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Sample records for fire suppression experiment

  1. Benchmark enclosure fire suppression experiments - phase 1 test report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, Victor G.; Nichols, Robert Thomas; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-06-01

    A series of fire benchmark water suppression tests were performed that may provide guidance for dispersal systems for the protection of high value assets. The test results provide boundary and temporal data necessary for water spray suppression model development and validation. A review of fire suppression in presented for both gaseous suppression and water mist fire suppression. The experimental setup and procedure for gathering water suppression performance data are shown. Characteristics of the nozzles used in the testing are presented. Results of the experiments are discussed.

  2. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  3. Contribution of suppression difficulty and lessons learned in forecasting fire suppression operations productivity: A methodological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Rodríguez y Silva; Armando González-Cabán

    2016-01-01

    We propose an economic analysis using utility and productivity, and efficiency theories to provide fire managers a decision support tool to determine the most efficient fire management programs levels. By incorporating managers’ accumulated fire suppression experiences (capitalized experience) in the analysis we help fire managers...

  4. Forecasting poductivity in forest fire suppression operations: A methodological approach based on suppression difficulty analysis and documented experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Rodríguez y Silva; Armando González-Cabán

    2013-01-01

    The abandonment of land, the high energy load generated and accumulated by vegetation covers, climate change and interface scenarios in Mediterranean forest ecosystems are demanding serious attention to forest fire conditions. This is particularly true when dealing with the budget requirements for undertaking protection programs related to the state of current and...

  5. Resource allocation for wildland fire suppression planning using a stochastic program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Taylor Masarie

    2011-01-01

    Resource allocation for wildland fire suppression problems, referred to here as Fire-S problems, have been studied for over a century. Not only have the many variants of the base Fire-S problem made it such a durable one to study, but advances in suppression technology and our ever-expanding knowledge of and experience with wildland fire behavior have required almost...

  6. Installation for the suppression of sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.; Payne, J.F.B.; Lee, C.J.; Rowe, D.M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The basic operating principles are discussed of a passive baffle-catch tray fire suppression system for sodium fires. A new design is described incorporating increased compartmentalization of the collecting and drainage parts of the device. The burning and smoke generation rates from trays with varying aperture sizes were measured. From the experiments it was found that the burning rate and smoke generation rates could be related satisfactorily to the aperture areas. For the smallest aperture size ( 2 ) it was found that the smoke release was considerably less than that from a fire of the same area, because the smoke deposited on the underside of the baffle. A re-ignition problem was found, where pillars of sodium oxide (wicks) grow upward from the surface of the drained sodium and begin to burn when level with the baffle aperature. From a knowledge of the rate of growth of the wicks, trays may be made sufficiently deep to avoid the problem. Self acting valves were developed which allow the passage of sodium through the aperture and close when drainage is complete. These devices were shown to effect complete extinction of the drained sodium. Using the designs proposed it is possible to construct a system that will reduce the smoke emission from the drained sodium by a factor approaching 10 3 , without the use of valves, or with the self acting valves developed, reduce the emission from the drained sodium to approximately zero. (author)

  7. Glovebox fire experiment, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Keiichi; Sunaoshi, Mitsugu; Mishima, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Koichi.

    1979-01-01

    The gloveboxes used for plutonium facilities in Japan and foreign countries have considerable combustibles as their components, so that the fire resistivity of the gloveboxes is a serious problem in the safety evaluation of the facilities. Actually, a big fire having burned gloveboxes occurred in a foreign weapon facility. But the fire in the weapon facility should be distinguished from that in nuclear fuel facilities, since the former handles quite combustible plutonium metal, while the latter handle quite stable plutonium oxide. The countermeasures to fires should be decided, considering the properties and quantity of combustibles around gloveboxes and ventilation systems, as the probability and scale of fires can be presumed from them. From the viewpoint of safety, the experiment on glovebox fires was carried out by the Plutonium Fuel Division, PNC. The experimental conditions are explained. The samples were the acrylic resin panels with four glove ports and a small glovebox currently used. The glovebox showed the considerable fire resistance, and the panel hardly burned. The weakest component of the glovebox against fire was the gloves. The countermeasure to curtain the gloves with an insulating material seemed to be effective. The ventilation of the room and the glovebox worked as fire preventer at least in the first stage of fire. (Kako, I.)

  8. Assessing the accuracy of wildland fire situation analysis (WFSA) fire size and suppression cost estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Peter. Noordijk

    2005-01-01

    To determine the optimal suppression strategy for escaped wildfires, federal land managers are requiredto conduct a wildland fire situation analysis (WFSA). As part of the WFSA process, fire managers estimate final fire size and suppression costs. Estimates from 58 WFSAs conducted during the 2002 fire season are compared to actual outcomes. Results indicate that...

  9. How Fire History, Fire Suppression Practices and Climate Change Affect Wildfire Regimes in Mediterranean Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotons, Lluís; Aquilué, Núria; de Cáceres, Miquel; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Fall, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Available data show that future changes in global change drivers may lead to an increasing impact of fires on terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Yet, fire regime changes in highly humanised fire-prone regions are difficult to predict because fire effects may be heavily mediated by human activities We investigated the role of fire suppression strategies in synergy with climate change on the resulting fire regimes in Catalonia (north-eastern Spain). We used a spatially-explicit fire-succession model at the landscape level to test whether the use of different firefighting opportunities related to observed reductions in fire spread rates and effective fire sizes, and hence changes in the fire regime. We calibrated this model with data from a period with weak firefighting and later assess the potential for suppression strategies to modify fire regimes expected under different levels of climate change. When comparing simulations with observed fire statistics from an eleven-year period with firefighting strategies in place, our results showed that, at least in two of the three sub-regions analysed, the observed fire regime could not be reproduced unless taking into account the effects of fire suppression. Fire regime descriptors were highly dependent on climate change scenarios, with a general trend, under baseline scenarios without fire suppression, to large-scale increases in area burnt. Fire suppression strategies had a strong capacity to compensate for climate change effects. However, strong active fire suppression was necessary to accomplish such compensation, while more opportunistic fire suppression strategies derived from recent fire history only had a variable, but generally weak, potential for compensation of enhanced fire impacts under climate change. The concept of fire regime in the Mediterranean is probably better interpreted as a highly dynamic process in which the main determinants of fire are rapidly modified by changes in landscape, climate and

  10. How fire history, fire suppression practices and climate change affect wildfire regimes in Mediterranean landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Brotons

    Full Text Available Available data show that future changes in global change drivers may lead to an increasing impact of fires on terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Yet, fire regime changes in highly humanised fire-prone regions are difficult to predict because fire effects may be heavily mediated by human activities We investigated the role of fire suppression strategies in synergy with climate change on the resulting fire regimes in Catalonia (north-eastern Spain. We used a spatially-explicit fire-succession model at the landscape level to test whether the use of different firefighting opportunities related to observed reductions in fire spread rates and effective fire sizes, and hence changes in the fire regime. We calibrated this model with data from a period with weak firefighting and later assess the potential for suppression strategies to modify fire regimes expected under different levels of climate change. When comparing simulations with observed fire statistics from an eleven-year period with firefighting strategies in place, our results showed that, at least in two of the three sub-regions analysed, the observed fire regime could not be reproduced unless taking into account the effects of fire suppression. Fire regime descriptors were highly dependent on climate change scenarios, with a general trend, under baseline scenarios without fire suppression, to large-scale increases in area burnt. Fire suppression strategies had a strong capacity to compensate for climate change effects. However, strong active fire suppression was necessary to accomplish such compensation, while more opportunistic fire suppression strategies derived from recent fire history only had a variable, but generally weak, potential for compensation of enhanced fire impacts under climate change. The concept of fire regime in the Mediterranean is probably better interpreted as a highly dynamic process in which the main determinants of fire are rapidly modified by changes in landscape

  11. Using unplanned fires to help suppressing future large fires in Mediterranean forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Regos

    Full Text Available Despite the huge resources invested in fire suppression, the impact of wildfires has considerably increased across the Mediterranean region since the second half of the 20th century. Modulating fire suppression efforts in mild weather conditions is an appealing but hotly-debated strategy to use unplanned fires and associated fuel reduction to create opportunities for suppression of large fires in future adverse weather conditions. Using a spatially-explicit fire-succession model developed for Catalonia (Spain, we assessed this opportunistic policy by using two fire suppression strategies that reproduce how firefighters in extreme weather conditions exploit previous fire scars as firefighting opportunities. We designed scenarios by combining different levels of fire suppression efficiency and climatic severity for a 50-year period (2000-2050. An opportunistic fire suppression policy induced large-scale changes in fire regimes and decreased the area burnt under extreme climate conditions, but only accounted for up to 18-22% of the area to be burnt in reference scenarios. The area suppressed in adverse years tended to increase in scenarios with increasing amounts of area burnt during years dominated by mild weather. Climate change had counterintuitive effects on opportunistic fire suppression strategies. Climate warming increased the incidence of large fires under uncontrolled conditions but also indirectly increased opportunities for enhanced fire suppression. Therefore, to shift fire suppression opportunities from adverse to mild years, we would require a disproportionately large amount of area burnt in mild years. We conclude that the strategic planning of fire suppression resources has the potential to become an important cost-effective fuel-reduction strategy at large spatial scale. We do however suggest that this strategy should probably be accompanied by other fuel-reduction treatments applied at broad scales if large-scale changes in fire

  12. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground...

  13. Econometric analysis of fire suppression production functions for large wildland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; David E. Calkin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use operational data collected for large wildland fires to estimate the parameters of economic production functions that relate the rate of fireline construction with the level of fire suppression inputs (handcrews, dozers, engines and helicopters). These parameter estimates are then used to evaluate whether the productivity of fire suppression inputs...

  14. Calculation of Fire Severity Factors and Fire Non-Suppression Probabilities For A DOE Facility Fire PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elicson, Tom; Harwood, Bentley; Lucek, Heather; Bouchard, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Over a 12 month period, a fire PRA was developed for a DOE facility using the NUREG/CR-6850 EPRI/NRC fire PRA methodology. The fire PRA modeling included calculation of fire severity factors (SFs) and fire non-suppression probabilities (PNS) for each safe shutdown (SSD) component considered in the fire PRA model. The SFs were developed by performing detailed fire modeling through a combination of CFAST fire zone model calculations and Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). Component damage times and automatic fire suppression system actuation times calculated in the CFAST LHS analyses were then input to a time-dependent model of fire non-suppression probability. The fire non-suppression probability model is based on the modeling approach outlined in NUREG/CR-6850 and is supplemented with plant specific data. This paper presents the methodology used in the DOE facility fire PRA for modeling fire-induced SSD component failures and includes discussions of modeling techniques for: Development of time-dependent fire heat release rate profiles (required as input to CFAST), Calculation of fire severity factors based on CFAST detailed fire modeling, and Calculation of fire non-suppression probabilities.

  15. Numerical modeling of water spray suppression of conveyor belt fires in a large-scale tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C

    2015-05-01

    Conveyor belt fires in an underground mine pose a serious life threat to miners. Water sprinkler systems are usually used to extinguish underground conveyor belt fires, but because of the complex interaction between conveyor belt fires and mine ventilation airflow, more effective engineering designs are needed for the installation of water sprinkler systems. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the interaction between the ventilation airflow, the belt flame spread, and the water spray system in a mine entry. The CFD model was calibrated using test results from a large-scale conveyor belt fire suppression experiment. Simulations were conducted using the calibrated CFD model to investigate the effects of sprinkler location, water flow rate, and sprinkler activation temperature on the suppression of conveyor belt fires. The sprinkler location and the activation temperature were found to have a major effect on the suppression of the belt fire, while the water flow rate had a minor effect.

  16. Electrocardiographic Responses During Fire Suppression and Recovery Among Experienced Firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zaiti, Salah; Rittenberger, Jon C; Reis, Steven E; Hostler, David

    2015-09-01

    We sought to evaluate the impact of high-intensity exertion and heat stress on electrocardiographic changes during fire suppression and recovery. Healthy firefighters completed a live-fire training evolution. Each firefighter was randomly assigned to complete either two or three intervals of fire suppression tasks followed by a structured recovery. Firefighters were continuously monitored using 12-lead Holter electrocardiogram. Most firefighters (71.4%) exceeded their maximum heart rate and one third had pathological ST events. Nearly one third of each of these abnormalities persisted throughout recovery period. Longer fire suppression intervals did not affect the incidence of these abnormalities. Fire suppression is associated with ST-segment changes among firefighters at low risk for cardiovascular disease. These abnormalities continued into initial recovery even though cooling and rehydration were provided.

  17. Suppression of Pool Fire in a Large Enclosure with Water Mist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Lal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an experimental study of suppression of pool fires in enclosed spaces using water mist. The main objective of the present study is to understand the mechanisms responsible for the suppression of pool fires using water mists. Experiments were conducted in a large compartment with n-heptane pool fires of different heat release rates. The temperature variations in the compartment were measured using K-type thermocouples fixed at two locations. A multi gas analyzer was used to measure gas concentrations. The test results indicate that the water mist suppresses the diffusion flame in an enclosed space mainly through evaporating cooling and oxygen displacement by water vapors, resulting in inefficient combustion. The fire suppression time decreases with a decrease in droplet diameter. It is much easier to suppress a larger fire due to faster rates of evaporation of water droplets and therefore, the total mist requirement decreases with an increase in the fire size. The results of this study can find application in the design of water mist based fire fighting systems for indoor fires.

  18. Alternative approach for fire suppression of class A, B and C fires in gloveboxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberger, Mark S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tsiagkouris, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-02-10

    Department of Energy (DOE) Orders and National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards require fire suppression in gloveboxes. Several potential solutions have been and are currently being considered at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective is to provide reliable, minimally invasive, and seismically robust fire suppression capable of extinguishing Class A, B, and C fires; achieve compliance with DOE and NFPA requirements; and provide value-added improvements to fire safety in gloveboxes. This report provides a brief summary of current approaches and also documents the successful fire tests conducted to prove that one approach, specifically Fire Foe{trademark} tubes, is capable of achieving the requirement to provide reliable fire protection in gloveboxes in a cost-effective manner.

  19. Allowing a wildfire to burn: estimating the effect on future fire suppression costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel M. Houtman; Claire A. Montgomery; Aaron R. Gagnon; David E. Calkin; Thomas G. Dietterich; Sean McGregor; Mark Crowley

    2013-01-01

    Where a legacy of aggressive wildland fire suppression has left forests in need of fuel reduction, allowing wildland fire to burn may provide fuel treatment benefits, thereby reducing suppression costs from subsequent fires. The least-cost-plus-net-value-change model of wildland fire economics includes benefits of wildfire in a framework for evaluating suppression...

  20. Large Scale Experiments on Spacecraft Fire Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    structure. As a result, the prediction of the behaviour of fires in reduced gravity is at present not validated. To address this gap in knowledge, a collaborative international project, Spacecraft Fire Safety, has been established with its cornerstone being the development of an experiment (Fire Safety 1...... to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. This will facilitate the possibility of examin-ing fire behaviour on a scale that is relevant to spacecraft fire safety and will provide unique data for fire model...... validation. This unprecedented opportunity will expand the understanding of the fundamentals of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The experiment is being developed by an international topical team that is collaboratively defining the experiment requirements and performing supporting analysis, experimentation...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1107-13 - Approval of other fire suppression devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-13 Approval of... suppression equipment shall be designed to withstand the rigors of the mine environment. Where used, pressure...

  2. Fear Expression Suppresses Medial Prefrontal Cortical Firing in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Giustino

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC plays a crucial role in emotional learning and memory in rodents and humans. While many studies suggest a differential role for the prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL subdivisions of mPFC, few have considered the relationship between neural activity in these two brain regions recorded simultaneously in behaving animals. Importantly, how concurrent PL and IL activity relate to conditioned freezing behavior is largely unknown. Here we used single-unit recordings targeting PL and IL in awake, behaving rats during the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. On Day 1, rats received either signaled or unsignaled footshocks in the recording chamber; an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS preceded signaled footshocks. Twenty-four hours later, animals were returned to the recording chamber (modified to create a novel context where they received 5 CS-alone trials. After fear conditioning, both signaled and unsignaled rats exhibited high levels of post-shock freezing that was associated with an enduring suppression of mPFC spontaneous firing, particularly in the IL of signaled rats. Twenty-four hours later, CS presentation produced differential conditioned freezing in signaled and unsignaled rats: freezing increased in rats that had received signaled shocks, but decreased in animals in the unsignaled condition (i.e., external inhibition. This group difference in CS-evoked freezing was mirrored in the spontaneous firing rate of neurons in both PL and IL. Interestingly, differences in PL and IL firing rate highly correlated with freezing levels. In other words, in the signaled group IL spontaneous rates were suppressed relative to PL, perhaps limiting IL-mediated suppression of fear and allowing PL activity to dominate performance, resulting in high levels of freezing. This was not observed in the unsignaled group, which exhibited low freezing. These data reveal that the activity of mPFC neurons is modulated by both

  3. Deploying wildland fire suppression resources with a scenario-based standard response model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Haight; Jeremy S. Fried

    2007-01-01

    Wildland fire managers deploy suppression resources to bases and dispatch them to fires to maximize the percentage of fires that are successfully contained before unacceptable costs and losses occur. Deployment is made with budget constraints and uncertainty about the daily number, location, and intensity of fires, all of which affect initial-attack success. To address...

  4. Suppression of pool fires with HRC-125 in a simulated engine nacelle.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, David R. (INS, Inc., Lexington Park, MD); Hewson, John C.

    2007-06-01

    CFD simulations are conducted to predict the distribution of fire suppressant in an engine nacelle and to predict the suppression of pool fires by the application of this suppressant. In the baseline configuration, which is based on an installed system, suppressant is injected through four nozzles at a rate fast enough to suppress all simulated pool fires. Variations that reduce the mass of the suppression system (reducing the impact of the suppression system on meeting mission needs) are considered, including a reduction in the rate of suppressant injection, a reduction in the mass of suppressant and a reduction in the number of nozzles. In general, these variations should work to reduce the effectiveness of the suppression system, but the CFD results point out certain changes that have negligible impact, at least for the range of phenomena considered here. The results are compared with measurements where available. Comparisons with suppressant measurements are reasonable. A series of twenty-three fire suppression tests were conducted to check the predictions. The pre-test predictions were generally successful in identifying the range of successful suppression tests. In two separate cases, each where one nozzle of the suppression system was capped, the simulation results did indicate a failure to suppress for a condition where the tests indicated successful suppression. When the test-suppressant discharge rate was reduced by roughly 25%, the tests were in agreement with the predictions. That is, the simulations predict a failure to suppress slightly before observed in these cases.

  5. Fire behavior, fuel treatments, and fire suppression on the Hayman Fire - Part 1: Fire weather, meteorology, and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry Bradshaw; Roberta Bartlette; John McGinely; Karl Zeller

    2003-01-01

    The Hayman Fire in June 2002 was heavily influenced by antecedent regional weather conditions, culminating in a series of daily weather events that aligned to produce widely varying fire behavior. This review of weather conditions associated with the Hayman Fire consists of two parts: 1) A brief overview of prior conditions as described by a regional climate review and...

  6. Risk-Based Fire Safety Experiment Definition for Manned Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolakis, G. E.; Ho, V. S.; Marcus, E.; Perry, A. T.; Thompson, S. L.

    1989-01-01

    Risk methodology is used to define experiments to be conducted in space which will help to construct and test the models required for accident sequence identification. The development of accident scenarios is based on the realization that whether damage occurs depends on the time competition of two processes: the ignition and creation of an adverse environment, and the detection and suppression activities. If the fire grows and causes damage faster than it is detected and suppressed, then an accident occurred. The proposed integrated experiments will provide information on individual models that apply to each of the above processes, as well as previously unidentified interactions and processes, if any. Initially, models that are used in terrestrial fire risk assessments are considered. These include heat and smoke release models, detection and suppression models, as well as damage models. In cases where the absence of gravity substantially invalidates a model, alternate models will be developed. Models that depend on buoyancy effects, such as the multizone compartment fire models, are included in these cases. The experiments will be performed in a variety of geometries simulating habitable areas, racks, and other spaces. These simulations will necessitate theoretical studies of scaling effects. Sensitivity studies will also be carried out including the effects of varying oxygen concentrations, pressures, fuel orientation and geometry, and air flow rates. The experimental apparatus described herein includes three major modules: the combustion, the fluids, and the command and power modules.

  7. New technologies for fire suppression on board naval craft, FiST

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahm, M.; Hiltz, J.; Wal, R. van der; Hertzberg, T.; Lindström, J.

    2014-01-01

    For three years Canada, Sweden and the Netherlands have been investigating new technologies for fire suppression on board naval crafts within the FiST project. The project has focused on a number of technologies. These included the evaluation of water based fire suppression systems and in particular

  8. External human factors in incident management team decisionmaking and their effect on large fire suppression expenditures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janie Canton-Tompson; Krista M. Gebert; Brooke Thompson; Greg Jones; David Calkin; Geoff. Donovan

    2008-01-01

    Large wildland fires are complex, costly events influenced by a vast array of physical, climatic, and social factors. Changing climate, fuel buildup due to past suppression, and increasing populations in the wildland-urban interface have all been blamed for the extreme fire seasons and rising suppression expenditures of recent years. With each high-cost year comes a...

  9. Fire behavior, fuel treatments, and fire suppression on the Hayman Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Finney; Roberta Bartlette; Larry Bradshaw; Kelly Close; Brandon M. Collins; Paul Gleason; Wei Min Hao; Paul Langowski; John McGinely; Charles W. McHugh; Erik Martinson; Phillip N. Omi; Wayne Shepperd; Karl Zeller

    2003-01-01

    The Hayman Fire started on June 8, 2002, about 1.5 miles southwest of Tappan Mountain on the south side of County Highway 77, in Park County, Colorado (fig. 1). It was first reported at about 1 acre in size at approximately 1655 hours (appendix C). An aggressive initial attack response consisted of air tankers, helicopters, engines, and ground crews, but they were...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1101-16 - Dry powder chemical systems; sensing and fire-suppression devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... activate the fire-control system, sound an alarm and stop the conveyor drive motor in the event of a rise... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dry powder chemical systems; sensing and fire... Protection § 75.1101-16 Dry powder chemical systems; sensing and fire-suppression devices. (a) Each self...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1107-6 - Capacity of fire suppression devices; location and direction of nozzles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment... withstand rough usage and vibration when installed on mining equipment. (b) The extinguishant-discharge...

  12. Progress in Fire Detection and Suppression Technology for Future Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert; Urban, David L.

    2000-01-01

    Fire intervention technology (detection and suppression) is a critical part of the strategy of spacecraft fire safety. This paper reviews the status, trends, and issues in fire intervention, particularly the technology applied to the protection of the International Space Station and future missions beyond Earth orbit. An important contribution to improvements in spacecraft fire safety is the understanding of the behavior of fires in the non-convective (microgravity) environment of Earth-orbiting and planetary-transit spacecraft. A key finding is the strong influence of ventilation flow on flame characteristics, flammability limits and flame suppression in microgravity. Knowledge of these flow effects will aid the development of effective processes for fire response and technology for fire suppression.

  13. Potential climate change impacts on fire intensity and key wildfire suppression thresholds in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotton, B. M.; Flannigan, M. D.; Marshall, G. A.

    2017-09-01

    Much research has been carried out on the potential impacts of climate change on forest fire activity in the boreal forest. Indeed, there is a general consensus that, while change will vary regionally across the vast extent of the boreal, in general the fire environment will become more conducive to fire. Land management agencies must consider ways to adapt to these new conditions. This paper examines the impact of that changed fire environment on overall wildfire suppression capability. We use multiple General Circulation Models and carbon emission pathways to generate future fire environment scenarios for Canada’s forested region. We then use these scenarios with the Canadian Forest Fire Behaviour Prediction System and spatial coverages of the current forest fuel composition across the landscape to examine potential variation in key fire behaviour outputs that influence whether fire management resources can effectively suppress fire. Specifically, we evaluate how the potential for crown fire occurrence and active growth of fires changes with the changing climate. We also examine future fire behaviour through the lens of operational fire intensity thresholds used to guide decisions about resources effectiveness. Results indicate that the proportion of days in fire seasons with the potential for unmanageable fire will increase across Canada’s forest, more than doubling in some regions in northern and eastern boreal forest.

  14. An evaluation of contemporary savanna fire regimes in the Canastra National Park, Brazil: Outcomes of fire suppression policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Eugênia Kelly Luciano; Russell-Smith, Jeremy; França, Helena; Figueira, José Eugênio Côrtes

    2018-01-01

    Fire has shaped plant evolution and biogeochemical cycles for millions of years in savanna ecosystems, but changes in natural fire regimes promoted by human land use threaten contemporary conservation efforts. In protected areas in the Brazilian savannas (Cerrado), the predominant management policy is fire suppression, reflecting a cultural heritage which considers that fire always has a negative impact on biodiversity. Here we compare resultant fire-regimes in Canastra National Park (CNP), southeast Brazil, associated with areas under and without fire suppression management, based on a 16-year Landsat imagery record. In open grasslands of the Canastra plateau (CP), firefighting is undertaken under government-sanctioned regulation, whereas in the Babilonia sector, non-sanctioned fire management is undertaken by small farmers to promote cattle grazing and cropping. Fire regimes in the Canastra sector are characterized by few, very large, late dry season wildfires recurring at intervals of two years. Fire regimes in lowlands of the Babilonia sector are characterized by many small-scale, starting at the beginning of the dry season (EDS). In Babilonia uplands fire regimes are characterized by higher frequencies of large fires. The study illustrates major challenges for managing fire-prone areas in conflict-of-interest regions. We suggest that management planning in CNP needs to effectively address: i) managing conflicts between CNP managers and local communities; and ii) fire management practices in order to achieve more ecologically sustainable fire regimes. The study has broader implications for conservation management in fire-prone savannas in South America generally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microgravity Flammability Experiments for Spacecraft Fire Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legros, Guillaume; Minster, Olivier; Tóth, Balazs

    2012-01-01

    As fire behaviour in manned spacecraft still remains poorly understood, an international topical team has been created to design a validation experiment that has an unprecedented large scale for a microgravity flammability experiment. While the validation experiment is being designed for a re...

  16. Cardiovascular stress, energy expenditure and subjective perceived ratings of fire fighters during typical fire suppression and rescue tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugajska, Joanna; Zuzewicz, Krystyna; Szmauz-Dybko, Magdalena; Konarska, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The study determined physiological and psychophysical responses to fire fighters' typical activities. Self-reported assessment of the most demanding fire fighting/rescue tasks were collected with a questionnaire. Then 19 voluntary fire fighters performed 3 simulated fire fighting/rescue tasks in protective clothing. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure and energy expenditure were measured; the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was assessed with the Borg scale. The questionnaires showed that carrying out victims, fire suppression and resuscitation were classified as heavy load; climbing stairs with a hose as moderate load. According to RPE the subjects considered their effort during ladder climbing fairly light and only somewhat harder during stair climbing and carrying out injured people. The study demonstrated that typical fire fighting/rescue tasks were associated with high energy expenditure and imposed considerable cardiovascular stress. The Borg scale appeared not suitable for assessing perceived exertion in fire fighters during simulated tasks.

  17. Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricks, Allen; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-05-01

    As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. A set of experiments are outlined in this report which will provide data for the development and validation of models for the fuel regression rates in liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. The experiments will be performed on fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool will be investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface will be measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel will be assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets will provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.

  18. Suppress flashover of GRP fire with water mist inside ISO 9705 Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Water mist suppression tests for glass-reinforced polyester (GRP panels were conducted in ISO 9705 room. GRP panels covered part of the room and a wood crib fire was used as fire source to ignite GRP fire. A four-nozzle water mist suppression equipment was used inside test room on the time of flashover. Heat release rate of the combustion inside the room, room temperature, surface temperature of GRP panels, total heat flux to wall, ceiling and floor in specific positions were measured. Gas concentration of O2, CO, and CO2 was also measured in the corner of the room at two different levels. A thermal image video was used to record the suppression procedure inside room. Test results show that the water mist system is efficient in suppressing the flashover of GRP fire and cooling the room within short time.

  19. A fire suppression model for forested range of the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq herds of caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald C. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A fire suppression model was developed for forested winter range of the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq (formerly Kaminuriak herds of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus in north-central Canada. The model is a balance between total protection, as voiced by some aboriginal people, and a let-burn policy for natural fires advocated by some ecologists. Elements in the model were caribou ecology, lichen recovery after fire, burn history, community priorities for caribou hunting, and fire cycle lengths. The percent ratio of current productive caribou habitat to the goal for that habitat determines whether fire should be suppressed in a specific area. The goals for productive caribou habitat, defined as forests older than 50 years, were scaled by fire cycle length and community priority ranking. Thus, the model is an example of co-management: traditional knowledge combined with science in a joint forum, the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board.

  20. Costs of fire suppression forces based on cost-aggregation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonz& aacute; lez-Cab& aacute; Armando n; Charles W. McKetta; Thomas J. Mills

    1984-01-01

    A cost-aggregation approach has been developed for determining the cost of Fire Management Inputs (FMls)-the direct fireline production units (personnel and equipment) used in initial attack and large-fire suppression activities. All components contributing to an FMI are identified, computed, and summed to estimate hourly costs. This approach can be applied to any FMI...

  1. Microgravity Flammability Experiments for Spacecraft Fire Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legros, Guillaume; Minster, Olivier; Tóth, Balazs

    2012-01-01

    As fire behaviour in manned spacecraft still remains poorly understood, an international topical team has been created to design a validation experiment that has an unprecedented large scale for a microgravity flammability experiment. While the validation experiment is being designed for a re-sup...... validation experiment are crucial to the ultimate goal of the project, which is the development of predictive tools that should be capable of selecting an adaptive response to fire spread in any manned spacecraft.......As fire behaviour in manned spacecraft still remains poorly understood, an international topical team has been created to design a validation experiment that has an unprecedented large scale for a microgravity flammability experiment. While the validation experiment is being designed for a re...... spread, and thus also the modeling thereof, in realistic conditions is described. Some of the parameters governing the flame spread are also identified and their scaling against the dimensions of the test specimen is briefly questioned. Then several of the current and scheduled efforts are presented...

  2. Metrology for fire experiments in outdoor conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Silvani, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Natural fires can be considered as scale-dependant, non-linear processes of mass, momentum and heat transport, resulting from a turbulent reactive and radiative fluid medium flowing over a complex medium, the vegetal fuel. In natural outdoor conditions, the experimental study of natural fires at real scale needs the development of an original metrology, one able to capture the large range of time and length scales involved in its dynamic nature and also able to resist the thermal, mechanical and chemical aggression of flames on devices. Robust, accurate and poorly intrusive tools must be carefully set-up and used for gaining very fluctuating data over long periods. These signals also need the development of original post-processing tools that take into account the non-steady nature of their stochastic components. Metrology for Fire Experiments in Outdoor Conditions closely analyzes these features, and also describes measurements techniques, the thermal insulation of fragile electronic systems, data acquisitio...

  3. Fire can suppress the development of macrophyllous thickets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ingression of woody plants into savannas, known as bush or shrub encroachment, has become a global concern. Fire has been acknowledged as a key factor in managing woody vegetation in savannas. This study assessed the role of fire in determining the total density, structure and composition of woody vegetation ...

  4. Live Fire Evaluation of the Expeditionary Fire Suppression System (EFSS); Phase I

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalberer, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    .... The system uses AFFF-based compressed air foam and PKP dry chemical. Phase I evaluated the effectiveness of the modified-commercially available EFSS on live fires on static pool and running fuel fires...

  5. How a new fire-suppression policy can abruptly reshape the fire-weather relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffault, J.; Mouillot, Florent

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how the interactions between anthropogenic and biophysical factors control fire regimes is increasingly becoming a major concern in a context of climate, economic and social changes. On a short time scale, fire activity is mainly driven by the variations in weather conditions. But while the assessment of this fire-weather relationship is an essential step towards fire hazard estimations, reconstructions or projections, still little is known about the impact of human practices on...

  6. Fanning the flames: climate change stacks odds against fire suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan. Thompson

    2005-01-01

    There is little question that global warming would increase the risk of wildfires by drying out vegetation and stirring the winds that spread fire. Until recently, however, land managers were unable to formulate appropriate responses because the spatial scales of predictions were far too coarse. Current research being done at the PNW Research Station in Portland,...

  7. Fire Response of Loaded Composite Structures - Experiments and Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Burdette, Jason A.

    2001-01-01

    In this work, the thermo-mechanical response and failure of loaded, fire-exposed composite structures was studied. Unique experimental equipment and procedures were developed and experiments were performed to assess the effects of mechanical loading and fire exposure on the service life of composite beams. A series of analytical models was assembled to describe the fire growth and structural response processes for the system used in the experiments. This series of models consists of a fire...

  8. Microgravity Flammability Experiments for Spacecraft Fire Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legros, Guillaume; Minster, Olivier; Tóth, Balazs

    2012-01-01

    -supply vehicle like the ATV or Orbital’s Cygnus, a series of supporting experiments are being planned and conducted by the team members. In order to answer the appropriate scientific and engineering problems relevant for spacecraft fire safety, a canonical scenario that can improve the understanding of flame...... spread, and thus also the modeling thereof, in realistic conditions is described. Some of the parameters governing the flame spread are also identified and their scaling against the dimensions of the test specimen is briefly questioned. Then several of the current and scheduled efforts are presented...

  9. Spacecraft Fire Experiment (Saffire) Development Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The status is presented of a spacecraft fire safety research project that is under development to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems for exploration missions. The Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration Project is developing three Spacecraft Fire Experime...

  10. Allowable Stresses For Use in Dynamic Analysis of PF-4 Fire Suppression System Piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menefee, Maia Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Salmon, Michael W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-30

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a limited test program performed on samples of fittings removed from the PF-4 fire suppression system and to present recommendations for allowable stresses to be used in subsequent piping analysis.

  11. Long-term demographic trends in a fire-suppressed mixed-conifer forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrie R. Levine; Flora Krivak-Tetley; Natalie S. van Doorn; Jolie-Anne S. Ansley; John J. Battles

    2016-01-01

    In the western United States, forests are experiencing novel environmental conditions related to a changing climate and a suppression of the historical fire regime. Mixed-conifer forests, considered resilient to disturbance due to their heterogeneity in structure and composition, appear to be shifting to a more homogeneous state, but the timescale of these shifts is...

  12. Decreases in Soil Moisture and Organic Matter Quality Suppress Microbial Decomposition Following a Boreal Forest Fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, Sandra R.; Berhe, Asmeret A.; Treseder, Kathleen K.

    2015-08-01

    Climate warming is projected to increase the frequency and severity of wildfires in boreal forests, and increased wildfire activity may alter the large soil carbon (C) stocks in boreal forests. Changes in boreal soil C stocks that result from increased wildfire activity will be regulated in part by the response of microbial decomposition to fire, but post-fire changes in microbial decomposition are poorly understood. Here, we investigate the response of microbial decomposition to a boreal forest fire in interior Alaska and test the mechanisms that control post-fire changes in microbial decomposition. We used a reciprocal transplant between a recently burned boreal forest stand and a late successional boreal forest stand to test how post-fire changes in abiotic conditions, soil organic matter (SOM) composition, and soil microbial communities influence microbial decomposition. We found that SOM decomposing at the burned site lost 30.9% less mass over two years than SOM decomposing at the unburned site, indicating that post-fire changes in abiotic conditions suppress microbial decomposition. Our results suggest that moisture availability is one abiotic factor that constrains microbial decomposition in recently burned forests. In addition, we observed that burned SOM decomposed more slowly than unburned SOM, but the exact nature of SOM changes in the recently burned stand are unclear. Finally, we found no evidence that post-fire changes in soil microbial community composition significantly affect decomposition. Taken together, our study has demonstrated that boreal forest fires can suppress microbial decomposition due to post-fire changes in abiotic factors and the composition of SOM. Models that predict the consequences of increased wildfires for C storage in boreal forests may increase their predictive power by incorporating the observed negative response of microbial decomposition to boreal wildfires.

  13. Fire Management/Suppression Systems/Concepts Relating to Aircraft Cabin Fire Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    Evacuation Assistance ................................... 98 3.5.1 Mechanical Escape Devices .................................. 99 3.5.2 Personal... deodorant , perfumes, etc. In addition, smoke detectors are intended to alarm under conditions that may lead to fire but do not pose an immediate fire threat...a wide area uniformly. The orifice is sealed by a disk held in place by a two-piece mechanical linkage or glass bulb. The C mechanical links are under

  14. Variability in the Geographic Distribution of Fires in Interior Alaska Considering Cause, Human Proximity, and Level of Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calef, M. P.; Varvak, A.; McGuire, A. D.; Chapin, T.

    2015-12-01

    The boreal forest of Interior Alaska is characterized by frequent extensive wildfires that have been mapped for the past 70 years. Simple predictions based on this record indicate that area burned will increase as a response to climate warming in Alaska. However, two additional factors have affected the area burned in this time record: the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) switched from cool and moist to warm and dry in the late 1970s and the Alaska Fire Service instituted a fire suppression policy in the late 1980s. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and statistics, this presentation evaluates the variability in area burned and fire ignitions in Interior Alaska in space and time with particular emphasis on the human influence via ignition and suppression. Our analysis shows that while area burned has been increasing by 2.4% per year, the number of lightning ignitions has decreased by 1.9 ignitions per year. Human ignitions account for 50% of all fire ignitions in Interior Alaska and are clearly influenced by human proximity: human fires mostly occur close to settlements, highways and in intense fire suppression zones (which are in turn close to human settlements and roads); fires close to settlements, highways and in intense fire suppression zones burn much shorter than fires further away from this sphere of human influence; and 60% of all human fire ignitions in Interior Alaska are concentrated in the Fairbanks area and thereby strongly influence regional analyses. Fire suppression has effectively reduced area burned since it was implemented but the PDO change has also had some influence. Finally, we found that human fires start earlier in the year and burn for a shorter duration than lightning fires. This study provides insights into the importance of human behavior as well as regional climate patterns as large-scale controls on fires over time and across the Alaskan boreal forest.

  15. Quantifying the influence of previously burned areas on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure: A case study of the Las Conchas Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Patrick Freeborn; Jon D. Rieck; Dave Calkin; Julie W. Gilbertson-Day; Mark A. Cochrane; Michael S. Hand

    2016-01-01

    We present a case study of the Las Conchas Fire (2011) to explore the role of previously burned areas (wildfires and prescribed fires) on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure. Methodological innovations include characterisation of the joint dynamics of fire growth and suppression activities, development of a fire line effectiveness framework, and...

  16. Converting Existing Copper Wire Firing System to a Fiber Optically Controlled Firing System for Electromagnetic Pulsed Power Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-19

    Firing System for Electromagnetic Pulsed Power Experiments by Robert Borys Jr and Colby Adams Approved for public release...2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Converting Existing Copper Wire Firing System to a Fiber-Optically Controlled Firing System for Electromagnetic Pulsed ...US Army Research Laboratory Converting Existing Copper Wire Firing System to a Fiber-Optically Controlled Firing System for Electromagnetic

  17. Suppression of dust explosions and ignition spots in biomass- fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Rautalin, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Dust explosion characteristics of forest residue dust both at normal pressure and at elevated initial pressure have been determined in previous studies. These indices give a good base for evaluating the usability of suppression systems to obtain a sufficient level of operational safety in biomass fuel handling equipment. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the usability of suppression systems and to demonstrate dust explosion suppression at elevated initial pressure. Suppression tests at 1 - 20 bar pressure will be carried out in co-operation with CTDD of British Coal, Kiddy Fire Protection and Health and Safety Executive. The tests with coal and biomass dust are scheduled to be started in March 1996 in Great Britain. In the second task of the project, self-ignition properties of forest residue dust and straw dust have been measured in a flow-through system simulating slow drying of the fuel

  18. Suppression of dust explosions and ignition spots in biomass-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Rautalin, A.

    1995-12-31

    Dust explosion characteristics of forest residue dust both at normal pressure and at elevated initial pressure have been determined in previous studies. These indices give a good base for evaluating the usability of suppression systems to obtain a sufficient level of peritoneal safety in biomass fuel handling equipment. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the usability of suppression systems and to demonstrate dust explosion suppression at elevated initial pressure. Suppression tests at 1 - 20 bar pressure will be carried out in co-operation with CTDD of British Coal, Kiddy Fire Protection and Health and Safety Executive. The tests with coal and biomass dust are scheduled to be started in March 1996 in Great Britain. In the second task of the project, self-ignition properties of forest residue dust and straw dust have been measured in a flow-through system simulating slow drying of the fuel

  19. Experience gained from fires in nuclear power plants: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    In 1993, the IAEA launched a programme to assist Member States in improving fire safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The review of fire safety assessment in many plants has shown that fire is one of the most important risk contributors for NPPs. Moreover, operational experience has confirmed that many events have a similar root cause, initiation and development mechanism. Therefore, many States have improved the analysis of their operational experience and its feedback. States that operate NPPs play an important role in the effort to improve fire safety by circulating their experience internationally - this exchange of information can effectively prevent potential events. When operating experience is well organized and made accessible, it can feed an improved fire hazard assessment on a probabilistic basis. The practice of exchanging operational experience seems to be bearing fruit: serious events initiated by fire are on the decline at plants in operating States. However, to maximize this effort, means for communicating operational experience need to be continuously improved and the pool of recipients of operational experience data enlarged. The present publication is the third in a series started in 1998 on fire events, the first two were: Root Cause Analysis for Fire Events (IAEA-TECDOC-1112) and Use of Operational Experience in Fire Safety Assessment of Nuclear Power Plants (IAEA-TECDOC-1134). This TECDOC summarizes the experience gained and lessons learned from fire events at operating plants, supplemented by specific Member State experiences. In addition, it provides a possible structure of an international fire and explosion event database aimed at the analysis of experience from fire events and the evaluation of fire hazard. The intended readership of this is operators of plants and regulators. The present report includes a detailed analysis of the most recent events compiled with the IAEA databases and other bibliographic sources. It represents a

  20. DAYCENT Simulations to Test the Influence of Fire Regime and Fire Suppression on Trace Gas Fluxes and Nitrogen Biogeochemistry of Colorado Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Gathany

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Biological activity and the physical environment regulate greenhouse gas fluxes (CH4, N2O and NO from upland soils. Wildfires are known to alter these factors such that we collected daily weather records, fire return intervals, or specific fire years, and soil data of four specific sites along the Colorado Front Range. These data were used as primary inputs into DAYCENT. In this paper we test the ability of DAYCENT to simulate four forested sites in this area and to address two objectives: (1 to evaluate the short-term influence of fire on trace gas fluxes from burned landscapes; and (2 to compare trace gas fluxes among locations and between pre-/post- fire suppression. The model simulations indicate that CH4 oxidation is relatively unaffected by wildfire. In contrast, gross nitrification rates were reduced by 13.5–37.1% during the fire suppression period. At two of the sites, we calculated increases in gross nitrification rates (>100%, and N2O and NO fluxes during the year of fire relative to the year before a fire. Simulated fire suppression exhibited decreased gross nitrification rates presumably as nitrogen is immobilized. This finding concurs with other studies that highlight the importance of forest fires to maintain soil nitrogen availability.

  1. Fighting fire in the heat of the day: An analysis of operational and environmental conditions of use for large airtankers in United States fire suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal S. Stonesifer; Dave Calkin; Matthew P. Thompson; Keith D. Stockmann

    2016-01-01

    Large airtanker use is widespread in wildfire suppression in the United States. The current approach to nationally dispatching the fleet of federal contract airtankers relies on filling requests for airtankers to achieve suppression objectives identified by fire managers at the incident level. In general, demand is met if resources are available, and the...

  2. Large scale fire experiments in the HDR containment as a basis for fire code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosser, D.; Dobbernack, R.

    1993-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1991 7 different series of large scale fire experiments and related numerical and theoretical investigations have been performed in the containment of a high pressure reactor in Germany (known as HDR plant). The experimental part included: gas burner tests for checking the containment behaviour; naturally ventilated fires with wood cribs; naturally and forced ventilated oil pool fires; naturally and forced ventilated cable fires. Many results of the oil pool and cable fires can directly be applied to predict the impact of real fires at different locations in a containment on mechanical or structural components as well as on plant personnel. But the main advantage of the measurements and observations was to serve as a basis for fire code development and validation. Different types of fire codes have been used to predict in advance or evaluate afterwards the test results: zone models for single room and multiple room configurations; system codes for multiple room configurations; field models for complex single room configurations. Finally, there exist codes of varying degree of specialization which have proven their power and sufficient exactness to predict fire effects as a basis for optimum fire protection design. (author)

  3. Center for Corporate Climate Leadership: Direct Fugitive Emissions from Refrigeration, Air Conditioning, Fire Suppression, and Industrial Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance document focuses on several fugitive emissions sources that are common for organizations in many sectors: refrigeration and air conditioningsystems, fire suppression systems, and the purchase and release of industrial gases.

  4. Overview of the Fire Lab at Missoula Experiments (FLAME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. M. Kreidenweis; J. L. Collett; H. Moosmuller; W. P. Arnott; WeiMin Hao; W. C. Malm

    2010-01-01

    The Fire Lab at Missoula Experiments (FLAME) used a series of open biomass burns, conducted in 2006 and 2007 at the Forest Service Fire Science Laboratory in Missoula, MT, to characterize the physical, chemical and optical properties of biomass combustion emissions. Fuels were selected primarily based on their projected importance for emissions from prescribed and wild...

  5. Tunnel fire testing and modeling the Morgex North tunnel experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Borghetti, Fabio; Gandini, Paolo; Frassoldati, Alessio; Tavelli, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to cast light on all aspects of tunnel fires, based on experimental activities and theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. In particular, the authors describe a transient full-scale fire test (~15 MW), explaining how they designed and performed the experimental activity inside the Morgex North tunnel in Italy. The entire organization of the experiment is described, from preliminary evaluations to the solutions found for management of operational difficulties and safety issues. This fire test allowed the collection of different measurements (temperature, air velocity, smoke composition, pollutant species) useful for validating and improving CFD codes and for testing the real behavior of the tunnel and its safety systems during a diesel oil fire with a significant heat release rate. Finally, the fire dynamics are compared with empirical correlations, CFD simulations, and literature measurements obtained in other similar tunnel fire tests. This book will be of interest to all ...

  6. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  7. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

  8. Comparing resource values at risk from wildfires with Forest Service fire suppression expenditures: Examples from 2003 western Montana wildfire season

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Calkin; Kevin Hyde; Krista Gebert; Greg Jones

    2005-01-01

    Determining the economic effectiveness of wildfire suppression activities is complicated by difficulties in identifying the area that would have burned and the associated resource value changes had suppression resources not been employed. We developed a case study using break-even analysis for two large wildfires from the 2003 fire season in western Montana -- the...

  9. The Phoenix series large scale LNG pool fire experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Richard B.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Demosthenous, Byron; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Ricks, Allen Joseph; Hightower, Marion Michael; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Helmick, Paul H.; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Deola, Regina Anne; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Miller, Timothy J.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing demand for natural gas could increase the number and frequency of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanker deliveries to ports across the United States. Because of the increasing number of shipments and the number of possible new facilities, concerns about the potential safety of the public and property from an accidental, and even more importantly intentional spills, have increased. While improvements have been made over the past decade in assessing hazards from LNG spills, the existing experimental data is much smaller in size and scale than many postulated large accidental and intentional spills. Since the physics and hazards from a fire change with fire size, there are concerns about the adequacy of current hazard prediction techniques for large LNG spills and fires. To address these concerns, Congress funded the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to conduct a series of laboratory and large-scale LNG pool fire experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This report presents the test data and results of both sets of fire experiments. A series of five reduced-scale (gas burner) tests (yielding 27 sets of data) were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Sandia's Thermal Test Complex (TTC) to assess flame height to fire diameter ratios as a function of nondimensional heat release rates for extrapolation to large-scale LNG fires. The large-scale LNG pool fire experiments were conducted in a 120 m diameter pond specially designed and constructed in Sandia's Area III large-scale test complex. Two fire tests of LNG spills of 21 and 81 m in diameter were conducted in 2009 to improve the understanding of flame height, smoke production, and burn rate and therefore the physics and hazards of large LNG spills and fires.

