WorldWideScience

Sample records for fire retardant chemistry

  1. Fire retardants for wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatka Jirouš-Rajković

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with many advantages, wood as traditional building material also has some disadvantages. One of them is the flammability. The most usual way to improve the fire performance of wood is by treating it with fire retardants that can be applied to wood composite products during manufacture, pressure impregnated into solid wood or wood products or added as a paint or surface coating. Fire retardants are formulated to control ignition, flame spread on the wood surface and to reduce the amount of heat released from wood. Fire retardants cannot make wood non combustible. According to the European reaction-to-fire “Euroclasses”classification system for construction products, wood treated with fire retardant can meet the requirements of Euroclass B, whereas ordinary wood products typically fall into class D. This article attempts to bring together information related to the burning of wood, fire performance of wood, types of fire retardants and mechanism of fire retardancy. Fire retardant coatings and chemical impregnation by pressure-treating are described separately.

  2. Fire-retardant foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliani, J.

    1978-01-01

    Family of polyimide resins are being developed as foams with exceptional fire-retardant properties. Foams are potentially useful for seat cushions in aircraft and ground vehicles and for applications such as home furnishings and building-construction materials. Basic formulations can be modified with reinforcing fibers or fillers to produce celular materials for variety of applications. By selecting reactants, polymer structure can be modified to give foams with properties ranging from high resiliency and flexibility to brittleness and rigidity.

  3. Development of novel fire retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigdel Regmi, Bhawani

    Numerous candidate environmentally-friendly, water-soluble, and non-toxic fire retardants and fire-retarding processes were developed and tested according to the ASTM D 3801 flammability test and the NRL 8093 smoldering test. Flame retardants that passed the ASTM D 3801 flammability test with the highest V0 rating were boron esters of guanidinium hydroxycarboxylate (glycolate, salicylate and dihydroxybenzoate), zinc gluconate borate ester, and cyanoacetate salts of organic bases (melaminium, cyanoguanidinium, and ammonium). Several related compounds pass this test with the lower V1 rating. Two new synergistic flame and smolder retarding systems were developed in which the individual components were incapable of preventing flame spread or smoldering but in combination they were highly effective. These systems were mixtures of either guanyl urea phosphate and boric acid or beta-alanine and boric acid. Compositions leading to the maximum solubility of boron oxides in the ammonium borate/sodium borate system were determined at several temperatures and the formation of mixtures exceeding 50% dissolved boric acid equivalents was found possible. These mixtures were applied as flame retardants for wood, paper, and carbon-loaded polyurethane foam both directly and indirectly by in situ precipitation of boric acid or zinc borate by appropriate chemical treatments. These all passed the ASTM flammability test with V0 rating. The performance of the boron-containing fire retardants is likely due to deposition of protective boron oxide coatings at elevated temperatures except where phosphate was present and a protective boron phosphate was deposited instead. In all cases, the oxidation of carbonaceous char was strongly inhibited. The hydroxycarboxylate groups generally formed intumescent chars during thermal decomposition that also contributed to fire retardancy.

  4. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  5. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The development of fire-retardant coatings to protect surfaces which may be exposed to fire or extreme heat is a subject of intense interest to many industries. A fire-retardant paint has been developed which represents a new chemical approach for preparing intumescent coatings, and potentially, is very important to fire-prevention authorities. The requirements for a superior coating include ease of application, suitability to a wide variety of surfaces and finishes, and stability over an extended period of time within a broad range of ambient temperature and humidity conditions. These innovative coatings, when activated by the heat of a fire, react to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction. Two fire-protection mechanisms thus become available: (1) the char layer retards the flow of heat, due to the extremely low thermal conductivity; and (2) water vapor and sulfur dioxide are released, providing fire quenching properties. Still another mechanism functions in cases where the char, by virtue of its high oxidation resistance and low thermal conductivity, reaches a sufficiently high temperature to re-radiate much of the incident heat load. The coatings consist of dispersions of selective salts of a nitro-amino-arornatic compound. Specifically, para-nitroaniline bisulfate and the ammonium salt of para-nitroaniline-ortho sulphuric acid (2-amino-5-nitrobenzenesulphuric acid) are used. Suitable vehicles are cellulose nitrate of lacquer grade, a nitrite-phenolic modified rubber, or epoxy-polysulfide copolymer. Three separate formulations have been developed. A solvent is usually employed, such as methylethyl ketone, butyl acetate, or toluene, which renders the coatings suitably thin and which evaporates after the coatings are applied. Generally, the intumescent material is treated as insoluble in the vehicle, and is ground and dispersed in the vehicle and solvent like an

  6. US Forest Service Aerial Fire Retardant Avoidance Areas: Terrestrial

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service depicting aerial fire retardant avoidance areas delivered as part of the 2011 Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System...

  7. Plasma impregnation of wood with fire retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabeliña, Karel G.; Lumban, Carmencita O.; Ramos, Henry J.

    2012-02-01

    The efficacy of chemical and plasma treatments with phosphate and boric compounds, and nitrogen as flame retardants on wood are compared in this study. The chemical treatment involved the conventional method of spraying the solution over the wood surface at atmospheric condition and chemical vapor deposition in a vacuum chamber. The plasma treatment utilized a dielectric barrier discharge ionizing and decomposing the flame retardants into innocuous simple compounds. Wood samples are immersed in either phosphoric acid, boric acid, hydrogen or nitrogen plasmas or a plasma admixture of two or three compounds at various concentrations and impregnated by the ionized chemical reactants. Chemical changes on the wood samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) while the thermal changes through thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Plasma-treated samples exhibit superior thermal stability and fire retardant properties in terms of highest onset temperature, temperature of maximum pyrolysis, highest residual char percentage and comparably low total percentage weight loss.

  8. Fire Retardant Textiles: A Particular Reference to China and Kenya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric Oyondi Nganyi; YU Chong-wen

    2002-01-01

    As more and more attention is paid to the utilization of fire retardant textile products in apparel, household,furnishing, and industrial sectors, this paper presents a brief survey of the use of fire retardant (FR) textile products, the rules, and regulations concerning their use, and their market potential in China and in Kenya.

  9. Pyrolytic characteristics of burning residue of fire-retardant wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guangjie; LUO Wensheng; Furuno T; REN Qiang; MA Erni

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the pyrolytic characteristics of the burning residue of fire-retardant wood,a multifunctional fire-resistance test oven aimed at simulating the course of a fire was used to burn fire-retardant wood and untreated wood.Samples at different distances from the combustion surface were obtained and a thennogravimetric analysis (TG) was applied to test the pyrolytic process of the burning residue in an atmosphere of nitrogen.The results showed that:1) there was little difference between fireretardant wood and its residue in the initial temperature of thermal degradation.The initial temperature of thermal degradation of the combustion layer in untreated wood was higher than that in the no burning wood sample;2) the temperature of the flame retardant in fire-retardant wood was 200℃ in the differential thermogravimetry (DTG).The peak belonging to the flame retardant tended to dissipate during the time of burning;3) for the burning residue of fire-retardant wood,the peak belonging to hemicellulose near 230℃ in the DTG disappeared and there was a gentle shoulder from 210 to 240℃;4) the temperature of the main peaks of the fireretardant wood and its burning residue in DTG was 100℃ lower than that of the untreated wood and its burning residue.The rate of weight loss also decreased sharply;5) the residual weight of fire-retardant wood at 600~C clearly increased compared with that of untreated wood.Residual weight of the burning residue increased markedly as the heating temperature increased when burning;6) there was a considerable difference with respect to the thermal degradation temperature of the no burning sample and the burning residue between fire-retardant wood and untreated wood.

  10. Fire-retardant mechanism of fire-retardant FRW by FTIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingwen; LI Jian; LI Shujun

    2006-01-01

    The structures of the solid state products formed by the partial combustion of Korean pine wood treated with fire-retardant FRW were analyzed by microscopic FTIR.The volatile pyrolytic products of basswood (Tilia amurensis)specimens treated with FRW and its components guanylurea phosphate and boric acid were analyzed by GC-FTIR.The pyrolytic and charring process,the effects of fire-retardant,and the structural characteristics of the pyrolytic products were discussed.It was concluded that upon heating and by the catalysis of FRW and its decomposition products reactions of wood took place successively,namely the dehydration of polysaccharide,the elimination of acetic acid from hemicellulose,the degradation of polysaccharide,the degradation of lignin,the polymerization of the pyrolytic products of wood,reactions of oxygen-element-elimination of aliphatic polymers and the structural change of the latter to form aromatic structures,and charring.The pyrolysis process of wood was altered and the yield of volatile pyrolytic products was decreased by FRW treatment.

  11. Surface Modification of Fire-retardant Asphalt with Silane Coupling Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huiqiang; TANG Boming

    2012-01-01

    The theory and approach of the surface modified of asphalt fire-retardant with silane coupling agent were introduced,The optimum silane dosage was determined,and the structure and properties of the asphalt fire-retardant before and after the surface modification were characterized by infrared spectrum and thermo gravimetric analysis.The dispersion effect of asphalt fire-retardant was studied.The influence of the surface modification on the hydrophilicity and lipophilicity of the asphalt fire-retardant was analyzed.The experimental results showed that there were physical and chemical interactions between the silane coupling agent and the asphalt fire-retardant,which reduced the surface polarity of the asphalt fire retardant.The optimum silane coupling agent dosage was 0.95% of the asphalt fire retardant.The surface modification improved the thermal stability,dispersibility and lipophilicity of the asphalt fire retardant,which enhanced the compatibility between asphalt fire retardant and asphalt.

  12. New Trends in Reaction and Resistance to Fire of Fire-retardant Epoxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Gérard

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on current trends in the flame retardancy of epoxy-based thermosets. This review examines the incorporation of additives in these polymers, including synergism effects. Reactive flame-retardants—which are incorporated in the polymer backbone—are reported and the use of fire-retardant epoxy coatings for materials protection is also considered.

  13. Thermal characterization of intumescent fire retardant paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, L.; Bozzoli, F.; Bochicchio, G.; Tessadri, B.; Rainieri, S.; Pagliarini, G.

    2014-11-01

    Intumescent coatings are now the dominant passive fire protection materials used in industrial and commercial buildings. The coatings, which usually are composed of inorganic components contained in a polymer matrix, are inert at low temperatures and at higher temperatures, they expand and degrade to provide a charred layer of low conductivity materials. The charred layer, which acts as thermal barrier, will prevent heat transfer to underlying substrate. The thermal properties of intumescent paints are often unknown and difficult to be estimated since they vary significantly during the expansion process; for this reason the fire resistance validation of a commercial coatings is based on expensive, large-scale methods where each commercial coating-beam configuration has to be tested one by one. Adopting, instead, approaches based on a thermal modelling of the intumescent paint coating could provide an helpful tool to make easier the test procedure and to support the design of fire resistant structures as well. The present investigation is focused on the assessment of a methodology intended to the restoration of the equivalent thermal conductivity of the intumescent layer produced under the action of a cone calorimetric apparatus. The estimation procedure is based on the inverse heat conduction problem approach, where the temperature values measured at some locations inside the layer during the expansion process are used as input known data. The results point out that the equivalent thermal conductivity reached by the intumescent material at the end of the expansion process significantly depends on the temperature while the initial thickness of the paint does not seem to have much effect.

  14. Improved fire retardancy of thermoset composites modified with carbon nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Zhao and Jan Gou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multifunctional thermoset composites were made from polyester resin, glass fiber mats and carbon nanofiber sheets (CNS. Their flaming behavior was investigated with cone calorimeter under well-controlled combustion conditions. The heat release rate was lowered by pre-planting carbon nanofiber sheets on the sample surface with the total fiber content of only 0.38 wt.%. Electron microscopy showed that carbon nanofiber sheet was partly burned and charred materials were formed on the combusting surface. Both the nanofibers and charred materials acted as an excellent insulator and/or mass transport barrier, improving the fire retardancy of the composite. This behavior agrees well with the general mechanism of fire retardancy in various nanoparticle-thermoplastic composites.

  15. Determining the degree of fire retardancy of plywood with thermogravimetry, part I: Beech plywood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović-Grmuša Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic motive of this work is the ever more pronounced need for fire-resistant plywood. In this work, beech veneers have been impregnated with solutions of chosen fire retardants, which are diammonium phosphate monoammonium phosphate, sodium acetate, water glass, sodium tetra borate and boric acid. To determine the preliminary level of fire retardancy achieved in veneers before manufacturing of finished plywood, thermo gravimetric (TG and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG methods are used. TG and DTG analyses of treated and untreated wood, as well as of fire retardants alone, were performed on a Perkin-Elmer TGS-2 thermo gravimetric equipment. Fire resistance of plywood was tested in accordance with standard test for resistance to the effects of fire and the most efficient fire retardants monoammonium phosphate and sodium tetra borate, had the same results as TG/DTG analyses, which points out the validity of TG methods in predicting success of fire retardants in future products.

  16. Fire-retardant and fire-barrier poly(vinyl acetate composites for sealant application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fire-retardant ceramifying poly(vinyl acetate (PVAc sealants have been prepared. The degradation of PVA was integrated with the action of the fire retardants to reduce flammable gases, produce carbonaceous char and convert the fillers into a self-supporting ceramic barrier. PVA is readily degraded by elimination of acetic acid, yielding a char that provides a transitory phase as the filler particles fuse into a ceramic mass. Acetic acid is eliminated at similar temperature to the release of water from magnesium hydroxide fire-retardant, thereby diluting flammable acetic acid. The residual oxide from the fire-retardant filler and structural filler are fused by a flux, zinc borate. The degradative and ceramifying processes were characterised using thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and ceramic strength. Thermogravimetry of the composites was compared with additive mass loss curves calculated from the components. Deviations between the experimental and additive curves revealed interactions between the components in the composites. The modulus of the PVAc composites and the strength of their ceramic residues after combustion were determined.

  17. Modification of poly(styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene) [SBS] with phosphorus containing fire retardants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernyy, Sergey; Ullah, Saif; Jomaas, Grunde;

    2015-01-01

    application of the H3PO4 modified SBS as a fire retardant additive for bitumen material, in combination with synergetic melamine species, offered 25% better self-extinguishing properties of such formulation already at a low loading level of the fire retardant components (3.5 wt.%).......An elaborate survey of the chemical modification methods for endowing highly flammable SBS with increased fire resistant properties by means of chemical modification of the polymer backbone with phosphorus containing fire retardant species is presented. Optimal conditions for free radical addition...... of the Psingle bondH containing fire retardants to a double bonds of poly(butadiene) block of SBS were found, affording varied degree of the modification (0.2–21 mol%). Alternatively, a two-step procedure based on an epoxidation step followed by hydrolysis of the epoxides with phosphoric acid was developed...

  18. Synthesis of Fluorocyclotriphosphazene Derivatives and Their Fire-Retardant Finishing on Cotton Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhanxiong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel fire-retardant agents, fluorocyclotriphosphazene derivatives with the substitution groups of 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy groups were synthesized using hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene and 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropyl alcohol as starting materials. The synthesized fire-retardant agent was emulsified and applied on the cotton fabric finishing to reduce the flammability and afford water/oil repellency simultaneously. The optimum finishing process was achieved according to the test of cotton finishing with fluorocyclotriphosphazene. The treated cotton showed not only excellent fire-retardant performance, but also water and oil repellency with little change in strength and whiteness.

  19. A NOVEL FIRE RETARDANT AFFECTS FIRE PERFORMANCE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD FLOUR-HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE COMPOSITES

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    Mingzhu Pan,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Wood flour-high density polyethylene (HDPE composites were prepared to investigate the effects of ammonium polyphosphate based fire retardant content (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10-wt%, on the flammability, mechanical, and morphological properties of the wood flour-HDPE composites in this study. Cone calorimetry analysis showed that the addition of fire retardant could decrease the heat release rate (HRR and total smoke release of wood flour-HDPE composites, while it had no obviously effects on effective heat of combustion. Most of the decrease of the HRR occurred with the concentration of the fire retardant up to 4-wt%. With addition of fire retardant, the composites showed a decrease in tensile elongation at break and impact strength, and had no obvious effect on tensile and flexural strength. The scanning electron microscopy observation on the fracture surface of the composites indicated that fire retardant had a uniform dispersion in the wood flour-HDPE composites. However, interfacial bonding would be suggested to improve in wood flour-HDPE composites with ammonium polyphosphate based fire retardant.

  20. Reaction-to-fire performance of fire-retardant treated wooden facades in Japan with respect to accelerated weathering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Miki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood has been used for building facades to enhance the aesthetic design of buildings since the revision to the evaluation method associated with the amendment of the Building Standard Law of Japan in 2000. In response, wood that has been pressure-impregnated with fire retardants (fire-retardant treated wood is often used to ensure it is safe in the event of a fire. Currently, when fire-retardant-treated wood is tested for certification of reaction to fire performance, a cone calorimeter test is conducted in Japan. This test applies radiant heat to the surface of a square specimen, 100 mm each side, immediately after it has undergone fire-retardant treatment. However, when applying fire-retardant treatment to wood, aqueous chemical injection is the standard procedure. When wood is actually used to construct a building, there is a concern about environmental forces such as wind and rain that could cause the wood to deteriorate, and concerns about performance degradation associated with aging. One of the past studies in Japan [1] conducted a cone calorimeter test after an outdoor exposure test and accelerated weathering test, compared the post-test performance with the initial performance and confirmed the amount of remaining fire retardant in the treated wood had been reduced. However, no comparison of the fireproof performance of fire-retardant wood in actual use in a building facade had been conducted in Japan. There have been already valuable researches [e.g. 2, 3] on this issue internationally, but this paper is the first step in Japan and authors hope to focus on the wooden façade construction technique and the standard façade test in Japan.

