two-way type cable can be used at every end, the measuring equipment can measure at one divisional point after another of a long measuring line while shifting the equipment from one point to another. All measurements are perfected only with two short cables. Resistivities were successfully measured along the long measuring line of 480m long with 97 electrodes arranged at intervals of 5m. Various electrode configurations were also compared. 1 ref., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Work production using the two-way shape memory effect in NiTi and a Ni-rich NiTiHf high-temperature shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atli, K C; Karaman, I; Noebe, R D; Bigelow, G; Gaydosh, D

    2015-01-01

    The work output capacity of the two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) in a Ni 50.3 Ti 29.7 Hf 20 (at%) high-temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) was investigated and compared to that of binary Ni 49.9 Ti 50.1 (at%). TWSME was induced through a training procedure of 100 thermomechanical cycles under different tensile stresses. It was observed that TWSME in as-extruded and trained Ni 50.3 Ti 29.7 Hf 20 could produce 0.7% strain against a compressive stress of 100 MPa, corresponding to a maximum work output of 0.08 J g −1 , compared to a maximum value of 0.06 J g −1 for binary NiTi. A peak aging heat treatment of 3 h at 550 °C, which previously has been shown to result in near-perfect functional stability in Ni 50.3 Ti 29.7 Hf 20 during isobaric thermal cycling, did not improve the TWSME and actually resulted in a decrease in the magnitude and stability of the TWSME and its work output capacity. Nevertheless, the magnitude of TWSM behavior of Ni 50.3 Ti 29.7 Hf 20 , in the absence of an aging heat treatment, renders it an attractive candidate for high-temperature TWSM actuation. (paper)

  16. Inhibitory effects of intravenous lansoprazole 30 mg and pantoprazole 40 mg twice daily on intragastric acidity in healthy Chinese volunteers: a randomized, open-labeled, two-way crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xian-Bao; Guo, Xiao-Rong; Li, Zhao-Shen; Gong, Yan-Fang; Gao, Jun; Liao, Zhuan; Li, Zhen; Gao, Shen; Liu, Pei

    2012-02-01

    Until now there has been no study that directly compares the effect of lansoprazole and pantoprazole administered intravenously on intragastric acidity. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of lansoprazole (30 mg) and pantoprazole (40 mg) administered intravenously on gastric acidity. Helicobacter pylori-negative healthy volunteers were recruited in this open-label, randomized, two-way crossover, single centre study. Lansoprazole at 30 mg or pantoprazole at 40 mg was intravenously administered twice daily for 5 consecutive days with at least a 14-day washout interval. Twenty-four-hour intragastric pH was continuously monitored on days 1 and 5 of each dosing period. Twenty-five volunteers completed the 2 dosing periods. The mean intragastric pH values were higher in subjects treated with lansoprazole than those with pantoprazole on both day 1 (6.41 ± 0.14 vs. 5.49 ± 0.13, P=0.0003) and day 5 (7.09 ± 0.07 vs. 6.64 ± 0.07, P=0.0002). Significantly higher percentages of time with intragastric pH >4 and pH >6 were found in the subjects treated with lansoprazole than those with pantoprazole on day 1 (pH >4, 87.12 ± 4.55% vs. 62.28 ± 4.15%, P=0.0012; pH >6, 62.12 ± 4.12% vs. 47.25 ± 3.76%, P=0.0216) and pH >6 on day 5 (76.79 ± 3.77% vs. 58.20 ± 3.77%, P=0.0025). Intravenous lansoprazole produces a longer and more potent inhibitory effect on intragastric acidity than does intravenous pantoprazole.

  17. Necessity of Integral Formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Yong

    2011-01-01

    To describe the physical reality, there are two ways of constructing the dynamical equation of field, differential formalism and integral formalism. The importance of this fact is firstly emphasized by Yang in case of gauge field [Phys. Rev. Lett. 33 (1974) 445], where the fact has given rise to a deeper understanding for Aharonov-Bohm phase and magnetic monopole [Phys. Rev. D 12 (1975) 3845]. In this paper we shall point out that such a fact also holds in general wave function of matter, it may give rise to a deeper understanding for Berry phase. Most importantly, we shall prove a point that, for general wave function of matter, in the adiabatic limit, there is an intrinsic difference between its integral formalism and differential formalism. It is neglect of this difference that leads to an inconsistency of quantum adiabatic theorem pointed out by Marzlin and Sanders [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004) 160408]. It has been widely accepted that there is no physical difference of using differential operator or integral operator to construct the dynamical equation of field. Nevertheless, our study shows that the Schrödinger differential equation (i.e., differential formalism for wave function) shall lead to vanishing Berry phase and that the Schrödinger integral equation (i.e., integral formalism for wave function), in the adiabatic limit, can satisfactorily give the Berry phase. Therefore, we reach a conclusion: There are two ways of describing physical reality, differential formalism and integral formalism; but the integral formalism is a unique way of complete description. (general)

  18. Integrable billiards and quadrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragovic, Vladimir I; Radnovic, Milena [Mathematical Institute, Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Belgrad (Serbia)

    2010-07-27

    Billiards inside quadrics are considered as integrable dynamical systems with a rich geometric structure. The two-way interaction between the dynamics of billiards and the geometry of pencils of quadrics in an arbitrary dimension is considered. Several well-known classical and modern genus-1 results are generalized to arbitrary dimension and genus, such as: the Poncelet theorem, the Darboux theorem, the Weyr theorem, and the Griffiths-Harris space theorem. A synthetic approach to higher-genera addition theorems is presented. Bibliography: 77 titles.

  19. Introduction: Integration as a three-way process approach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcés-Mascareñas, B.; Penninx, R.; Garcés-Mascareñas, B.; Penninx, R.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter introduces the topic of this volume, which is the recent departure from viewing integration as a strictly two-way process (between migrants and the receiving society) to acknowledge the potential role that countries of origin might play in support of the integration process. It traces

  20. Generalizing Integrals Involving X [superscript X] and Series Involving N [superscript N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Thomas J.; Tsay, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors evaluate the series and integrals presented by P. Glaister. The authors show that this function has the Maclauren series expansion. The authors derive the series from the integral in two ways. The first derivation uses the technique employed by Glaister. The second derivation uses a change in variable in the integral.

  1. Simulation of Two-Way Pushdown Automata Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Glück

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The linear-time simulation of 2-way deterministic pushdown automata (2DPDA by the Cook and Jones constructions is revisited. Following the semantics-based approach by Jones, an interpreter is given which, when extended with random-access memory, performs a linear-time simulation of 2DPDA. The recursive interpreter works without the dump list of the original constructions, which makes Cook's insight into linear-time simulation of exponential-time automata more intuitive and the complexity argument clearer. The simulation is then extended to 2-way nondeterministic pushdown automata (2NPDA to provide for a cubic-time recognition of context-free languages. The time required to run the final construction depends on the degree of nondeterminism. The key mechanism that enables the polynomial-time simulations is the sharing of computations by memoization.

  2. Gambling and family: A two-way relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Chong, Siow Ann; Satghare, Pratika; Browning, Colette J; Thomas, Shane

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims Families play an important role in the evolution of gambling and are also adversely affected by the disordered gambling of any one of their members. The aims of this study were to explore both the role families play in gambling initiation, maintenance, and help-seeking, and the harm caused to families by the gambling behavior using a qualitative approach. Methods Regular older adult gamblers were included in the study. In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 older adults to gain an understanding of gambling from their perspective. Older adult gamblers described their lived experience of gambling ranging from initiation to harm and attempts to cut down or limit gambling. Data were analyzed using thematic network analysis. Results The mean age of the 25 participants was 66.2 years. The majority were male (n = 18), of Chinese ethnicity (n = 16), had secondary education (n = 9), were married (n = 20), and currently employed (n = 15). Four organizing themes related to the role of families in initiation and maintenance of gambling, harm caused to family members, and their role in help-seeking were identified. Discussion and conclusions The study emphasizes the role of Asian families in both initiation and maintenance of gambling. Hence, families must be involved in prevention and outreach programs. Family members must be educated, so that they can encourage help-seeking to ensure early treatment and recovery. There is a need for interventional studies for reducing stress and improving coping among family members.

  3. A Community Medical Service Using Two-Way Radio

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-09-21

    Sep 21, 1974 ... have to go to Durban. Patients tend to resist being referred to other centres. Tab"c 1 shows the work:oad of the hospital for the. 12-month period from April 1972 to March 1973. The hospital provides training for staff-nurses and midwives, and a doctor must participate in this programme. The doctor, as ...

  4. CRCM + BATS-R-US two-way coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glocer, A.; Fok, M.; Meng, X.; Toth, G.; Buzulukova, N.; Chen, S.; Lin, K.

    2013-04-01

    We present the coupling methodology and validation of a fully coupled inner and global magnetosphere code using the infrastructure provided by the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF). In this model, the Comprehensive Ring Current Model (CRCM) represents the inner magnetosphere, while the Block-Adaptive-Tree Solar-Wind Roe-Type Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) represents the global magnetosphere. The combined model is a global magnetospheric code with a realistic ring current and consistent electric and magnetic fields. The computational performance of the model was improved to surpass real-time execution by the use of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) to parallelize the CRCM. Initial simulations under steady driving found that the coupled model resulted in a higher pressure in the inner magnetosphere and an inflated closed field-line region as compared to simulations without inner-magnetosphere coupling. Our validation effort was split into two studies. The first study examined the ability of the model to reproduce Dst for a range of events from the Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) Dst Challenge. It also investigated the possibility of a baseline shift and compared two approaches to calculating Dst from the model. We found that the model did a reasonable job predicting Dst and Sym-H according to our two metrics of prediction efficiency and predicted yield. The second study focused on the specific case of the 22 July 2009 moderate geomagnetic storm. In this study, we directly compare model predictions and observations for Dst, THEMIS energy spectragrams, TWINS ENA images, and GOES 11 and 12 magnetometer data. The model did an adequate job reproducing trends in the data. Moreover, we found that composition can have a large effect on the result.

  5. Two-way quantum communication: Generalization of secure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    states among the n nodes of a quantum network, with the aid of a special kind of ... replica of the information state, i.e., this process has one-way quantum ... with respect to increase in the number of qubits going towards the controller Charlie.

  6. Simultaneous Two-Way Clustering of Multiple Correspondence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Heungsun; Dillon, William R.

    2010-01-01

    A 2-way clustering approach to multiple correspondence analysis is proposed to account for cluster-level heterogeneity of both respondents and variable categories in multivariate categorical data. Specifically, in the proposed method, multiple correspondence analysis is combined with k-means in a unified framework in which "k"-means is…

  7. Helping Students THRIVE--A Two-Way Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bias, Ken; Docheff, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    At the University of Central Missouri (UCM), the THRIVE program is made up of young adults, ages 18 to 25, who have developmental or intellectual disabilities. A merger occurred between the THRIVE program and the adapted physical education course required for physical education teacher education (PETE) students to provide practical experiences for…

  8. Comparison of two ways for electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauze, A.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes briefly the fusion reaction of hydrogen isotopes, the Tokamak reactor and the photovoltaic conversion from solar energy produced by the same fusion reaction. Then the development, the domain of application, the market and the financing of these two forms of energy are reviewed and compared

  9. Medical immunology: two-way bridge connecting bench and bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkers, Ger T; Damoiseaux, Jan G M C; Hooijkaas, Herbert

    2014-12-01

    Medical immunology in The Netherlands is a laboratory specialism dealing with immunological analyses as well as pre- and post-analytical consultation to clinicians (clinical immunologists and other specialists) involved in patients with immune mediated diseases. The scope of medical immunology includes immunodeficiencies, autoimmune diseases, allergy, transfusion and transplantation immunology, and lymphoproliferative disorders plus the monitoring of these patients. The training, professional criteria, quality control of procedures and laboratories is well organized. As examples of the bridge function of medical immunology between laboratory (bench) and patient (bedside) the contribution of medical immunologists to diagnosis and treatment of primary immunodeficiency diseases (in particular: humoral immunodeficiencies) as well as autoantibodies (anti-citrullinated proteins in rheumatoid arthritis) are given. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Two-way learning | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Of the 15 mentors, nine are from China, four from the University of Western Ontario in London, Ontario, and one each from the University of Oxford in Britain and Jawaharlal Nehru University in India. Leading economists have presented papers at a seminar series on poverty and inequality hosted by network coordinator Li ...

  11. Cross-Cultural Mirrors: Two-Way Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Yang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ronald Takaki starts his milestone work 'A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America 'with an anecdote that is not difficult for those who have East Asian heritages to relate.

  12. Two-way learning | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-08

    Jul 8, 2011 ... Government officials have sometimes attended the seminars, which have also given the young scholars a venue to present an early draft of their paper for ... The young researchers are more adept at using the latest econometric techniques and software, so senior scholars also learn from them, Li Shi notes.

  13. Two-way feedback between biology and deep Earth processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleep, Norman; Bird, Dennis K.; Pope, Emily Catherine

    The presence of the metamorphic products of banded iron formation and black shale indicate that the Earth teemed with life by the time of the earliest preserved rocks, ca. 3.85 Ga. Iron and sulfur-based anoxygenic photosynthesis with full carbon cycles was present by this time. The pH of the ocean...... was ~8. The lack of older rock record cloaks pre-biotic evolution and the origin of life. Nascent and early life obtained energy from chemical disequilibria in rocks rather than sunlight. Appraising putative rock pre-biological environments is difficult in that life has modified the composition...... of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and sedimentary rocks. It has greatly affected the composition of crystalline crustal rocks and measurably modified the mantle. Conversely, hard crustal rocks and the mantle likely sequester a very ancient record of last resort. Theory provides additional insight. The Earth...

  14. Two ways factorial design for round robin test of anemometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuerva, A.

    1998-01-01

    This work presents a way to carry out an inter-comparison between different cup anemometers that are tested in different wind tunnels. The method applied is known as Factorial design and allows determining the influence in the test of different factors in this case the anemometer itself and the wind tunnel where it is tested. (Author) 4 refs

  15. Two Ways Factorial Design for round robin test of anemometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuerva, A.

    1998-07-01

    This work presents a way to carry out an inter-comparison between different cup anemometers that are tested in different wind tunnels. The method applied is known as Factorial design and allows determining the influence in the test of different factors in this case the anemometer itself and the wind tunnel where it is tested. (Author) 4 refs.

  16. Two ways to handle a pension plan surplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beautyman, M J

    1991-01-01

    A healthcare organization wanting to tap into its pension plan surplus may be reluctant to do so for fear of Medicare recapture. By following a recent court decision and a reasonable interpretation of Medicare regulations, however, a facility may terminate an existing pension plan, purchase a group annuity contract, and reduce Medicare recapture. Two methods for treating termination of a plan are in line with Medicare rules. A facility considering termination should analyze the effects of both and use the method likely to produce a better financial result.

  17. CFRP strengthened openings in two-way concrete slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enochsson, O.; Lundqvist, J.; Täljsten, Björn

    2006-01-01

    are very suitable, not only because of their strength, but also due to that they are easy to apply in comparison to traditional steel girders or other lintel systems. Even though many benefits have been shown by strengthening openings with FRPs not much research have been presented in the literature...

  18. Development of Two Way Coupled Euler – Euler Droplets Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch BĚTÁK

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A development of droplet solver for 3D complex geometry is described in this work. This solver is composed of solvers for turbulent flow field and droplets. This code is based on the finite volume method. An open source CFD code OpenFOAM was chosen for its first implementation and first results are shown.

  19. Safety on a Rural Community College Campus via Integrated Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnage, Marie Foster; Dziagwa, Connie; White, Dave

    2009-01-01

    West Virginia University at Parkersburg uses a two-way emergency system as a baseline for emergency communications. The college has found that such a system, a key component of its safety and crisis management plan, can be integrated with other communication initiatives to provide focused security on the campus.

  20. Integral or integrated marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davčik Nebojša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing theorists and experts try to develop business efficient organization and to get marketing performance at higher, business integrated level since its earliest beginnings. The core issue in this paperwork is the dialectic and practical approach dilemma should we develop integrated or integral marketing approach in the organization. The presented company cases as well as dialectic and functional explanations of this dilemma clearly shows that integrated marketing is narrower approach than integral marketing if we take as focal point new, unique and completed entity. In the integration the essence is in getting different parts together, which do not have to make necessary the new entity. The key elements in the definition of the integral marketing are necessity and holistic, e.g. necessity to develop new, holistic entity.

  1. Integral-preserving integrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, D I; Quispel, G R W

    2004-01-01

    Ordinary differential equations having a first integral may be solved numerically using one of several methods, with the integral preserved to machine accuracy. One such method is the discrete gradient method. It is shown here that the order of the method can be bootstrapped repeatedly to higher orders of accuracy. The method is illustrated using the Henon-Heiles system. (letter to the editor)

  2. Integrated economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratton, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This article offers ideas for evaluating integrated solid waste management systems through the use of a conceptual cost overview. The topics of the article include the integrated solid waste management system; making assumptions about community characteristics, waste generation rates, waste collection responsibility, integrated system components, sizing and economic life of system facilities, system implementation schedule, facility ownership, and system administration; integrated system costs; integrated system revenues; system financing; cost projections; and making decisions

  3. Equivalence of some integrals of the radiation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, T.T.

    1977-01-01

    A definite integral which occurs in radiation theory is shown to be equal in value to another definite integral by evaluating the flux from a spherically symmetrical radiating sphere in two ways. As a corollary, an alternate proof of the invariance of the specific intensity of a ray in empty space along its path is presented. Furthermore, the equality of these two indefinite integrals leads to the conversion of members of a class of indefinite and definite integrals involving arbitrary functions of angle into other integrals. These transformations facilitate the calculation of some of these integrals which arise not only in the theory of radiation, but in other physical situations with spherical or axial symmetry - especially those in which inverse-square laws are involved. (Auth.)