  10. Development of Cross-Orientation Suppression and Size Tuning and the Role of Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Marjena; Stacy, Andrea K; Kang, Mihwa; Nanu, Roshan; Oettgen, Charlotte E; Wise, Derek L; Fiser, József; Van Hooser, Stephen D

    2018-03-14

    Many sensory neural circuits exhibit response normalization, which occurs when the response of a neuron to a combination of multiple stimuli is less than the sum of the responses to the individual stimuli presented alone. In the visual cortex, normalization takes the forms of cross-orientation suppression and surround suppression. At the onset of visual experience, visual circuits are partially developed and exhibit some mature features such as orientation selectivity, but it is unknown whether cross-orientation suppression is present at the onset of visual experience or requires visual experience for its emergence. We characterized the development of normalization and its dependence on visual experience in female ferrets. Visual experience was varied across the following three conditions: typical rearing, dark rearing, and dark rearing with daily exposure to simple sinusoidal gratings (14-16 h total). Cross-orientation suppression and surround suppression were noted in the earliest observations, and did not vary considerably with experience. We also observed evidence of continued maturation of receptive field properties in the second month of visual experience: substantial length summation was observed only in the oldest animals (postnatal day 90); evoked firing rates were greatly increased in older animals; and direction selectivity required experience, but declined slightly in older animals. These results constrain the space of possible circuit implementations of these features. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The development of the brain depends on both nature-factors that are independent of the experience of an individual animal-and nurture-factors that depend on experience. While orientation selectivity, one of the major response properties of neurons in visual cortex, is already present at the onset of visual experience, it is unknown whether response properties that depend on interactions among multiple stimuli develop without experience. We find that the properties

  11. Estimating US federal wildland fire managers' preferences toward competing strategic suppression objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Calkin; Tyron Venn; Matthew Wibbenmeyer; Matthew P. Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Wildfire management involves significant complexity and uncertainty, requiring simultaneous consideration of multiple, non-commensurate objectives. This paper investigates the tradeoffs fire managers are willing to make among these objectives using a choice experiment methodology that provides three key advancements relative to previous stated-preference studies...

  12. Comparison of cardiocirculatory and thermal strain of male firefighters during fire suppression to exercise stress test and aerobic exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerer, Peter; Kadlez-Gebhardt, Silke; Delius, Michael; Raluca, Petru; Nowak, Dennis

    2008-12-01

    Firefighters face a highly increased risk of sudden cardiac death during fire suppression. Medical examinations and physical performance tests are used to screen endangered firefighters. The aim of this study was to determine cardiocirculatory and thermal strain during fire suppression in firefighters and compare it with the strain during medical and performance evaluations. Forty-nine young professional male firefighters were studied during a 30-minute fire operation (FO) in a large fire simulation plant. Measurements were obtained immediately before, during, and after the FO. During the FO, maximum heart rates of 177 +/- 23 beats/min were recorded on average, with 7 subjects exceeding the age-predicted maximum. Body core temperature increased by 0.9 +/- 0.5 degrees C (p stress test as part of the mandatory medical examination, subjects were limited to heart rates of 176 +/- 3.3 beats/min. They reached 155 +/- 13 beats/min during the annual aerobic exercise in turnout gear. During the FO, maximum heart rate was higher than during the stress test in 66% and higher than during the aerobic exercise in 84% of subjects. In conclusion, fire suppression caused an extreme cardiocirculatory strain, with high heart rates that were not sufficiently tested in medical examinations. To increase the yield of screening for firefighters at risk of death during fire suppression, the exercise should equal requirements in a real emergency; in other words, be limited by exhaustion or age-predicted maximum heart rate.

  13. Assessment of fire hazards in buildings housing fusion energy experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.; Lipska, A.

    1978-01-01

    A number of materials in and within the proximity of buildings housing fusion energy experiments (FEE) were analyzed for their potential fire hazard. The materials used in this study were mostly: electrical and thermal insulations. The fire hazard of these materials was assessed in terms of their ease of ignition, heat release rate, generation of smoke, and the effect of thermal environment on the combustion behavior. Several fire protection measures for buildings housing the (FEE) projects are analyzed and as a result of this study are found to be adequate for the near term

  14. Fire analysis. Relevant aspects from Spanish nuclear power plants experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Pedro; Villar, Tomas [Empresarios Agrupados A.I.E., Madrid (Spain). Nuclear Safety Dept.

    2015-12-15

    Empresarios Agrupados A.I.E. leads the development and updating of fire analysis for the Spanish NPP's. Some of them decided to voluntarily adopt standard NFPA-805 as an alternative to the current fire protection rules. Fire Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) methodologies have been continuously evolving during recent years. This paper will briefly present experience gained in relationship with some relevant aspects of fire risk analysis. Associated circuits need to be evaluated to determine if cable faults can prevent or cause the maloperation of redundant safety related systems. If a circuit is not properly protected by an isolation device, fire damage to a cable could propagate to other safe shutdown cables. In order to check that the coordination is adequate, existing electrical protections coordination studies have been analyzed and, for some plants, additional analyses have been performed for DC and AC for instrumentation an control (I and C) systems. Spurious actuations are also a basic part of the analysis of the consequence of a fire, which should consider any possible actuation that can prevent or affect the performance of a system or safety function. In this context, it was furthermore necessary to take into account the possibility of a combination of several spurious actuations that can result in a specific consequence, according to Appendix G of NEI 00-01 Rev. 2. These are the so-called Multiple Spurious Operations (MSOs). One key element in fire analysis is the availability of validated fire models used to estimate the spread of fire and the failure time of cable raceways. NFPA 805 states that fire models shall only be applied within the limitations of the given model. The applicability of the validation results is determined using normalized parameters traditionally used in fire modeling applications. Normalized parameters assessed in NUREG-1934 may be used to compare NPP fire scenarios with validation experiments. If some of the parameters do

  15. Thermal response to firefighting activities in residential structure fires: impact of job assignment and suppression tactic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Gavin P; Kesler, Richard M; Kerber, Steve; Fent, Kenneth W; Schroeder, Tad J; Scott, William S; Fehling, Patricia C; Fernhall, Bo; Smith, Denise L

    2018-03-01

    Firefighters' thermal burden is generally attributed to high heat loads from the fire and metabolic heat generation, which may vary between job assignments and suppression tactic employed. Utilising a full-sized residential structure, firefighters were deployed in six job assignments utilising two attack tactics (1. Water applied from the interior, or 2. Exterior water application before transitioning to the interior). Environmental temperatures decreased after water application, but more rapidly with transitional attack. Local ambient temperatures for inside operation firefighters were higher than other positions (average ~10-30 °C). Rapid elevations in skin temperature were found for all job assignments other than outside command. Neck skin temperatures for inside attack firefighters were ~0.5 °C lower when the transitional tactic was employed. Significantly higher core temperatures were measured for the outside ventilation and overhaul positions than the inside positions (~0.6-0.9 °C). Firefighters working at all fireground positions must be monitored and relieved based on intensity and duration. Practitioner Summary: Testing was done to characterise the thermal burden experienced by firefighters in different job assignments who responded to controlled residential fires (with typical furnishings) using two tactics. Ambient, skin and core temperatures varied based on job assignment and tactic employed, with rapid elevations in core temperature in many roles.

  16. Forecasting resource-allocation decisions under climate uncertainty: fire suppression with assessment of net benefits of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Geoffrey H. Donovan

    2008-01-01

    Making input decisions under climate uncertainty often involves two-stage methods that use expensive and opaque transfer functions. This article describes an alternative, single-stage approach to such decisions using forecasting methods. The example shown is for preseason fire suppression resource contracting decisions faced by the United States Forest Service. Two-...

  17. Advanced Simulation Tool for Improved Damage Assessment 2) Water-Mist Suppression of Large Scale Compartment Fires

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prasad, Kuldeep

    2000-01-01

    .... In this report, we focus on simulating water-mist suppression of fires in large enclosures. A two-continuum formulation is used in which the gas phase and the water-mist are both described by equations of the Eulerian form...

  18. Ion energy recovery experiment based on magnetic electro suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Stirling, W.L.; Dagenhart, W.K.; Barber, G.C.; Ponte, N.S.

    1980-05-01

    A proof-of-principle experiment on direct recovery of residual hydrogen ions based on a magnetic electron suppression scheme is described. Ions extracted from a source plasma a few kilovolts above the ground potential (approx. 20 A) are accelerated to 40 keV by a negative potential maintained on a neutralizer gas cell. As the residual ions exit the gas cell, they are deflected from the neutral beam by a magnetic field that also suppresses gas cell electrons and then recovered on a ground-potential surface. Under optimum conditions, a recovery efficiency (the ratio of the net recovered current to the available full-energy ion current) of 80% +- 20% has been obtained. Magnetic suppression of the beam plasma electrons was rather easily achieved; however, handling the fractional-energy ions originating from molecular species (H 2 + and H 3 + ) proved to be extremely important to recovery efficiency

  19. Development of Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos

    2013-01-01

    exploration missions outside of low-earth orbit and accordingly, more complex in terms of operations, logistics, and safety. This will increase the challenge of ensuring a fire-safe environment for the crew throughout the mission. Based on our fundamental uncertainty of the behavior of fires in low...... Corporation Cygnus vehicle after it has deberthed from the ISS. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. The tests will be fully automated...... with the data downlinked at the conclusion of the test before the Cygnus vehicle reenters the atmosphere. Several computer modeling and ground-based experiment efforts will complement the flight experiment effort. The international topical team is collaborating with the NASA team in the definition...

  20. Lidar Atmopheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) Data Obtained During the ARM-FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LASE_AFWEX data are Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment water vapor and aerosol data measurements taken during ARM-FIRE (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement - First...

  1. Feedback from practical experience with large sodium fire accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luster, V.P.; Freudenstein, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    The paper reviews the important feedback from the practical experience from two large sodium fires; the first at ALMERIA in Spain and the second in the Na laboratories at Bensberg, Germany. One of the most important sodium fire accidents was the ALMERIA spray fire accident. The origin of this accident was the repair of a valve when about 14 t of sodium was spilled in the plant room over a period of 1/2 hour. The event has been reported (IAEA/IWGFR meeting in 1988) and this presentation gives a short review of important feedback. The Almeria accident was one of the reasons that from that time spray fires had to be taken into account in the safety analyses of nuclear power plants. Due to the fact that spray fire codes were not available in a sufficiently validated state, safety analyses were provisionally based on the feedback from sodium fire tests and also from the Almeria accident itself. The behaviour of spray fires showed that severe destruction, up to melting of metallic structures may occur, but even with a large spray fire is limited roughly within the spray fire zone itself. This could be subsequently be predicted by codes like NABRAND in Germany and FEUMIX in France. Almeria accident has accelerated R and D and code development with respect to spray fires. As example for a code validation some figures are given for the NABRAND code. Another large sodium fire accident happened in 1992 in the test facility at Bensberg in Germany (ILONA). This accident occurred during preheating of a sodium filled vessel which was provisionally installed in the basement of the ILONA test facility at Bensberg. Due to failure of a pressure relief valve the pressure in the vessel increased. As a consequence the plug in a dip tube for draining the vessel failed and about 4,5 t of sodium leaked slowly from the vessel. The plant room was not cladded with steel liners or collecting pans (it was not designed for permanent sodium plant operation). So leaking sodium came directly in

  2. Aerial wildland firefighting resources in fire suppression activities: an example USDA Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. González-Cabán

    2011-01-01

    Wildfires are a significant social problem affecting millions of people worldwide and causing major economic impacts at all levels. In the US, the severe fires of 1910 in Idaho and Montana galvanized a fire policy excluding fire from the ecosystem by the U.S.Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDAFS). Fire management policy changed in 1935, 1978,1995, and 2001....

  3. Fire experiences: principal lessons learned, application in PWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoemacker, M.

    1984-01-01

    The article reviews the principal design rules to be borne in mind for PWR nuclear units installation. These rule takes into account: the specific character of materials involved (safety aspect for nuclear construction), experience acquired as a result of fires in EDF production units, and the results obtained from tests carried out by the EDF at Fort de Chelles between 1980 and 1982, especially in the field of PVC cables [fr

  4. Memory-induced resonancelike suppression of spike generation in a resonate-and-fire neuron model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankin, Romi; Paekivi, Sander

    2018-01-01

    The behavior of a stochastic resonate-and-fire neuron model based on a reduction of a fractional noise-driven generalized Langevin equation (GLE) with a power-law memory kernel is considered. The effect of temporally correlated random activity of synaptic inputs, which arise from other neurons forming local and distant networks, is modeled as an additive fractional Gaussian noise in the GLE. Using a first-passage-time formulation, in certain system parameter domains exact expressions for the output interspike interval (ISI) density and for the survival probability (the probability that a spike is not generated) are derived and their dependence on input parameters, especially on the memory exponent, is analyzed. In the case of external white noise, it is shown that at intermediate values of the memory exponent the survival probability is significantly enhanced in comparison with the cases of strong and weak memory, which causes a resonancelike suppression of the probability of spike generation as a function of the memory exponent. Moreover, an examination of the dependence of multimodality in the ISI distribution on input parameters shows that there exists a critical memory exponent αc≈0.402 , which marks a dynamical transition in the behavior of the system. That phenomenon is illustrated by a phase diagram describing the emergence of three qualitatively different structures of the ISI distribution. Similarities and differences between the behavior of the model at internal and external noises are also discussed.

  5. The Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment: overview and airborne fire emission factor measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Yokelson

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment (TROFFEE used laboratory measurements followed by airborne and ground based field campaigns during the 2004 Amazon dry season to quantify the emissions from pristine tropical forest and several plantations as well as the emissions, fuel consumption, and fire ecology of tropical deforestation fires. The airborne campaign used an Embraer 110B aircraft outfitted with whole air sampling in canisters, mass-calibrated nephelometry, ozone by UV absorbance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and proton-transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS to measure PM10, O3, CO2, CO, NO, NO2, HONO, HCN, NH3, OCS, DMS, CH4, and up to 48 non-methane organic compounds (NMOC. The Brazilian smoke/haze layers extended to 2–3 km altitude, which is much lower than the 5–6 km observed at the same latitude, time of year, and local time in Africa in 2000. Emission factors (EF were computed for the 19 tropical deforestation fires sampled and they largely compare well to previous work. However, the TROFFEE EF are mostly based on a much larger number of samples than previously available and they also include results for significant emissions not previously reported such as: nitrous acid, acrylonitrile, pyrrole, methylvinylketone, methacrolein, crotonaldehyde, methylethylketone, methylpropanal, "acetol plus methylacetate," furaldehydes, dimethylsulfide, and C1-C4 alkyl nitrates. Thus, we recommend these EF for all tropical deforestation fires. The NMOC emissions were ~80% reactive, oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC. Our EF for PM10 (17.8±4 g/kg is ~25% higher than previously reported for tropical forest fires and may reflect a trend towards, and sampling of, larger fires than in earlier studies. A large fraction of the total burning for 2004 likely occurred during a two-week period of very low humidity. The

  6. Numerical modeling of water spray suppression of conveyor belt fires in a large-scale tunnel

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C.

    2015-01-01

    Conveyor belt fires in an underground mine pose a serious life threat to miners. Water sprinkler systems are usually used to extinguish underground conveyor belt fires, but because of the complex interaction between conveyor belt fires and mine ventilation airflow, more effective engineering designs are needed for the installation of water sprinkler systems. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the interaction between the ventilation airflow, the belt flame spr...

  7. Chemistry experiences from a containment fire at Ringhals unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvidsson, Bengt; Svanberg, Pernilla; Bengtsson, Bernt

    2012-09-01

    containment, together with 1000 smear test (cotton pads) for chloride analysis in the chemistry laboratory to evaluate contamination levels and verify the cleaning procedures and results. The main chemistry issues and concerns have been related to surface and water contamination of chloride, bromide, carbon, lead, copper and zinc from corrosion point of view. Lack of specification and guidelines for several of this parameters forced Ringhals to establish some internal guidelines and technical basis for clean up and restart of the plant. The solubility of soot particles was found to be very low and more adhesive to surfaces at high temperature, this caused some concerns and actions to clean up reactor coolant from soot particles before fuel reload and heating. An extensive review of stainless steel Outer Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking (ODSCC) was performed independently from the fire incident during the outage, indicating a high number of crack indications of 1-3 mm depth, all within acceptance criteria for material thickness and operation. The indications are more likely to be addressed to almost 40 years of operation in marine atmosphere then the fire itself, even if the chloride contamination from fire may have supported some propagation. All found cracks were grinded according to authority requirements and no pipes needed to be replaced. The heating and start-up of Ringhals 2 could be done successfully without any water chemistry deviations due to the fire and the following cycle have been normal. The cleanness of R2 containment surfaces are now highly improved compared to earlier outages or other sea-cooled power plants. However, an extended program has been introduced to follow external surface chloride contamination built up in containment more frequently, together with inspections of ODSCC. The workload from the containment fire has been extreme and the chemistry and corrosion experiences several. This paper gives a summary of the results, challenges, solutions and

  8. Extinguishing experiments of sodium fires carried out by TNO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, G.J.A.M.; Rulkens, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    For the collection of burning sodium from the components and pipes of the secondary circuit of SNR 300, spill-trays are foreseen which are connected to dump tanks. These spill-trays are covered with a sieve in order to reduce the flow of air to the sodium in the spill-tray and hence to reduce the burning rate. In order to further minimize the consequences of a large sodium fire for the components, the licensing authority required as a back-up the installation of a remotely operated distribution system by means of which an extinguishing powder can be sprayed upon the spill-trays. Experiments were carried out in which the effectiveness of different extinguishing powders in combination with the sieve covered spill-trays were tested in a comparative manner. Attention was paid to the question whether such a spray system would have also additional benefits in the case of smaller sodium leaks. To this purpose three commercially available extinguishing powders were tested, one on a sodium chloride, two on a carbonate base. Also the effectiveness of the sieves proper with respect to reducing the burning rate was tested without applying any extinguishing powders. Finally for a reference some tests were done on open spill-trays, i.e. spill-trays not covered with a sieve.The investigations which were carried out in 1976-1977 were limited to fire experiments, aspects of transport of the powder in the distribution system were not investigated

  9. Experience in the field of sodium fire and prevention in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuzawa, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The existing facilities of sodium technology development and liquid sodium cooled fast breeder reactors are equipped with fire-extinguishing powder capable of putting out fire by smothering in case of accidental sodium fire induced by the leakage of high temperature sodium from the circulating system. The purpose of this experiment is to obtain quantitatively the relationship between such a fire-extinguishing powder needed and sodium temperature and its depth. The fourteen different experiments were performed using Na 2 CO 3 type and NaCl type powder both of which are authorized as fire-extinguishing agent under the present governmental regulation, and the sodium (25 cm deep in the test container) being heated up to 300 deg. C and 600 deg. C, and burned. The present experiment has shown the prospective that the amount of fire extinguishing powder of 45 kg/m 2 at maximum is sufficient to control the accidental sodium fire under the foreseeable circumstances. (author)

  10. Development of evaluation methodology to assess the sodium fire suppression performance of leak collection tray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parida, F.C.; Rao, P.M.; Ramesh, S.S.; Somayajulu, P.A.; Malarvizhi, B.; Kannan, S.E. [Engineering Safety Division, Safety Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam - 603102, Tamilnadu (India)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Leakage of hot liquid sodium and its subsequent combustion in the form of a pool cannot be completely ruled out in a Fast breeder Reactor (FBR) plant in spite of provision for adequate safety measures. To protect the plant system from the hazardous effects of flame, heat and smoke, one of the passive protection devices used in FBR plants is the Leak Collection Tray (LCT). The design of LCT is based on immediate channeling of burning liquid sodium on the funnel shaped sloping cover tray (SCT) to the bottom sodium hold-up vessel (SHV) in which self-extinction of the fire occurs due to oxygen starvation. The SCT has one or three drain pipes and air vent pipes depending on the type of design. In each experiment, a known amount ranging from 30 to 40 kg of hot liquid sodium at 550 deg. C was discharged on the LCT in the open air. Continuous on-line monitoring of temperature at strategic locations ({approx} 28 points) was carried out. Colour video-graphy was employed for taking motion pictures of various time-dependent events like sodium dumping, appearance of flame and release of smoke through vent pipes. After self-extinction of sodium fire, the LCT was allowed to cool overnight in an argon atmosphere. Solid samples of sodium debris in the SCT and SHV were collected by manual core drilling machine. The samples were subjected to chemical analysis for determination of unburnt and burnt sodium. The sodium debris removed from SCT and SHV were separately weighed. To assess the performance of the LCT, two different geometrical configurations of SCT, one made up of stainless steel an the other of carbon steel, were used. Three broad phenomena are identified as the basis of evaluation methodology. These are (a) thermal transients, i.e. heating and cooling of the bulk sodium in SCT and SHV respectively, (b) post test sodium debris distribution between SCT and SHV as well as (c) sodium combustion and smoke release behaviour. Under each category

  11. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  12. Learning Fire Investigation the Clean Way: The Virtual Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Amanda; Dalgarno, Barney

    2009-01-01

    The effective teaching of fire investigation skills presents logistical challenges because of the difficulty of providing students with access to suitable fire damaged buildings so that they can undertake authentic investigation tasks. At Charles Sturt University (CSU), in the subject JST415, "Fire Investigation Cause and Origin…

  13. Full-scale fire experiments on vertical horizontal cable trays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangs, J.; Keski-Rahkonen, O.

    1997-10-01

    Two full-scale fire experiments on PVC cables used in nuclear power plants were carried out, one with cables in vertical position and one with cables in horizontal position. The vertical cable bundle, 3 m high, 300 mm wide and 30 mm thick, was attached to a steel cable ladder. The vertical bundle experiment was carried out in nearly free space with three walls near the cable ladder guiding air flow in order to stabilise flames. The horizontal cable experiment was carried out in a small room with five cable bundles attached to steel cable ladders. Three of the 2 m long cable bundles were located in an array, equally spaced above each other near one long side of the room and two correspondingly near the opposite long side. The vertical cable bundle was ignited with a small propane gas burner beneath the lower edge of the bundle. The horizontal cable bundles were ignited with a small propane burner beneath the lowest bundle in an array of three bundles. Rate of heat release by means of oxygen consumption calorimetry, mass change, CO 2 , CO and smoke production rate and gas, wall and cable surface temperatures were measured as a function of time, as well as time to sprinkler operation and failure of test voltage in cables. Additionally, the minimum rate of heat release needed to ignite the bundle was determined. This paper concentrates on describing and recording the experimental set-up and the data obtained. (orig.)

  14. The experience of community residents in a fire-prone ecosystem: A case study on the San Bernardino National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    George T. Cvetkovich; Patricia L. Winter

    2008-01-01

    This report presents results from a study of San Bernardino National Forest community residents’ experiences with and perceptions of fire, fire management, and the Forest Service. Using self-administered surveys and focus group discussions, we found that participants had personal experiences with fire, were concerned about fire, and felt knowledgeable about effective...

  15. Seventh Fleet field training exercise : Fleet Battle Experiment Kilo : fires initiatives final report

    OpenAIRE

    Schacher, G. E. (Gordon Everett); Pilnick, Steve; Irvine, Nelson; Gallup, Shelley

    2003-01-01

    Fleet Battle Experiment Kilo was conducted during Seventh Fleet exercise Tandem Thrust 03. During the Field Training Exercise phase, testing of Time Sensitive Targets processes using the Joint Fires Network was carried out. This report contains results obtained on contributions made by the Joint Fires Network to Navy Time Sensitive Targeting and experiment lessons learned. NA

  16. A multi-disciplinary approach to fire management strategy, suppression costs, community interaction, and organizational performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne E. Black; Krista Gebert; Sarah McCaffrey; Toddi Steelman; Janie Canton-Thompson

    2009-01-01

    Wildland fire management must balance the multiple objectives of protecting life, property, and resources; reducing hazardous fuels; and restoring ecosystems. These Federal policy imperatives, varied yet connected, must be met under an increasingly constrained budget. A key to management success is effectively exercising the full range of management flexibility in...

  17. Use of operational experience in fire safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    collection of data related to fire safety occurrences in NPPs, the so called operational experience and the use of such operational experience in NPPs. This report provides good practice information on data needs, data reporting requirements and some advice on database features. In addition, this publication provides information on the applications of fire related operational experience, highlighting their benefits. This publication has been developed to complement other IAEA publications related to fire safety analysis within the framework of the IAEA programme of fire safety

  18. Measurement of the geometric characteristics of a fire front by stereovision techniques on field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, L; Molinier, T; Pieri, A; Tison, Y; Bosseur, F; Akhloufi, M

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents stereovision techniques for measurement of the geometrical properties (position, rate of spread, fire height, fire inclination angle, fire base width, view factor) of fires obtained by experimental burnings at field scale. The system consists of two synchronized and pre-calibrated multi-baseline stereo cameras operating in the visible spectrum. The cameras are positioned in the back and the lateral positions relatively to the direction of fire propagation. Algorithms have been developed in order to (i) register these cameras, (ii) model in three dimensions the fire front from the back stereoscopic images and (iii) estimate some geometrical properties of fire such as the inclination angle and the fire base width from the lateral stereoscopic images. A user graphical interface was developed as a practical tool to estimate fire propagation features and to display the obtained results. Fire spread experiments were conducted at field scale (about 20 m wide and 3 m high). The fuel consists of Mediterranean shrub vegetation. The obtained results are promising and show interesting performance achieved by the proposed system in operational and complex fire scenarios

  19. Simultaneous solvent and J-modulation suppression in PGSTE-based diffusion experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnaeve, Davy

    2014-08-01

    The most favourable solvent suppression methods that have been applied to PGSTE experiments for the measurement of diffusion are WATERGATE and excitation sculpting. However, both methods come with significant J-modulation line-shape distortions on multiplets, a phenomenon that is known to be of particular concern for DOSY data processing. Here, two new PGSTE experiments are proposed that suppress both the solvent peak and J-modulation based on the perfect echo WATERGATE sequence. This allows narrow suppression bandwidths and thus measurement of diffusion on peaks close to the solvent peak. Both sequences perform admirably and the better option depends on the priority one puts on the quality of the solvent suppression or signal loss due to T2 weighting. Gradient-based solvent suppression in PGSTE experiments can often be compromised by the variable, diffusion-encoding gradient pulses. Special emphasis is put on how to maximise the robustness of the solvent suppression.

  20. The Design of a Fire Source in Scale-Model Experiments with Smoke Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Brohus, Henrik; la Cour-Harbo, H.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the design of a fire and a smoke source for scale-model experiments with smoke ventilation. It is only possible to work with scale-model experiments where the Reynolds number is reduced compared to full scale, and it is demonstrated that special attention to the fire source...... (heat and smoke source) may improve the possibility of obtaining Reynolds number independent solutions with a fully developed flow. The paper shows scale-model experiments for the Ofenegg tunnel case. Design of a fire source for experiments with smoke ventilation in a large room and smoke movement...

  1. Experience with IBS-suppression lattice in RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Luo, Y.; Ptitsyn, V.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.; Bai, M.; Bruno, D.; Cameron, P.; Connolly, R.; Della Penna, A.; Drees, A.; Fedotov, A.; Ganetis, G.; Hoff, L.; Louie, W.; Malitsky, N.; Marr, G.; Marusic, A.; Montag, C.; Pilat, F.; Roser, T.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.

    2008-01-01

    An intra-beam scattering (IBS) is the limiting factor of the luminosity lifetime for RHIC operating with heavy ions. In order to suppress the IBS we designed and implemented new lattice with higher betatron tunes. This lattice had been developed during last three years and had been used for gold ions in yellow ring of the RHIC during d-Au part of the RHIC Run-8. The use of this lattice allowed both significant increases in the luminosity lifetime and the luminosity levels via reduction of beta-stars in the IPS. In this paper we report on the development, the tests and the performance of IBS-suppression lattice in RHIC, including the resulting increases in the peak and the average luminosity. We also report on our plans for future steps with the IBS suppression

  2. Experience with IBS-suppression lattice in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko,V.N.; Luo, Y.; Ptitsyn, V.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.; Bai, M.; Bruno, D.; Cameron, P.; Connolly, R.; Della Penna, A.; Drees, A.; Fedotov, A.; Ganetis, G.; Hoff, L.; Louie, W.; Malitsky, N.; Marr, G.; Marusic, A.; Montag, C.; Pilat, F.; Roser, T.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.

    2008-06-23

    An intra-beam scattering (IBS) is the limiting factor of the luminosity lifetime for RHIC operating with heavy ions. In order to suppress the IBS we designed and implemented new lattice with higher betatron tunes. This lattice had been developed during last three years and had been used for gold ions in yellow ring of the RHIC during d-Au part of the RHIC Run-8. The use of this lattice allowed both significant increases in the luminosity lifetime and the luminosity levels via reduction of beta-stars in the IPS. In this paper we report on the development, the tests and the performance of IBS-suppression lattice in RHIC, including the resulting increases in the peak and the average luminosity. We also report on our plans for future steps with the IBS suppression.

  3. Experiences with the design and implementation of flutter suppression systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, J. R.; Abel, I.

    1984-01-01

    Research efforts aim at flutter suppression are discussed. The application of active controls technology to reduce the aeroelastic response of aircraft structures is discussed. Feedback control, control law design processes and synthesis, wind tunnel studies, and delta-wing wind tunnel models are discussed.

  4. Estimation of risks of radiating defeat for rescuers of the Ministry for Emergency Situations at fire suppression in ecological systems on territories with radioactive-pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koldaeva, S.N.; Kharitonenko, N.F.; Demchenko, N.A.; Timoshchenko, A.I.

    2006-01-01

    The authors present the results of research of reception a superfluous doze of internal and external radiation got by rescuers of the Ministry for Emergency Situations at suppression of fires in ecological systems on the territories with radioactive pollution. They also give recommendations with the aim to decrease the risks of radiation defeat for rescuers at performance of their professional duty. (authors)

  5. Towards adaptive fire management for biodiversity conservation: experience in South African national parks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the experience gained in three South African national parks (Kruger, Table Mountain and Bontebok) with regard to the adaptive management of fire for the conservation of biodiversity. In the Kruger National Park, adaptive...

  6. Evaluation of the Onset of Flashover in Room Fire Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Annemarie; Jomaas, Grunde; Bwalya, Alex

    2013-01-01

    results showed that by lowering the thermal inertia and thereby lowering the heat loss from the room and at the same time increasing the thermal feedback, a thermal runaway occurred before significant fire spread; but only for objects composed of a mixture of plastic/rubber/textiles and wood....../celluloses. In these cases the onset of thermal runaway was found to occur at room temperatures in the range 300C to 420C, supporting that the room temperature at the onset of thermal runaway is strongly dependent on the thermal inertia. It also shows that the onset of thermal runaway cannot in all cases implicitly...... be predicted by the traditional flashover temperature criterion of 500C to 600C. For fire loads composed of pure wood/celluloses the onset of flashover occurred about the same time as fire spread irrespectively of linings and at significantly higher room temperatures (725C). This can be explained...

  7. Understanding effects of fire suppression, fuels treatment, and wildfire on bird communities in the Klamath-Siskiyou ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Alexander; C. John Ralph; Bill Hogoboom; Nathaniel E. Seavy; Stewart Janes

    2004-01-01

    Although fire management is increasingly recognized as an important component of conservation in Klamath-Siskiyou ecosystems, empirical evidence on the ecological effects of fire in this region is limited. Here we describe a conceptual model as a framework for understanding the effects of fire and fire management on bird abundance. This model identifies three major...

  8. Fire suppression system of a small-scale LNG loading facility at PT Badak NGL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yustiarza, Farhan Hilmyawan

    2017-03-01

    LNG progressively become favorable energy to replace oil-based fuel due to lower cost and more environment-friendly. In order to support an emerging LNG demands in Kalimantan, PT Badak NGL, one of the leading LNG Company in the world, develops the land-transported LNG loading facility. This facility performs loading the LNG into a small-scale tank (ISO Tank) with 20 m3 capacities. Safety reviews over this facility were conducted. Based on these reviews, the LNG filling station requires supplemental safeguards, such as LNG spill containment and firefighting foam system besides firewater system and dry chemical system. The spill containment provides holding LNG spill within the limits of plant property, while the high expansion foam system deals to minimize the vaporization rate to prevent a fire incident. This paper mainly discusses designing of such supplemental safeguards. The requirement of the spill containment is 20 m3 (6.3 × 3.3 × 2.0) m and the foam system should be capable generating foam at least 40 m3/min.

  9. Application of an Image Tracking Algorithm in Fire Ant Motion Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichuan Gui

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An image tracking algorithm, which was originally used with the particle image velocimetry (PIV to determine velocities of buoyant solid particles in water, is modified and applied in the presented work to detect motion of fire ant on a planar surface. A group of fire ant workers are put to the bottom of a tub and excited with vibration of selected frequency and intensity. The moving fire ants are captured with an image system that successively acquires image frames of high digital resolution. The background noise in the imaging recordings is extracted by averaging hundreds of frames and removed from each frame. The individual fire ant images are identified with a recursive digital filter, and then they are tracked between frames according to the size, brightness, shape, and orientation angle of the ant image. The speed of an individual ant is determined with the displacement of its images and the time interval between frames. The trail of the individual fire ant is determined with the image tracking results, and a statistical analysis is conducted for all the fire ants in the group. The purpose of the experiment is to investigate the response of fire ants to the substrate vibration. Test results indicate that the fire ants move faster after being excited, but the number of active ones are not increased even after a strong excitation.

  10. Estradiol-Dependent Stimulation and Suppression of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuron Firing Activity by Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phumsatitpong, Chayarndorn; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2018-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are the final central regulators of reproduction, integrating various inputs that modulate fertility. Stress typically inhibits reproduction but can be stimulatory; stress effects can also be modulated by steroid milieu. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released during the stress response may suppress reproduction independent of downstream glucocorticoids. We hypothesized CRH suppresses fertility by decreasing GnRH neuron firing activity. To test this, mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and either implanted with an estradiol capsule (OVX+E) or not treated further to examine the influence of estradiol on GnRH neuron response to CRH. Targeted extracellular recordings were used to record firing activity from green fluorescent protein-identified GnRH neurons in brain slices before and during CRH treatment; recordings were done in the afternoon when estradiol has a positive feedback effect to increase GnRH neuron firing. In OVX mice, CRH did not affect the firing rate of GnRH neurons. In contrast, CRH exhibited dose-dependent stimulatory (30 nM) or inhibitory (100 nM) effects on GnRH neuron firing activity in OVX+E mice; both effects were reversible. The dose-dependent effects of CRH appear to result from activation of different receptor populations; a CRH receptor type-1 agonist increased firing activity in GnRH neurons, whereas a CRH receptor type-2 agonist decreased firing activity. CRH and specific agonists also differentially regulated short-term burst frequency and burst properties, including burst duration, spikes/burst, and/or intraburst interval. These results indicate that CRH alters GnRH neuron activity and that estradiol is required for CRH to exert both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on GnRH neurons. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  11. An enhanced fire hazard assessment model and validation experiments for vertical cable trays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lu [Sate Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Huang, Xianjia, E-mail: huangxianjia@gziit.ac.cn [Joint Laboratory of Fire Safety in Nuclear Power Plants, Institute of Industry Technology Guangzhou & Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 511458 (China); Bi, Kun; Liu, Xiaoshuang [China Nuclear Power Design Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518045 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • An enhanced model was developed for vertical cable fire hazard assessment in NPP. • The validated experiments on vertical cable tray fires were conducted. • The capability of the model for cable tray with different cable spacing were tested. - Abstract: The model, referred to as FLASH-CAT (Flame Spread over Horizontal Cable Trays), was developed to estimate the heat release rate for vertical cable tray fire. The focus of this work is to investigate the application of an enhanced model to the single vertical cable tray fires with different cable spacing. The experiments on vertical cable tray fires with three typical cable spacing were conducted. The histories of mass loss rate and flame length were recorded during the cable fire. From the experimental results, it is found that the space between cable lines intensifies the cable combustion and accelerates the flame spread. The predictions by the enhanced model show good agreements with the experimental data. At the same time, it is shown that the enhanced model is capable of predicting the different behaviors of cable fires with different cable spacing by adjusting the flame spread speed only.

  12. Feedback from recent operating experience in nuclear power plants regarding fire safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forell, Burkhard [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    The paper provides insights from the operating experience in German nuclear power plants with reportable fire safety related events. The three reportable events outlined in more detail resulted in German Information Notices prepared by GRS and distributed on behalf of the Federal German regulatory body. The events concerned deficiencies at pipe penetration seals, which were not filled with mineral wool. Also at fire doors deficiencies of the insulation inside the door wings occurred. One event concerned a smouldering fire of rubber material in a waste drum which was placed in a plant internal drying facility for radioactive waste.

  13. BWR Mark I pressure suppression study: bench mark experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1977-01-01

    Computer simulations representative of the wetwell of Mark I BWR's have predicted pressures and related phenomena. However, calculational predictions for purposes of engineering decision will be possible only if the code can be verified, i.e., shown to compute in accord with measured values. Described in the report is a set of single downcomer spherical flask bench mark experiments designed to produce quantitative data to validate various air-water dynamic computations; the experiments were performed since relevant bench mark data were not available from outside sources. Secondary purposes of the study were to provide a test bed for the instrumentation and post-experiment data processing techniques to be used in the Laboratory's reactor safety research program and to provide additional masurements for the air-water scaling study

  14. FIREX (Fire Influence on Regional and Global Environments Experiment): Measurements of Nitrogen Containing Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; Schwarz, J. P.; Yokelson, R. J.; Roberts, J. M.; Koss, A.; Coggon, M.; Yuan, B.; Sekimoto, K.

    2017-12-01

    A combination of a warmer, drier climate with fire-control practices over the last century have produced a situation in which we can expect more frequent fires and fires of larger magnitude in the Western U.S. and Canada. There are urgent needs to better understand the impacts of wildfire and biomass burning (BB) on the atmosphere and climate system, and for policy-relevant science to aid in the process of managing fires. The FIREX (Fire Influence on Regional and Global Environment Experiment) research effort is a multi-year, multi-agency measurement campaign focused on the impact of BB on climate and air quality from western North American wild fires, where research takes place on scales ranging from the flame-front to the global atmosphere. FIREX includes methods development and small- and large-scale laboratory and field experiments. FIREX will include: emission factor measurements from typical North American fuels in the fire science laboratory in Missoula, Montana; mobile laboratory deployments; ground site measurements at sites influenced by BB from several western states. The main FIREX effort will be a large field study with multiple aircraft and mobile labs in the fire season of 2019. One of the main advances of FIREX is the availability of various new measurement techniques that allows for smoke evaluation in unprecedented detail. The first major effort of FIREX was the fire science laboratory measurements in October 2016, where a large number of previously understudied Nitrogen containing volatile organic compounds (NVOCs) were measured using H3O+CIMS and I-CIMS instruments. The contribution of NVOCs to the total reactive Nitrogen budget and the relationship to the Nitrogen content of the fuel are investigated.

  15. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de

    1998-01-01

    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  16. Daily estimates of fire danger using multitemporal satellite MODIS data: the experience of FIRE-SAT in the Basilicata Region (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanorte, R.; Lasaponara, R.; De Santis, F.; Aromando, A.; Nole, G.

    2012-04-01

    Daily estimates of fire danger using multitemporal satellite MODIS data: the experience of FIRE-SAT in the Basilicata Region (Italy) A. Lanorte, F. De Santis , A. Aromando, G. Nolè, R. Lasaponara, CNR-IMAA, Potenza, Italy In the recent years the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy) has been characterized by an increasing incidence of fire disturbance which also tends to affect protected (Regional and national parks) and natural vegetated areas. FIRE_SAT project has been funded by the Civil Protection of the Basilicata Region in order to set up a low cost methodology for fire danger/risk monitoring based on satellite Earth Observation techniques. To this aim, NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were used. The spectral capability and daily availability makes MODIS products especially suitable for estimating the variations of fuel characteristics. This work presents new significant results obtained in the context of FIRE-SAT project. In order to obtain a dynamical indicator of fire susceptibility based on multitemporal MODIS satellite data, up-datable in short-time periods (daily), we used the spatial/temporal variations of following parameters: (1) Relative Greenness Index (2) Live and dead fuel moisture content (3) Temperature In particular, the dead fuel moisture content is a key factor in fire ignition. Dead fuel moisture dynamics are significantly faster than those observed for live fuel. Dead fine vegetation exhibits moisture and density values dependent on rapid atmospheric changes and strictly linked to local meteorological conditions. For this reason, commonly, the estimation of dead fuel moisture content is based on meteorological variables. In this study we propose to use MODIS data to estimate meteorological data (specifically Relative Humidity) at an adequate spatial and temporal resolution. The assessment of dead fuel moisture content plays a decisive role in determining a fire dynamic danger index in combination with other

  17. Integrating landscape and hydrologic simulation models to assess the influence of fire-suppression on water yield from forested Rocky Mountain watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl, R. S.; Woods, S.; Diluzio, M.

    2005-12-01

    Most of the water supply for semi-arid western North America originates as snow that is deposited and temporarily stored in forested, high elevation watersheds. Snow accumulation in these watersheds varies with climate, elevation, topography and forest vegetation characteristics. Canopy structure is an especially important vegetation characteristic because of its effect on the interception component of the water budget and the wind speed and solar radiation flux at the snow surface. Canopy structure is a function of forest composition, structure and extent, all of which are shaped by disturbance processes such as fire, insect and disease outbreaks, and human-induced changes. Changes in the frequency and magnitude of these disturbance processes such as those that have occurred due to fire suppression lead to changes in forest structure, and this may result in long term reductions in water yield from forested watersheds. We have developed a methodology for linking, spatially explicit, time-series, landcover and hydrologic analysis at the watershed scale, with the goal of quantifying changes in long term water yield due to fire suppression and other management scenarios. Output from the SIMPPLLE (Simulating Patterns and Processes at Landscape Scales) vegetation simulation model is classified and processed to provide input to the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) hydrologic model. SIMPPLLE integrates various data sources to simulate vegetation growth and disturbance pathways for forested environments in the Rocky Mountains. We used SIMPPLLE to simulate landcover change 300 years forward from current conditions for 1) fire suppression and 2) natural succession management scenarios. Grid-based maps were produced for each scenario at decadal intervals and used as input for SWAT. SWAT was calibrated using current landcover data and five years of daily streamflow records, and a Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency of 0.90 was achieved. The calibrated SWAT model was then used

  18. Sub-Scale Analysis of New Large Aircraft Pool Fire-Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    were 30-degree stainless steel fan nozzles manufactured by BETE. The agent was premixed Mil-spec 3% AFFF discharged via a modified (no air...conduction thermally coupled to the surrounding gaseous flow field. Agent spray conditions were defined as DPM flat- fan -atomizer injection types with...compared to experiments. Quantification of CFD model uncertainty and other factors to quantify its ability to accurately predict flame extinction is

  19. Mark I 1/5-sale boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment quick-look report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, W.; Collins, E.K.

    1977-01-01

    This report is intended as a ''quick-look'' report summarizing the experimental results obtained from pressure suppression experiment numbers 1.3.1, 1.4, 1.5, and 1.6 that were performed on the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's 1/5-scale boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark I pressure suppression experimental facility on April 26, 1977. A brief description of the general nature of the tests and a summary of the actual tests that were performed are given

  20. Gradient-enhanced TOCSY experiments with improved sensitivity and solvent suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, D B; Hrabal, R; Ni, F

    1996-09-01

    Gradient-enhanced versions of the homonuclear TOCSY experiment are described, with solvent suppression and sensitivity superior to that of a conventional TOCSY experiment. The pulse sequences are constructed by appending a WATERGATE module to a z-filtered TOCSY experiment. Pulsed-field gradients and appropriately phased selective rf pulses are used to maintain precise control of the water magnetization vector. Problems associated with radiation damping and spin-locking of the water magnetization are thus alleviated. The water magnetization is returned to equilibrium prior to each acquisition, which improves water suppression and minimizes signal losses due to saturation transfer.

  1. Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires : results and data analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2011-03-01

    As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. This report describes a set of fuel regression rates experiments to provide data for the development and validation of models. The experiments were performed with fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool was investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface was measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel was assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.

  2. Aging assessment for active fire protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, S.B.; Nowlen, S.P.; Tanaka, T.

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further

  3. Human behavior in Prisoner's Dilemma experiments suppresses network reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Cuesta, José A.; Sánchez, Angel; Moreno, Yamir

    2012-03-01

    During the last few years, much research has been devoted to strategic interactions on complex networks. In this context, the Prisoner's Dilemma has become a paradigmatic model, and it has been established that imitative evolutionary dynamics lead to very different outcomes depending on the details of the network. We here report that when one takes into account the real behavior of people observed in the experiments, both at the mean-field level and on utterly different networks, the observed level of cooperation is the same. We thus show that when human subjects interact in a heterogeneous mix including cooperators, defectors and moody conditional cooperators, the structure of the population does not promote or inhibit cooperation with respect to a well mixed population.

  4. Feasibility of particle image velocimetry in vegetative fire spread experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandini, Frédéric; Silvani, Xavier; Susset, Arnaud

    2012-07-01

    This study is part of an ongoing effort to improve the understanding of mechanisms that control the spread of fires with a focus on the turbulent flow modified by the flame front. A large-scale PIV system was used to measure the flow field inside and in the vicinity of a flame front spreading across a bed of fuel in an open environment. The vegetative fuel consisted of a 10-m-long and 5-m-wide bed of excelsior (1 kg/m² fuel load) leading to a nearly 1.5-m-high flame front. The velocity field was investigated in a measurement region about 1.5 m high and 2 m long. In such a configuration, a 450-mJ laser source was used to generate the light sheet, and the flow was seeded using zirconium oxide particles (ZrO2). The PIV measurements in the presence of flame were improved by the use of a liquid crystal shutter in front of the PIV camera, allowing very short exposure times and eliminating the flame trace in the tomographic pictures. Despite the variability of the external conditions, leading to a difficult seeding over the whole PIV area, the present study shows the feasibility of the optical method of fluid visualization in the field. The measurements of the velocity fields show some features of the dynamics of fire plumes. This preliminary study demonstrates the feasibility of the method in the open, but some strong efforts to improve the seeding of the flow must be made.

  5. Simultaneous convection compensation and solvent suppression in biomolecular NMR diffusion experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gang; Price, William S

    2009-11-01

    Thermal convection and high intensity solvent resonances can significantly hamper diffusion estimates in pulsed gradient spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance diffusion experiments on biomolecule samples. To overcome these two problems, a new double functional NMR diffusion sequence, double echo PGSTE-WATERGATE, is presented. The new sequence provides excellent convection compensation and solvent suppression (with a suppression factor in excess of at least 10(5) in a single scan) in biomolecular NMR diffusion experiments. Due to its stimulated echo nature, the new sequence is much less susceptible to spin-spin relaxation than Hahn spin-echo based sequences. Furthermore, the new sequence is not susceptible to spin diffusion due to the application of bipolar pulsed gradients. The new sequence is also much easier to set up compared to previously developed stimulated echo based convection compensation and solvent suppression sequence. The utility of the new sequence is demonstrated on an aqueous lysozyme sample.

  6. Fire Risk Analysis and Optimization of Fire Prevention Management for Green Building Design and High Rise Buildings: Hong Kong Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau Albert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many iconic high rise buildings in Hong Kong, for example, International Commercial Centre, International Financial Centre, etc. Fire safety issue in high rise buildings has been raised by local fire professionals in terms of occupant evacuation, means of fire-fighting by fire fighters, sprinkler systems to automatically put off fires in buildings, etc. Fire risk becomes an important issue in building fire safety because it relates to life safety of building occupants where they live and work in high rise buildings in Hong Kong. The aim of this research is to identify the fire risk for different types of high rise buildings in Hong Kong and to optimise the fire prevention management for those high rise buildings with higher level of fire risk and to validate the model and also to carry out the study of the conflict between the current fire safety building code and the current trend of green building design. Survey via the 7-point scale questionnaire was conducted through 50 participants and their responses were received and analysed via the statistical tool SPSS software computer program. A number of statistical methods of testing for significantly difference in samples were adopted to carry out the analysis of the data received. When the statistical analysis was completed, the results of the data analysis were validated by two Fire Safety Experts in this area of specialisation and also by quantitative fire risk analysis.