  1. Fire-retardant and smoke-suppressant performance of an intumescent waterborne amino-resin fire-retardant coating for wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengqiang WANG; Zhijun ZHANG; Qingwen WANG; Jiayin TANG

    2008-01-01

    An intumescent waterborne amino-resin fire-retardant coating for wood (C) was synthesized and its fire-retardant and smoke-suppressant properties were investigated. The main film-builder of C was urea-form-aldehyde resin blended with polyvinyl acetate resin. The intumescent fire-retardant system of C consisted of guany-lurea phosphate (GUP), ammonium polyphosphate (APP), pentaerythritol (PER) and melamine (MEL). Specimens of plywood painted, respectively, with a commercial intumes-cent fire-retardant coating (A), a synthesized coating (C), and the main film-builder of coating C (B), as well as an unpainted plywood (S-JHB), were analyzed by cone calori-metry (CONE). The results show a marked decrease in the heat release rate (HRR) and the total heat release (THR), an increased mass of residual char (Mass), a marked post-ponement in time to ignition (TTI) and a reduced carbon monoxide production rate (P). The smoke production rate (SPR) and total smoke production (TSP) of the ply-wood painted with coating C were observed with the CONE test. The overall fire-retardant and smoke-suppres-sant performance of the synthesized coating C was much better than that of the commercial coating A. The thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) results of coating C and its film-builder B indicated that the thermal degradation process of B was slowed down by the addition of the intumescent fire-retardant system; the increase in the amount of charring of coating C was considerable.

  2. US Forest Service Aerial Fire Retardant Hydrographic Avoidance Areas: Aquatic

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map services on the www depicting aerial retardant avoidance areas for hydrographic feature data. Aerial retardant avoidance area for hydrographic feature data are...

  3. The influence of fire retardants on the properties of beech and poplar veneers and plywood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković Jovan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising demands for fire resistance properties of wood construction and elements matching new standards have been an important part of building codes during the last decade. On the other side, lack of more detailed research on interaction between wood species and selected fire retardant chemicals even with basically one is evident. This is particularly truth with domestic wood species. In this research, beech and poplar veneers were immersed in 25% solutions of monoammonium phosphate (MP and sodium acetate (SA and impregnated for different periods of time. To determine the preliminary level of fire retardancy achieved in veneers before manufacturing of finished plywood, thermo gravimetric (TG and derivative thermo gravimetric (DTG methods were used. TG and DTG analyses of treated and untreated wood, as well as of fire retardants alone, were performed. The next properties of impregnated and no impregnated veneers and plywood were determined: absorption of imp regnant solution (A, weight percent gain (WPG of imp regnant, equilibrium moisture content (EMC, pH values, and in the case of plywood, strength and fire resistance. Fire resistance of plywood was tested in accordance with standard test for resistance to the effects of fire and the most efficient fire retardant, monoammonium phosphate, had the same result as TG/DTG analyses, which pointed out the validity of TG methods in predicting fire resistance of future products.

  4. Properties and Performance of Rubberwood Particleboard Treated With Bp® Fire Retardant

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    Izran K.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubberwood composites are available in many sizes and are frequently used as furniture and partitioning inputs. However they are naturally combustible and may limit its usage for other value-added products. Treating wood composites with fire retardant was one of the most effective ways to prevent such occurrence. In this study, Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis particleboards were incorporated with BP® fire retardant through hot and cold soaking processes. Four different concentrations of fire retardant were applied for the study i.e., 15, 20, 25 and 30% (w/v. Treated and untreated particleboards were exposed to early burning performance test. Fire performance was assessed based on the amount of weight loss and width of burnt area formed on the boards after they were exposed to a fire source. The study shows that BP® had significantly affected the burnt area of the treated particleboards. Insignificant reductions of weight loss were recorded between 15-30% treatment concentrations. Early burning performance showed that increase of fire retardant concentration up to 25% (w/v reduced the weight loss. There was no further weight loss reduction recorded above that concentration. The burnt area decreased as the concentration level of BP® increased. The smallest burnt area was recorded for the boards treated with 30% BP®. The addition of fire retardant had interfered slightly with the physical and mechanical properties of the treated particleboards. The physical and mechanical properties of the particleboards were adversely affected compared to untreated boards with increasing concentration of BP®.

  5. Properties of flat-pressed wood plastic composites containing fire retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Jan. T. Benthien; Heiko Thoemen; Robert H. White

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the flat-pressed wood plastic composites (WPCs) incorporated with various fire retardants (FRs) [5 or 15% by weight (wt)] at 50 wt % of the wood flour (WF). The WPC panels were made from dry-blended WF, polypropylene (PP) with maleic anhydride grafted PP (2 wt %), and FR powder formulations using a...

  6. Durability of fire retardant treated wood products at humid and exterior conditions. Review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostman, B.; Voss, A.; Hughes, A.; Hovde, P.J.; Grexa, O.

    2001-01-01

    Fire retardants may considerably improve the fire properties of wood products, but the durability, e.g. in exterior applications, has not been addressed fully. This paper reviews the existing knowledge and experience mainly from the USA with the aim of supporting further development in Europe. The r

  7. Fire performance, microstructure and thermal degradation of an epoxy based nano intumescent fire retardant coating for structural applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Hammad, E-mail: engr.hammad.aziz03@gmail.com; Ahmad, Faiz, E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my; Yusoff, P. S. M. Megat; Zia-ul-Mustafa, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Tronoh 31750, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC) is a passive fire protection system which swells upon heating to form expanded multi-cellular char layer that protects the substrate from fire. In this research work, IFRC’s were developed using different flame retardants such as ammonium polyphosphate, expandable graphite, melamine and boric acid. These flame retardants were bound together with the help of epoxy binder and cured together using curing agent. IFRC was then reinforced with nano magnesium oxide and nano alumina as inorganic fillers to study their effect towards fire performance, microstructure and thermal degradation. Small scale fire test was conducted to investigate the thermal insulation of coating whereas fire performance was calculated using thermal margin value. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the microstructure of char obtained after fire test. Thermogravimetric analysis was conducted to investigate the residual weight of coating. Results showed that the performance of the coating was enhanced by reinforcement with nano size fillers as compared to non-filler based coating. Comparing both nano size magnesium oxide and nano size alumina; nano size alumina gave better fire performance with improved microstructure of char and high residual weight.

  8. Fire performance, microstructure and thermal degradation of an epoxy based nano intumescent fire retardant coating for structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hammad; Ahmad, Faiz; Yusoff, P. S. M. Megat; Zia-ul-Mustafa, M.

    2015-07-01

    Intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC) is a passive fire protection system which swells upon heating to form expanded multi-cellular char layer that protects the substrate from fire. In this research work, IFRC's were developed using different flame retardants such as ammonium polyphosphate, expandable graphite, melamine and boric acid. These flame retardants were bound together with the help of epoxy binder and cured together using curing agent. IFRC was then reinforced with nano magnesium oxide and nano alumina as inorganic fillers to study their effect towards fire performance, microstructure and thermal degradation. Small scale fire test was conducted to investigate the thermal insulation of coating whereas fire performance was calculated using thermal margin value. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the microstructure of char obtained after fire test. Thermogravimetric analysis was conducted to investigate the residual weight of coating. Results showed that the performance of the coating was enhanced by reinforcement with nano size fillers as compared to non-filler based coating. Comparing both nano size magnesium oxide and nano size alumina; nano size alumina gave better fire performance with improved microstructure of char and high residual weight.

  9. The Effect of Particle Size of Wollastonite Filler on Thermal Performance of Intumescent Fire Retardant Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia-ul-Mustafa M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intumescent Fire retardant coatings (IFRC’s are one of the simplest ways to protect substrates exposed to fire. In this study, Wollastonite (W filler of two different particle sizes were used to determine the fire performance of intumescent fire retardant coating. The basic ingredients of the coating were ammonium poly-phosphate (APP as acid source, expandable graphite (EG as carbon source, melamine (MEL as blowing agent in epoxy binder, boric acid as additive and hardener as curing agent. A series of coating formulations were developed by using different weight percentages of both sized Wollastonite fillers. The coated steel substrate samples were tested for fire performance using Bunsen burner and char expansion was measured using furnace fire test. A Comparison of the coatings thermal performance was determined. Wollastonite containing filler particle size 10 μm showed better thermal performance than formulations containing filler’s particle size 44 μm.

  10. Performance of different fire retardant products applied on Norway spruce tested in a Cone calorimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kögl Josef

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available On the European market there are several fire retardant products available, which reach class B in the European classification system. The producers promise their fire retardants are effective in reducing different reaction to fire parameters of wood such as the time to ignition, the mass loss rate, the heat release rate, the total heat release, the charring rate and the flame spread. This paper discusses the performance of fire retardant products as pressure impregnated wood, non-intumescence surface coatings and intumescence coatings on Norway spruce (Picea abies. The investigations are performed by using a cone calo- rimeter test according to ISO 5660. The thermal exposures of the investigations are 50 kW/m2 and the standard IS0 834 test curve. As result information about the heat release rate, the mass loss rate and the total heat release for duration of 900 seconds will be presented in this paper.

  11. Modification of poly(styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene) [SBS] with phosphorus containing fire retardants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernyy, Sergey; Ullah, Saif; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    An elaborate survey of the chemical modification methods for endowing highly flammable SBS with increased fire resistant properties by means of chemical modification of the polymer backbone with phosphorus containing fire retardant species is presented. Optimal conditions for free radical addition...... resulting in 20 mol% of poly(butadiene) block modification. Based on TGA results, organophosporus-modified SBS was found to be amenable to charring – a property which correlated directly with the reduced flammability of the modified polymer observed in Cone Calorimetry tests. Furthermore, conceptually novel...... application of the H3PO4 modified SBS as a fire retardant additive for bitumen material, in combination with synergetic melamine species, offered 25% better self-extinguishing properties of such formulation already at a low loading level of the fire retardant components (3.5 wt.%)....

  12. Impregnation of preservative and fire retardants into Japanese cedar lumber by passive impregnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Nazrul Islam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper azole type B (CAz-B preservative and polyphosphatic carbamate (PPC fire retardants were impregnated in succession into green (97% MC and kiln-dried (18% MC Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica (L.f. D.Don lumber by the passive impregnation method to prolong the period of lumber use by increasing its resistance to fire and biological degradation. Lumber was dried with a kiln or by air-drying. Total chemical retention, penetration, leaching, decay resistance (JIS K 1571, and fire retardancy (ISO 834-1 standard, 20 minutes tests were performed according to the mentioned standards. Preservative retention was higher in the green lumber (4.97 kg/m3 compared with the kiln-dried (4.88 kg/m3 lumber. However, fire retardant retention was similar for both lumber types (107 and 111 kg/m3. Leaching was higher in kiln-dried lumber (21.8% compared to air-dried lumber (14.4%, although there were no significant differences in the decay resistance test between these two lumber types. The fire performance of both lumber types was similar in the fire resistance test. Therefore, the passive impregnation method can be used effectively for impregnation of both preservatives and fire retardants into wood.

  13. THE COMBUSTION PERFORMANCE OF MEDIUM DENSITY FIBERBOARD TREATED WITH FIRE RETARDANT MICROSPHERES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichao Sun,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fire retardant particles (guanylurea phosphate and boric acid with a morphological characteristic of large crystal or fine microsphere, were respectively applied to wood fibers to make medium density fiberboard (MDF. The effects of particle size of the fire retardant on the combustion performance of the resulting MDF samples were determined using a thermogravimetric (TG analyzer and cone calorimeter (CONE. The scanning electron microscopy and laser particle size analysis showed that the microspheric particles of fire retardant had a mean size of approximately 20 µm, which was smaller than the crystal (260 um. Incorporation of the fire retardant either in the crystal or microsphere shape reduced the weight loss of the resulting MDF, as evidenced by the TG analysis and the CONE test; the release rate and total amount of both the heat and smoke were apparently inhibited as compared to the untreated MDF samples. Treatments caused an increase in both the ignition time and charring ratio of the MDF. Compared with the fire retardant crystals, the fine microspheric particles exhibited greater ability in inhibiting the release of heat and smoke through the combustion processes.

  14. Acute toxicity of fire-retardant and foam-suppressant chemicals to yalella azteca (Saussure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Susan F.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Heisinger, James F.

    1997-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted with Hyalella azteca Saussure (an amphipod) exposed in soft and hard waters to three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two foam suppressants (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex). The chemicals were slightly to moderately toxic to amphipods. The most toxic chemical to amphipods in soft and hard water was Phos-Chek WD-881 (96-h mean lethal concentration [LC50] equal to 10 mg/L and 22 mg/L, respectively), and the least toxic chemical to amphipods in soft water was Fire-Trol GTS-R (96-h LC50 equal to 127 mg/L) and in hard water was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-h LC50 equal to 535 mg/L). Concentrations of ammonia in tests with the three fire retardants and both water types were greater than reported LC50 values and probably were the major toxic component. Estimated un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the LC50 were frequently less than the reported LC50 ammonia concentrations for amphipods. The three fire retardants were more toxic in soft water than in hard water even though ammonia and un-ionized ammonia concentrations were higher in hard water tests than in soft water tests. The accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect aquatic invertebrates, thereby disrupting ecosystem function.

  15. 阻燃型有机胶粘剂%Fire retardant organic adhesive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李子东; 李广宇; 于敏

    2001-01-01

    论述了有机胶粘剂的阻燃问题,以阻燃性树脂、橡胶、固化剂、增塑剂、稀释剂、偶联剂、溶剂等配制阻燃型有机胶粘剂,用于电子、电器、建筑、汽车、化工等行业的粘接与修复,可以防止火灾发生。%The reasearch on flame retardant of organic adhesive was described in this paper.The fire retardant organic adhesive is compounded with fire retardant resin,rubber,curing agent and plasticizer,diluent,filler,coupling agent and solvent.It can avoid fire loss and ensure the safety of life and property.

  16. Effects of a fire-retardant chemical to fathead minnows in experimental streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, R.D.; Little, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    Background. Each year millions of liters of fire-retardant chemicals are applied to wildfires across the nation. Recent laboratory studies with long-term fire-retardant chemicals indicate a significant photoenhanced toxicity of products containing sodium ferrocyanide corrosion inhibitors. Our objective of this study was to determine the toxicity of fire-retardant chemicals to fathead minnows during exposure in experimental outdoor streams. Methods. Stream tests were conducted to determine the potential toxicity of a pulse of exposure as might occur when fire retardant chemical is rinsed from the watershed by rainfall. Two artificial 55-meter experimental streams were dosed with different concentrations of Fire-Trol?? GTS-R, or uncontaminated for a control. Replicate groups of fathead minnows were added to screened containers (10 fish per container) and exposed to retardant chemicals in the recirculating flow of the stream for up to 6 hours. Results and Discussion. Under field conditions toxicity of GTS-R only occurred in the presence of sunlight. When GTS-R was tested on sunny days, 100% mortality occurred. However, when tested during heavily overcast conditions, no mortality occurred. Conclusions. Lethal concentrations of cyanide were measured when GTS-R with YPS exposures were conducted under sunny conditions, but not under cloudy conditions, indicating that a minimum UV level is necessary to induce toxicity as well as the release of cyanide from YPS. The toxicity observed with GTS-R was likely associated with lethal concentrations of cyanide. Rainwater runoff following applications of this fire-retardant at the recommended rate could result in lethal concentrations in small ponds and streams receiving limited water flow under sunny conditions. Recommendations and Outlook. In addition to avoiding application to aquatic habitats, it is important to consider characteristics of the treated site including soil binding affinity and erosive properties.

  17. 无机锑系阻燃剂%Inorganic Antimony Series Fire Retardants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亨

    2012-01-01

    无机锑系阻燃剂主要包括三氧化二锑、五氧化二锑溶胶和锑酸钠等。介绍了它们的性质、生产工艺、产品标准、阻燃用途和研发方向等。%Inorganic antimony series fire retardants include antimony trioxide, antimony pentoxide sol and sodium antimonate, etc. The properties, production process, production standard and uses of several inorganic antimony series fire retardants are introduced.

  18. FRW阻燃刨切薄竹的阻燃特性%Fire Retardancy of Sliced Bamboo Veneer Treated by Fire-Retardant FRW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金春德; 杜春贵; 李延军; 王清文

    2011-01-01

    采用FRW阻燃剂对刨切薄竹进行阻燃处理,用锥形量热仪(CONE)测定不同载药率下处理材与未处理材的阻燃性能.结果表明:在25 kW·m-2的热辐射功率下,刨切薄竹经FRW阻燃处理后,热释放速率、总热释放量和总烟释放量随着载药率的增大而减小,处理材在燃烧过程中不会出现较高火焰的燃烧过程;处理材与未处理材相比,点燃时间延长,残余物质量增加;FRW阻燃处理刨切薄竹的阻燃和抑烟效果明显.%The sliced bamboo veneer was treated by fire retardant FRW, and the fire retardancy of the treated and untreated sliced bamboo veneer was tested by cone calorimeter under different retentions. The results showed that; at the heat radiation of 25 kW·m-2, heat release rate(HRR) , total heat release(THR)and total smoke release (TSR) of treated sliced bamboo veneer decreased with the increasing of FRW retention, and it doesn' t produce more high flame in burning process, time to ignite(TTI) of treated sliced bamboo veneer was longer, and its residue mass was increased compared with the untreated sliced bamboo veneer; the obvious fire retardation and smoke inhibition effects of the sliced bamboo veneer treated by fire retardant FRW was observed.

  19. 木材阻燃的回顾与展望%Review and Prospect of Wood Fire-retardant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文斌; 吴纯初; 顾练百

    2000-01-01

    综合论述了木材阻燃处理的国内外现状,并提出其今后发展趋势。%discussed systematically the yesterday and current situation of the wood fire-retardant processing in home and abroad. At the sametime, gave the prospect of the fire-retardant processing.