  4. Integrated multimedia information system on interactive CATV network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng-Huang; Chang, Shin-Hung

    1998-10-01

    In the current CATV system architectures, they provide one- way delivery of a common menu of entertainment to all the homes through the cable network. Through the technologies evolution, the interactive services (or two-way services) can be provided in the cable TV systems. They can supply customers with individualized programming and support real- time two-way communications. With a view to the service type changed from the one-way delivery systems to the two-way interactive systems, `on demand services' is a distinct feature of multimedia systems. In this paper, we present our work of building up an integrated multimedia system on interactive CATV network in Shih Chien University. Besides providing the traditional analog TV programming from the cable operator, we filter some channels to reserve them as our campus information channels. In addition to the analog broadcasting channel, the system also provides the interactive digital multimedia services, e.g. Video-On- Demand (VOD), Virtual Reality, BBS, World-Wide-Web, and Internet Radio Station. These two kinds of services are integrated in a CATV network by the separation of frequency allocation for the analog broadcasting service and the digital interactive services. Our ongoing work is to port our previous work of building up a VOD system conformed to DAVIC standard (for inter-operability concern) on Ethernet network into the current system.

  5. Gauge Integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Some authors have formalized the integral in the Mizar Mathematical Library (MML. The first article in a series on the Darboux/Riemann integral was written by Noboru Endou and Artur Korniłowicz: [6]. The Lebesgue integral was formalized a little later [13] and recently the integral of Riemann-Stieltjes was introduced in the MML by Keiko Narita, Kazuhisa Nakasho and Yasunari Shidama [12].

  6. VECTOR INTEGRATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, E. G. F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the theory of integration of scalar functions with respect to a measure with values in a, not necessarily locally convex, topological vector space. It focuses on the extension of such integrals from bounded measurable functions to the class of integrable functions, proving

  7. Interorganisational Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Frølich, Anne

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite many initiatives to improve coordination of patient pathways and intersectoral cooperation, Danish health care is still fragmented, lacking intra- and interorganisational integration. This study explores barriers to and facilitators of interorganisational integration...... at a university hospital in the Capital Region of Denmark. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Our results can be grouped into five influencing areas for interorganisational integration: communication/information transfer, committed leadership, patient engagement, the role and competencies of the general practitioner...... and organisational culture. Proposed solutions to barriers in each area hold the potential to improve care integration as experienced by individuals responsible for supporting and facilitating it. Barriers and facilitators to integrating care relate to clinical, professional, functional and normative integration...

  8. Vertical integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antill, N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the trend in international energy companies towards vertical integration in the gas chain from wellhead to power generation, horizontal integration in refining and marketing businesses, and the search for larger projects with lower upstream costs. The shape of the petroleum industry in the next millennium, the creation of super-major oil companies, and the relationship between size and risk are discussed. The dynamics of vertical integration, present events and future developments are considered. (UK)

  9. Integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2005-01-01

    Two distinct but related approaches hold the solutions to many mathematical problems--the forms of expression known as differential and integral equations. The method employed by the integral equation approach specifically includes the boundary conditions, which confers a valuable advantage. In addition, the integral equation approach leads naturally to the solution of the problem--under suitable conditions--in the form of an infinite series.Geared toward upper-level undergraduate students, this text focuses chiefly upon linear integral equations. It begins with a straightforward account, acco

  10. Integrated Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    1999-01-01

    A homepage on the internet with course material, lecture plan, student exercises, etc. Continuesly updated during the course Integrated Design (80402, 80403)......A homepage on the internet with course material, lecture plan, student exercises, etc. Continuesly updated during the course Integrated Design (80402, 80403)...

  11. Organising integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Runo

    2013-01-01

    Background: In Sweden, as in many other countries, there has been a succession of trends in the organisation of health care and other welfare services. These trends have had different implications for the integration of services in the health and welfare system. Aims: One aim is to discuss...... the implications of different organisational trends for the integration of health and welfare services. Another aim is to introduce a Swedish model of financial coordination as a flexible way to organise integration. Organisational trends: In the 1960’s there was an expansion of health and welfare services leading...... an increasing lack of integration in the health and welfare system. In the 2000’s, there has been a re-centralisation through mergers of hospitals, regions and state agencies. It has become clear, however, that mergers do not promote integration but rather increase the bureaucratisation of the system. Model...

  12. The integration of immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Bauböck, Rainer

    1995-01-01

    from the Table of Contents: Migration and integration - Basic concepts and definitions; Immigration and Integration policies; The legal framework for integration; Dimension of social integration; Cultural integration; Conclusions;

  13. Ranking of integration factors within supply chains of forward and backward types - recommendations from researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Hentschel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Integration trends are one of main determinants of the development of modern logistics. After the period of interest focused mainly on supply chains realizing one-way flows only, at present there is a time for supply chains characterized by two-way flows, realizing at the same time both forward and backward flows. The possibility of various configurations of such chains requires identification of integration factors and determination of their influence on the results of the whole supply chain. Experiences of the science as well as the practice of supply chains show the urgent need of learning of reasons of the integration within supply chains of the two-way type.  Material and methods: The researches on modeling and simulation of integration processes within supply chains of forward and backward type were carried out in the environment of iGrafx Process 2013 for Six Sigma. The empirical material obtained in these researches was put to the statistical analysis by the used of Minitab 17. The identification of the significance of differences was made with the help of analysis of variance ANOVA. Additionally the analysis of differences in form of absolute averages was made.  The following measures are main ones for the evaluation of the integration of a supply chain of forward and backward types: cashflow, profitability, service level.  Results: 8 192 simulation experiments were made for 6 integration factors: accessibility of recycled materials, production planning, stock management, integration of transport, unification of packing materials and optimization of the material flow. Based on the analysis of the significance and values of differences, the results of the influence of each integration factor on global results of supply chains of forward and backward type were obtained. They were used to prepare the ranking of integration factors. The main factors, forming the integration shape of two-way supply chains were: stock

  14. Integrative psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarić-Kovacić, Dragica

    2008-09-01

    The main purposes of the article are to present the history of integration in psychotherapy, the reasons of the development integrative approaches, and the approaches to integration in psychotherapy. Three approaches to integration in psychotherapy exist: theoretical integration, theoretical eclecticism, and common factors in different psychotherapeutic trends. In integrative psychotherapy, the basic epistemology, theory, and clinical practice are based on the phenomenology, field theory, holism, dialogue, and co-creation of dialogue in the therapeutic relationship. The main criticism is that integrative psychotherapy suffers from confusion and many unresolved controversies. It is difficult to theoretically and methodologically define the clinically applied model that is based on such a different epistemological and theoretical presumptions. Integrative psychotherapy is a synthesis of humanistic psychotherapy, object relations theory, and psychoanalytical self psychology. It focuses on the dynamics and potentials of human relationships, with a goal of changing the relations and understanding internal and external resistances. The process of integrative psychotherapy is primarily focused on the developmental-relational model and co-creation of psychotherapeutic relationship as a single interactive event, which is not unilateral, but rather a joint endeavor by both the therapist and the patient/client. The need for a relationship is an important human need and represents a process of attunement that occurs as a response to the need for a relationship, a unique interpersonal contact between two people. If this need is not met, it manifests with the different feelings and various defenses. To meet this need, we need to have another person with whom we can establish a sensitive, attuned relationship. Thus, the therapist becomes this person who tries to supplement what the person did not receive. Neuroscience can be a source of integration through different therapies. We

  15. Integration of Chandrasekhar's integral equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tasuku

    2003-01-01

    We solve Chandrasekhar's integration equation for radiative transfer in the plane-parallel atmosphere by iterative integration. The primary thrust in radiative transfer has been to solve the forward problem, i.e., to evaluate the radiance, given the optical thickness and the scattering phase function. In the area of satellite remote sensing, our problem is the inverse problem: to retrieve the surface reflectance and the optical thickness of the atmosphere from the radiance measured by satellites. In order to retrieve the optical thickness and the surface reflectance from the radiance at the top-of-the atmosphere (TOA), we should express the radiance at TOA 'explicitly' in the optical thickness and the surface reflectance. Chandrasekhar formalized radiative transfer in the plane-parallel atmosphere in a simultaneous integral equation, and he obtained the second approximation. Since then no higher approximation has been reported. In this paper, we obtain the third approximation of the scattering function. We integrate functions derived from the second approximation in the integral interval from 1 to ∞ of the inverse of the cos of zenith angles. We can obtain the indefinite integral rather easily in the form of a series expansion. However, the integrals at the upper limit, ∞, are not yet known to us. We can assess the converged values of those series expansions at ∞ through calculus. For integration, we choose coupling pairs to avoid unnecessary terms in the outcome of integral and discover that the simultaneous integral equation can be deduced to the mere integral equation. Through algebraic calculation, we obtain the third approximation as a polynomial of the third degree in the atmospheric optical thickness

  16. Integrated services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chafcouloff, S.; Michel, G.; Trice, M.; Clark, G.; Cosad, C.; Forbes, K.

    1995-01-01

    Integrated services is the name given to several services grouped together under a single contract. Four key factors determine the success of integrated services projects: teamwork, common objectives, technology, and shared benefits. For oil companies, integration means smoother, more efficient operations by bringing service companies on board as part of the team. For the service industry, it means a radical change in the way business is conducted, taking on more responsibility in return for greater incentives. This article reviews the need for change and the approach Schlumberger has adopted to meet this challenge. 20 figs., 20 refs

  17. Integrated services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chafcouloff, S.; Michel, G.; Trice, M. [Schlumberger Integrated Project Management Group, Montrouge (France); Clark, G. [Schlumberger Testing Services, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Cosad, C.; Forbes, K. [Schlumberger Integrated Project Management Group, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    Integrated services is the name given to several services grouped together under a single contract. Four key factors determine the success of integrated services projects: teamwork, common objectives, technology, and shared benefits. For oil companies, integration means smoother, more efficient operations by bringing service companies on board as part of the team. For the service industry, it means a radical change in the way business is conducted, taking on more responsibility in return for greater incentives. This article reviews the need for change and the approach Schlumberger has adopted to meet this challenge. 20 figs., 20 refs

  18. INTEGRATED EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioara-Bianca BUBOIU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Accepting and valuing people with disabilities is a key aspect of social policies promoted worldwide. The implementation of these policies aim normalize the lives of people with disabilities through full integration in the society to which they belong. Removing discrimination and social barriers equates to a maturing of the society, maturing translated by accepting diversity that surrounds us. Each person must be appreciated at its true value regardless of its condition of normality or deviation from it. Valuing individuals can be achieved only through a full acceptance in society, by assigning statuses and fulfilling social roles. School integration of children with special educational needs in mainstream education is a challenge and involves many aspects to be successful. It is the premise of social integration, the basis for future socio-professional insertion. Integrated education is the first step towards a world of equal opportunities, a world without discrimination.

  19. Integral cryptanalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Wagner, David

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers a cryptanalytic approach called integral cryptanalysis. It can be seen as a dual to differential cryptanalysis and applies to ciphers not vulnerable to differential attacks. The method is particularly applicable to block ciphers which use bijective components only.......This paper considers a cryptanalytic approach called integral cryptanalysis. It can be seen as a dual to differential cryptanalysis and applies to ciphers not vulnerable to differential attacks. The method is particularly applicable to block ciphers which use bijective components only....

  20. Systems integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a view of systems integration, from an ergonomics/human factors perspective, emphasising the process of systems integration as is carried out by humans. The first section discusses some of the fundamental issues in systems integration, such as the significance of systems boundaries, systems lifecycle and systems entropy, issues arising from complexity, the implications of systems immortality, and so on. The next section outlines various generic processes for executing systems integration, to act as guides for practitioners. These address both the design of the system to be integrated and the preparation of the wider system in which the integration will occur. Then the next section outlines some of the human-specific issues that would need to be addressed in such processes; for example, indeterminacy and incompleteness, the prediction of human reliability, workload issues, extended situation awareness, and knowledge lifecycle management. For all of these, suggestions and further readings are proposed. Finally, the conclusions section reiterates in condensed form the major issues arising from the above.

  1. Functional Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Pierre; DeWitt-Morette, Cecile

    2010-06-01

    Acknowledgements; List symbols, conventions, and formulary; Part I. The Physical and Mathematical Environment: 1. The physical and mathematical environment; Part II. Quantum Mechanics: 2. First lesson: gaussian integrals; 3. Selected examples; 4. Semiclassical expansion: WKB; 5. Semiclassical expansion: beyond WKB; 6. Quantum dynamics: path integrals and operator formalism; Part III. Methods from Differential Geometry: 7. Symmetries; 8. Homotopy; 9. Grassmann analysis: basics; 10. Grassmann analysis: applications; 11. Volume elements, divergences, gradients; Part IV. Non-Gaussian Applications: 12. Poisson processes in physics; 13. A mathematical theory of Poisson processes; 14. First exit time: energy problems; Part V. Problems in Quantum Field Theory: 15. Renormalization 1: an introduction; 16. Renormalization 2: scaling; 17. Renormalization 3: combinatorics; 18. Volume elements in quantum field theory Bryce DeWitt; Part VI. Projects: 19. Projects; Appendix A. Forward and backward integrals: spaces of pointed paths; Appendix B. Product integrals; Appendix C. A compendium of gaussian integrals; Appendix D. Wick calculus Alexander Wurm; Appendix E. The Jacobi operator; Appendix F. Change of variables of integration; Appendix G. Analytic properties of covariances; Appendix H. Feynman's checkerboard; Bibliography; Index.

  2. Stakeholder interaction within the ERICA Integrated Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinger, I; Oughton, D H; Jones, S R

    2008-09-01

    Within the ERICA project, stakeholder involvement has been addressed within three main areas: generic interactions throughout the project, specific consultation by means of attendance to events and considerations as part of the ERICA Integrated Approach and Assessment Tool. The word stakeholders meant namely any individual or group who may be affected by or have an interest in an issue, and to include experts, lay-people and the public. An End-Users-Group (EUG) was set up to facilitate the two-way dialogue between the ERICA Consortium and stakeholders. The ERICA EUG consisted of representatives of 60 organisations ranging from regulatory bodies, national advisory bodies, academia, non-governmental organisations, industry, consultants and inter-governmental organisations. Stakeholder interaction was included from the very start of the project. Inputs from the EUG were recorded and in most instances incorporated within the development of the project and thus influenced and helped to shape some of the ERICA deliverables.

  3. Integrated Toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    the theoretical foundations of play and learning. In this presentation, we explore pedagogical potentials of new technologies and traditional toys integrated into a physical and virtual toy (hereinafter called integrated toy) with specific focus on the open-ended toy and non-formal learning. The integrated toy......Toys play a crucial role in supporting children’s learning and creation of meaning in their everyday life. Children also play with toys out of an interest to interact with others e.g. peers and adults. Tendencies of digital technology in toys have led to greater opportunities for manipulation...... and interaction supporting children’s play and learning such that technology is ever-present in the play environments of children. Although electronics have been deployed in tools for play and learning, most of it has facilitated individual learning. Computer games, for instance, most often are designed...

  4. Scientific integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlo, Domenico Franco; Vahakangas, Kirsi; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2008-01-01

    consent was obtained.Integrity is central to environmental health research searching for causal relations. It requires open communication and trust and any violation (i.e., research misconduct, including fabrication or falsification of data, plagiarism, conflicting interests, etc.) may endanger...

  5. Integrated marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    St. John Health consists of nine hospitals throughout southern Michigan. Recently, in an attempt to brand the system as the state's premiere place for medical services, the system launched 'Real Medicine', a campaign that brands all nine hospitals together. Using print, radio, and television spots, the effort also integrates direct mail collateral and brochures to reach consumers.

  6. Integrative teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Robert; Smids, Annejoke; Kors, Ninja

    2007-01-01

    This is an article about the integration of instrumental teaching, aural skills and keyboard skills and music theory at the pre-tertiary level. Team teaching and discipline crossover offer a possible solution to students’ inability to apply skills taught by specialists in separate fields. A personal

  7. Box Integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Crandall, Richard E.

    2006-06-01

    By a "box integral" we mean here an expectation $\\langle|\\vec r - \\vec q|^s \\rangle$ where $\\vec r$runs over the unit $n$-cube,with $\\vec q$ and $s$ fixed, explicitly:\\begin eqnarray*&&\\int_01 \\cdots \\int_01 \\left((r_1 - q_1)2 + \\dots+(r_n-q_n)2\\right)^ s/2 \\ dr_1 \\cdots dr_n.\\end eqnarray* The study ofbox integrals leads one naturally into several disparate fields ofanalysis. While previous studies have focused upon symbolic evaluationand asymptotic analysis of special cases (notably $s = 1$), we workherein more generally--in interdisciplinary fashion--developing resultssuch as: (1) analytic continuation (in complex $s$), (2) relevantcombinatorial identities, (3) rapidly converging series, (4) statisticalinferences, (5) connections to mathematical physics, and (6)extreme-precision quadrature techniques appropriate for these integrals.These intuitions and results open up avenues of experimental mathematics,with a view to new conjectures and theorems on integrals of thistype.

  8. Source-receiver two-way wave extrapolation for prestack exploding-reflector modelling and migration

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Fomel, Sergey; Wu, Zedong

    2014-01-01

    or backward in time. This approach has the potential for generating accurate images free of artiefacts associated with conventional approaches. We derive novel high-order partial differential equations in the source-receiver time domain. The fourth

  9. Antenna Selection for Full-Duplex MIMO Two-Way Communication Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Wilson-Nunn, Daniel; Chaaban, Anas; Sezgin, Aydin; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    Antenna selection for full-duplex communication between two nodes, each equipped with a predefined number of antennae and transmit/receive chains, is studied. Selection algorithms are proposed based on magnitude, orthogonality, and determinant criteria. The algorithms are compared to optimal selection obtained by exhaustive search as well as random selection, and are shown to yield performance fairly close to optimal at a much lower complexity. Performance comparison for a Rayleigh fading symmetric channel reveals that selecting a single transmit antenna is best at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), while selecting an equal number of transmit and receive antennae is best at high SNR.

  10. The two-way relationship between iatrogenic factor and periodontal tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Oktawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Iatrogenic factors refer to anyinadequate medical treatment or diagnostic proceduresconducted inadvertently by practitioners who precipitate adverse injuries or symptoms. The unavoidable consequences of these factors should be corrected promptly, as they may result in erroneous treatment or new injury either on the tooth or the periodontium or both. Periodontal disease has a multifactorial etiology, which results from the interaction of local and systemic factors, intrinsically or extrinsically. Therefore, in most cases of periodontal disease, aninterdisciplinary approach is needed, such as restorative treatment of interproximal cavities that may induced food impacted. In contrary, a periodontal therapy could also act as an iatrogenic factor in the case of dentinal hypersensitivity or gingival recessionthat frequently creates an adverse effect in esthetic. Our discussion here is presented so that dentists could treat carefully and give a lot of attention to potential danger of other consequences of iatrogenic factors.