  7. Fine Water Mist Fire Extinguisher for Spacecraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This three phase SBIR project from ADA Technologies Inc. (ADA) builds upon the experience of ADA in development of fine water mist (FWM) fire suppression technology....

  8. Fire and Smoke Model Evaluation Experiment: Coordination of a study to improve smoke modeling for fire operations within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, N. H. F.; Ottmar, R. D.; Brown, T. J.; Larkin, N. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Fire and Smoke Model Evaluation Experiment (FASMEE) is an integrative research effort to identify and collect critical measurements to improve operational wildland fire and smoke prediction systems. FASMEE has two active phases and one suggested phase. Phase 1 is the analysis and planning process to assess the current state of fire-plume-smoke modeling and to determine the critical measurements required to evaluate and improve these operational fire and smoke models. As the major deliverable for Phase 1, a study plan has been completed that describes the measurement needs, field campaigns, and command, safety and air space de-confliction plans necessary to complete the FASMEE project. Phase 2 is a set of field campaigns to collect data during 2019-2022. Future Improvements would be a set of analyses and model improvements based on the data collected within Phase 2 that is dependent on identifying future funding sources. In this presentation, we will review the FASMEE Study Plan and detailed measurements and conditions expected for the four to five proposed research burns. The recommended measurements during Phase 2 span the four interrelated disciplines of FASMEE: fuels and consumption, fire behavior and energy, plume dynamics and meteorology, and smoke emissions, chemistry, and transport. Fuel type, condition, and consumption during wildland fire relates to several fire impacts including radiative heating, which provides the energy that drives fire dynamics. Local-scale meteorology is an important factor which relates to atmospheric chemistry, dispersion, and transport. Plume dynamics provide the connection between fire behavior and far-field smoke dispersion, because it determines the vertical distribution of the emissions. Guided by the data needs and science questions generated during Phase 1, three wildland fire campaigns were selected. These included the western wildfire campaign (rapid deployment aimed at western wildfires supporting NOAA, NASA, and NSF

  9. Assessment of crown fire initiation and spread models in Mediterranean conifer forests by using data from field and laboratory experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez y Silva, F.; Guijarro, M.; Madrigal, J.; Jiménez, E.; Molina, J.R.; Hernando, C.; Vélez, R.; Vega, J.A.

    2017-11-01

    Aims of study: To conduct the first full-scale crown fire experiment carried out in a Mediterranean conifer stand in Spain; to use different data sources to assess crown fire initiation and spread models, and to evaluate the role of convection in crown fire initiation. Area of study: The Sierra Morena mountains (Coordinates ETRS89 30N: X: 284793-285038; Y: 4218650-4218766), southern Spain, and the outdoor facilities of the Lourizán Forest Research Centre, northwestern Spain. Material and methods: The full-scale crown fire experiment was conducted in a young Pinus pinea stand. Field data were compared with data predicted using the most used crown fire spread models. A small-scale experiment was developed with Pinus pinaster trees to evaluate the role of convection in crown fire initiation. Mass loss calorimeter tests were conducted with P. pinea needles to estimate residence time of the flame, which was used to validate the crown fire spread model. Main results: The commonly used crown fire models underestimated the crown fire spread rate observed in the full-scale experiment, but the proposed new integrated approach yielded better fits. Without wind-forced convection, tree crowns did not ignite until flames from an intense surface fire contacted tree foliage. Bench-scale tests based on radiation heat flux therefore offer a limited insight to full-scale phenomena. Research highlights: Existing crown fire behaviour models may underestimate the rate of spread of crown fires in many Mediterranean ecosystems. New bench-scale methods based on flame buoyancy and more crown field experiments allowing detailed measurements of fire behaviour are needed.

  10. Rx-CADRE (Prescribed Fire Combustion-Atmospheric Dynamics Research Experiments) collaborative research in the core fire sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Jimenez; B. Butler; K. Hiers; R. Ottmar; M. Dickinson; R. Kremens; J. O' Brien; A. Hudak; C. Clements

    2009-01-01

    The Rx-CADRE project was the combination of local and national fire expertise in the field of core fire research. The project brought together approximately 30 fire scientists from six geographic regions and seven diff erent agencies. The project objectives were to demonstrate the capacity for collaborative research by bringing together individuals and teams with a...

  11. A fuel treatment reduces potential fire severity and increases suppression efficiency in a Sierran mixed conifer forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason J. Moghaddas

    2006-01-01

    Fuel treatments are being widely implemented on public and private lands across the western U.S. While scientists and managers have an understanding of how fuel treatments can modify potential fire behavior under modeled conditions, there is limited information on how treatments perform under real wildfire conditions in Sierran mixed conifer forests. The Bell Fire...

  12. Fire suppression has led to greater drought-sensitivity in dry conifer forests: tree-ring carbon isotope evidence from Central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, S.; Merschel, A. G.; Meinzer, F. C.; Spies, T. A.; Still, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    Mortality events of economically and ecologically important conifers have been widespread across Western North America over recent decades. Many of these events have been linked to "global change-type droughts" characterized by greater temperatures and evaporative demand. In parallel, since the early to mid- 20th century, increasing atmospheric [CO2] has been shown to increase the water use efficiency (WUE) of trees worldwide while conifer forests in western North America have become denser after the advent of modern fire suppression efforts. Therefore, competing hypotheses include that conifer forests have experienced 1) less drought stress due to water savings from increased WUE, 2) more drought stress due to increased demand for water in dense forests with greater leaf area index, or 3) unchanging stress because these two factors have cancelled each other out. To provide a test of these hypotheses we used inter-annual latewood carbon isotope discrimination, Δ13C, across a dry mixed-conifer forest landscape of central Oregon in the rain shadow of the Cascade Mountains. The forests are dominated by old-growth ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa) and younger and fire-intolerant grand firs (Abies grandis). Dendrochronological dating of tree establishment and fires scars established sharp declines in fire frequency and associated increases in the densities of grand fir since the early 1900s. Δ13C data for ponderosa pine and grand fir spanned 1830-2013 and 1900-2013, respectively. For our analyses these years were split into periods of high fire frequency (1830-1900), moderate fire frequency (1901-1956) and fire-exclusion (1957-2013). Comparisons of Δ13C to reconstructed Palmer Drought Severity Index values for the same years revealed that leaf gas exchange of both species has been more sensitive to drought during the recent fire-exclusion period compared to previous periods when surface fires kept tree densities much lower. Similar research is needed elsewhere to

  13. Early Pottery Making in Northern Coastal Peru. Part II: Field Firing Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, I.; Goldstein, D.; Sosa, J.; Wagner, U.

    2003-01-01

    We present data from three seasons of experimental field work designed to recreate ancient Andean coastal ceramic firing techniques. Based on the recent discovery of two different archaeological ceramic production sites in the La Leche river valley of northern coastal Peru, the opportunity arose to apply Moessbauer spectroscopy and other analytical methods to reconstruct ancient firing procedures. Two sets of firings took place in 1993 and 1997 in Batan Grande using a partially restored Formative kiln from about 800 BC, local hardwood and cow dung as fuel. A third experiment followed in 2000 after the discovery of a Middle Sican ceramics workshop in use between ca. AD 950 and 1050 at Huaca Sialupe, where an exact replica of an ancient kiln was built from local clay, and fired with local wood and cow dung. Additionally, inverted urns found at Huaca Sialupe were tested for their potential use as furnaces for metal working. Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to compare the physical and chemical state of specimens produced in the field experiments with ancient ceramics and with specimens produced in controlled laboratory experiments.

  14. Early Pottery Making in Northern Coastal Peru. Part II: Field Firing Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, I.; Goldstein, D. [Southern Illinois University (United States); Sosa, J. [Potter in the City of Chulcanas (Peru); Wagner, U. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department E15 (Germany)

    2003-09-15

    We present data from three seasons of experimental field work designed to recreate ancient Andean coastal ceramic firing techniques. Based on the recent discovery of two different archaeological ceramic production sites in the La Leche river valley of northern coastal Peru, the opportunity arose to apply Moessbauer spectroscopy and other analytical methods to reconstruct ancient firing procedures. Two sets of firings took place in 1993 and 1997 in Batan Grande using a partially restored Formative kiln from about 800 BC, local hardwood and cow dung as fuel. A third experiment followed in 2000 after the discovery of a Middle Sican ceramics workshop in use between ca. AD 950 and 1050 at Huaca Sialupe, where an exact replica of an ancient kiln was built from local clay, and fired with local wood and cow dung. Additionally, inverted urns found at Huaca Sialupe were tested for their potential use as furnaces for metal working. Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to compare the physical and chemical state of specimens produced in the field experiments with ancient ceramics and with specimens produced in controlled laboratory experiments.

  15. The double-slit experiment and the time-reversed fire alarm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halabi, T.

    2010-01-01

    When both slits of the double-slit experiment are open, closing one paradoxically increases the detection rate at some points on the detection screen. Feynman famously warned that temptation to understand such a puzzling feature only draws into blind alleys. Nevertheless, we gain insight into this feature by drawing an analogy between the double-slit experiment and a time-reversed fire alarm. Much as closing the slit increases probability of a future detection, ruling out fire drill scenarios, having heard the fire alarm, increases probability of a past fire (using Bayesian inference). Classically, Bayesian inference is associated with computing probabilities of past events. We therefore identify this feature of the double-slit experiment with a time-reversed thermodynamic arrow. We believe that much of the enigma of quantum mechanics is simply due to some variation of time's arrow. In further support of this, we employ a plausible formulation of the thermodynamic arrow to derive an uncertainty in classical mechanics that is reminiscent of quantum uncertainty.

  16. Fire simulation in nuclear facilities--the FIRAC code and supporting experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkett, M.W.; Martin, R.A.; Fenton, D.L.; Gunaji, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    The fire accident analysis computer code FIRAC was designed to estimate radioactive and nonradioactive source terms and predict fire-induced flows and thermal and material transport within the ventilation systems of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. FIRAC maintains its basic structure and features and has been expanded and modified to include the capabilities of the zone-type compartment fire model computer code FIRIN developed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The two codes have been coupled to provide an improved simulation of a fire-induced transient within a facility. The basic material transport capability of FIRAC has been retained and includes estimates of entrainment, convection, deposition, and filtration of material. The interrelated effects of filter plugging, heat transfer, gas dynamics, material transport, and fire and radioactive source terms also can be simulated. Also, a sample calculation has been performed to illustrate some of the capabilities of the code and how a typical facility is modeled with FIRAC. In addition to the analytical work being performed at Los Alamos, experiments are being conducted at the New Mexico State University to support the FIRAC computer code development and verification. This paper summarizes two areas of the experimental work that support the material transport capabilities of the code: the plugging of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters by combustion aerosols and the transport and deposition of smoke in ventilation system ductwork

  17. Fire, herbicide, and chainsaw felling effects on arthropods in fire-suppressed longleaf pine sandhills at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis Provencher; Krista E. M. Galley; Andrea R. Litt; Doria R. Gordon; Leonard A. Brennan; George W. Tanner; Jeffrey L. Hardesty

    2002-01-01

    Experimentally evaluating the success of hardwood reduction techniques against a "model" reference condition of longleaf pine sandhill communities is not directly possible because reference sites are not randomized or replicated. We addressed this issue by measuring the similarity of arthropods in treatment (fire, herbicide, felling/girdling, and control) and...

  18. Weed suppression greatly increased by plant diversity in intensively managed grasslands: A continental-scale experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, John; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa; Kirwan, Laura; Finn, John Anthony; Llurba, Rosa; Suter, Matthias; Collins, Rosemary P; Porqueddu, Claudio; Helgadóttir, Áslaug; Baadshaug, Ole H; Bélanger, Gilles; Black, Alistair; Brophy, Caroline; Čop, Jure; Dalmannsdóttir, Sigridur; Delgado, Ignacio; Elgersma, Anjo; Fothergill, Michael; Frankow-Lindberg, Bodil E; Ghesquiere, An; Golinski, Piotr; Grieu, Philippe; Gustavsson, Anne-Maj; Höglind, Mats; Huguenin-Elie, Olivier; Jørgensen, Marit; Kadziuliene, Zydre; Lunnan, Tor; Nykanen-Kurki, Paivi; Ribas, Angela; Taube, Friedhelm; Thumm, Ulrich; De Vliegher, Alex; Lüscher, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Grassland diversity can support sustainable intensification of grassland production through increased yields, reduced inputs and limited weed invasion. We report the effects of diversity on weed suppression from 3 years of a 31-site continental-scale field experiment.At each site, 15 grassland communities comprising four monocultures and 11 four-species mixtures based on a wide range of species' proportions were sown at two densities and managed by cutting. Forage species were selected according to two crossed functional traits, "method of nitrogen acquisition" and "pattern of temporal development".Across sites, years and sown densities, annual weed biomass in mixtures and monocultures was 0.5 and 2.0 t  DM ha -1 (7% and 33% of total biomass respectively). Over 95% of mixtures had weed biomass lower than the average of monocultures, and in two-thirds of cases, lower than in the most suppressive monoculture (transgressive suppression). Suppression was significantly transgressive for 58% of site-years. Transgressive suppression by mixtures was maintained across years, independent of site productivity.Based on models, average weed biomass in mixture over the whole experiment was 52% less (95% confidence interval: 30%-75%) than in the most suppressive monoculture. Transgressive suppression of weed biomass was significant at each year across all mixtures and for each mixture.Weed biomass was consistently low across all mixtures and years and was in some cases significantly but not largely different from that in the equiproportional mixture. The average variability (standard deviation) of annual weed biomass within a site was much lower for mixtures (0.42) than for monocultures (1.77). Synthesis and applications . Weed invasion can be diminished through a combination of forage species selected for complementarity and persistence traits in systems designed to reduce reliance on fertiliser nitrogen. In this study, effects of diversity on weed suppression were

  19. Simulated response of conterminous United States ecosystems to climate change at different levels of fire suppression, CO2 emission rate, and growth response to CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Lenihan; Dominique Bachelet; Ronald P. Neilson; Raymond Drapek

    2008-01-01

    A modeling experiment was designed to investigate the impact of fire management, CO2 emission rate, and the growth response to CO2 on the response of ecosystems in the conterminous United States to climate scenarios produced by three different general circulation models (GCMs) as simulated by the MCl Dynamic General...

  20. Fire and Smoke Model Evaluation Experiment (FASMEE): Modeling gaps and data needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongqiang Liu; Adam Kochanski; Kirk Baker; Ruddy Mell; Rodman Linn; Ronan Paugam; Jan Mandel; Aime Fournier; Mary Ann Jenkins; Scott Goodrick; Gary Achtemeier; Andrew Hudak; Matthew Dickson; Brian Potter; Craig Clements; Shawn Urbanski; Roger Ottmar; Narasimhan Larkin; Timothy Brown; Nancy French; Susan Prichard; Adam Watts; Derek McNamara

    2017-01-01

    Fire and smoke models are numerical tools for simulating fire behavior, smoke dynamics, and air quality impacts of wildland fires. Fire models are developed based on the fundamental chemistry and physics of combustion and fire spread or statistical analysis of experimental data (Sullivan 2009). They provide information on fire spread and fuel consumption for safe and...

  1. CO2 and CO emission rates from three forest fire controlled experiments in Western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Amaral, S. S.; Costa, M. A. M.; Soares Neto, T. G.; Veras, C. A. G.; Costa, F. S.; van Leeuwen, T. T.; Krieger Filho, G. C.; Tourigny, E.; Forti, M. C.; Fostier, A. H.; Siqueira, M. B.; Santos, J. C.; Lima, B. A.; Cascão, P.; Ortega, G.; Frade, E. F., Jr.

    2016-06-01

    Forests represent an important role in the control of atmospheric emissions through carbon capture. However, in forest fires, the carbon stored during photosynthesis is released into the atmosphere. The carbon quantification, in forest burning, is important for the development of measures for its control. The aim of this study was to quantify CO2 and CO emissions of forest fires in Western Amazonia. In this paper, results are described of forest fire experiments conducted in Cruzeiro do Sul and Rio Branco, state of Acre, and Candeias do Jamari, state of Rondônia, Brazil. These cities are located in the Western portion of the Brazilian Amazon region. The biomass content per hectare, in the virgin forest, was measured by indirect methods using formulas with parameters of forest inventories in the central hectare of the test site. The combustion completeness was estimated by randomly selecting 10% of the total logs and twelve 2 × 2 m2 areas along three transects and examining their consumption rates by the fire. The logs were used to determine the combustion completeness of the larger materials (characteristic diameters larger than 10 cm) and the 2 × 2 m2 areas to determine the combustion completeness of small-size materials (those with characteristic diameters lower than 10 cm) and the. The overall biomass consumption by fire was estimated to be 40.0%, 41.2% and 26.2%, in Cruzeiro do Sul, Rio Branco and Candeias do Jamari, respectively. Considering that the combustion gases of carbon in open fires contain approximately 90.0% of CO2 and 10.0% of CO in volumetric basis, the average emission rates of these gases by the burning process, in the three sites, were estimated as 191 ± 46.7 t ha-1 and 13.5 ± 3.3 t ha-1, respectively.

  2. OpenFIRE - A Web GIS Service for Distributing the Finnish Reflection Experiment Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väkevä, Sakari; Aalto, Aleksi; Heinonen, Aku; Heikkinen, Pekka; Korja, Annakaisa

    2017-04-01

    The Finnish Reflection Experiment (FIRE) is a land-based deep seismic reflection survey conducted between 2001 and 2003 by a research consortium of the Universities of Helsinki and Oulu, the Geological Survey of Finland, and a Russian state-owned enterprise SpetsGeofysika. The dataset consists of 2100 kilometers of high-resolution profiles across the Archaean and Proterozoic nuclei of the Fennoscandian Shield. Although FIRE data have been available on request since 2009, the data have remained underused outside the original research consortium. The original FIRE data have been quality-controlled. The shot gathers have been cross-checked and comprehensive errata has been created. The brute stacks provided by the Russian seismic contractor have been reprocessed into seismic sections and replotted. A complete documentation of the intermediate processing steps is provided together with guidelines for setting up a computing environment and plotting the data. An open access web service "OpenFIRE" for the visualization and the downloading of FIRE data has been created. The service includes a mobile-responsive map application capable of enriching seismic sections with data from other sources such as open data from the National Land Survey and the Geological Survey of Finland. The AVAA team of the Finnish Open Science and Research Initiative has provided a tailored Liferay portal with necessary web components such as an API (Application Programming Interface) for download requests. INSPIRE (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe) -compliant discovery metadata have been produced and geospatial data will be exposed as Open Geospatial Consortium standard services. The technical guidelines of the European Plate Observing System have been followed and the service could be considered as a reference application for sharing reflection seismic data. The OpenFIRE web service is available at www.seismo.helsinki.fi/openfire

  3. PSEPLOT: a controller for plotting data from the Mark I Boiling Water Reactor Pressure Suppression Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, G.S.

    1978-01-01

    PSEPLOT is a computer routine that was developed for the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Octopus computer system to generate several thousand plots of engineering data in a consistent format for referencing and comparison. The time-dependent engineering data were recorded during each of 25 tests of the Mark I Pressure Suppression Experiment (PSE). Although PSEPLOT is restricted to PSE, its concept is applicable to any similar data management task

  4. Incorporating field wind data into FIRETEC simulations of the International Crown Fire Modeling Experiment (ICFME): preliminary lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodman Linn; Kerry Anderson; Judith Winterkamp; Alyssa Broos; Michael Wotton; Jean-Luc Dupuy; Francois Pimont; Carleton Edminster

    2012-01-01

    Field experiments are one way to develop or validate wildland fire-behavior models. It is important to consider the implications of assumptions relating to the locality of measurements with respect to the fire, the temporal frequency of the measured data, and the changes to local winds that might be caused by the experimental configuration. Twenty FIRETEC simulations...

  5. Prescribed burning experiences in Italy: an integrated approach to prevent forest fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascoli D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Prescribed burning is used in many geographical areas for multiple and integrated objectives (wildfire prevention, habitat conservation, grazing management. In Europe the collaboration between researchers and fire professionals has brought to implement this technique over increasing areas (~104 ha year-1, effectively and efficiently. In Italy prescribed burning has not been much studied and it is rarely applied. A new interest is recently rising. Some Regions particularly threatened by wildfires have updated their legislation and set up procedures to authorize prescribed fire experiments and interventions. From 2004 to 2011 several scientific, operative and training experiences have been carried out at a regional level (Basilicata, Campania, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Piemonte, Sardegna, Toscana. The present paper aims to: (i document and compare these regional programs; (ii discuss their frameworks and limitations; (iii provide information about objectives, prescriptions, methods and results. The study has involved Universities, Forest Corps, Civil Protection, Municipalities, Parks and professionals from Italy and other Countries. Interventions have regarded integrated objectives (fire hazard reduction; habitat conservation; forest and grazing management, and involved several vegetation types (broadleaved and conifer forests; Mediterranean and Continental shrublands; grasslands. Studies on fire behaviour and ecology have helped to set prescriptions for specific objectives and environments. Results have been transferred to professionals through training sessions. Several common elements are outlined: integrated objectives, multidisciplinary character, training and research products. Ecological questions, certification to the use of fire, communication to local communities and the proposal of new studies, are some of the issues outlined in the discussion. The present study is the first review at national level and we hope it will help to deepen the

  6. Get immersed and black in fire ash world. Field Wildgeographers experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi; Misiune, Ieva; Jordan, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Ash is the footprint left by the fire. This residue is very important to landscape recover and is an important source of soil protection after the fire. Get immersed in fire ash world is the same thing of get dirty and do not be recognizable in a fire affected area. To measure ash in the field we have to be careful where to step, how to do the experimental design, collect samples and find with accuracy the places measured before. A good methodology is needed in design field experiments, collect ash samples and monitoring ash evolution (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008; Bodi et al., 2014; Pereira and Ubeda, 2010; Pereira et al. 2011; 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015). The objective of this work is to share with the Avatar world the methodologies used when wildgeographers get immersed in fire ash world, including: 1) Identify the best study area 2) Experimental design 3) Sample collection 4) Get dirty and have fun in the field 5) Laboratory, Statistical and spatial analysis Acknoledgements The author are thankful for the support of the projects POSTFIRE (Soil quality, erosion control and plant cover recovery under different post-fire management scenarios, CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R) funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness; GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857, RECARE (Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care, FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE), funded by the European Commission; and for the COST action ES1306 (Connecteur: Connecting European Connectivity Research), FUEGORED (Spanish Network of Forest Fire Effects on Soils, http://grupo.us.es/fuegored/) and to Comissionat per a Universitats i Recerca del DIUE de la Generalitat de Catalunya. References Bodi, M., Martin, D.A., Santin, C., Balfour, V., Doerr, S.H., Pereira, P., Cerda, A., Mataix-Solera, J. (2014) Wildland fire ash: production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects. Earth-Science Reviews, 130, 103-127. Cerdà, A. y Doerr, S.H. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface

  7. Modeling Urban Fire Growth,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear explosion damage, *Explosion effects, *Fires, *Flame propagation, Growth (General), Area coverage, Ignition, Combustion, Casualties...Computerized simulation, Predictions, Countermeasures, Fire suppression, Damage assessment, Urban areas, Vulnerability, Data acquisition, Methodology, Symposia

  8. Vibration isolation/suppression: research experience for undergraduates in mechatronics and smart structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonda, James; Rao, Vittal S.; Sana, Sridhar

    2001-08-01

    This paper provides an account of a student research project conducted under the sponsoring of the National Science Foundation (NSF) program on Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) in Mechatronics and Smart Strictures in the summer of 2000. The objective of the research is to design and test a stand-alone controller for a vibration isolation/suppression system. The design specification for the control system is to suppress the vibrations induced by the external disturbances by at least fiver times and hence to achieve vibration isolation. Piezo-electric sensors and actuators are utilized for suppression of unwanted vibrations. Various steps such as modeling of the system, controller design, simulation, closed-loop testing using d- Space rapid prototyping system, and analog control implementation are discussed in the paper. Procedures for data collection, the trade-offs carried out in the design, and analog controller implementation issues are also presented in the paper. The performances of various controllers are compared. The experiences of an undergraduate student are summarized in the conclusion of the paper.

  9. Simulation and measurement of the suppression of radon induced background in the KATRIN experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, J.; Harms, F.

    2018-01-01

    Short-lived radon isotopes, such as 219Rn or 220Rn, are a serious source of background for the measurement of the neu-trino mass with the KATRIN experiment. Most of the radon emanates from the main vacuum pumps of the KATRIN Main Spec-trometer, which consist of 2000 m of Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) strips. This paper describes a method to suppress the radon rate with liquid-nitrogen-cooled baffles in front of the NEG-pumps in the ultra-high vacuum chamber and compares simulations with measured data. The effectiveness of the method depends both on the half-life of the radon isotopes, and on the temperature of the cryogenic baffles, which affects their sojourn time on the cold surface. The measurements with the Main Spectrometer showed that the radon suppression with cold baffles works sufficiently well, so that the remaining background is no longer dominated by radon decays.

  10. CFS MATLAB toolbox: An experiment builder for continuous flash suppression (CFS) task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuutinen, Mikko; Mustonen, Terhi; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2017-09-15

    CFS toolbox is an open-source collection of MATLAB functions that utilizes PsychToolbox-3 (PTB-3). It is designed to allow a researcher to create and run continuous flash suppression experiments using a variety of experimental parameters (i.e., stimulus types and locations, noise characteristics, and experiment window settings). In a CFS experiment, one of the eyes at a time is presented with a dynamically changing noise pattern, while the other eye is concurrently presented with a static target stimulus, such as a Gabor patch. Due to the strong interocular suppression created by the dominant noise pattern mask, the target stimulus is rendered invisible for an extended duration. Very little knowledge of MATLAB is required for using the toolbox; experiments are generated by modifying csv files with the required parameters, and result data are output to text files for further analysis. The open-source code is available on the project page under a Creative Commons License ( http://www.mikkonuutinen.arkku.net/CFS_toolbox/ and https://bitbucket.org/mikkonuutinen/cfs_toolbox ).

  11. Cogeneration with natural gas fired internal combustion engines: Italian utility's 10 years operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montermini, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the experience that AGAC, an Italian gas and water utility, has acquired in the operation of a 116 Km long district heating network serving about 40,000 inhabitants. The network is powered by a mix of methane fuelled Otto and diesel cycle engines, coal fired fluidized bed boilers, and methane fired boilers producing annually about 153,000 kW of thermal energy, 2,300 kW of cooling energy, and 28.8 million kWh of electric power. This paper reports on the performance of this system in terms of production and sales trends, equipment efficiency and compatibility with new European Communities air pollution standards

  12. Using Space Technologies for a timely detection of forest fires: the experience of end-users in 3 Italian Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filizzola, Carolina; Belloni, Antonella; Benigno, Giuseppe; Biancardi, Alberto; Corrado, Rosita; Coviello, Irina; De Costanzo, Giovanni; Genzano, Nicola; Lacava, Teodosio; Lisi, Mariano; Marchese, Francesco; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Merzagora, Cinzio; Paciello, Rossana; Pergola, Nicola; Sannazzaro, Filomena; Serio, Salvatore; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2013-04-01

    Every year, hundreds of thousands of hectares of European forests are destroyed by fires. Due to the particular topography, landscape and demographic distribution in Europe (very different from typical scenarios of China, USA, Canada and Australia), rapidity in fire sighting is still the determining factor in limiting damages to people and goods. Moreover, the possibility of early fire detection means also potentially to reduce the size of the event to be faced, the necessary fire fighting resources and, therefore, even the reaction times. In such a context, integration of satellite technologies (mainly high temporal resolution data) and traditional surveillance systems within the fire fighting procedures seems to positively impact on the effectiveness of active fire fighting as demonstrated by recent experiences over Italian territory jointly performed by University of Basilicata, IMAA-CNR and Local Authorities. Real time implementation was performed since 2007, during fire seasons, over several Italian regions with different fire regimes and features, in order to assess the actual potential of different satellite-based fire detection products to support regional and local authorities in efficiently fighting fires and better mitigating their negative effects. Real-time campaigns were carried out in strict collaboration with end-users within the framework of specific projects (i.e. the AVVISA, AVVISTA and AVVISA-Basilicata projects) funded by Civil Protection offices of Regione Lombardia, Provincia Regionale di Palermo and Regione Basilicata in charge of fire risk management and mitigation. A tailored training program was dedicated to the personnel of Regional Civil Protection offices in order to ensure the full understanding and the better integration of satellite based products and tools within the existing fire fighting protocols. In this work, outcomes of these practices are shown and discussed, especially highlighting the impact that a real time satellite

  13. High-Speed Experiments on Combustion-Powered Actuation for Dynamic Stall Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalanis, Claude; Bowles, Patrick; Lorber, Peter; Crittenden, Thomas; Glezer, Ari; Schaeffler, Norman; Min, Byung-Young; Jee, Solkeun; Kuczek, Andrzej; Wake, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This work documents high-speed wind tunnel experiments conducted on a pitching airfoil equipped with an array of combustion-powered actuators (COMPACT). The main objective of these experiments was to demonstrate the stall-suppression capability of COMPACT on a high-lift rotorcraft airfoil, the VR-12, at relevant Mach numbers. Through dynamic pressure measurements at the airfoil surface it was shown that COMPACT can positively affect the stall behavior of the VR-12 at Mach numbers up to 0.4. Static airfoil results demonstrated 25% and 50% increases in post-stall lift at Mach numbers of 0.4 and 0.3, respectively. Deep dynamic stall results showed cycle-averaged lift coefficient increases up to 11% at Mach 0.4. Furthermore, it was shown that these benefits could be achieved with relatively few pulses during down-stroke and with no need to pre-anticipate the stall event. The flow mechanisms responsible for stall suppression were investigated using particle image velocimetry.

  14. Shared values and trust: the experience of community residents in a fire-prone ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Winter; George T. Cvetkovich

    2010-01-01

    The risk and impact of fires have been significant on the San Bernardino National Forest. It is important to understand how residents of areas surrounded by the forest perceive the impact of fires. If fire management agencies understand these perceptions, fire management agencies will be better equipped to communicate with publics about risk-reduction efforts that...

  15. Characterizing and modeling of an 88 MW grate-fired boiler burning wheat straw: Experience and lessons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Clausen, Sønnik

    2012-01-01

    an acceptable agreement. The discrepancies are analyzed from different aspects. The lessons learned and experience gained from this and other case studies are summarized and discussed in detail, which can facilitate the modeling validation effort as well as improve grate-firing technology. Some of the addressed......Grate-firing is one of the main technologies currently used for biomass combustion for heat and power production. However, grate-firing is yet to be further developed, towards a better technology for biomass combustion, particularly towards higher efficiency, lower emissions, and better reliability...

  16. Using the Large Fire Simulator System to map wildland fire potential for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaWen Hollingsworth; James Menakis

    2010-01-01

    This project mapped wildland fire potential (WFP) for the conterminous United States by using the large fire simulation system developed for Fire Program Analysis (FPA) System. The large fire simulation system, referred to here as LFSim, consists of modules for weather generation, fire occurrence, fire suppression, and fire growth modeling. Weather was generated with...

  17. Effects of radiation damping for biomolecular NMR experiments in solution: a hemisphere concept for water suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishima, Rieko

    2015-09-01

    Abundant solvent nuclear spins, such as water protons in aqueous solution, cause radiation damping in NMR experiments. It is important to know how the effect of radiation damping appears in high-resolution protein NMR because macromolecular studies always require very high magnetic field strengths with a highly sensitive NMR probe that can easily cause radiation damping. Here, we show the behavior of water magnetization after a pulsed-field gradient (PFG) using nutation experiments at 900 MHz with a cryogenic probe: when water magnetization is located in the upper hemisphere (having +Z component, parallel to the external magnetic field), dephasing of the magnetization by a PFG effectively suppresses residual water magnetization in the transverse plane. In contrast, when magnetization is located in the lower hemisphere (having -Z component), the small residual transverse component remaining after a PFG is still sufficient to induce radiation damping. Based on this observation, we designed 1 H- 15 N HSQC experiments in which water magnetization is maintained in the upper hemisphere, but not necessarily along Z, and compared them with the conventional experiments, in which water magnetization is inverted during the t 1 period. The result demonstrates moderate gain of signal-to-noise ratio, 0-28%. Designing the experiments such that water magnetization is maintained in the upper hemisphere allows shorter pulses to be used compared to the complete water flip-back and, thereby, is useful as a building block of protein NMR pulse programs in solution.

  18. Improving freight fire safety : experiment testing and computer modeling to further development of mist-controlling additives for fire mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    With the purpose to minimize or prevent crash-induced fires in road and rail transportation, the : current interest in bio-derived and blended transportation fuels is increasing. Based on two years : of preliminary testing and analysis, it appears to...

  19. Probability model for analyzing fire management alternatives: theory and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick W. Bratten

    1982-01-01

    A theoretical probability model has been developed for analyzing program alternatives in fire management. It includes submodels or modules for predicting probabilities of fire behavior, fire occurrence, fire suppression, effects of fire on land resources, and financial effects of fire. Generalized "fire management situations" are used to represent actual fire...

  20. Wildfire Prevention and Suppression plans enhancing: a first overview on strength and weakness in Italian stakeholders experiences and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonora, Laura; Conese, Claudio; Barbati, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Fires and wildfires represent an element of vulnerability for forests, considering that have now reached a level beyond which further burning would seriously endanger the ecosystem services and their sustainable management. It is fundamental to support fire-fighting Centres by giving them tools, useful to faces future trends; in this sense the first step is to examine technical and operative procedures to evaluate their strong and weak aspects, in collaboration with personnel responsible of risk management, suppression coordination and patrol responsible of direct attack. The aims this work is to identify present elements of strength ad problematic aspects to tuning the wildfire suppression actions to future changes; this is a crucial challenge both for policy and territory planners and managers. Historical investigation lines on forest fire covered the basilar and fundamental dynamics which understanding was necessary to confine and fight the wildfire phenomenon. At the present all the competences, knowledge and connections acquired are translating and including in the Plans, sharing innovative strategies -with the "direct involved actors"- trying to decrease the fire trend. Stakeholders underlined that collaboration between research and territorial Institutions are producing positive results, showing the conceptual rightness and the well-run of the in-progress implementations. The Italian framework of wildfire prevention plans is very peculiar because the Plans related to prevention and active intervention procedure are coincident. Normative, procedural, economic and logistic aspects are considered and handled in the same general document; each year the local structures, designed by the Regions, have in charge the draft of the operative plan, defining and managing the means and patrols distribution and turnover. In the present work 3 Italian Regions (Tuscany, Puglia and Sardinia, with different territorial and vegetation characteristics and affected by different

  1. Validation of CFD simulation of recoilless EOD water cannon by firing experiments with high speed camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantrasmi, Tonkid; Hongthong, Premsiri; Kongkaniti, Manop

    2018-01-01

    Water cannon used by Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) were designed to propel a burst of water jet moving at high speed to target and disrupt an improvised explosive device (IED). The cannon could be mounted on a remotely controlled robot, so it is highly desirable for the cannon to be recoilless in order not to damage the robot after firing. In the previous work, a nonconventional design of the water cannon was conceived. The recoil was greatly reduced by backward sprays of water through a ring of slotted holes around the muzzle. This minimizes the need to manufacture new parts by utilizing all off-the-shelf components except the tailor-made muzzle. The design was then investigated numerically by a series of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. In this work, high speed camera was employed in firing experiments to capture the motion of the water jet and the backward sprays. It was found that the experimental data agreed well with the simulation results in term of averaged exit velocities.

  2. Experience-dependent phase-reversal of hippocampal neuron firing during REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poe, G R; Nitz, D A; McNaughton, B L; Barnes, C A

    2000-02-07

    The idea that sleep could serve a cognitive function has remained popular since Freud stated that dreams were "not nonsense" but a time to sort out experiences [S. Freud, Letter to Wilhelm Fliess, May 1897, in The Origins of Psychoanalysis - Personal Letters of Sigmund Freud, M. Bonaparte, A. Freud, E. Kris (Eds.), Translated by E. Mosbacher, J. Strachey, Basic Books and Imago Publishing, 1954]. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which is associated with dream reports, is now known to be is important for acquisition of some tasks [A. Karni, D. Tanne, B.S. Rubenstein, J.J.M. Askenasy, D. Sagi, Dependence on REM sleep of overnight improvement of a perceptual skill, Science 265 (1994) 679-682; C. Smith, Sleep states and learning: a review of the animal literature, Biobehav. Rev. 9 (1985) 157-168]; although why this is so remains obscure. It has been proposed that memories may be consolidated during REM sleep or that forgetting of unnecessary material occurs in this state [F. Crick, G. Mitchison, The function of dream sleep, Nature 304 (1983) 111-114; D. Marr, Simple memory: a theory for archicortex, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B. 262 (1971) 23-81]. We studied the firing of multiple single neurons in the hippocampus, a structure that is important for episodic memory, during familiar and novel experiences and in subsequent REM sleep. Cells active in familiar places during waking exhibited a reversal of firing phase relative to local theta oscillations in REM sleep. Because firing-phase can influence whether synapses are strengthened or weakened [C. Holscher, R. Anwyl, M.J. Rowan, Stimulation on the positive phase of hippocampal theta rhythm induces long-term potentiation that can be depotentiated by stimulation on the negative phase in area CA1 in vivo, J. Neurosci. 15 (1977) 6470-6477; P.T. Huerta, J.E. Lisman, Bidirectional synaptic plasticity induced by a single burst during cholinergic theta oscillation in CA1 in vitro, Neuron 15 (1995) 1053-1063; C. Pavlides, Y

  3. FIRE_AX_MALBAL_SONDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) Malcolm Baldridge Radiosonde Data in native format (FIRE_AX_MALBAL_SONDE)

  4. FIRE_AX_VALDIV_SONDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) Malcolm Baldridge Radiosonde Data in Native format (FIRE_AX_VALDIV_SONDE)

  5. Using wildfires as a natural experiment to evaluate the effect of fire on southern California vernal pool plant communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H. Black

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fires in Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs have been studied widely with emphasis on shrub and grassland vegetation types. Although vernal pools comprise a very small fraction of MTEs, they are important to regional biodiversity due to high local endemism. Fire frequency has been increasing in MTEs and while altered fire regimes have been shown to threaten native shrub communities, their effect on vernal pools is uncertain. Due to the number of at-risk species in this habitat, experiments with potentially harmful effects are problematic. Therefore, we initiated this study to take advantage of two anthropogenic but unplanned fire events. The analysis uses data collected from 2001 to 2009 on a site burned in 2000 and 2003. We analyzed the data in an exploratory framework and applied unadjusted and adjusted models using different parameterizations of the exposure variables. The results did not provide evidence that fire reduced the abundance of native vernal pool species in southern California. There is provisional evidence of a positive but temporary effect of fire on native vernal pool species. Our analysis demonstrates an exploratory analytical approach for use with problematic data sets that can arise when conservation objectives constrain opportunities for experimental studies.

  6. Design of an experiment to measure fire exposure of packages aboard container cargo ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The test described in this paper is intended to measure the typical accident environment for a radioactive materials package in a fire abroad a container cargo ship. A stack of nice used standard cargo containers will be variously loaded with empty packages, simulated packages and combustible cargo and placed over a large hydrocarbon pool fire of one hour duration. Fire environments, both inside and outside the containers, typical of on-deck stowage will be measured as well as the potential for container-to-container fire spread. With the use of the inverse heat conduction calculations, the local heat transfer to the simulated packages can be estimated from thermocouple data. Data recorded will also provide information on fire durations in each container, fire intensity and container-to-container fire spread characteristics. (authors)

  7. Identifying and tracking simulated synaptic inputs from neuronal firing: insights from in vitro experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Volgushev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurately describing synaptic interactions between neurons and how interactions change over time are key challenges for systems neuroscience. Although intracellular electrophysiology is a powerful tool for studying synaptic integration and plasticity, it is limited by the small number of neurons that can be recorded simultaneously in vitro and by the technical difficulty of intracellular recording in vivo. One way around these difficulties may be to use large-scale extracellular recording of spike trains and apply statistical methods to model and infer functional connections between neurons. These techniques have the potential to reveal large-scale connectivity structure based on the spike timing alone. However, the interpretation of functional connectivity is often approximate, since only a small fraction of presynaptic inputs are typically observed. Here we use in vitro current injection in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons to validate methods for inferring functional connectivity in a setting where input to the neuron is controlled. In experiments with partially-defined input, we inject a single simulated input with known amplitude on a background of fluctuating noise. In a fully-defined input paradigm, we then control the synaptic weights and timing of many simulated presynaptic neurons. By analyzing the firing of neurons in response to these artificial inputs, we ask 1 How does functional connectivity inferred from spikes relate to simulated synaptic input? and 2 What are the limitations of connectivity inference? We find that individual current-based synaptic inputs are detectable over a broad range of amplitudes and conditions. Detectability depends on input amplitude and output firing rate, and excitatory inputs are detected more readily than inhibitory. Moreover, as we model increasing numbers of presynaptic inputs, we are able to estimate connection strengths more accurately and detect the presence of connections more quickly. These results

  8. Patients’ attitudes and experiences with an intervention programme to reduce chronic acid suppressing drug intake in primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, H.M.; Delnoij, D.M.J.; Hoes, A.W.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the experience and attitude of patients with an acid suppressing drug (ASD) cessation programme, introduced in a large region with 1278 GPs. Design and Methods: A questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 2377 patients on long term ASD (>180 DDD annually) from participating

  9. Instrumenting a pressure suppression experiment for a MK I boiling water reactor: another measurements engineering challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, W.M.; Brough, W.G.; Miller, T.B.

    1977-01-01

    A scale test facility of a pressure suppression system from a boiling water reactor was instrumented with seven types of transducers to obtain high-accuracy experimental data during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. The instrumentation verified the analysis of the dynamic loading of the pressure suppression system

  10. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H

    2008-06-15

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described.

  11. Smoke and fire characteristics for Cerrado and deforestation burns in Brazil: BASE-B experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. E.; Susott, R. A.; Kauffman, J. B.; Babbitt, R. E.; Cummings, D. L.; Dias, B.; Holben, B. N.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Rasmussen, R. A.; Setzer, A. W.

    1992-09-01

    Fires of the tropical forests and savannas are a major source of particulate matter and trace gases affecting the atmosphere globally. A paucity of quantitative information exists for these ecosystems with respect to fuel biomass, smoke emissions, and fire behavior conditions affecting the release of emissions. Five test fires were performed during August and September 1990 in the cerrado (savannalike region) in central Brazil (three fires) and tropical moist forest (two fires) in the eastern Amazon. This paper details the gases released, the ratios of the gases to each other and to particulate matter, fuel loads and the fraction consumed (combustion factors), and the fire behavior associated with biomass consumption. Models are presented for evaluating emission factors for CH4, CO2, CO, H2, and particles less than 2.5 μm diameter (PM2.5) as a function of combustion efficiency. The ratio of carbon released as CO2 (combustion efficiency) for the cerrado fires averaged 0.94 and for the deforestation fires it decreased from 0.88 for the flaming phase to fires used for deforestation purposes.

  12. Evaluation of water transport behavior in sodium fire experiment-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagiri, Toshio [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2000-02-01

    Evaluation of water transport behavior in Sodium Fire-II (Run-D4) was performed. Results of other experiments performed in Oarai-Engineering Center were considered in the evaluation, and the results of the evaluation were compared with the calculated results of ASSCOPS code. The main conclusions are described below. (1) It was estimated that aerosol hydrates were not formed in the test cell in the experiment, because of high gas temperatures (200degC - 300degC), but water vapor absorption by the formation of aerosol hydrates and water vapor condensation were occurred in humility measure line, because of low gas temperature (20degC - 40degC). Therefore, it was considered appropriate that measured water vapor concentration in the humidity measure line was different from the real concentration in the test cell. (2) Water vapor concentration in the test cell was assumed to be about 35,000 ppm during sodium leak, and reached to about 70,000 ppm because of water release from heated concrete (over 100degC) walls after 190 min from sodium leak started. The assumed value of about 35,000 ppm during sodium leak almost agree with assumed value from the quantity of aerosol in the humidity measure line, but no support for the value of about 70,000 ppm after 190 min could be found. Therefore, water release rate from heated concrete walls can change with their temperature history. (author)

  13. Deadly Experience: The Association Between Firing a Gun and Various Aspects of Suicide Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Capron, Daniel W

    2017-09-04

    Firearms account for half of all U.S. suicide deaths, but research on mechanisms through which firearms confer risk is limited. Although research has indicated firearm ownership and the unsafe storage of firearms are associated with an elevated risk of suicide, such research cannot provide insight into the extent to which a history of using a gun plays a role. We recruited a community sample (N = 100; 76% female; 44% Black) oversampled for prior suicidal behavior in a high gun ownership state (Mississippi). Consistent with hypotheses, a greater number of lifetime experiences of firing a gun were associated with elements of the capability for suicide (fearlessness about death, pain tolerance, pain persistence) and lifetime suicide attempts, but not with suicide ideation or simple pain detection. These findings indicate that guns may confer risk of suicide in part through increased comfort and aptitude with the weapon, a notion consistent with the construct of practical capability. Furthermore, these findings are consistent with research indicating that guns do not cause healthy individuals to become suicidal, but rather increase risk among already suicidal individuals. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of considering practical experience with guns as well as simple ownership and storage methods. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  14. Validation experiments to determine radiation partitioning of heat flux to an object in a fully turbulent fire.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricks, Allen; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Jernigan, Dann A.

    2006-06-01

    It is necessary to improve understanding and develop validation data of the heat flux incident to an object located within the fire plume for the validation of SIERRA/ FUEGO/SYRINX fire and SIERRA/CALORE. One key aspect of the validation data sets is the determination of the relative contribution of the radiative and convective heat fluxes. To meet this objective, a cylindrical calorimeter with sufficient instrumentation to measure total and radiative heat flux had been designed and fabricated. This calorimeter will be tested both in the controlled radiative environment of the Penlight facility and in a fire environment in the FLAME/Radiant Heat (FRH) facility. Validation experiments are specifically designed for direct comparison with the computational predictions. Making meaningful comparisons between the computational and experimental results requires careful characterization and control of the experimental features or parameters used as inputs into the computational model. Validation experiments must be designed to capture the essential physical phenomena, including all relevant initial and boundary conditions. A significant question of interest to modeling heat flux incident to an object in or near a fire is the contribution of the radiation and convection modes of heat transfer. The series of experiments documented in this test plan is designed to provide data on the radiation partitioning, defined as the fraction of the total heat flux that is due to radiation.

  15. Fluid dynamics structures in a fire environment observed in laboratory-scale experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Lozano; W. Tachajapong; D.R. Weise; S. Mahalingam; M. Princevac

    2010-01-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed in laboratory-scale experimental fires spreading across horizontal fuel beds composed of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) excelsior. The continuous flame, intermittent flame, and thermal plume regions of a fire were investigated. Utilizing a PIV system, instantaneous velocity fields for...

  16. How does fire intensity and frequency affect miombo woodland tree populations and biomass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Casey M; Williams, Mathew

    2011-01-01

    Miombo woodlands are the largest savanna in the world and dominate southern Africa. They are strongly influenced by anthropogenic fires and support the livelihoods of over 100 million people. Managing the fire regime of these flammable systems is difficult, but crucial for sustaining biodiversity, ecosystem services, and carbon stocks. Fire intensity is more easily manipulated than fire frequency, because suppression is expensive and ineffective. However, there are important issues relating fire intensity to impacts on woody vegetation that need to be understood to inform management approaches. Such impacts include the links between fire intensity, tree top-kill, resprouting, and regrowth rates. Here we present results from a fire experiment in Mozambican miombo; the results of a 50-year fire experiment in Zimbabwean miombo; and observations of forest structure at a dry-forest site in Mozambique. We synthesize these data with a process-based gap model of stem growth, regeneration, and mortality; this model explicitly considers the effect of different frequencies and intensities of fire. We use the model, tested against the field data, to explore the sensitivity of woodland tree populations and biomass to fire intensity and frequency. The fire experiments show that large (> 5 cm dbh) stems are vulnerable to fire, with top-kill rates of up to 12% in intense fires. In contrast to idealized physical representations of tree mortality, stems of > 10 cm dbh did not gain further protection from fire with increasing dbh. Resprouting was very common and not obviously linked to fire intensity. The modeling showed that miombo tree populations and biomass are very sensitive to fire intensity, offering opportunities for effective management. At any achievable fire return interval (biomass. Model predictions and field experiments show that no tree biomass can be sustained under annual fires.