  20. Short Jute Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Composites: Effect of Nonhalogenated Fire Retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk. Sharfuddin Chestee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Short jute fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP composites were prepared using a single screw extrusion moulding. Jute fiber content in the composites is optimized with the extent of mechanical properties, and composites with 20% jute show higher mechanical properties. Dissimilar concentrations of several fire retardants (FRs, such as magnesium oxide (MO, aluminum oxide (AO, and phosphoric acid (PA, were used in the composites. The addition of MO, AO, and PA improved the fire retardancy properties (ignition time, flame height, and total firing time of the composites. Ignition time for 30% MO, flame height for 30% PA, and total firing time for 20% MO content composites showed good results which were 8 sec, 1 inch, and 268 sec, respectively. Mechanical properties (tensile strength, tensile modulus, bending strength, bending modulus, and elongation at break, degradation properties (soil test, weathering test, and percentage of weight loss, and water uptake were studied.

  1. DOPO-VTS-based coatings in the realm of fire retardants for cotton textile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernyy, Sergey; Ullah, Saif; Sørensen, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    The work elucidates the feasibility of incorporation of phosphorus-silicon containing fire retardant (10-(2-trimethoxysilylethyl)- 9-hydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide [DOPO-VTS]) into nanosol coating solutions by cohydrolysis cocondensation reaction of DOPO-VTS with tetraethoxysilane...

  2. 无机磷系阻燃剂%Inorganic Phosphorus Series Fire Retardants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亨

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic phosphorus series fire retardants include red phosphorus(microencapsulized red phosphorus),ammonium polyphosphate and phosphate(such as monoammonium phosphate,diammonium phosphate,triammonium phosphate).The properties,production process,production standard and uses of several inorganic phosphorus series fire retardants have been introduced.The production and retardancy application situation of inorganic phosphorus series fire retardants are summarized.%无机磷系阻燃剂包括红磷(微胶囊化红磷)、聚磷酸铵、磷酸盐(如磷酸氢二铵、磷酸二氢铵、磷酸铵等)。介绍了红磷、聚磷酸铵、磷酸盐等无机阻燃剂的性质、生产过程、产品标准和用途等。概括了无机磷系阻燃剂生产、性能和阻燃应用研究情况。

  3. Fire-retardant coatings based on organic bromine/phenoxy or brominated epoxy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.M.; Chiu, Ing L.

    1989-06-01

    Thin phenoxy and brominated epoxy/curing agent films were prepared by solvent casting on Mylar and Kapton. Thicknesses were approximated assuming volume additivity. Important parameters were uniformity of thickness, distribution of the bromine-containing fire retardant, adhesion to carrier substrate (either Mylar or Kapton), and uniformity of the coating, i.e., absence of pinholes, blush, blistering, etc. Wetting behavior was modified using fluoro, silicone or polyurea surfactants. Several solvent systems were examined and a ternary solvent system was ultimately used. Distribution of fire-retardant bromine was analyzed using electron microprobe, x-ray fluorescence and wet chemical methods. Significant discrepancies in the /mu/m-scale analyses of the microprobe measurements have not been resolved. Some of the brominated fire retardants were insoluble in the resin systems and the phase separation was immediately obvious. Similarly, some of the crystallizable epoxies could not be cast easily into homogeneous, amorphous films. Castings were made on a standard 8'' /times/ 10'' aluminum vacuum plate polished with jeweler's rouge prior to every casting. Solvent was removed in a forced air or vacuum oven. Removal and/or curing was accelerated with temperature. The fire-retardant bromine was required to be stable in alcohol/salt solutions. Final formulation used after a significant amount of testing was phenoxy resin PKHC in a ternary solvent system composed of methylethyl ketone, cellosolve acetate and toluene. Tetrabromobisphenol A was used as the flame retardant with FC-430 as surfactant. The dying schedule was 30 minutes at 150/degree/C. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Actuality and Developing Tendency of Fire Retardants%阻燃剂的现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦华军; 张立新

    2001-01-01

    Aim To introduce the mechanism and development trend of fire retardants simply. Methods The interrelated data home and abroad were summarized. Results The categories and conditions of fire retardants were summarized. Conclusion The research of fire retardants require to be heightened.%目的简单介绍阻燃剂的机理及发展趋势. 方法检索了国内外相关资料. 结果综述了阻燃剂的种类和状况. 结论阻燃剂的研究需进一步加强.

  5. Fire Retardant Coatings for Military Equipment - A Review,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    Intumescent Reaction Mechanisms, (1985), J. Fire Sci. 3, (3), 161. 52. Interam. 3M Co. St Paul , Minn. cited in Product Engineering, Feb. 1976. p 37...53. Sawko , P.M. & Riccitiello, S.R. (1977). Intumescent Coatings Based on 4,4’- Dinitrosulfanilide, J. Coat. Tech. 49, No 624, 49. 54. Cook, J. (1987...Fohlen, G.M., Sawko , P.M. and Griffin Jr., R.N. (1968). The Use of a Salt of p-Nitroaniline as a Component for Intumescent Coatings, SAMPE J. 4, 5. 56

  6. A Fire-Retardant Composite Made from Domestic Waste and PVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Surtiyeni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of a composite from domestic waste with the strength of wood building materials. We used original domestic waste with only a simple pretreatment to reduce the processing cost. The wastes were composed of organic components (generally originating from foods, paper, plastics, and clothes; the average fraction of each type of waste mirrored the corresponding fractions of wastes in the city of Bandung, Indonesia. An initial survey of ten landfills scattered through Bandung was conducted to determine the average fraction of each component in the waste. The composite was made using a hot press. A large number of synthesis parameters were tested to determine the optimum ones. The measured mechanical strength of the produced composite approached the mechanical properties of wood building materials. A fire-retardant powder was added to retard fire so that the composite could be useful for the construction of residential homes of lower-income people who often have problems with fire. Fire tests showed that the composites were more resistant to fire than widely used wood building materials.

  7. Fire behavior of halogen-free flame retardant electrical cables with the cone calorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinier, Romain; Sonnier, Rodolphe; Zavaleta, Pascal; Suard, Sylvain; Ferry, Laurent

    2017-08-14

    Fires involving electrical cables are one of the main hazards in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Cables are complex assemblies including several polymeric parts (insulation, bedding, sheath) constituting fuel sources. This study provides an in-depth characterization of the fire behavior of two halogen-free flame retardant cables used in NPPs using the cone calorimeter. The influence of two key parameters, namely the external heat flux and the spacing between cables, on the cable fire characteristics is especially investigated. The prominent role of the outer sheath material on the ignition and the burning at early times was highlighted. A parameter of utmost importance called transition heat flux, was identified and depends on the composition and the structure of the cable. Below this heat flux, the decomposition is limited and concerns only the sheath. Above it, fire hazard is greatly enhanced because most often non-flame retarded insulation part contributes to heat release. The influence of spacing appears complex, and depends on the considered fire property. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nanostructured Wood Hybrids for Fire-Retardancy Prepared by Clay Impregnation into the Cell Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiliang; Medina, Lilian; Li, Yuanyuan; Carosio, Federico; Hajian, Alireza; Berglund, Lars A

    2017-09-14

    Eco-friendly materials need "green" fire-retardancy treatments, which offer opportunity for new wood nanotechnologies. Balsa wood (Ochroma pyramidale) was delignified to form a hierarchically structured and nanoporous scaffold mainly composed of cellulose nanofibrils. This nanocellulosic wood scaffold was impregnated with colloidal montmorillonite clay to form a nanostructured wood hybrid with high flame-retardancy. The nanoporous scaffold was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and gas adsorption. Flame-retardancy was evaluated by cone calorimetry, whereas thermal and thermo-oxidative stabilities were assessed by thermogravimetry. The location of well-distributed clay nanoplatelets inside the cell walls was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. This unique nanostructure dramatically increased the thermal stability because of thermal insulation, oxygen depletion, and catalytic charring effects. A coherent organic/inorganic charred residue was formed during combustion, leading to a strongly reduced heat release rate peak and reduced smoke generation.

  9. Effect of clays on the fire-retardant properties of a polyethylenic copolymer containing intumescent formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone P S Ribeiro et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophilic clay particles were added to a standard intumescent formulation and, since the role of clay expansion or intercalation is still a matter of much controversy, several clays with varying degrees of interlayer distances were evaluated. The composites were obtained by blending the nanostructured clay and the intumescent system with a polyethylenic copolymer. The flame-retardant properties of the materials were evaluated by the limiting oxygen index (LOI, the UL-94 rating and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results showed that the addition of highly expanded clays to the ammonium polyphosphate and pentaerythritol formulation does not significantly increase the flame retardancy of the mixture, when measured by the LOI and UL-94. However, when clays with smaller basal distances were added to the intumescent formulation, a synergistic effect was observed. In contrast, the simple addition of clays to the copolymer, without the intumescent formulation, did not increase the fire retardance of the materials.

  10. Effect of clays on the fire-retardant properties of a polyethylenic copolymer containing intumescent formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Simone P S; Nascimento, Regina S V [Instituto de Quimica-DQO, UFRJ, CT Bloco A, 60 andar, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP: 21941-590 (Brazil); Estevao, Luciana R M [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e BiocombustIveis-ANP, SCM, Av. Rio Branco 65, 170 andar, Centro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP: 20090-004 (Brazil)], E-mail: rsandra@iq.ufrj.br

    2008-04-15

    Organophilic clay particles were added to a standard intumescent formulation and, since the role of clay expansion or intercalation is still a matter of much controversy, several clays with varying degrees of interlayer distances were evaluated. The composites were obtained by blending the nanostructured clay and the intumescent system with a polyethylenic copolymer. The flame-retardant properties of the materials were evaluated by the limiting oxygen index (LOI), the UL-94 rating and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the addition of highly expanded clays to the ammonium polyphosphate and pentaerythritol formulation does not significantly increase the flame retardancy of the mixture, when measured by the LOI and UL-94. However, when clays with smaller basal distances were added to the intumescent formulation, a synergistic effect was observed. In contrast, the simple addition of clays to the copolymer, without the intumescent formulation, did not increase the fire retardance of the materials.

  11. Study on fire retardant mechanism of nano-LDHs in intumescent system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZeJiang; LAN Bin; MEI XiuJuan; XU ChengHua

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigated the fire-retardant mechanism of the nano-LDHs in the intumescent system by the temperature programmed oxidation (TPO). Researches were also conducted to explore the function of the nano-LDHs in the composite fire-retardant agents in air and nitrogen atmosphere, respectively.The results indicated that the nano-LDHs species were responsible for the catalytic oxidation of the rich-carbon compound in oxygen atmosphere. In addition, the nano-LDHs species and their calcinated products at high temperature could increase the carbonaceous residue-shield of the carbon-rich materials, improve the quality and the graphitization degree of the formed char-layer, and accelerate the intumescence and expansion of the melting carbon-rich materials to a certain degree under the oxygen-free condition, leading to the carbonization and expansion of the intumescent layer.

  12. Study on fire retardant mechanism of nano-LDHs in intumescent system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigated the fire-retardant mechanism of the nano-LDHs in the intumescent system by the temperature programmed oxidation (TPO). Researches were also conducted to explore the function of the nano-LDHs in the composite fire-retardant agents in air and nitrogen atmosphere, respectively. The results indicated that the nano-LDHs species were responsible for the catalytic oxidation of the rich-carbon compound in oxygen atmosphere. In addition, the nano-LDHs species and their calcinated products at high temperature could increase the carbonaceous residue-shield of the carbon-rich materials, improve the quality and the graphitization degree of the formed char-layer, and accelerate the intumescence and expansion of the melting carbon-rich materials to a certain degree under the oxygen-free condition, leading to the carbonization and expansion of the intumescent layer.

  13. DIMENSIONAL STABILITY PERFORMANCE OF FIRE RETARDANT TREATED VENEER-ORIENTED STRANDBOARD COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Candan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated dimensional stability properties of oriented strandboard (OSB panels faced with fire retardant treated (FRT veneers. The beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky veneers were treated with monoammonium phosphate (MAP, diammonium phosphate (DAP, lime water (LW, and a borax/boric acid (BX/BA (1:1 mixture. Dimensional stability tests were performed according to ASTM D-1037. The results revealed that facing veneers impregnated with fire-retardant chemicals had significant effects on the linear expansion (LE properties. The lowest LE value was obtained from the panels faced with MAP treated veneers, while the highest LE value was found in the panels faced with BX/BA treated veneers. The FRT treated veneer facing technique also affected the thickness swelling (TS properties of the OSB panels. The panels faced with LW treated veneers had the highest TS, whereas the panels faced with MAP treated veneers had the lowest TS values.

  14. Low smoke, non-corrosive, fire retardant cable jackets based on HNBR and EVM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisenheimer, H.

    1991-06-01

    This article examines the properties of the polymers HNBR and EVM which make them good candidates for use in meeting the low smoke, non-corrosive, low toxicity and fire retardant requirements for electric safety cable jackets and electric insulation. Topics of the article include density, weight, and viscosity of each polymer, mechanical proprieties of each polymer, and other results of laboratory testing of these polymers.

  15. Ecofriendly Fire Retardant and Rot Resistance Finishing of Jute Fabric Using Tin and Boron Based Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Bagchi, Arindam

    2017-06-01

    Treatment with sodium stannate followed by treatment with boric acid imparts jute fabric wash fast fire resistance property as indicated by its Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) value and 45° inclined flammability test results. The treatment was carried out by impregnation of sodium stannate followed by impregnation with an aqueous solution of boric acid and drying. Application of sodium stannate (20%) and boric acid (20%) treatment on jute fabric showed balanced flame retardancy property (LOI value 34) with some loss in fabric tenacity (loss of tenacity is 14.5%). Treated fabric retained good fire retardant property after three consecutive washing. Treated fabric also possessed good rot resistance property as indicated by soil burial test and strength retention after 21 days soil burial was found to be 65%. It is found that of sodium stannate and boric acid combination by double bath process form a synergistic durable fire-retardant as well as rot resistant when impregnated on jute material, which is considerably greater than the use of either sodium stannate or boric acid alone. TGA, FTIR and SEM analysis are also reported to support the results and reaction mechanism.

  16. Ecofriendly Fire Retardant and Rot Resistance Finishing of Jute Fabric Using Tin and Boron Based Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Bagchi, Arindam

    2017-02-01

    Treatment with sodium stannate followed by treatment with boric acid imparts jute fabric wash fast fire resistance property as indicated by its Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) value and 45° inclined flammability test results. The treatment was carried out by impregnation of sodium stannate followed by impregnation with an aqueous solution of boric acid and drying. Application of sodium stannate (20%) and boric acid (20%) treatment on jute fabric showed balanced flame retardancy property (LOI value 34) with some loss in fabric tenacity (loss of tenacity is 14.5%). Treated fabric retained good fire retardant property after three consecutive washing. Treated fabric also possessed good rot resistance property as indicated by soil burial test and strength retention after 21 days soil burial was found to be 65%. It is found that of sodium stannate and boric acid combination by double bath process form a synergistic durable fire-retardant as well as rot resistant when impregnated on jute material, which is considerably greater than the use of either sodium stannate or boric acid alone. TGA, FTIR and SEM analysis are also reported to support the results and reaction mechanism.

  17. Outline of Preparation and Fire- retardant Properties Detection of Nanocrystalline Cellulose Fire- retardant Membranes%纳米纤维素阻燃膜的制备及阻燃性检测概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐睿; 王海英; 孙睿; 雷舒

    2012-01-01

    Methods of fire -retardant properties evaluation, fire -retardant cellulose fibers preparation, and nano- crystalline cellulose preparation were introduced, respectively. The national standards of fire - retardant properties evalua- tion for fire - retardant protective clothing and forest fire - proof clothing were compared. National standards GB/T5454 - 1997, textiles - burning properties test oxygen index method, was used in forest fire - proof clothing. Preparation method and application prospects of nanocrystalline cellulose fire - retardant membranes were explored.%分别介绍了阻燃性能指标评价、阻燃纤维素纤维的制备、纳米纤维素的制备等方法,比较了阻燃防护服和森林防火服的阻燃性能指标评价国家标准,森林防火服的阻燃性能指标评价还另外采用了GB/T5454—1997纺织品燃烧性能试验氧指数法国家标准,探讨了纳米纤维素复合阻燃膜的制备方法及其应用前景。

  18. Synergistic effects of mica and wollastonite fillers on thermal performance of intumescent fire retardant coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zia-ul-Mustafa, M., E-mail: engr.ziamustafa@gmail.com; Ahmad, Faiz; Megat-Yusoff, Puteri S. M.; Aziz, Hammad [Mechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    In this study, intumescent fire retardant coatings (IFRC) were developed to investigate the synergistic effects of reinforced mica and wollastonite fillers based IFRC towards heat shielding, char expansion, char composition and char morphology. Ammonium poly-phosphate (APP) was used as acid source, expandable graphite (EG) as carbon source, melamine as blowing agent, boric acid as additive and Hardener H-2310 polyamide amine in bisphenol A epoxy resin BE-188(BPA) was used as curing agent. Bunsen burner fire test was used for thermal performance according to UL-94 for 1 h. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) was used to observe char microstructure. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyse char composition. The results showed that addition of clay filler in IFRC enhanced the fire protection performance of intumescent coating. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed the presence of boron phosphate, silicon phosphate oxide, aluminium borate in the char that improved the thermal performance of intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC). Resultantly, the presence of these developed compounds enhanced the Integrity of structural steel upto 500°C.