  11. Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer Using 1 MChips/s Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany ROA Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada, San Fernando, Spain SP Sveriges Provnings- och...International Atomic Time,” Metrologia , 45, 185- 198. [4] A. Bauch, J. Achkar, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, and P. Uhrich

  12. Ombuds' Corner: MARS interviews, a two-way street to mutual understanding (Part 2)

    CERN Multimedia

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2014-01-01

    With the annual MARS exercise approaching, now is an ideal time to consider how to carry out a successful interview. In this issue of the Bulletin, I promised to look at how you, as a supervisee, can use the time to share your specific experience and consolidate an on-going dialogue with your supervisor.   "The MARS interviews are not a productive use of time." "My supervisee cannot handle any constructive criticism." “I am really nervous about my interview”. These are the sorts of complaints heard in the Ombuds Office and around CERN during this time. But the right approach can turn the experience into much more than a formality.  In my last Ombuds Corner, I reminded supervisors of the importance of ‘seeking first to understand’ during the MARS interviews they conducted. While this is essential for supervisors, it is also equally relevant for supervisees. Your supervisors are looking for acknowledgement and ...

  13. Distributed Role Selection With ANC and TDBC Protocols in Two-Way Relaying Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Haiyang; da Costa, Daniel Benevides; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ge, Jianhua; Gong, Feng-Kui

    2015-01-01

    and the scaling law of the system outage behavior at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is characterized, which manifests that d-ROSE can enhance the system diversity gain to one-order higher relative to the ANC and TDBC protocols. It is also shown that d-ROSE can

  14. Optimal controlled ALOHA for two-way data communication in a cable television network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleuten, van der R.J.; Etten, van W.C.; Boom, van den H.P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Based on a unified analysis of both pure and slotted ALOHA systems, a new control algorithm for ALOHA systems is proposed. A feature of great practical importance is the algorithm's automatic adjustment to changes in average traffic intensity or the (finite or infinite) number of active stations in

  15. The Title of Samoderzhets (Autokrator in Serbia and Russia: Two Ways of Byzantine Heritage Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kršljanin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The title of autokrator first appeared in the Rhomaian Empire (Byzantium. Translated as samoderzhets, it was taken up by Slavic countries that followed Rhomaian tradition. Taking as her starting point the indispensable 1935 work by George Ostrogorsky Autokrator and Samoderzhets, the author has analysed similarities and differences in the development of the title of samoderzhets in Serbia and Russia. Three phases have been analysed, of which the first two in more detail: the beginning of the use of this title; the development of the title and its significance; the diverging of the ways of Serbia and Russia. The first phase shows that the adoption of the title in both countries is preceded by both an increase of the country’s actual power and the improvement of its position among other Christian (Orthodox countries. A significant difference appears in the second phase: Serbian kings have used the title of samoderzhets, but it was no longer in use after Stefan Dušan’s coronation as Emperor; after the fall of the Empire, Serbian rulers began to use it again. In Russia it was the other way around: the use of the title was more frequent after Ivan IV’s coronation. It seems that the title was mainly used in Serbia to underline independence where there was no obvious proof for it, and thus was not needed during the Serbian Empire, while Russian rulers, on the contrary, used it only when they had earned it through the actual power of their country. In the third phase both countries abandoned the Rhomaian model. Russia turned to Western models from the time of Peter I, while the development of Serbia was interrupted by its fall under Ottoman rule.

  16. A differentiation of the notion of resistance, based on two ways of operationalizing textiles in architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid; Heimdal, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    An emerging field of design research deals with the operationalization of materials. In this paper, we present and analyse two approaches to operationalizing textiles in architecture. In our analysis, we focus on how differences in operational design expose different kinds of resistance in textil...

  17. Joint Preprocesser-Based Detectors for One-Way and Two-Way Cooperative Communication Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Abuzaid, Abdulrahman I.

    2014-01-01

    Efficient receiver designs for cooperative communication networks are becoming increasingly important. In previous work, cooperative networks communicated with the use of L relays. As the receiver is constrained, channel shortening and reduced

  18. Reassessing the variability in atmospheric H2 using the two-way nested TM5 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieterse, G.; Batenburg, A.M; Roeckmann, T. [Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht (IMAU), Utrecht (Netherlands); Krol, M.C. [Department of Meteorology and Air Quality at Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands); Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie, Air Chemistry Division, Mainz (Germany); Popa, M.E.; Vermeulen, A.T. [Department of Air Quality and Climate Research at the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); O' Doherty, S.; Grant, A. [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Steele, L.P.; Krummel, P.B.; Langenfelds, R.L. [Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Victoria (Austria); Wang, H.J. [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Schmidt, M.; Yver, C. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement (LSCE), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jordan, A. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Biogeochemie, Jena (Germany); Engel, A. [Institut fuer Meteorologie und Geophysik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Fisher, R.E.; Lowry, D.; Nisbet, E.G. [Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham (United Kingdom); Reimann, S.; Vollmer, M.K.; Steinbacher, M. [Empa, Swiss Federal Institute for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Air Pollution/Environmental Technology, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Hammer, S. [Institut fuer Umweltphysik, Heidelberg Universitaet, Heidelberg (Germany); Forster, G.; Sturges, W.T. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-16

    This work reassesses the global atmospheric budget of H2 with the TM5 model. The recent adjustment of the calibration scale for H2 translates into a change in the tropospheric burden. Furthermore, the ECMWF Reanalysis-Interim (ERA-Interim) data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) used in this study show slower vertical transport than the operational data used before. Consequently, more H2 is removed by deposition. The deposition parametrization is updated because significant deposition fluxes for snow, water, and vegetation surfaces were calculated in our previous study. Timescales of 1-2h are asserted for the transport of H2 through the canopies of densely vegetated regions. The global scale variability of H2 and {rho}({Delta}H2) is well represented by the updated model. H2 is slightly overestimated in the Southern Hemisphere because too little H2 is removed by dry deposition to rainforests and savannahs. The variability in H2 over Europe is further investigated using a high-resolution model subdomain. It is shown that discrepancies between the model and the observations are mainly caused by the finite model resolution. The tropospheric burden is estimated at 165{+-}8 Tg H2. The removal rates of H2 by deposition and photochemical oxidation are estimated at 53{+-}4 and 23{+-}2 Tg H2/yr, resulting in a tropospheric lifetime of 2.2{+-}0.2 year.

  19. Cytoadhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes and the infected placenta: a two-way pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.T.M. Costa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is undoubtedly the world's most devastating parasitic disease, affecting 300 to 500 million people every year. Some cases of Plasmodium falciparum infection progress to the deadly forms of the disease responsible for 1 to 3 million deaths annually. P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes adhere to host receptors in the deep microvasculature of several organs. The cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes to placental syncytiotrophoblast receptors leads to pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM. This specific maternal-fetal syndrome causes maternal anemia, low birth weight and the death of 62,000 to 363,000 infants per year in sub-Saharan Africa, and thus has a poor outcome for both mother and fetus. However, PAM and non-PAM parasites have been shown to differ antigenically and genetically. After multiple pregnancies, women from different geographical areas develop adhesion-blocking antibodies that protect against placental parasitemia and clinical symptoms of PAM. The recent description of a new parasite ligand encoded by the var2CSA gene as the only gene up-regulated in PAM parasites renders the development of an anti-PAM vaccine more feasible. The search for a vaccine to prevent P. falciparum sequestration in the placenta by eliciting adhesion-blocking antibodies and a cellular immune response, and the development of new methods for evaluating such antibodies should be key priorities in mother-child health programs in areas of endemic malaria. This review summarizes the main molecular, immunological and physiopathological aspects of PAM, including findings related to new targets in the P. falciparum var gene family. Finally, we focus on a new methodology for mimicking cytoadhesion under blood flow conditions in human placental tissue.

  20. Two ways to model voltage-current curves of adiabatic MgB2 wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenvall, A; Korpela, A; Lehtonen, J; Mikkonen, R

    2007-01-01

    Usually overheating of the sample destroys attempts to measure voltage-current curves of conduction cooled high critical current MgB 2 wires at low temperatures. Typically, when a quench occurs a wire burns out due to massive heat generation and negligible cooling. It has also been suggested that high n values measured with MgB 2 wires and coils are not an intrinsic property of the material but arise due to heating during the voltage-current measurement. In addition, quite recently low n values for MgB 2 wires have been reported. In order to find out the real properties of MgB 2 an efficient computational model is required to simulate the voltage-current measurement. In this paper we go back to basics and consider two models to couple electromagnetic and thermal phenomena. In the first model the magnetization losses are computed according to the critical state model and the flux creep losses are considered separately. In the second model the superconductor resistivity is described by the widely used power law. Then the coupled current diffusion and heat conduction equations are solved with the finite element method. In order to compare the models, example runs are carried out with an adiabatic slab. Both models produce a similar significant temperature rise near the critical current which leads to fictitiously high n values

  1. The Gut Microbiome and HIV-1 Pathogenesis: A Two Way Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Stephanie M.; Frank, Daniel N.; Wilson, Cara C.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 infection is associated with substantial damage to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract resulting in structural impairment of the epithelial barrier and a disruption of intestinal homeostasis. The accompanying translocation of microbial products and potentially microbes themselves from the lumen into systemic circulation has been linked to immune activation, inflammation, and HIV-1 disease progression. The importance of microbial translocation in the setting of HIV-1 infection has led to a recent focus on understanding how the communities of microbes that make up the intestinal microbiome are altered during HIV-1 infection and how they interact with mucosal immune cells to contribute to inflammation. This review details the dysbiotic intestinal communities associated with HIV-1 infection and their potential link to HIV-1 pathogenesis. We detail studies that begin to address the mechanisms driving microbiota-associated immune activation and inflammation and the various treatment strategies aimed at correcting dysbiosis and improving the overall health of HIV-1 infected individuals. Finally, we discuss how this relatively new field of research can advance to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the contribution of the gut microbiome to HIV-1 pathogenesis. PMID:27755100

  2. On Medium Chemical Reaction in Diffusion-Based Molecular Communication: a Two-Way Relaying Example

    OpenAIRE

    Farahnak-Ghazani, Maryam; Aminian, Gholamali; Mirmohseni, Mahtab; Gohari, Amin; Nasiri-Kenari, Masoumeh

    2016-01-01

    Chemical reactions are a prominent feature of molecular communication (MC) systems, with no direct parallels in wireless communications. While chemical reactions may be used inside the transmitter nodes, receiver nodes or the communication medium, we focus on its utility in the medium in this paper. Such chemical reactions can be used to perform computation over the medium as molecules diffuse and react with each other (physical-layer computation). We propose the use of chemical reactions for...

  3. Exact null distributions of quadratic distribution-free statistics for two-way classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract We present new techniques for computing exact distributions of `Friedman-type¿ statistics. Representing the null distribution by a generating function allows for the use of general, not necessarily integer-valued rank scores. Moreover, we use symmetry properties of the multivariate

  4. Numerically Optimized Uniformly Most Powerful Alphabets for Hierarchical-Decode-and-Forward Two-Way Relaying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hekrdla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the issue of the parametric performance of the Hierarchical-Decode-and-Forward (HDF strategy in a wireless 2-way relay channel. Promising HDF, representing the concept of wireless network coding, performs well with a pre-coding strategy that requires Channel State Information (CSI on the transceiver side. Assuming a practical case when CSI is available only on the receiver side and the channel conditions do not allow adaptive strategies, the parametrization causes significant HDF performance degradation for some modulation alphabets. Alphabets that are robust to the parametrization (denoted Uniformly Most Powerful (UMP have already been proposed restricting on the class of non-linear multi-dimensional frequency modulations. In this work, we focus on the general design of unrestricted UMP alphabets. We formulate an optimization problem which is solved by standard non-linear convex constrained optimization algorithms, particularly by Nelder-Mead global optimization search, which is further refined by the local interior-pointsmethod.

  5. Guidicati and Seigniories. Comparison of two ways towards power in the Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demontis, Luca

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 13th century the Empire as political institution was in a state of crisis. The Holy Roman German Empire and the Byzantine Empire were reshaped by extensive fragmentation into regional districts with political autonomy, resulting in a more limited influence for both emperors. Here, I have compared two different paths toward local power, the “Seigniory” and the “Giudicati”. The Seigniory of the family “della Torre” over Milan was one of the first in Italy and is a paradigm of acquisition of political autonomy within the Holy Roman German Empire. Conversely, the “Giudicati” were local kingdoms that arose in Sardinia from the decay of the Byzantine Empire. I discuss the ways by which these regional political institutions arose, their recognition by the emperor, the context in which they acted, the relations between city and peasantry, the role of the “people” in awarding the power.

    En el siglo XIII la institución del Imperio entra en crisis: el poder político del que es depositario se fractura en poderes limitados y particulares. En este trabajo comparo dos vías diferentes hacia el poder local: el Señorío y el 'Giudicati'. El Señorío de la familia 'della Torre' en Milán fue uno de los primeros en italia y paradigma de la adquisición de autonomía política dentro de Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico. Alternativamente, los 'Giudicati' fueron reinos locales que surgieron en Cerdeña como resultado del decaimiento del Imperio Bizantino. Aquí discuto las vías por las que surgieron estas intituciones política locales, su reconocimiento por el Emperador, el contexto en el que actuaron, las relaciones entre la ciudad y los campesinos, y el papel del pueblo en la legitimación del poder. (traducción para esta versión electrónica

  6. Accuracy of two-way time transfer via a single coaxial cable

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pánek, Petr; Kodet, J.; Procházka, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2013), s. 60-65 ISSN 0026-1394 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : SAW FILTER EXCITATION Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2013

  7. Three-way methods for the analysis of qualitative and quantitative two-way data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, Hendrik Albert Lambertus

    1989-01-01

    A problem often occurring in exploratory data analysis is how to summarize large numbers of variables in terms of a smaller number of dimensions. When the variables are quantitative, one may resort to Principal Components Analysis (PCA). When qualitative (categorical) variables are involved, one may

  8. Two-way substitution effects on inventory in configure-to-order production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrodia, Anna; Bonev, Martin; Hvam, Lars

    2015-01-01

    In designing configure-to-order productionsystems for a growing product variety, companies arechallenged with an increased complexity for obtaining highproductivity levels and cost-effectiveness. In academiaseveral optimization methods and conceptual frameworksfor substituting components......, or increasing storage capacityhave been proposed. Our study presents a practicalframework for quantifying the impact of a two-waysubstitution at different production stages and its impact oninventory utilization. In a case study we quantify the relationbetween component substitution, and inventory...... capacityutilization, while maintaining the production capacity as wellas the external product variety....

  9. The queueing perspective of asynchronous network coding in two-way relay network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yaping; Chang, Qing; Li, Xianxu

    2018-04-01

    Asynchronous network coding (NC) has potential to improve the wireless network performance compared with a routing or the synchronous network coding. Recent researches concentrate on the optimization between throughput/energy consuming and delay with a couple of independent input flow. However, the implementation of NC requires a thorough investigation of its impact on relevant queueing systems where few work focuses on. Moreover, few works study the probability density function (pdf) in network coding scenario. In this paper, the scenario with two independent Poisson input flows and one output flow is considered. The asynchronous NC-based strategy is that a new arrival evicts a head packet holding in its queue when waiting for another packet from the other flow to encode. The pdf for the output flow which contains both coded and uncoded packets is derived. Besides, the statistic characteristics of this strategy are analyzed. These results are verified by numerical simulations.

  10. Raman/LIBS Data Fusion via Two-Way Variational Autoencoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, M.; Gemp, I.

    2018-04-01

    We propose an original solution to extracting mineral abundances from Raman spectra by combining Raman data with LIBS using a novel deep learning model based on variational autoencoders and data fusion, which outperforms the current state of the art.

  11. Becoming More Than a Digital Bullhorn: Two Way Engagement on Twitter for Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    filebank/documents/43341. 174 Coombs , W. Timothy, and Sherry Jean Holladay. “How Publics React to Crisis Communication Efforts: Comparing Crisis ...way communication , crisis communications , followers, open government, transparency, responsiveness, public affairs, public information officer (PIO...for crisis communications is becoming increasingly widespread; the more followers an agency social media account has, the more people they can

  12. Two-Way Multiple Relays Channel: Achievable Rate Region and Optimal Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhair Al-Qudah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a communication model containing two users that exchange their information with the help of multiple parallel relay nodes. To avoid interference at these common nodes, two users are required to transmit over the different frequency bands. Based on this scenario, the achievable rate region is initially derived. Next, an optimization scheme is described to choose the best relays that can be used by each user. Then, two power allocation optimization schemes are investigated to allocate the proper average power value to each node. Finally, comparisons between these two optimization schemes are carried out through some numerical examples.

  13. It's a two-way street: the bidirectional relationship between parenting and delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault-Sherman, Martha

    2012-02-01

    As the primary socializing institution of youth, the family has long been recognized as important for predicting delinquency. Social control theory focuses on the effects of parental behavior on adolescent delinquency but fails to take into account the effect of adolescent delinquency on parental behaviors. This study addresses this problem by estimating eighteen models examining bidirectional relationships between general, property, and violent delinquency and parental attachment, monitoring, and involvement. The magnitude of both parent and child effects were examined using data from 12,505 youth ages twelve to seventeen who participated in the Add Health study. These youth were an average age of 14 and were predominantly white (65%); just over half (50.42%) were female. Cross-lag regressions showed that while parental attachment has an effect on delinquency, an adolescent's delinquency also impacts parental attachment, regardless of the type of delinquency. Findings also revealed no significant parental effects of monitoring or involvement on any type of delinquency, and the only child effects revealed for monitoring or involvement were for involvement, which decreases when overall or property delinquency increases. The findings regarding parental attachment provide strong evidence for the existence of a reciprocal relationship between parenting and delinquency, consistent with the transactional and interactional models of reciprocal parent-child relationships.

  14. Design considerations for computationally constrained two-way real-time video communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivolarski, Lazar M.; Saunders, Steven E.; Ralston, John D.