  17. Mark I 1/5-scale boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment quick-look report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, E.W.; Pitts, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    The tests conducted on the 1 / 5 -scale BWR Mark I pressure suppression test facility simulate the three-dimensional transient conditions that are encountered in a wetwell pressure suppression system during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Specifically, the nitrogen (N2)-driven air clearing phase tests discussed here were performed to obtain the air/water-induced dynamic vertical load function and to determine the response of a 90 0 sector of a 360 0 torus structure

  18. The efficiency of reappraisal and expressive suppression in regulating everyday affective experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom; Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald

    2012-12-30

    A widespread assumption in research and clinical practice is that cognitive reappraisal is a healthy and successful emotion regulation strategy, while expressive suppression is ineffective and has non-favourable consequences (e.g., decreased positive affect, higher physiological arousal). However, little is known about the consequences of reappraisal and expressive suppression for everyday affect. We investigated affective consequences of habitual reappraisal and expressive suppression in undergraduates (n=87), and sampled affect characteristics for 24h. Moreover, we quantified affective recovery from viewing an aversive video fragment. Habitual reappraisal was associated with lowered emotional arousal (but not valence), both in terms of diurnal affect levels and positive and negative responses to the emotional provocation task. This pattern contravenes the popular assumption that reappraisal has generally favourable consequences. Additionally, in contrast to the alleged non-favourable consequences of habitual expressive suppression, the current study failed to find a relation between expressive suppression, diurnal affect levels and affective recovery. This suggests that the detrimental effects of expressive suppression are limited in duration. Collectively, our results emphasise that the everyday consequences of emotion regulation for affect merits systematic research, for instance by using more naturalistic and prolonged interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Smoke and fire characteristics for cerrado and deforestation burns in Brazil - BASE-B experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. E.; Susott, R. A.; Kauffman, J. B.; Babbitt, R. E.; Cummings, D. L.; Dias, B.; Holben, B. N.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Rasmussen, R. A.; Setzer, A. W.

    1992-01-01

    Five test fires were performed during August and September 1990 in the cerrado (savannalike region) in central Brazil (three fires) and tropical moist forest (two fires) in the eastern Amazon. This paper details the gases released, the ratios of the gases to each other and to particulate matter, fuel loads, and the fraction consumed (combustion factors), and the fire behavior associated with biomass consumption. Models are presented for evaluating emission factors for CH4, CO2, CO, H2, and particles less than 2.5 micron diam (PM2.5) as a function of combustion efficiency. The ratio of carbon released as CO2 (combustion efficiency) for the cerrado fires averaged 0.94 and for the deforestation fires it decreased from 0.88 for the flaming phase to less than 0.80 during the smoldering phase of combustion. For tropical ecosystems, emissions of most products of incomplete combustion are projected to be lower than previous estimates for savanna ecosystems and somewhat higher for fires used for deforestation purposes.

  20. Operational experiences of fire protection system of the main circulation pump rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katus, Ferenc; Sipos, Laszlo

    1989-01-01

    The physical security of the nuclear power plant equipment is described for the main circulation pump system of PNPP, Hungary. The fire alarm and protection system consists of closed-circuit tv and radio monitoring system, a Larsen camera and fire extinguisher system, a Cerberus microprocessor controlled fire alarm system, special fireman paging and walkie-talkie radio system. In addition, remote operated alarm system, smoke and flame detectors, Auer type fireman protective clothing and attached throat-transmitter automatic switchover radios have been acquired to provide maximum security. (R.P.) 5 refs.; 2 figs

  1. A Landscape-Scale, Applied Fire Management Experiment Promotes Recovery of a Population of the Threatened Gouldian Finch, Erythrura gouldiae, in Australia's Tropical Savannas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Legge

    Full Text Available Fire is an integral part of savanna ecology and changes in fire patterns are linked to biodiversity loss in savannas worldwide. In Australia, changed fire regimes are implicated in the contemporary declines of small mammals, riparian species, obligate-seeding plants and grass seed-eating birds. Translating this knowledge into management to recover threatened species has proved elusive. We report here on a landscape-scale experiment carried out by the Australian Wildlife Conservancy (AWC on Mornington Wildlife Sanctuary in northwest Australia. The experiment was designed to understand the response of a key savanna bird guild to fire, and to use that information to manage fire with the aim of recovering a threatened species population. We compared condition indices among three seed-eating bird species--one endangered (Gouldian finch and two non-threatened (long-tailed finch and double-barred finch--from two large areas (> 2,830 km2 with initial contrasting fire regimes ('extreme': frequent, extensive, intense fire; versus 'benign': less frequent, smaller, lower intensity fires. Populations of all three species living with the extreme fire regime had condition indices that differed from their counterparts living with the benign fire regime, including higher haematocrit levels in some seasons (suggesting higher levels of activity required to find food, different seasonal haematocrit profiles, higher fat scores in the early wet season (suggesting greater food uncertainty, and then lower muscle scores later in the wet season (suggesting prolonged food deprivation. Gouldian finches also showed seasonally increasing stress hormone concentrations with the extreme fire regime. Cumulatively, these patterns indicated greater nutritional stress over many months for seed-eating birds exposed to extreme fire regimes. We tested these relationships by monitoring finch condition over the following years, as AWC implemented fire management to produce the 'benign

  2. A Landscape-Scale, Applied Fire Management Experiment Promotes Recovery of a Population of the Threatened Gouldian Finch, Erythrura gouldiae, in Australia's Tropical Savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Sarah; Garnett, Stephen; Maute, Kim; Heathcote, Joanne; Murphy, Steve; Woinarski, John C Z; Astheimer, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Fire is an integral part of savanna ecology and changes in fire patterns are linked to biodiversity loss in savannas worldwide. In Australia, changed fire regimes are implicated in the contemporary declines of small mammals, riparian species, obligate-seeding plants and grass seed-eating birds. Translating this knowledge into management to recover threatened species has proved elusive. We report here on a landscape-scale experiment carried out by the Australian Wildlife Conservancy (AWC) on Mornington Wildlife Sanctuary in northwest Australia. The experiment was designed to understand the response of a key savanna bird guild to fire, and to use that information to manage fire with the aim of recovering a threatened species population. We compared condition indices among three seed-eating bird species--one endangered (Gouldian finch) and two non-threatened (long-tailed finch and double-barred finch)--from two large areas (> 2,830 km2) with initial contrasting fire regimes ('extreme': frequent, extensive, intense fire; versus 'benign': less frequent, smaller, lower intensity fires). Populations of all three species living with the extreme fire regime had condition indices that differed from their counterparts living with the benign fire regime, including higher haematocrit levels in some seasons (suggesting higher levels of activity required to find food), different seasonal haematocrit profiles, higher fat scores in the early wet season (suggesting greater food uncertainty), and then lower muscle scores later in the wet season (suggesting prolonged food deprivation). Gouldian finches also showed seasonally increasing stress hormone concentrations with the extreme fire regime. Cumulatively, these patterns indicated greater nutritional stress over many months for seed-eating birds exposed to extreme fire regimes. We tested these relationships by monitoring finch condition over the following years, as AWC implemented fire management to produce the 'benign' fire regime

  3. Fire Whirls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidi, Ali; Gollner, Michael J.; Xiao, Huahua

    2018-01-01

    Fire whirls present a powerful intensification of combustion, long studied in the fire research community because of the dangers they present during large urban and wildland fires. However, their destructive power has hidden many features of their formation, growth, and propagation. Therefore, most of what is known about fire whirls comes from scale modeling experiments in the laboratory. Both the methods of formation, which are dominated by wind and geometry, and the inner structure of the whirl, including velocity and temperature fields, have been studied at this scale. Quasi-steady fire whirls directly over a fuel source form the bulk of current experimental knowledge, although many other cases exist in nature. The structure of fire whirls has yet to be reliably measured at large scales; however, scaling laws have been relatively successful in modeling the conditions for formation from small to large scales. This review surveys the state of knowledge concerning the fluid dynamics of fire whirls, including the conditions for their formation, their structure, and the mechanisms that control their unique state. We highlight recent discoveries and survey potential avenues for future research, including using the properties of fire whirls for efficient remediation and energy generation.

  4. Tunnel fire dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

  5. Field test corrosion experiences when co-firing straw and coal: 10 year status within Elsam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rasmus Berg; Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, Ole Hede

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark, straw is utilised for the generation of energy and district heating in power plants. Combustion of straw gives rise to high contents of potassium chloride and some sulphur dioxide in the flue gas. These compounds can lead to deposits with high content of potassium chloride and potassium...... sulphate on superheater tubes resulting in increased corrosion rates. From field experimental results this paper show, that by co-firing straw with coal, corrosion rates can be brought down to an acceptable level. This paper firstly deals with the results from a demonstration program co-firing coal...... and straw at the 150 MW pulverized coal fired boiler Studstrup unit 1. Two exposure series lasting 3000 hours each were performed for co-firing 10 and 20% of straw (% energy basis) with coal. Using built in test tubes in the hot end of the actual superheaters and air/water cooled corrosion probes...

  6. Instrumenting a pressure suppression experiment for a Mark I boiling water reactor: another measurements engineering challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, W.M.; Brough, W.G.; Miller, T.B.

    1978-01-01

    A 1 / 5 -scale test facility of a pressure-suppression system from a Mark I boiling water reactor was instrumented with seven types of transducers to obtain high-accuracy, dynamic loading data during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. A total of 27 air tests have been completed with an average of 175 transducers recorded for each test. An end-to-end calibration of the total measurement system was run to establish accuracy of the data. The instrumentation verified the analysis of the dynamic loading of the pressure-suppression system

  7. Learning causes reorganization of neuronal firing patterns to represent related experiences within a hippocampal schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Sam; Robinson, Nick T M; Herrera, Lauren; Churchill, Jordana C; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2013-06-19

    According to schema theory as proposed by Piaget and Bartlett, learning involves the assimilation of new memories into networks of preexisting knowledge, as well as alteration of the original networks to accommodate the new information. Recent evidence has shown that rats form a schema of goal locations and that the hippocampus plays an essential role in adding new memories to the spatial schema. Here we examined the nature of hippocampal contributions to schema updating by monitoring firing patterns of multiple CA1 neurons as rats learned new goal locations in an environment in which there already were multiple goals. Before new learning, many neurons that fired on arrival at one goal location also fired at other goals, whereas ensemble activity patterns also distinguished different goal events, thus constituting a neural representation that linked distinct goals within a spatial schema. During new learning, some neurons began to fire as animals approached the new goals. These were primarily the same neurons that fired at original goals, the activity patterns at new goals were similar to those associated with the original goals, and new learning also produced changes in the preexisting goal-related firing patterns. After learning, activity patterns associated with the new and original goals gradually diverged, such that initial generalization was followed by a prolonged period in which new memories became distinguished within the ensemble representation. These findings support the view that consolidation involves assimilation of new memories into preexisting neural networks that accommodate relationships among new and existing memories.

  8. Prehospital administration of hydroxocobalamin for smoke inhalation-associated cyanide poisoning: 8 years of experience in the Paris Fire Brigade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Jean-Luc; Giocanti, Jean-Pascal; Ruttimann, Michel; Kowalski, Jean-Jacques

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the results of a retrospective study of 8 years of experience of the Paris Fire Brigade with the prehospital use of hydroxocobalamin. The head physician at the Paris Fire Brigade extracted and summarized data from standardized forms completed at the fire scene and, when available, hospital reports to assess survival status and clinical parameters associated with the use of hydroxocobalamin for each patient who received it for smoke inhalation-associated cyanide poisoning from 1995 to 2003. Of the 101 patients administered hydroxocobalamin, 30 survived, 42 died (17 at the fire scene and 25 at the intensive-care unit), and survival status was not known in the remaining 29 patients. Among the 72 patients for whom survival status was known, survival rate was 41.7% after the administration of hydroxocobalamin. Of the 38 patients found in cardiac arrest, 21 had a return of spontaneous circulation during prehospital care. Of the 12 patients who were initially hemodynamically unstable (systolic blood pressure 0 to cyanide poisoning caused by smoke inhalation.

  9. Behavioral experience induces zif268 expression in mature granule cells but suppresses its expression in immature granule cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckleberry, Kylie A.; Kane, Gary A.; Mathis, Rita J.; Cook, Sarah G.; Clutton, Jonathan E.; Drew, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    suppressed zif268 expression in 3-week-old neurons. In summary, behavioral experience transiently activated expression of zif268 in mature granule cells but caused a more long-lasting suppression of zif268 expression in immature, adult-born granule cells. We hypothesize that zif268 suppression inhibits memory-related synaptic plasticity in immature neurons or mediates learning-induced apoptosis of immature adult-born neurons. PMID:26347620

  10. Effects of sodium fires on structures and materials. Practical experience with sodium leakage accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenstein, K.F.

    1989-01-01

    A few sodium leakage, incidents happened in SNR 300 nuclear power plant during pre-nuclear operation which were of minor importance with respect to sodium fires. The most important sodium fire accident in the past happened in the Almeria Solar platform in Spain during the attempt to repair a valve while leaving accidentally the circuit under 4 bar overpressure. Considerable damage to pipes, valves, its insulation and its support structures was observed in the influence zone of the fire. Post accident analysis gave a leaked mass of about 14 m 3 , at a sodium temperature of 225 deg. C, the leakage lasting approximately half an hour, and burning under convective heat exchange with the external air in a section of 40 m 2 up to a height of 6 m down to the catch pans. Some local temperatures were determined by metallurgical means, integral support temperatures estimated from mechanical deformation observed. From these temperatures it was concluded that a massive spray type fire must have happened. The results fall in the interpretation range of sodium-spray fire test results. (author)

  11. Fire behavior in Mediterranean shrub species (Maquis) | Saglam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prediction of fire behavior in fire prone ecosystems is of vital importance in all phases of fire management including fire prevention, presuppression, suppression and fire use. This paper deals with an experimental burning exercise conducted in the Mediterranean region in Turkey. A series of 18 experimental fires were ...

  12. Fire safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Hostikka, S.; Mangs, J.; Huhtanen, R.; Palmen, H.; Salminen, A.; Turtola, A.

    1998-01-01

    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  13. Fully predictive simulation of real-scale cable tray fire based on small-scale laboratory experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beji, Tarek; Merci, Bart [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics; Bonte, Frederick [Bel V, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based modelling strategy for real-scale cable tray fires. The challenge was to perform fully predictive simulations (that could be called 'blind' simulations) using solely information from laboratory-scale experiments, in addition to the geometrical arrangement of the cables. The results of the latter experiments were used (1) to construct the fuel molecule and the chemical reaction for combustion, and (2) to estimate the overall pyrolysis and burning behaviour. More particularly, the strategy regarding the second point consists of adopting a surface-based pyrolysis model. Since the burning behaviour of each cable could not be tracked individually (due to computational constraints), 'groups' of cables were modelled with an overall cable surface area equal to the actual value. The results obtained for one large-scale test (a stack of five horizontal trays) are quite encouraging, especially for the peak Heat Release Rate (HRR) that was predicted with a relative deviation of 3 %. The time to reach the peak is however overestimated by 4.7 min (i.e. 94 %). Also, the fire duration is overestimated by 5 min (i.e. 24 %). These discrepancies are mainly attributed to differences in the HRRPUA (heat release rate per unit area) profiles between the small-scale and large-scale. The latter was calculated by estimating the burning area of cables using video fire analysis (VFA).

  14. Physician experience and rates of plasma HIV-1 RNA suppression among illicit drug users: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangsari Sassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART, suboptimal treatment outcomes have been observed among HIV-seropositive illicit drug users. As there is an urgent need to improve responses to antiretroviral therapy among this population, we undertook this study to evaluate the role of physician experience on rates of plasma HIV-1 RNA suppression following initiation of ART. Methods Using data from a community-recruited cohort of HIV-positive illicit drug users, we used Cox proportional hazards regression to model the time to plasma viral HIV RNA Results Between May 1996 and December 2008, 267 individuals initiated ART among whom 227 (85% achieved a plasma HIV RNA Conclusions In this setting of universal HIV/AIDS care, illicit drug users with more experienced physicians exhibited faster rates of plasma viral load suppression. These findings argue for specialized services to help optimize HIV treatment outcomes among this population.

  15. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  16. Thermal weapon sights with integrated fire control computers: algorithms and experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Hendrik; Graswald, Markus; Breiter, Rainer

    2008-04-01

    The HuntIR long range thermal weapon sight of AIM is deployed in various out of area missions since 2004 as a part of the German Future Infantryman system (IdZ). In 2007 AIM fielded RangIR as upgrade with integrated laser Range finder (LRF), digital magnetic compass (DMC) and fire control unit (FCU). RangIR fills the capability gaps of day/night fire control for grenade machine guns (GMG) and the enhanced system of the IdZ. Due to proven expertise and proprietary methods in fire control, fast access to military trials for optimisation loops and similar hardware platforms, AIM and the University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg (HSU) decided to team for the development of suitable fire control algorithms. The pronounced ballistic trajectory of the 40mm GMG requires most accurate FCU-solutions specifically for air burst ammunition (ABM) and is most sensitive to faint effects like levelling or firing up/downhill. This weapon was therefore selected to validate the quality of the FCU hard- and software under relevant military conditions. For exterior ballistics the modified point mass model according to STANAG 4355 is used. The differential equations of motions are solved numerically, the two point boundary value problem is solved iteratively. Computing time varies according to the precision needed and is typical in the range from 0.1 - 0.5 seconds. RangIR provided outstanding hit accuracy including ABM fuze timing in various trials of the German Army and allied partners in 2007 and is now ready for series production. This paper deals mainly with the fundamentals of the fire control algorithms and shows how to implement them in combination with any DSP-equipped thermal weapon sights (TWS) in a variety of light supporting weapon systems.

  17. Low power ADC with fast zero suppression for balloon-borne experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anraku, Kazuaki; Imori, Masatosi

    1993-01-01

    The article describes a low power CAMAC ADC module with fast zero suppression. The module is developed to improve data acquisition rate for a balloon-borne detector. The module is of a single CAMAC width and includes sixteen charge-to-voltage converter (QVC) channels. Each channel has its own A/D converter. The QVC outputs are digitized simultaneously. The A/D converter continues digitization for 15 μsec at longest. Then a micro-programmed sequencer, which is installed in the module, scans the channels, comparing the outputs of the A/D converters with prescribed thresholds. The outputs are stored together with channel numbers into data memory when the outputs are greater than the thresholds. The zero suppression completes in 3 μsec, and zero-suppressed data become ready within 18 μsec. The operation of the QVC circuit is repeatedly simulated on a workstation in order that the temperature dependence of the QVC circuit could be reduced without sacrificing performance

  18. Experiences with high temperature corrosion at straw‐firing power plants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Jensen, S. A.; Borg, U.

    2011-01-01

    to enable better lifetime prediction of vulnerable components in straw‐firing plants since the corrosion rates are so much faster than in coal firing plants. Therefore, there are continued investigations in recently commissioned plants with test tubes installed into actual superheaters. In addition...... temperature is measured on the specific tube loops where there are test tube sections. Thus a corrosion rate can be coupled to a temperature histogram. This is important since although a superheater has a defined steam outlet temperature, there is variation in the tube bundle due to variations of heat flux...

  19. Behavioral experience induces zif268 expression in mature granule cells but suppresses its expression in immature granule cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie A. Huckleberry

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of neurons are born each day in the dentate gyrus (DG, but many of these cells die before reaching maturity. Both death and survival of adult-born neurons are regulated by neuronal activity in DG. The immediate-early gene (IEG zif268 is an important mediator of these effects, as its expression is induced by neural activity and knockout of zif268 impairs survival of adult-born neurons (Veyrac et al., 2013. Despite the apparent importance of zif268 for adult neurogenesis, its behavior-induced expression has not been fully characterized in adult-born neurons. Here we characterize behavior-evoked expression of zif268 in mature and newborn dentate granule cells (DGCs. In the general granule cell population, zif268 expression peaked 1 hour after novel environment exposure and returned to baseline by 8 hours post-exposure. However, in the doublecortin-positive (DCX+ immature neurons, zif268 expression was suppressed relative to home cage for at least 8 hours post-exposure. We next determined that exposure to water maze training, an enriched environment, or a novel environment caused approximately equal suppression of zif268 expression in DCX+ cells and approximately equal activation of zif268 in the general DGC population and in 6-week-old adult-born neurons. Finally, we asked whether zif268 suppression varied as a function of age within the DCX+ population, which ranges in age from 0 to approximately 4 weeks. Novel environment exposure had no significant effect on zif268 expression in 2- or 4-week-old BrdU-labeled neurons, but it significantly suppressed zif268 expression in 3-week-old neurons. In summary, behavioral experience transiently activated expression of zif268 in mature DGCs but caused a more long-lasting suppression of zif268 expression in immature, adult-born DGCs. We hypothesize that zif268 suppression inhibits memory-related synaptic plasticity in immature DGCs or mediates learning-induced apoptosis of immature adult

  20. Consensus and experience trump leadership, suppressing individual personality during social foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Nicholas D; Rands, Sean A; Hill, Francesca; Elder, Charlotte; Ioannou, Christos C

    2016-09-01

    Whether individual behavior in social settings correlates with behavior when individuals are alone is a fundamental question in collective behavior. However, evidence for whether behavior correlates across asocial and social settings is mixed, and no study has linked observed trends with underlying mechanisms. Consistent differences between individuals in boldness, which describes willingness to accept reward over risk, are likely to be under strong selection pressure. By testing three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in a risky foraging task alone and repeatedly in shoals, we demonstrate that the expression of boldness in groups is context-specific. Whereas personality is repeatable in a low-risk behavior (leaving a refuge), the collectively made consensus decision to then cross the arena outweighs leadership by bolder individuals, explaining the suppression of personality in this context. However, despite this social coordination, bolder individuals were still more likely to feed. Habituation and satiation over repeated trials degrade the effect of personality on leaving the refuge and also whether crossing the arena is a collective decision. The suppression of personality in groups suggests that individual risk-taking tendency may rarely represent actual risk in social settings, with implications for the evolution and ecology of personality variation.

  1. Emissions from meso-scale in-situ oil (diesel) fires: gases, PAHs and VOCs from the Mobile 1997 experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Wang, Z.; Lambert, P.; Ackerman, F.; Fieldhouse, B.; Nelson, R.; Goldthorp, M.; Whiticar, S.; Li, K. [Environment Canada, Emergencies Science Division, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Campagna, P.; Mickunas, D.; Turpin, R.; Nadeau, R. [U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (United States); Schuetz, S.; Morganti, M. [Roy F. Weston/REAC, Edison, NJ (United States); Hiltabrand, R. A. [U.S. Coast Guard, Research Centre, Groton, CT (United States)

    1999-07-01

    A series of meso-scale burn experiments were conducted in 1997 to assess fire-resistant booms and to study various aspects of diesel oil burning in situ. Extensive samples were taken at ten downwind stations and at seven side stations. Particulate samples in air were analyzed for PAHs. Water under the burns was also analyzed and yielded small amounts of PAHs. Combustion gases including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentrations were shown to be under exposure level maximums. VOCs emissions were measured in Summa canisters. Although a large number of VOCs were identified, most of them were present only in very low concentrations. 8 refs., 18 tabs., 2 figs.

  2. Emissions from meso-scale in-situ oil (diesel) fires: gases, PAHs and VOCs from the Mobile 1997 experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Wang, Z.; Lambert, P.; Ackerman, F.; Fieldhouse, B.; Nelson, R.; Goldthorp, M.; Whiticar, S.; Li, K. [Environment Canada, Emergencies Science Division, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Campagna, P.; Mickunas, D.; Turpin, R.; Nadeau, R. [U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (United States); Schuetz, S.; Morganti, M. [Roy F. Weston/REAC, Edison, NJ (United States); Hiltabrand, R. A. [U.S. Coast Guard, Research Centre, Groton, CT (United States)

    1999-08-01

    A series of meso-scale burn experiments were conducted in 1997 to assess fire-resistant booms and to study various aspects of diesel oil burning in situ. Extensive samples were taken at ten downwind stations and at seven side stations. Particulate samples in air were analyzed for PAHs. Water under the burns was also analyzed and yielded small amounts of PAHs. Combustion gases including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentrations were shown to be under exposure level maximums. VOCs emissions were measured in Summa canisters. Although a large number of VOCs were identified, most of them were present only in very low concentrations. 8 refs., 18 tabs., 2 figs.

  3. Emissions from meso-scale in-situ oil (diesel) fires: gases, PAHs and VOCs from the Mobile 1997 experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Wang, Z.; Lambert, P.; Ackerman, F.; Fieldhouse, B.; Nelson, R.; Goldthorp, M.; Whiticar, S.; Li, K. (Environment Canada, Emergencies Science Division, Ottawa, ON (Canada)); Campagna, P.; Mickunas, D.; Turpin, R.; Nadeau, R. (U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (United States)); Schuetz, S.; Morganti, M. (Roy F. Weston/REAC, Edison, NJ (United States)); Hiltabrand, R. A. (U.S. Coast Guard, Research Centre, Groton, CT (United States))

    1999-01-01

    A series of meso-scale burn experiments were conducted in 1997 to assess fire-resistant booms and to study various aspects of diesel oil burning in situ. Extensive samples were taken at ten downwind stations and at seven side stations. Particulate samples in air were analyzed for PAHs. Water under the burns was also analyzed and yielded small amounts of PAHs. Combustion gases including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentrations were shown to be under exposure level maximums. VOCs emissions were measured in Summa canisters. Although a large number of VOCs were identified, most of them were present only in very low concentrations. 8 refs., 18 tabs., 2 figs.

  4. Fire risk analysis, fire simulation, fire spreading and impact of smoke and heat on instrumentation electronics - State-of-the-Art Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewekamp, M.; Bertrand, R.; Bonneval, F.; Hamblen, D.; Siu, N.; Aulamo, H.; Martila, J.; Sandberg, J.; Virolainen, R.

    2000-01-01

    OECD countries. The contents of each chapter are based on the writers' knowledge on his or her national practices and on the results of the questionnaire. The emphasis in the descriptions of the national practices also reflects the information supplied by the responding countries. Fire PSA is also used in other OECD countries, but the scope of this report is limited to those countries which responded to the questionnaire. The contents of this report are as follows: Fire PSA methodology overview - Based on a review of fire risk studies performed in the contributing countries, the report addresses different methodology and applications issues. Methodology issues, treated in Chapter 2, include the treatment of physical barriers, fire detection and suppression systems and fire fighting. They also include the treatment of operator actions and dependencies (both direct and indirect) between a fire and the plant's safety systems, definition of initiating events, and screening methods. Key assumptions and the effect of plant operational state (i.e., full power vs. low power operation) are dealt with in the report as well. Fire simulation models and codes applied or available - Chapter 3 of the report identifies which fire simulation codes have been used in actual PSAs. The models and scenarios used in different codes are described. To build confidence on fire simulation models, validation against experimental results in different types of fires is necessary. Fire experiments and the pre- and post experiment calculation used for code validation as well as ongoing fire simulation code development projects are discussed. Examples of fire scenarios and typical modeling assumptions are treated and numerous references are given in Chapter 3. References for experimental case studies and related simulation models and codes used for analyzing the production and spreading of smoke are also provided. The impact of smoke and heat - The immediate consequences of fires are caused by heat

  5. Assessment of fire emission inventories during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pereira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fires associated with land use and land cover changes release large amounts of aerosols and trace gases into the atmosphere. Although several inventories of biomass burning emissions cover Brazil, there are still considerable uncertainties and differences among them. While most fire emission inventories utilize the parameters of burned area, vegetation fuel load, emission factors, and other parameters to estimate the biomass burned and its associated emissions, several more recent inventories apply an alternative method based on fire radiative power (FRP observations to estimate the amount of biomass burned and the corresponding emissions of trace gases and aerosols. The Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model (3BEM and the Fire Inventory from NCAR (FINN are examples of the first, while the Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model with FRP assimilation (3BEM_FRP and the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS are examples of the latter. These four biomass burning emission inventories were used during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field campaign. This paper analyzes and inter-compared them, focusing on eight regions in Brazil and the time period of 1 September–31 October 2012. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT550 nm derived from measurements made by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS operating on board the Terra and Aqua satellites is also applied to assess the inventories' consistency. The daily area-averaged pyrogenic carbon monoxide (CO emission estimates exhibit significant linear correlations (r, p  >  0.05 level, Student t test between 3BEM and FINN and between 3BEM_ FRP and GFAS, with values of 0.86 and 0.85, respectively. These results indicate that emission estimates in this region derived via similar methods tend to agree with one other. However, they differ more from the estimates derived via the alternative approach. The evaluation of MODIS AOT550 nm indicates that model

  6. Particulate and carbon dioxide emissions from diesel fires : the mobile 1997 experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Lambert, P.; Ackerman, F.; Fieldhouse, B.; Nelson, R.; Goldthorp, M.; Punt, M.; Whiticar, S. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Campagna, P.; Mickunas, D.; Turpin, R.; Nadeau, R. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (United States); Schuetz, S.; Morganti, M.; Roy, F. [Weston REAC, Edison, NJ (United States); Hiltabrand, R.A. [U.S. Coast Guard. Research Centre, Groton, CT (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Various aspects of in-situ burning of diesel oil were studied in a series of 12 mesoscale burns. One of the objectives of the study was to assess five fire-resistant booms and to determine the level of emissions from in-situ burning which has become a common practice for cleanup in oil spills on water. Real-time air monitoring was conducted with MIE RAM and DataRAM Portable real-time aerosol monitors which were set up around the burn to sample and analyse for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Particulates were found to be at greater than recommended exposure levels but only up to 50 metres downwind at ground level. The downwind distribution of soot could be characterized by simple mathematical functions. Comparisons were also made between real-time monitors and approved fixed devices. Combustion gases, such as carbon dioxide, did not reach exposure level maximums. These gases were emitted over a wide area around the fire and were not directly associated with the plume trajectory. It was suggested that in-situ burning is an acceptable tradeoff when weighed against the environmental risks and cleanup costs of shoreline contamination. 5 refs., 19 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. The contribution of natural fire management to wilderness fire science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Miller

    2014-01-01

    When the federal agencies established policies in the late 1960s and early 1970s to allow the use of natural fires in wilderness, they launched a natural fire management experiment in a handful of wilderness areas. As a result, wildland fire has played more of its natural role in wilderness than anywhere else. Much of what we understand about fire ecology comes from...

  8. Shift in fire-ecosystems and weather changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongani Finiza

    2013-01-01

    During recent decades too much focus fell on fire suppression and fire engineering methods. Little attention has been given to understanding the shift in the changing fire weather resulting from the global change in weather patterns. Weather change have gradually changed the way vegetation cover respond to fire occurrence and brought about changes in fire behavior and...

  9. Ecological fire use for ecological fire management: Managing large wildfires by design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy Ingalsbee

    2015-01-01

    Past fire exclusion policies and fire suppression actions have led to a historic "fire deficit" on public wildlands. These sociocultural actions have led to unprecedented environmental changes that have created conditions conducive to more frequent large-scale wildfires. Politicians, the newsmedia, and agency officials portray large wildland fires as...

  10. Computer simulations of a 1/5-scale experiment of a Mark I boiler water reactor pressure-suppression system under hypothetical LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, L.L.

    1978-01-01

    The CHAMP computer code was employed to simulate a plane-geometry cross section of a Mark I boiling water reactor toroidal pressure suppression system air discharge experiment under hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident conditions. The experiments were performed at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory on a 1 / 5 -scale model of the Peach Bottom Nuclear Power Plant

  11. Prepulse suppression and allowable prepulse voltage in Z-pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Minghe; Xie Weiping; Li Hongtao

    2004-01-01

    The causes of prepulse origin in pulse power machine especially in Blumlein pulser are analyzed in this paper. A method that can reduce the prepulse by an inductance between Marx and zero voltage node has been presented while a calculation example used Pspice is provided. The prepulse switches can be used to reduce the prepulse effects in many fields. The prepulse requests for wire arrays in Z-pinch experiments are analyzed and explained by means of specific reaction quantity and vaporization heat, the results of the calculations are similar. In fact, the results of experiments indicate that the energy deposited in the wires is sufficient to bring the aluminium wires to partial or total vaporization. Because the value of prepulse current is larger than that of calculation, this indicates the calculation method is right

  12. How knowledge influences a MCDM analysis: WOCAT Portuguese experience on prevention of forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiras, M.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Moreira, J.; Esteves, T. C. J.; Valente, S.; Soares, J.; Coelho, C. O. A.; Schwilch, G.; Bachmann, F.

    2012-04-01

    Forest management is a major concern for land managers due to its impact on biomass production, surface water quality or landscape beauty. Pursuing the development of a holistic view of the issue (considering economic, environmental and social aspects), an appreciation of the variety policies and techniques is considered essential due to its importance in the context of sustainability. It this context, MCDM could be an important tool on the establishment for the use of the forest. It could be used for exploiting the preferences of decision-makers, stakeholders, or environmental experts obtaining economic values for impacts whose monetization remains problematic. WOCAT has developed a framework for Sustainable Land Management knowledge, covering all steps from data collection, database implementation and decision support. WOCAT methodology allows the environmental risks knowledge and also stakeholder's participation and involvement. It leads to the discussion of issues of the territory and through a participatory, integrative, holistic and impartial process, it identifies environmental problems. In the end guidelines / actions for the territory are settled based on the problems identified. Having an active participatory nature, this process reveals itself as an excellent public participation process. The methodology also brings the territory's decision-makers in contact with the stakeholders. The procedure for identification, assessment and selection of strategies has been developed by the EU project DESIRE in collaboration with WOCAT. The methodology was tested by DESIRE in 16 study sites around the world. As an outcome of the procedure, the methodology may serve as a basis for prioritizing land-use policies, conservation measures and research at a national level. It integrates several exercises for prioritizing land-use policies, conservation measures and research at a regional and national level. In Portugal, forest fires are one of the major factors of land

  13. Fire History

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  14. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  15. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  16. Fire History

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  17. Beta-Suppression of Alfven Cascade Modes in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, E.D.; N.A. Crocker; N.N. Gorelenkov; W.W. Heidbrink; S. Kubota; F.M. Levinton; H. Yuh; J.E. Menard; Bell, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    The coupling of Alfven Cascade (AC) modes or reversed-shear Alfven eigenmodes (rsAE) to Geodesic Acoustic Modes (GAM) implies that the range of the AC frequency sweep is reduced as the electron β is increased. This model provides an explanation for the otherwise surprising absence of AC modes in reverse shear NSTX plasmas, given the rich spectrum of beam-driven instabilities typically seen in NSTX. In experiments done at very low β to investigate this prediction, AC modes were seen, and as the β e was increased from shot to shot, the range of the AC frequency sweep was reduced, in agreement with this theoretical prediction.

  18. Experiments and numerical studies on a Syngas-fired Ultra low NOx combustor

    KAUST Repository

    S, Krishna

    2017-06-06

    Exhaust measurements of temperature and pollutants in a syngas-fired model trapped vortex combustor for stationary power generation applications are reported. The performance was further evaluated for configurations where mixing enhancement was obtained using struts in the mainstream flow. Mainstream premixing of fuel was also studied to investigate its effect on emissions. The exhaust temperature pattern factor was found to be poor for baseline cases, but improved with the introduction of struts. NO emissions were steadily below 3-ppm across various flow conditions, whereas CO emissions tended to increase with increasing Momentum Flux Ratios (MFRs) and mainstream fuel addition. Combustion efficiencies ~96% were observed for all conditions. The performance characteristics were found to be favourable at higher MFRs with low pattern factors and high combustion efficiencies. Numerical simulations employing RANS and LES with Presumed Probability Distribution Function (PPDF) model were also carried out. Mixture fraction profiles in the TVC cavity for non-reacting conditions show that LES simulations are able to capture the mean mixing field better than the RANS-based approach. This is attributed to the prediction of the jet decay rate and is reflected on the mean velocity magnitude fields, which reinforce this observation at different sections in the cavity. Both RANS and LES simulations show close agreement with the experimentally measured OH concentration, however, the RANS approach does not perform satisfactorily in capturing the trend of velocity magnitude. LES simulations clearly capture the trend observed in exhaust measurements which is primarily attributed to the flame stabilization mechanism.

  19. Emissions from mesoscale in-situ oil (diesel) fires: the Mobile 1994 experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Ackerman, F.; Lambert, P.; Zhendi, W.; Nelson, R.; Goldthorp, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div.; Mullin, J.; Hannon, L. [Minerals Management Service, Herndon, VA (United States); Wang, D.; Steenkammer, A. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Pollution Measurement Div.; Schuetz, S. [REAC/Weston, Edison, NJ (United States); Turpin, R.; Campagna, P. [Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (United States); Graham, L. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Mobile Sources Emissions Div.; Hiltabrand, R. [Coast Guard, Groton, CT (United States). Marine Fire and Safety Research Div.

    1996-09-01

    The various aspects of in-situ burning of diesel oil were studied in a series of three mesoscale burns. The burn was conducted in a 15 X 15 m steel pan with an outer berm filled with salt water pumped from Mobile Bay. The diesel fuel which was released and floated on 0.6 metre of water, was ignited and left to burn for about 25 minutes, after-which the water under the burns was analyzed. Four downwind ground stations were set up to conduct extensive sampling and monitoring of the smoke plumes in order to determine their emissions. Particulate samples from the air were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); these were found to be lower in the soot than in the starting oil. Particulates in the air were found to be greater than recommended exposure levels only up to 100 metres downwind at ground level. The study showed that diesel burns produced about 4 times more particulate matter than a similar-sized crude oil burn. The particulate matter was distributed exponentially downwind from the fire. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using multiple gas chromatographic techniques. The results of 148 substance analyses were presented. 6 refs., 32 tabs., 12 figs.

  20. Suppressing emotion and engaging with complaining customers at work related to experience of depression and anxiety symptoms: a nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Kang, Mo-Yeol; Jeung, Dayee; Chang, Sei-Jin

    2017-06-08

    Our aim was to investigate the relationship between suppressing emotion and engaging with complaining customers at work and experience of depression and anxiety symptoms. We used nationally representative data from the Korean Working Condition Survey with 15,669 paid customer service workers. Job characteristics of "Engaging with Complaints", "Suppressing Emotion", experience of depression and anxiety symptoms were measured by self-reported questionnaires. Gender specific odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression after controlling for age, income, education level, job satisfaction, and working hours per week. The results showed that people who were 'Always Engaging with Complaints' (OR: 3.81, 95% CI: 1.83-7.96 for male, OR: 3.98, 95% CI: 2.07-7.66 for female) and 'Always Suppressing Emotion' (OR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.33-4.08 for male, OR: 2.83, 95% CI: 1.67-4.77 for female) were more likely to experience depression and anxiety symptoms compared to those 'Rarely Engaging with Complaints' and 'Rarely Suppressing Emotion', respectively. Additionally, there was an interactive relationship between those job characteristics. Our nationwide study demonstrates that mental health problems are incrementally related to how much service workers must engage with complaining customers and suppressing emotion at work.

  1. Suppressing emotion and engaging with complaining customers at work related to experience of depression and anxiety symptoms: a nationwide cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    YOON, Jin-Ha; KANG, Mo-Yeol; JEUNG, Dayee; CHANG, Sei-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the relationship between suppressing emotion and engaging with complaining customers at work and experience of depression and anxiety symptoms. We used nationally representative data from the Korean Working Condition Survey with 15,669 paid customer service workers. Job characteristics of “Engaging with Complaints”, “Suppressing Emotion”, experience of depression and anxiety symptoms were measured by self-reported questionnaires. Gender specific odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression after controlling for age, income, education level, job satisfaction, and working hours per week. The results showed that people who were ‘Always Engaging with Complaints’ (OR: 3.81, 95% CI: 1.83–7.96 for male, OR: 3.98, 95% CI: 2.07–7.66 for female) and ‘Always Suppressing Emotion’ (OR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.33–4.08 for male, OR: 2.83, 95% CI: 1.67–4.77 for female) were more likely to experience depression and anxiety symptoms compared to those ‘Rarely Engaging with Complaints’ and ‘Rarely Suppressing Emotion’, respectively. Additionally, there was an interactive relationship between those job characteristics. Our nationwide study demonstrates that mental health problems are incrementally related to how much service workers must engage with complaining customers and suppressing emotion at work. PMID:28216516

  2. FIRE_AX_SFC_FUNCHAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e Geofisica (INMG) Funchal Sounding...

  3. FIRE_AX_PSU_MALBAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) Pennsylvania State University (PSU) Malcolm Baldridge Data in native...

  4. Undergraduate Research Experiences in Support of Dryland Monitoring: Field and Satellite Remote Sensing of Change in Savanna Structure, Biomass, and Carbon after Prescribed Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington-Allen, R. A.; Twidwell, D. L., Jr.; Mendieta, V. P.; Delgado, A.; Redman, B.; Trollope, W. S.; Trollope, L.; Govender, N.; Smit, I.; Popescu, S. C.; de Bruno Austin, C.; Reeves, M. C.

    2009-12-01

    The status and trend of degradation in the world’s Drylands, that support over 1.2 billion people, is unknown because monitoring & assessment has not occurred on a globally consistent basis and skilled personnel with a cultivated interest in natural resource science and management are lacking. A major monitoring dataset is the 37-year Landsat data archive that has been released free to the world, but this dataset requires persons who understand how to process and interpret this and similar datasets applicable to the desertification problem. The College of Agriculture & Life Sciences (COALS) at Texas A&M University (TAMU) has an initiative to provide undergraduates with both international and research experiences. The lead author used start-up money, USFS project funds for livestock footprint studies in the US, and seed money from COALS to 1) develop academic mentor contacts in Mozambique, Namibia, Botswana, South Africa, and Tunisia to prepare a National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates (NSF-REU) Site proposal and 2) launch a pilot REU for two TAMU undergraduate students. Mr. Delgado and Mr. Redman received lidar processing and visualization, field survey training on global positioning systems (GPS), terrestrial LIDAR, and ground penetrating radar technologies and conducted carbon change studies by collecting pre- and post-fire laser scans on experimental burn (EPB) sites in Texas and South Africa. Mr. Redman also developed GIS databases of Landsat timeseries for these EPBs and others in southern Africa. Mr. Delgado participated in the Savanna Fire Ignition Research Experiment (SavFIRE) in Kruger National Park (KNP) by collected laser scan data on 3 EPBs. He also received mentoring from Dr. Winston Trollope, a prominent fire ecologist, and Mr. Chris Austin both of Working with Fire International and Navashni Govender, KNP’s Fire Ecologist. He also was an active participant in a NASA sponsored workshop on remote sensing of global

  5. A mixed integer program to model spatial wildfire behavior and suppression placement decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin J. Belval; Yu Wei; Michael. Bevers

    2015-01-01

    Wildfire suppression combines multiple objectives and dynamic fire behavior to form a complex problem for decision makers. This paper presents a mixed integer program designed to explore integrating spatial fire behavior and suppression placement decisions into a mathematical programming framework. Fire behavior and suppression placement decisions are modeled using...

  6. Study on Optimization Experiment of SCR Denitrification Technologies in a Coal-fired Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Limeng; Dong, Xinguang; Hou, Fanjun; Liu, Ke; Che, Gang

    2018-01-01

    Optimization experiment of SCR denitrification technologies on a 300MW unit was conducted. Adjustment of ammonia injection quantity of corresponding AIG was conducted after measuring the SCR export NOx concentration field in 250MW load, the distribution uniformity of NOx volume fraction at the outlet of both reactor A and B was improved significantly, where the relative standard deviation of NOx reduced respectively from 29.83% to 13.01% and 24.54% to 9.26%, simultaneously, the amount of ammonia escape of A, B reactor decrease respectively by 24.76%, 19.45%. The results of optimization experiment show that, optimal adjustment can improve the NOx concentration distribution, reduce the amount of ammonia escape in a certain extent, and judge whether the catalytic activity of the regional catalyzer is in good condition. As to the area where catalyst is ineffective, the effect of optimization experiment is limited, the catalyzer should be the timely replacement, so as to better protect downstream equipment.

  7. Fire and smoke retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  8. A fire management simulation model using stochastic arrival times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric L. Smith

    1987-01-01

    Fire management simulation models are used to predict the impact of changes in the fire management program on fire outcomes. As with all models, the goal is to abstract reality without seriously distorting relationships between variables of interest. One important variable of fire organization performance is the length of time it takes to get suppression units to the...

  9. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. D. Bigbee

    2000-01-01

    The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status

  10. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Bigbee

    2000-06-21

    The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status.

  11. The Science of Prescribed Fire: to Enable a Different Kind of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy E. Paysen; Marcia G. Narog; Jack D. Cohen

    1998-01-01

    A paradigm shift from fire suppression to fire suppression and prescription requires a shift in emphasis from simply controlling wildfire occurrence and spread to one that includes controlling characteristics of prescribed fire. Suppression focuses on preventing unwanted effects that might result from wildfire occurrence. Prescription promotes desired effects by...

  12. 77 FR 74381 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone Depleting Substances-Fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Depleting Substances--Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... published a direct final rule and a companion proposed rule issuing listings for three fire suppressants... three fire suppressants under EPA's Significant New Alternatives Policy program (77 FR 58035). Because...

  13. Fire research issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. McArdle; Donald N. Matthews

    1934-01-01

    This number of Forest Research Motes is primarily for the forest fire protectionist. It consists of a number of very short articles, each of which gives the essence of the results of a study made recently by this Forest Experiment Station. These so-called fire studies which are represented herein by brief fragments are all part of an organized research program, having...

  14. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.; Soetens, F.

    2005-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  15. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.

    2006-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  16. Characteristics of Gaseous Carbon Emission from a Tropical Peatland Fire: A Plot-Scale Field Experiment in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Y.; Darung, U.; Limin, S. H.; Hatano, R.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical peatland in Southeast Asia is a vast reservoir of terrestrial carbon, which covers 24.8 million hectares and stores 68.5 PgC peat, equal to 11-14% of global peat carbon. In recent decades, large scale peatland fire has occurred frequently in that region, in which many areas of peatland were reclaimed with intention to use the land for forest plantation and rice paddy. We conducted a plot-scale peat burning experiment to elucidate the characteristics of gaseous carbon emission from a tropical peatland fire at the ground level. The experimental site was established at an open area 20 km southeast from Palangka Raya, Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. The size of the burning plot is 4 m in length and 3 m in width. Gas samples were collected at heights of 1.0, 0.5, 0.0 (aboveground), -0.1 and -0.2 m (belowground) through stainless steel and/or aluminum tubes settled across the edge of the plot. The concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and particulate matter (PM) was determined. Soil temperature was recorded every 10 minutes 0.1 and 0.2 m below the ground surface. Twelve iron rods were installed in 1-m by 1-m square grid to determine the depth of burn scar. After ignition, flaming stage of peat burning was ceased within 1-2 hours. The following smoldering stage continued for a week. In the flaming stage, soil temperature at -0.1 m increased tentatively. After the smoldering stage began, the temperature rapidly increased to 350-450°C. Response of soil temperature at -0.2 m was less prominent. Concentrations of gaseous components became maximal in the flaming stage. During the smoldering stage, the concentrations gradually decreased. The influence of burning on CO2 and PM was prominently remained at -0.1 m, whereas those at -0.2 m were not so much. The averaged burnt depth was 5.8±5.1 cm. Based on bulk density of 0.22 g/cm3 and carbon content of 55.5%, the amount of carbon lost from the plot was 85.3 kg. Most of the

  17. The Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory: A 50-year dedication to understanding wildlands and fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane M. Smith

    2012-01-01

    In 1960, the USDA Forest Service established the Northern Forest Fire Laboratory (now the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory) to find scientific solutions for better managing the nation's wildland resources and to research ways to improve forest fire prevention and suppression. This new state-of-the-art research facility did not emerge from a vacuum, however. This...