  19. Modeling study on the combustion of intumescent fire-retardant polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The heat transfer and burning behavior of the intumescent fire-retardant polypropylene were studied by the cone calorimeter at heat flux levels of 50 kW.m-2 to establish an essential physical model for the intumescence process in fire. A mathematical model for the burning process of fire-retardant intumescent polymer was put forward based on the assumption that an intumescent front existed between the char layer and virgin layer. The model emphasizes the thermodynamic aspect of the intumescence process and a corresponding submodel is presented. Meanwhile the thicknesses and mass loss rates of the intumescent polypropylene during burning were measured for the validation of the modeling results. Thermal conductivity and heat capacity of polymer material were also measured as input parameters of the model. The validation results showed that the intumescent thicknesses and mass loss rates predicted by the model were in good agreement with the experimental results. The model was also used to predict the temperature distribution across the sample thickness during burning. The study shows that the present model can appropriately describe the intumescent behavior of the polymer and numerically predict its mass loss rates and temperature distribution in fire.

  20. FRW 阻燃剂处理饰面炭化杨木单板阻燃性能研究%Study on the Fire-Retarding Properties of FRW Fire-Retardant Carbonized Poplar Veneer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    步琦璟; 刘迎涛; 成真; 霍莹; 王旭婷; 刘芯彤; 黄佳波

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen index chamber and CONE calorimeter were used to evaluate the fire-retarding properties of FRW fire-retardant carbonized poplar veneers which were dipped with different consistence.The results showed that:the fire-retarding property of FRW fire-retardant carbonized poplar veneers which were dipped with more than 8% consistence could reach the first class of JISD 1322 -77.The heat release rate (HRR),total heat release (THR),smoking ratio (SR)and total smoke production (TSP)of FRW fire-retardant carbonized poplar veneers showed the decreasing tendency with the increase of the dipping consistence.The FRW fire-retardant carbonized poplar veneer owned the better fire-retarding and smoke suppression performance.%利用氧指数测定仪和锥形量热仪,研究不同质量分数 FRW 阻燃剂浸渍杨木素板和饰面炭化杨木单板的阻燃性能。结果表明,质量分数8%以上 FRW 阻燃剂浸渍处理的炭化杨木单板阻燃性可达到日本标准 JISD1322-77中规定的难燃一级品标准;随着 FRW 阻燃剂浸渍质量分数的增加,阻燃炭化杨木单板的热释放速率、总热释放量、烟比率和总烟释放量均呈降低趋势,说明阻燃炭化杨木单板具有较佳的阻燃和抑烟性能。

  1. The Influence of Dipping Technology on Fire Retardant Retention Quantity of FRW Fire-Retarding Veneer%浸渍工艺对FRW阻燃单板载药量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迎涛; 乔磊; 李晓乐; 林会峰; 姜道鸿; 韩爽

    2012-01-01

    The new-type fire retardant FRW was selected to treat poplar and birch veneer, and the influence of the treatment technology conditions including the soaking time and solution concentration, veneer thickness and the timber of different tree species on the fire retardant retention quantity of the FRW fire-retarding veneer was studied. The results showed that along with the prolonging of soaking time duration and increasing of the solution concentration, the fire retardant retention quantity of the poplar and birch veneer both increased. There was difference in the fire retardant retention quantity between the tree species, the fire retardant retention quantity of poplar veneer was higher than that of the birch veneer. At the same time, with the increase of veneer thickness, the fire retardant retention quantity showed a downward trend in the overall.%选用新型木材阻燃剂FRW处理杨木和桦木单板,探讨浸渍工艺条件(浸渍时间和浸渍浓度)、单板厚度、树种等因素对FRW阻燃单板载药量的影响.结果表明:随着单板浸渍时间的增加和浸渍浓度的提高,杨木和桦木的单板载药量均呈上升趋势;树种不同,其载药量存在差异,杨木单板的载药量高于桦木单板;随着单板厚度的增加,单板载药量在整体上呈下降趋势.

  2. 纳米阻燃剂对饰面型防火涂料性能影响研究%Effect of Nano Flame Retardant on the Performance of Decorated Fire-retardant Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方璐; 张佳璐; 王美琴; 张华文

    2015-01-01

    Decorated fire-retardant coating is an important method to avoid building fire accidents.Now the research finded that nanometre fire-retardant could solve the problems existing in the application of decorated fire-retardant coating and improved the performance.In order to research the effect of nano flame retardant on the performance of decorated fire-retardant coating, based on the nanometer aluminum hydroxide flame retardant.The method of tunnel ignition was adopted to test the fire performance of ordinary decorating fire-retardant coatings and the fire performance of the decorating fire-retardant coatings adding nanometer aluminum hydroxide. Comparative analysis of experimental results was used to obtained the inference rule of nanometer aluminum hydroxide flame retardant and to have a more intuitive understanding of the inference of nano flame retardant.Fire retardant coatings for nano future trends were forecasted.%饰面型防火涂料是建筑物防火的一种重要方法。现研究发现纳米阻燃剂可改善饰面型防火涂料存在问题,提高防火性能。为研究纳米阻燃剂对饰面型防火涂料的性能影响,本文以纳米氢氧化铝阻燃剂为例,通过隧道燃烧法测量火焰传播比值来对普通饰面型防火涂料和纳米改性涂料的耐火性能进行分析,得出纳米氢氧化铝的影响规律,对纳米阻燃剂的作用有一个更直观的认识,并对纳米防火涂料的未来发展进行展望。

  3. EFFECT OF FIRE RETARDANTS ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS AND WETTABILITY OF WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITE PANELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Ayrilmis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness and wettability of flat-pressed wood plastic composites (WPCs incorporated with various fire retardants (FRs (5, 10, or 15% by weight (wt at 50 wt-% content of the wood flour (WF were investigated. The most common FRs, zinc borate (ZB, magnesium hydroxide (MH, and ammonium polyphosphate (APP, were used in the experiments. The WPC panels were made from dry-blended wood flour (WF, fire retardant (FR powder, and polypropylene (PP powder with maleic anhydride-grafted PP (2 wt-% formulations using a conventional flat-pressing process under laboratory conditions. The contact angle measurements were obtained by using a goniometer connected with a digital camera and computer system. Three roughness measurements, average roughness (Ra, mean peak-to-valley height (Rz, and maximum roughness (Ry, were taken from the WPC panel surface using a fine stylus tracing technique. It was found that the surface smoothness of the WPC panels decreased with increasing content of the FR powder while the wettability increased. The control WPC panel without the FR had the smoothest surface, followed by the WPC panels containing the MH, ZB, and APP, respectively.

  4. Calculation of Limits of Fire Resistance for Structures with Fire Retardant Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivtcov Artem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to fireproof processing of steel structures. The main task is to consider different types of sections of rod elements and to choose the most effective section for a steel column from the point of view of fire protection. For the solution of this task the steel columns with various cross sections working in identical entry conditions were considered. All necessary calculations for all types of sections were carried out. Results of calculations were presented in the summary table according to which the comparative analysis was made. At the end of work the conclusion that the compound section from four equal corners is the most effective from the point of view of fire protection.

  5. Acute toxicity of three fire-retardant and two fire-suppressant foam formulations to the early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; McDonald, Susan F.; Summers, Cliff H.; Linder, G.; Krest, S.; Sparling, D.; Little, E.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted with five early life stages of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to determine the acute toxicities of five fire-fighting chemical formulations in standardized soft and hard water. Eyed egg, embryo–larvae, swim-up fry, and 60- and 90-d posthatch juveniles were exposed to three fire retardants (Fire-Trol LCG-R, Fire-Trol GTS-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex). Swim-up fry were generally the most sensitive life stage, whereas the eyed-egg was the least sensitive. Toxicity of fire-fighting formulations was greater in hard water than in soft water for all life stages tested with Fire-Trol GTS-R and Silv-Ex and for 90-d-old juveniles tested with Fire-Trol LCG-R. The fire-suppressant foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. The 96-h median lethal concentrations (LC50s) were ranked from the most toxic to the least toxic formulation as follows (ranges are the lowest and highest 96-h LC50 calculated for each formulation): Phos-Chek WD-881 (11–44 mg/L), Silv-Ex (11–78 mg/L), Phos-Chek D75-F (218–>3,600 mg/L), Fire-Trol GTS-R (207–>6,000 mg/L), and Fire-Trol LCG-R (872–>10,000 mg/L). Toxicity values suggest that accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect fish populations.

  6. Durability of the reaction to fire performance for fire retardant treated (FRT wood products in exterior applications – a ten years report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östman Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several long term experimental studies on the maintained reaction to fire performance of fire retardant treated (FRT wood products over time are presented. They are performed according to a European system based on earlier Nordic and North American systems and include accelerated ageing according to different procedures and natural weathering up to ten years. Main conclusions are: The hygroscopic properties are unchanged compared to untreated wood for most FRT wood products used commercially. The reaction to fire properties of FRT wood may be maintained after accelerated and natural ageing if the retention levels are high enough, but several FRT wood products loose most of their improved reaction to fire properties during weathering. Paint systems contribute considerably to maintain of the fire performance at exterior application and are usually needed to maintain the fire performance after weathering.

  7. 膨胀型阻燃剂的研究现状%Current Research Situation of Intumescent Fire Retardants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁基照; 冯金清

    2011-01-01

    The classification, history and recent development of intumescent fire-retardant were reviewed. The performances, advantages and disadvantages, and current research situation of mixed-type intumesceent flame retardant as well as single-component intumesceent flame retardant was introduced. The effects of several flame retardant synergist, such as montmorillonite, silica, zeolite, and metal compounds etc, on intumescent flame retardant system were introduced. Besides, three treatment techniques of intumescent fire-retardant, such as the nanominiaturization, surface modification and microencapsulation, were also briefly introduced.%概述了膨胀型阻燃剂的分类、发展历史和近况.介绍了混合型膨胀阻燃剂和单组分膨胀阻燃剂的性能、优缺点及研究现状.罗列了蒙脱土、二氧化硅、沸石以及金属化合物等多种膨胀协同阻燃助剂在膨胀阻燃体系中的作用.简单介绍了纳米化、表面改性以及微胶囊化三种膨胀型阻燃剂的处理技术.

  8. Effect of fillers and fire retardant compounds on hydroxy terminated polybutadiene based insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Kakade

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of polyurethane compositions have been formulated using hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene as polymeric binder and carbon black as a major filler. Various binder-to-filler ratios of the formulations were evaluated to get calendered sheets. The formulations have been characterised for pot-life and rollability and the calendered sheets for mechanical and thermal properties, bUm rate, glass transition temperature, shore hardness and density . The different fillers tried were varieties of carbon black as a major filler; metal oxides, silicates and organic compounds; and fire retardants, such as zinc borate, sodium metaborate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and antimony trioxide. The structure and morphology of the fillers have been correlated with the properties. The optimised composition has been evaluated in an end-burning motor, as an insulator for case-bonded application, using a typical composite propellant. The results of interface bonding between the propellant and the insulator have also been presented.

  9. Utilization of Magnesium Hydroxide Produced by Magnesia Hydration as Fire Retardant for Nylon 6-6,6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Sônia D.F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the use of magnesium hydroxide, produced by magnesia hydration, as a fire retardant in polymers. The hydration was carried out in an autoclave, at temperature of 130°C for 1 hour, and the product was further submitted to cominution in a jet mill. The solids were characterized with regard to their chemical composition, particle size distribution, surface area and morphology. The performance evaluation of the hydroxide as a flame retardant for a copolymer of nylon 6-6,6 was carried out according to the UL94 specifications for vertical burning tests. V-0 flammability rating at 1.6 mm (60% magnesium hydroxide-filled nylon composite and at 3.2 mm (40% magnesium hydroxide filled nylon composite were achieved. Mechanical properties were maintained at the desired values. These results indicate that the hydroxide obtained from magnesia hydration can be successfully employed as a fire retardant for nylon 6-6,6.

  10. Inhibition Effect of Phosphorus Flame Retardants on the Fire Disasters Induced by Spontaneous Combustion of Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal spontaneous combustion (CSC generally induces fire disasters in underground mines, thus causing serious casualties, environmental pollution, and property loss around the world. By using six P-containing additives to process three typical coal samples, this study investigated the variations of the self-ignition characteristics of the coal samples before and after treatment. The analysis was performed by combining thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR and low temperature oxidation. Experimental results showed that P-containing inhibitors could effectively restrain the heat emitted in the combustion of coal samples and therefore the ignition temperature of the coal samples was delayed at varying degrees. The combustion rate of the coal samples was reduced as well. At the temperatures ranging from 50°C to 150°C, the activation energy of the coal samples after the treatment was found to increase, which indicated that the coal samples were more difficult to be oxidized. After being treated with phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs, the content of several active groups represented by the C-O structure in the three coal samples was proved to be obviously changed. This suggested that PFRs could significantly inhibit the content of CO generated by the low temperature oxidation of coal, and the flame-retardant efficiency grew with the increasing temperature. At 200°C, the maximal inhibition efficiency reached approximately 85%.

  11. The novel silicon-containing epoxy/PEPA phosphate flame retardant for transparent intumescent fire resistant coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yanchao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 Cao' an Road, Shanghai 201804 (China); Wang, Guojian, E-mail: wanggj@tongji.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 Cao' an Road, Shanghai 201804 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials, Ministry of Education, 4800 Cao' an Road, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The novel halogen-free flame retardant containing silicon and caged bicyclic phosphate was synthesized. • A novel transparent intumescent fire resistant coating was developed by the P-Si synergistic flame retardant and melamine formaldehyde resin. • Excellent fire protection of the transparent intumescent fire resistant coating. • The P-Si synergistic flame retardant could improve the thermo-oxidation resistance of transparent fire resistant coating. - Abstract: A series of novel silicon-containing epoxy/PEPA phosphate flame retardants (EPPSi) were synthesized by polyphosphoric acid (PPA), caged bicyclic phosphate 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-L-phosphabicyclo [2.2.2] octane (PEPA), and different ratios of silicon-containing epoxy 1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-1,3-bis(3-(oxiran-2-ylmethoxy)propyl)disiloxane (TMSEP) to 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDE). The chemical structure of EPPSi was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR). Afterwards, the transparent intumescent fire resistant coatings were prepared by mixing EPPSi and melamine formaldehyde resin. The influence of silicon on the fire protection of coatings was intensively investigated by fire protection test, intumescence ratio, scanning electron microscope (SEM), compressive strength test, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and real-time FTIR. It was found that the fire resistant coatings obtained the best fire protection when the ratio of TMESP/BDE was 20/100, while excessive TMSEP made the fire protection of coatings deceased sharply. The intumescence ratio, compressive strength test and SEM result showed that a synergistic effect existed between phosphorus and silicon, which improved the foam structure and compressive strength of the char layer significantly. XPS result proved the out-migration effect of silicon. The high concentration silicon on surface played

  12. Impact of a long-term fire retardant (Fire Trol 931) on the leaching of Ca, Mg, and K from a Mediterranean forest loamy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, Charalampos; Koufopoulou, Sofia; Tzamtzis, Nikolaos; Pappa, Athina

    2016-03-01

    The present laboratory study was conducted in pot soil taken from forest. The leaching of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K) (plant macronutrients) due to the application of a nitrogen phosphate-based long-term fire retardant (LTFR) (Fire Trol 931) was investigated. The concentrations of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) were measured in the resulting leachates from pots with forest soil and pine tree alone and in combination with fire. Magnesium is a minor component of Fire Trol 931. The leaching of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) from treated soils with the retardant pots was significantly greater than that from control pots. The leaching of Mg(2+) was found to be of small percentage of the initially applied Mg quantities. Fire Trol 931 application resulted in the leaching of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) from a typical Mediterranean forest soil in pots, following the application of simulated annual precipitation probably due to ammonium (one of the major retardant components) soil deposition that mobilizes base cations from the soil. It seems that LTFR application may result in chemical leaching from the soil to the drainage water.

  13. Brominated flame retardants and the formation of dioxins and furans in fires and combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengmei; Buekens, Alfons; Li, Xiaodong

    2016-03-05

    The widespread use and increasing inventory of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have caused considerable concern, as a result of BFRs emissions to the environment and of the formation of both polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and mixed polybromochloro-dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBCDD/Fs or PXDD/Fs). Structural similarities between PBDD/Fs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) suggest the existence of comparable formation pathways of both PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs, yet BFRs also act as specific precursors to form additional PBDD/Fs. Moreover, elementary bromine (Br2) seems to facilitate chlorination by bromination of organics, followed by Br/Cl-exchange based on displacement through the more reactive halogen. Overall, PBDD/Fs form through three possible pathways: precursor formation, de novo formation, and dispersion of parts containing BFRs as impurities and surviving a fire or other events. The present review summarises the formation mechanisms of both brominated (PBDD/Fs) and mixed dioxins (PXDD/Fs with X=Br or Cl) from BFRs, recaps available emissions data of PBDD/Fs and mixed PXDD/Fs from controlled waste incineration, uncontrolled combustion sources and accidental fires, and identifies and analyses the effects of several local factors of influence, affecting the formation of PBDD/Fs and mixed PXDD/Fs during BFRs combustion.

  14. Fire Retardant Technology and Evaluation Method for Wood-based Panels%人造板阻燃技术与评价方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉泉; 彭力争; 张根成; 吴建国; 张建

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduced three fire retardant treatments for wood-based panels and the common fire retardants;briefed the standards for fire retardant wood and wood-based panel products and the evaluation and test methods for fire retardant materials;and discussed the existing issues of the standard for fire-resistant panels.%介绍了3种人造板的阻燃处理方法及常用阻燃剂,概述了阻燃人造板标准、阻燃性能评价和检测方法,分析了目前阻燃人造板研发生产在国内外标准方面存在的问题。

  15. 我国阻燃剂生产现状与发展趋势%Production Situation and Development Trend of Domestic Fire Retardants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁诚

    2001-01-01

    介绍了我国阻燃剂的生产现状及其在品种和产品质量等方面与国外存在的较大差距,论述了我国阻燃剂的研究开发方向及其发展趋势,并提出合理化建议。%The production situation of domestic fire retardants and theconsiderable gaps between domestic and foreign fire retardants in the way of kind, quality etc. were reviewed. The development trend of domestic fire retardants was discussed and reasonable suggestions were proposed.