    2009-08-01

    Today's video codecs have evolved primarily to meet the requirements of the motion picture and broadcast industries, where high-complexity studio encoding can be utilized to create highly-compressed master copies that are then broadcast one-way for playback using less-expensive, lower-complexity consumer devices for decoding and playback. Related standards activities have largely ignored the computational complexity and bandwidth constraints of wireless or Internet based real-time video communications using devices such as cell phones or webcams. Telecommunications industry efforts to develop and standardize video codecs for applications such as video telephony and video conferencing have not yielded image size, quality, and frame-rate performance that match today's consumer expectations and market requirements for Internet and mobile video services. This paper reviews the constraints and the corresponding video codec requirements imposed by real-time, 2-way mobile video applications. Several promising elements of a new mobile video codec architecture are identified, and more comprehensive computational complexity metrics and video quality metrics are proposed in order to support the design, testing, and standardization of these new mobile video codecs.

  15. Metaphors as Two-Way Mirrors: Illuminating Preservice to In-Service Teacher Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, John

    2015-01-01

    The transition from pre-service to in-service can be difficult for teachers. One means of looking into the minds and hearts of such teachers is to elicit the metaphors they adopt for themselves. Previous studies have indicated that during this transition much of the confidence, idealism and optimism of teacher metaphors is displaced by bleak and…

  16. Predication of skin temperature and thermal comfort under two-way transient environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Xiong, Jing; Lian, Zhiwei

    2017-12-01

    In this study, three transient environmental conditions consisting of one high-temperature phase within two low-temperature phases were developed, thus creating a temperature rise followed by a temperature fall. Twenty-four subjects (including 12 males and 12 females) were recruited and they underwent all three test scenarios. Skin temperature on seven body parts were measured during the whole period of the experiment. Besides, thermal sensation was investigated at specific moments by questionnaires. Thermal sensation models including PMV model, Fiala model and the Chinese model were applied to predict subjects' thermal sensation with comparisons carried out among them. Results show that most predicated thermal sensation by Chinese model lies within the range of 0.5 scale of the observed sensation vote, and it agrees best with the observed thermal sensation in transient thermal environment than PMV and Fiala model. Further studies should be carried out to improve performance of Chinese model for temperature alterations between "very hot" to "hot" environment, for prediction error in the temperature-fall situation of C5 (37-32°C) was over 0.5 scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comment on 'Two-way protocols for quantum cryptography with a nonmaximally entangled qubit pair'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Sujuan; Gao Fei; Wen Qiaoyan; Guo Fenzhuo

    2010-01-01

    Three protocols of quantum cryptography with a nonmaximally entangled qubit pair [Phys. Rev. A 80, 022323 (2009)] were recently proposed by Shimizu, Tamaki, and Fukasaka. The security of these protocols is based on the quantum-mechanical constraint for a state transformation between nonmaximally entangled states. However, we find that the second protocol is vulnerable under the correlation-elicitation attack. An eavesdropper can obtain the encoded bit M although she has no knowledge about the random bit R.

  18. Antenna Selection for Full-Duplex MIMO Two-Way Communication Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Wilson-Nunn, Daniel

    2017-03-11

    Antenna selection for full-duplex communication between two nodes, each equipped with a predefined number of antennae and transmit/receive chains, is studied. Selection algorithms are proposed based on magnitude, orthogonality, and determinant criteria. The algorithms are compared to optimal selection obtained by exhaustive search as well as random selection, and are shown to yield performance fairly close to optimal at a much lower complexity. Performance comparison for a Rayleigh fading symmetric channel reveals that selecting a single transmit antenna is best at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), while selecting an equal number of transmit and receive antennae is best at high SNR.

  19. Pharmacovigilance training for specialist oncology nurses-a two way evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, T.; Van Eekeren, R.; Richir, M.; Van Staveren, J.; Van Puijenbroek, E.P.; Tichelaar, J.; Van Agtmael, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In a new prescribing qualifcation course for specialist oncology nurses, we thought it important to emphasize pharma-covigilance and adverse drug reaction (ADR)-reporting. To this end, our aim was to develop and evaluate an ADR reporting assignment for specialist oncology nurses.

  20. Cognitive two-way relay beamforming: Design with resilience to channel state uncertainties

    KAUST Repository

    Ubaidulla, P.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Aissa, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a robust distributed relay beamformer design for cognitive radio network operating under uncertainties in the available channel state information. The cognitive network consists of a pair of transceivers and a set of non

  1. Exact Tests for Two-Way Contingency Tables with Structural Zeros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke J. West

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Fisher's exact test, named for Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, tests contingency tables for homogeneity of proportion. This paper discusses a generalization of Fisher's exact test for the case where some of the table entries are constrained to be zero. The resulting test is useful for assessing cases where the null hypothesis of conditional multinomial distribution is suspected to be false. The test is implemented in the form of a new R package, aylmer.

  2. A two-way interface between limited Systems Biology Markup Language and R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivoyevitch Tomas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML is gaining broad usage as a standard for representing dynamical systems as data structures. The open source statistical programming environment R is widely used by biostatisticians involved in microarray analyses. An interface between SBML and R does not exist, though one might be useful to R users interested in SBML, and SBML users interested in R. Results A model structure that parallels SBML to a limited degree is defined in R. An interface between this structure and SBML is provided through two function definitions: write.SBML( which maps this R model structure to SBML level 2, and read.SBML( which maps a limited range of SBML level 2 files back to R. A published model of purine metabolism is provided in this SBML-like format and used to test the interface. The model reproduces published time course responses before and after its mapping through SBML. Conclusions List infrastructure preexisting in R makes it well-suited for manipulating SBML models. Further developments of this SBML-R interface seem to be warranted.

  3. A two-way interface between limited Systems Biology Markup Language and R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radivoyevitch, Tomas

    2004-12-07

    Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is gaining broad usage as a standard for representing dynamical systems as data structures. The open source statistical programming environment R is widely used by biostatisticians involved in microarray analyses. An interface between SBML and R does not exist, though one might be useful to R users interested in SBML, and SBML users interested in R. A model structure that parallels SBML to a limited degree is defined in R. An interface between this structure and SBML is provided through two function definitions: write.SBML() which maps this R model structure to SBML level 2, and read.SBML() which maps a limited range of SBML level 2 files back to R. A published model of purine metabolism is provided in this SBML-like format and used to test the interface. The model reproduces published time course responses before and after its mapping through SBML. List infrastructure preexisting in R makes it well-suited for manipulating SBML models. Further developments of this SBML-R interface seem to be warranted.

  4. Two-way cooperative AF relaying in spectrum-sharing systems: Enhancing cell-edge performance

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Minghua; Aï ssa, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). These important findings provide fresh perspectives for system designers to improve spectral efficiency of secondary users in next-generation broadband spectrum-sharing wireless systems. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Unique Two-Way Field Probe Concept Utilizing a Geodesic Sphere and Quad-Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    encompass the quad-rotor. This cage will behave like a faraday cage of sorts, shielding the quad-rotor’s RCS phenomenology from the radar’s antenna...test volume. Second, because the quad-rotor’s structural geometry is a cause for concern, a geodesic cage , in the shape of a sphere, will be built to...be the development of the geodesic cage that will encompass the quad-rotor along with an analysis of its scattering statistics as function of the

  6. Translanguaging Pedagogies for Positive Identities in Two-Way Dual Language Bilingual Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mateus, Suzanne; Palmer, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that identity matters for school success and that language and identity are powerfully intertwined. A monolingual solitudes understanding of bilingualism undermines children's bilingual identities, yet in most bilingual education classrooms, academic instruction is segregated by language and children are encouraged to engage in…

  7. 47 CFR 22.589 - One-way or two-way application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exceeds 76.4 kilometers (47.5 miles); and identify each protected Basic Exchange Telephone Radio System... applications to operate a transmitter with ERP exceeding the basic power and height-power limits of § 22.565...

  8. Performance analysis of two-way amplify and forward relaying with adaptive modulation

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, Kyusung; Ko, Youngchai; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2009-01-01

    the best relay selection scheme in this work. Based on the proposed selection criterion for the best relay, we analyze the average spectral efficiency by its approximated upper bound. In addition, we extend the proposed scheme to the case where a direct

  9. Robust distributed two-way relay beamforming in cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla; Aissa, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    . The secondary network shares the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU), and operates under a constraint on the maximum interference to the PU, in addition to its own resource and quality of service (QoS) constraints. We propose beamformer designs assuming

  10. It's a Two-Way Street: The Bidirectional Relationship between Parenting and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault-Sherman, Martha

    2012-01-01

    As the primary socializing institution of youth, the family has long been recognized as important for predicting delinquency. Social control theory focuses on the effects of parental behavior on adolescent delinquency but fails to take into account the effect of adolescent delinquency on parental behaviors. This study addresses this problem by…

  11. Two Ways to Support Reflexivity: Teaching Managers to Fulfil an Undefined Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Knudsen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    A current challenge to public managers is the lack of a well-defined role. How can masters programmes prepare managers to live up to an undefined function? In this paper we argue that the lack of role description enhances the need for reflexivity and we show how it is done at Master in Educational Management (MEM). MEM provides the participating…

  12. A Two-Way Street: Regulatory Interplay between RNA Polymerase and Nascent RNA Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinwei; Landick, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The vectorial (5'-to-3' at varying velocity) synthesis of RNA by cellular RNA polymerases (RNAPs) creates a rugged kinetic landscape, demarcated by frequent, sometimes long-lived, pauses. In addition to myriad gene-regulatory roles, these pauses temporally and spatially program the co-transcriptional, hierarchical folding of biologically active RNAs. Conversely, these RNA structures, which form inside or near the RNA exit channel, interact with the polymerase and adjacent protein factors to influence RNA synthesis by modulating pausing, termination, antitermination, and slippage. Here, we review the evolutionary origin, mechanistic underpinnings, and regulatory consequences of this interplay between RNAP and nascent RNA structure. We categorize and rationalize the extensive linkage between the transcriptional machinery and its product, and provide a framework for future studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. HEAT OF MARS IS LOVE OF LIFE?! TWO WAYS TO LOOK AT MARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Alavipanah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Earth and Mars travel in neighboring orbits around the sun. Both are rocky planets, but only the earth has the conditions to support life on. Is such a great difference due to their surface temperatures? It is obvious that the surface temperatures of these planets are governed by two factors of: (a the amount of energy they receive from the sun and, (b the composition of their atmospheres. If it is true, we must focus more on the Thermal Remote Sensing on Mars. Since heat is an important factor in any physical, chemical and biological study, it can be said that the heat in the form of love and psychological processes is effective for these studies. In study about life on another planet, not only the thermal characteristics are essential but love or passion in Scientists' efforts that are related to inner heat should also be considered. Therefore, in this paper we review the studies on Mars with the emphasis on the temperature. We consider science, art, literature, and technology as well as any things related to the heat including ice melting, volcanology, soil, morphology, and geothermal. As we believe that it must be bridged between mental and science gaps, shouldn't we make both the art and the science convergent? Therefore, we have used different scientific and art resources to make the role of heat in the Mars clear. We are seeking to answer the question whether the heat can be as a common factor in the researches.

  14. Heat of Mars is Love of LIFE?! Two Ways to Look at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavipanah, S. K.; Van Gasselt, S.; Mulder, N. J.; Nezammahalleh, M. A.

    2013-09-01

    Earth and Mars travel in neighboring orbits around the sun. Both are rocky planets, but only the earth has the conditions to support life on. Is such a great difference due to their surface temperatures? It is obvious that the surface temperatures of these planets are governed by two factors of: (a) the amount of energy they receive from the sun and, (b) the composition of their atmospheres. If it is true, we must focus more on the Thermal Remote Sensing on Mars. Since heat is an important factor in any physical, chemical and biological study, it can be said that the heat in the form of love and psychological processes is effective for these studies. In study about life on another planet, not only the thermal characteristics are essential but love or passion in Scientists' efforts that are related to inner heat should also be considered. Therefore, in this paper we review the studies on Mars with the emphasis on the temperature. We consider science, art, literature, and technology as well as any things related to the heat including ice melting, volcanology, soil, morphology, and geothermal. As we believe that it must be bridged between mental and science gaps, shouldn't we make both the art and the science convergent? Therefore, we have used different scientific and art resources to make the role of heat in the Mars clear. We are seeking to answer the question whether the heat can be as a common factor in the researches.

  15. Prediction of punching shear capacities of two-way concrete slabs reinforced with FRP bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M. Metwally

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Where corrosion of steel reinforcement is a concern, fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP reinforcing bar or grid reinforcement provides an alternative reinforcement for concrete flat slabs. The existing provisions for punching of slabs in most international design standards for reinforced concrete are based on tests of steel reinforced slabs. The elastic stiffness and bonding characteristics of FRP reinforcement are sufficiently different from those of steel to affect punching strength [1]. This paper evaluates the punching shear strength of concrete flat slabs reinforced with different types of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP. A total of 59 full-size slabs were constructed and tested collected from the literature of FRP bars reinforced concrete slabs. The test parameters were the amount of FRP reinforcing bars, Young’s modulus of FRP bars, slab thickness, loaded areas and concrete compressive strength. The experimental punching shear strengths were compared with the available theoretical predictions, including the ACI 318 Code, BS 8110 Code, ACI 440 design guidelines, and a number of models proposed by some researchers in the literature. Two approaches for predicting the punching strength of FRP-reinforced slabs are examined. The first is an empirical new model which is considered as a modification of El-Gamal et al. [2] model. The second is a Neural Networks Technique; which has been developed to predict the punching shear capacity of FRP reinforced concrete slabs. The accuracies of both methods were evaluated against the experimental test data. They attained excellent agreement with available test results compared to the existing design formulas.

  16. Physical-layer Network Coding in Two-Way Heterogeneous Cellular Networks with Power Imbalance

    OpenAIRE

    Thampi, Ajay K; Liew, Soung Chang; Armour, Simon M D; Fan, Zhong; You, Lizhao; Kaleshi, Dritan

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand for high-speed data, quality of service (QoS) assurance and energy efficiency has triggered the evolution of 4G LTE-A networks to 5G and beyond. Interference is still a major performance bottleneck. This paper studies the application of physical-layer network coding (PNC), a technique that exploits interference, in heterogeneous cellular networks. In particular, we propose a rate-maximising relay selection algorithm for a single cell with multiple relays assuming the decode...

  17. Two-way time transfer via optical fiber providing subpicosecond precision and high temperature stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodet, J.; Pánek, Petr; Procházka, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2015), s. 18-26 ISSN 0026-1394 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : optical fiber * time transfer * TWOTT Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 2.500, year: 2015

  18. Two-way time transfer via optical fiber providing subpicosecond precision and high temperature stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodet, J.; Pánek, Petr; Procházka, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2016), s. 18-26 ISSN 0026-1394 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : TWOTT * Time transfer * Optical fiber Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.411, year: 2016

  19. Imputation of genotypes in Danish two-way crossbred pigs using low density panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiang, Tao; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Legarra, Andres

    Genotype imputation is commonly used as an initial step of genomic selection. Studies on humans, plants and ruminants suggested many factors would affect the performance of imputation. However, studies rarely investigated pigs, especially crossbred pigs. In this study, different scenarios...... of imputation from 5K SNPs to 7K SNPs on Danish Landrace, Yorkshire, and crossbred Landrace-Yorkshire were compared. In conclusion, genotype imputation on crossbreds performs equally well as in purebreds, when parental breeds are used as the reference panel. When the size of reference is considerably large...... SNPs. This dataset will be analyzed for genomic selection in a future study...

  20. Perception and recognition memory of words and werds: two-way mirror effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D Vaughn; Goldinger, Stephen D; Stone, Gregory O

    2006-10-01

    We examined associative priming of words (e.g., TOAD) and pseudohomophones of those words (e.g., TODE) in lexical decision. In addition to word frequency effects, reliable base-word frequency effects were observed for pseudohomophones: Those based on high-frequency words elicited faster and more accurate correct rejections. Associative priming had disparate effects on high- and low-frequency items. Whereas priming improved performance to high-frequency pseudohomophones, it impaired performance to low-frequency pseudohomophones. The results suggested a resonance process, wherein phonologic identity and semantic priming combine to undermine the veridical perception of infrequent items. We tested this hypothesis in another experiment by administering a surprise recognition memory test after lexical decision. When asked to identify words that were spelled correctly during lexical decision, the participants often misremembered pseudohomophones as correctly spelled items. Patterns of false memory, however, were jointly affected by base-word frequencies and their original responses during lexical decision. Taken together, the results are consistent with resonance accounts of word recognition, wherein bottom-up and top-down information sources coalesce into correct, and sometimes illusory, perception. The results are also consistent with a recent lexical decision model, REM-LD, that emphasizes memory retrieval and top-down matching processes in lexical decision.

  1. Integrated Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael; Nielsen, M. W.; Strømann-Andersen, Jakob Bjørn

    2011-01-01

    and describe the decision process. Specific attention is given to how the engineering input was presented and how it was able to facilitate the design development. Site and context, building shape, organization of functions and HVAC-systems were all included to obtain a complete picture of the building......, low-energy consumption, and high-quality indoor environment. We use this case study to investigate how technical knowledge about building performance can be integrated into the conceptual design stage. We have selected certain points during the design process that represented design challenges...

  2. Integrated controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollaway, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    During 1984, all portions of the Nova control system that were necessary for the support of laser activation and completion of the Nova project were finished and placed in service on time. The Nova control system has been unique in providing, on schedule, the capabilities required in the central control room and in various local control areas throughout the facility. The ambitious goal of deploying this system early enough to use it as an aid in the activation of the laser was accomplished; thus the control system made a major contribution to the completion of Nova activation on schedule. Support and enhancement activities continued during the year on the VAX computer systems, central control room, operator consoles and displays, Novanet data communications network, system-level software for both the VAX and LSI-11 computers, Praxis control system computer language, software management tools, and the development system, which includes office terminals. Computational support was also supplied for a wide variety of test fixtures required by the optical and mechanical subsystems. Significant new advancements were made in four areas in integrated controls this year: the integration software (which includes the shot scheduler), the Praxis language, software quality assurance audit, and software development and data handling. A description of the accomplishments in each of these areas follows

  3. Coupling integrated assessment and earth system models: concepts and an application to land use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, B. C.; Lawrence, P.; Ren, X.