  18. Quantifying the multi-scale response of avifauna to prescribed fire experiments in the southwest United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Brett G; Noon, Barry R; Flather, Curtis H; Jentsch, Stephanie; Block, William M

    2009-04-01

    Landscape-scale disturbance events, including ecological restoration and fuel reduction activities, can modify habitat and affect relationships between species and their environment. To reduce the risk of uncharacteristic stand-replacing fires in the southwestern United States, land managers are implementing restoration and fuels treatments (e.g., mechanical thinning, prescribed fire) in progressively larger stands of dry, lower elevation ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest. We used a Before-After/Control-Impact experimental design to quantify the multi-scale response of avifauna to large (approximately 250-400 ha) prescribed fire treatments on four sites in Arizona and New Mexico dominated by ponderosa pine. Using distance sampling and an information-theoretic approach, we estimated changes in density for 14 bird species detected before (May-June 2002-2003) and after (May-June 2004-2005) prescribed fire treatments. We observed few site-level differences in pre- and posttreatment density, and no species responded strongly to treatment on all four sites. Point-level spatial models of individual species response to treatment, habitat variables, and fire severity revealed ecological relationships that were more easily interpreted. At this scale, pretreatment forest structure and patch characteristics were important predictors of posttreatment differences in bird species density. Five species (Pygmy Nuthatch [Sitta pygmaea], Western Bluebird [Sialia mexicana], Steller's Jay [Cyanocitta stelleri], American Robin [Turdus migratorius], and Hairy Woodpecker [Picoides villosus]) exhibited a strong treatment response, and two of these species (American Robin and Hairy Woodpecker) could be associated with meaningful fire severity response functions. The avifaunal response patterns that we observed were not always consistent with those reported by more common studies of wildland fire events. Our results suggest that, in the short-term, the distribution and abundance of

  19. Fire protection for launch facilities using machine vision fire detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Douglas B.

    1993-01-01

    Fire protection of critical space assets, including launch and fueling facilities and manned flight hardware, demands automatic sensors for continuous monitoring, and in certain high-threat areas, fast-reacting automatic suppression systems. Perhaps the most essential characteristic for these fire detection and suppression systems is high reliability; in other words, fire detectors should alarm only on actual fires and not be falsely activated by extraneous sources. Existing types of fire detectors have been greatly improved in the past decade; however, fundamental limitations of their method of operation leaves open a significant possibility of false alarms and restricts their usefulness. At the Civil Engineering Laboratory at Tyndall Air Force Base in Florida, a new type of fire detector is under development which 'sees' a fire visually, like a human being, and makes a reliable decision based on known visual characteristics of flames. Hardware prototypes of the Machine Vision (MV) Fire Detection System have undergone live fire tests and demonstrated extremely high accuracy in discriminating actual fires from false alarm sources. In fact, this technology promises to virtually eliminate false activations. This detector could be used to monitor fueling facilities, launch towers, clean rooms, and other high-value and high-risk areas. Applications can extend to space station and in-flight shuttle operations as well; fiber optics and remote camera heads enable the system to see around obstructed areas and crew compartments. The capability of the technology to distinguish fires means that fire detection can be provided even during maintenance operations, such as welding.

  20. Fire protection and fire fighting in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Fires are a threat to all technical installations. While fire protection has long been a well established conventional discipline, its application to nuclear facilities requires special considerations. Nevertheless, for a long time fire engineering has been somewhat neglected in the design and operation of nuclear installations. In the nuclear industry, the Browns Ferry fire in 1975 brought about an essential change in the attention paid to fire problems. Designers and plant operators, as well as insurance companies and regulators, increased their efforts to develop concepts and methods for reducing fire risks, not only to protect the capital investment in nuclear plants but also to consider the potential secondary effects which could lead to nuclear accidents. Although the number of fires in nuclear installations is still relatively large, their overall importance to the safety of nuclear power plants was not considered to be very high. Only more recently have probabilistic analyses changed this picture. The results may well have to be taken into account more carefully. Various aspects of fire fighting and fire protection were discussed during the Symposium, the first of its kind to be organized by the IAEA. It was convened in co-operation with several organizations working in the nuclear or fire protection fields. The intention was to gather experts from nuclear engineering areas and the conventional fire protection field at one meeting with a view to enhancing the exchange of information and experience and to presenting current knowledge on the various disciplines involved. The presentations at the meeting were subdivided into eight sessions: standards and licensing (6 papers); national fire safety practices (7 papers); fire safety by design (11 papers); fire fighting (2 papers); computer fire modeling (7 papers); fire safety in fuel center facilities (7 papers); fire testing of materials (3 papers); fire risk assessment (5 papers). A separate abstract was

  1. Development of fire severity factors to be used in fire PSA for Japanese LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Tsuyoshi; Fukuda, Mamoru; Hirano, Mitsumasa

    2000-01-01

    Institute of Nuclear Safety (INS/NUPEC) has developed a fire PSA methodology since 1992 sponsored by Ministry of International Trade and Industries (MITI). This methodology originally employed the fire severity factors that were developed based on the fire experiences of US-LWRs. The trial application of this methodology to a typical Japanese PWR suggested that the fire severity factors based on the fire experiences in US-LWRs seemed to be too conservative for Japanese LWRs and it is necessary to develop the fire severity factors for Japanese LWRs. However, Japanese LWRs have too few fire experiences to develop fire severity factors based on their fire experiences. Based on the above, INS/NUPEC has developed the fire severity factors for Japanese LWRs analytically with fire simulation codes. (author)

  2. FIREDATA, Nuclear Power Plant Fire Event Data Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelis, W.T.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FIREDATA contains raw fire event data from 1965 through June 1985. These data were obtained from a number of reference sources including the American Nuclear Insurers, Licensee Event Reports, Nuclear Power Experience, Electric Power Research Institute Fire Loss Data and then collated into one database developed in the personal computer database management system, dBASE III. FIREDATA is menu-driven and asks interactive questions of the user that allow searching of the database for various aspects of a fire such as: location, mode of plant operation at the time of the fire, means of detection and suppression, dollar loss, etc. Other features include the capability of searching for single or multiple criteria (using Boolean 'and' or 'or' logical operations), user-defined keyword searches of fire event descriptions, summary displays of fire event data by plant name of calendar date, and options for calculating the years of operating experience for all commercial nuclear power plants from any user-specified date and the ability to display general plant information. 2 - Method of solution: The six database files used to store nuclear power plant fire event information, FIRE, DESC, SUM, OPEXPER, OPEXBWR, and EXPERPWR, are accessed by software to display information meeting user-specified criteria or to perform numerical calculations (e.g., to determine the operating experience of a nuclear plant). FIRE contains specific searchable data relating to each of 354 fire events. A keyword concept is used to search each of the 31 separate entries or fields. DESC contains written descriptions of each of the fire events. SUM holds basic plant information for all plants proposed, under construction, in operation, or decommissioned. This includes the initial criticality and commercial operation dates, the physical location of the plant, and its operating capacity. OPEXPER contains date information and data on how various plant locations are

  3. 30 CFR 75.1107-2 - Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids... Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-2 Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements. Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and...

  4. Decision making under uncertainty: Recommendations for the Wildland Fire Decision Support System (WFDSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson

    2015-01-01

    The management of wildfire is a dynamic, complex, and fundamentally uncertain enterprise. Fire managers face uncertainties regarding fire weather and subsequent influence on fire behavior, the effects of fire on socioeconomic and ecological resources, and the efficacy of alternative suppression actions on fire outcomes. In these types of difficult decision environments...

  5. Introduction: Strengthening the foundation of wildland fire Effects prediction for research and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Dickinson; Kevin C. Ryan

    2010-01-01

    As prescribed fire use increases and the options for responding to wildfires continue to expand beyond suppression, the need for improving fire effects prediction capabilities be¬comes increasingly apparent. The papers in this Fire Ecology special issue describe recent advances in fire effects prediction for key classes of direct (first-order) fire effects. Important...

  6. Fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janetzky, E.

    1980-01-01

    Safety and fire prevention measurements have to be treated like the activities developing, planning, construction and erection. Therefore it is necessary that these measurements have to be integrated into the activities mentioned above at an early stage in order to guarantee their effectiveness. With regard to fire accidents the statistics of the insurance companies concerned show that the damage caused increased in the last years mainly due to high concentration of material. Organization of fire prevention and fire fighting, reasons of fire break out, characteristics and behaviour of fire, smoke and fire detection, smoke and heat venting, fire extinguishers (portable and stationary), construction material in presence of fire, respiratory protection etc. will be discussed. (orig./RW)

  7. Recent fire history of the Table Mountain National Park and implications for fire management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forsyth, GG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available urban-wildland boundary. This means that houses and other property are at risk from wildfires and that fire suppression for nonecological reasons will be needed from time to time. It also means that prescribed fires need to be planned and conducted... caused by lightning or falling rocks and fires of unknown origin. Fire size distribution and fire weather Fire size may be important for a number of ecological reasons (for example in terms of the relative proportion of ‘edge effects...

  8. J/ψ suppression and elliptic flow in 200 GeV Au+Au collisions at the mid rapidity region of the PHENIX experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomssa, E.T.

    2008-12-01

    J/Ψ are considered to be one of the key probes of the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) formation in heavy ion collisions. Color screening was proposed as a mechanism leading to anomalous suppression beyond normal absorption in nuclear matter if J/Ψs were created in a deconfined medium, providing a direct evidence of deconfinement. The higher energy density that is available at RHIC should create a hotter QGP, and render the suppression signature more significant than in previous measurement performed at CERN SPS. The PHENIX detector is one of the four experiments that were installed at RHIC, with a design that is optimal for the measurement of the J/Ψ meson at forward rapidity in the dimuon decay channel, and at mid rapidity in the dielectron decay channel. Since day one operation in 2001, PHENIX has measured, among many other observables, J/Ψ yields in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions in a wide range of energies going from 19 GeV to 200 GeV per pair of nucleons. The work presented here covers the analysis of data taken by the mid rapidity spectrometers of PHENIX in Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV. The nuclear modification factor is measured as a function of centrality, and compared to extrapolations of cold nuclear matter suppression constrained in d+Au collisions at the same energy. Though the suppression seen in the most central collisions goes up to a factor of more than three, given the large errors in the extrapolations, most of it can possibly be accounted for by cold nuclear effects, and the significance of the extra anomalous suppression is small. More strikingly, comparisons to the CERN SPS results and to the suppression measurement at forward rapidity in PHENIX show features that seem to suggest the violation of the intuitive picture of increasing suppression with local energy density. This has led to the speculation that regeneration, a J/Ψ production mechanism by association of uncorrelated c and c-bar quarks, might be at play in central heavy ion

  9. Photographic and video techniques used in the 1/5-scale Mark I boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.; Lord, D.

    1978-03-16

    The report provides a description of the techniques and equipment used for the photographic and video recordings of the air test series conducted on the 1/5 scale Mark I boiling water reactor (BWR) pressure suppression experimental facility at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) between March 4, 1977, and May 12, 1977. Lighting and water filtering are discussed in the photographic system section and are also applicable to the video system. The appendices contain information from the photographic and video camera logs.

  10. Fire investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, A.

    There was considerable progress made on several fronts of fire investigation in the United States in recent years. Progress was made in increasing the quantity of fire investigation and reporting, through efforts to develop the National Fire Incident Reporting System. Improving overall quality of fire investigation is the objective of efforts such as the Fire Investigation Handbook, which was developed and published by the National Bureau of Standards, and the upgrading and expanding of the ""dictionary'' of fire investigation and reporting, the NFPA 901, Uniform Coding for Fire Protection, system. The science of fire investigation as furthered also by new approaches to post fire interviews being developed at the University of Washington, and by in-depth research into factors involved in several large loss fires, including the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas. Finally, the use of special study fire investigations - in-depth investigations concentrating on specific fire problems - is producing new glimpses into the nature of the national fire problem. A brief description of the status of efforts in each of these areas is discussed.

  11. Sodium fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, C.; Kale, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

  12. Fire management of California shrubland landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2002-01-01

    Fire management of California shrublands has been heavily influenced by policies designed for coniferous forests, however, fire suppression has not effectively excluded fire from chaparral and coastal sage scrub landscapes and catastrophic wildfires are not the result of unnatural fuel accumulation. There is no evidence that prescribed burning in these shrublands provides any resource benefit and in some areas may negatively impact shrublands by increasing fire frequency. Therefore, fire hazard reduction is the primary justification for prescription burning, but it is doubtful that rotational burning to create landscape age mosaics is a cost effective method of controlling catastrophic wildfires. There are problems with prescription burning in this crown-fire ecosystem that are not shared by forests with a natural surface-fire regime. Prescription weather conditions preclude burning at rotation intervals sufficient to effect the control of fires ignited under severe weather conditions. Fire management should focus on strategic placement of prescription burns to both insure the most efficient fire hazard reduction and to minimize the amount of landscape exposed to unnaturally high fire frequency. A major contributor to increased fire suppression costs and increased loss of property and lives is the continued urban sprawl into wildlands naturally subjected to high intensity crown fires. Differences in shrubland fire history suggest there may be a need for different fire management tactics between central coastal and southern California. Much less is known about shrubland fire history in the Sierra Nevada foothills and interior North Coast Ranges, and thus it would be prudent to not transfer these ideas too broadly across the range of chaparral until we have a clearer understanding of the extent of regional variation in shrubland fire regimes.

  13. Fire models for assessment of nuclear power plant fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolette, V.F.; Nowlen, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in available fire models for the assessment of nuclear power plants fires. The advantages and disadvantages of three basic types of fire models (zone, field, and control volume) and Sandia's experience with these models will be discussed. It is shown that the type of fire model selected to solve a particular problem should be based on the information that is required. Areas of concern which relate to all nuclear power plant fire models are identified. 17 refs., 6 figs

  14. Simulation analysis of a wildfire suppression system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abílio Pereira Pacheco; João Claro; Tiago. Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Rekindles and false alarms are unusually high in the Portuguese wildfire management system, representing a high burden on suppression resources in particular, and fire management resources in general. In 20,049 occurrences that the suppression system handled in the summer of 2010, 12.5% were false alarms and 15.0% were rekindles. We present a discreteevent simulation...

  15. Fire Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  16. The impact of land ownership, firefighting, and reserve status on fire probability in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrs, Carlin Frances; Butsic, Van; Stephens, Connor; Stewart, William

    2018-03-01

    The extent of wildfires in the western United States is increasing, but how land ownership, firefighting, and reserve status influence fire probability is unclear. California serves as a unique natural experiment to estimate the impact of these factors, as ownership is split equally between federal and non-federal landowners; there is a relatively large proportion of reserved lands where extractive uses are prohibited and fire suppression is limited; and land ownership and firefighting responsibility are purposefully not always aligned. Panel Poisson regression techniques and pre-regression matching were used to model changes in annual fire probability from 1950-2015 on reserve and non-reserve lands on federal and non-federal ownerships across four vegetation types: forests, rangelands, shrublands, and forests without commercial species. Fire probability was found to have increased over time across all 32 categories. A marginal effects analysis showed that federal ownership and firefighting was associated with increased fire probability, and that the difference in fire probability on federal versus non-federal lands is increasing over time. Ownership, firefighting, and reserve status, played roughly equal roles in determining fire probability, and were found to have much greater influence than average maximum temperature (°C) during summer months (June, July, August), average annual precipitation (cm), and average annual topsoil moisture content by volume, demonstrating the critical role these factors play in western fire regimes and the importance of including them in future analysis focused on understanding and predicting wildfire in the Western United States.

  17. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from wood and dung cooking fires, brick kilns, generators, trash and crop residue burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Elizabeth; Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea; Christian, Ted; Bhave, Prakash; Siva Praveen, Puppala; Panday, Arnico; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; Goetz, Doug; DeCarlo, Peter; Saikawa, Eri; Yokelson, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMASTE) field campaign targeted the in situ characterization of widespread and under-sampled combustion sources. In Kathmandu and the Terai, southern Nepal's flat plains, samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected from wood and dung cooking fires (n = 22), generators (n = 2), groundwater pumps (n = 2), clamp kilns (n = 3), zig-zag kilns (n = 3), trash burning (n = 4), one heating fire, and one crop residue fire. Co-located measurements of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds allowed for the application of the carbon mass balance approach to estimate emission factors for PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and water-soluble inorganic ions. Organic matter was chemically speciated using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sterols, n-alkanes, hopanes, steranes, and levoglucosan, which accounted for 2-8% of the measured organic carbon. These data were used to develop molecular-marker based profiles for use in source apportionment modeling. This study provides quantitative emission factors for particulate matter and its constituents for many important combustion sources in Nepal and South Asia.

  18. Fire Protection Program fiscal year 1996, site support program plan Hanford Fire Department. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good, D.E.

    1995-09-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under a mutual aid agreement and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System). The fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, self-contained breathing apparatus maintenance, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This report gives a program overview, technical program baselines, and cost and schedule baseline

  19. Fire protection program fiscal year 1997 site support program plan - Hanford fire department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, D.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fires Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford Site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. this includes response to surrounding fire department districts under mutual aids agreements and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System) and various commercial entities operating on site. the fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing, and maintenance, respiratory protection services, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention and education.

  20. Fire Protection Program fiscal year 1996, site support program plan Hanford Fire Department. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, D.E.

    1995-09-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under a mutual aid agreement and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System). The fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, self-contained breathing apparatus maintenance, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This report gives a program overview, technical program baselines, and cost and schedule baseline.

  1. Fire, carbon, and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.; Flannigan, M.

    2005-01-01

    One million hectares of forest are harvested in Canada annually, with 1 to 8 million hectares destroyed by fire and a further 10 to 25 million hectares consumed by insects. Enhanced disturbances have meant that Canadian forests are becoming carbon sources instead of carbon sinks. Canadian fire statistics from the year 1920 were provided along with a map of large fires between 1980 and 1999. A cycle of combustion losses, decomposition and regeneration of forests was presented, along with a stylized concept of forest carbon life cycles with fire. Direct emissions from forests fires were evaluated. An annual net ecosystem production in Canadian boreal forests and stand age was presented. Projections of areas burned were presented based on weather and fire danger relationships, with statistics suggesting that a 75 to 120 per cent increase is likely to occur by the end of this century. Trend observations show that areas burned are correlated with increasing temperature caused by anthropogenic effects. Prevention, detection, suppression and fuels management were presented as areas that needed improvement in fire management. However, management strategies may only postpone an increase in forest fires. Changes in disturbances such as fire and insects will be a significant early impact of climate change on forests. tabs., figs

  2. US Fire Administration Fire Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Fire Administration collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United...

  3. Perturbation of the European free troposphere aerosol by North American forest fire plumes during the ICARTT-ITOP experiment in summer 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petzold

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available During the ICARTT-ITOP Experiment in summer 2004 plumes from large wildfires in North America were transported to Central Europe at 3–8 km altitude above sea level (a.s.l.. These plumes were studied with the DLR (Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt research aircraft Falcon which was equipped with an extensive set of in situ aerosol and trace gas instruments. Analyses by the Lagrangian dispersion model FLEXPART provided source regions, transport times and horizontal extent of the fire plumes. Results from the general circulation model ECHAM/MADE and data from previous aerosol studies over Central Europe provided reference vertical profiles of black carbon (BC mass concentrations for year 2000 conditions with forest fire activities below the long-term average. Smoke plume observations yielded a BC mass fraction of total aerosol mass with respect to PM 2.5 of 2–8%. The ratio of BC mass to excess CO was 3–7.5 mg BC (g CO−1. Even after up to 10 days of atmospheric transport, both characteristic properties were of the same order as for fresh emissions. This suggests an efficient lifting of BC from forest fires to higher altitudes with only minor scavenging removal of particulate matter. Maximum aerosol absorption coefficient values were 7–8 Mm−1 which is about two orders of magnitude above the average European free tropospheric background value. Forest fire aerosol size distributions were characterised by a strong internally mixed accumulation mode centred at modal diameters of 0.25–0.30 µm with an average distribution width of 1.30. Nucleation and small Aitken mode particles were almost completely depleted.

  4. Fire Suppression by Halon 2402. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    5. HUMO 2402 EVAPORATION DATA, AIR VBWOCITY =3W( FT/MTV. iiD ________________ Tim., mus, Air temp., lalon temp., Temperature, minutes gri F F F 0...time. 4.3.2 Sampling for inspection of filled containers. A random sample offilled cont iners snali De selected from each lot in accordance with MIL-STD...flamev ionization detector (FID). (b) Column: 25-meter long, 0.2 nmn diameter, 5-percent pheny! 9 percent methyl silicone WCOT capillary column, or

  5. Holocene fire dynamics in Fennoscandia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clear, Jennifer; Seppa, Heikki; Kuosmanen, Niina; Molinari, Chiara; Lehsten, Veiko; Allen, Katherine; Bradshaw, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Prescribed burning is advocated in Fennoscandia to promote regeneration and to encourage biodiversity. This method of forest management is based on the perception that fire was much more frequent in the recent past and over a century of active fire suppression has created a boreal forest ecosystem almost free of natural fire. The absence of fire is thought to have contributed to the widespread dominance of Picea abies (Norway spruce) with the successive spruce dominated forest further reducing fire ignition potential. However, humans have altered the natural fire dynamics of Fennoscandia since the early- to mid-Holocene and disentangling the anthropogenic driven fire dynamics from the natural fire dynamics is challenging. Through palaeoecology and sedimentary charcoal deposits we are able to explore the Holocene spatial and temporal variability and changing drivers of fire and vegetation dynamics in Fennoscandia. At the local-scale, two forest hollow environments (history are compared to identify unique and mutual changes in disturbance history. Pollen derived quantitative reconstruction of vegetation at both the local- and regional-scale identifies local-scale disturbance dynamics and large-scale ecosystem response. Spatio-temporal heterogeneity and variability in biomass burning is explored throughout Fennoscandia and Denmark to identify the changing drives of fire dynamics throughout the Holocene. Palaeo-vegetation reconstructions are compared to process-based, climate driven dynamic vegetation model output to test the significance of fire frequency as a driver of vegetation composition and dynamics. Early-Holocene fire regimes in Fennoscandia are driven by natural climate variations and fuel availability. The establishment and spread of Norway spruce is driven by an increase in continentality of climate, but local natural and anthropogenic ecosystem disturbance may have aided this spread. The expansion of spruce led to a step-wise reduction in regional biomass

  6. Error analysis of the hydrodynamic vertical load function, 1/5-scale MKI BWR pressure suppression experiment and analysis program. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, E.; Lai, W.; Carr, E.; Holman, G.

    1978-11-01

    Because of time constraints, the final report for the 1/5-scale Mark I boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment presented results without critical analysis of the data. In particular, error bounds were not determined for the hydrodynamic vertical load function (HVLF). The objective of this study is to calculate the HVLF and the maximum download and maximum upload ratios for the 90 0 sector to 7.5 0 sector (i.e., the 3D to 2D ratios) together with their associated error bounds. Methodologies used to compute the HVLF, the 3D to 2D ratios, and error propagation for Test 1.3.1 are presented

  7. Oak woodlands and forests fire consortium: A regional view of fire science sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabner, Keith W.; Stambaugh, Michael C.; Marschall, Joseph M.; Abadir, Erin R.

    2013-01-01

    The Joint Fire Science Program established 14 regional fire science knowledge exchange consortia to improve the delivery of fire science information and communication among fire managers and researchers. Consortia were developed regionally to ensure that fire science information is tailored to meet regional needs. In this paper, emphasis was placed on the Oak Woodlands and Forests Fire Consortium to provide an inside view of how one regional consortium is organized and its experiences in sharing fire science through various social media, conference, and workshop-based fire science events.

  8. Fire management ramifications of Hurricane Hugo

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Saveland; D. D. Wade

    1991-01-01

    Hurricane Hugo passed over the Francis Marion National Forest on September 22, 1989, removing almost 75 percent of the overstory. The radically altered fuel bed presented new and formidable challenges to fire managers. Tractor-plows, the mainstay of fire suppression, were rendered ineffective. The specter of wind-driven escaped burns with no effective means of ground...

  9. Reducing social losses from forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory S. Amacher; Arun S. Malik; Robert G. Haight

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate two financial incentives to encourage nonindustrial forest landowners to undertake activities that mitigate fire losses: sharing of fire suppression costs by the landowner and sharing of fuel reduction costs by the government. First and second best outcomes are identified and compared to assess the effectiveness of these incentives in reducing social...

  10. Forest fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, M.

    1991-01-01

    This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire on plants and animals. In addition, the book examines firefighting methods and equipment, including new minimum impact techniques and compressed air foam; prescribed burning; and steps that can be taken to protect individuals and human structures. A history of forest fire policies in the U.S. and a discussion of solutions to fire problems around the world completes the coverage. With one percent of the earth's surface burning every year in the last decade, this is a penetrating book on a subject of undeniable importance

  11. Chemical fields during Southeast Nexus (SENEX) field experiment and design of verification metrics for efficacy of capturing wild fire emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P.

    2016-12-01

    Wildfires are commonplace in North America. Air pollution resulted from wildfires pose a significant risk for human health and crop damage. The pollutants alter the vertical distribution of many atmospheric constituents including O3 and many fine particulate (PM) species. Compared to anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants, emissions from wildfires are largely uncontrolled and unpredictable. Therefore, quantitatively describing wildfire emissions and their contributions to air pollution remains a substantial challenge for atmospheric modeler and air quality forecasters. In this study, we investigated the modification and redistribution of atmospheric composition within the Conterminous U.S (CONUS) by wild fire plumes originated within and outside of the CONUS. We used the National Air Quality Forecasting Capability (NAQFC) to conduct the investigation. NAQFC uses dynamic lateral chemical boundary conditions derived from the National Weather Service experimental global aerosol tracer model accounting for intrusion of fire-associated aerosol species. Within CONUS, the NAQFC derives both gaseous and aerosol wildfire associated species from the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) hazard mapping system (HMS) hot-spot detection, and US Forestry Service Blue-sky protocol for quantifying fire characteristics, and the US EPA Sparse Matrix Object Kernel Emission (SMOKE) calculation for plume rise. Attributions of both of these wildfire influences inherently reflect the aged plumes intruded into the CONUS through the model boundaries as well as the fresher emissions from sources within the CONUS. Both emission sources contribute significantly to the vertical structure modification of the atmosphere. We conducted case studies within the fire active seasons to demonstrate some possible impacts on the vertical structures of O3 and PM species by the wildfire activities.

  12. A Decade of Experience: Which Network Structures Maximize Fire Service Capacity for Homeland Security Incidents in Metropolitan Regions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    December 2011 Thesis Advisor: Sam Clovis , Jr. Second Reader: Lauren Fernandez THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form...Approved by: Sam Clovis , Jr. Thesis Advisor Lauren Fernandez Second Reader Daniel Moran Chair, Department of National Security Affairs...continued education, and former Fire Commissioner Horace “Bud” Felton; a Navy man who encouraged me to apply to the program. Sam Clovis and Lauren

  13. Forest fires in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Haines; William A. Main; Eugene F. McNamara

    1978-01-01

    Describes factors that contribute to forest fires in Pennsylvania. Includes an analysis of basic statistics; distribution of fires during normal, drought, and wet years; fire cause, fire activity by day-of-week; multiple-fire day; and fire climatology.

  14. Field test corrosion experiments in Denmark with biomass fuels Part II Co-firing of straw and coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, OH

    2002-01-01

    In Denmark, straw is used for generating energy in power plants. However during straw combustion, potassium chloride and SO2 are released in the flue gas and through condensation and deposition processes they will result in the formation of superheater deposits rich in potassium chloride and pota......In Denmark, straw is used for generating energy in power plants. However during straw combustion, potassium chloride and SO2 are released in the flue gas and through condensation and deposition processes they will result in the formation of superheater deposits rich in potassium chloride...... and potassium sulphate. These components give rise to varying degrees of accelerated corrosion. This paper concerns co-firing of straw with coal to reduce the corrosion rate from straw to an acceptable level. A field investigation at Midtkraft Studstrup suspension-fired power plant in Denmark has been...... undertaken where coal has been co-fired with 10% straw and 20% straw (% energy basis) for up to approx. 3000 hours. Two types of exposure were undertaken to investigate corrosion: a) the exposure of metal rings on water/air cooled probes, and b) the exposure of a range of materials built into the existing...

  15. Using egg albumin foam to extinguish fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hytham A. Alsaati

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil, coal and chemical fires are often difficult to put out using water. In certain hydrocarbon fires, protein foam can extinguish fires better than water by keeping air (oxygen away from the flames and by ''blowing'' the flame away from its fuel source. Egg albumin is a relatively inexpensive protein and is representative of foaming proteins, which are candidates for use as fire suppression agents. This paper begins to deal with the effect of the foam bulk pH, foam protein concentration and generating air flow rate into the foam on the fire extinguishing time in laboratory experiments. A Bunsen burner was used to generate a small, controlled laboratory fire within a plastic container, which represented a point source in a partially open room in the experiments. The Bunsen burner represents a gaseous hydrocarbon fire, which can be difficult to extinguish. Both a low pH foam and one made with a high air flow rate favor a reduction in time required to put out the Bunsen burner flame.Chamas produzidas por óleo, carvão e produtos químicos (incêndios provocados são difíceis de ser extinguidos com água. Algumas chamas de hidrocarbonetos podem ser extinguidas por espumas protéicas melhor do que a manutenção de ar (oxigênio fora do alcance das chamas ou pelo sopramento da chama para longe da sua fonte. Albumina de ovo é uma proteína relativamente barata e é representativa dentre as proteínas usadas como espuma para a (supressão extinção de agentes causadores de incêndio. Este artigo trata do estudo do efeito do pH e concentração da espuma protéica, além da geração de ar no interior da espuma, sobre o tempo de extinção de incêndio em experimentos laboratoriais. Nos experimentos um bico de Bunsen foi usado para gerar uma pequena chama, controlada em um container de plástico, representando uma fonte pontual em um ambiente parcialmente aberto. A chama do bico de Bunsen representa uma chama gasosa de hidrocarbonetos, que são dif

  16. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  17. FIRE_AX_UW_GERB_1HZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) University of Washington C-131A Aircraft Cloud Microphysics Data (1...

  18. FIRE_AX_UW_GERB_10HZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) University of Washington C-131A Aircraft Cloud Microphysics Data (10...

  19. FIRE_AX_PSU_CEIL_MAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) Pennsylvania State University (PSU) Malcolm Baldridge Ceilometer Data in...

  20. FIRE_AX_PSU_WND_MAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) Pennsylvania State University (PSU) Malcolm Baldridge Wind Profiler Data...

  1. FIRE_AX_SOF_BUOY_DFT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) Surface of the Ocean, Fluxes and Interaction with the Atmosphere (SOFIA)...

  2. Air scaling and modeling studies for the 1/5-scale mark I boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1978-01-01

    Results of table-top model experiments performed to investigate pool dynamics effects due to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) for the Peach Bottom Mark I boiling water reactor containment system guided subsequent conduct of the 1/5-scale torus experiment and provided new insight into the vertical load function (VLF). Pool dynamics results were qualitatively correct. Experiments with a 1/64-scale fully modeled drywell and torus showed that a 90 0 torus sector was adequate to reveal three-dimensional effects; the 1/5-scale torus experiment confirmed this

  3. Air scaling and modeling studies for the 1/5-scale mark I boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1978-01-04

    Results of table-top model experiments performed to investigate pool dynamics effects due to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) for the Peach Bottom Mark I boiling water reactor containment system guided subsequent conduct of the 1/5-scale torus experiment and provided new insight into the vertical load function (VLF). Pool dynamics results were qualitatively correct. Experiments with a 1/64-scale fully modeled drywell and torus showed that a 90/sup 0/ torus sector was adequate to reveal three-dimensional effects; the 1/5-scale torus experiment confirmed this.

  4. Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

    2012-04-01

    Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However

  5. The national fire-danger rating system: basic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack D. Cohen; John E. Deeming

    1985-01-01

    Updating the National Fire-Danger Rating System (NFDRS) was completed in 1977, and operational use of it was begun the next year. The System provides a guide to wildfire control and suppression by its indexes that measure the relative potential of initiating fires. Such fires do not behave erratically–they spread without spotting through continuous ground fuels....

  6. Predicting wildfire ignitions, escapes, and large fire activity using Predictive Service’s 7-Day Fire Potential Outlook in the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin L. Riley; Crystal Stonesifer; Haiganoush Preisler; Dave Calkin

    2014-01-01

    Can fire potential forecasts assist with pre-positioning of fire suppression resources, which could result in a cost savings to the United States government? Here, we present a preliminary assessment of the 7-Day Fire Potential Outlook forecasts made by the Predictive Services program. We utilized historical fire occurrence data and archived forecasts to assess how...

  7. Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Lisa M. Holsinger; Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2016-01-01

    Several aspects of wildland fire are moderated by site- and landscape-level vegetation changes caused by previous fire, thereby creating a dynamic where one fire exerts a regulatory control on subsequent fire. For example, wildland fire has been shown to regulate the size and severity of subsequent fire. However, wildland fire has the potential to influence...

  8. A probabilistic view of chaparral and forest fire regimes in southern California and northern Baja California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Minnich; Ernesto. Franco-Vizcaíno

    2009-01-01

    Fire suppression in industrialized countries encourages massive smoke emissions from high-intensity fires as a result of two inextricably related processes under current suppression policies: the nonrandom occurrence of vegetation fires in extreme weather states and the anomalous accumulation of spatially homogenous fuels. We propose as an organizing idea that the...

  9. Venture capital: States suffer as suppression expenses climb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krista Gebert

    2008-01-01

    The high cost of suppressing wildfires is taking a toll on federal and state agencies alike. Large wildland fires are complex, costly events influenced by a vast array of physical, climatic, and social factors. During five of the last eight years, the Forest Services' wildfire suppression expenditures have topped $1 billion, and total federal wildland suppression...

  10. Experiments on Suppression of Thermocapillary Oscillations in Sodium Nitrate Floating Half-Zones by High-frequency End-wall Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilkumar, A.; Grugel, R. N.; Bhowmick, J.; Wang, T.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments to suppress thermocapillary oscillations using high-frequency vibrations were carried out in sodium nitrate floating half-zones. Such a half-zone is formed by melting one end of a vertically held sodium nitrate crystal rod in contact with a hot surface at the top. Thermocapillary convection occurs in the melt because of the temperature gradient at the free surface of the melt. In the experiments, when thermocapillary oscillations occurred, the bottom end of the crystal rod was vibrated at a high frequency to generate a streaming flow in a direction opposite to that of the thermocapillary convection. It is observed that, by generating a sufficiently strong streaming flow, the thermocapillary flow can be offset enough such that the associated thermocapillary oscillations can be quenched.

  11. Fire Island National Seashore : alternative transportation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-31

    As part of its General Management Plan (GMP) process, Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS) seeks to develop a long-term management model to protect Fire Islands resources, while facilitating a safe, rewarding, and relevant experience for the publi...

  12. Proposal for the award of a blanket contract for automatic air-sampling systems for fire and gas detection in the LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a blanket contract for automatic air-sampling systems for fire and gas detection in the LHC experiments. Following a market survey carried out among 119 firms in ten Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2891/ST) was sent on 1 August 2003 to four firms, in three Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received two tenders from one firm and one consortium, in three Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a blanket contract with ICARE (FR), the lowest bidder, for the supply of automatic air-sampling systems for fire and gas detection in the LHC experiments for a total amount not exceeding 1 750 000 euros (2 714 000 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation from 1 January 2007 with options for air-sampling smoke detection systems for electrical racks, for an additional amount of 400 000 euros (620 000 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation from 1 January 2007, bringing the total amount to a maximum of 2 150 000 euros...

  13. Economics of wildland fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Calkin; Krista Gebert

    2009-01-01

    Increased wildland fire activity and associated suppression costs over the last decade have significantly challenged federal agencies' ability to manage the nation's lands and meet public expectations. Three common factors have typically been identified to explain this increasing cost trend: 1) increased development within the wildland urban interface...

  14. Liquid argon as active shielding and coolant for bare germanium detectors. A novel background suppression method for the GERDA 0{nu}{beta}{beta} experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiffer, J.P.

    2007-07-25

    Two of the most important open questions in particle physics are whether neutrinos are their own anti-particles (Majorana particles) as required by most extensions of the StandardModel and the absolute values of the neutrino masses. The neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay, which can be investigated using {sup 76}Ge (a double beta isotope), is the most sensitive probe for these properties. There is a claim for an evidence for the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay in the Heidelberg-Moscow (HdM) {sup 76}Ge experiment by a part of the HdM collaboration. The new {sup 76}Ge experiment Gerda aims to check this claim within one year with 15 kg.y of statistics in Phase I at a background level of {<=}10{sup -2} events/(kg.keV.y) and to go to higher sensitivity with 100 kg.y of statistics in Phase II at a background level of {<=}10{sup -3} events/(kg.keV.y). In Gerda bare germanium semiconductor detectors (enriched in {sup 76}Ge) will be operated in liquid argon (LAr). LAr serves as cryogenic coolant and as high purity shielding against external background. To reach the background level for Phase II, new methods are required to suppress the cosmogenic background of the diodes. The background from cosmogenically produced {sup 60}Co is expected to be {proportional_to}2.5.10{sup -3} events/(kg.keV.y). LAr scintillates in UV ({lambda}=128 nm) and a novel concept is to use this scintillation light as anti-coincidence signal for background suppression. In this work the efficiency of such a LAr scintillation veto was investigated for the first time. In a setup with 19 kg active LAr mass a suppression of a factor 3 has been achieved for {sup 60}Co and a factor 17 for {sup 232}Th around Q{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} = 2039 keV. This suppression will further increase for a one ton active volume (factor O(100) for {sup 232}Th and {sup 60}Co). LAr scintillation can also be used as a powerful tool for background diagnostics. For this purpose a new, very stable and robust wavelength

  15. Natural and anthropogenic fire regimes, vegetation effects, and potential impacts on the avifauna of California oak woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn L. Purcell; Scott L. Stephens

    2005-01-01

    Fire was once an important component of the disturbance regime in oak woodlands of the Sierra Nevada foothills. In addition to lightning-ignited fires, anthropogenic sources of ignition have historically been important until fire suppression activities in the mid- 20th century lengthened fire return intervals. Few fire history studies have addressed oak woodlands, and...

  16. Mechanistic Model for Ash Deposit Formation in Biomass Suspension Firing. Part 1: Model Verification by Use of Entrained Flow Reactor Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Broholm; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Two models for deposit formation in suspension firing of biomass have been developed. Both models describe deposit buildup by diffusion and subsequent condensation of vapors, thermophoresis of aerosols, convective diffusion of small particles, impaction of large particles, and reaction. The models...... stronger influence of this parameter. Model #2 was able to provide a reasonable description of the influence of temperature on the deposit buildup rates observed in the EFR experiments. A parametric study was conducted to examine the influence of some physical parameters, including ash concentration...... used to describe the deposit formation rates and deposit chemistry observed in a series of entrained flow reactor (EFR) experiments using straw and wood as fuels. It was found that model #1 was not able to describe the observed influence of temperature on the deposit buildup rates, predicting a much...

  17. Current Status of Fire Risk Assessment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H. P.

    2002-01-01

    The approach for fire risk assessment to be applied within periodic safety reviews of nuclear power plants in Germany starts with a screening process providing critical fire zones in which a fully developed fire has the potential to both cause an initiating event and impair the function of at least one component or system critical to safety. The second step is to perform a quantitative analysis. For that purpose, a standard event tree has been developed with elements for fire initiation, ventilation of the room, fire detection, fire suppression, and fire propagation. This standard event tree has to be adapted to each critical fire zone or room. In a final step, the fire induced frequency of initiating events, the main contributors and the calculated hazard state frequency for the fire event are determined. In order to perform a quantitative fire risk assessment, a basic data base must be established which should, e.g., include initiating frequencies, reliability data for all fire protection measures, fire barriers, etc. Detailed plant-specific information is needed on ignition sources, detection and extinguishing systems, manual fire fighting, stationary fire suppression systems. As one contributor to fire specific PSA input data, reliability data for the active fire protection measures are required for the application in the fire specific event tree analysis. These data needed to be estimated are unavailabilities per demand or failure rates per hour of plant operation for those components or systems belonging to the active fire protection means. The data on potential failures or unavailabilities per demand of the respective fire protection measures were gained from the plant specific documentation of inspection and maintenance. The assessment whether the detected findings are estimated as failures or only as deficiencies or deteriorations requires a deep insight in the plant specific operating conditions for the fire protection means and needs careful engineering

  18. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management Environmental Assessment - April 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, J.S.

    2003-04-30

    DOE prepared an environmental assessment (EA)for wildland fire management activities on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (DOE/EA-1372). The EA was developed to evaluate wildland fire management options for pre-fire, fire suppression, and post fire activities. Those activities have an important role in minimizing the conversion of the native sagebrush steppe ecosystem found on the INEEL to non-native weeds. Four alternative management approaches were analyzed: Alternative 1 - maximum fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 3 - protect infrastructure and personnel; and Alternative 4 - no action/traditional fire protection.

  19. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, John S

    2003-04-01

    DOE prepared an environmental assessment (EA)for wildland fire management activities on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (DOE/EA-1372). The EA was developed to evaluate wildland fire management options for pre-fire, fire suppression, and post fire activities. Those activities have an important role in minimizing the conversion of the native sagebrush steppe ecosystem found on the INEEL to non-native weeds. Four alternative management approaches were analyzed: Alternative 1 - maximum fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 3 - protect infrastructure and personnel; and Alternative 4 - no action/traditional fire protection.

  20. Geomorphology of coal seam fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

    2012-02-01

    Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires

  1. Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwager, K.; Green, T. M.

    2014-01-01

    The DOE policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas managed by DOE and/or Its various contractors which can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wildland fire, operational, and prescribed fires. FMPs provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled ''prescribed'' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. The plan will be reviewed periodically to ensure fire program advances and will evolve with the missions of DOE and BNL.

  2. Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwager, K.; Green, T. M.

    2014-10-01

    The DOE policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas managed by DOE and/or Its various contractors which can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wildland fire, operational, and prescribed fires. FMPs provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled ''prescribed'' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. The plan will be reviewed periodically to ensure fire program advances and will evolve with the missions of DOE and BNL.

  3. Experimental study of fire barriers preventing vertical fire spread in ETISs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Huang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the external thermal insulation system (ETIS has been applied increasingly in a large amount of buildings for energy conservation purpose. However, the increase use of combustible insulation materials in the ETIS has raised serious fire safety problems. Fires involving this type of ETIS have caused severe damage and loss. In order to improve its fire safety, fire barriers were suggested to be installed. This paper introduces fire experiments that have been done to study the effects of fire barriers on preventing vertical fire spread along the ETIS. The experiments were performed according to BS 8414-1:2002 “Fire performance of external cladding systems – Part 1: Test method for non-loadbearing external cladding systems applied to the face of the building”. The test facility consists of a 9 m high wall. The fire sources were wood cribs with a fire size of 3 ± 0.5 MW. The insulation materials were expanded polystyrene foam (EPS. The fire barrier was a horizontal strip of rockwool with a width of 300 mm. Thermocouples were used to measure temperatures outside and inside the ETIS. A series of experiments with different fire scenarios were done: no fire barrier, two fire barriers and three fire barriers at different heights. Test results were compared. The results show that the ETIS using EPS without fire barriers almost burned out, while the ETIS with fire barriers performed well in preventing fire spread. The temperatures above the fire barrier were much lower than those below the fire barrier, and most of the insulation materials above the top fire barrier stayed in place.

  4. On fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifie...... of frustrations and riots...

  5. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1000ºC or special infrastructure which require careful maintenance. In such a situation fire synthesis is a simpler method that can be adopted for the bulk production of high purity alumina and related oxides. Fire Synthesis. Preparation of Alumina ...

  6. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  7. On fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifie...

  8. A review of challenges to determining and demonstrating efficiency of large fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Francisco Rodriguez y Silva; David E. Calkin; Michael S. Hand

    2017-01-01

    Characterising the impacts of wildland fire and fire suppression is critical information for fire management decision-making. Here, we focus on decisions related to the rare larger and longer-duration fire events, where the scope and scale of decision-making can be far broader than initial response efforts, and where determining and demonstrating efficiency of...

  9. Presettlement fire regime and vegetation mapping in Southeastern Coastal Plain forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew D. Bailey; Robert Mickler; Cecil Frost

    2007-01-01

    Fire-adapted forest ecosystems make up 95 percent of the historic Coastal Plain vegetation types in the Southeastern United States. Fire suppression over the last century has altered the species composition of these ecosystems, increased fuel loads, and increased wildfire risk. Prescribed fire is one management tool used to reduce fuel loading and restore fire-adapted...

  10. Fire frequency effects on fuel loadings in pine-oak forests of the Madrean Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco J. Escobedo; Peter F. Ffolliott; Gerald J. Gottfried; Florentino Garza

    2001-01-01

    Loadings of downed woody fuels in pine-oak forests of the Madrean Province are heavier on sites in southeastern Arizona with low fire frequencies and lower on sites in northeastern Sonora, Mexico, with high fire frequencies. Low fire frequencies in southeastern Arizona are attributed largely to past land uses and the fire suppression policies of land management...

  11. Prescribed fire in North American forests and woodlands: history, current practice, and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin C. Ryan; Eric E. Knapp; J. Morgan Varner

    2013-01-01

    Whether ignited by lightning or by Native Americans, fire once shaped many North American ecosystems. Euro-American settlement and 20th-century fire suppression practices drastically altered historic fire regimes, leading to excessive fuel accumulation and uncharacteristically severe wildfires in some areas and diminished flammability resulting from shifts to more fire...

  12. Investigation of the fire at the Uranium Enrichment Laboratory. Analysis of samples and pressurization experiment/analysis of container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akabori, Mitsuo; Minato, Kazuo; Watanabe, Kazuo

    1998-05-01

    To investigate the cause of the fire at the Uranium Enrichment Laboratory of the Tokai Research Establishment on November 20, 1997, samples of uranium metal waste and scattered residues were analyzed. At the same time the container lid that had been blown off was closely inspected, and the pressurization effects of the container were tested and analyzed. It was found that 1) the uranium metal waste mainly consisted of uranium metal, carbides and oxides, whose relative amounts were dependent on the particle size, 2) the uranium metal waste hydrolyzed to produce combustible gases such as methane and hydrogen, and 3) the lid of the outer container could be blown off by an explosive rise of the inner pressure caused by combustion of inflammable gas mixture. (author)

  13. Climate Change and Wildland Fire Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannigan, M.; Wotton, M.; Marshall, G.

    2016-12-01

    Wildland fires are a frequent occurrence in many regions of the world. These fires are the result of interactions between climate/weather, fuels, and people. Our climate and associated day-to-day weather may be changing rapidly due to human activities that may have dramatic and unexpected impacts on regional and global fire activity. A warmer world means longer fire seasons, more lightning activity, and most importantly drier fuels. Existing studies suggest a general overall increase in fire occurrence and area burned although there is significant temporal and spatial variability. Future trends in fire severity and intensity are more difficult to project due to the complex and non-linear interactions between weather, vegetation and people. However, there are indications that fire severity and intensity are increasing. In this study we examine future fire intensity in Canada. We use 3 GCMs and 3 RCP scenarios to estimate potential fire intensity, fuel consumption and number of significant spread days throughout the boreal forest. We examine not only absolute change in fireline intensity and consumption, but also changing frequency of exceeding intensity thresholds used today to inform fire management decisions about resource effectiveness. We find that potential fuel consumption increases more than 25% in the most extreme scenarios for the majority of the boreal by the end of the century. Similarly, we observe an absolute increase in the number of days that could support significant fire spread by up to 50 days per year and a greater than threefold increase in the potential number of days where head fire intensity exceeds 10000kW/m in the most extreme cases. While fire severity increases in general, it is these changes in the exceedance of certain critical threshold for fire suppression effectiveness that have the potential to significantly impact fire operations. Fire management will be even more challenging in a warmer world.