  16. Development of Self Fire Retardant Melamine-Animal Glue Formaldehyde (MGF) Resin for the Manufacture of BWR Ply Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatua, Pijus Kanti; Dubey, Rajib Kumar; Roymahapatra, Gourisankar; Mishra, Anjan; Shahoo, Shadhu Charan; Kalawate, Aparna

    2016-06-01

    Wood is one of the most sustainable, naturally growing materials that consist mainly of combustible organic carbon compounds. Since plywood are widely used nowadays especially in buildings, furniture and cabinets. Too often the fire behavior of ply-board may be viewed as a drawback. Amino-plastic based thermosetting resin adhesives are the important and most widely used in the plywood panel industries. The fire retardant property of wood panel products by adding animal glue as an additive in the form of MGF resin and used as substitute of melamine for manufacture of plywood. Environment concerns and higher cost of petroleum based resins have resulted in the development of technologies to replace melamine partially by biomaterials for the manufacturing of resin adhesive. Natural bio-based materials such as tannin, CNSL (cardanol), lignin, soya etc. are used as partial substitution of melamine. This article presents the development of melamine-animal glue formaldehyde resin as plywood binder. About 30 % melamine was substituted by animal glue and optimized. The different physico-mechanical and fire retardant property properties tested as per IS: 1734-1983 and IS: 5509-2000 respectively are quite satisfactory. The production of adhesive from melamine with compatible natural proteinous material is cost effective, eco-friendly and enhance the fire retardant property.

  17. Development of Self Fire Retardant Melamine-Animal Glue Formaldehyde (MGF) Resin for the Manufacture of BWR Ply Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatua, Pijus Kanti; Dubey, Rajib Kumar; Roymahapatra, Gourisankar; Mishra, Anjan; Shahoo, Shadhu Charan; Kalawate, Aparna

    2017-10-01

    Wood is one of the most sustainable, naturally growing materials that consist mainly of combustible organic carbon compounds. Since plywood are widely used nowadays especially in buildings, furniture and cabinets. Too often the fire behavior of ply-board may be viewed as a drawback. Amino-plastic based thermosetting resin adhesives are the important and most widely used in the plywood panel industries. The fire retardant property of wood panel products by adding animal glue as an additive in the form of MGF resin and used as substitute of melamine for manufacture of plywood. Environment concerns and higher cost of petroleum based resins have resulted in the development of technologies to replace melamine partially by biomaterials for the manufacturing of resin adhesive. Natural bio-based materials such as tannin, CNSL (cardanol), lignin, soya etc. are used as partial substitution of melamine. This article presents the development of melamine-animal glue formaldehyde resin as plywood binder. About 30 % melamine was substituted by animal glue and optimized. The different physico-mechanical and fire retardant property properties tested as per IS: 1734-1983 and IS: 5509-2000 respectively are quite satisfactory. The production of adhesive from melamine with compatible natural proteinous material is cost effective, eco-friendly and enhance the fire retardant property.

  18. Advances in Research on the Venom Chemistry of Imported Fire Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workers of the imported fire ants, including red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, black imported fire ants, S. richteri Forel, and their hybrid (S. invicta × S. richteri), are vicious stingers. Since the venomous sting is a significant medical problem to humans, the chemistry of import...

  19. Effect of Magnesium Borates on the Fire-Retarding Properties of Zinc Borates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Seyhun Kipcak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium borate (MB is a technical ceramic exhibiting high heat resistance, corrosion resistance, great mechanical strength, great insulation properties, lightweightness, high strength, and a high coefficient of elasticity. Zinc borate (ZB can be used as a multifunctional synergistic additive in addition to flame retardant additives in polymers. In this study, the raw materials of zinc oxide (ZnO, magnesium oxide (MgO, and boric acid (H3BO3 were used in the mole ratio of 1 : 1 : 9, which was obtained from preexperiments. Using the starting materials, hydrothermal synthesis was applied, and characterisation of the products was performed using X-Ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies. The forms of Zn3B6O12·3.5H2O, MgO(B2O33·7(H2O, and Mg2(B6O7(OH62·9(H2O were synthesised successfully. Moreover, the surface morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the B2O3 content was determined. In addition, the reaction yields were calculated. The results of the B2O3 content analysis were in compliance with the literature values. Examination of the SEM images indicated that the obtained nanoscale minerals had a reaction efficiency ranging between 63–74% for MB and 87–98% for ZB. Finally, the fire-retarding properties of the synthesised pure MBs, pure ZBs, and mixtures of MB and ZB were determined using differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetry (DTA-TG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC.

  20. 建筑电气中阻燃和耐火电缆的使用分析%Use Analysis of Building Electrical Retardant and Fire Resistant Cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪圣昌

    2012-01-01

      在建筑的建造过程中,建筑电气中的阻燃和耐火电缆是构成电缆材料的一个组成部分。阻燃和耐火电缆在建筑构造中的电源、通讯设施、以及对火灾消防方面存在着重要的作用。阻燃和耐火电缆主要有两种:一种是用阻止燃烧的塑料做成的阻燃和耐火电缆;一种是由云母带以及阻止燃烧的塑料合并而成的阻燃和耐火电缆。本文针对影响阻燃和耐火电缆的火灾燃烧的因素展开探讨,分析建筑电气中阻燃和耐火电缆的使用方法。%  In the process of building construction, building electrical retardant and fire resistant cables constitute a part of the cable material. Flame retardant and fire power, in the cons-truction of communication facilities, as wel as the fire has played an important role in.Flame retardant and fire resistant cable is mainly has two kinds:one kind is made stop burning plastics flame-retardant and fire-resistant cable;one is from the mica tape and prevent burning plastic merged with flame retardant and fire resistant cable. This paper discusses the infl-uence of fire retardant and the burning factors of fire resistant cables,and analyzes the usage of the building electrical retard-ant and fire resistant cables.

  1. Synthesis and carbonization chemistry of a phosphorous-nitrogen based intumescent flame retardant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Haiyun, E-mail: mahaiyun@gmail.com [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, HeBei University, Baoding, Hebei Province 071002 (China); Fang, Zhengping [MOE Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Institute of Polymer Composites, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Laboratory of Polymer Materials and Engineering, Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University, Ningbo 315100 (China)

    2012-09-10

    Graphical abstract: The carbonization chemistry and mechanism of a novel synthesized intumescent flame retardant. The final chars showed a complex P-O-Ph and aromatic/graphitic structure containing architecture. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The IFR synthesized is polymeric and has high molecular weight. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The IFR has a higher thermal stability than most of the commercial IFRs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The final chars of IFR showed a complex P-O-Ph and aromatic/graphitic structure. - Abstract: In this work, a polymeric phosphorous-nitrogen containing intumescent flame retardant, named poly(diaminodiphenyl methane spirocyclic pentaerythritol bisphosphonate) (PDSPB), was synthesized. The carbonization chemistry was investigated. FTIR and {sup 1}H NMR were used to confirm the chemical structure of PDSPB. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in situ FTIR and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) were used to investigate and monitor the chemical structural changes during thermal degradation. PDSPB demonstrated a three-step degradation behavior. PDSPB oligomers continuously polymerized and generated a higher macromolecular weight during the first step (200-250 Degree-Sign C). The phosphate ester bonds were broken down and phosphoric acid was released which dehydrated the carbon source to form chars during the second step (280-320 Degree-Sign C). The residues will be further degraded and form final chars during the final weight loss step (400-450 Degree-Sign C). The final chars showed a complex P-O-Ph and aromatic/graphitic structure containing architecture.

  2. Brominated flame retardants and the formation of dioxins and furans in fires and combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Mengmei [State key laboratory of clean energy utilisation, Institute for Thermal Power Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Buekens, Alfons [State key laboratory of clean energy utilisation, Institute for Thermal Power Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Formerly with Chemical Engineering department, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Li, Xiaodong, E-mail: lixd@zju.edu.cn [State key laboratory of clean energy utilisation, Institute for Thermal Power Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • BFRs (PBDEs, HBCD and TBBP-A) are the main sources of PBDD/Fs in combustion process. • Precursor formation is the most relevant pathway for PBDD/Fs formation. • Adding bromine into combustion system can enhance the formation of PCDD/Fs. • Primitive recycling of e-waste produces the largest amounts of PBDD/Fs. - Abstract: The widespread use and increasing inventory of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have caused considerable concern, as a result of BFRs emissions to the environment and of the formation of both polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and mixed polybromochloro-dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBCDD/Fs or PXDD/Fs). Structural similarities between PBDD/Fs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) suggest the existence of comparable formation pathways of both PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs, yet BFRs also act as specific precursors to form additional PBDD/Fs. Moreover, elementary bromine (Br{sub 2}) seems to facilitate chlorination by bromination of organics, followed by Br/Cl-exchange based on displacement through the more reactive halogen. Overall, PBDD/Fs form through three possible pathways: precursor formation, de novo formation, and dispersion of parts containing BFRs as impurities and surviving a fire or other events. The present review summarises the formation mechanisms of both brominated (PBDD/Fs) and mixed dioxins (PXDD/Fs with X = Br or Cl) from BFRs, recaps available emissions data of PBDD/Fs and mixed PXDD/Fs from controlled waste incineration, uncontrolled combustion sources and accidental fires, and identifies and analyses the effects of several local factors of influence, affecting the formation of PBDD/Fs and mixed PXDD/Fs during BFRs combustion.

  3. WETTABILITY OF FIRE RETARDANT TREATED LAMINATED VENEER LUMBER (LVL MANUFACTURED FROM VENEERS DRIED AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Candan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Wettability of the fire retardant treated (FRT laminated veneer lumber (LVL manufactured from wood veneers dried at different temperatures was investigated. Commercially manufactured veneer of beech wood (Fagus orientalis L. was treated with borax-boric acid (BX/BA, 1:1 by weight, monoammonium phosphate (MAP, and diammonium phosphate (DAP using a full-cell pressure process. The veneers were then dried at different temperatures (120, 140, 160, and 180°C, and experimental LVLs were made from these veneer sheets. The wettability of LVL was characterized by contact angle analysis. The lowest contact angle was obtained from LVL made from BX/BA-treated veneers, while the highest value was found for the control LVL. The CA values of these samples at each re-drying level were lower than LVLs made from untreated veneers. Re-drying of the treated veneers decreased the CA values of the LVL, while it was found higher for the LVL made from untreated veneer.

  4. Thermally insulating and fire-retardant lightweight anisotropic foams based on nanocellulose and graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklein, Bernd; Kocjan, Andraž; Salazar-Alvarez, German; Carosio, Federico; Camino, Giovanni; Antonietti, Markus; Bergström, Lennart

    2015-03-01

    High-performance thermally insulating materials from renewable resources are needed to improve the energy efficiency of buildings. Traditional fossil-fuel-derived insulation materials such as expanded polystyrene and polyurethane have thermal conductivities that are too high for retrofitting or for building new, surface-efficient passive houses. Tailored materials such as aerogels and vacuum insulating panels are fragile and susceptible to perforation. Here, we show that freeze-casting suspensions of cellulose nanofibres, graphene oxide and sepiolite nanorods produces super-insulating, fire-retardant and strong anisotropic foams that perform better than traditional polymer-based insulating materials. The foams are ultralight, show excellent combustion resistance and exhibit a thermal conductivity of 15 mW m-1 K-1, which is about half that of expanded polystyrene. At 30 °C and 85% relative humidity, the foams retained more than half of their initial strength. Our results show that nanoscale engineering is a promising strategy for producing foams with excellent properties using cellulose and other renewable nanosized fibrous materials.

  5. Fire retardancy of emulsion polymerized poly (methyl methacrylate)/cerium(IV) dioxide and polystyrene/cerium(IV) dioxide nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Guipeng [Department of Chemistry and Fire Retardant Research Facility, Marquette University, PO Box 1881, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Lu, Hongdian [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Hefei University, Hefei, Anhui 230022 (China); Zhou, You; Hao, Jianwei [School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wilkie, Charles A., E-mail: charles.wilkie@marquette.edu [Department of Chemistry and Fire Retardant Research Facility, Marquette University, PO Box 1881, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepare PMMA and PS containing ceria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization by XRD and TEM shows that some of the ceria is well-dispersed in the polymers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The addition of ceria to both polymers leads to reduced thermal stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In PMMA, the fire retardancy is enhanced but there is little effect in PS. - Abstract: In situ emulsion polymerization was employed to obtain poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/cerium(IV) dioxide and polystyrene (PS)/cerium(IV) dioxide nanocomposites at two different cerium(IV) dioxide loadings (2.3 wt% and 4.6 wt%). Transmission electron microscope results indicated uniform dispersion of cerium (IV) dioxide in the polymer matrix. Both PMMA and PS nanocomposites exhibit lower thermal stability than the pristine polymers. Microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC) and cone calorimetry are used to evaluate the fire retardancy of the polymer nanocomposites. PMMA/cerium(IV) dioxide showed significant heat release rate (HRR) reduction at low loadings (<5 wt%), while PS/cerium(IV) dioxide exhibits less HRR reduction at the same loadings. An explanation of the role of cerium (IV) dioxide in fire retardancy of polymer/ceria nanocomposites based on XPS results is suggested.

  6. Study on fire-retardant of bamboo footboard of scaffold used in building construction%建筑用竹制脚踏板的防火阻燃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘惠平; 朱鹏; 刘章蕊; 周波

    2012-01-01

    以自制硅溶胶和铝溶胶为阻燃体系,研究阻燃浸注处理压力、处理时间、阻燃成分含量及样品不同处理方式等对建筑用竹制脚踏板防火阻燃性能的影响.试验结果表明:硅溶胶比铝溶胶更易渗入到竹片内部;在真空条件下以硅溶胶对竹片进行阻燃浸注处理时,浸注时间越长、阻燃体系中阻燃组分含量越高,所得样品的载药率和氧指数越高;样品的不同阻燃处理方式对其载药率和氧指数有较大影响.%Utilize the self-making silica sol and aluminum sol, the effects of fire-retardant impregnating pressure, impregnating time, the content of fire-retardant component and the different treatment styles on the fire-retardant property of bamboo footboard used in building construction have been studied. The experimental results show that: compare with the aluminum sol, silica sol is more easily to be impregnated into the bamboo; fire-retardant treatment of bamboo footboard under vacuum, longer time of the fire-retardant treatment and higher content of fire-retardant component in fire-retarding system are favorable to improve the drug-loading rate and oxygen index of the samples; in addition, different fire-retardant treatment styles have great effect on the drug-loading rate and the oxygen index of the samples.

  7. Assessment of dermal hazard from acid burns with fire retardant garments in a full-size simulation of an engulfment flash fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Christopher E; Vivanco, Stephanie N; Yeboah, George; Vercellone, Jeff

    2016-09-01

    There have been concerns that fire-derived acid gases could aggravate thermal burns for individuals wearing synthetic flame retardant garments. A comparative risk assessment was performed on three commercial flame retardant materials with regard to relative hazards associated with acidic combustion gases to skin during a full engulfment flash fire event. The tests were performed in accordance with ASTM F1930 and ISO 13506: Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Flame Resistant Clothing for Protection against Fire Simulations Using an Instrumented Manikin. Three fire retardant textiles were tested: an FR treated cotton/nylon blend, a low Protex(®) modacrylic blend, and a medium Protex(®) modacrylic blend. The materials, in the form of whole body coveralls, were subjected to propane-fired flash conditions of 84kW/m(2) in a full sized simulator for a duration of either 3 or 4s. Ion traps consisting of wetted sodium carbonate-impregnated cellulose in Teflon holders were placed on the chest and back both above and under the standard undergarments. The ion traps remained in position from the time of ignition until 5min post ignition. Results indicated that acid deposition did increase with modacrylic content from 0.9μmol/cm(2) for the cotton/nylon, to 12μmol/cm(2) for the medium modacrylic blend. The source of the acidity was dominated by hydrogen chloride. Discoloration was inversely proportional to the amount of acid collected on the traps. A risk assessment was performed on the potential adverse impact of acid gases on both the skin and open wounds. The results indicated that the deposition and dissolution of the acid gases in surficial fluid media (perspiration and blood plasma) resulted in an increase in acidity, but not sufficient to induce irritation/skin corrosion or to cause necrosis in open third degree burns.

  8. Mechanism and Development of Decorating Fire-retardant Coatings%饰面型防火涂料阻燃防火机理及研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹碧军

    2012-01-01

    The paper discussed the flame retardant mechanisms of decorating fire-retardant coatings and narrated the current status of decorating fire-retardant coatings in China.Combined with the safety and environmental protection of toxicity and volatile organic compounds in the practical application,it forecasted the development trend of decorating fire-retardant coatings in our country.%探讨了饰面型防火涂料的阻燃及防火机理,阐述了我国饰面型防火涂料的研究进展。结合饰面型防火涂料在实际使用过程中烟气毒性、挥发性有机化合物的安全环保问题,对我国饰面型防火涂料的发展趋势进行了展望。

  9. Effect of Addition of Boric Acid and Borax on Fire-Retardant and Mechanical Properties of Urea Formaldehyde Saw Dust Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenat A. Nagieb

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of the flame retardant urea formaldehyde (UF board made from saw dust fibers were investigated. Flame retardant chemicals that were evaluated include boric acid (BA and borax (BX which were incorporated with saw dust fibers to manufacture experimental panels. Three concentration levels, (0.5, 1, and 5% of fire retardants and 10% urea formaldehyde resin based on oven dry fiber weight were used to manufacture experimental panels. Physical and mechanical properties including water absorption, modulus of rupture (MOR, and modulus of elasticity (MOE were determined. The results showed that water absorption and bending strength decreased as the flame retardant increased. The highest concentration of (BA + BX enhanced the fire retardant more than the lower ones. Scanning electron microscope and FTIR of composite panels were studied.