    2016-12-01

    Collaboration between the integrated assessment modeling (IAM) and earth system modeling (ESM) communities is increasing, driven by a growing interest in research questions that require analysis integrating both social and natural science components. This collaboration often takes the form of integrating their respective models. There are a number of approaches available to implement this integration, ranging from one-way linkages to full two-way coupling, as well as approaches that retain a single modeling framework but improve the representation of processes from the other framework. We discuss the pros and cons of these different approaches and the conditions under which a two-way coupling of IAMs and ESMs would be favored over a one-way linkage. We propose a criterion that is necessary and sufficient to motivate two-way coupling: A human process must have an effect on an earth system process that is large enough to cause a change in the original human process that is substantial compared to other uncertainties in the problem being investigated. We then illustrate a test of this criterion for land use-climate interactions based on work using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and land use scenarios from the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), in which we find that the land use effect on regional climate is unlikely to meet the criterion. We then show an example of implementing a one-way linkage of land use and agriculture between an IAM, the integrated Population-Economy-Technology-Science (iPETS) model, and CESM that produces fully consistent outcomes between iPETS and the CESM land surface model. We use the linked system to model the influence of climate change on crop yields, agricultural land use, crop prices and food consumption under two alternative future climate scenarios. This application demonstrates the ability to link an IAM to a global land surface and climate model in a computationally efficient manner.

  4. Multidimensional singular integrals and integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhlin, Solomon Grigorievich; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1965-01-01

    Multidimensional Singular Integrals and Integral Equations presents the results of the theory of multidimensional singular integrals and of equations containing such integrals. Emphasis is on singular integrals taken over Euclidean space or in the closed manifold of Liapounov and equations containing such integrals. This volume is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of some theorems on linear equations in Banach spaces, followed by a discussion on the simplest properties of multidimensional singular integrals. Subsequent chapters deal with compounding of singular integrals

  5. Integrated heart failure telemonitoring system for homecare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobodzinski, S Suave; Jadalla, Ahlam A

    2010-01-01

    The integrated telemonitoring system (ITS) for homecare has been designed to improve quality of care as measured by increased nursing productivity, improved patients' clinical and behavioral outcomes and reduction of cost. The system incorporates managerial, organizational, operational and clinical tasks optimized for delivery of quality care through telemonitoring. A secure, multi-modal computer network that integrates homecare nurses, patients and those who care into one seamless environment has been developed. The network brings together a new generation of small, hand-held, wireless terminals used by nurses and patients with a HIPPA-compliant electronic patient record system at the caregiver's site. Wireless terminals use Gobi multi-standard networking technology for connectivity to any available wireless network. The unique features of ITS include a) picture recognition technology capable of extracting numeric data from in-home physiological signal monitor displays that include blood pressure, weight, oxygen saturation, transmission of lung sounds, and capturing echocardiography and electrocardiography data from mobile units; b) in-home caregiver-assisted interactive examinations of signs and symptoms that include visual impressions of ankle swelling, jugular vein distension measurement, and weight gain; c) video-conference capability, facilitating face-to-face two-way communication of nursing personnel with the patients. The ITS network has been designed to improve patients' clinical and behavioral outcomes, increase nursing productivity, and reduce the cost of homecare. Patients' co-operation and compliance has been achieved through use of easy-to-use videoconferencing terminals.

  6. Integrated care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick-Giles, Lynsey; Checkland, Kath

    2018-03-19

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to try and understand how several organisations in one area in England are working together to develop an integrated care programme. Weick's (1995) concept of sensemaking is used as a lens to examine how the organisations are working collaboratively and maintaining the programme. Design/methodology/approach Qualitative methods included: non-participant observations of meetings, interviews with key stakeholders and the collection of documents relating to the programme. These provided wider contextual information about the programme. Comprehensive field notes were taken during observations and analysed alongside interview transcriptions using NVIVO software. Findings This paper illustrates the importance of the construction of a shared identity across all organisations involved in the programme. Furthermore, the wider policy discourse impacted on how the programme developed and influenced how organisations worked together. Originality/value The role of leaders from all organisations involved in the programme was of significance to the overall development of the programme and the sustained momentum behind the programme. Leaders were able to generate a "narrative of success" to drive the programme forward. This is of particular relevance to evaluators, highlighting the importance of using multiple methods to allow researchers to probe beneath the surface of programmes to ensure that evidence moves beyond this public narrative.

  7. Regional trade and economic integration of Ukraine and the EU: update, problems and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Honcharuk

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In terms of strategic Euro-integration choice of Ukraine in the article there has been presented the idea’s conceptualization of enhanced integration: revealed its nature and singled out the main structural elements. A complex assessment of preconditions for the new contract with the EU and results of the two-way interaction based on the cooperation indicates the necessity of medium-term strategic formation of the Euro-integration policy of Ukraine outside the Community seeking the complementarity of corresponding actions of foreign and national economic policy. In the article there is brought up a general format of the Ukrainian integration model and offered recommendations as to particular blocks of the current negotiation process.

  8. Organising Sustainability Competencies through Quality Management: Integration or Specialisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanajah Siva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A significant step in integrating environmental sustainability into daily operations is through product development. One way to achieve such integration of environmental considerations into product development is by relating sustainability competencies to practices of Quality Management. However, practices seem to vary for how competencies within environmental sustainability are organised in order to make sustainability more actionable. This study explores two ways of organising sustainability competencies in product development: integration and specialisation. The organisation of sustainability competency is illustrated through two cases; one case in which sustainability is integrated with the quality management competency, and the other in which a new competency focusing on sustainability has been added as a separate function in product development. It is suggested that the organisation of sustainability competency influences the extent of environmental impact. Further, trade-offs, such as material source versus weight may not be exploited when sustainability is integrated as one area of responsibility for another specialty competency, suggesting a lack of sufficient competency within environmental sustainability to recognise potential trade-offs between—for example—quality and environmental impact.

  9. Definite Integrals using Orthogonality and Integral Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard S. Cohl

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We obtain definite integrals for products of associated Legendre functions with Bessel functions, associated Legendre functions, and Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind using orthogonality and integral transforms.

  10. Integrated project delivery : The designer as integrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamelink, J.W.F.; Koolwijk, J.S.J.; van Doorn, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Process innovation related to integrated project delivery is an important topic in the building industry. Studies on process innovation through the use of integrated contracts usually focus on contractors, and particularly on the possibility of forward integration into the building process. Three

  11. Workplace Integration: Key Considerations for Internationally Educated Nurses and Employers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubeida Ramji

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Integration of internationally educated nurses (IENs in the workplace over the long term, has not been a clear focus in nursing. The role of the employer organization in facilitating workplace integration for IENs has also not been emphasized in research. The overall aim of this paper is to highlight findings from an instrumental qualitative case study research informed by critical social theory, which examined workplace integration of IENs. The study explored what is meant by ‘integration’ and how the employer organizational context affects workplace integration of IENs. A purposeful sample of twenty-eight participants was involved. The participants included: stakeholders from various vantage points within the case organization as well as IENs from diverse backgrounds who were beyond the process of transitioning into the Canadian workplace—they had worked in Canada for an average of eleven years. Four methods of data collection were used: semi-structured interviews; socio-demographic survey; review of documents; and focus group discussions (FGDs. Thematic analysis methods guided the within subcase analysis first, followed by an across subcase analysis. FGDs were used as a platform for member-checking to establish the credibility of study findings. The resulting definition and conceptual framework point to workplace integration of IENs as a two-way process requiring efforts on the part of the IENs as well as the employer organization. This paper elaborates on selected themes of how beyond transition, workplace integration entails IENs progressing on their leadership journey, while persevering to overcome challenges. Organizational factors such as workforce diversity, leadership commitment to equity and engagement with the broader community serve as critical enablers and the importance of workplaces striving to avoid common pitfalls in addressing the priority of IEN integration are also discussed. This paper concludes with implications and

  12. Seismic Imaging, One-Way Wave Equations, Pseudodifferential Operators, Path Integrals, and all that Jazz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artoun, Ojenie; David-Rus, Diana; Emmett, Matthew; Fishman, Lou; Fital, Sandra; Hogan, Chad; Lim, Jisun; Lushi, Enkeleida; Marinov, Vesselin

    2006-05-01

    In this report we summarize an extension of Fourier analysis for the solution of the wave equation with a non-constant coefficient corresponding to an inhomogeneous medium. The underlying physics of the problem is exploited to link pseudodifferential operators and phase space path integrals to obtain a marching algorithm that incorporates the backward scattering into the evolution of the wave. This allows us to successfully apply single-sweep, one-way marching methods in inherently two-way environments, which was not achieved before through other methods for this problem.

  13. Pro Spring Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lui, M; Chan, Andy; Long, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Pro Spring Integration is an authoritative book from the experts that guides you through the vast world of enterprise application integration (EAI) and application of the Spring Integration framework towards solving integration problems. The book is:. * An introduction to the concepts of enterprise application integration * A reference on building event-driven applications using Spring Integration * A guide to solving common integration problems using Spring Integration What makes this book unique is its coverage of contemporary technologies and real-world information, with a focus on common p

  14. Tactical Systems Integration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Tactical Systems Integration Laboratory is used to design and integrate computer hardware and software and related electronic subsystems for tactical vehicles....

  15. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS): adding functionality while maintaining reliability and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Ward

    2011-09-01

    An overview of the activities and progress made during the US DOE Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) solicitation, while maintaining reliability and economics is provided. The SEGIS R&D opened pathways for interconnecting PV systems to intelligent utility grids and micro-grids of the future. In addition to new capabilities are "value added" features. The new hardware designs resulted in smaller, less material-intensive products that are being viewed by utilities as enabling dispatchable generation and not just unpredictable negative loads. The technical solutions enable "advanced integrated system" concepts and "smart grid" processes to move forward in a faster and focused manner. The advanced integrated inverters/controllers can now incorporate energy management functionality, intelligent electrical grid support features and a multiplicity of communication technologies. Portals for energy flow and two-way communications have been implemented. SEGIS hardware was developed for the utility grid of today, which was designed for one-way power flow, for intermediate grid scenarios, AND for the grid of tomorrow, which will seamlessly accommodate managed two-way power flows as required by large-scale deployment of solar and other distributed generation. The SEGIS hardware and control developed for today meets existing standards and codes AND provides for future connections to a "smart grid" mode that enables utility control and optimized performance.

  16. Legacy model integration for enhancing hydrologic interdisciplinary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, A.; Arabi, M.; David, O.

    2013-12-01

    Many challenges are introduced to interdisciplinary research in and around the hydrologic science community due to advances in computing technology and modeling capabilities in different programming languages, across different platforms and frameworks by researchers in a variety of fields with a variety of experience in computer programming. Many new hydrologic models as well as optimization, parameter estimation, and uncertainty characterization techniques are developed in scripting languages such as Matlab, R, Python, or in newer languages such as Java and the .Net languages, whereas many legacy models have been written in FORTRAN and C, which complicates inter-model communication for two-way feedbacks. However, most hydrologic researchers and industry personnel have little knowledge of the computing technologies that are available to address the model integration process. Therefore, the goal of this study is to address these new challenges by utilizing a novel approach based on a publish-subscribe-type system to enhance modeling capabilities of legacy socio-economic, hydrologic, and ecologic software. Enhancements include massive parallelization of executions and access to legacy model variables at any point during the simulation process by another program without having to compile all the models together into an inseparable 'super-model'. Thus, this study provides two-way feedback mechanisms between multiple different process models that can be written in various programming languages and can run on different machines and operating systems. Additionally, a level of abstraction is given to the model integration process that allows researchers and other technical personnel to perform more detailed and interactive modeling, visualization, optimization, calibration, and uncertainty analysis without requiring deep understanding of inter-process communication. To be compatible, a program must be written in a programming language with bindings to a common

  17. SAP crm integration testing

    OpenAIRE

    Černiavskaitė, Marija

    2017-01-01

    This Bachelor's thesis presents SAP CRM and integration systems testing analysis: investigation in SAP CRM and SAP PO systems, presentation of relationship between systems, introduction to third-party system (non-SAP) – Network Informational System (NIS) which has integration with SAP, presentation of best CRM testing practises, analysis and recommendation of integration testing. Practical integration testing is done in accordance to recommendations.

  18. Pipeline integrity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyt, J.; Macara, C.

    1997-12-31

    This paper focuses on some of the issues necessary for pipeline operators to consider when addressing the challenge of managing the integrity of their systems. Topics are: Definition; business justification; creation and safeguarding of technical integrity; control and deviation from technical integrity; pipelines; pipeline failure assessment; pipeline integrity assessment; leak detection; emergency response. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Integral consideration of integrated management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frauenknecht, Stefan; Schmitz, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the project for the NPPs Kruemmel and Brunsbuettel (Vattenfall) is the integral view of the business process as basis for the implementation and operation of management systems in the domains quality, safety and environment. The authors describe the integral view of the business processes in the frame of integrated management systems with the focus nuclear safety, lessons learned in the past, the concept of a process-based controlling system and experiences from the practical realization.

  20. Buried waste integrated demonstration technology integration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.S.; Ferguson, J.E.

    1992-04-01

    A Technology integration Process was developed for the Idaho National Energy Laboratories (INEL) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge from industry, universities, and other Federal agencies into the BWID; to successfully transfer demonstrated technology and knowledge from the BWID to industry, universities, and other Federal agencies; and to share demonstrated technologies and knowledge between Integrated Demonstrations and other Department of Energy (DOE) spread throughout the DOE Complex. This document also details specific methods and tools for integrating and transferring technologies into or out of the BWID program. The document provides background on the BWID program and technology development needs, demonstrates the direction of technology transfer, illustrates current processes for this transfer, and lists points of contact for prospective participants in the BWID technology transfer efforts. The Technology Integration Process was prepared to ensure compliance with the requirements of DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD)

  1. Power Systems Integration Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    | NREL Power Systems Integration Laboratory Power Systems Integration Laboratory Research in the Energy System Integration Facility's Power Systems Integration Laboratory focuses on the microgrid applications. Photo of engineers testing an inverter in the Power Systems Integration Laboratory

  2. Grid Integration Research | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration Research Grid Integration Research Researchers study grid integration of wind three wind turbines with transmission lines in the background. Capabilities NREL's grid integration electric power system operators to more efficiently manage wind grid system integration. A photo of

  3. Distribution Integration | Grid Modernization | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distribution Integration Distribution Integration The goal of NREL's distribution integration research is to tackle the challenges facing the widespread integration of distributed energy resources NREL engineers mapping out a grid model on a whiteboard. NREL's research on the integration of

  4. Transmission Integration | Grid Modernization | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transmission Integration Transmission Integration The goal of NREL's transmission integration integration issues and provide data, analysis, and models to enable the electric power system to more and finding solutions to address them to enable transmission grid integration. Capabilities Power

  5. Technology Integration Division FY 1992 Public Participation Program Management and Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The mission of the Office of Technology Development (OTD), to develop and apply existing and innovative environmental restoration and waste management technologies to the cleanup to Department of Energy (DOE) sites and facilities in accordance with applicable regulations, is to be carried out through the central mechanisms of the Integrated Demonstration (ID) and Integrated Program (IP). Regulations include provisions for public participation in DOE decision making regarding IDs. Beyond these requirements, DOE seeks to foster a more open culture in which public participation, based on two-way communication between DOE and the public, is not only welcomed, but actively encouraged. The public to which the Program is addressed actually consists of several distinct ''publics:'' state and local government officials; Indian tribes; citizen groups and individuals concerned about specific issues; citizen groups or individuals who are opinion leaders in their communities; other federal agencies; private industry; and academia involved in IDs. Participation of these publics in decision making means that their concerns, needs, objectives, and other input are identified by two-way communication between them and DOE, and that these factors are considered when decisions made about OTD activities. This plan outlines the TIPs Public Participation Program goals, objectives, and steps to be taken during Fiscal Year (FY) 1992 to move toward those goals and objectives, based on the challenges and opportunities currently recognized or assumed

  6. One loop integrals reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yi; Chang Haoran

    2012-01-01

    By further examining the symmetry of external momenta and masses in Feynman integrals, we fulfilled the method proposed by Battistel and Dallabona, and showed that recursion relations in this method can be applied to simplify Feynman integrals directly. (authors)

  7. Laplace Transforms without Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Calculating Laplace transforms from the definition often requires tedious integrations. This paper provides an integration-free technique for calculating Laplace transforms of many familiar functions. It also shows how the technique can be applied to probability theory.

  8. Sesquilinear uniform vector integral

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    theory, together with his integral, dominate contemporary mathematics. ... directions belonging to Bartle and Dinculeanu (see [1], [6], [7] and [2]). ... in this manner, namely he integrated vector functions with respect to measures of bounded.

  9. The Integrated Renovation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    The Integrated Renovation Process (IRP) is a user customized methodology based on judiciously selected constructivist and interactive multi-criteria decision making methods (Galiotto, Heiselberg, & Knudstrup, 2014 (expected)). When applied for home renovation, the Integrated Renovation Process...

  10. Spring integration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Chandan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who are either already involved with enterprise integration or planning to venture into the domain. Basic knowledge of Java and Spring is expected. For newer users, this book can be used to understand an integration scenario, what the challenges are, and how Spring Integration can be used to solve it. Prior experience of Spring Integration is not expected as this book will walk you through all the code examples.

  11. Boolean integral calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jerry H.; Tapia, Moiez A.; Bennett, A. Wayne

    1988-01-01

    The concept of Boolean integration is developed, and different Boolean integral operators are introduced. Given the changes in a desired function in terms of the changes in its arguments, the ways of 'integrating' (i.e. realizing) such a function, if it exists, are presented. The necessary and sufficient conditions for integrating, in different senses, the expression specifying the changes are obtained. Boolean calculus has applications in the design of logic circuits and in fault analysis.

  12. Integrated vs. Federated Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschall, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    Oplæg om forskelle og ligheder mellem integrated og federated search i bibliotekskontekst. Holdt ved temadag om "Integrated Search - samsøgning i alle kilder" på Danmarks Biblioteksskole den 22. januar 2009.......Oplæg om forskelle og ligheder mellem integrated og federated search i bibliotekskontekst. Holdt ved temadag om "Integrated Search - samsøgning i alle kilder" på Danmarks Biblioteksskole den 22. januar 2009....

  13. Integrated nursery pest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese

    2012-01-01

    What is integrated pest management? Take a look at the definition of each word to better understand the concept. Two of the words (integrated and management) are relatively straightforward. Integrated means to blend pieces or concepts into a unified whole, and management is the wise use of techniques to successfully accomplish a desired outcome. A pest is any biotic (...