  14. Response of fire detectors to different smokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerkman, J.; Keski-Rahkonen, O.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize the behavior of fire alarm systems based on smoke detectors on smoldering fires especially cable fires in nuclear power plants (NPP). Full-scale fire experiments were carried out in a laboratory designed according to the standard EN54-9. The laboratory was instrumented with additional equipment such as thermocouples and flow meters which are not used in standard fire sensitivity tests. This allows the results to be used as experimental data for validation tasks of numerical fire simulation computerized fluid dynamics (CFD)-codes. The ultimate goal of the research is to model theoretically smoldering and flaming cable fires, their smoke production, transfer of smoke to detectors, as well as the response of detectors and fire alarm systems to potential fires. This would allow the use of numerical fire simulation to predict fire hazards in different fire scenarios found important in PSA (probability safety assessment) of NPPs. This report concentrates on explaining full-scale fire experiments in the smoke sensitivity laboratory and experimental results from fire tests of detectors. Validation tasks with CFD-codes will be first carried out 'blind' without any idea about corresponding experimental results. Accordingly, the experimental results cannot be published in this report. (orig.)

  15. Ecological effects of alternative fuel-reduction treatments: highlights of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate study (FFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. McIver; Scott L. Stephens; James K. Agee; Jamie Barbour; Ralph E. J. Boerner; Carl B. Edminster; Karen L. Erickson; Kerry L. Farris; Christopher J. Fettig; Carl E. Fiedler; Sally Haase; Stephen C. Hart; Jon E. Keeley; Eric E. Knapp; John F. Lehmkuhl; Jason J. Moghaddas; William Otrosina; Kenneth W. Outcalt; Dylan W. Schwilk; Carl N. Skinner; Thomas A. Waldrop; C. Phillip Weatherspoon; Daniel A. Yaussy; Andrew Youngblood; Steve Zack

    2012-01-01

    The 12-site National Fire and Fire Surrogate study (FFS) was a multivariate experiment that evaluated ecological consequences of alternative fuel-reduction treatments in seasonally dry forests of the US. Each site was a replicated experiment with a common design that compared an un-manipulated control, prescribed fire, mechanical and mechanical + fire treatments....

  16. Fire and climate : surprises from (pre)history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, I. [Canadian Forest Service, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1999-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the frequency of fires in Canada is increasing with increases in global temperatures. Past episodes of climate change and fire regimes were investigated through charcoal lake sediments. It was shown that in some areas, periods of warmer and drier weather led to fire activity, but in other areas, the opposite was true. This was due to changes in the vegetation and in the fire carrying capacity of the landscape. Only two of the six sites with detailed records of the last 200 years show a clear increase in fire with the current warming. The effectiveness of fire suppression programs is also discussed.

  17. Standpipe systems for fire protection

    CERN Document Server

    Isman, Kenneth E

    2017-01-01

    This important new manual goes beyond the published NFPA standards on installation of standpipe systems to include the rules in the International Building Code, municipal fire codes, the National Fire Code of Canada, and information on inspection, testing, and maintenance of standpipe systems. Also covered are the interactions between standpipe and sprinkler systems, since these important fire protection systems are so frequently installed together. Illustrated with design examples and practical applications to reinforce the learning experience, this is the go-to reference for engineers, architects, design technicians, building inspectors, fire inspectors, and anyone that inspects, tests or maintains fire protection systems. Fire marshals and plan review authorities that have the responsibility for reviewing and accepting plans and hydraulic calculations for standpipe systems are also an important audience, as are firefighters who actually use standpipe systems. As a member of the committees responsible for s...

  18. The Effects of Vegetative Type, Edges, Fire History, Rainfall and Management in Fire-Maintained Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breininger, David R.; Foster, Tammy E.; Carter, Geoffrey M.; Duncan, Brean W.; Stolen, Eric D.; Lyon, James E.

    2018-01-01

    The combined effects of fire history, climate, and landscape features (e.g., edges) on habitat specialists need greater focus in fire ecology studies, which usually only emphasize characteristics of the most recent fire. Florida scrub-jays are an imperiled, territorial species that prefer medium (1.2-1.7 m) shrub heights, which are dynamic because of frequent fires. We measured short, medium, and tall habitat quality states annually within 10 ha grid cells (that represented potential territories) because fires and vegetative recovery cause annual variation in habitat quality. We used multistate models and model selection to test competing hypotheses about how transition probabilities vary between states as functions of environmental covariates. Covariates included vegetative type, edges (e.g., roads, forests), precipitation, openings (gaps between shrubs), mechanical cutting, and fire characteristics. Fire characteristics not only included an annual presence/absence of fire covariate, but also fire history covariates: time since the previous fire, the longest fire-free interval, and the number of repeated fires. Statistical models with support included many covariates for each transition probability, often including fire history, interactions and nonlinear relationships. Tall territories resulted from 28 years of fire suppression and habitat fragmentation that reduced the spread of fires across landscapes. Despite 35 years of habitat restoration and prescribed fires, half the territories remained tall suggesting a regime shift to a less desirable habitat condition. Edges reduced the effectiveness of fires in setting degraded scrub and flatwoods into earlier successional states making mechanical cutting an important tool to compliment frequent prescribed fires.

  19. Perceived Severity of Visually Accessible Fires

    OpenAIRE

    Fridolf, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of past fires suggest that building occupants faced with a fire have problems defining the severity of it, especially in the early stages of the fire. An experiment was therefore carried out to study people’s ability to estimate fire growth, and their perceived ability to extinguish a fire using a portable fire extinguisher. A total of 535 persons, namely 304 men and 231 women, were asked to fill out a questionnaire that was divided into three parts. In the first part the test ...

  20. Two keys for appraising forest fire fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George R. Fahnestock

    1970-01-01

    This is an attempt to characterize forest fire fuels in a new way. The immediate purpose is to provide means for recognizing and tentatively evaluating, in the field, the fire spread potential and the crowning potential of fuels on the basis of readily observed characteristics without need for prior technical knowledge of vegetation or experience with fire. The medium...

  1. Fire ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. Poisonous Ingredient Fire ant venom contains a chemical called ... Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 140. Otten EJ. Venomous animal injuries. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill ...

  2. The Effects of Vegetative Type, Edges, Fire History, Rainfall and Management in Fire-Maintained Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breininger, David R.; Foster, Tammy E.; Carter, Geoffrey M.; Duncan, Brean W.; Stolen, Eric D.; Lyon, James E.

    2017-01-01

    The combined effects of repeated fires, climate, and landscape features (e.g., edges) need greater focus in fire ecology studies, which usually emphasize characteristics of the most recent fire and not fire history. Florida scrub-jays are an imperiled, territorial species that prefer medium (1.2-1.7 m) shrub heights. We measured short, medium, and tall habitat quality states annually within 10 ha grid cells that represented potential territories because frequent fires and vegetative recovery cause annual variation in habitat quality. We used multistate models and model selection to test competing hypotheses about how transition probabilities between states varied annually as functions of environmental covariates. Covariates included vegetative type, edges, precipitation, openings (gaps between shrubs), mechanical cutting, and fire characteristics. Fire characteristics not only included an annual presenceabsence of fire covariate, but also fire history covariates: time since the previous fire, the maximum fire-free interval, and the number of repeated fires. Statistical models with support included many covariates for each transition probability, often including fire history, interactions and nonlinear relationships. Tall territories resulted from 28 years of fire suppression and habitat fragmentation that reduced the spread of fires across landscapes. Despite 35 years of habitat restoration and prescribed fires, half the territories remained tall suggesting a regime shift to a less desirable habitat condition. Measuring territory quality states and environmental covariates each year combined with multistate modeling provided a useful empirical approach to quantify the effects of repeated fire in combinations with environmental variables on transition probabilities that drive management strategies and ecosystem change.

  3. Risk Insights Gained from Fire Incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarians, Mardy; Nowlen, Steven P.

    1999-01-01

    There now exist close to 20 years of history in the application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for the analysis of fire risk at nuclear power plants. The current methods are based on various assumptions regarding fire phenomena, the impact of fire on equipment and operator response, and the overall progression of a fire event from initiation through final resolution. Over this same time period, a number of significant fire incidents have occurred at nuclear power plants around the world. Insights gained from US experience have been used in US studies as the statistical basis for establishing fire initiation frequencies both as a function of the plant area and the initiating fire source.To a lesser extent, the fire experience has also been used to assess the general severity and duration of fires. However, aside from these statistical analyses, the incidents have rarely been scrutinized in detail to verify the underlying assumptions of fire PRAs. This paper discusses an effort, under which a set of fire incidents are being reviewed in order to gain insights directly relevant to the methods, data, and assumptions that form the basis for current fire PRAs. The paper focuses on the objectives of the effort, the specific fire events being reviews methodology, and anticipated follow-on activities

  4. Quantifying the Impact of BOReal Forest Fires on Tropospheric Oxidants Over the Atlantic Using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS) Experiment: Design, Execution, and Science Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Paul I.; Parrington, Mark; Lee, James D.; Lewis, Alistair C.; Richard, Andrew R.; Bernath, Peter F.; Pawson, Steven; daSilva, Arlindo M.; Duck, Thomas J.; Waugh, David L.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We describe the design and execution of the BORTAS (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants using Aircraft and Satellites) experiment, which has the overarching objective of understanding the chemical aging of airmasses that contain the emission products from seasonal boreal wildfires and how these airmasses subsequently impact downwind atmospheric composition. The central focus of the experiment was a two-week deployment of the UK BAe-146-301 Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA) over eastern Canada. The planned July 2010 deployment of the ARA was postponed by 12 months because of activities related to the dispersal of material emitted by the Eyjafjallaj¨okull volcano. However, most other planned model and measurement activities, including ground-based measurements at the Dalhousie University Ground Station (DGS), enhanced ozonesonde launches, and measurements at the Pico Atmospheric Observatory in the Azores, went ahead and constituted phase A of the experiment. Phase B of BORTAS in July 2011 included the same measurements, but included the ARA, special satellite observations and a more comprehensive measurement suite at the DGS. Integrating these data helped us to describe pyrogenic plumes from wildfires on a wide spectrum of temporal and spatial scales. We interpret these data using a range of chemistry models, from a near-explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism to regional and global models of atmospheric transport and lumped chemistry. We also present an overview of some of the new science that has originated from this project.

  5. Computer-aided digitization of graphical mass flow data from the 1/5-scale Mark I BWR pressure suppression experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, G.S.; McCauley, E.W.

    1979-01-01

    Periodically in the analysis of engineering data, it becomes necessary to use graphical output as the solitary source of accurate numerical data for use in subsequent calculations. Such was our experience in the extended analysis of data from the 1/5-scale Mark I boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment (PSE). The original numerical results of extensive computer calculations performed at the time of the actual PSE tests and required for the later extended analysis program had not been retained as archival records. We were, therefore, required to recover the previously calculated data, either by a complete recalculation or from available computer graphics records. Time constraints suggested recovery from the graphics records as the more viable approach. This report describes two different approaches to recovery of digital data from graphics records. One, combining hard and software techniques immediately available to us at LLL, proved to be inadequate for our purposes. The other approach required the development of pure software techniques that interfaced with LLL computer graphics to unpack digital coordinate information directly from graphics files. As a result of this effort, we were able to recover the required data with no significant loss in the accuracy of the original calculations

  6. Transboundary Collaborations to Enhance Wildfire Suppression in Protected Areas of the Black Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zaimes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For the most effective and efficient management of certain natural resources (e.g. protected areas and disasters (e.g. wildfires transboundary approaches are needed. In addition in the management of protected areas, the role of wildfire should be incorporated, something that was ignored in the past and led to catastrophic wildfires. The Black Sea is a region that wildfires in the protected areas are expected to increase. This has to do with the abandonment of rural areas and the higher temperatures, especially during summer, due to climate change. Interesting is also the fact that some countries of the region have extensive experience while other do not have neither the experience nor the necessary infrastructures to face large wildfires. A transboundary collaboration would be very beneficial to the countries with limited experiences and capacities to suppress wildfires. The objective of this study is to be proactive by developing innovative tools to help suppress wildfires and enhancing the knowledge on wildfires and protected areas. The innovative tools included 4 different research activities and products. Firstly, an online Digital Geodatabase for the six pilot areas was developed. Next forest fire fuels and maps were developed while a forest fire behavior model was run to create the overall fire risk maps for the pilot areas. To estimate water resources and watershed streamflows the hydrologic model SWAT was validated and calibrated for the pilot areas. The final activities included a multi-criteria decision analysis to select the optimal location of the water reservoirs and the use of spatial analyst to provide the optimal routes to reach reservoirs by the fire vehicles. To enhance the responsible agency personnel along with stakeholders knowledge of the region, a Neighborhood Network with regular quarterly meetings was established. Participants for all six project countries were present in the meetings. Overall, new tool that will enhance

  7. Bibliography on aircraft fire hazards and safety. Volume 2: Safety. Part 1: Key numbers 1 to 524

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr. (Compiler); Hacker, P. T. (Compiler)

    1974-01-01

    Bibliographic citations are presented to describe and define aircraft safety methods, equipment, and criteria. Some of the subjects discussed are: (1) fire and explosion suppression using whiffle balls, (2) ultraviolet flame detecting sensors, (3) evaluation of flame arrestor materials for aircraft fuel systems, (4) crash fire prevention system for supersonic commercial aircraft, and (5) fire suppression for aerospace vehicles.

  8. Conflicting short and long-term management goals: Fire effects in endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina M. Andruk; Norma L. Fowler

    2015-01-01

    Decades of fire suppression have significantly altered the vegetation structure and composition of savannas, woodlands, and forests. The presence of endangered species and other species of conservation concern in these fire-suppressed systems makes re-introducing fire more challenging. In oak-juniper woodlands of central Texas, we are presented with the challenge of re...

  9. Results from Real Time Simulation Experiment of an Integrated Concept for UAV/Direct Fire Weapon Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melendez, Gerardo; Gallivan, Elizabeth; Kenneally, William; SantaPietro, John; Wiener, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    During the last several years, there have been a large number of design studies, system simulations, and battlelab experiments that have sought to improve the integration of UAV-based sensor systems...

  10. Suppression chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Akio.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To miniaturize the storage tank of condensated water in BWR reactor. Constitution: A diaphragm is provided in a suppression chamber thereby to partition the same into an inner compartment and an outer compartment. In one of said compartments there is stored clean water to be used for feeding at the time of separating the reactor and for the core spray system, and in another compartment there is stored water necessary for accomplishing the depressurization effect at the time of coolant loss accident. To the compartment in which clean water is stored there is connected a water cleaning device for constantly maintaining water in clean state. As this cleaning device an already used fuel pool cleaning device can be utilized. Further, downcomers for accomplishing the depressurization function are provided in both inner compartment and outer compartment. The capacity of the storage tank can be reduced by the capacity of clean water within the suppression chamber. (Ikeda, J.)

  11. Toward improving our application and understanding of crown fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin E. Alexander; Miguel G. Cruz; Nicole M. Vaillant

    2014-01-01

    The suggestion has been made that most wildland fire operations personnel base their expectations of how a fire will behave largely on experience and, to a lesser extent, on guides to predicting fire behavior (Burrows 1984). Experienced judgment is certainly needed in any assessment of wildland fire potential but it does have its limitations. The same can be said for...

  12. Variability in Fire Regimes of High-Elevation Whitebark Pine Communities, Western Montana, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Evan R; Van De Gevel, Saskia L; Grissino-Mayer, Henri D

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the stand history of whitebark pine forests on 3 mountains in the Lolo National Forest, Montana, USA to characterize the fire regimes and other disturbance agents that historically operated at these sites and to explore the potential influences of modern fire suppression on these forests. We used hLarsonistorical fire atlas data and dendroecological data to reconstruct the distinct stand. The fire regimes of each site fit within the general definition of mixed-severity fire re...

  13. Boreal Forest Fire Cools Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Liu, H.; Flanner, M.; Chambers, S. D.; Harden, J. W.; Hess, P. G.; Jin, Y.; Mack, M. C.; Pfister, G.; Schuur, E. A.; Treseder, K. K.; Welp, L. R.; Zender, C. S.

    2005-12-01

    We report measurements, modeling, and analysis of carbon and energy fluxes from a boreal forest fire that occurred in interior Alaska during 1999. In the first year after the fire, ozone production, atmospheric aerosol loading, greenhouse gas emissions, soot deposition, and decreases in summer albedo contributed to a positive annual radiative forcing (RF). These effects were partly offset by an increase in fall, winter, and spring albedo from reduced canopy cover and increased exposure of snow-covered surfaces. The atmospheric lifetime of aerosols and ozone and are relatively short (days to months). The radiative effects of soot on snow are also attenuated rapidly from the deposition of fresh snow. As a result, a year after the fire, only two classes of RF mechanisms remained: greenhouse gas emissions and post-fire changes in surface albedo. Summer albedo increased rapidly in subsequent years and was substantially higher than unburned control areas (by more than 0.03) after 4 years as a result of grass and shrub establishment. Satellite measurements from MODIS of other interior Alaska burn scars provided evidence that elevated levels of spring and summer albedo (relative to unburned control areas) persisted for at least 4 decades after fire. In parallel, our chamber, eddy covariance, and biomass measurements indicated that the post-fire ecosystems switch from a source to a sink within the first decade. Taken together, the extended period of increased spring and summer albedo and carbon uptake of intermediate-aged stands appears to more than offset the initial warming pulse caused by fire emissions, when compared using the RF concept. This result suggests that management of forests in northern countries to suppress fire and preserve carbon sinks may have the opposite effect on climate as that intended.

  14. Making fire and fire surrogate science available: a summary of regional workshops with clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Youngblood; Heidi Bigler-Cole; Christopher J. Fettig; Carl Fiedler; Eric E. Knapp; John F. Lehmkuhl; Kenneth W. Outcalt; Carl N. Skinner; Scott L. Stephens; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2007-01-01

    Operational-scale experiments that evaluate the consequences of fire and mechanical "surrogates" for natural disturbance events are essential to better understand strategies for reducing the incidence and severity of wildfire. The national Fire and Fire Surrogate (FFS) study was initiated in 1999 to establish an integrated network of long-term studies...

  15. Modeling impacts of fire severity on successional trajectories and future fire behavior in Alaskan boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill F. Johnstone; T. Scott Rupp; Mark Olson; David. Verbyla

    2011-01-01

    Much of the boreal forest in western North America and Alaska experiences frequent, stand-replacing wildfires. Secondary succession after fire initiates most forest stands and variations in fire characteristics can have strong effects on pathways of succession. Variations in surface fire severity that influence whether regenerating forests are dominated by coniferous...

  16. Variations in high reliability practices in the federal fire community: Relative contributions of agency affiliation, years of experience, and position hierarchy and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke Baldauf McBride; Anne E. Black

    2012-01-01

    While several studies have examined the relevance of the HRO paradigm for fire management, no known empirical studies exist. In late 2007, in collaboration with researchers at the University of Michigan, we embarked on an exploration of the nature and extent of HRO practices in the US fire community. One of the primary questions was: How do HRO practices vary across...

  17. Using satellite fire detection to calibrate components of the fire weather index system in Malaysia and Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Caren C; Field, Robert D; Roswintiarti, Orbita; Guswanto

    2005-04-01

    Indonesia have two new sources of information to initiate fire prevention and suppression activities.

  18. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 06: wildland fire use: the "other" treatment option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Black

    2004-01-01

    Fire suppression has reduced acres burned to an average of 2 million acres a year. An unfortunate result of this has been the accumulation of even more above-normal fuel loads in many areas. This paper discusses (1) the important ecological role of fire, (2) using fire as a fuels treatment, and (2) the benefits and risks of fire.

  19. Roost tree selection by northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies following prescribed fire in a Central Appalachian Mountains hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua B. Johnson; John W. Edwards; W. Mark Ford; J. Edward Gates

    2009-01-01

    Following decades of fire suppression in eastern forests, prescribed fire as a tool to restore or enhance oak (Quercus spp.)-dominated communities is gaining widespread acceptance in the Appalachian Mountains and elsewhere. However, the interactions of fire with biotic components such as wildlife that might be impacted by prescribed fire are poorly...

  20. A model-based framework to evaluate alternative wildfire suppression strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin L. Riley; Matthew P. Thompson; Joe H. Scott; Julie W. Gilbertson-Day

    2018-01-01

    The complexity and demands of wildland firefighting in the western U.S. have increased over recent decades due to factors including the expansion of the wildland-urban interface, lengthening fire seasons associated with climate change, and changes in vegetation due to past fire suppression and timber harvest. In light of these changes, the use of more wildland fire on...

  1. Suppression effects on musical and verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Zachary A; Palmer, Caroline

    2007-06-01

    Three experiments contrasted the effects of articulatory suppression on recognition memory for musical and verbal sequences. In Experiment 1, a standard/comparison task was employed, with digit or note sequences presented visually or auditorily while participants remained silent or produced intermittent verbal suppression (saying "the") or musical suppression (singing "la"). Both suppression types decreased performance by equivalent amounts, as compared with no suppression. Recognition accuracy was lower during suppression for visually presented digits than during that for auditorily presented digits (consistent with phonological loop predictions), whereas accuracy was equivalent for visually presented notes and auditory tones. When visual interference filled the retention interval in Experiment 2, performance with visually presented notes but not digits was impaired. Experiment 3 forced participants to translate visually presented music sequences by presenting comparison sequences auditorily. Suppression effects for visually presented music resembled those for digits only when the recognition task required sensory translation of cues.

  2. Effervescent Fine Water Mist Fire Extinguisher for Microgravity Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fire suppression systems provide an essential safety function onboard spacecraft. The transition away from halon-based systems has presented an opportunity for...

  3. High-Performance Fire Detector for Spacecraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The danger from fire aboard spacecraft is immediate with only moments for detection and suppression. Spacecraft are unique high-value systems where the cost of...

  4. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains... pump connected to a fixed piping system. This pump must be capable of delivering an effective stream of...

  5. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps... be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire pump connected to a fixed piping system. (1) A...

  6. J/Ψ suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubellino, P.; Abreu, M.C.; Alessandro, B.; Alexa, C.; Arnaldi, R.; Astruc, J.; Atayan, M.; Baglin, C.; Baldit, A.; Bedjidian, M.; Bellaiche, F.; Beole, S.; Boldea, V.; Bordalo, P.; Bussiere, A.; Capony, V.; Casagrande, L.; Castor, J.; Chambon, T.; Chaurand, B.; Chevrot, I.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalo, C.; Comets, M.P.; Constantinescu, S.; Cruz, J.; De Falco, A.; De Marco, N.; Dellacasa, G.; Devaux, A.; Dita, S.; Drapier, O.; Espagnon, B.; Fargeix, J.; Filippov, S.N.; Fleuret, F.; Force, P.; Gallio, M.; Gavrilov, Y.K.; Gerschel, C.; Giubellino, P.; Golubeva, M.B.; Gonin, M.; Grigorian, A.A.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guber, F.F.; Guichard, A.; Gulkaninan, H.; Hakobyan, R.; Haroutunian, R.; Idzik, M.; Jouan, D.; Karavitcheva, T.L.; Kluberg, L.; Kurepin, A.B.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lourenco, C.; Mac Cormick, M.; Macciotta, P.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Mourgues, S.; Musso, A.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Petiau, P.; Piccotti, A.; Pizzi, J.R.; Prado da Silva, W.L.; Puddu, G.; Quintans, C.; Racca, C.; Ramello, L.; Ramos, S.; Rato-Mendes, P.; Riccati, L.; Romana, A.; Sartori, S.; Saturnini, P.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Shahoyan, R.; Silva, S.; Soave, C.; Sonderegger, P.; Tarrago, X.; Temnikov, P.; Topilskaya, N.S.; Usai, G.; Vale, C.; Vercellin, E.; Willis, N.

    1999-01-01

    The cross section for J/Ψ production in Pb-Pb interactions at 158 GeV per nucleon is measured at the CERN SPS by the NA50 experiment. The final results from the 1995 run are presented here together with preliminary ones from the high-statistics 1996 run. An anomalous J/Ψ suppression is observed in Pb-Pb collisions as compared to extrapolations of the previous results obtained by the NA38 experiment with proton and lighter ion beams. The results of the two runs are in good agreement. The results from the 1996 run allow the study of the onset of the anomalous suppression within the same set of data, showing evidence of a sharp change of behaviour around a value of neutral transverse energy, as measured by our electromagnetic calorimeter, of about 50 GeV

  7. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    special infrastructure which require careful maintenance. In such situation fire synthesis is a simpler method that can be adopted for the bulk production of high purity .... reaction between Ti and B to form titanium boride. The reaction between titanium (fuel- electron donor) and boron (oxidiser-electron acceptor) once initiated ...

  8. Forest Fires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 11. Forest Fires - Origins and Ecological Paradoxes. K Narendran. General Article Volume 6 Issue 11 November 2001 pp 34-41. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/11/0034-0041 ...

  9. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Fire Synthesis - Preparation of Alumina Products. Tanu Mimani. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1324-1332. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/12/1324-1332 ...

  10. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 2. Fire Synthesis - Preparation of Alumina Products. Tanu Mimani. General Article Volume 5 Issue 2 February 2000 pp 50-57. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/02/0050-0057 ...

  11. Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, A.

    1985-07-01

    The goal is to develop test data and analytical capabilities to support the evaluation of: (1) the contribution of fires to the risk from nuclear power plants; (2) the effects of fires on control room equipment and operations; and (3) the effects of actuation of fire suppression systems on safety equipment. A range of fire sources will be characterized with respect to their energy and mass evolution, including smoke, corrosion products, and electrically conductive products of combustion. An analytical method for determining the environment resulting from fire will be developed. This method will account for the source characteristics, the suppression action following detection of the fire, and certain parameters specific to the plant enclosure in which the fire originates, such as the geometry of the enclosure and the ventilation rate. The developing local environment in the vicinity of safety-related equipment will be expressed in terms of temperatures, temperature rise rates, heat fluxes, and moisture and certain species content. The response of certain safe shutdown equipment and components to the environmental conditions will be studied. The objective will be to determine the limits of environmental conditions that a component may be exposed to without impairment of its ability to function

  12. Pyric-carnivory: Raptor use of prescribed fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Torre J; McGranahan, Devan A; Elmore, R Dwayne; Weir, John R; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D

    2017-11-01

    Fire is a process that shaped and maintained most terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Changes in land use and patterns of human settlement have altered fire regimes and led to fire suppression resulting in numerous undesirable consequences spanning individual species and entire ecosystems. Many obvious and direct consequences of fire suppression have been well studied, but several, albeit less obvious, costs of alteration to fire regimes on wildlife are unknown. One such phenomenon is the response of carnivores to fire events-something we refer to as pyric-carnivory. To investigate the prevalence of pyric-carnivory in raptors, we monitored 25 prescribed fires occurring during two different seasons and across two different locations in tallgrass prairie of the central United States. We used paired point counts occurring before and during prescribed fires to quantify the use of fires by raptors. We found a strong attraction to fires with average maximum abundance nearly seven times greater during fires than prior to ignitions (before: x¯ = 2.90, SE  = 0.42; during: x¯ = 20.20; SE  = 3.29) and an average difference between fire events and immediately before fires of 15.2 (±2.69) raptors. This result was driven by Swainson's hawks ( Buteo swainsoni ), which were the most abundant ( n  = 346) of the nine species we observed using fires. Our results illustrate the importance of fire as integral disturbance process that effects wildlife behavior through multiple mechanisms that are often overshadowed by the predominant view of fire as a tool used for vegetation management.

  13. Cascading effects of fire exclusion in Rocky Mountain ecosystems: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, R.E.; Ryan, K.C.; Veblen, T.T.; Allen, Craig D.; Logan, J.; Hawkes, B.

    2002-01-01

    The health of many Rocky Mountain ecosystems is in decline because of the policy of excluding fire in the management of these ecosystems. Fire exclusion has actually made it more difficult to fight fires, and this poses greater risks to the people who fight fires and for those who live in and around Rocky Mountain forests and rangelands. This paper discusses the extent of fire exclusion in the Rocky Mountains, then details the diverse and cascading effects of suppressing fires in the Rocky Mountain landscape by spatial scale, ecosystem characteristic, and vegetation type. Also discussed are the varied effects of fire exclusion on some important, keystone ecosystems and human concerns.

  14. Fire and birds in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl E. Bock; William M. Block

    2005-01-01

    Fire is an important ecological force in many southwestern ecosystems, but frequencies, sizes, and intensities of fire have been altered historically by grazing, logging, exotic vegetation, and suppression. Prescribed burning should be applied widely, but under experimental conditions that facilitate studying its impacts on birds and other components of biodiversity....

  15. Sodium fires. Progress achieved in research and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.; Duverger de Cuy, G.; Casselman, C.; Charpenel, J.; Natta, M.; Devillers, C.

    1979-08-01

    This paper describes the sodium fire programs undertaken by the CEA's Nuclear Safety Department. Experimental results concerning sodium ignition and combustion, sodium fire suppression, sodium aerosol filtration and sodium-concrete contact reactions are given and the applications of these results in the Super-Phenix reactor is discussed

  16. Strategies to enhance resilience post-natural disaster: a qualitative study of experiences with Australian floods and fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kessel, Gisela; Gibbs, Lisa; MacDougall, Colin

    2015-06-01

    Disasters have a significant impact on mental health that may be mitigated by promoting resilience. This study explores the lay perspective on public health interventions that have the potential to facilitate resilience of adults who experience a natural disaster. Semi-structured interviews were conducted 6 months post-disaster between June 2011 and January 2012 with 19 people who experienced the 2010/11 Victorian floods. Twenty lay witness statements from people who presented to the 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission were also selected for analysis. Transcripts were analysed using an interpretive and comparative content analysis to develop an understanding of disaster resilience interventions in an ecological framework. The participants identified resilience focused interventions such as information that help individuals manage emotions and make effective decisions and plans, or enable access to resources; face-to-face communication strategies such as public events that restore or create new social connections; rebuilding of community capacity through coordination of volunteers and donations and policies that manage disaster risk. Disaster recovery interventions designed within an ecological model can promote a comprehensive integrated systems approach to support resilience in affected populations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Cold Vacuum Drying facility fire protection system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) fire protection system (FPS). The FPS provides fire detection, suppression, and loss limitation for the CVDF structure, personnel, and in-process spent nuclear fuel. The system provides, along with supporting interfacing systems, detection, alarm, and activation instrumentation and controls, distributive piping system, isolation valves, and materials and controls to limit combustibles and the associated fire loadings

  18. Fire on Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Daly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The nineteenth century theatre was fire-prone, to say the least. Across the century there were more than 1,100 major conflagrations in the world’s theatres, and countless smaller fires. In Great Britain almost every theatre seems to have burned down at some point. And yet, despite, or perhaps in part because of, this appalling record, fires were a staple feature of stage spectacle. Some plays placed them at the very centre of the entertainment, and as the century went on stage fires became more and more elaborate. Actual or simulated conflagrations were conjured up using a diverse array of technologies, some of them very simple, some depending on the most recent scientific discoveries. Here, I give a short tour of these technologies and their use in the plays of the period, and suggest some of the pleasures that they offered. While onstage flames could draw people in, offering an experience of immersive suspense, for instance, they also interrupted the dramatic flow, reminding audiences that they were seeing a performance, getting something for their money. To this extent, we are reminded that nineteenth-century drama provided something of a mixed and spectacular ‘theatre of attractions’, closer at times to the circus than to the novel.

  19. Boerhaave on Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemente, Damon

    2000-01-01

    In 1741 an English translation of Herman Boerhaave's celebrated textbook Elementa Chemic was published under the title A New Method of Chemistry. True to its time, this book included elaborate discussions of the elements earth, water, air, and fire. This article offers to teachers for classroom use a selection of passages from Boerhaave's chapter on fire. Now, today's teacher of chemistry is apt to feel that little of significance to the modern classroom can be gleaned from a two-and-a-half-centuries-old text, and especially from a topic as old-fashioned as fire. But this view is decidedly shortsighted. Boerhaave offers demonstrations and experiments that can be instructively performed today, quantitative data that can be checked against modern equations, and much theory and hypothesis that can be assessed in light of modern chemical ideas. In the readings presented here I have found material for discussion in class, for investigation in the laboratory, and for a few homework assignments. Modern students are well able to comprehend and paraphrase Boerhaave, to check his results, appreciate his insights, and identify his shortfalls. From him they learn firsthand how painstaking and difficult it was to imagine and develop the concepts of thermochemistry. To read from his chapter on fire is to stand witness to the birth and infancy of thermodynamics as conceived in the mind of a great chemist from the age when coherent chemical theory was just beginning to emerge.

  20. Fire Behavior (FB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fire Behavior (FB) method is used to describe the behavior of the fire and the ambient weather and fuel conditions that influence the fire behavior. Fire behavior methods are not plot based and are collected by fire event and time-date. In general, the fire behavior data are used to interpret the fire effects documented in the plot-level sampling. Unlike the other...

  1. Approach to fire-PSA study of KAPS IPHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, S.C.; Chatterjee, D.; Guptan, Rajee; Mohan, Nalini; Gadge, S.S.; Bajaj, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    Some safety significant fire events in nuclear power plants like Browns Ferry (U.S.A, 1975), NAPS (Narora, India, 1993) had serious implication on nuclear safety. Some of them had direct or indirect potential to cause sever reactor core damage. Therefore fire-induced core damage frequencies (FCDF) can be a significant contributor to the overall risk for a plant depending upon the design and operational characteristics of the NPP. Fire probabilistic safety assessment (Fire-PSA) studies for KAPS has been initiated using probabilistic and deterministic analysis like 'Fire Hazard Analysis' to identify the main contributing 'Fire Zone' and 'fire scenarios' to FCDF. The study is being done based on the IAEA guideline and as per international practice for carrying out Fire-PSA. Fire zone are screened out qualitatively and quantitatively based on their direct or indirect potential to Conditional Core Dantage frequency (CCDF). Fire database used for the analysis was for 25 Reactor-years of commercial operation of KAPS. Fire frequency was very low in most of the 'Fire Zone' and most of the fire were detected and suppressed at incipient stage. In most of the cases safety systems were not challenged, and all safety functions were fully available. It gives an insight to fire risk related strength- weaknesses of design and operation of IPHWR. Major contributor to fire risk i.e vulnerable area, vulnerable nuclear safety items, vulnerable fire risk action, and important fire safety components can be identified. It helps the designer and plant management to prioritize their effort in fire risk reduction. (author)

  2. Fire Symfonier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Svend Hvidtfelt

    2009-01-01

    sidste fire symfonier. Den er måske snarere at opfatte som et præludium til disse. At påstå, at symfonierne fra Holmboes side er planlagt til at være beslægtede, ville være at gå for vidt. Alene de 26 år, der skiller den 10. fra den 13., gør påstanden - i bedste fald - dubiøs. Når deres udformning...... udkrystallisering som i de sidste små 30 år af hans virke har afkastet disse fire variationer over en grundlæggende central holmboesk fornemmelse for form, melodi, klang og rytme. Denne oplevelse har fået mig til at udforske symfonierne, for at finde til bunds i dette holmboeske fællestræk, som jeg mener her står...

  3. Adapting fire management to future fire regimes: impacts on boreal forest composition and carbon balance in Canadian National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, W. J.; Flannigan, M. D.; Cantin, A.

    2009-04-01

    The effects of future fire regimes altered by climate change, and fire management in adaptation to climate change were studied in the boreal forest region of western Canada. Present (1975-90) and future (2080-2100) fire regimes were simulated for several National Parks using data from the Canadian (CGCM1) and Hadley (HadCM3) Global Climate Models (GCM) in separate simulation scenarios. The long-term effects of the different fire regimes on forests were simulated using a stand-level, boreal fire effects model (BORFIRE). Changes in forest composition and biomass storage due to future altered fire regimes were determined by comparing current and future simulation results. This was used to assess the ecological impact of altered fire regimes on boreal forests, and the future role of these forests as carbon sinks or sources. Additional future simulations were run using adapted fire management strategies, including increased fire suppression and the use of prescribed fire to meet fire cycle objectives. Future forest composition, carbon storage and emissions under current and adapted fire management strategies were also compared to determine the impact of various future fire management options. Both of the GCM's showed more severe burning conditions under future fire regimes. This includes fires with higher intensity, greater depth of burn, greater total fuel consumption and shorter fire cycles (or higher rates of annual area burned). The Canadian GCM indicated burning conditions more severe than the Hadley GCM. Shorter fire cycles of future fire regimes generally favoured aspen, birch, and jack pine because it provided more frequent regeneration opportunity for these pioneer species. Black spruce was only minimally influenced by future fire regimes, although white spruce declined sharply. Maintaining representation of pure and mixed white spruce ecosystems in natural areas will be a concern under future fire regimes. Active fire suppression is required in these areas. In

  4. What is the time between ignition and discovery of lightning fires?

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Morris

    1947-01-01

    A recent study of fire reports gives some information helpful in planning for discovery and suppression of lightning fires. Reports from national forests during the period 1940-44 show that 46 percent of such fires are discovered in the first hour on Washington forests, but only about 22 percent are discovered in the first hour on southern and eastern Oregon forests....

  5. Evaluation of fire safety measures at local universities in Kenya with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the selected public and private universities having a mean existence of 47 years and 14.25 years respectively, there is equally low compliance with the requirement to provide emergency lighting, automatic fire suppression systems, fire detection and alarm systems and fire Hydrants. Private universities however ...

  6. Organizational learning contributes to guidance for managing wildland fires for multiple objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Zimmerman; Tim Sexton

    2010-01-01

    Since the inception of organized fire suppression in the early 1900s, wildland fire management has dramatically evolved in operational complexity; ecological significance; social, economic, and political magnitude; areas and timing of application; and recognition of potentially serious consequences. Throughout the past 100 years, fire management has matured from a...

  7. What is limiting more flexible fire management—public or agency pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toddi A. Steelman; Sarah M. McCaffrey

    2011-01-01

    Conventional wisdom within American federal fire management agencies suggests that external influence such as community or political pressure for aggressive suppression are key factors circumscribing the ability to execute less aggressive fire management strategies. Thus, a better understanding of external constraints on fire management options is essential. This...

  8. Compton suppression gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Iskander, F.Y.; Niset, M.; Heydorn, K.

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade there have been many studies to use Compton suppression methods in routine neutron activation analysis as well as in the traditional role of low level gamma ray counting of environmental samples. On a separate path there have been many new PC based software packages that have been developed to enhance photopeak fitting. Although the newer PC based algorithms have had significant improvements, they still suffer from being effectively used in weak gamma ray lines in natural samples or in neutron activated samples that have very high Compton backgrounds. We have completed a series of experiments to show the usefulness of Compton suppression. As well we have shown the pitfalls when using Compton suppression methods for high counting deadtimes as in the case of neutron activated samples. We have also investigated if counting statistics are the same both suppressed and normal modes. Results are presented in four separate experiments. (author)

  9. Operating room fire prevention: creating an electrosurgical unit fire safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, William C; Kimbrough, Bradly A; Luna, Sarah; Maguddayao, Aris J

    2014-08-01

    To reduce the incidence of surgical fires. Operating room fires represent a potentially life-threatening hazard and are triggered by the electrosurgical unit (ESU) pencil. Carbon dioxide is a fire suppressant and is a routinely used medical gas. We hypothesize that a shroud of protective carbon dioxide covering the tip of the ESU pencil displaces oxygen, thereby preventing fire ignition. Using 3-dimensional modeling techniques, a polymer sleeve was created and attached to an ESU pencil. This sleeve was connected to a carbon dioxide source and directed the gas through multiple precisely angled ports, generating a cone of fire-suppressive carbon dioxide surrounding the active pencil tip. This device was evaluated in a flammability test chamber containing 21%, 50%, and 100% oxygen with sustained ESU activation. The sleeve was tested with and without carbon dioxide (control) until a fuel was ignited or 30 seconds elapsed. Time to ignition was measured by high-speed videography. Fires were ignited with each control trial (15/15 trials). The control group median ± SD ignition time in 21% oxygen was 3.0 ± 2.4 seconds, in 50% oxygen was 0.1 ± 1.8 seconds, and in 100% oxygen was 0.03 ± 0.1 seconds. No fire was observed when the fire safety device was used in all concentrations of oxygen (0/15 trials; P fire ignition was 76% to 100%. A sleeve creating a cone of protective carbon dioxide gas enshrouding the sparks from an ESU pencil effectively prevents fire in a high-flammability model. Clinical application of this device may reduce the incidence of operating room fires.

  10. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from garbage burning, wood and dung cooking fires, motorcycles and brick kilns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathne, T. S.; Rathnayake, C.; Stockwell, C.; Daugherty, K.; Islam, R. M.; Christian, T. J.; Bhave, P.; Praveen, P. S.; Panday, A. K.; Adhikari, S.; Rasmi, M.; Goetz, D.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Saikawa, E.; Yokelson, R. J.; Stone, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMASTE) field campaign targeted the in-situ characterization of widespread and under-sampled combustion sources in South Asia by determining emission factors (EF) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. Garbage burning had the highest EF PM2.5 among the sampled sources ranging 7-124 g kg-1, with maximum EFs for garbage burned under higher moisture conditions. Garbage burning emissions contained high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn) that are associated with acute and chronic health effects. Triphenylbenzene and antimony (Sb) were unique to garbage burning are good candidates for tracing this source. Cook stove emissions varied largely by stove technology (traditional mud stove, 3-stone cooking fire, chimney stove, etc.) and biomass fuel (dung, hardwood, twigs, and mixtures thereof). Burning dung consistently emitted more PM2.5 than burning wood and contained characteristic fecal sterols and stanols. Motorcycle emissions were evaluated before and after servicing, which decreased EF PM2.5 from 8.8 g kg-1 to 0.7 g kg-1. Organic species analysis indicated that this reduction in PM2.5­ is largely due to a decrease in emission of motor oil. For brick kilns, the forced draft zig-zag kilns had higher EF PM2.5 (12-19 g kg-1) compared to clamp kilns (8-13 g kg-1) and also exhibited chemical differences. PM2.5 emitted from the zig-zag kiln were mainly OC (7%), sulfate (32%) and uncharacterized chemical components (60%), while clamp kiln emissions were dominated by OC (64%) and ammonium sulfate (36%). The quantitative emission factors developed in this study may be used for source apportionment and to update regional emission inventories.

  11. Alkali deposits found in biomass boilers: The behavior of inorganic material in biomass-fired power boilers -- Field and laboratory experiences. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Miles, T.R.; Miles, T.R. Jr. [Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States); Jenkins, B.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States); Dayton, D.C.; Milne, T.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bryers, R.W. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Oden, L.L. [Bureau of Mines, Albany, OR (United States). Albany Research Center

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the major findings of the Alkali Deposits Investigation, a collaborative effort to understand the causes of unmanageable ash deposits in biomass-fired electric power boilers. Volume 1 of this report provide an overview of the project, with selected highlights. This volume provides more detail and discussion of the data and implications. This document includes six sections. The first, the introduction, provides the motivation, context, and focus for the investigation. The remaining sections discuss fuel properties, bench-scale combustion tests, a framework for considering ash deposition processes, pilot-scale tests of biomass fuels, and field tests in commercially operating biomass power generation stations. Detailed chemical analyses of eleven biomass fuels representing a broad cross-section of commercially available fuels reveal their properties that relate to ash deposition tendencies. The fuels fall into three broad categories: (1) straws and grasses (herbaceous materials); (2) pits, shells, hulls and other agricultural byproducts of a generally ligneous nature; and (3) woods and waste fuels of commercial interest. This report presents a systematic and reasonably detailed analysis of fuel property, operating condition, and boiler design issues that dictate ash deposit formation and property development. The span of investigations from bench-top experiments to commercial operation and observations including both practical illustrations and theoretical background provide a self-consistent and reasonably robust basis to understand the qualitative nature of ash deposit formation in biomass boilers. While there remain many quantitative details to be pursued, this project encapsulates essentially all of the conceptual aspects of the issue. It provides a basis for understanding and potentially resolving the technical and environmental issues associated with ash deposition during biomass combustion. 81 refs., 124 figs., 76 tabs.

  12. Fire Models and Design Fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Annemarie

    The aim of this project is to perform an experimental study on the influence of the thermal feedback on the burning behavior of well ventilated pre-flashover fires. For the purpose an experimental method has been developed. Here the same identical objects are tested under free burn conditions...... documented a simple relation that can be used for estimating the impact of thermal feedback for pre-flashover design fires. A rapid increase of the heat release rate commenced after the incipient phase. This is seen as thermal runaway caused by the energy gain in the smoke layer exceeding the energy that can...... and in two different rooms, which only are varied by linings of significantly different thermal inertia. As all linings were non-combustible the heat release rate could be found without the influence of thermal feedback and for two different levels of thermal feedback. The ISO 9705 Room Corner Test facility...

  13. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHANDLER, L.T.

    AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

  14. Fighting fire - with teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerron, Kim

    2013-04-01

    Team work is a process of working collaboratively and an important aspect of inter professional team success. This article is a reflective account, following eight midwifery students who participated in group dynamics training with a team of airport fire officers. It highlights howyou can borrow teamwork and communication strategies from other high profile industries and adapt it to midwifery practice. The experience demonstrated how a team approach brought together a cluster of skills, experience and understanding, something that cannot exist in one individual. It also demonstrated that when team work is successful the results are amazing.

  15. Parametric Fires for Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The authorities, the construction association, and a number of companies in Denmark have supported the author writing a guide for design of building structures for parametric fires. The guide is published by the ministry as a supplement to the building regulations. However, consultants...... and contractors have asked for a reference in English in order to make the guide-lines and the background for them available internationally. The paper therefore presents recommendations from the design guide especially concerning how to assess parametric design fires based on the opening factor method for large...... compartments. Findings leading to the guide-lines are discussed, and it is indicated what a safe design fire model means for structural design and how it differs from a safe design fire model for evacuation. Furthermore, the paper includes some experiences from the application of the design guide in practise...

  16. Vegetation responses to season of fire in an aseasonal, fire-prone fynbos shrubland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tineke Kraaij

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Season of fire has marked effects on floristic composition in fire-prone Mediterranean-climate shrublands. In these winter-rainfall systems, summer-autumn fires lead to optimal recruitment of overstorey proteoid shrubs (non-sprouting, slow-maturing, serotinous Proteaceae which are important to the conservation of floral diversity. We explored whether fire season has similar effects on early establishment of five proteoid species in the eastern coastal part of the Cape Floral Kingdom (South Africa where rainfall occurs year-round and where weather conducive to fire and the actual incidence of fire are largely aseasonal. We surveyed recruitment success (ratio of post-fire recruits to pre-fire parents of proteoids after fires in different seasons. We also planted proteoid seeds into exclosures, designed to prevent predation by small mammals and birds, in cleared (intended to simulate fire fynbos shrublands at different sites in each of four seasons and monitored their germination and survival to one year post-planting (hereafter termed ‘recruitment’. Factors (in decreasing order of importance affecting recruitment success in the post-fire surveys were species, pre-fire parent density, post-fire age of the vegetation at the time of assessment, and fire season, whereas rainfall (for six months post-fire and fire return interval (>7 years had little effect. In the seed-planting experiment, germination occurred during the cooler months and mostly within two months of planting, except for summer-plantings, which took 2–3 months longer to germinate. Although recruitment success differed significantly among planting seasons, sites and species, significant interactions occurred among the experimental factors. In both the post-fire surveys and seed planting experiment, recruitment success in relation to fire- or planting season varied greatly within and among species and sites. Results of these two datasets were furthermore inconsistent, suggesting

  17. Vegetation responses to season of fire in an aseasonal, fire-prone fynbos shrubland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaij, Tineke; Cowling, Richard M; van Wilgen, Brian W; Rikhotso, Diba R; Difford, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Season of fire has marked effects on floristic composition in fire-prone Mediterranean-climate shrublands. In these winter-rainfall systems, summer-autumn fires lead to optimal recruitment of overstorey proteoid shrubs (non-sprouting, slow-maturing, serotinous Proteaceae) which are important to the conservation of floral diversity. We explored whether fire season has similar effects on early establishment of five proteoid species in the eastern coastal part of the Cape Floral Kingdom (South Africa) where rainfall occurs year-round and where weather conducive to fire and the actual incidence of fire are largely aseasonal. We surveyed recruitment success (ratio of post-fire recruits to pre-fire parents) of proteoids after fires in different seasons. We also planted proteoid seeds into exclosures, designed to prevent predation by small mammals and birds, in cleared (intended to simulate fire) fynbos shrublands at different sites in each of four seasons and monitored their germination and survival to one year post-planting (hereafter termed 'recruitment'). Factors (in decreasing order of importance) affecting recruitment success in the post-fire surveys were species, pre-fire parent density, post-fire age of the vegetation at the time of assessment, and fire season, whereas rainfall (for six months post-fire) and fire return interval (>7 years) had little effect. In the seed-planting experiment, germination occurred during the cooler months and mostly within two months of planting, except for summer-plantings, which took 2-3 months longer to germinate. Although recruitment success differed significantly among planting seasons, sites and species, significant interactions occurred among the experimental factors. In both the post-fire surveys and seed planting experiment, recruitment success in relation to fire- or planting season varied greatly within and among species and sites. Results of these two datasets were furthermore inconsistent, suggesting that proteoid

  18. Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green,T.