  10. Effect of basalt fibres reinforcement and aluminum trihydrate on the thermal properties of intumescent fire retardant coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasir, Muhammad; Amir, Norlaili Binti; Ahmad, Faiz; Syahirah Rodzhan, N.

    2017-08-01

    This research is carried out in order to study the synergistic effect of aluminium trihydrate and basalt fibres on the properties of fire resistant intumescent coatings. Intumescent fire retardant coatings were developed using different flame retardants such as ammonium polyphosphate, expandable graphite, melamine and boric acid. These flame retardants were bound together with the help of epoxy binder along with curing agent. Furthermore, individual and combinations of aluminium trihydrate and basalt fibres was incorporated in the formulations to analyse mechanical and chemical properties of the coatings. Char expansion was observed using furnace test, thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine residual weight, X-Ray Diffraction was performed to investigate compounds present in the char, shear test was conducted to determine char strength and scanning electron microscopy analysis was performed to observe morphology of the burnt char. From the microscopic investigation it was concluded that the dense structure of the char increased the char integrity by adding basalt and aluminium trihydrate as fillers. X-Ray Diffraction results shows the presence boron phosphate, and boric acid which enhanced the thermal performance of the coating up to 800°C. From the Thermogravimetric analysis it was concluded that the residual weight of the char was increased up to 34.9 % for IC-B2A4 which enhanced thermal performance of intumescent coating.

  11. 纳米无机阻燃剂及其阻燃机理研究进展%Research Advances in Inorganic Fire-Retardant and Their Flame Retardant Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振宇; 梅文杰; 熊玉竹

    2012-01-01

    介绍了纳米三氧化二锑(Sb2O3)、纳米氢氧化铝[Al(OH)3]、纳米氢氧化镁[Mg(OH)2]和聚合物/纳米复合材料的阻燃性能及其机理,总结了国内外纳米阻燃体系的发展,提出阻燃纳米复合材料方面的研究方向与建议.%Fire-retardant properties of the fire-retardant nanomaterials such as timo-nytrioxide, aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide and polymer nanocomposites are reviewed. Their fire-retardant mechanism is summarized,and the challenges and problems on the research of the polymer nanocomposites are put forward.

  12. The novel silicon-containing epoxy/PEPA phosphate flame retardant for transparent intumescent fire resistant coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanchao; Wang, Guojian

    2016-11-01

    A series of novel silicon-containing epoxy/PEPA phosphate flame retardants (EPPSi) were synthesized by polyphosphoric acid (PPA), caged bicyclic phosphate 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-L-phosphabicyclo [2.2.2] octane (PEPA), and different ratios of silicon-containing epoxy 1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-1,3-bis(3-(oxiran-2-ylmethoxy)propyl)disiloxane (TMSEP) to 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDE). The chemical structure of EPPSi was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR). Afterwards, the transparent intumescent fire resistant coatings were prepared by mixing EPPSi and melamine formaldehyde resin. The influence of silicon on the fire protection of coatings was intensively investigated by fire protection test, intumescence ratio, scanning electron microscope (SEM), compressive strength test, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and real-time FTIR. It was found that the fire resistant coatings obtained the best fire protection when the ratio of TMESP/BDE was 20/100, while excessive TMSEP made the fire protection of coatings deceased sharply. The intumescence ratio, compressive strength test and SEM result showed that a synergistic effect existed between phosphorus and silicon, which improved the foam structure and compressive strength of the char layer significantly. XPS result proved the out-migration effect of silicon. The high concentration silicon on surface played an important protecting role for the inner char residue and improved the fire protection of the coatings. TGA result demonstrated that silicon enhanced the thermo-oxidation resistance of coatings efficiently. Furthermore, real-time FTIR revealed the intumescent process of the fire resistant coatings according to the chemical structure changes of char residue.

  13. Research progress in fire retardant coatings for steel structures%钢结构防火涂料研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿金清; 肖新颜; 陈焕钦

    2001-01-01

    钢结构防火涂料是防火涂料中的重要品种,国内外正开展广泛研究和推广应用。本文综述了钢结构防火涂料的分类及特点,论述了膨胀型钢结构防火涂料的组成、作用及阻燃机理。展望了钢结构防火涂料的发展前景,即开发涂层超薄、装饰性强、施工方便、防火性能高、应用范围广的超薄型的室外钢结构防火涂料和研制环保型水性钢结构防火涂料,以及结合新的合成技术,研制多功能钢结构防火涂料。%The fire retardant coatings for steel structures is an important kind of the fire retardant coatings,so extensive investigation and application have been carried out all over the world.In this paper,the catalogue and characteristics of fire retardant coatings for steel structures were reviewed.The component,effect and flame retardant mechanism of dilatant fire retardant coatings for steel structures were described.Its prospective development was also pointed out.The super-thin exterior fire retardant coatings for steel structures featuring high thermal insulation against flame and good decorative property will be developed,and water-borne environmental friendly and multifunctional fire retardant coatings for steel structures will be investigated also.

  14. 溴碳树脂在防火涂料中的应用与发展%Application and Development of Bromine Carbon Resin Fire-retardant Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴纯.; 杨保平; 崔锦峰; 郭军红; 李军

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the achievements of the fire-retardant coatings research and utilization from the aspect of binder resins, introduces the application of bromine carbon resin in steel structure fire-retardant coatings, finishing fire-retardant coatings, fire- retardant anticorrosive floor coatings and water-borne environment-friendly fire-retardant coatings in details, and basing the actual situation of our country, gives the use prospect of the bromine carbon resin.%综述了近年来从基体树脂入手,在防火涂料的研究与应用中的成果,详细介绍了溴碳树脂在钢结构建筑防火涂料、饰面型防火涂料、防火防腐地坪涂料及水性环保型防火涂料中的应用情况,并结合我国的实际情况对溴碳树脂的应用前景进行了展望。

  15. An Analysis of the Defects of Steel Structured Fire Retardant Coating%试论钢结构防火涂料的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王路杰

    2015-01-01

    the fire resistance of steel structured coating is poor,one fire breaks out,the steel structure would collapse, which,as a result,would result serious economic loss and casualties.This paper analyzed the classifications and fire protec-tion mechanism of steel structured fire retardant coatings and expounded the problems in the application of steel struc-tured fire retardant coatings .%钢结构的抗火性能较差,一旦发生火灾,会造成整个钢结构的坍塌,从而造成严重的经济损失和人员伤亡,文章分析了钢结构防火涂料的分类和防火机理,同时分析了当前钢结构防火材料应用中存在的问题。

  16. Effects of alpha-zirconium phosphate on thermal degradation and flame retardancy of transparent intumescent fire protective coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Weiyi [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Ping [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, 59 Qinglong Road, Mianyang 621010 (China); Song, Lei; Wang, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A transparent intumescent fire protective coating was obtained by UV-cured technology. • OZrP could enhance the thermal stability and anti-oxidation of the coating. • OZrP could reduce the combustion properties of the coatings. - Abstract: Organophilic alpha-zirconium phosphate (OZrP) was used to improve the thermal and fire retardant behaviors of the phenyl di(acryloyloxyethyl)phosphate (PDHA)-triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA)-2-phenoxyethyl acrylate (PHEA) (PDHA-TGICA-PHEA) coating. The morphology of nanocomposite coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of OZrP on the flame retardancy, thermal stability, fireproofing time and char formation of the coatings was investigated by microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and scanning electric microscope (SEM). The results showed that by adding OZrP, the peak heat release rate and total heat of combustion were significantly reduced. The highest improvement was achieved with 0.5 wt% OZrP. XPS analysis indicated that the performance of anti-oxidation of the coating was improved with the addition of OZrP, and SEM images showed that a good synergistic effect was obtained through a ceramic-like layer produced by OZrP covered on the surface of char.

  17. Mechanical properties and fire retardancy of bidirectional reinforced composite based on biodegradable starch resin and basalt fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems caused by extensive use of polymeric materials arise mainly due to lack of landfill space and depletion of finite natural resources of fossil raw materials, such as petroleum or natural gas. The substitution of synthetic petroleum-based resins with natural biodegradable resins appears to be one appropriate measure to remedy the above-mentioned situation. This study presents the development of a composite that uses environmentally degradable starch-based resin as matrix and basalt fibre plain fabric as reinforcement. Prepreg sheets were manufactured by means of a modified doctor blade system and a hot power press. The sheets were used to manufacture bidirectional-reinforced specimens with fibre volume contents ranging from 33 to 61%. Specimens were tested for tensile and flexural strength, and exhibited values of up to 373 and 122 MPa, respectively. Through application of silane coupling agents to the reinforcement fibres, the flexural composite properties were subsequently improved by as much as 38%. Finally, in order to enhance the fire retardancy and hence the applicability of the composite, fire retardants were applied to the resin, and their effectiveness was tested by means of flame rating (according to UL 94 and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, respectively.

  18. Investigation on Resistance against White-rot and Brown-rot Fungi of some Fire Retardant Chemicals in Laminate Flooring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Özdemir

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the effects of some fire retardants on decay resistance of the high density fiberboard (HDF panels covered with overlay, decorative and balance papers. Borax (BX, boric acid (BA, ammonium polyphosphate (APP and alpha-x (AX as fire retardant (FR chemicals were added as powder into the fibers made from 50% pine and 50% beech woods at 3%, 6% and 9% levels based on oven-dry fiber weight. HDF panels (400x400x6.5mm were produced. After, surfaces of the panels were coated with overlay, decorative and balance papers. The panels were exposed to white (Ceriporiopsis subvermisphora and brown (Coniophora puteana decay fungi. The decay resistance of panels was investigated. The results showed that the addition of FR chemicals increased resistance against white and brown rot fungi of the panels. Thus, it was ascertained that concentration and type of FR chemicals are effective on decay resistance of laminate flooring

  19. Application of thermal analysis methods on the study of PE thermal degradation and the influence of Mg (OH) sub 2 as fire retardant

    CERN Document Server

    Zarringhalam-Moghaddam, A

    2002-01-01

    Fire retardation effects of Mg(OH) sub 2 on PE was studied utilizing DTA, TGA and DSC methods. Reductions on reaction peak area and mass loss rate with the addition of Mg(OH) sub 2 were observed as indication of retardation effects of Mg(OH) sub 2 on PE. Cone calorimeter tests were performed on samples to verify the thermo analytical results. It was concluded that when Mg(OH) sub 2 is present it effectively modified the degradation behavior of PE and the thermal analyses are useful and rapid methods to study the retardation effects.

  20. 国内阻燃剂协同作用的研究进展%The Latest Achievements about the Synergistic Effect of Fire Retardant in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丽芳; 郝建淦

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the latest achievements about the synergistic effect of fire retardant in china and pointed out about the development tendency of fire retardans in future.%对国内类阻燃剂协同作用研究的最新成果进行了介绍,并提出了对阻燃剂未来发展趋向的预测.

  1. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  2. 我国阻燃人造板研究与开发的几个问题%Some Issues in Research and Exploitation of Fire Retardant Reconstituted Panels in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光沛; 程强; 刘毅

    2001-01-01

    A discussion is made on the necessity and urgency of developingof fire retardant reconstituted panels,the common fire retardants and fire retardant treatment technology used for reconstituted anels,as well as their present status and development direction in China. An analysis is given of existing problems in research of fire-retardant panel and a new KM fire retardant is briefly recommmended.%论述了我国阻燃人造板研究的必要性和紧迫性,及人造板常用阻燃剂、阻燃处理工艺研究开发的现状和方向;分析了我国在阻燃人造板研究与开发中存在的问题,并介绍了新型KM系列阻燃剂的研究与开发近况。

  3. Design of Fire Retardant Layer with Thermionic Coat Mixture%加入换热离子涂层的防火阻燃层设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小雷

    2014-01-01

    Model and flame retardant layer preparation method of fireproof coating pyrolysis reaction dynamics analysis is researched, a scheme of fire retardant coatings layer was prepared by adding in thermionic coating is proposed, coating for thermionic flame retardant and preparation of the fire retardant coatings layer preparation is obtained, fireproof coating per-formance is tested, heat adsorption isotherms is analyzed, the fire the preparation of coating of polymerization process is ob-tained. The experimental results show that the fire retardant coatings layer pyrolysis can get more residue carbon material, so that the fireproof coatings durable resistance to burn, fire prevention performance of heat insulation, improve the weather-ability and pyrolysis reaction activation energy, flame retardant layer and other components to achieve the best cooperation, a complete, organic fire system is formed. Fire retardant coatings layer has excellent physical and chemical properties and fireproof performance, it ensures fire safety.%研究防火涂料热解反应动力学分析模型和阻燃层制备方法,提出一种加入换热离子涂层的防火涂料阻燃层制备方案。进行换热离子涂层阻燃剂的制备和防火涂料阻燃层制备,测定防火涂料性能,分析热量吸附等温线,得到防火涂料制备聚合反应流程。实验结果表明,设计的防火涂料阻燃层热解残余物炭物质较多,从而使该防火涂料经久耐烧,具有高效隔热防火性能,提高其耐火性和热解反应的活化能力。阻燃层与其它各组分防火涂层达到最佳的协合,形成一个完整、有机的防火体系。研究得出的防火涂料阻燃层具有优良的阻燃性能和防火性能,保证了消防安全。

  4. Development of Fire-Retardant Elastic Acrylic Finishing Coating%阻燃型弹性丙烯酸饰面涂料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈铁鑫; 郭岳峰

    2012-01-01

    The fire - retardant elastic acrylic finishing coating applied on polyurethane foam was prepared with UV curable elastomeric acrylic emulsion as binder and modified ammonium polyphosphate ( APP) as fire retardant. Orthogonal test was used to optimize the coating formulation,the best content of fire retardant was 35%. Effection of UV and sun lights on coating tensile property were studied,and found that exoposure to UV 4 h and sun light 7 d,the tensile strength reached the highest; coating fire - retardant property was ev-alated by use of oxygen index and mass loss.%采用紫外光固化的弹性丙烯酸树脂为基料,改性聚磷酸铵为阻燃剂,制备了聚氨酯泡沫用阻燃型弹性丙烯酸饰面涂料,通过正交试验对涂料配方进行了优化,确定了阻燃剂最佳含量为35%.考察了紫外光和太阳光对涂层拉伸强度的影响,紫外光4h,太阳光7d,涂层拉伸性能达到最佳;采用氧指数及质量损失评估了涂层的阻燃性能.

  5. An Overview of Wood Fire-Retardant in the United States%美国阻燃处理木材的现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪磊; 陈志林; 蔡智勇

    2011-01-01

    This article reviewed the current status of wood fire retardants, and their corresponding manufacturing specifications and standards in the US. The author also introduced five major fireretardant manufacturers in the US and their flame retardant formulations and market. It was expected that this paper would provide useful suggestions to the domestic fire-retardant industry.%总结美国阻燃处理木材的规范与标准,介绍美国主要阻燃处理木材生产商的阻燃木材产品,分析主要阻燃剂的配方及合成工艺、处理木材的工艺与技术特点,为国内阻燃处理木材行业的技术发展提出建议.

  6. Development tendencies in cycle chemistry of fossil fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daucik, K. [Skaerbaekvaerket, Faelleskemikerne, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The development of cycle chemistry during the past 50 years is described and the main tendencies are pointed out. Improvement of cycle purity is the most dominant evolution, which introduces more freedom with respect to pH and redox potential control. Units with once-through boilers have profited most from this development. The development of boiler water chemistry in drum boilers also tends towards higher purity and less chemicals, which raises possibilities for oxygenated treatment. (au)

  7. 热重分析仪在评定饰面型防火涂料防火性能中的应用%The Application of Thermogravimetric Analyzer in the Evaluation of Fire Resistance of Decorative Fire Retardant Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马腾洲; 陈俊水; 赵雨薇

    2015-01-01

    采用热重分析仪研究了不同类型饰面防火涂料的防火性能.试验结果表明:该方法同国标检测方法结果一致,是评定饰面型防火涂料防火性能的快速初筛方法.%The fire resistance of different types of decorative fire retardant coatings was studied by the TGA. The results showed that the test resutl from this method was consistent with that from national standard. It was a quick screening method for evaluating the fire resistance of decorative fire retardant coatings.

  8. Toxic Combustion Product Yields as a Function of Equivalence Ratio and Flame Retardants in Under-Ventilated Fires: Bench-Large-Scale Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Purser

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In large-scale compartment fires; combustion product yields vary with combustion conditions mainly in relation to the fuel:air equivalence ratio (Φ and the effects of gas-phase flame retardants. Yields of products of inefficient combustion; including the major toxic products CO; HCN and organic irritants; increase considerably as combustion changes from well-ventilated (Φ < 1 to under-ventilated (Φ = 1–3. It is therefore essential that bench-scale toxicity tests reproduce this behaviour across the Φ range. Yield data from repeat compartment fire tests for any specific fuel show some variation on either side of a best-fit curve for CO yield as a function of Φ. In order to quantify the extent to which data from the steady state tube furnace (SSTF [1]; ISO TS19700 [2] represents compartment fire yields; the range and average deviations of SSTF data for CO yields from the compartment fire best-fit curve were compared to those for direct compartment fire measurements for six different polymeric fuels with textile and non-textile applications and for generic post-flashover fire CO yield data. The average yields; range and standard deviations of the SSTF data around the best-fit compartment fire curves were found to be close to those for the compartment fire data. It is concluded that SSTF data are as good a predictor of compartment fire yields as are repeat compartment fire test data.