  14. Sledge-Hammer Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahner, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Integration (here visualized as a pounding process) is mathematically realized by simple transformations, successively smoothing the bounding curve into a straight line and the region-to-be-integrated into an area-equivalent rectangle. The relationship to Riemann sums, and to the trapezoid and midpoint methods of numerical integration, is…

  15. Discrete bipolar universal integrals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Greco, S.; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, F.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 252, č. 1 (2014), s. 55-65 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : bipolar integral * universal integral * Choquet integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.986, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/mesiar-0432224.pdf

  16. Responsibility and Integrated Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, SJ

    2014-01-01

    Integrated thinking is essentially focused in dialogue and communication. This is partly because relationships and related purpose focus on action, which itself acts as a means of integration, and partly because critical dialogue enables better, more responsive, integrated thinking and action.

  17. Ramjets: Airframe integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerel, J.L.; Halswijk, W.

    2010-01-01

    These notes deal with the integration of a (sc)ramjet engine in either an axisymmetric or a waverider type of cruise missile configuration. The integration aspects relate to the integration of the external and internal flow paths in geometrical configurations that are being considered worldwide.

  18. Foundations for Psychotherapy Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Branco Vasco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The movement for integration in psychotheray is clearly one of the main trends that can be observed in the field. The author stresses three main reasons for this state of affairs and as a way of justifying the importance of integration: historical and psychosocial, empirical and philosophical. A specific way of thinking in integrative terms is also outlined - "paradigmatic complementarity."

  19. Steffensen's integral inequality for conformable fractional integrals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zeki Sarikaya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to establish some Steffensen’s type inequalities for conformable fractional integral. The results presented here would provide generalizations of those given in earlier works.

  20. Integrated cryogenic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juanarena, D.B.; Rao, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    Integrated cryogenic pressure-temperature, level-temperature, and flow-temperature sensors have several advantages over the conventional single parameter sensors. Such integrated sensors were not available until recently. Pressure Systems, Inc. (PSI) of Hampton, Virginia, has introduced precalibrated precision cryogenic pressure sensors at the Los Angeles Cryogenic Engineering Conference in 1989. Recently, PSI has successfully completed the development of integrated pressure-temperature and level-temperature sensors for use in the temperature range 1.5-375K. In this paper, performance characteristics of these integrated sensors are presented. Further, the effects of irradiation and magnetic fields on these integrated sensors are also reviewed

  1. Nature-based integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Kati; Oratuomi, Joose; Hellgren, Daniela

    Increased attention to, and careful planning of the integration of migrants into Nordic societies is ever more important. Nature based integration is a new solution to respond to this need. This report presents the results of a Nordic survey and workshop and illustrates current practices of nature...... based integration by case study descriptions from Denmark, Sweden Norway and Finland. Across Nordic countries several practical projects and initiatives have been launched to promote the benefits of nature in integration and there is also growing academic interest in the topic. Nordic countries have...... the potential of becoming real forerunners in nature based integration even at the global scale....

  2. Photonic Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael; Merritt, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonics generally is the integration of multiple lithographically defined photonic and electronic components and devices (e.g. lasers, detectors, waveguides passive structures, modulators, electronic control and optical interconnects) on a single platform with nanometer-scale feature sizes. The development of photonic integrated circuits permits size, weight, power and cost reductions for spacecraft microprocessors, optical communication, processor buses, advanced data processing, and integrated optic science instrument optical systems, subsystems and components. This is particularly critical for small spacecraft platforms. We will give an overview of some NASA applications for integrated photonics.

  3. Integration of generic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, D.

    1989-01-01

    The NRC has recognized the need to integrate generic issues (GIs). The GI process includes a number of phases, all of which should recognize the potential for overlap and conflict among related issues. In addition to the issues themselves, other related NRC and industry programs and activities need to be factored into the GI process. Integration has taken place, or is taking place, for a number of GIs. Each case of integration involves a specific set of circumstances and, as a result, the way in which integration proceeds can vary. This paper discusses the integration of issues in the generic issue process and provides a number of examples

  4. Four integration patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygstad, Bendik; Nielsen, Peter Axel; Munkvold, Bjørn Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to a theory of integration within the field of IS project management. Integration is a key IS project management issue when new systems are developed and implemented into an increasingly integrated information infrastructure in corporate and governmental organizations....... Expanding the perspective of traditional project management research, we draw extensively on central insights from IS research. Building on socio-technical IS research and Software Engineering research we suggest four generic patterns of integration: Big Bang, Stakeholder Integration, Technical Integration...... and Socio-Technical Integration. We analyze and describe the advantages and disadvantages of each pattern. The four patterns are ideal types. To explore the forces and challenges in these patterns three longitudinal case studies were conducted. In particular we investigate the management challenges for each...

  5. Searching for integrable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Lack of integrability leads to undesirable consequences in a number of physical systems. The lack of integrability of the magnetic field leads to enhanced particle transport in stellarators and tokamaks with tearing-mode turbulence. Limitations of the luminosity of colliding beams may be due to the onset of stochasticity. Enhanced radial transport in mirror machines caused by the lack of integrability and/or the presence of resonances may be a significant problem in future devices. To improve such systems one needs a systematic method for finding integrable systems. Of course, it is easy to find integrable systems if no restrictions are imposed; textbooks are full of such examples. The problem is to find integrable systems given a set of constraints. An example of this type of problem is that of finding integrable vacuum magnetic fields with rotational transform. The solution to this problem is relevant to the magnetic-confinement program

  6. Compact ASD Topologies for Single-Phase Integrated Motor Drives with Sinusoidal Input Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Thoegersen, Paul

    2005-01-01

    of the induction motor as a boost inductor for a PFC (Power Factor Correction) stage controlled by the inverter zero-sequence voltage component. By determining how much energy is possible to store in a corner inductor, it is proven that integrating the magnetics into the stator yoke is a feasible solution......, investigating the physical removal of power inductors from the converter enclosure in conjunction with reducing the number of semiconductor active devices. There are two ways to do that: to integrate the inductors in the unused area of the stator yoke of the motor or to use the leakage inductance....... Topologies of single-phase converters that take advantage of the motor leakage inductance are analyzed. The installed power in silicon active devices of these topologies is compared with a standard situation, showing that this will involve higher cost. As the iron core of the inductors is not suitable...

  7. Energy Systems Integration Facility Videos | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Energy Systems Integration Facility Videos Energy Systems Integration Facility Integration Facility NREL + SolarCity: Maximizing Solar Power on Electrical Grids Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: Grid Integration Robot-Powered Reliability Testing at NREL's ESIF Microgrid

  8. Energy Systems Integration Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    | NREL Integration Laboratory Energy Systems Integration Laboratory Research in the Energy Systems Integration Laboratory is advancing engineering knowledge and market deployment of hydrogen technologies. Applications include microgrids, energy storage for renewables integration, and home- and station

  9. Transdisciplinary knowledge integration : cases from integrated assessment and vulnerability assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinkel, J.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: climate change, integrated assessment, knowledge integration, transdisciplinary research, vulnerability, vulnerability assessment.
    This thesis explores how transdisciplinary knowledge integration can be facilitated in the context of integrated assessments and vulnerability

  10. Strengthening the Regional Integration in Central and Eastern Europe through Cohesion Policy Instruments and Cooperation among Stock Exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIA STEFANOVA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research paper is focused on the analysis of two ways of strengthening the regional integration in the Central and Eastern Europe – through the Cohesion policy instruments and cooperation among stock exchanges. Substantial benefits from the regional integration through cohesion policy include economic and social prosperity, political understanding. It should be further intensified, as it contributes to reduce regional disparities, exchange knowledge and best practices, ensure economic development. On the other hand, the deepening intra-regional cooperation among CEE stock exchanges leads to quantitative and qualitative changes in the course of their consolidation. Some assumptions are reached regarding expected changes on the Bulgarian capital market in the course of intensifying its intra-regional integrational links to CEE capital markets in conformity with set strategic priorities.

  11. Immigrant Integration: Acculturation and Social Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid HAMBERGER

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article tackles the concept of “immigrant integration” as it is analyzed by different authors in the international migration field. In this article, I will use the terms “refugee” and “immigrant” as equivalent to each other due to the interchangeable character of these concepts throughout the integration literature. First, the article brings into discussion the definitional and conceptual battle around the concept of immigrant “integration”, and second, it will describe and analyze cultural and social integration with their presupposing processes.

  12. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  13. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  14. Exact Slater integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, L.B.

    1968-01-01

    In atomic structure calculations, one has to evaluate the Slater integrals. In the present program, the authors evaluate exactly the Slater integral when hydrogenic wave functions are used for the bound-state orbitals. When hydrogenic wave functions are used, the Slater integrals involve integrands which can be written in the form of a product of an exponential, exp(ax) and a known analytic polynomial function, f(x). By repeated partial integration such an integral can be expressed in terms of a finite series involving the exponential, the polynomial function and its derivatives. PL/1-FORMAC has a built-in subroutine that will analytically find the derivatives of any multinomial. Thus, the finite series and hence the Slater integral can be evaluated analytically. (Auth.)

  15. Integrated security system definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, G.K.; Hall, J.R. II

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of an integrated security system are to detect intruders and unauthorized activities with a high degree of reliability and the to deter and delay them until effective response/engagement can be accomplished. Definition of an effective integrated security system requires proper application of a system engineering methodology. This paper summarizes a methodology and describes its application to the problem of integrated security system definition. This process includes requirements identification and analysis, allocation of identified system requirements to the subsystem level and provides a basis for identification of synergistic subsystem elements and for synthesis into an integrated system. The paper discusses how this is accomplished, emphasizing at each step how system integration and subsystem synergism is considered. The paper concludes with the product of the process: implementation of an integrated security system

  16. Integrated management systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bugdol, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Examining the challenges of integrated management, this book explores the importance and potential benefits of using an integrated approach as a cross-functional concept of management. It covers not only standardized management systems (e.g. International Organization for Standardization), but also models of self-assessment, as well as different types of integration. Furthermore, it demonstrates how processes and systems can be integrated, and how management efficiency can be increased. The major part of this book focuses on management concepts which use integration as a key tool of management processes (e.g. the systematic approach, supply chain management, virtual and network organizations, processes management and total quality management). Case studies, illustrations, and tables are also provided to exemplify and illuminate the content, as well as examples of successful and failed integrations. Providing a particularly useful resource to managers and specialists involved in the improvement of organization...

  17. Integration of reusable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Software reuse and integration has been described as the process of creating software systems from existing software rather than building software systems from scratch. Whereas reuse solely deals with the artifacts creation, integration focuses on how reusable artifacts interact with the already existing parts of the specified transformation. Currently, most reuse research focuses on creating and integrating adaptable components at development or at compile time. However, with the emergence of ubiquitous computing, reuse technologies that can support adaptation and reconfiguration of architectures and components at runtime are in demand. This edited book includes 15 high quality research papers written by experts in information reuse and integration to cover the most recent advances in the field. These papers are extended versions of the best papers which were presented at IEEE International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration and IEEE International Workshop on Formal Methods Integration, which wa...

  18. A general integral identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasser, M L, E-mail: laryg@clarkson.edu [Department of Physics, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5820 (United States); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 470071 (Spain)

    2011-06-03

    The identity {integral}{sub 0}{sup {pi}/2}d{Phi}{integral}{sub 0}{sup {pi}/2}d{Theta} sin{Phi} F(x sn{Phi} sin{Phi})={pi}/2 {integral}{sub 0}{sup 1}F(xt)dt, where F is any function, is derived. Several extensions are given and a few examples of physical interest are described.

  19. An integral heuristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, L.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper gives a heuristic derivation of the skein relation for the Homfly polynomial in an integral formalism. The derivation is formally correct but highly simplified. In the light of Witten's proposal for invariants of links via functional integrals, it is useful to have a formal pattern to compare with the complexities of the full approach. The formalism is a heuristic. However, it is closely related to the actual structure of the Witten functional integral

  20. HETEROGENEOUS INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-24

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0168 HETEROGENEOUS INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGY Dr. Burhan Bayraktaroglu Devices for Sensing Branch Aerospace Components & Subsystems...Final September 1, 2016 – May 1, 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HETEROGENEOUS INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A...provide a structure for this review. The history and the current status of integration technologies in each category are examined and product examples are

  1. Branching trajectory continual integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, V.P.; Chebotarev, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Heuristic definition of the Feynman continual integral over branching trajectories is suggested which makes it possible to obtain in the closed form the solution of the Cauchy problem for the model Hartree equation. A number of properties of the solution is derived from an integral representation. In particular, the quasiclassical asymptotics, exact solution in the gaussian case and perturbation theory series are described. The existence theorem for the simpliest continual integral over branching trajectories is proved [ru

  2. The integrated PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the integrated reactors concepts by a presentation of four reactors: PIUS, SIR, IRIS and CAREM. The core conception, the operating, the safety, the economical aspects and the possible users are detailed. From the performance of the classical integrated PWR, the necessity of new innovative fuels utilization, the research of a simplified design to make easier the safety and the KWh cost decrease, a new integrated reactor is presented: SCAR 600. (A.L.B.)

  3. Towards a theory of medium-term life satisfaction : Two-way causation partly explains persistent satisfaction or dissatisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Headey, Bruce; Muffels, R.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Long term panel data enable researchers to construct trajectories of life satisfaction (LS) for individuals over time. In this paper we analyse the trajectories of respondents (N = 3689) in the German Socio-Economic Panel who recorded their LS for 20 consecutive years in 1991–2010. Previous research

  4. Low-cost monitoring of the wavelength difference of two transmitters for two-way time transfer over optical fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Slavík, Radan; Vojtěch, Josef; Smotlacha, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Accurate time transfer is routinely performed using GPS, however an order of magnitude better accuracy can be achieved when signal transfer over optical fibres is used (e.g., in [1], fibre transfer over 73 km with <100 ps precision was achieved as compared to <700 ps for the GPS-based system). Unfortunately, the propagation delay through an optical fibre changes due to temperature variation. This is commonly compensated for by transferring the time information bi-directionally over a si...

  5. A TWO-WAY ROAD: RATES OF HIV INFECTION AND BEHAVIORAL RISK FACTORS AMONG DEPORTED MEXICAN LABOR MIGRANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, M. Gudelia; Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Hovell, Melbourne; Sipan, Carol L.; Zellner, Jennifer A.; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, Eduardo; Kelley, Norma J.; Asadi-Gonzalez, Ahmed; Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    A large number of Mexican migrants are deported to Mexico and released in the North Mexican border region every year. Despite their volume and high vulnerability, little is known about the level of HIV infection and related risk behaviors among this hard-to-reach population. We conducted a cross-sectional, probability survey with deported Mexican migrants in Tijuana, Mexico (N=693) and estimated levels of HIV infection and behavioral risk factors among this migrant flow. The sample and population estimated rates of HIV for deported males were 1.23% and 0.80%, respectively. No positive cases were found among the female sample. We found high lifetime rates of reported sexually transmitted infections (22.3%) and last 12-months rates of unprotected sex (63.0%), sex with multiple sexual partners (18.1%), casual partners (25.7%), and sex workers (8.6%), compared to U.S. and Mexico adults. HIV prevention, testing, and treatment programs for this large, vulnerable, and transnational population need to be implemented in both the U.S. and Mexico. PMID:22562390

  6. TWO STARS TWO WAYS: CONFIRMING A MICROLENSING BINARY LENS SOLUTION WITH A SPECTROSCOPIC MEASUREMENT OF THE ORBIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Jennifer C.; Johnson, John Asher; Eastman, Jason; Vanderburg, Andrew [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Skowron, Jan [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Gould, Andrew [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Pineda, J. Sebastian [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Howard, Andrew, E-mail: jyee@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jjohnson@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jason.eastman@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: avanderburg@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822-1839 (United States)

    2016-04-20

    Light curves of microlensing events involving stellar binaries and planetary systems can provide information about the orbital elements of the system due to orbital modulations of the caustic structure. Accurately measuring the orbit in either the stellar or planetary case requires detailed modeling of subtle deviations in the light curve. At the same time, the natural, Cartesian parameterization of a microlensing binary is partially degenerate with the microlens parallax. Hence, it is desirable to perform independent tests of the predictions of microlens orbit models using radial velocity (RV) time series of the lens binary system. To this end, we present 3.5 years of RV monitoring of the binary lens system OGLE-2009-BLG-020 L, for which Skowron et al. constrained all internal parameters of the 200–700 day orbit. Our RV measurements reveal an orbit that is consistent with the predictions of the microlens light curve analysis, thereby providing the first confirmation of orbital elements inferred from microlensing events.

  7. A Long-Term Comparison of GPS Carrierphase Frequency Transfer and Two-Way Satellite Time/Frequency Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    14 1.E-13 1.E+03 1.E+04 1.E+05 1.E+06 1.E+07 AVERAGING TIME τ (s) O V E R LA P P IN G σ y ( τ )/T H E O _B R (F R A C F R E Q ) METAS-NIST NPL-NIST... Metrologia , 42, 411-422. [2] C. Hackman, J. Levine, T. E. Parker, D. Piester and J. Becker, 2006, “A Straightforward Frequency- Estimation Technique for... Metrologia , 43, 109-120. [6] http://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov [7] G. Blewitt, 1989, “Carrier-Phase Ambiguity Resolution for the Global Positioning System Applied

  8. Application of high precision two-way S-band ranging to the navigation of the Galileo Earth encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmeier, Vincent M.; Kallemeyn, Pieter H.; Thurman, Sam W.

    1993-01-01

    The application of high-accuracy S/S-band (2.1 GHz uplink/2.3 GHz downlink) ranging to orbit determination with relatively short data arcs is investigated for the approach phase of each of the Galileo spacecraft's two Earth encounters (8 December 1990 and 8 December 1992). Analysis of S-band ranging data from Galileo indicated that under favorable signal levels, meter-level precision was attainable. It is shown that ranginging data of sufficient accuracy, when acquired from multiple stations, can sense the geocentric angular position of a distant spacecraft. Explicit modeling of ranging bias parameters for each station pass is used to largely remove systematic ground system calibration errors and transmission media effects from the Galileo range measurements, which would otherwise corrupt the angle finding capabilities of the data. The accuracy achieved using the precision range filtering strategy proved markedly better when compared to post-flyby reconstructions than did solutions utilizing a traditional Doppler/range filter strategy. In addition, the navigation accuracy achieved with precision ranging was comparable to that obtained using delta-Differenced One-Way Range, an interferometric measurement of spacecraft angular position relative to a natural radio source, which was also used operationally.