    2009-10-23

    This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) updates the 2003 plan incorporating changes necessary to comply with DOE Order 450.1 and DOE P 450.4, Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes since the original draft of the FMP that result from new policies on the national level. This update also removes references and dependence on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service and Department of the Interior, fully transitioning Wildland Fire Management responsibilities to BNL. The Department of Energy policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas, managed by the DOE and/or its various contractors, that can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wild fire, operational, and prescribed fires. Fire management plans provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled, 'prescribed' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. This FMP will be reviewed periodically to ensure the fire program advances and evolves with the missions of the DOE and BNL. This Fire Management Plan is presented in a format that coverers all aspects specified by DOE guidance documents which are based on the national template for fire management plans adopted under the National Fire Plan. The DOE is one of the signatory agencies on the National Fire Plan. This FMP is to be used and implemented for the

  19. Highly episodic fire and erosion regime over the past 2,000 y in the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon

    OpenAIRE

    Colombaroli, Daniele; Gavin, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    Fire is a primary mode of natural disturbance in the forests of the Pacific Northwest. Increased fuel loads following fire suppression and the occurrence of several large and severe fires have led to the perception that in many areas there is a greatly increased risk of high-severity fire compared with presettlement forests. To reconstruct the variability of the fire regime in the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon, we analyzed a 10-m, 2,000-y sediment core for charcoal, pollen, and sedimentological ...

  20. Survival analysis and classification methods for forest fire size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier-Olivier Tremblay

    Full Text Available Factors affecting wildland-fire size distribution include weather, fuels, and fire suppression activities. We present a novel application of survival analysis to quantify the effects of these factors on a sample of sizes of lightning-caused fires from Alberta, Canada. Two events were observed for each fire: the size at initial assessment (by the first fire fighters to arrive at the scene and the size at "being held" (a state when no further increase in size is expected. We developed a statistical classifier to try to predict cases where there will be a growth in fire size (i.e., the size at "being held" exceeds the size at initial assessment. Logistic regression was preferred over two alternative classifiers, with covariates consistent with similar past analyses. We conducted survival analysis on the group of fires exhibiting a size increase. A screening process selected three covariates: an index of fire weather at the day the fire started, the fuel type burning at initial assessment, and a factor for the type and capabilities of the method of initial attack. The Cox proportional hazards model performed better than three accelerated failure time alternatives. Both fire weather and fuel type were highly significant, with effects consistent with known fire behaviour. The effects of initial attack method were not statistically significant, but did suggest a reverse causality that could arise if fire management agencies were to dispatch resources based on a-priori assessment of fire growth potentials. We discuss how a more sophisticated analysis of larger data sets could produce unbiased estimates of fire suppression effect under such circumstances.

  1. Survival analysis and classification methods for forest fire size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pier-Olivier; Duchesne, Thierry; Cumming, Steven G

    2018-01-01

    Factors affecting wildland-fire size distribution include weather, fuels, and fire suppression activities. We present a novel application of survival analysis to quantify the effects of these factors on a sample of sizes of lightning-caused fires from Alberta, Canada. Two events were observed for each fire: the size at initial assessment (by the first fire fighters to arrive at the scene) and the size at "being held" (a state when no further increase in size is expected). We developed a statistical classifier to try to predict cases where there will be a growth in fire size (i.e., the size at "being held" exceeds the size at initial assessment). Logistic regression was preferred over two alternative classifiers, with covariates consistent with similar past analyses. We conducted survival analysis on the group of fires exhibiting a size increase. A screening process selected three covariates: an index of fire weather at the day the fire started, the fuel type burning at initial assessment, and a factor for the type and capabilities of the method of initial attack. The Cox proportional hazards model performed better than three accelerated failure time alternatives. Both fire weather and fuel type were highly significant, with effects consistent with known fire behaviour. The effects of initial attack method were not statistically significant, but did suggest a reverse causality that could arise if fire management agencies were to dispatch resources based on a-priori assessment of fire growth potentials. We discuss how a more sophisticated analysis of larger data sets could produce unbiased estimates of fire suppression effect under such circumstances.

  2. Fire Ant Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  3. Crown Fire Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  4. Cold Climate Structural Fire Danger Rating System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Monika Metallinou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, fires kill 300,000 people every year. The fire season is usually recognized to be in the warmer periods of the year. Recent research has, however, demonstrated that the colder season also has major challenges regarding severe fires, especially in inhabited (heated wood-based structures in cold-climate areas. Knowledge about the effect of dry cellulose-based materials on fire development, indoor and outdoor, is a motivation for monitoring possible changes in potential fire behavior and associated fire risk. The effect of wind in spreading fires to neighboring structures points towards using weather forecasts as information on potential fire spread behavior. As modern weather forecasts include temperature and relative humidity predictions, there may already be sufficient information available to develop a structural fire danger rating system. Such a system may include the following steps: (1 Record weather forecasts and actual temperature and relative humidity inside and outside selected structures; (2 Develop a meteorology-data-based model to predict indoor relative humidity levels; (3 Perform controlled drying chamber experiments involving typical hygroscopic fire fuel; (4 Compare the results to the recorded values in selected structures; and (5 Develop the risk model involving the results from drying chamber experiments, weather forecasts, and separation between structures. Knowledge about the structures at risk and their use is also important. The benefits of an automated fire danger rating system would be that the society can better plan for potentially severe cold-climate fires and thereby limit the negative impacts of such fires.

  5. Unprecedented Fires in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The fires that raged across southern Africa this August and September produced a thick 'river of smoke' over the region. NASA-supported studies currently underway on the event will contribute to improved air pollution policies in the region and a better understanding of its impact on climate change. This year the southern African fire season peaked in early September. The region is subject to some of the highest levels of biomass burning in the world. The heaviest burning was in western Zambia, southern Angola, northern Namibia, and northern Botswana. Some of the blazes had fire fronts 20 miles long that lasted for days. In this animation, multiple fires are burning across the southern part of the African continent in September 2000. The fires, indicated in red, were observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 satellite. The fires generated large amounts of heat-absorbing aerosols (the dark haze), which were observed with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. These observations were collected as part of a NASA-supported field campaign called SAFARI 2000 (Southern African Regional Science Initiative). The recent six-week 'dry-season' portion of this experiment was planned to coincide with the annual fires. SAFARI 2000 planners tracked the changing location of fires with daily satellite maps provided by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. 'Every year African biomass burning greatly exceeds the scale of the fires seen this year in the western United States,' says Robert Swap of the University of Virginia, one of the campaign organizers. 'But the southern African fire season we just observed may turn out to be an extreme one even by African standards. It was amazing how quickly this region went up in flames.' The thick haze layer from these fires was heavier than campaign participants had seen in previous field studies in the Amazon Basin and during the Kuwati oil fires

  6. Understorey fire propagation and tree mortality on adjacent areas to an Amazonian deforestation fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Carvalho; C.A. Gurgel Veras; E.C. Alvarado; D.V. Sandberg; S.J. Leite; R. Gielow; E.R.C. Rabelo; J.C. Santos

    2010-01-01

    Fire characteristics in tropical ecosystems are poorly documented quantitatively in the literature. This paper describes an understorey fire propagating across the edges of a biomass burn of a cleared primary forest. The experiment was carried out in 2001 in the Amazon forest near Alta Floresta, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, as part of biomass burning experiments...

  7. Relation of weather forecasts to the prediction of dangerous forest fire conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. H. Weidman

    1923-01-01

    The purpose of predicting dangerous forest-fire conditions, of course, is to reduce the great cost and damage caused by forest fires. In the region of Montana and northern Idaho alone the average cost to the United States Forest Service of fire protection and suppression is over $1,000,000 a year. Although the causes of forest fires will gradually be reduced by...

  8. Summer moisture of forest fire fuels in Oregon and Washington in 1948 and previous years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Morris

    1948-01-01

    The forest fire season of 1948 in Oregon and Washington was regarded by fire suppression agencies as the most favorable for many years. The number of fires started and area burned were, in general, less than for many years. On the national forests the number of fires was the least since 1912 and the acreage burned was the least ever recorded. Was this primarily due to...

  9. Effects of prescribed fire on fuels, vegetation, and Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) demographics in Texas juniper-oak woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Reidy; Frank R., III Thompson; Carl Schwope; Scott Rowin; James M. Mueller

    2016-01-01

    The Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) is an endangered songbird that breeds in mature juniper-oak woodlands restricted to Central Texas. This habitat is increasingly susceptible to crown fire due to climate change, land use change, and fire suppression. Prescribed fire is a potential tool to reduce the risk of crown fire and may be a...

  10. The human dimension of fire regimes on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, David M.J.S.; Balch, Jennifer; Artaxo, Paulo; Bond, William J.; Cochrane, Mark A.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; DeFries, Ruth; Johnston, Fay H.; Keeley, Jon E.; Krawchuk, Meg A.; Kull, Christian A.; Michelle, Mack; Moritz, Max A.; Pyne, Stephen; Roos, Christopher I.; Scott, Andrew C.; Sodhi, Navjot S.; Swetnam, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Humans and their ancestors are unique in being a fire-making species, but 'natural' (i.e. independent of humans) fires have an ancient, geological history on Earth. Natural fires have influenced biological evolution and global biogeochemical cycles, making fire integral to the functioning of some biomes. Globally, debate rages about the impact on ecosystems of prehistoric human-set fires, with views ranging from catastrophic to negligible. Understanding of the diversity of human fire regimes on Earth in the past, present and future remains rudimentary. It remains uncertain how humans have caused a departure from 'natural' background levels that vary with climate change. Available evidence shows that modern humans can increase or decrease background levels of natural fire activity by clearing forests, promoting grazing, dispersing plants, altering ignition patterns and actively suppressing fires, thereby causing substantial ecosystem changes and loss of biodiversity. Some of these contemporary fire regimes cause substantial economic disruptions owing to the destruction of infrastructure, degradation of ecosystem services, loss of life, and smoke-related health effects. These episodic disasters help frame negative public attitudes towards landscape fires, despite the need for burning to sustain some ecosystems. Greenhouse gas-induced warming and changes in the hydrological cycle may increase the occurrence of large, severe fires, with potentially significant feedbacks to the Earth system. Improved understanding of human fire regimes demands: (1) better data on past and current human influences on fire regimes to enable global comparative analyses, (2) a greater understanding of different cultural traditions of landscape burning and their positive and negative social, economic and ecological effects, and (3) more realistic representations of anthropogenic fire in global vegetation and climate change models. We provide an historical framework to promote understanding

  11. The human dimension of fire regimes on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, David M J S; Balch, Jennifer; Artaxo, Paulo; Bond, William J; Cochrane, Mark A; D'Antonio, Carla M; Defries, Ruth; Johnston, Fay H; Keeley, Jon E; Krawchuk, Meg A; Kull, Christian A; Mack, Michelle; Moritz, Max A; Pyne, Stephen; Roos, Christopher I; Scott, Andrew C; Sodhi, Navjot S; Swetnam, Thomas W; Whittaker, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Humans and their ancestors are unique in being a fire-making species, but 'natural' (i.e. independent of humans) fires have an ancient, geological history on Earth. Natural fires have influenced biological evolution and global biogeochemical cycles, making fire integral to the functioning of some biomes. Globally, debate rages about the impact on ecosystems of prehistoric human-set fires, with views ranging from catastrophic to negligible. Understanding of the diversity of human fire regimes on Earth in the past, present and future remains rudimentary. It remains uncertain how humans have caused a departure from 'natural' background levels that vary with climate change. Available evidence shows that modern humans can increase or decrease background levels of natural fire activity by clearing forests, promoting grazing, dispersing plants, altering ignition patterns and actively suppressing fires, thereby causing substantial ecosystem changes and loss of biodiversity. Some of these contemporary fire regimes cause substantial economic disruptions owing to the destruction of infrastructure, degradation of ecosystem services, loss of life, and smoke-related health effects. These episodic disasters help frame negative public attitudes towards landscape fires, despite the need for burning to sustain some ecosystems. Greenhouse gas-induced warming and changes in the hydrological cycle may increase the occurrence of large, severe fires, with potentially significant feedbacks to the Earth system. Improved understanding of human fire regimes demands: (1) better data on past and current human influences on fire regimes to enable global comparative analyses, (2) a greater understanding of different cultural traditions of landscape burning and their positive and negative social, economic and ecological effects, and (3) more realistic representations of anthropogenic fire in global vegetation and climate change models. We provide an historical framework to promote understanding

  12. Flexural buckling of fire exposed aluminium columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Twilt, L.; Soetens, F.

    2009-01-01

    In order to study buckling of fire exposed aluminium columns, a finite element model is developed. The results of this model are verified with experiments. Based on a parametric study with the finite element model, it is concluded that the simple calculation model for flexural buckling of fire

  13. HOT AEROSOL FIRE EXTINGUISHING AGENTS AND THE ASSOCIATED TECHNOLOGIES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotian Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSince the phase out of Halon extinguishers in the 1980s, hot aerosol fire suppression technology has gained much attention. Unlike traditional inert gas, foam, water mist and Halon fire suppression agents, hot aerosol fire extinguishing agents do not need to be driven out by pressurized gases and can extinguish class A, B, C, D and K fires at 30 to 200 g/m3. Generally, hot aerosol fire extinguishing technology has developed from a generation I oil tank suppression system to a generation III strontium salt based S-type system. S-type hot aerosol fire extinguishing technology greatly solves the corrosion problem of electrical devices and electronics compared to potassium salt based generation I & II hot aerosol fire extinguishing technology. As substitutes for Halon agents, the ODP and GWP values of hot fire extinguishing aerosols are nearly zero, but those fine aerosol particles can cause adverse health effects once inhaled by human. As for configurations of hot aerosol fire extinguishing devices, fixed or portable cylindrical canisters are the most common among generation II & III hot aerosol fire extinguishers across the world, while generation I hot aerosol fire suppression systems are integrated with the oil tank as a whole. Some countries like the U.S., Australia, Russia and China, etc. have already developed standards for manufacturing and quality control of hot aerosol fire extinguishing agents and norms for hot aerosol fire extinguishing system design under different fire protection scenarios. Coolants in hot aerosol fire suppression systems, which are responsible for reducing hot aerosol temperature to avoid secondary fire risk are reviewed for the first time. Cooling effects are generally achieved through vaporization and endothermic chemical decomposition of coolants. Finally, this review discussed areas applying generation I, II or III hot aerosol fire suppression technologies. The generation III hot aerosol fire extinguishing

  14. Fire and fire ecology: Concepts and principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Cochrane; Kevin C. Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Fire has been central to terrestrial life ever since early anaerobic microorganisms poisoned the atmosphere with oxygen and multicellular plant life moved onto land. The combination of fuels, oxygen, and heat gave birth to fire on Earth. Fire is not just another evolutionary challenge that life needed to overcome, it is, in fact, a core ecological process across much...

  15. Fire safety concerns in space operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in fire control techniques and identifies important issues for continuing research, technology, and standards. For the future permanent orbiting facility, the space station, fire prevention and control calls for not only more stringent fire safety due to the long-term and complex missions, but also for simplified and flexible safety rules to accommodate the variety of users. Future research must address a better understanding of the microgravity space environment as it influences fire propagation and extinction and the application of the technology of fire detection, extinguishment, and material assessment. Spacecraft fire safety should also consider the adaptation of methods and concepts derived from aircraft and undersea experience.

  16. Fire protection for telecommunications central offices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, L.A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The provision of continuous, uninterrupted telecommunications service is vital to modern life. In order to provide uninterrupted service to customers, a service continuity program has been in place with AT and T for many years. This program integrates many different protection strategies and plans, each designed to mitigate one of the many threats to service continuity. The fire protection program implemented within AT and T is a part of this service continuity program. In the design of this program, a number of unusual problems had to be addressed due to the service continuity requirements. Typical solutions to fire protection problems (ignition prevention, detection, and suppression) which are embodied in building and fire prevention codes are inadequate to provide service continuity. This presentation outlines the basic arrangement of a telecommunications central office, the specific fire protection problems encountered, the fire protection philosophy developed through the use of a systems approach, and the implementation of the fire protection program. Special emphasis is placed on the strategies employed in lieu of more traditional fire protection schemes and the stimuli for selecting them

  17. Results from the NA50 experiment on $J/\\psi$ suppression and charged particle pseudorapidity distributions in Pb-Pb collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandro, B; Arnaldi, R; Atayan, M; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, Marc; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borenstein, S R; Borges, G; Bussière, A; Capelli, L; Castanier, C; Castor, J I; Chaurand, B; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Claudino, T; Comets, M P; Constantinescu, S; Cormick, M M; Cortese, P; Cruz, J; Da Silva, W; Defalco, A; Dellacasa, G; Demarco, N; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grigorian, S; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Macciotta, P; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Rato-Mendes, P; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno; Villatte, L; Willis, N; Wu, T

    2003-01-01

    We report preliminary results on $J/\\psi$ suppression in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/c incident momentum. The new study is based on the most recent data collected with improved experimental conditions and extending over a large centrality range. We also present results on charged particle yields in Pb-Pb collisions at 40 and 158 GeV/c incident momenta and compare them both with theoretical predictions and with other experimental results. (14 refs).

  18. Operating room fires in periocular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Michael A; Menke, Anne M; Vrcek, Ivan; Shore, John W

    2017-05-20

    A survey of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgeons as well as seven-year data regarding claims made to the Ophthalmic Mutual Insurance Company (OMIC) is used to discuss operating room fires in periocular surgery. A retrospective review of all closed claim operating room fires submitted to OMIC was performed. A survey soliciting personal experiences with operating room fires was distributed to all American Society of Oculoplastic and Reconstructive Surgeons. Over the last 2 decades, OMIC managed 7 lawsuits resulting from an operating room fire during periocular surgery. The mean settlement per lawsuit was $145,285 (range $10,000-474,994). All six patients suffered burns to the face, and three required admission to a burn unit. One hundred and sixty-eight surgeons participated in the online survey. Approximately 44% of survey respondents have experienced at least one operating room fire. Supplemental oxygen was administered in 88% of these cases. Most surgical fires reported occurred in a hospital-based operating room (59%) under monitored anesthesia care (79%). Monopolar cautery (41%) and thermal, high-temperature cautery (41%) were most commonly reported as the inciting agents. Almost half of the patients involved in a surgical fire experienced a complication from the fire (48%). Sixty-nine percent of hospital operating rooms and 66% of ambulatory surgery centers maintain an operating room fire prevention policy. An intraoperative fire can be costly for both the patient and the surgeon. Ophthalmic surgeons operate in an oxygen rich and therefore flammable environment. Proactive measures can be undertaken to reduce the incidence of surgical fires periocular surgery; however, a fire can occur at any time and the entire operating room team must be constantly vigilant to prevent and manage operating room fires.

  19. Neuronal response impedance mechanism implementing cooperative networks with low firing rates and μs precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardi, Roni; Goldental, Amir; Marmari, Hagar; Brama, Haya; Stern, Edward A; Sardi, Shira; Sabo, Pinhas; Kanter, Ido

    2015-01-01

    Realizations of low firing rates in neural networks usually require globally balanced distributions among excitatory and inhibitory links, while feasibility of temporal coding is limited by neuronal millisecond precision. We show that cooperation, governing global network features, emerges through nodal properties, as opposed to link distributions. Using in vitro and in vivo experiments we demonstrate microsecond precision of neuronal response timings under low stimulation frequencies, whereas moderate frequencies result in a chaotic neuronal phase characterized by degraded precision. Above a critical stimulation frequency, which varies among neurons, response failures were found to emerge stochastically such that the neuron functions as a low pass filter, saturating the average inter-spike-interval. This intrinsic neuronal response impedance mechanism leads to cooperation on a network level, such that firing rates are suppressed toward the lowest neuronal critical frequency simultaneously with neuronal microsecond precision. Our findings open up opportunities of controlling global features of network dynamics through few nodes with extreme properties.

  20. Social and economic issues of the Hayman Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Kent; Krista Gebert; Sarah McCaffrey; Wade Martin; David Calkin; Ervin Schuster; Ingrid Martin; Holly Wise Bender; Greg Alward; Yoshitaka Kumagai; Patricia J. Cohn; Matt Carroll; Dan Williams; Carol Ekarius

    2004-01-01

    On June 26, 2002, U.S. Representative Mark Udall wrote the US Forest Service Chief, requesting that the Forest Service conduct an analysis of the Hayman Fire. In response to the Congressman's letter, five teams were established in August, 2002 to analyze various aspects of the Hayman Fire experience. This report describes the Hayman Fire analysis work conducted by...

  1. Fired missile projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.D.; Gieszl, R.; Keller, P.J.; Drayer, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports ferromagnetic properties of fired missile projectiles (bullets, BBs, etc) investigated. Projectile samples were obtained from manufactures, police, and commercial sources. Deflection measurements at the portal of a 1.5-T magnetic field were performed for 47 projectiles. Sixteen bullets were examined in gelatin phantoms for rotation-translation movements as well. Ferromagnetic bullets displayed considerable deflection forces in the presence of the magnetic field and could be rotated to 80 degrees from their previous alignments when introduced perpendicular to the magnetic field in our gelatin phantom experiments. Military bullet calibers appear to pose the greatest ferromagnetic risk. Commercial sporting ammunition is generally nonferromagnetic

  2. Fire safety in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jomaas, Grunde; Torero, Jose L.; Eigenbrod, Christian

    2015-01-01

    An international research team has been assembled to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems by testing material samples in a series of flight experiments (Saffire 1, 2, and-3) to be conducted in an Orbital Science Corporation Cygnus vehicle after it has...... in some tests, to simulate the alarm mode environment in the ISS and thereby also to study extinguishment. The materials have been selected based on their known performance in NASA STD-6001Test-1, and with different materials being classified as charring, thermally thin, and thermally thick. Furthermore...

  3. OMS engine firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    An Orbital maneuvering system (OMS) engine firing caused this bright glow at the aft end of the shuttle Challenger during STS-7. Also visible in the open payload bay are parts of the Shuttle pallet satellite (SPAS-01), the experiment package for NASA's Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA-2), the protective cradles for the Indonesian Palapa-B and Telesat Canada Anik C2 satellites, some getaway special (GAS) canisters and the Canadian built remote manipulator system (RMS). Only a small portion of the earth's horizon can be seen above the orbiter's vertical stabilizer.

  4. Perceptions of Wildfire Threat and Mitigation Measures by Residents of Fire-Prone Communities in the Northeast: Survey Results and Wildland Fire Management Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Ryan; Mark B. Wamsley

    2006-01-01

    We surveyed residents of fire-prone areas of the Central Pine Barrens of Long Island, New York, and the Plymouth Pine Barrens in Massachusetts to learn how they perceived wildland fire risk and management techniques for reducing fire hazard. We found that residents considered the fire threat to their own property to be relatively low in spite of first-hand experience...

  5. Southwest Oregon Biscuit Fire: an analysis of forest resources and fire severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Azuma; Joseph Donnegan; Donald. Gedney

    2004-01-01

    The Biscuit Fire in southwestern Oregon was one of the largest and most costly in recent history, burning over 499,000 acres and costing over 150 million dollars in suppression efforts. This study uses prefire resource information in conjunction with postfire burn severity to generate statistically reliable prefire resource estimates for the land within the Biscuit...

  6. A critique of the historical-fire-regime concept in conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Johanna; Kobziar, Leda; Rose, Elizabeth White; Cropper, Wendell

    2017-10-01

    Prescribed fire is widely accepted as a conservation tool because fire is essential to the maintenance of native biodiversity in many terrestrial communities. Approaches to this land-management technique vary greatly among continents, and sharing knowledge internationally can inform application of prescribed fire worldwide. In North America, decisions about how and when to apply prescribed fire are typically based on the historical-fire-regime concept (HFRC), which holds that replicating the pattern of fires ignited by lightning or preindustrial humans best promotes native species in fire-prone regions. The HFRC rests on 3 assumptions: it is possible to infer historical fire regimes accurately; fire-suppressed communities are ecologically degraded; and reinstating historical fire regimes is the best course of action despite the global shift toward novel abiotic and biotic conditions. We examined the underpinnings of these assumptions by conducting a literature review on the use of historical fire regimes to inform the application of prescribed fire. We found that the practice of inferring historical fire regimes for entire regions or ecosystems often entails substantial uncertainty and can yield equivocal results; ecological outcomes of fire suppression are complex and may not equate to degradation, depending on the ecosystem and context; and habitat fragmentation, invasive species, and other modern factors can interact with fire to produce novel and in some cases negative ecological outcomes. It is therefore unlikely that all 3 assumptions will be fully upheld for any landscape in which prescribed fire is being applied. Although the HFRC is a valuable starting point, it should not be viewed as the sole basis for developing prescribed fire programs. Rather, fire prescriptions should also account for other specific, measurable ecological parameters on a case-by-case basis. To best achieve conservation goals, researchers should seek to understand contemporary fire

  7. Fires, ecological effects of

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Bond; Robert Keane

    2017-01-01

    Fire is both a natural and anthropogenic disturbance influencing the distribution, structure, and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems around the world. Many plants and animals depend on fire for their continued existence. Others species, such as rainforest plants species, are extremely intolerant of burning and need protection from fire. The properties of a fire...

  8. Fire Sales and House Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    We exploit a natural experiment in Denmark to investigate when forced sales lead to fire sale discounts. Forced sales result from sudden deaths of house owners in an institutional environment in which beneficiaries are forced to settle the estate, and hence sell the house, within 12 months. We...

  9. Fire Sales and House Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates when forced sales of real estate turn into fire sales by using a natural experiment that allows us to separate supply and demand effects: Forced sales result from sudden death of house owners and are thus unrelated to current market conditions. We find that forced sales...

  10. Management impacts on fire occurrence: A comparison of fire regimes of African and South American tropical savannas in different protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Swanni T; Silva, Thiago Sanna Freire; Archibald, Sally

    2018-04-14

    Humans can alter fire dynamics in grassland systems by changing fire frequency, fire seasonality and fuel conditions. These changes have effects on vegetation structure and recovery, species composition, and ecosystem function. Understanding how human management can affect fire regimes is vital to detect potential changes in the resilience of plant communities, and to predict vegetation responses to human interventions. We evaluated the fire regimes of two recently protected areas in Madagascar (Ibity and Itremo NPA) and one in Brazil (Serra do Cipó NP) before and after livestock exclusion and fire suppression policies. We compare the pre- and post-management fire history in these areas and analyze differences in terms of total annual burned area, density of ignitions, burn scar size distribution, fire return period and seasonal fire distribution. More than 90% of total park areas were burned at least once during the studied period, for all parks. We observed a significant reduction in the number of ignitions for Ibity NPA and Serra do Cipó NP after livestock exclusion and active fire suppression, but no significant change in total burned area for each protected area. We also observed a seasonal shift in burning, with fires happening later in the fire season (October-November) after management intervention. However, the protected areas in Madagascar had shorter fire return intervals (3.23 and 1.82 years) than those in Brazil (7.91 years). Our results demonstrate that fire exclusion is unattainable, and probably unwarranted in tropical grassland conservation areas, but show how human intervention in fire and vegetation patterns can alter various aspects of the fire regimes. This information can help with formulating realistic and effective fire management policies in these valuable conservation areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effects of Prescribed Burning and Thinning on Herpetofauna and Small Mammals in the Upper Piedmont of South Carolina: Preliminary Results of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eran S. Kilpatrick; Dean B. Kubacz; David C. Guynn; J. Drew Lanham; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2004-01-01

    Due to heavy fuel loads resulting from years of fire suppression, upland pine and mixed pine hardwood forests in the Upper Piedmont of South Carolina are at risk of severe wildfire. The National Fire and Fire Surrogate Study (NFFS) was conducted on the Clemson Experimental Forest to study the effects of prescribed burning and thinning on a multitude of factors,...

  12. Fire, safety and ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-02-01

    Correct ventilation in tunnel environments is vital for the comfort and safety of the people passing through. This article gives details of products from several manufacturers of safety rescue and fire fighting equipment, fire and fume detection equipment, special fire resistant materials, fire resistant hydraulic oils and fire dampers, and ventilation systems. Company addresses and fax numbers are supplied. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 10 photos.

  13. Fire-Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  14. Smoldering - The Fire Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Torero, Jose L

    2000-01-01

    There are certain fire initiation scenarios that are particularly common, one of great significance is a fire initiated from the ignition of a porous fuel. Nearly 40% of the deaths due to fire can be traced to cigarette induced smolder of upholstered furniture and the mechanisms that control the process that transforms the weak smolder reaction occurring in the cigarette to a fire are still mostly unknown. A general description of this fire scenario and a discussion of its threats is pr...

  15. Conditioned suppression, punishment, and aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme-Johnson, D. W.; Yarczower, M.

    1974-01-01

    The aversive action of visual stimuli was studied in two groups of pigeons which received response-contingent or noncontingent electric shocks in cages with translucent response keys. Presentation of grain for 3 sec, contingent on key pecking, was the visual stimulus associated with conditioned punishment or suppression. The responses of the pigeons in three different experiments are compared.

  16. DynCorp Tricities Services, Inc. Hanford fire department FY 1998 annual work plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, D.E.

    1997-08-19

    The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the U.S. Department of Energy operated Hanford site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under mutual aid and state mobilization agreements and fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System) and various commercial entities operating on site through Requests for Service from DOE-RL. This fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, respiratory protection services, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This plan provides a program overview, program baselines, and schedule baseline.

  17. Visibility analysis of fire lookout towers in the Boyabat State Forest Enterprise in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuk, Omer; Topaloglu, Ozer; Altunel, Arif Oguz; Cetin, Mehmet

    2017-07-01

    For a successful fire suppression, it is essential to detect and intervene forest fires as early as possible. Fire lookout towers are crucial assets in detecting forest fires, in addition to other technological advancements. In this study, we performed a visibility analysis on a network of fire lookout towers currently operating in a relatively fire-prone region in Turkey's Western Black Sea region. Some of these towers had not been functioning properly; it was proposed that these be taken out of the grid and replaced with new ones. The percentage of visible areas under the current network of fire lookout towers was 73%; it could rise to 81% with the addition of newly proposed towers. This study was the first research to conduct a visibility analysis of current and newly proposed fire lookout towers in the Western Black Sea region and focus on its forest fire problem.

  18. Science delivery is a two-way street – development of the Consortium Of Appalachian Fire Managers and Scientists (CAFMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop; Helen H. Mohr; Zoe Hoyle

    2012-01-01

    The Appalachian region stretches along the Blue Ridge Mountains from Pennsylvania south into Georgia and Alabama. The region’s lands shelter some of the greatest biological diversity in the United States. The heavily forested public lands are in great need of science-based fire management after decades of fire suppression. Fire-related research is relatively new to the...

  19. FIRE_AX_SOF_ARAT_FLT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) ASTEX Surface of the Ocean, Fluxes and Interaction with the Atmosphere (SOFIA) Avion de Recherche Atmospherique (ARAT) Fokker...

  20. FIRE_AX_SOF_ARAT_TRB

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) ASTEX Surface of the Ocean, Fluxes and Interaction with the Atmosphere (SOFIA) Avion de Recherche Atmospherique (ARAT) Fokker...

  1. Fire safety improvement of para-aramid fiber in thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xilei; Wang, Wenduo; Li, Shaoxiang; Jiao, Chuanmei, E-mail: jiaochm@qust.edu.cn

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Fire safety of para-aramid fiber on TPU has been investigated. • Para-aramid fiber has excellent flame retardant abilities and smoke suppression properties on TPU. • A new technique to improve the fire safety polymer is provided in this article. - Abstract: This article mainly studied fire safety effects of para-aramid fiber (AF) in thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). The TPU/AF composites were prepared by molten blending method, and then the fire safety effects of all TPU composites were tested using cone calorimeter test (CCT), microscale combustion colorimeter test (MCC), smoke density test (SDT), and thermogravimetric/fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR). The CCT test showed that AF could improve the fire safety of TPU. Remarkably, the peak value of heat release rate (pHRR) and the peak value of smoke production rate (pSPR) for the sample with 1.0 wt% content of AF were decreased by 52.0% and 40.5% compared with pure TPU, respectively. The MCC test showed that the HRR value of AF-2 decreased by 27.6% compared with pure TPU. TG test showed that AF promoted the char formation in the degradation process of TPU; as a result the residual carbon was increased. The TG-IR test revealed that AF had increased the thermal stability of TPU at the beginning and reduced the release of CO{sub 2} with the decomposition going on. Through the analysis of the results of this experiment, it will make a great influence on the study of the para-aramid fiber in the aspect of fire safety of polymer.

  2. Trace gas emissions from combustion of peat, crop residue, domestic biofuels, grasses, and other fuels: configuration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) component of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, C. E.; Yokelson, R. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Robinson, A. L.; DeMott, P. J.; Sullivan, R. C.; Reardon, J.; Ryan, K. C.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Stevens, L.

    2014-09-01

    During the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4, October-November 2012) a large variety of regionally and globally significant biomass fuels was burned at the US Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The particle emissions were characterized by an extensive suite of instrumentation that measured aerosol chemistry, size distribution, optical properties, and cloud-nucleating properties. The trace gas measurements included high-resolution mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimensional gas chromatography, and open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy. This paper summarizes the overall experimental design for FLAME-4 - including the fuel properties, the nature of the burn simulations, and the instrumentation employed - and then focuses on the OP-FTIR results. The OP-FTIR was used to measure the initial emissions of 20 trace gases: CO2, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C3H6, HCHO, HCOOH, CH3OH, CH3COOH, glycolaldehyde, furan, H2O, NO, NO2, HONO, NH3, HCN, HCl, and SO2. These species include most of the major trace gases emitted by biomass burning, and for several of these compounds, this is the first time their emissions are reported for important fuel types. The main fire types included African grasses, Asian rice straw, cooking fires (open (three-stone), rocket, and gasifier stoves), Indonesian and extratropical peat, temperate and boreal coniferous canopy fuels, US crop residue, shredded tires, and trash. Comparisons of the OP-FTIR emission factors (EFs) and emission ratios (ERs) to field measurements of biomass burning verify that the large body of FLAME-4 results can be used to enhance the understanding of global biomass burning and its representation in atmospheric chemistry models. Crop residue fires are widespread globally and account for the most burned area in the US, but their emissions were previously poorly characterized. Extensive results are presented for burning rice and wheat straw: two major global crop residues

  3. Davis Fire: Fire behavior and fire effects analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaWen T. Hollingsworth

    2010-01-01

    The Davis Fire presents an interesting example of fire behavior in subalpine fir, partially dead lodgepole pine with multiple age classes, and moist site Douglas-fir vegetation types. This has been summer of moderate temperatures and intermittent moisture that has kept live herbaceous and live woody moistures fairly high and dead fuel moistures at a moderate level....

  4. FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System - A program for fire danger rating analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Larry S. Bradshaw

    1997-01-01

    A computer program, FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System, provides methods for evaluating the performance of fire danger rating indexes. The relationship between fire danger indexes and historical fire occurrence and size is examined through logistic regression and percentiles. Historical seasonal trends of fire danger and fire occurrence can be...

  5. Climate drives inter-annual variability in probability of high severity fire occurrence in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Alisa; Westerling, Anthony LeRoy

    2017-05-01

    A long history of fire suppression in the western United States has significantly changed forest structure and ecological function, leading to increasingly uncharacteristic fires in terms of size and severity. Prior analyses of fire severity in California forests showed that time since last fire and fire weather conditions predicted fire severity very well, while a larger regional analysis showed that topography and climate were important predictors of high severity fire. There has not yet been a large-scale study that incorporates topography, vegetation and fire-year climate to determine regional scale high severity fire occurrence. We developed models to predict the probability of high severity fire occurrence for the western US. We predict high severity fire occurrence with some accuracy, and identify the relative importance of predictor classes in determining the probability of high severity fire. The inclusion of both vegetation and fire-year climate predictors was critical for model skill in identifying fires with high fractional fire severity. The inclusion of fire-year climate variables allows this model to forecast inter-annual variability in areas at future risk of high severity fire, beyond what slower-changing fuel conditions alone can accomplish. This allows for more targeted land management, including resource allocation for fuels reduction treatments to decrease the risk of high severity fire.

  6. General fire protection guidelines for egyptian nuclear facilities. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhad, S.; Hussien, A.Z.; Hammad, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the regulatory requirements of that will provide and ensure fire protection of egyptian nuclear facilities. Those facilities that use, handle and store low and/or medium radioactive substances are included. Two or more classes of occupancy are considered to occur in the same building or structure. Fir protection measures and systems were reviewed for three of the egyptian Nuclear facilities. These are egypt first nuclear reactor (ETRR-1) building and systems, hot laboratories buildings and facilities, and the building including the AECL type Is-6500 industrial cobalt-60 gamma irradiator E gypt's mega gamma I . The study includes the outlines of the various aspects of fire protection with a view to define the relevant highlights and scope of egyptian guideline for nuclear installations. The study considers fire protection aspects including the following items: 1- Site selection. 2- General facility design. 3- Fire alarm, detection and suppression systems. 4- Protection for specific areas/control room, cable spreading room, computer room) 5- Fire emergency response planning. 6- Fire water supply. 7- Emergency lighting and communication. 8- Rescue and escape routes. 9- Explosion protection. 10-Manual fire fighting. 11- Security consideration in the interest of fire protection. 12- quality assurance programme. Therefore, first of all the design stage, then during the construction stage, and later during the operation stage, measures must be taken to forestall the risks associated with the outbreak of fire and to ensure that consequences of fire accidents remain limited

  7. Upgrading of fire safety in nuclear power plants. Proceedings of an International Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The document includes 40 papers presented at the International Symposium on Upgrading of Fire Safety in Nuclear Power Plants held in Vienna between 18-21 November 1997. The symposium presentations were grouped in 6 sessions: Fire safety reviews (5 papers), Fire safety analysis - Methodology (6 papers), Fire safety analysis - Applications (3 papers), Panel 1 - Identification of deficiencies in fire safety in nuclear power plants - Operational experience and data (7 papers), Panel 2 - Experience based data in fire safety assessment - Fire safety regulations and licensing (7 papers), Upgrading programmes (10 papers), and a closing session (2 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper

  8. Fire impacts on European Boreal soils: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Oliva, Marc; Cerda, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Fire is an important natural disturbance in boreal ecosystems, fundamental to understand plant distribution (Ryan, 2002; Wallenius et al., 2004; Granstrom, 2001). Nevertheless, nowadays the intense and successful, fire suppression measures are changing their ecological role (Pereira et al., 2013a,b). This is consequence of the lack of understanding of stakeholders and decision makers about the role of the fire in the ecosystems (Mierasukas and Pereira, 2013; Pereira et al., 2016). This fire suppression measures are increasing the amount of fuel accumulation and the risk of severe wildfires, which can increase of frequency and severity in a context of climate change. Fire is a good tool for landscape management and restoration of degraded ecosystems (Toivanen and Kotiaho, 2007). Fire is considered a soil forming factor (Certini, 2014) and in boreal environments it has been observed that low fire severities, do not change importantly soil properties, mean fire severities induce positive impacts on soil, since add an important amounts of nutrients into soil profile and high severity fires had negative impacts due to the high consumption of organic matter (Vanha-Majamaa et al., 2007; Pereira et al., 2014). References Certini, G., 2014. Fire as a soil-forming factor. Ambio, 43, 191-195 Granstrom A. 2001. Fire management for biodiversity in the European Boreal forest. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 3: 62-69. Mierauskas, P., Pereira, P. (2013) Stakeholders perception about prescribed fire use in Lithuania. First results, Flamma, 4(3), 157-161. Pereira, P., Cerdà, A., Jordán, A., Bolutiene, V., Úbeda, X., Pranskevicius, M., Mataix-Solera, J. (2013) Spatio-temporal vegetation recuperation after a grassland fire in Lithuania, Procedia Environmental Sciences, 19:856-864 Pereira, P., Mierauskas, P., Ubeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J.,Cerda, A. (2012) Fire in protected areas - the effect of the protection and importance of fire management, Environmental Research

  9. Beyond viral suppression of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Barton, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a new Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV for 2016-2021. It establishes 15 ambitious targets, including the '90-90-90' target calling on health systems to reduce under-diagnosis of HIV, treat a greater number of those diagnosed......, and ensure that those being treated achieve viral suppression. DISCUSSION: The WHO strategy calls for person-centered chronic care for people living with HIV (PLHIV), implicitly acknowledging that viral suppression is not the ultimate goal of treatment. However, it stops short of providing an explicit target...... for health-related quality of life. It thus fails to take into account the needs of PLHIV who have achieved viral suppression but still must contend with other intense challenges such as serious non-communicable diseases, depression, anxiety, financial stress, and experiences of or apprehension about HIV...

  10. New tendencies in wildland fire simulation for understanding fire phenomena: An overview of the WFDS system capabilities in Mediterranean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, E.; Tarragó, D.; Planas, E.

    2012-04-01

    Wildfire theoretical modeling endeavors predicting fire behavior characteristics, such as the rate of spread, the flames geometry and the energy released by the fire front by applying the physics and the chemistry laws that govern fire phenomena. Its ultimate aim is to help fire managers to improve fire prevention and suppression and hence reducing damage to population and protecting ecosystems. WFDS is a 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a fire-driven flow. It is particularly appropriate for predicting the fire behaviour burning through the wildland-urban interface, since it is able to predict the fire behaviour in the intermix of vegetative and structural fuels that comprise the wildland urban interface. This model is not suitable for operational fire management yet due to computational costs constrains, but given the fact that it is open-source and that it has a detailed description of the fuels and of the combustion and heat transfer mechanisms it is currently a suitable system for research purposes. In this paper we present the most important characteristics of the WFDS simulation tool in terms of the models implemented, the input information required and the outputs that the simulator gives useful for understanding fire phenomena. We briefly discuss its advantages and opportunities through some simulation exercises of Mediterranean ecosystems.

  11. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is ...

  12. Assessing the Role and Impact of Geospatial Data for Wildland Fire Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, E. A.; Lev, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    The 2015 Wildland and Fire Science and Technology Task Force Final Report, produced by the National Science and Technology Council, Committee on Environment, Natural Resources, and Sustainability, Subcommittee on Disaster Reduction, highlighted the increasing frequency of large wildfires and the growing demand for science to inform critical resource decisions to manage, mitigate, respond to, and recover from wildland fires. Federal spending on fire suppression from 2005-2015 has more than doubled despite policy changes that prioritize the mitigation of fire risks through the use of fuel treatments, prescribed fire, and management of naturally occurring wildfires to protect life and property. Fire suppression policies over the last century have created forests primed for severe fire, and in the face of a changing climate, the benefits of re-introducing fire into once fire-resilient ecosystems are clear. There are a range of complex factors and regional variation associated with wildland fire risk that complicate our understanding and effective management of this hazard. Data derived from Earth-observing (EO) systems and networks are a crucial input for managers when making decisions about fire suppression and fuel management. EO data can also be used to develop pre- and post-fire metrics that can aid in the evaluating the effectiveness of wildland fire management decisions. A value-tree method for mapping the role of EO systems and networks in delivering societal benefit through key Federal objectives related to wildland fire management will be presented. The value-tree methodology utilizes input from subject matter experts to assess the availability and usability of data and data products and to evaluate the impact of individual EO data inputs for achieving wildland fire management objectives. The results provide a qualitative assessment of the value of the data for the objectives described and identify critical gaps and continuity issues associated with

  13. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Brown; Jane Kapler Smith

    2000-01-01

    VOLUME 2: This state-of-knowledge review about the effects of fire on flora and fuels can assist land managers with ecosystem and fire management planning and in their efforts to inform others about the ecological role of fire. Chapter topics include fire regime classification, autecological effects of fire, fire regime characteristics and postfire plant community...

  14. Extinguishing smouldering fires in silos. BRANDFORSK project 745-961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisaari, M.; Baroudi, D.; Latva, R. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1998-11-01

    Combustible, porous materials may self-ignite during their storage time in silos as a result of internal heating. The self-ignition process may be slow, and it results in smouldering fires that are extremely difficult to extinguish. Suitable means to fight the smouldering fire were studied both theoretically and experimentally. General heat and mass transfer equations for porous media subject to fires and suppression were written. The equations together with dimensional analysis revealed critical parameters, like the grain size and moisture content, affecting the combustion and suppression process, but they also revealed the complexity of the problem. Experimental results of over 50 tests with varying combustibles and suppression agents were used as the basis for proposed qualitative guidelines on how to fight a smouldering silo fire. Among the potential gaseous agents, CO{sub 2} was found to be the most efficient one. Low expansion foam was also found to be a potential candidate, but its applicability requires further confirmation. Quantifying the guidelines requires a whole new study on the detection of a smouldering fire. The same detection system should be capable of monitoring the suppression process and - most importantly - verifying the extinguishment. (orig.) 46 refs.

  15. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  16. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  17. Buildings exposed to fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 24 lectures presented to the colloquium cover the following subject fields: (1) Behaviour of structural components exposed to fire; (2) Behaviour of building materials exposed to fire; (3) Thermal processes; (4) Safety related, theoretical studies. (PW) [de

  18. Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rorty, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober......Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober...

  19. Fire Making, Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2002-04-01

    In the late 1930's and early 1940's, JCE published several historical accounts on methods for igniting fires. This "From Past Issues" summarizes an article by Warren N. Watson on the fire making arts of primitive peoples.

  20. Fires and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Fires and Food Safety Fire! Few words can strike such terror. Residential ...

  1. Interagency Wildland Fire Cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    Wildlife Fire Assistance includes training personnel, forms partnerships for prescribed burns, state and regional data for fire management plans, develops agreements for DoD civilians to be reimbursed...

  2. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    her PhD degree from. Bangalore University. She is currently working as a Research Associate at the Department of. Inorganic and Physical. Chemistry, Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore, on the synthesis of .... This method uses the experiences of propellant chemistry in making the redox mixture. The . stoichiometry or ...

  3. FIRE CHARACTERISTICS FOR ADVANCED MODELLING OF FIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Dvořák

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the material and fire properties of solid flammable/combustible materials /substances /products, which are used as inputs for the computer numerical fire models. At the same time it gives the test standards for their determination.