  9. Study on fire-retardant nanocrystalline Mg-Al layered double hydroxides synthesized by microwave-crystallization method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zejiang; XU Chenghua; QIU Fali; MEI Xiujuan; LAN Bin; ZHANG Shuosheng

    2004-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Mg-Al layered double hydroxides with the particle size being 10-40 nm were firstly prepared by the technology of the microwave-crystallization and the variable-speed addition of the alkali. The obtained samples were characterized by TEM and XRD. The roles of the microwave and addition rate of the alkali were also discussed in the present work. The thermal decomposition activation energy of the nano-LDHs was calculated according to their TG, DTG and DSC curves by the Ozawa method. The results showed that the thermal decomposition of the nano-LDHs had four steps. Thereby the decomposition model of the nano-LDHs was supposed according to the analysis of their thermal decomposition. After PS, ABS, HDPE and PVC were filled with the nano-LDHs, their LOI values could be increased up to 28, 27, 26 and 33, respectively. When the fire-retardant coating contained 1.9% of the nano-LDHs that was 0.27 times the dosage of the conventional TiO2, its fire endurance time reached 32.75min that was 7.05 min longer than that of the best coating containing TiO2 according to the model big-panel combustion test method.

  10. 75 FR 52713 - Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... proposed action. DATES: Comments concerning the scope of the analysis must be received by October 12, 2010... or to preserve natural resources and critical habitat for threatened and endangered species. Fire... District of Montana issued a decision in Forest Service Employees for Environmental Ethics v. United...

  11. Flexible fire retardant polyisocyanate modified neoprene foam. [for thermal protective devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. A.; Riccitiello, S. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Lightweight, fire resistant foams have been developed through the modification of conventional neoprene-isocyanate foams by the addition of an alkyl halide polymer. Extensive tests have shown that the modified/neoprene-isocyanate foams are much superior in heat protection properties than the foams heretofore employed both for ballistic and ablative purposes.

  12. Fire retardancy and environmental assessment of rubbery blends of recycled polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Flame retarded thermoplastic polymer compounds were prepared containing recycled rubber tyres, low density polyethylene, ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer and an intumescent additive system consisting of waste polyurethane foam and ammonium polyphosphate. The effect of the additives on the combustion properties was characterised by Limiting Oxygen Index, UL 94 and mass loss calorimetric measurements. The environmental impact was estimated by determining the gas components of CO2 and CO evolving from the compounds during the burning process using a gas analyser system constructed by coupling an FTIR unit to a mass loss calorimeter. The new material forms a thermoplastic rubber of excellent processability making it suitable for application in construction industry.

  13. 无机阻燃改性沥青结构表征及阻燃机理研究%Structural expressions and retarding mechanism of inorganic modified fire-retardant asphalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝辉; 董彪; 高志伟; 刘志胜; 贺海

    2014-01-01

    Considering the problem of heavy smoke,toxic,high cost of some flame retardants,two new inorgan-ic flame retardants were developed,and the fire-retardant modified asphalts were prepared;in order to study the internal structure and the flame-retardant mechanism of our new developed flame-retardant asphalt,the combi-nation between flame retardant particles and asphalt were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)test and the effect of the flame retardants on the functional groups was studied by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) test.The effect of inorganic fire-retardants on the nature of asphalt was analyzed by using TG experiment.The research results showed that the flame retardant effect of the modified asphalt was well;the inorganic fire-re-tardant modifiers can be evenly distributed in asphalt and there was no phenomenon of reunion.FT-IR test shows that there was no covalent generating when the two flame retardants are added into the asphalt.The ther-mal weightlessness of inorganic modified fire-retardant asphalt was greater than that of base asphalt.%针对目前某些阻燃剂发烟量大、有毒和成本较高问题,研发了两种新型无机阻燃剂,并制备了无机阻燃改性沥青;借助扫描电镜(SEM)实验和红外光谱(FT-IR)实验,探究了两种阻燃剂与沥青的结合状况以及二者对沥青官能团的影响;通过热重(TG)实验,分析了两种阻燃剂对沥青燃烧过程中热失重变化的影响,探究了两种阻燃改性沥青的作用机理。结果表明,两种新型无机阻燃沥青性能良好;无机阻燃剂颗粒可均匀地分布在沥青中,没有团聚现象,两种阻燃剂各颗粒与沥青具有良好的粘结性;两种新型阻燃剂加入到沥青中,未与沥青形成新的共价键;燃烧过程中无机阻燃改性沥青的热失重大于基础沥青,无机阻燃沥青主要凭借阻燃剂的结合水分挥发以及金属化合物烧结覆盖作用发挥阻燃作用。

  14. 纯丙乳胶防火涂料稳定性影响因素的研究%Study on Influence of Storage Stability of Pure Acrylic Latex Fire Retardant Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马金; 吴润泽; 王桂银

    2011-01-01

    以纯丙乳液为主要成膜物质制备了防火性能优异,贮存稳定的防火涂料;探讨了分散剂、增稠剂、成膜助剂对乳胶防火涂料体系稳定性的影响。%A fire retardant coatings with excellent fire retardant performance and good storage stability was prepared by pure acrylic emulsion as the main filming material, the influence of dispersant, thickener, coalescent to the stability of fire retardant coatings system were discussed.

  15. Feedback processes in cellulose thermal decomposition. Implications for fire-retarding strategies and treatments

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, R; Brindley, J

    2002-01-01

    A simple dynamical system that models the competitive thermokinetics and chemistry of cellulose decomposition is examined, with reference to evidence from experimental studies indicating that char formation is a low activation energy exothermal process and volatilization is a high activation energy endothermal process. The thermohydrolysis chemistry at the core of the primary competition is described. Essentially, the competition is between two nucleophiles, a molecule of water and an -OH group on C_6 of an end glucosyl cation, to form either a reducing chain fragment with the propensity to undergo the bond-forming reactions that ultimately form char or a levoglucosan-end-fragment that depolymerizes to volatile products. The results of this analysis suggest that promotion of char formation under thermal stress can actually increase the production of flammable volatiles. Thus we would like to convey an important safety message in this paper: in some situations where heat and mass transfer is restricted in cell...

  16. The pilot of one fire retardant liquid's application on varnish contiguous wooden houses%某阻燃液对木质结构房屋应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑锦; 傅勤勇; 孟繁茂

    2012-01-01

    One fire retardant liquid was taken as flame retardant treatment in one varnish contiguous wooden houses (village). The preparation method and the fire retardant mechanism of fire retardant liquid were introduced; the national administration' s test results of this liquid were given and the method and procedure of this fire retardant liquid in Shilong village in Kaili City were introduced. The samples took from the villages which were taken flame retardant treatment by this fire retardant liquid were tested in the fire product quality supervision and inspection station in Guizhou province, and the result is that the samples' combustion performance reached the level B1.%采用某阻燃液对连片木质结构房屋(村寨)进行阻燃处理.介绍该阻燃液及阻燃清漆的制备方法、阻燃机理,国家检验机构的检验结果以及该阻燃液应用于凯里市寨石龙寨的实施方法及工序.从试点村寨抽取经该阻燃液阻燃处理的木质板材等样品,经贵州省消防产品质量监督检验站检测,其燃烧性能均达到B1级.

  17. Effects of Different Fire Retardant Treatment on Properties of Poplar Plywood%不同阻燃剂对速生杨木胶合板性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东; 周云明; 孙晓博; 柴永家; 王翔; 王传贵

    2014-01-01

    This paper studied the poplar veneer, and impregnated them with self-made fire retardant and FRW fire retardant, to discuss the influence of different fire retardant, impregnation time, impregnation concentration, hot-pressing temperature on the fire retardant retention quantity, the bonding strength and the fire-retardant properties. The results showed that fire retardant retention quantity, oxygen index and bonding strength were 1.4322%-13.4726%, 36.6%-89.9% and 0.131-0.798 MPa with self-made fire retardant treatment while the fire retardant retention quantity, oxygen index and bonding strength were 1.5449%-14.7724%, 45.3%-70.5%and 0.233-0.698 MPa with FRW fire retardant treatment. Through the self-made and FRW fire retardant treatments, the fire retardant properties of poplar plywood were significantly improved, the oxygen index had reached and was much higher than the flame retardant grade request in JISD1322-77, but its bonding strength significantly decreased.%选用自配阻燃剂和FRW阻燃剂处理杨木单板,探讨不同种类阻燃剂、浸渍时间、浸渍浓度、热压温度对胶合板载药量、胶合强度以及阻燃性能的影响。结果表明:选用自配阻燃剂时,载药量1.4322%~13.4726%,氧指数36.6%~89.9%,胶合强度0.131~0.798 MPa;选用FRW阻燃剂时,杨木阻燃胶合板的载药量1.5449%~14.7724%,氧指数45.3%~70.5%,胶合强度0.233~0.698 MPa。经过自配和FRW阻燃剂处理后,杨木胶合板的阻燃性能均得到明显改善,其中氧指数远大于日本JISD1322-77中的难燃一级品的要求,但是其胶合性能显著下降。

  18. Thermal performance of glass fiber reinforced intumescent fire retardant coating for structural applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Faiz, E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my; Ullah, Sami; Aziz, Hammad, E-mail: engr.hammad.aziz03@gmail.com; Omar, Nor Sharifah [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Tronoh 31750 Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    The results of influence of glass fiber addition into the basic intumescent coating formulation towards the enhancement of its thermal insulation properties are presented. The intumescent coatings were formulated from expandable graphite, ammonium polyphosphate, melamine, boric acid, bisphenol A epoxy resin BE-188, polyamide amine H-2310 hardener and fiberglass (FG) of length 3.0 mm. Eight intumescent formulations were developed and the samples were tested for their fire performance by burning them at 450°C, 650°C and 850°C in the furnace for two hours. The effects of each fire test at different temperatures; low and high temperature were evaluated. Scanning Electron Microscope, X-Ray Diffraction technique and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis were conducted on the samples to study the morphology, the chemical components of char and the residual weight of the coatings. The formulation, FG08 containing 7.0 wt% glass fiber provided better results with enhanced thermal insulation properties of the coatings.

  19. Thermal performance of glass fiber reinforced intumescent fire retardant coating for structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faiz; Ullah, Sami; Aziz, Hammad; Omar, Nor Sharifah

    2015-07-01

    The results of influence of glass fiber addition into the basic intumescent coating formulation towards the enhancement of its thermal insulation properties are presented. The intumescent coatings were formulated from expandable graphite, ammonium polyphosphate, melamine, boric acid, bisphenol A epoxy resin BE-188, polyamide amine H-2310 hardener and fiberglass (FG) of length 3.0 mm. Eight intumescent formulations were developed and the samples were tested for their fire performance by burning them at 450°C, 650°C and 850°C in the furnace for two hours. The effects of each fire test at different temperatures; low and high temperature were evaluated. Scanning Electron Microscope, X-Ray Diffraction technique and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis were conducted on the samples to study the morphology, the chemical components of char and the residual weight of the coatings. The formulation, FG08 containing 7.0 wt% glass fiber provided better results with enhanced thermal insulation properties of the coatings.

  20. The combustion and physical properties of biockboard fire retardant system%阻燃细木工板体系的燃烧和理化性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付萍

    2012-01-01

    选取不同类型的阻燃体系制备阻燃细木工板,通过建材难燃性实验炉、建材烟密度仪、建材毒性试验装置等燃烧性能检测装置及万能力学试验机等理化性能检测装置进行测试,筛选出适用于细木工板的阻燃体系.试验表明,水基型阻燃剂FR-W能够对细木工板起到较好的阻燃效果,达到阻燃B1级要求,但由于木材本身特性,产烟毒性只能达到ZA3级;在保证低甲醛含量的前提下,水基型阻燃剂的加入会对细木工板的浸渍剥离性能产生负面影响.%The flame retardant blockboard was prepared by the selected different kinds of fire retardant and examined by building materials fire resistant furnace, building materials smoke densitometer, building materials toxicity testing device and the universal mechanical testing machine. The results indicated that the blockboard with FR-W as fire retardant system could reach to B1 level, but owning to its own characteristics, the smoke toxicity could only reach the ZA3 level; under the premise of low formaldehyde content, the use of water-based fire retardant played an adversely effect to the blockboard of it's dipping &. Peeling-off performance.

  1. Effect of Kaolin Clay and Alumina on Thermal Performance and Char Morphology of Intumescent fire retardant coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aziz Hammad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC have been developed by using ammonium polyphosphate, expandable graphite, melamine, boric acid, kaolin clay and alumina as fillers bound together with epoxy resin and cured with the help of curing agent. Five different formulations were developed with and without using fillers. Cured samples were burned in furnace at 500°C for 2h for char expansion. Bunsen burner test was performed for 1h using UL-94 vertical burning test to investigate the thermal performance of IFRC. The resultant char obtained after burning of coated samples were characterized by using field emission scanning electron microscopy for char morphology. Char composition was analyzed by using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis was carried out to investigate the residual weight of coating. Results showed that formulation with 0.5 weight % of kaolin clay and 0.5 weight % of alumina provide best thermal performance, uniform and multi-porous char structure with high anti-oxidation property.

  2. Silica Treatments: A Fire Retardant Strategy for Hemp Fabric/Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Branda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, for the first time, inexpensive waterglass solutions are exploited as a new, simple and ecofriendly chemical approach for promoting the formation of a silica-based coating on hemp fabrics, able to act as a thermal shield and to protect the latter from heat sources. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR and solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR analysis confirm the formation of –C–O–Si– covalent bonds between the coating and the cellulosic substrate. The proposed waterglass treatment, which is resistant to washing, seems to be very effective for improving the fire behavior of hemp fabric/epoxy composites, also in combination with ammonium polyphosphate. In particular, the exploitation of hemp surface treatment and Ammonium Polyphosphate (APP addition to epoxy favors a remarkable decrease of the Heat Release Rate (HRR, Total Heat Release (THR, Total Smoke Release (TSR and Specific Extinction Area (SEA (respectively by 83%, 35%, 45% and 44% as compared to untreated hemp/epoxy composites, favoring the formation of a very stable char, as also assessed by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA. Because of the low interfacial adhesion between the fabrics and the epoxy matrix, the obtained composites show low strength and stiffness; however, the energy absorbed by the material is higher when using treated hemp. The presence of APP in the epoxy matrix does not affect the mechanical behavior of the composites.

  3. 华硅6CF阻燃耐候密封胶的研发及应用%Development and application of Huagui 6CF fire retardant and weather resisting sealant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭传发; 刘扬秀

    2016-01-01

    用自制铂-硼-硅阻燃剂与107硅橡胶、201硅油等反应制得了6CF阻燃硅酮耐候密封胶,并对其性能进行了研究。结果表明,当加入10份阻燃剂时,6CF阻燃耐候硅酮密封胶既具有FV-0级的阻燃性能又不会对物理力学性能、贮存期产生影响。并将6CF阻燃耐候硅酮密封胶成功应用于上海中心工程中。%The 6CF fire retardant and weather resisting sealant was prepared by reacting of the home-made boron-platinum-silicon fire retardant, 107 silicone rubber and 201 silicone oil, etc. The performance of the sealant was studied. The results showed that when the content of the fire retardant was 10 phrs, the 6CF fire retardant sealant not only gave a FV-0 grade flame retardancy, but also did not produce adverse effects on its mechanical properties and storage period. The 6CF fire retardant sealant was successfully used in the engineering of Shanghai Tower.

  4. 智能建筑防火阻燃线缆的选择%Selection for Fire- proof and Flame-retardant Wires or Cables for Intelligent Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旺初

    2012-01-01

    Test standards for fire-proof and flame-retardant wires or cables at home and abroad and requirements for flame-retardant of communication cable specified in Code for Engineering Design of Generic Cabling System (GB 50311-2007) and Code for Design of Electronic (GB 50174 - 2008) are indicated that not only the flame-retardant rating during electrical design. Information System Room introduced. Besides, it is "flame retardant" but also of cable should be marked%介绍国内外防火阻燃线缆的测试标准,以及国家标准GB50311-2007《综合布线系统工程设计规范》和GB50174—2008《电子信息系统机房设计规范》对通信线缆的阻燃要求;指出电气设计不能仅注明“阻燃”,而应注明线缆的阻燃等级。

  5. 氮磷硼阻燃剂处理杨木的工艺及阻燃性能评价%Fire Resistance of Poplar Samples Treated with Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Boron Fire Retardant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘景; 吴赵旭; 王风玫; 母军

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop the optimized fire retarding treatment process,the authors used nitrogen-phosphorus-boron fire retardant to treat poplar with different impregnation methods.Fire resistances of samples were evaluated through the limiting oxygen index (LOI),drug loading,impregnation depth,heat release rate,and total heat release.Results showed that the optimized process was microwave heating samples for 2 minutes,impregnating the samples under ultrasonic waves for 30 minutes under a temperature of 40 ℃.Under the same treatment,fire resistance of sapwood samples was slightly better than that of heartwood samples.%为了探索杨木阻燃处理工艺对其阻燃效果的影响,采用氮磷硼系阻燃剂,进行了4种杨木浸渍处理工艺试验,并检测其氧指数、载药量、浸渍深度、释热速率和释热总量等指标.结果表明:采用微波和超声波联合浸渍工艺处理杨木的阻燃性能较优;就木材自身而言,边材的阻燃性能略优于心材.