  9. A robust two-way switching control system for remote piloting and stabilization of low-cost quadrotor UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Francesco; Resta, Ferruccio; Vivani, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to present two control logics and an attitude estimator for UAV stabilization and remote piloting, that are as robust as possible to physical parameters variation and to other external disturbances. Moreover, they need to be implemented on low-cost micro-controllers, in order to be attractive for commercial drones. As an example, possible applications of the two switching control logics could be area surveillance and facial recognition by means of a camera mounted on the drone: the high computational speed logic is used to reach the target, when the high-stability one is activated, in order to complete the recognition tasks.

  10. MicroRNA-146a and AMD3100, two ways to control CXCR4 expression in acute myeloid leukemias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinello, I; Quaranta, M T; Riccioni, R; Riti, V; Pasquini, L; Boe, A; Pelosi, E [Department of Hematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome (Italy); Vitale, A; Foà, R [Department of Cellular Biotechnologies and Hematology, Division of Hematology, ‘Sapienza' University, Rome (Italy); Testa, U; Labbaye, C [Department of Hematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome (Italy)

    2011-06-01

    CXCR4 is a negative prognostic marker in acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs). Therefore, it is necessary to develop novel ways to inhibit CXCR4 expression in leukemia. AMD3100 is an inhibitor of CXCR4 currently used to mobilize cancer cells. CXCR4 is a target of microRNA (miR)-146a that may represent a new tool to inhibit CXCR4 expression. We then investigated CXCR4 regulation by miR-146a in primary AMLs and found an inverse correlation between miR-146a and CXCR4 protein expression levels in all AML subtypes. As the lowest miR-146a expression levels were observed in M5 AML, we analyzed the control of CXCR4 expression by miR-146a in normal and leukemic monocytic cells and showed that the regulatory miR-146a/CXCR4 pathway operates during monocytopoiesis, but is deregulated in AMLs. AMD3100 treatment and miR-146a overexpression were used to inhibit CXCR4 in leukemic cells. AMD3100 treatment induces the decrease of CXCR4 protein expression, associated with miR-146a increase, and increases sensitivity of leukemic blast cells to cytotoxic drugs, this effect being further enhanced by miR-146a overexpression. Altogether our data indicate that miR-146a and AMD3100, acting through different mechanism, downmodulate CXCR4 protein levels, impair leukemic cell proliferation and then may be used in combination with anti-leukemia drugs, for development of new therapeutic strategies.

  11. MicroRNA-146a and AMD3100, two ways to control CXCR4 expression in acute myeloid leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinello, I; Quaranta, M T; Riccioni, R; Riti, V; Pasquini, L; Boe, A; Pelosi, E; Vitale, A; Foà, R; Testa, U; Labbaye, C

    2011-01-01

    CXCR4 is a negative prognostic marker in acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs). Therefore, it is necessary to develop novel ways to inhibit CXCR4 expression in leukemia. AMD3100 is an inhibitor of CXCR4 currently used to mobilize cancer cells. CXCR4 is a target of microRNA (miR)-146a that may represent a new tool to inhibit CXCR4 expression. We then investigated CXCR4 regulation by miR-146a in primary AMLs and found an inverse correlation between miR-146a and CXCR4 protein expression levels in all AML subtypes. As the lowest miR-146a expression levels were observed in M5 AML, we analyzed the control of CXCR4 expression by miR-146a in normal and leukemic monocytic cells and showed that the regulatory miR-146a/CXCR4 pathway operates during monocytopoiesis, but is deregulated in AMLs. AMD3100 treatment and miR-146a overexpression were used to inhibit CXCR4 in leukemic cells. AMD3100 treatment induces the decrease of CXCR4 protein expression, associated with miR-146a increase, and increases sensitivity of leukemic blast cells to cytotoxic drugs, this effect being further enhanced by miR-146a overexpression. Altogether our data indicate that miR-146a and AMD3100, acting through different mechanism, downmodulate CXCR4 protein levels, impair leukemic cell proliferation and then may be used in combination with anti-leukemia drugs, for development of new therapeutic strategies

  12. Two ways of experimental infection of Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) with spirochetes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišerová, Lenka; Černá, Kateřina; Horká, Helena; Kopecký, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2008), s. 150-154 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/0811; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Lyme disease spirochete * Borrelia burgdorferi * Borrelia baronii * Borrelia afzelii * tick * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.307, year: 2008

  13. Two ways to the top: evidence that dominance and prestige are distinct yet viable avenues to social rank and influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Joey T; Tracy, Jessica L; Foulsham, Tom; Kingstone, Alan; Henrich, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The pursuit of social rank is a recurrent and pervasive challenge faced by individuals in all human societies. Yet, the precise means through which individuals compete for social standing remains unclear. In 2 studies, we investigated the impact of 2 fundamental strategies-Dominance (the use of force and intimidation to induce fear) and Prestige (the sharing of expertise or know-how to gain respect)-on the attainment of social rank, which we conceptualized as the acquisition of (a) perceived influence over others (Study 1), (b) actual influence over others' behaviors (Study 1), and (c) others' visual attention (Study 2). Study 1 examined the process of hierarchy formation among a group of previously unacquainted individuals, who provided round-robin judgments of each other after completing a group task. Results indicated that the adoption of either a Dominance or Prestige strategy promoted perceptions of greater influence, by both group members and outside observers, and higher levels of actual influence, based on a behavioral measure. These effects were not driven by popularity; in fact, those who adopted a Prestige strategy were viewed as likable, whereas those who adopted a Dominance strategy were not well liked. In Study 2, participants viewed brief video clips of group interactions from Study 1 while their gaze was monitored with an eye tracker. Dominant and Prestigious targets each received greater visual attention than targets low on either dimension. Together, these findings demonstrate that Dominance and Prestige are distinct yet viable strategies for ascending the social hierarchy, consistent with evolutionary theory.

  14. Moments Based Framework for Performance Analysis of One-Way/Two-Way CSI-Assisted AF Relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Minghua; Aissa, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    tractability, channels considered in such studies are generally assumed to be subject to Rayleigh fading or to be Nakagami-$m$ channels with integer fading parameters, which is impractical in typical urban environments. In this paper, we propose a unified

  15. Two Ways for Organizing References%参考文献体例的两种组织形式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James Hartley

    2004-01-01

    The references provided at the ends of scientific articles are printed in a variety of different styles. In addition, within each style there are many different ways of presenting the elements within them. Authors are not helped by the provision of computer aided referencing systems because such systems encourage further individuality. Thus, when re - submitting a revised article to another journal, authors typically have to adjust their text and to re - do their references. Matters would be much simplified if there were more agreement about which style of referencing to use. There are two major referencing styles ( each with multiple - variations within them). The first of these typical of papers in the social sciences is the Harvard, or name (date) ′system. Here, when an author's paper is mentioned in the text, his or her name is followed by the date of the publication. The references are listed alphabetically in the concluding reference list with the name(s) first,followed by the date. The second major referencing style (again with multiple variations within it) is to use a numbered referencing system. Here, when an author′s paper is mentioned in the text, it is numbered. Sometimes the author's name is given with the number, but quite often only the number is provided. The references are the listed sequentially by number in the concluding reference list (as in this paper). Such numbered referencing is more common in medical and scientific journals. This paper ( 1 ) illustrates the effects of these two systems in practice, and (2) contrasts their advantages and disadvantages. I conclude that the name/date system is best for academic readers who are more concerned with finding out who did what, and when, and that the number system is best for readers who are perhaps less concerned with these matters and are more interested in reading accessible content.%参考文献表的编排有多种体例形式,并且不同体例中参考文献各著录项的表达也不尽相同.由于期刊大都倾向于采用自己所特定的参考文献著录格式,因而目前已有的参考文献软件并不能给予作者很多帮助,即作者如果将其稿件由某期刊改投到另一种期刊,通常需要改动其中的参考文献表格式和正文中的相关部分.在众多的参考文献表格式中,有两种最为主要.其一是在人文科学中较为常用的哈佛体系(即著者-出版年体系),该体系规定正文中给出引文的作者和出版年,文献书目中的引文按著者姓名的字母顺序和出版年的先后排列.另外一种主要的参考文献表是数字体系(顺序编码制),即正文中给出引文的序号,参考文献表中的各篇文献按其在正文中出现的先后顺序排列.科技论文和医学论文多采用该种体例. 本文列举了上述两种体例的格式,并对比了二者的优缺点,认为著者-出版年体系可以使学术论文的读者很方便地了解作者所引用的工作是由谁完成的,而数字体系(顺序编码制)因为简洁,从而可以使读者更为通畅地阅读论文.

  16. Two ways to examine differential constitutive equations: initiated on steady or initiated on unsteady (LAOS) shear characteristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zelenková, Jana; Pivokonský, Radek; Filip, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2017), č. článku 205. ISSN 2073-4360 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-26808S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : LAOS * Fourier-Transform rheology * exponential Phan–Tien and Tanner (PTT) model * Giesekus model * Leonov model * modified extended Pom–Pom (mXPP) model * poly(ethylene oxide) Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.364, year: 2016 http://www.mdpi.com/2073-4360/9/6/205/pdf

  17. Effect of perinatal lead exposure on rat behaviour in open-field and two-way avoidance tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, A.L.S. [Federal Univ. of Santa Catarina, Center of Biological Sciences, Dept. of Biochemistry, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Rocha, J.B.T.; Mello, C.F. [Federal Univ. of Santa Maria, Dept. of Chemistry, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Souza, D.O. [Federal Univ. of Rio Grande do Sul, Biosciences Inst., Dept. of Biochemistry, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1996-09-01

    In view of conflicting results in literature concerning lead exposure associated with behavioural alterations, this study investigated behaviour in the open-field and shuttle avoidance, for as well as tissue lead burdens of pre- and postnatally lead-exposed rats. Rats were exposed to the metal from conception to weaning by giving the dams 0.5, 2.0 or 4.0 mM lead acetate in drinking water. This regimen did not affect body weight gain of dams or offspring development and had no effect on cerebral weights nor on haematological parameters of 23-day-old rats. In 1-day-old rats, lead accumulated in the blood but not in the brain, whereas both in 23-day-old rats and in dams lead accumulated in blood, kidney and cerebral cortex. In the open-field, lead-exposed groups showed higher locomotor activity in the test session as compared to controls and did not show any decrease in rearing responses in the test, indicating less habituation. Lead-treated rats subjected to a shuttle avoidance task showed no significant increase in avoidance responses between sessions as compared to control, indicating less retention. Moreover, only the control group presented a significant reduction of the footshock escape latency along testing session, suggesting a lead effect on footshock escape acquisition. In the shuttle box, intertrial crossing responses were not affected by lead treatment. The behavioural alterations occurred in animals with blood lead levels in the range 11-50.6 {mu}g/dl. (au) 34 refs.

  18. Assessment of two-way relationship between periodontal disease and gestational diabetes mellitus: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Monika; Tangade, Pradeep; Punia, Himanshu; Gupta, Vipul; Sharma, Hunny; Jain, Ankita

    2016-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is glucose intolerance which begins during pregnancy. Few studies have examined the association between periodontal disease and GDM. The aim of this study was to assess the association between periodontal disease and GDM. The study population comprised ninety patients, out of which thirty were cases and sixty were controls. All cases underwent a laboratory screening test for GDM between 24 and 30 weeks of gestation based on the recommendation of the obstetricians and gynecologists. To assess the periodontal status, a full-mouth periodontal examination assessing the probing depth, periodontal depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and gingival recession was performed on all study participants by a single trained examiner. Tests for associations were performed using Chi-square statistics and multivariate logistic regression analysis. None of the periodontitis conditions was found to be a significant predictor of GDM. In GDM patients, 70% of females were having periodontal disease whereas non-GDM patients 77% of patient had periodontal disease. The present study did not show any positive association between periodontal disease and GDM.

  19. Two-way plant mediated interactions between root-associated microbes and insects: from ecology to mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmi ePangesti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants are members of complex communities and function as a link between above- and below-ground organisms. Associations between plants and soil-borne microbes commonly occur and have often been found beneficial for plant fitness. Root-associated microbes may trigger physiological changes in the host plant that influence interactions between plants and aboveground insects at several trophic levels. Aboveground, plants are under continuous attack by insect herbivores and mount multiple responses that also have systemic effects on belowground microbes. Until recently, both ecological and mechanistic studies have mostly focused on exploring these below- and above-ground interactions using simplified systems involving both single microbe and herbivore species, which is far from the naturally occurring interactions. Increasing the complexity of the systems studied is required to increase our understanding of microbe - plant - insect interactions and to gain more benefit from the use of non-pathogenic microbes in agriculture. In this review, we explore how colonization by either single non-pathogenic microbe species or a community of such microbes belowground affects plant growth and defense and how this affects the interactions of plants with aboveground insects at different trophic levels. Moreover, we review how plant responses to foliar herbivory by insects belonging to different feeding guilds affect interactions of plants with non-pathogenic soil-borne microbes. The role of phytohormones in coordinating plant growth, plant defenses against foliar herbivores while simultaneously establishing associations with non-pathogenic soil microbes is discussed.

  20. Two-way plant mediated interactions between root-associated microbes and insects: from ecology to mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pangesti, N.P.D.; Pineda Gomez, A.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Dicke, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are members of complex communities and function as a link between above- and below-ground organisms. Associations between plants and soil-borne microbes commonly occur and have often been found beneficial for plant fitness. Root-associated microbes may trigger physiological changes in the

  1. Assessing Fan Flutter Stability in the Presence of Inlet Distortion Using One-way and Two-way Coupled Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    Concerns regarding noise, propulsive efficiency, and fuel burn are inspiring aircraft designs wherein the propulsive turbomachines are partially (or fully)embedded within the airframe; such designs present serious concerns with regard to aerodynamic and aeromechanic performance of the compression system in response to inlet distortion. Previously, a preliminary design of a forward-swept high-speed fan exhibited flutter concerns in clean-inlet flows, and the present author then studied this fan further in the presence of off-design distorted in-flows. A three-dimensional, unsteady, Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code is applied to analyze and corroborate fan performance with clean inlet flow. This code, already validated in its application to assess aerodynamic damping of vibrating blades at various flow conditions using a loosely-coupled approach, is modified to include a tightly-coupled aeroelastic simulation capability, and then loosely-coupled and tightly-coupled methods arecompared in their evaluation of flutter stability in distorted in-flows.

  2. It's a two-way street: Automatic and controlled processes in children's emotional responses to moral transgressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dys, Sebastian P; Malti, Tina

    2016-12-01

    This study examined children's automatic, spontaneous emotional reactions to everyday moral transgressions and their relations with self-reported emotions, which are more complex and infused with controlled cognition. We presented children ​(N=242 4-, 8-, and 12-year-olds) with six everyday moral transgression scenarios in an experimental setting, and both their spontaneous facial emotional reactions and self-reported emotions in the role of the transgressor were recorded. We found that across age self-reported guilt was positively associated with spontaneous fear, and self-reported anger was positively related to spontaneous sadness. In addition, we found a developmental increase in spontaneous sadness and decrease in spontaneous happiness. These results support the importance of automatic and controlled processes in evoking children's emotional responses to everyday moral transgressions. We conclude by providing potential explanations for how automatic and controlled processes function in children's everyday moral experiences and how these processes may change with age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 49 CFR 232.405 - Design and performance standards for two-way end-of-train devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unit of the device shall activate the emergency air valve at the rear of the train within one second... rear unit, on receipt of a properly coded command, shall open a valve in the brake line and hold it open for a minimum of 15 seconds. This opening of the valve shall cause the brake line to vent to the...

  4. Two-way multi-band optical/IR transmisson measurement in the Persian Gulf-coastal region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.N. de; Fritz, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    The atmospheric conditions in the Persian Gulf region are significantly different from other places in the world. The particle size distribution may vary daily and during the day. The aerosols can contribute to the amount of rainfall over land, important for the nations around the Gulf. In 2004

  5. 77 FR 37734 - Technical Standard Order (TSO) C-122a, Equipment That Prevent Blocked Channels Used in Two-Way...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... address, weekdays except federal holidays, between 8:30 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. The Director, Aircraft Certification Service, will consider all comments received on or before the closing date. Background In 1984... obsolescence of TSO-C122a equipment and the lack of industry interest in new TSO-C122a product designs. We...

  6. Compact mobile-reader system for two-way wireless communication, tracking and status monitoring for transport safety and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Han-Chung; Liu, Yung Y.; Lee, Hok L.; Craig, Brian; Byrne, Kevin; Mittal, Ketan; Scherer, Justin C.

    2016-12-06

    A system for monitoring a plurality radio frequency identification tags is described. The system uses at least one set of radio frequency identification tags. Each tag is attached to a container and includes several sensors for detecting physical conditions of said container. The system includes at least one autonomous intermediate reader in wireless communication with the frequency identification tags. The intermediate reader includes external wireless communication system, intermediate reader logic controller, and a self-contained rechargeable power supply. The system uses a central status reporting system in communication the intermediate reader.

  7. Uterine activity monitoring during labour--a multi-centre, blinded two-way trial of external tocodynamometry against electrohysterography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, J; Hayes-Gill, B R; Schiermeier, S; Löser, H; Niedballa, L M; Haarmann, E; Sonnwald, A; Hatzmann, W; Heinrich, T M; Louwen, F

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the quality of intrapartum uterine activity (UA) monitoring in daily practice during the first and second stages of labour. The total duration of inadequate UA monitoring is quantified in relation to the technique applied, namely, external tocodynamometry (TOCO) or electrohysterography (EHG). 144 UA recordings, collected from 1st September 2008 until 15th October 2009 from deliveries at the Marien-Hospital Witten, Germany, were analysed by obstetricians based at different centres. The included recordings were from singleton and simultaneously with external TOCO and EHG monitored pregnancies. External TOCO and EHG UA recordings were blinded. The percentages of "adequate" UA recordings in the first and second stages of labour were much higher for the external EHG than the external TOCO mode (pTOCO. Intrapartum UA monitoring in -daily practice via the EHG mode provides a more recognisable UA trace than the TOCO. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Beyond Information-Sharing. A Typology Of Government Challenges And Requirements For Two-Way Social Media Communication With Citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falco, E.; Kleinhans, R.J.