  4. Smoke production in fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvaranta, L.; Kokkala, M. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1995-12-31

    Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

  5. Improving the Assessment of Indonesian Carbon Emissions from Peat Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, E. I.; Cochrane, M. A.; Yokelson, R. J.; Vetrita, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical peat fires occur nearly every year, but burning conditions are aggravated during droughts in Indonesia. Peat fires are a recurrent phenomenon in Indonesia and represent a problem for the country as they result in devastating environmental effects, significant impacts on economic and livelihood assets, and significant expenditures for fire suppression efforts. Moreover, peat fires have been identified as the primary source of the country's carbon emissions, making Indonesia the 3rd world's largest carbon emitter. However, the calculation of Indonesian carbon emission from peat fires should be improved due to some overestimates and uncertainties. To examine this issue, we analyzed in situ chemical characteristics of smoke from multiple individual peat fires and studied the fire situation from 2010-2015 in a portion of the ex-Mega Rice Project (EMRP) area, Central Kalimantan. Our field data suggest revisions to previously recommended IPPC's emission factors (EFs) from peat fires that were based on a limited amount of lab measurements, notably: CO2 (-8%), CH4 (-55%), NH3 (-86%), and CO (+39%). Through an analysis of daily TRMM data and measured ground water levels (GWL), we found a time-lag between the precipitation minimum and the lowest GWL. This affects the evolution of severe drying of degraded peat that creates suitable conditions for peat fires to be ignited. Terra/Aqua MODIS hotspot data and Landsat imagery analysis showed that more than 80% of fires occur in areas with GWL less than 20 cm, pointing out the value as a GWL threshold for management activities to lower risks of degraded peatlands experiencing recurrent devastating peat fires. We also believe that further use of the threshold to calculate burnt area, combined with the use of proposed new EFs, will improve the capacity for assessment of carbon emissions from Indonesian peat fires. Keywords : Peat fires, Emission Factor, precipitation, Ground Water Level, burnt area

  6. Mass Fire Model Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-31

    done by several investigators, the theoretical work of Nielsen (Reference 12) and Nielsen and Tao (Refer- ence 13) specifically models the global...which are approximately equal. This procedure permits computation of the fire..induced wind by a superpositlon of effects from each usub -fire." Outsid...Storm Analysis, ITT Research Institute, Janu- ary 1970. .324 13. Nielsen , H.J. and L.N. Tao, "The Fire Plume Above a Large Free- Burning Fire,’ Tenth S

  7. Sodium Fire Demonstration Facility Design and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Youngil; Kim, Jong-Man; Lee, Jewhan; Hong, Jonggan; Yeom, Sujin; Cho, Chungho; Jung, Min-Hwan; Gam, Da-Young; Jeong, Ji-Young

    2014-01-01

    Although sodium has good characteristics such as high heat transfer rate and stable nuclear property, it is difficult to manage because of high reactivity. Sodium is solid at the room temperature and it easily reacts with oxygen resulting in fire due to the reaction heat. Thus, sodium must be stored in a chemically stable place, i.e., an inert gas-sealed or oil filled vessel. When a sodium fire occurs, the Na 2 O of white fume is formed. It is mainly composed of Na 2 O 2 , NaOH, and Na 2 CO 3 , ranging from 0.1 to several tens of micrometers in size. It is known that the particle size increases by aggregation during floating in air. Thus, the protection method is important and should be considered in the design and operation of a sodium system. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics are described, and the demonstration utility of outbreak of sodium fire and its extinguishing is introduced. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics and a demonstration facility are described. The introduced sodium fire demonstration facility is the only training device used to observe a sodium fire and extinguish it domestically. Furthermore, the type of sodium fire will be diversified with the enhancement of the utility. It is expected that this utility will contribute to experience in the safe treatment of sodium by the handlers

  8. Advanced Portable Fine Water Mist Fire Extinguisher for Spacecraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fine water mist (FWM) is a promising replacement technology for fire suppression on the next generation of manned spacecraft. It offers advantages in performance,...

  9. Effervescent Fine Water Mist Fire Extinguisher for Microgravity Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fire suppression systems provide an essential safety function onboard spacecraft. The transition away from halon-based systems has presented an opportunity for...

  10. Fire fighting precautions at Bohunice Atomic Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Some shortcomings are discussed of the project design of fire protection at the V-1 and V-2 nuclear power plants. The basic shortcoming of the system is insufficient division of the units for fire protection. Fire fighting measures are described for cable areas, switch houses and outside transformers, primary and secondary circuits and auxiliary units. Measures are presented for increasing fire safety in Jaslovske Bohunice proceedi.ng from experience gained with a fire which had occurred at a nuclear power plant in Armenia. (E.S.)

  11. Fire Department Emergency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services.

  12. Fire as Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project that deals with fire production as an aspect of technology. The project challenges students to be survivors in a five-day classroom activity. Students research various materials and methods to produce fire without the use of matches or other modern combustion devices, then must create "fire" to keep…

  13. Fire and forest meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    SA Ferguson; T.J. Brown; M. Flannigan

    2005-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society symposia series on Fire and Forest Meteorology provides biennial forums for atmospheric and fire scientists to introduce and discuss the latest and most relevant research on weather, climate and fire. This special issue highlights significant work that was presented at the Fifth Symposium in Orlando, Florida during 16-20 November...

  14. Control of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) on apple trees with trunk-injected plant resistance inducers and antibiotics and assessment of induction of pathogenesis-related protein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aćimović, Srđan G; Zeng, Quan; McGhee, Gayle C; Sundin, George W; Wise, John C

    2015-01-01

    Management of fire blight is complicated by limitations on use of antibiotics in agriculture, antibiotic resistance development, and limited efficacy of alternative control agents. Even though successful in control, preventive antibiotic sprays also affect non-target bacteria, aiding the selection for resistance which could ultimately be transferred to the pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Trunk injection is a target-precise pesticide delivery method that utilizes tree xylem to distribute injected compounds. Trunk injection could decrease antibiotic usage in the open environment and increase the effectiveness of compounds in fire blight control. In field experiments, after 1-2 apple tree injections of either streptomycin, potassium phosphites (PH), or acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM), significant reduction of blossom and shoot blight symptoms was observed compared to water injected control trees. Overall disease suppression with streptomycin was lower than typically observed following spray applications to flowers. Trunk injection of oxytetracycline resulted in excellent control of shoot blight severity, suggesting that injection is a superior delivery method for this antibiotic. Injection of both ASM and PH resulted in the significant induction of PR-1, PR-2, and PR-8 protein genes in apple leaves indicating induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) under field conditions. The time separating SAR induction and fire blight symptom suppression indicated that various defensive compounds within the SAR response were synthesized and accumulated in the canopy. ASM and PH suppressed fire blight even after cessation of induced gene expression. With the development of injectable formulations and optimization of doses and injection schedules, the injection of protective compounds could serve as an effective option for fire blight control.

  15. Control of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora on apple trees with trunk-injected plant resistance inducers and antibiotics and assessment of induction of pathogenesis-related protein genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan G. Aćimović

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Management of fire blight is complicated by limitations on use of antibiotics in agriculture, antibiotic resistance development, and limited efficacy of alternative control agents. Even though successful in control, preventive antibiotic sprays also affect non-target bacteria, aiding the selection for resistance which could ultimately be transferred to the pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Trunk injection is a target-precise pesticide delivery method that utilizes tree xylem to distribute injected compounds. Trunk injection could decrease antibiotic usage in the open environment and increase the effectiveness of compounds in fire blight control. In field experiments, after 1-2 apple tree injections of either streptomycin, potassium phosphites (PH or acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM, significant reduction of blossom and shoot blight symptoms was observed compared to water- or non-injected control trees. Overall disease suppression with streptomycin was lower than typically observed following spray applications to flowers. Trunk injection of oxytetracycline resulted in excellent control of shoot blight severity, suggesting that injection is a superior delivery method for this antibiotic. Injection of both ASM and PH resulted in the significant induction of PR-1, PR-2 and PR-8 protein genes in apple leaves indicating induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR under field conditions. The time separating SAR induction and fire blight symptom suppression indicated that various defensive compounds within the SAR response were synthesized and accumulated in the canopy. ASM and PH suppressed fire blight even after cessation of induced gene expression. With the development of injectable formulations and optimization of doses and injection schedules, the injection of protective compounds could serve as an effective option for fire blight control.

  16. Wildfire Suppression Costs for Canada under a Changing Climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S Hope

    Full Text Available Climate-influenced changes in fire regimes in northern temperate and boreal regions will have both ecological and economic ramifications. We examine possible future wildfire area burned and suppression costs using a recently compiled historical (i.e., 1980-2009 fire management cost database for Canada and several Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC climate projections. Area burned was modelled as a function of a climate moisture index (CMI, and fire suppression costs then estimated as a function of area burned. Future estimates of area burned were generated from projections of the CMI under two emissions pathways for four General Circulation Models (GCMs; these estimates were constrained to ecologically reasonable values by incorporating a minimum fire return interval of 20 years. Total average annual national fire management costs are projected to increase to just under $1 billion (a 60% real increase from the 1980-2009 period under the low greenhouse gas emissions pathway and $1.4 billion (119% real increase from the base period under the high emissions pathway by the end of the century. For many provinces, annual costs that are currently considered extreme (i.e., occur once every ten years are projected to become commonplace (i.e., occur once every two years or more often as the century progresses. It is highly likely that evaluations of current wildland fire management paradigms will be necessary to avoid drastic and untenable cost increases as the century progresses.

  17. Wildfire Suppression Costs for Canada under a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, Brian J.; Gauthier, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Climate-influenced changes in fire regimes in northern temperate and boreal regions will have both ecological and economic ramifications. We examine possible future wildfire area burned and suppression costs using a recently compiled historical (i.e., 1980–2009) fire management cost database for Canada and several Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate projections. Area burned was modelled as a function of a climate moisture index (CMI), and fire suppression costs then estimated as a function of area burned. Future estimates of area burned were generated from projections of the CMI under two emissions pathways for four General Circulation Models (GCMs); these estimates were constrained to ecologically reasonable values by incorporating a minimum fire return interval of 20 years. Total average annual national fire management costs are projected to increase to just under $1 billion (a 60% real increase from the 1980–2009 period) under the low greenhouse gas emissions pathway and $1.4 billion (119% real increase from the base period) under the high emissions pathway by the end of the century. For many provinces, annual costs that are currently considered extreme (i.e., occur once every ten years) are projected to become commonplace (i.e., occur once every two years or more often) as the century progresses. It is highly likely that evaluations of current wildland fire management paradigms will be necessary to avoid drastic and untenable cost increases as the century progresses. PMID:27513660

  18. Climate change, fire management, and ecological services in the southwestern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurteau, Matthew D.; Bradford, John B.; Fulé, Peter Z.; Taylor, Alan H.; Martin, Katherine L.

    2014-01-01

    The diverse forest types of the southwestern US are inseparable from fire. Across climate zones in California, Nevada, Arizona, and New Mexico, fire suppression has left many forest types out of sync with their historic fire regimes. As a result, high fuel loads place them at risk of severe fire, particularly as fire activity increases due to climate change. A legacy of fire exclusion coupled with a warming climate has led to increasingly large and severe wildfires in many southwest forest types. Climate change projections include an extended fire season length due to earlier snowmelt and a general drying trend due to rising temperatures. This suggests the future will be warmer and drier regardless of changes in precipitation. Hotter, drier conditions are likely to increase forest flammability, at least initially. Changes in climate alone have the potential to alter the distribution of vegetation types within the region, and climate-driven shifts in vegetation distribution are likely to be accelerated when coupled with stand-replacing fire. Regardless of the rate of change, the interaction of climate and fire and their effects on Southwest ecosystems will alter the provisioning of ecosystem services, including carbon storage and biodiversity. Interactions between climate, fire, and vegetation growth provide a source of great uncertainty in projecting future fire activity in the region, as post-fire forest recovery is strongly influenced by climate and subsequent fire frequency. Severe fire can be mitigated with fuels management including prescribed fire, thinning, and wildfire management, but new strategies are needed to ensure the effectiveness of treatments across landscapes. We review the current understanding of the relationship between fire and climate in the Southwest, both historical and projected. We then discuss the potential implications of climate change for fire management and examine the potential effects of climate change and fire on ecosystem

  19. Lightning Fires in a Brazilian Savanna National Park: Rethinking Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Neto, Mário Barroso; Pivello, Vânia Regina

    2000-12-01

    Fire occurrences and their sources were monitored in Emas National Park, Brazil (17°49'-18°28'S; 52°39'-53°10'W) from June 1995 to May 1999. The extent of burned area and weather conditions were registered. Forty-five fires were recorded and mapped on a GIS during this study. Four fires occurred in the dry winter season (June-August; 7,942 ha burned), all caused by humans; 10 fires occurred in the seasonally transitional months (May and September) (33,386 ha burned); 31 fires occurred in the wet season, of which 30 were caused by lightning inside the park (29,326 ha burned), and one started outside the park (866 ha burned). Wet season lightning fires started in the open vegetation (wet field or grassy savanna) at a flat plateau, an area that showed significantly higher fire incidence. On average, winter fires burned larger areas and spread more quickly, compared to lightning fires, and fire suppression was necessary to extinguish them. Most lightning fires were patchy and extinguished primarily by rain. Lightning fires in the wet season, previously considered unimportant episodes, were shown to be very frequent and probably represent the natural fire pattern in the region. Lightning fires should be regarded as ecologically beneficial, as they create natural barriers to the spread of winter fires. The present fire management in the park is based on the burning of preventive firebreaks in the dry season and exclusion of any other fire. This policy does not take advantage of the beneficial effects of the natural fire regime and may in fact reduce biodiversity. The results presented here stress the need for reevaluating present policies and management procedures concerning fire in cerrado conservation areas.

  20. Carbon dioxide not suitable for extinguishment of smouldering silo fires: static electricity may cause silo explosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2018-01-01

    Smouldering fires in wood pellet silos are not uncommon. The fires are often difficult to deal with and extinguishment is a lengthy process. Injection of inert gasses to prevent oxygen from reaching the smouldering fire zone and suppress combustion is a new firefighting strategy. This article...... act as a source of ignition if ignitable pyrolysis gasses are present. This article discusses a serious wood pellet smouldering fire and silo explosion in Norway in 2010, which took place when firefighters discharged portable CO2 fire extinguishers into the headspace. The attempt to suppress the fire...... may have ignited pyrolysis gasses. The article examines selected guidelines, standards, popular wood pellet handbooks and other literature and argues that the electrostatic hazard is widely under-appreciated. In the past, major explosions have been attributed to electrostatic ignition of flammable...

  1. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE: emissions of particulate matter from wood- and dung-fueled cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jayarathne

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE characterized widespread and under-sampled combustion sources common to South Asia, including brick kilns, garbage burning, diesel and gasoline generators, diesel groundwater pumps, idling motorcycles, traditional and modern cooking stoves and fires, crop residue burning, and heating fire. Fuel-based emission factors (EFs; with units of pollutant mass emitted per kilogram of fuel combusted were determined for fine particulate matter (PM2.5, organic carbon (OC, elemental carbon (EC, inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. For the forced-draft zigzag brick kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 12 to 19 g kg−1 with major contributions from OC (7 %, sulfate expected to be in the form of sulfuric acid (31.9 %, and other chemicals not measured (e.g., particle-bound water. For the clamp kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 8 to 13 g kg−1, with major contributions from OC (63.2 %, sulfate (23.4 %, and ammonium (16 %. Our brick kiln EFPM2.5 values may exceed those previously reported, partly because we sampled emissions at ambient temperature after emission from the stack or kiln allowing some particle-phase OC and sulfate to form from gaseous precursors. The combustion of mixed household garbage under dry conditions had an EFPM2.5 of 7.4 ± 1.2 g kg−1, whereas damp conditions generated the highest EFPM2.5 of all combustion sources in this study, reaching up to 125 ± 23 g kg−1. Garbage burning emissions contained triphenylbenzene and relatively high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Sb, making these useful markers of this source. A variety of cooking stoves and fires fueled with dung, hardwood, twigs, and/or other biofuels were studied. The use of dung for cooking and heating produced higher EFPM2.5 than other biofuel sources and consistently emitted more PM2.5 and OC than burning hardwood and/or twigs; this trend was consistent across traditional mud

  2. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): emissions of particulate matter from wood- and dung-fueled cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Bhave, Prakash V.; Praveen, Puppala S.; Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Robiul Islam, Md.; Panday, Arnico K.; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; Goetz, J. Douglas; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Saikawa, Eri; Yokelson, Robert J.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2018-02-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE) characterized widespread and under-sampled combustion sources common to South Asia, including brick kilns, garbage burning, diesel and gasoline generators, diesel groundwater pumps, idling motorcycles, traditional and modern cooking stoves and fires, crop residue burning, and heating fire. Fuel-based emission factors (EFs; with units of pollutant mass emitted per kilogram of fuel combusted) were determined for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. For the forced-draft zigzag brick kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 12 to 19 g kg-1 with major contributions from OC (7 %), sulfate expected to be in the form of sulfuric acid (31.9 %), and other chemicals not measured (e.g., particle-bound water). For the clamp kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 8 to 13 g kg-1, with major contributions from OC (63.2 %), sulfate (23.4 %), and ammonium (16 %). Our brick kiln EFPM2.5 values may exceed those previously reported, partly because we sampled emissions at ambient temperature after emission from the stack or kiln allowing some particle-phase OC and sulfate to form from gaseous precursors. The combustion of mixed household garbage under dry conditions had an EFPM2.5 of 7.4 ± 1.2 g kg-1, whereas damp conditions generated the highest EFPM2.5 of all combustion sources in this study, reaching up to 125 ± 23 g kg-1. Garbage burning emissions contained triphenylbenzene and relatively high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Sb), making these useful markers of this source. A variety of cooking stoves and fires fueled with dung, hardwood, twigs, and/or other biofuels were studied. The use of dung for cooking and heating produced higher EFPM2.5 than other biofuel sources and consistently emitted more PM2.5 and OC than burning hardwood and/or twigs; this trend was consistent across traditional mud stoves, chimney stoves, and three-stone cooking

  3. Fire Protection Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  4. WILDLAND FIRE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ENVIRONMENTAL AND WASTE MANAGEMENT SERVICES DIVISION

    2003-09-01

    This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) and the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve) is based on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (FWS) fire management planning procedures and was developed in cooperation with the Department of Energy (DOE) by Brookhaven Science Associates. As the Upton Reserve is contained within the BNL 5,265-acre site, it is logical that the plan applies to both the Upton Reserve and BNL. The Department of the Interior policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas managed by FWS that can sustain fire must have an FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures and specifies values to be protected or enhanced. Fire management plans provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled, ''prescribed'' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL/Upton Reserve Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered and threatened species and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL and the Upton Reserve. This FMP will be reviewed periodically to ensure the fire program advances and evolves with the missions of FWS, BNL, and the Upton Reserve. This Fire Management Plan is a modified version of the Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex Fire plan (updated in 2000), which contains all FWS fire plan requirements and is presented in the format specified by the national template for fire management plans adopted under the National Fire Plan. The DOE is one of the signatory agencies on the National Fire Plan. FWS shall be, through an Interagency Agreement dated November 2000 (Appendix C), responsible for coordinating and

  5. Teachers' Autonomy Support, Autonomy Suppression and Conditional Negative Regard as Predictors of Optimal Learning Experience among High-Achieving Bedouin Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Haya

    2018-01-01

    The study is based on self-determination theory and focuses on the motivation of high-achieving Bedouin students who belong to a hierarchical-collectivist society. The study focuses on the question: What are the relations between teachers' autonomy support and control and an optimal learning experience among students? The study is unique in its…

  6. Effects of fire on woody vegetation structure in African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Izak P J; Asner, Gregory P; Govender, Navashni; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Knapp, David E; Jacobson, James

    2010-10-01

    Despite the importance of fire in shaping savannas, it remains poorly understood how the frequency, seasonality, and intensity of fire interact to influence woody vegetation structure, which is a key determinant of savanna biodiversity. We provide a comprehensive analysis of vertical and horizontal woody vegetation structure across one of the oldest savanna fire experiments, using new airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology. We developed and compared high-resolution woody vegetation height surfaces for a series of large experimental burn plots in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. These 7-ha plots (total area approximately 1500 ha) have been subjected to fire in different seasons and at different frequencies, as well as no-burn areas, for 54 years. Long-term exposure to fire caused a reduction in woody vegetation up to the 5.0-7.5 m height class, although most reduction was observed up to 4 m. Average fire intensity was positively correlated with changes in woody vegetation structure. More frequent fires reduced woody vegetation cover more than less frequent fires, and dry-season fires reduced woody vegetation more than wet-season fires. Spring fires from the late dry season reduced woody vegetation cover the most, and summer fires from the wet season reduced it the least. Fire had a large effect on structure in the densely wooded granitic landscapes as compared to the more open basaltic landscapes, although proportionally, the woody vegetation was more reduced in the drier than in the wetter landscapes. We show that fire frequency and fire season influence patterns of vegetation three-dimensional structure, which may have cascading consequences for biodiversity. Managers of savannas can therefore use fire frequency and season in concert to achieve specific vegetation structural objectives.

  7. Experimental and numerical modeling of shrub crown fire initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharapong Tachajapong; Jesse Lozano; Shakar Mahalingam; Xiangyang Zhou; David Weise

    2009-01-01

    The transition of fire from dry surface fuels to wet shrub crown fuels was studied using laboratory experiments and a simple physical model to gain a better understanding of the transition process. In the experiments, we investigated the effects of varying vertical distances between surface and crown fuels (crown base height), and of the wind speed on crown fire...

  8. Elevated Rocky Mountain elk numbers prevent positive effects of fire on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Solance; Fettig, Stephen M.; Bowker, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) is the most widespread tree species in North America and has supported a unique ecosystem for tens of thousands of years, yet is currently threatened by dramatic loss and possible local extinctions. While multiple factors such as climate change and fire suppression are thought to contribute to aspen’s decline, increased browsing by elk (Cervus elaphus), which have experienced dramatic population increases in the last ∼80 years, may severely inhibit aspen growth and regeneration. Fires are known to favor aspen recovery, but in the last several decades the spatial scale and intensity of wildfires has greatly increased, with poorly understood ramifications for aspen growth. Here, focusing on the 2000 Cerro Grande fire in central New Mexico – one of the earliest fires described as a “mega-fire” - we use three methods to examine the impact of elk browsing on aspen regeneration after a mega-fire. First, we use an exclosure experiment to show that aspen growing in the absence of elk were 3× taller than trees growing in the presence of elk. Further, aspen that were both protected from elk and experienced burning were 8.5× taller than unburned trees growing in the presence of elk, suggesting that the combination of release from herbivores and stimulation from fire creates the largest aspen growth rates. Second, using surveys at the landscape level, we found a correlation between elk browsing intensity and aspen height, such that where elk browsing was highest, aspen were shortest. This relationship between elk browsing intensity and aspen height was stronger in burned (r = −0.53) compared to unburned (r = −0.24) areas. Third, in conjunction with the landscape-level surveys, we identified possible natural refugia, microsites containing downed logs, shrubs etc. that may inhibit elk browsing by physically blocking aspen from elk or by impeding elk’s ability to move through the forest patch. We did not find any

  9. A Sojourn Experience in the Land of Fire and Ice: Examining Cultural Competence and Employee Well-Being through an Autoethnographic Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Robin S.

    2016-01-01

    This article is an autoethnographic study of my sojourner experiences as a visiting professor in Iceland. In sharing how the Fulbright sojourner-experience has influenced my professional practice and sense of self I hope to provide some insight into existing research of the sojourner experience and help others as they consider living and teaching…

  10. Black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) response to seasonality and frequency of fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicia D. Archuleta

    2014-01-01

    Fragmentation of the landscape, habitat loss, and fire suppression, all a result of European settlement and activities, have precipitated both the decline of Black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) populations and the occurrence of fire throughout the Great Plains, including the Shortgrass steppe of northeastern New Mexico. The presence of Black-tailed prairie...

  11. A five-year record of lightning storms and forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. T. Gisborne

    1931-01-01

    According to the records compiled by the supervisors of the national forests in the northern Rocky Mountain region, lightning has been responsible for a greater number of fires, more burned area, more damage, and more expense of suppression in this territory than all other causes of forest fires combined. Smokers, campers, brush burners, incendiarists, lumbering...

  12. 41 CFR 102-80.135 - Who is a qualified fire protection engineer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... protection engineer? 102-80.135 Section 102-80.135 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... qualified fire protection engineer? A qualified fire protection engineer is defined as an individual with a..., spread, and suppression, meeting one of the following criteria: (a) An engineer having an undergraduate...

  13. Biological and Management Implications of Fire-Pathogen Interactions in the Giant Sequoia Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas D. Piirto; John R. Parmeter; Fields W. Cobb; Kevin L. Piper; Amy C. Workinger; William J. Otrosina

    1998-01-01

    An overriding management goal for national parks is the maintenance or, where necessary, the restoration of natural ecological processes. In Sequoia-Kings Canyon and Yosemite National Parks, there is concern about the effects of fire suppression on the giant sequoia-mixed conifer forest ecosystem. The National Park Service is currently using prescribed fire management...

  14. Modeling vegetation mosaics in sub-alpine Tasmania under various fire regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel I. Yospin; Samuel W. Wood; Andres Holz; David M. J. S. Bowman; Robert E. Keane; Cathy Whitlock

    2015-01-01

    Western Tasmania, Australia contains some of the highest levels of biological endemism of any temperate region in the world, including vegetation types that are conservation priorities: fire-sensitive rainforest dominated by endemic conifer species in the genus Athrotaxis; and firetolerant buttongrass moorlands. Current management focuses on fire suppression,...

  15. Response of upland oak and co-occurring competitor seedlings following single and repeated prescribed fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather D. Alexander; Mary Arthur; David Loftis; Stephanie Green

    2009-01-01

    Studies within and outside the United States indicate recurring oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration problems. In deciduous forests of the eastern U.S., a prevailing explanation for this trend is that fire suppression leads to high competitor abundance and low understory light. In response, prescribed fire is increasingly used as a management tool to...

  16. Climate change presents increased potential for very large fires in the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Barbero; J. T. Abatzoglou; Sim Larkin; C. A. Kolden; B. Stocks

    2015-01-01

    Very large fires (VLFs) have important implications for communities, ecosystems, air quality and fire suppression expenditures. VLFs over the contiguous US have been strongly linked with meteorological and climatological variability. Building on prior modelling of VLFs (>5000 ha), an ensemble of 17 global climate models were statistically downscaled over the US...

  17. Fire retardant formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions where a substrate is liable to catch fire such as bituminous products, paints, carpets or the like. The invention relates to a composition comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant such as bituminous material or paint......, carpets which substrate is mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant component. The invention relates to a fire retardant component comprising or being constituted of attapulgite, and a salt being a source of a blowing or expanding agent, where the attapulgite and the salt are electrostatically...... connected by mixing and subjecting the mixture of the two components to agitation. Also, the invention relates to compositions comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant according to claim 1 or 2, which fire retardant component...

  18. Remote monitoring of a Fire Protection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Steven; Vermeulen, Tom; Roberts, Larry; Matsushige, Grant; Gajadhar, Sarah; Taroma, Ralph; Elizares, Casey; Arruda, Tyson; Potter, Sharon; Hoffman, James

    2011-03-01

    Some years ago CFHT proposed developing a Remote Observing Environment aimed at producing Science Observations at their Observatory Facility on Mauna Kea from their Headquarters facility in Waimea, HI. This Remote Observing Project commonly referred to as OAP (Observatory Automation Project) was completed at the end of January 2011 and has been providing the majority of Science Data since. My poster will discuss the upgrades to the existing fire alarm protection system. With no one at the summit during nightly operations, the observatory facility required automated monitoring of the facility for safety to personnel and equipment in the case of a fire. An addressable analog fire panel was installed which utilizes digital communication protocol (DCP), intelligent communication with other devices, and an RS-232 interface which provides feedback and real-time monitoring of the system. Using the interface capabilities of the panel, it provides notifications when heat detectors, smoke sensors, manual pull stations, or the main observatory computer room fire suppression system has been activated. The notifications are sent out as alerts to staff in the form of test massages and emails and the observing control GUI interface alerts the remote telescope operator with a map showing the location of the fire occurrence and type of device that has been triggered. And all of this was accomplished without the need for an outside vendor to monitor the system and facilitate warnings or notifications regarding the system.

  19. Chemical Fire Suppressants: How Can We Replace Halon?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fleming, James

    1999-01-01

    .... Army study to identify effective agents. Halon 1301, bromotrifluoromethane, with its low boiling point is extremely effective in total flooding applications, which rely on the agent completely filling the space to be protected...

  20. Battery management systems with thermally integrated fire suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandhauer, Todd M.; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2017-07-11

    A thermal management system is integral to a battery pack and/or individual cells. It relies on passive liquid-vapor phase change heat removal to provide enhanced thermal protection via rapid expulsion of inert high pressure refrigerant during abnormal abuse events and can be integrated with a cooling system that operates during normal operation. When a thermal runaway event occurs and sensed by either active or passive sensors, the high pressure refrigerant is preferentially ejected through strategically placed passages within the pack to rapidly quench the battery.

  1. Fire Suppression Testing of Hypergolic Vapor Control Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    IRRITATION OF EYES, n-5MEEA, RAI;- CARDIOVASCULAR COLLAPSý:. Sou.ce: T.sC SYMPTOMS :CHRIS): CONC |SLM: 50 PPM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE (OSHA): 0.5 ppO SKIN...tiorr swi:ll be provided by INKEIR I. N’Ml1I I *:-osorrza’ -hall dir-ct t he f i-~ t estring . Overr idinzg dirctIo Shall be1 given by the, subtask p

  2. The Use of Halons as Fire Suppressants - A Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-05

    Oberst, "Toxicology of Inhaled Trifluoro- romonobromomethane and Difluorodibromomethane Vapors From Subacute and Chronic Exposures of Rats and Dogs ... Glycolysis ," paper read at the Tenth Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology, Washington, D.C., Mar. 7-11, 1971. Abstract, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 19...Back, "The Mechanism of the Peripheral Vascular Resistance Change During Exposure of Dogs of Bromotrifluoromethane, "Aerospace Medical Research Lab

  3. Using the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System to assess the performance of fire management in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, P. M.; Pereira, M. G.

    2009-04-01

    found of improvements in the suppression of large fires, implying that the previous catastrophic years of 2003 and 2005 can be repeated in the future.

  4. An assessment of fire vulnerability for aged electrical relays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil, R.A.; Nowlen, S.P.

    1995-03-01

    There has been some concern that, as nuclear power plants age, protective measures taken to control and minimize the impact of fire may become ineffective, or significantly less effective, and hence result in an increased fire risk. One objective of the Fire Vulnerability of Aged Electrical Components Program is to assess the effects of aging and service wear on the fire vulnerability of electrical equipment. An increased fire vulnerability of components may lead to an overall increase in fire risk to the plant. Because of their widespread use in various electrical safety systems, electromechanical relays were chosen to be the initial components for evaluation. This test program assessed the impact of operational and thermal aging on the vulnerability of these relays to fire-induced damage. Only thermal effects of a fire were examined in this test program. The impact of smoke, corrosive materials, or fire suppression effects on relay performance were not addressed in this test program. The purpose of this test program was to assess whether the fire vulnerability of electrical relays increased with aging. The sequence followed for the test program was to: identify specific relay types, develop three fire scenarios, artificially age several relays, test the unaged and aged relays in the fire exposure scenarios, and compare the results. The relays tested were Agastat GPI, General Electric (GE) HMA, HGA, and HFA. At least two relays of each type were artificially aged and at least two relays of each type were new. Relays were operationally aged by cycling the relay under rated load for 2,000 operations. These relays were then thermally aged for 60 days with their coil energized

  5. [The experience of creation and deployment of mobile medical units of EMERCOM of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenko, P K; Kireev, S G; Paramoshko, V V; Bozhok, R N; Martynov, A I

    2014-10-01

    The experience of the creation and deployment of mobile medical units of EMERCOM of Russia: medical service of specialized fire department on large-scale fire suppression of the Main Directorate of the Russian Emergency Ministry of the Republic of Karelia and the field mobile medical unit of the Southern regional search and rescue team of EMERCOM of Russia. Medical service of specialized fire department on large-scale fire suppression of the Main Directorate of EMERCOM of the Republic of Karelia during the period from 2010 to 2012 provided medical assistance to 636 wounded, including 486 road traffic accident victims and 140 fire victims. Field mobile medical unit of the Southern Regional search and rescue team of EMERCOM of Russia during the humanitarian operation in the Republic of South Ossetia (August - September 2008) registered 635 calls for medical aid: 435 primary and 200--repeated; performed 10 operations. The characteristic structure of traumatic diseases and injuries is presented. Coverage of fluorography for students, teachers and schools staff in three districts of South Ossetia was 1041 (81.1%) patients, 6 (0.57%) cases of pulmonary tuberculosis were revealed among them.

  6. Methods for Prediction of Temperature Distribution in Flashover Caused by Backdraft Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurately predicting temperature distribution in flashover fire is a key issue for evacuation and fire-fighting. Now many good flashover fire experiments have be conducted, but most of these experiments are proceeded in enclosure with fixed openings; researches on fire development and temperature distribution in flashover caused by backdraft fire did not receive enough attention. In order to study flashover phenomenon caused by backdraft fire, a full-scale fire experiment was conducted in one abandoned office building. Process of fire development and temperature distribution in room and corridor were separately recorded during the experiment. The experiment shows that fire development in enclosure is closely affected by the room ventilation. Unlike existing temperature curves which have only one temperature peak, temperature in flashover caused by backdraft may have more than one peak value and that there is a linear relationship between maximum peak temperature and distance away from fire compartment. Based on BFD curve and experimental data, mathematical models are proposed to predict temperature curve in flashover fire caused by backdraft at last. These conclusions and experiment data obtained in this paper could provide valuable reference to fire simulation, hazard assessment, and fire protection design.

  7. Fire Danger and Fire Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (formerly Weather Bureau) and Forest Service developed a program to track meteorological conditions conducive to forest fires, resulting...

  8. Alaska’s changing fire regime - Implications for the vulnerability of its boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasischke, Eric S.; Verbyla, David L.; Rupp, T. Scott; McGuire, A. David; Murphy, Karen A.; Jandt, R.; Barnes, Jennifer L.; Hoy, E.; Duffy, Paul A.; Calef, Monika; Turetsky, Merritt R.

    2010-01-01

    A synthesis was carried out to examine Alaska’s boreal forest fire regime. During the 2000s, an average of 767 000 ha·year–1 burned, 50% higher than in any previous decade since the 1940s. Over the past 60 years, there was a decrease in the number of lightning-ignited fires, an increase in extreme lightning-ignited fire events, an increase in human-ignited fires, and a decrease in the number of extreme human-ignited fire events. The fraction of area burned from human-ignited fires fell from 26% for the 1950s and 1960s to 5% for the 1990s and 2000s, a result from the change in fire policy that gave the highest suppression priorities to fire events that occurred near human settlements. The amount of area burned during late-season fires increased over the past two decades. Deeper burning of surface organic layers in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) forests occurred during late-growing-season fires and on more well-drained sites. These trends all point to black spruce forests becoming increasingly vulnerable to the combined changes of key characteristics of Alaska’s fire regime, except on poorly drained sites, which are resistant to deep burning. The implications of these fire regime changes to the vulnerability and resilience of Alaska’s boreal forests and land and fire management are discussed.

  9. All fired up

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Directorate and their support staff took part in a fire-fighting course organised by the CERN Fire Brigade just before the end-of-year break.  The Bulletin takes a look at the fire-fighting training on offer at CERN.   At CERN the risk of fire can never be under-estimated. In order to train personnel in the use of fire extinguishers, CERN's fire training centre in Prévessin acquired a fire-simulation platform in 2012. On the morning of 17 December 2012, ten members of the CERN directorate and their support staff tried out the platform, following in the footsteps of 400 other members of the CERN community who had already attended the course. The participants were welcomed to the training centre by Gilles Colin, a fire-fighter and instructor, who gave them a 30-minute introduction to general safety and the different types of fire and fire extinguishers, followed by an hour of practical instruction in the simulation facility. There they were able to pract...

  10. Managing wildland fires: integrating weather models into fire projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne M. Rosenthal; Francis Fujioka

    2004-01-01

    Flames from the Old Fire sweep through lands north of San Bernardino during late fall of 2003. Like many Southern California fires, the Old Fire consumed susceptible forests at the urban-wildland interface and spread to nearby city neighborhoods. By incorporating weather models into fire perimeter projections, scientist Francis Fujioka is improving fire modeling as a...

  11. Suppression sours sacrifice: emotional and relational costs of suppressing emotions in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impett, Emily A; Kogan, Aleksandr; English, Tammy; John, Oliver; Oveis, Christopher; Gordon, Amie M; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-06-01

    What happens when people suppress their emotions when they sacrifice for a romantic partner? This multimethod study investigates how suppressing emotions during sacrifice shapes affective and relationship outcomes. In Part 1, dating couples came into the laboratory to discuss important romantic relationship sacrifices. Suppressing emotions was associated with emotional costs for the partner discussing his or her sacrifice. In Part 2, couples participated in a 14-day daily experience study. Within-person increases in emotional suppression during daily sacrifice were associated with decreases in emotional well-being and relationship quality as reported by both members of romantic dyads. In Part 3, suppression predicted decreases in relationship satisfaction and increases in thoughts about breaking up with a romantic partner 3 months later. In the first two parts of the study, authenticity mediated the costly effects of suppression. Implications for research on close relationships and emotion regulation are discussed.

  12. Effects of Degree of Curing on Fire Spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaivaranont, W.; Evans, J. P.; Liu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    During extreme summer conditions in Australia, bushfire can become an uncontrollable natural hazard. Various factors, such as geographical and meteorological parameters greatly influence the magnitude of bushfire. In a grassland fire, there is an important factor that affects the severity of fire called the degree of curing. Degree of curing is a percentage measurement of the proportion of dead material in grassland where a 100% curing indicates a totally dead grass field. It is usually assumed constant due to the cost and difficulty in obtaining accurate field observations.To examine the importance of curing, the Phoenix RapidFire fire spread model was used to observe the magnitude and direction of grassland fire spread due to variations in the degree of curing. Idealised experiments and experiments based on 3 past fire events in Australia were conducted, where the 100 by 200 km study area is considered to be all grassland. In the idealised experiments, homogeneous curing data in various patterns were used along with extreme climate data and prescribed topography. In the past fire event experiments, satellite-derived estimated curing data, observed climate data from the nearest weather stations, and real elevation maps were used. A remotely sensed burned area map (MODIS MCD64A1 product) is also used to compare the simulated burned area of past fire events with the satellite observation.The results from both experiments showed that: 1) the rate of spread of grassland fire is significantly impeded when curing is below 75%, 2) topography has insignificant effect on fire spread direction and speed, 3) wind and curing both influence the direction and speed of spread, and 4) the model can only recreate the burned area in one out of three of the past fire events due to various causes including the fact that all past events used here were not exclusively grassland fire.

  13. Studying the effect of fire retardant coating on the fire hazard characteristics of wood using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasymov, Denis; Agafontsev, Mikhail

    2017-10-01

    This paper represents a study concerning the effect of fire retardant treatment «FUKAM» on the fire hazard characteristics of pine, aspen and larch. The front of model ground fire was investigated to estimate its effect on the surface of wood samples. Infrared thermography was used as a diagnostic method. The surface temperature distribution was obtained for the test wood samples after exposure to a fire front that was modeled using pine needles. The probability of ignition was estimated for the chosen experimental parameters for each kind of wood. The fire hazard characteristics of wood after fire retardant treatment showed a significant reduction in the surface temperature and the resistance to fire for the chosen parameters of the experiment compared to the same untreated samples.

  14. Calibration of the CAFE-3D fire code with controlled indoor fire data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, C.; Koski, J.A.; Khalil, I.; Suo-Anttila, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Container Analysis Fire Environment (CAFE) code contains a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based fire model that has been successfully coupled to standard finite element computer codes. This coupling of CFD and finite element codes allows for a more realistic modeling of the thermal performance of objects engulfed in fire, which aids in the design and risk analysis of radioactive material packages. The CAFE fire model is based on a three-dimensional finite volume formulation of basic fire chemistry and fluid dynamics. This fire model includes a variable-density primitive-variable formulation of mass, momentum, energy and species equations. Multiple chemical species and soot formation are included in the combustion model. Thermal radiation is modeled as diffusive radiation transport inside the flame zone and as view-factor radiation outside the flame zone. Turbulence is modeled with an eddy diffusivity model. The soot model is coupled to the diffusive radiation formulation using the Rosseland approximation and the optical properties of soot. In order to verify and improve the accuracy of computers codes, they should be benchmarked against test data. This paper describes a set of experiments that were performed at the Fire Laboratory for Accreditation of Modeling by Experiment (FLAME) fire facility of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The paper also describes how the data collected from the experiments was used to calibrate and benchmark the CAFE-3D fire code. Detailed description of the tests performed and comparisons between the calculated results and the collected data from the experiments are provided

  15. Fire in Fennoscandia: A palaeo-perspective of spatial and temporal variability in fire frequency and vegetation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clear, Jennifer; Bradshaw, Richard; Seppä, Heikki

    2014-05-01

    Active fire suppression in Fennoscandia has created a boreal forest ecosystem that is almost free of fire. Absence of fire is thought to have contributed to the widespread dominance of Picea abies (Norway spruce), though the character and structure of spruce forests operates as a positive feedback retarding fire frequency. This lack of fire and dominance by Picea abies may have assisted declines in deciduous tree species, with a concomitant loss of floristic diversity. Forest fires are driven by a complex interplay between natural (climate, vegetation and topography) and anthropogenic disturbance and through palaeoecology we are able to explore spatio-temporal variability in the drivers of fire, changing fire dynamics and the subsequent consequences for forest succession, development and floristic diversity over long timescales. High resolution analysis of palaeoenvironmental proxies (pollen and macroscopic charcoal) allows Holocene vegetation and fire dynamics to be reconstructed at the local forest-stand scale. Comparisons of fire histories with pollen-derived quantitative reconstruction of vegetation at local- and regional-scales identify large-scale ecosystem responses and local-scale disturbance. Spatio-temporal heterogeneity and variability in biomass burning is explored to identify the drivers of fire and palaeovegetation reconstructions are compared to process-based, climate-driven dynamic vegetation model output to test the significance of fire frequency as a driver of vegetation composition and dynamics. Fire was not always so infrequent in the northern European forest with early-Holocene fire regimes driven by natural climate variations and fuel availability. The establishment and spread of Picea abies was probably driven by an increase in continentality of climate, but local natural and anthropogenic ecosystem disturbance may have aided this spread. Picea expansion led to a step-wise reduction in regional biomass burning and here we show the now

  16. Prescribed fire, elk, and aspen in Grand Teton National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron Steffens; Diane Abendroth

    2001-01-01

    In Grand Teton National Park, a landscape-scale assessment of regeneration in aspen has assisted park managers in identifying aspen stands that may be at risk due to a number of interrelated factors, including ungulate browsing and suppression of wildland fire. The initial aspen survey sampled an estimated 20 percent of the park's aspen stands. Assessment of these...

  17. Fire Behavior in Pelalawan Peatland, Riau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAMBANG HERO SAHARJO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During dry season it is easily recognized that smoke will emerge at certain place both in Sumatra and Kalimantan that is in peatland. The worst situation occurred when fire burnt buried log in the logged over area where the fire fighter did not have any experience and knowledge on how to work with fire in peatland. Finally it had been found that one of the reasons why firefighter failed to fight fire in peatland is because they do not have any knowledge and experience on it. In order to know the fire behavior characteristics in different level of peat decomposition for fire management and sustainable management of the land for the community, research done in Pelalawan area, Riau Province, Indonesia, during dry season 2001. Three level of peat decomposition named Sapric, Hemic, and Fibric used. To conduct the research, two 400 m2 of plot each was established in every level of the peat decomposition. Burning done three weeks following slashing, cutting and drying at different time using circle method. During burning, flame length, rate of the spread of fire, flame temperature and following burning fuel left and the depth of peat destruction were measured. Results of research shown that in sapric site where sapric 2 has fuel load 9 ton ha-1 less than sapric 1, fire behavior was significantly different while peat destructed was deepest in sapric 2 with 31.87 cm. In hemic site where hemic 2 has fuel load 12.3 ton ha-1 more than hemic 1, fire behavior was significantly different and peat destructed deeper than hemic 1 that was 12.6 cm. In fibric site where fibric 1 has fuel load 3.5 ton ha-1 more than fibric 1, fire behavior was significantly different that has no burnt peat found. This results found that the different fuel characteristics (potency, moisture, bed depth, and type at the same level of peat decomposition will have significantly different fire behavior as it happened also on the depth of peat destruction except fibric. The same condition

  18. Attention modulates sensory suppression during back movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulle, Lore; Juravle, Georgiana; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2013-06-01

    Tactile perception is often impaired during movement. The present study investigated whether such sensory suppression also occurs during back movements, and whether this would be modulated by attention. In two tactile detection experiments, participants simultaneously engaged in a movement task, in which they executed a back-bending movement, and a perceptual task, consisting of the detection of subtle tactile stimuli administered to their upper or lower back. The focus of participants' attention was manipulated by raising the probability that one of the back locations would be stimulated. The results revealed that tactile detection was suppressed during the execution of the back movements. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 revealed that when the stimulus was always presented to the attended location, tactile suppression was substantially reduced, suggesting that sensory suppression can be modulated by top-down attentional processes. The potential of this paradigm for studying tactile information processing in clinical populations is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Wildland fire management and air quality in the southern Sierra Nevada: using the Lion Fire as a case study with a multi-year perspective on PM(2.5) impacts and fire policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Don; Cisneros, Ricardo

    2014-11-01

    Management of fire is an important and controversial policy issue. Active fire suppression has led to a backlog of fuels, limited the ecological benefits of fire, and reduced short-term smoke impacts likely delaying these emissions to future generations over a larger spatial extent. Smoke impacts can be expected to increase as fire size and intensity increase and the fuel backlog is consumed; whether through reintroduction of fire under desirable conditions or through stand replacing fire. Land Management Agencies would like to increase the use of naturally ignited fires to burn during favorable conditions as a way to reduce catastrophic fires. This study provides information about the levels of air quality impacts expected from these types of fires and discusses some of the policy controversies of managed fire that propagate inconsistencies between agencies and enter the public discourse. The Lion Fire, a primarily low intensity 8,370 ha fire that was extensively monitored for Particulate Matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), is used to quantify impacts to air quality. PM2.5 monitoring sites are used to assess exposure, public health impacts, and subsequently quantify annual air quality during a year with a fire that is within the historic normal fire size and intensity for this area. Ground level PM2.5 impacts were found to be localized with 99% of the hourly Air Quality Index readings in the moderate or good category for the sites impacted by the fire. PM2.5 concentrations at sites nearest the fire were below annual federal air quality standards for PM2.5 with annual 98th percentile at the most impacted sites (Johnsondale, Kernville, and Camp Nelson) of 35.0, 34.0, and 28.0 μg m(-3) respectively. Smoke impacts to PM2.5 concentrations were not found to reach the populated Central Valley. The findings suggest that this type of fire can be implemented with minimal public health impacts thus allowing an opportunity for air and fire managers to alter policy to

  20. Strategies for preventing invasive plant outbreaks after prescribed fire in ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy J.; Newton, Wesley E.; Swanson, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Land managers use prescribed fire to return a vital process to fire-adapted ecosystems, restore forest structure from a state altered by long-term fire suppression, and reduce wildfire intensity. However, fire often produces favorable conditions for invasive plant species, particularly if it is intense enough to reveal bare mineral soil and open previously closed canopies. Understanding the environmental or fire characteristics that explain post-fire invasive plant abundance would aid managers in efficiently finding and quickly responding to fire-caused infestations. To that end, we used an information-theoretic model-selection approach to assess the relative importance of abiotic environmental characteristics (topoedaphic position, distance from roads), pre-and post-fire biotic environmental characteristics (forest structure, understory vegetation, fuel load), and prescribed fire severity (measured in four different ways) in explaining invasive plant cover in ponderosa pine forest in South Dakota’s Black Hills. Environmental characteristics (distance from roads and post-fire forest structure) alone provided the most explanation of variation (26%) in post-fire cover of Verbascum thapsus (common mullein), but a combination of surface fire severity and environmental characteristics (pre-fire forest structure and distance from roads) explained 36–39% of the variation in post-fire cover of Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle) and all invasives together. For four species and all invasives together, their pre-fire cover explained more variation (26–82%) in post-fire cover than environmental and fire characteristics did, suggesting one strategy for reducing post-fire invasive outbreaks may be to find and control invasives before the fire. Finding them may be difficult, however, since pre-fire environmental characteristics explained only 20% of variation in pre-fire total invasive cover, and less for individual species. Thus, moderating fire intensity or targeting areas