    2018-01-01

    Despite great advances in ICT, social media, participatory platforms and mobile apps, we seem to still be locked in the one‑way communication “paradigm” where information flows unilaterally from government to citizens and seldom vice‑versa. As a result, citizens are more receivers rather than

  9. 78 FR 21629 - Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof Issuance of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... available for inspection during official business hours (8:45 a.m. to 5:15 p.m.) in the Office of the... existence of a domestic industry. The Commission's notice of investigation named as respondents Yellowbrick...

  10. A three-dimensional, two-way, parabolic equation model for acoustic backscattering in a cylindrical coordinate system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Dong; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    2000-01-01

    . The major drawback of using the cylindrical coordinate system, when the backscattering solution is valid within a limited area, is analyzed using a geometrical-optical interpretation. The model may be useful for studying three-dimensional backscattering phenomena comprising azimuthal diffraction effects...

  11. Two-way Valorization of Blast Furnace Slag: Synthesis of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate and Zeolitic Heavy Metal Adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, Evangelos; Santos, Rafael M; Chiang, Yi Wai; Manovic, Vasilije

    2017-02-21

    The aim of this work is to present a zero-waste process for storing CO2 in a stable and benign mineral form while producing zeolitic minerals with sufficient heavy metal adsorption capacity. To this end, blast furnace slag, a residue from iron-making, is utilized as the starting material. Calcium is selectively extracted from the slag by leaching with acetic acid (2 M CH3COOH) as the extraction agent. The filtered leachate is subsequently physico-chemically purified and then carbonated to form precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) of high purity (Sodium hydroxide is added to neutralize the regenerated acetate. The morphological properties of the resulting calcitic PCC are tuned for its potential application as a filler in papermaking. In parallel, the residual solids from the extraction stage are subjected to hydrothermal conversion in a caustic solution (2 M NaOH) that leads to the predominant formation of a particular zeolitic mineral phase (detected by XRD), namely analcime (NaAlSi2O6∙H2O). Based on its ability to adsorb Ni 2+ , as reported from batch adsorption experiments and ICP-OES analysis, this product can potentially be used in wastewater treatment or for environmental remediation applications.

  12. Note: Electronic circuit for two-way time transfer via a single coaxial cable with picosecond accuracy and precision

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pánek, Petr; Procházka, I.; Kodet, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 11 (2012), s. 1161041-1161043 ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI3/453 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : time measurement Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.602, year: 2012

  13. Science delivery is a two-way street – development of the Consortium Of Appalachian Fire Managers and Scientists (CAFMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop; Helen H. Mohr; Zoe Hoyle

    2012-01-01

    The Appalachian region stretches along the Blue Ridge Mountains from Pennsylvania south into Georgia and Alabama. The region’s lands shelter some of the greatest biological diversity in the United States. The heavily forested public lands are in great need of science-based fire management after decades of fire suppression. Fire-related research is relatively new to the...

  14. Two ways of acquiring environmental knowledge: by encountering living animals at a beehive and by observing bees via digital tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfelder, Mona L.; Bogner, Franz X.

    2017-04-01

    Pollinating animals are profoundly affected by the current loss of biodiversity, a problem that is of concern to science, policy-makers and the public. One possibility to raise awareness for pollinator conservation is education. Unfortunately, insects such as bees are often perceived as frightening creatures; a negative emotion that may hinder successful learning processes. Thus, any educational initiative must conquer this obstacle and promote conservational knowledge. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated the effectiveness of an educational programme using two student-centred learning approaches: One by encountering living honeybees (Apis mellifera) at a beehive (N = 162), the other by using an eLearning tool connected to a remote beehive (N = 192). We monitored secondary school students' environmentally relevant knowledge of bees, their environmental attitudes and their perception of bees in regard to conservation and dangerousness. The results indicate that both approaches lead to the acquisition of conservational knowledge in the short and medium term. Direct experiences with nature are regarded as crucial, but using an eLearning tool in environmental education constitutes an outstanding alternative to acquire knowledge. Adolescents with low 'green' attitudes responded positively to the online beehive, and the perceived danger of bees played no role in the learning process.

  15. Comparison of plantar pressure on normal -footed vs. high arch-footed badminton players in two-way lunge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parvane bazipoor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compared to the individuals with a normal arch structure, those with high or low arch can be at an increased risk of overuse injuries. The risk of overuse injury among athletes is high due, in part, to the repeated loading of the lower extremities. The current study aimed to determine if foot type (high-arched or normal results in differences in plantar pressure during two badminton-specific movements (right-reverse lunge and right-lateral lunge. Methods: Twenty badminton players (10 with normal feet and 10 with higharched feet completed five trials in both right-reverse and right-lateral lunge, while in-shoe pressure data were collected at 100 Hz. The peak pressure and mean pressure were analyzed among the subjects for five major anatomical regions of the foot, using the independent t test in SPSS version 20. The foot type was determined by the foot posture index (FPI (α<0.05. Results: Results showed that the plantar pressure characteristics of normal and high-arched feet were different; such that in high-arched feet, as compared to normal subjects, there were significantly fewer pressure strikes in the medial (P=0.010 and lateral (P=0.002 mid-foot in right-reverse lunge and this was significantly higher in forefoot (P=0.003 and toes (P=0.010. However, the peak (P=0.157 and mean (P=0.104 pressure in the heel was higher but not significant. In the right- lateral lunge, we found statistically lower peak pressure stroke for the lateral mid-foot (P=0.010 and forefoot (P=0.011; however, the mean pressure was lower in the lateral (P=0.010 and medial (P=0.040 mid-foot and forefoot (P=0.120, although it was not significant in the forefoot. Conclusion: Results showed that the medial longitudinal arch of the foot might cause pressure differences in the feet among the players with normal and higharched feet. As the results demonstrated, in high-arched feet, there are some regions where plantar pressure is higher and some where it is lower. Therefore, in order to prevent the badminton players from suffering probable foot injuries, attention should be paid to the compatibility of the insole/shoe and the medial longitudinal arch and other areas of the foot that suffer more pressures than normal subjects.

  16. "It's a Two-Way Street": Examining How Trust, Diversity, and Contradiction Influence a Sense of Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Victoria I.; Erwin, Elizabeth J.; Evenson, Tara L.; Beresford, Madeleine

    2015-01-01

    As interest in establishing and maintaining high-quality inclusive early childhood environments continues to grow, the population of children and families being served by these programs is becoming increasingly diverse. In response to these demographic and social trends, this study was conducted to explore how diversity is perceived within an…

  17. 21 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Elements To Be Considered in Developing a Two-Way Alert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT... mechanisms 3. Enforcement Procedures —Followup mechanisms —Corrective action procedures 4. Quality Assurance...

  18. Classical Mechanics and Symplectic Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj; Hjorth, Poul G.

    2005-01-01

    Content: Classical mechanics: Calculus of variations, Lagrange’s equations, Symmetries and Noether’s theorem, Hamilton’s equations, cannonical transformations, integrable systems, pertubation theory. Symplectic integration: Numerical integrators, symplectic integrators, main theorem on symplectic...

  19. Does cerebellar neuronal integrity relate to cognitive ability?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, C.; Lee, M.; Dixon, R.M.; Blamire, A.; Thompson, C.; Styles, P.; Radda, G.K.; University of Sydney, NSW; Karmiloff-Smith, A.; Grant, J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) allows the non-invasive measurement of metabolite levels in the brain. One of these is N-acetylaspartate (NA), a molecule found solely in neurones, synthesised there by mitochondria. This compound can be considered as a marker of 1) neuronal density and 2) neuronal mitochondria function. We recently completed a joint MRS and neuropsychological investigation of Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), a rare (1/20,000) autosomal dominant disorder caused by a deletion which includes the elastin locus and LIM-kinase. The syndrome has an associated behavioural and cognitive profile which includes hyperactivity, hyperacusis and excessive sociability. Spatial skills are severely affected, while verbal skills are left relatively intact Our investigation showed loss of NA from the cerebellum in WBS compared with normal controls, with the subject population as a whole displaying a continuum of cerebellar NA concentration. Ability at cognitive tests, including the Weschler IQ scale and various verbal and spatial tests, was shown to correlate significantly and positively with the concentration of NA in the cerebellum. This finding can be interpreted in one of two ways: 1. Our sampling of cerebellar metabolite levels represents a 'global' sampling of total brain neuronal density and, as such, is independent of cerebellar integrity. 2. Cerebellar neuronal integrity is associated with performance at cognitive tests. If the latter interpretation is shown to be the case, it will have important implications for our current understanding of cerebellar function. Copyright (1998) Australian Neuroscience Society

  20. Handbook of integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Polyanin, Andrei D

    2008-01-01

    This handbook contains over 2,500 integral equations with solutions as well as analytical and numerical methods for solving linear and nonlinear equations. It explores Volterra, Fredholm, WienerHopf, Hammerstein, Uryson, and other equations that arise in mathematics, physics, engineering, the sciences, and economics. This second edition includes new chapters on mixed multidimensional equations and methods of integral equations for ODEs and PDEs, along with over 400 new equations with exact solutions. With many examples added for illustrative purposes, it presents new material on Volterra, Fredholm, singular, hypersingular, dual, and nonlinear integral equations, integral transforms, and special functions.

  1. Avionics systems integration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stech, George; Williams, James R.

    1988-01-01

    A very dramatic and continuing explosion in digital electronics technology has been taking place in the last decade. The prudent and timely application of this technology will provide Army aviation the capability to prevail against a numerically superior enemy threat. The Army and NASA have exploited this technology explosion in the development and application of avionics systems integration technology for new and future aviation systems. A few selected Army avionics integration technology base efforts are discussed. Also discussed is the Avionics Integration Research Laboratory (AIRLAB) that NASA has established at Langley for research into the integration and validation of avionics systems, and evaluation of advanced technology in a total systems context.

  2. Towards THz integrated photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Hübers, Heinz-Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    The demonstration of an integrated terahertz transceiver featuring a quantum cascade laser and a Schottky diode mixer promises new applications for compact and convenient terahertz photonic instrumentation.

  3. Extending Database Integration Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buneman, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Formal approaches to the semantics of databases and database languages can have immediate and practical consequences in extending database integration technologies to include a vastly greater range...

  4. Modularly Integrated MEMS Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eyoum, Marie-Angie N

    2006-01-01

    Process design, development and integration to fabricate reliable MEMS devices on top of VLSI-CMOS electronics without damaging the underlying circuitry have been investigated throughout this dissertation...

  5. Integrated Information Management (IIM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McIlvain, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Information Technology is the core capability required to align our resources and increase our effectiveness on the battlefield by integrating and coordinating our preventative measures and responses...

  6. Building integrated photovoltaic; Photovaltaique integre aux batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    Durable, modular and flexible in use, as demonstrated by the different case studies in this publication, photovoltaic can replace diverse building elements, from glass facades to weather proof roofs. This leaflet towards architects describes aesthetic, technical, economic and environmental interest of building integrated photovoltaic. (author)

  7. Simplification of integrity constraints for data integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Martinenghi, Davide

    2004-01-01

    , because either the global database is known to be consistent or suitable actions have been taken to provide consistent views. The present work generalizes simplification techniques for integrity checking in traditional databases to the combined case. Knowledge of local consistency is employed, perhaps...

  8. Introduction to integrable many-body systems III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajnok, Z.; Samaj, L.

    2011-01-01

    This is the third part of a three-volume introductory course about integrable systems of interacting bodies. The emphasis is put onto the method of Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz. Two kinds of integrable models are studied. Systems of itinerant electrons, forming a part of Condensed Matter Physics, involve the Hubbard lattice model of electrons with short-ranged one-site interactions (Sect. 20) and the s-d exchange Kondo model (Sect. 21), describing the scattering of conduction electrons on a spin-s impurity. Methods and basic concepts used in Quantum Field Theory are explained on the integrable (1 + 1)-dimensional sine-Gordon model. We start with the classical description of the model in Sect. 22, analyze its finite energy field configurations (soliton, anti-soliton and breathers) and show its classical integrability. The model is quantized by using two schemes: the conformal (Sect. 23) and Lagrangian (Sect. 24) quantizations. The scattering matrix of the sine-Gordon theory is derived at the full quantum level in the bootstrap scheme and is compared to its classical limit in Sect. 25. The parameters of the scattering matrix are related to those of the Lagrangian by calculating the ground-state energy in an applied magnetic field in two ways: Conformal perturbation theory and Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz (Sect. 26). The relation of the sine-Gordon theory to the XXZ Heisenberg model, which provides a complete solution of the sine-Gordon model in a finite volume, is pointed out in Sect. 27. The obtained results are applied in Sect. 28. to the derivation of the exact thermodynamics for the (symmetric) two-component Coulomb gas; this is the first classical two-dimensional fluid with exactly solvable thermodynamics (Authors)

  9. Feynman integrals and hyperlogarithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panzer, Erik

    2015-02-05

    We study Feynman integrals in the representation with Schwinger parameters and derive recursive integral formulas for massless 3- and 4-point functions. Properties of analytic (including dimensional) regularization are summarized and we prove that in the Euclidean region, each Feynman integral can be written as a linear combination of convergent Feynman integrals. This means that one can choose a basis of convergent master integrals and need not evaluate any divergent Feynman graph directly. Secondly we give a self-contained account of hyperlogarithms and explain in detail the algorithms needed for their application to the evaluation of multivariate integrals. We define a new method to track singularities of such integrals and present a computer program that implements the integration method. As our main result, we prove the existence of infinite families of massless 3- and 4-point graphs (including the ladder box graphs with arbitrary loop number and their minors) whose Feynman integrals can be expressed in terms of multiple polylogarithms, to all orders in the ε-expansion. These integrals can be computed effectively with the presented program. We include interesting examples of explicit results for Feynman integrals with up to 6 loops. In particular we present the first exactly computed counterterm in massless φ{sup 4} theory which is not a multiple zeta value, but a linear combination of multiple polylogarithms at primitive sixth roots of unity (and divided by the √(3)). To this end we derive a parity result on the reducibility of the real- and imaginary parts of such numbers into products and terms of lower depth.

  10. Feynman integrals and hyperlogarithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, Erik

    2015-01-01

    We study Feynman integrals in the representation with Schwinger parameters and derive recursive integral formulas for massless 3- and 4-point functions. Properties of analytic (including dimensional) regularization are summarized and we prove that in the Euclidean region, each Feynman integral can be written as a linear combination of convergent Feynman integrals. This means that one can choose a basis of convergent master integrals and need not evaluate any divergent Feynman graph directly. Secondly we give a self-contained account of hyperlogarithms and explain in detail the algorithms needed for their application to the evaluation of multivariate integrals. We define a new method to track singularities of such integrals and present a computer program that implements the integration method. As our main result, we prove the existence of infinite families of massless 3- and 4-point graphs (including the ladder box graphs with arbitrary loop number and their minors) whose Feynman integrals can be expressed in terms of multiple polylogarithms, to all orders in the ε-expansion. These integrals can be computed effectively with the presented program. We include interesting examples of explicit results for Feynman integrals with up to 6 loops. In particular we present the first exactly computed counterterm in massless φ 4 theory which is not a multiple zeta value, but a linear combination of multiple polylogarithms at primitive sixth roots of unity (and divided by the √(3)). To this end we derive a parity result on the reducibility of the real- and imaginary parts of such numbers into products and terms of lower depth.

  11. Factorization of Behavioral Integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ximeng; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2015-01-01

    We develop a bisimulation-based nonintereference property that describes the allowed dependencies between communication behaviors of different integrity levels. The property is able to capture all possible combinations of integrity levels for the “presence” and “content” of actual communications...

  12. On an integral transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Naylor

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes properties of a convolution type integral transform whose kernel is a Macdonald type Bessel function of zero order. An inversion formula is developed and the transform is applied to obtain the solution of some related integral equations.

  13. Integrated Marketing Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Integration has become a cliche in enrollment management and student services circles. The term is used to describe everything from integrated marketing to seamless services. Often, it defines organizational structures, processes, student information systems, and even communities. In Robert Sevier's article in this issue of "College and…

  14. Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, S.

    1985-04-01

    Implementation of single-mode optical fiber systems depends largely on the availability of integrated optical components for such functions as switching, multiplexing, and modulation. The technology of integrated optics is maturing very rapidly, and its growth justifies the optimism that now exists in the optical community.

  15. Fuzzy measures and integrals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mesiar, Radko

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 156 (2005), s. 365-370 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/04/1026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : fuzzy measures * fuzzy integral * regular fuzzy integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.039, year: 2005

  16. Hamiltonian path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokhorov, L.V.

    1982-01-01

    The properties of path integrals associated with the allowance for nonstandard terms reflecting the operator nature of the canonical variables are considered. Rules for treating such terms (''equivalence rules'') are formulated. Problems with a boundary, the behavior of path integrals under canonical transformations, and the problem of quantization of dynamical systems with constraints are considered in the framework of the method

  17. Ethnic Minorities and Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mérove Gijsberts

    2005-01-01

    There has been a great deal of discussion in the Netherlands recently about the integration of ethnic minorities. The tenor of that discussion is sombre: some observers speak of a 'multicultural drama', while others claim that the government's integration policy has failed completely. Recent

  18. Backtracking Incremental Continuous Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van der Storm (Tijs); K. Kontogiannis (Kostas); C. Tjortjis; A. Winter

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractFailing integration builds are show stoppers. Development activity is stalled because developers have to wait with integrating new changes until the problem is fixed and a successful build has been run. We show how backtracking can be used to mitigate the impact of build failures in the

  19. Integral fast reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Sevy, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Key features of the IFR consist of a pool-type plant arrangement, a metal fuel-based core design, and an integral fuel cycle with colocated fuel cycle facility. Both the basic concept and the technology base have been demonstrated through actual integral cycle operation in EBR-II. This paper discusses the inherent safety characteristics of the IFR concept

  20. Musik, Sprog og Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Evaluering af projektet Musik, Sprog og Integration, Søndermarkskolen, Horsens. Andenårsevaluering af et treårigt projekt.......Evaluering af projektet Musik, Sprog og Integration, Søndermarkskolen, Horsens. Andenårsevaluering af et treårigt projekt....