  6. 基于涂层结构的阻燃纤维织物设计与性能测试%Design and P erformance Test of Fire Retardant Curtain Fabric Based on Coating Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆浩杰; 陈洋洋; 徐彩娣

    2015-01-01

    以上浆的方式对长丝进行聚氯乙烯( PVC)涂层处理,可制得一种环境友好型新型阻燃纤维。以这种新型阻燃纤维为原料,设计开发单层、双层、三层组织结构的阻燃窗帘织物并对其进行阻燃性能的测试,实验结果表明,采用这种阻燃纤维织成的窗帘织物具有良好的阻燃性能;双层结构的阻燃性能优于单层和三层结构的。%This paper uses a kind of environmentally-friendly fire retardant fiber made by sizing and coating pol-yvinyl chloride ( PVC) . This paper designs and develops the fire retardant curtain fabric respectively with single-, double-, three-layer structures, together with a fire retardant performance test provided. The experimental results show that this kind of curtain fabric made of coating fire retardant fibers embraces good flame retardant properties;the flame retardant performance of the double-layers fabric excels that of the single-layer or three-layer structures.

  7. Levels of Non-Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Brominated Flame Retardants in Residential House Dust Samples and Fire Station Dust Samples in California

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, F. Reber; Whitehead, Todd P; Park, June-Soo; Metayer, Catherine; Petreas, Myrto X

    2014-01-01

    Eleven novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) were analyzed in dust samples from California homes as a part of the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study (NCCLS) and from the living quarters of California fire stations as a part of the Firefighter Occupational Exposure (FOX) study using high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The eleven NBFRs, were: α- and β-1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (α- and β-DBE-DBCH), 2-bromoallyl 2,3,6-tribromophenylether (BATE), p...

  8. 磷氮硼复合阻燃剂处理桉树胶合板的性能评价%Properties of Eucalyptus Plywood Treated with Phosphorus-Nitrogen-Boron Fire Retardants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志林; 胡拉

    2013-01-01

    Three formulations of FR-2 (phosphorus-nitrogen-boron) fire retardants were prepared according to the AWPA P50-2010 standard.The three retardants were then used to treat Eucalyptus veneers for plywood.The effects of the fire retardant treatment on fire performance,bonding strength,and hygroscopicity of the plywood samples were evaluated.The results indicated that both fire retardancy and reduced smoke from the plywood were significantly improved after the fire-retardant treatment.Bonding strength and hygroscopic behavior of the samples after the treatment remained the same.We also found that PNIB-1 fire retardant,composed of Monoammonium phosphate,Diammonium phosphate and Boric acid was the most suitable for Eucalyptus plywood among the three retardants.%依据美国标准AWPA P50-2010配制三种FR-2型阻燃剂,用于桉树单板的浸渍处理,制备阻燃胶合板.试验结果表明:三种阻燃剂处理的胶合板,均表现出较好的阻燃和抑烟效果,Ⅱ类胶合强度及吸湿性差异不显著.综合考虑各项性能,由磷酸二氢铵、磷酸氢二铵及硼酸配制的阻燃剂,较适用于桉树胶合板的阻燃处理.

  9. 复合抗静电阻燃ABS 、聚丙烯、聚乙烯的研制%Preparation of anti-static and fire retardant technology forABS plastic,polypropylene and polyethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李申; 杨书申; 汪敏

    2001-01-01

    讨论了塑料的抗静电阻燃机理.详细介绍了复合抗静电阻燃ABS塑料、聚丙烯、聚乙烯材料的研制工艺及配方;给出了复合抗静电阻燃ABS塑料、聚丙烯、聚乙烯材料的抗静电、阻燃性能测试数据.结果表明:所研制的聚乙烯、聚丙烯、ABS塑料具有优良的抗静电阻燃效果.%The fire retardant and anti-static mechanism of plastic isdiscussed in this paper.The manufacturing technology and construction of the anti-siatic and fire retardant ABS plastic,polypropylene and polyethylene were provided on detail.The anti-static and fire retardant test data of the anti-static and fire retardant ABS plastic,polypropylene and polyethylene were given.The result shows that the anti-static and fire retardant property of these material was good.

  10. Fire retardant paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Parihar

    1954-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism involved in the flame-proofing of cellulose is explained on modern electronic concepts. Some recent developments on intumescent paint and mastic compositions with the scope of their further improvement are discussed.  

  11. 成膜物质对水性防火涂料膨胀阻燃性能的影响%Effects of Binder Resins on Expansion and Flame-Retardant Performances of Waterborne Fire-Retardant Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范方强; 夏正斌; 李清英; 李忠; 陈焕钦

    2012-01-01

    In this investigation, the waterborne ultra-thin fire-retardant coatings for steel structures were prepared respectively with the silicone-acrylic, acrylic, styrene-acrylic and VAc-VeoVa latexes as the binder. Then, the effects of the binders on the fire-retardant performance of the coatings were discussed in terms of the thermal stability and the high-temperature rheology. The combustion test results of analoging large panels show that the expansion ratio, 17.4 times that of the fire-retardant coatings from the VAc-VeoVa latex, is the largest, and its fire-retardant performance is the best with a steel backside temperature of 304℃ after a 30-min combustion. It is seen from TGA curves that the VAc-VeoVa polymer is of good thermal stability and its average thermal degradation rate is the lowest , and that those characteristics of the VAc-VeoVa polymer provide enough time for its reaction with ammonium polyphosphate, thus generating a dense char layer which can remarkably improve the fire-retardant performance of the coating. Moreover, the results of the dynamic rheological test demonstrate that, for the acrylic and styrene-acrylic molten polymers, the storage modulus (G’) are higher than the loss modulus (G") , which means that the elastic flow is predominant in these melts, and their complex viscosities are more than 1 000 Pa · s, while for the VAc-VeoVa molten polymer, G" is higher than G', which means that the viscous flow is predominant in this melt, and its complex viscosity is 33Pa·s, and that, for the VAc-VeoVa melt, a Newtonian fluid property is displayed at the low frequency stage, and the complex viscosity slightly decreases at the end of the high frequency stage. The above-mentioned results show that the viscous fluid with good thermal stability and low complex viscosity can be used as the binder of fire-retardant coatings, which is helpful in the expansion and fire retardancy of the coatings.%以硅丙、纯丙、苯丙、醋叔聚合物乳液为

  12. Recent Developments in Fire Retardation and Fire Protection of Fibre-Reinforced Composites%阻燃及防火纤维增强复合物的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    拜耳金德 K 卡多拉; 约翰 R 艾伯顿

    2016-01-01

    Fibre⁃reinforced composite materials in which a polymer matrix, either a thermosetting polymer or a thermo⁃plastic, is reinforced with random or woven fibres to improve flexural and tensile strength, are finding increasing use as light⁃weight, structural materials in applications ranging from domestic to transport. Most of these applications require the materials to be fire retardant, but flammability is an important issue with many thermosetting matrix resins and thermoplas⁃tic matrix materials, and some reinforcing fibre. The fire retardance of fibre⁃reinforced composite laminates may be signifi⁃cantly improved via a number of strategies, such as incorporating fire retardants in the matrix resin, both with and without the addition of a further char⁃forming component and/or char promoting additive. A more elegant solution is provided by applying a fire⁃retardant surface coating to the composite or a surface fire⁃protective layer. This article reviews recent work on fire retardation and fire protection of fibre⁃reinforced composites carried out in the laboratories of the Fire Materials Group at University of Bolton. This work has concentrated mainly on the effects of fire⁃retardant additives and coatings on the fire performance of unsaturated polyester, vinyl ester and epoxy resin composites reinforced with glass fibres.%聚合物基的纤维增强复合材料,热固性聚合物或热塑性聚合物基体,可通过随机或者编织的纤维来提高其弯曲和抗拉强度,此类复合材料作为轻量级、结构材料正越来越多地被应用于民用和交通运输等领域,该应用领域绝大部分要求材料应该具有防火性能。但大多数热固性聚合物、热塑性聚合物及一些增强纤维存在耐燃性差的问题。聚合物基的纤维增强复合材料的防火性能可以通过一系列方法进行提高,比如向聚合物基体添加含有促成炭组分等各类阻燃剂,但是最简洁有效的

  13. Molding Technology and Fire-retardant Properties of LDPE/LLDPE/APP/ Sb2O3 Systems%LDPE/LLDPE/APP/Sb203阻燃体系的成型工艺和阻燃性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺超; 方帅; 许春花; 蒙亚州; 张琪; 郭玉花; 黄震

    2012-01-01

    以低密度聚乙烯和线性低密度聚乙烯为基础物质,添加阻燃剂聚磷酸铵和三氧化二锑,构成阻燃体系,研究了阻燃体系的成型加工工艺参数和阻燃性能。研究表明:随着阻燃剂添加量的增大,主螺杆转速需要逐步降低,牵引速度随之下降,主螺杆转速的较小变化,可引起机头压力的急剧增加,物料的实际挤出温度相应提高;当阻燃荆总添加量达到40%时,达到FV-O阻燃等级。%Low density polyethylene and linear low density polyethylene were used as basic materials, ammonium polyphosphate and diantimony trioxide were added into them as fire-retardant agent content to prepare fire-retardant sys- tem. The molding technological parameters and fire-retardant performance of the fire-retardant systems were tested. The results showed that with increase of fire-retardant agent content, the rotational speed of main screws needed de- creases gradually and the pulling speed decreases accordingly; small change of the rotational speed of main screw cau- ses the pressure of die increases sharply, and the real extrusion temperature increases accordingly; when the fire-re- tardant addition dosage is 40% the fire-retardant level can reach FV-O.

  14. 现代钢结构消防工程中防火涂料的应用%The Application of Fire Retardant Coating in Modern Steel Structure Fire Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄平

    2014-01-01

    In the modern steel structure fire protection eng-ineering, the application of fire retardant coating is very important, which largely determines its construction quality and building structure. This article mainly analyzes the exis-ting problems in the application of modern steel structure fire retardant coating and put forward the corresponding measures, in order to promote the safety coefficient of architectural str-ucture.%现代钢结构消防工程中,防火涂料的应用极为重要,它在很大程度上决定了其施工质量和建筑结构。本文主要对现代钢结构防火涂料应用中存在的问题进行了分析,并就此提出了相应的应用措施。旨在推广防火涂料的应用,并提升建筑结构的安全系数。

  15. Joint project final report, Task II: Sulfur chemistry, Task III: Nitrogen Chemistry[Straw fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glarborg, P.; Lans, R. van der; Weigang, L.; Arendt Jensen, P.; Degn Jensen, A.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    2001-09-01

    It is the aim of the project to promote the use of biomass in the production of power and heat in Denmark as well as enhancing the technology base of the Danish industry within this area. The project involves, the following task areas: 1) Deposit Build-up; 2) Sulfur Chemistry; 3) Nitrogen Chemistry; and 4) Furnace Modeling. The present report covers the activities in task 2 and 3, which are carried out at Department of Chemical Engineering, DTU. Task 2: Sulfur chemistry: The lab-scale results show that the amount of sulfur released into the gas-phase increases at high temperatures. Other process parameters such as oxygen concentration have less impact. Little sulfur is apparently released during char oxidation. The experiments show that about 40% of the sulfur is released during pyrolysis at 400 {sup d}eg{sup .}C. At combustion conditions it was found that about 50% of the sulfur is released at 500{sup d}eg.{sup C}; above this temperature an almost linear correlation is found beteen sulfur release and combustion temperature up to 80-85% release at 950{sup d}eg.{sup C}. The experiments are in agreement with results from full scale straw fired grate boilers, indicating that only a small amount of fuel-sulfur is fixed in the bottom ash under typical operating conditions. The results are important in order to understand the varying emission levels observed in full-scala systems and provide guidelines for low SO{sub 2} operation. Task 3: Nitrogen chemistry: In the nitgrogen chemistry submodel volatile-N is released as NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}. The ammonia can react further to N{sub 2} or NO. Char nitrogen is oxidized to NO, and the char bed acts as a catalyst for the reduction of NO to N{sub 2}. Predictions with the bed-model including the NO submodel indicate that when all volatile nitrogen is converted to NH{sub 3}, the concentrations og NH{sub 3} are significantly overpredicted. This means that either the NH{sub 3} reaction rates are underpredicted or that a smaller

  16. The Development of Sustainable Fire Retardant Materials%可持续性阻燃材料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T Richard Hull

    2016-01-01

    在过去的40年,难燃的合成聚合物对“无卤阻燃”的要求已经从抑燃变为降低烟和毒性。在未来十年,对具有可持续性的阻燃材料将有一定需求。满足可持续发展的要求是一项复杂的挑战,涉及到全面了解产品的生命周期,尤其要注重原材料的选择和报废处理。本文将介绍卤系阻燃剂不曾考量到的问题,并对防火材料的可持续发展要求和产品生命周期的关键领域进行讨论,最后,将介绍一些最近的可持续发展防火材料的实例。%Over the last 40 years the demands for less flammable synthetic polymers have changed from ignition suppres⁃sion to lower smoke and toxicity, to “halogen⁃free”� Over the next decade sustainable fire retarded materials will be re⁃quired� Meeting all the requirements for sustainability is a complex challenge, requiring a full understanding of the product�s life cycle, with particular emphasis on raw materials selection and end⁃of⁃life processing� A brief description of the unex⁃pected problems of halogenated flame retardants is presented� This is followed by a discussion on the sustainability require⁃ments of fire safe materials, and the critical areas of the product�s life cycle� Finally, some recent examples of sustainable developments of fire safe materials are presented.

  17. Californian forest fire plumes over Southwestern British Columbia: lidar, sunphotometry, and mountaintop chemistry observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. McKendry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires in Northern California and Oregon were responsible for two significant regional scale aerosol transport events observed in southern British Columbia during summer 2008. A combination of ground based (CORALNet and satellite (CALIPSO lidar, sunphotometry and high altitude chemistry observations permitted unprecedented characterization of forest fire plume height and mixing as well as description of optical properties and physicochemistry of the aerosol. In southwestern BC, lidar observations show the smoke to be mixed through a layer extending to 5–6 km a.g.l. where the aerosol was confined by an elevated inversion in both cases. Depolarization ratios for a trans-Pacific dust event (providing a basis for comparison and the two smoke events were consistent with observations of dust and smoke events elsewhere and permit discrimination of aerosol events in the region. Based on sunphotometry, the Aerosol Optical Thicknesses (AOT reached maxima of ~0.7 and ~0.4 for the two events respectively. Dubovik-retrieval values of reff, f during both the June/July and August events varied between about 0.13 and 0.15 μm and confirm the dominance of accumulation mode size particles in the forest fire plumes. Both Whistler Peak and Mount Bachelor Observatory data show that smoke events are accompanied by elevated CO and O3 concentrations as well as elevated K+/SO4 ratios. In addition to documenting the meteorology and physic-chemical characteristics of two regional scale biomass burning plumes, this study demonstrates the positive analytical synergies arising from the suite of measurements now in place in the Pacific Northwest, and complemented by satellite borne instruments.

  18. Preparation of one-component halogen-free fire-retardant polyurthane sealant%无卤阻燃单组分聚氨酯密封胶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴燕锋; 韩胜利; 唐礼道; 赵洪涛

    2011-01-01

    The effects of DPK and ATH on fire-retardant performance and storage stability of the one-component halogen-free fire-retardant polyurthane sealants were studied.The investigation shows that the best fire-retardant performance is achieved when the ratio of the fire-retardant plasticizer DPK to binder is near 0.8 and the ATH content is 35%.The product sealant exhibits improved fire retardance and storage stability performance:flammability classe S4;smokedevelopment class SR2;fractional Effective Dose FED(tzui = 15min)=0.137 < 1 according to rail vehicle material fire protection test standard DIN 5510-2.The storage life of the sealant is over 6 months.%研究了磷酸二苯甲苯酯( DPK)和氢氧化铝(ATH),时单组分聚氨酯密封胶阻燃性能和稳定性的影响,介绍了阻燃性能的测试方法 结果表明,DPK与并氰酸酯预聚物质量比为0.8:1、ATH质量分数为35%时,密封胶的阻燃性最好,贮存期最长.按照德国轨道车辆防火测试标准(DIN 5510-2)测试:阻燃级别为S4级;烟的发展等级为SR2;毒性FED(tZUI=15min)=0.137<1.密封胶的贮存期能达到半年以上.

  19. A Study on Developing Fire Retardant HIPS Nano-composites%发展阻燃型HIPS纳米复合材料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤飞; 石王莹; 胡源

    2005-01-01

    本文运用一步熔融共混法制备了含有十溴联苯醚(DBDPO)或十溴二苯乙烷(DBDPE)和C16改性蒙脱土(MMT)的高抗冲聚苯乙烯(HIPS)复合材料,并采用X射线衍射(XRD)、透射电镜(TEM)、UL 94垂直燃烧和锥型量热等试验手段对其燃烧性能和相态进行了表征.结果标明,DBDPO/E存在时仍可获得具有插层结构的HIPS纳米复合材料.由于十溴和蒙脱土两种体系间的良好协同效应,这些材料的阻燃性提高、燃烧后的热释放速率下降.文中对其潜在机理进行了探讨.这种协同效应可用于指导发展环保性和阻燃性兼顾的HIPS纳米复合材料.%High impact polystyrene (HIPS) composites containing both Decabromodiphenyl oxide (DBDPO) or 1,2- bis (pentabromophenyl) ethane (DBDPE)-antimony (Sb2 O3 ) and Montmorillonite (MMT)- Hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (C16BrN) flame retarding packages were prepared by one-step melt blending in one-pot. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Underwriters Laboratory Vertical Burning Test (UL 94 V) and cone calorimeter tests have been conducted to characterize the morphology and combustion properties of the flame retardant composites. Results show that HIPS-based nanocomposites with intercalation structure in the presence of conventional DBDPO or DBDPE can be obtained, and much improved fire retardancy displayed by the notable reduction in heat release rates is achieved due to the good synergistic effect between MMT-C16BrN and DBDPO or DBDPE-antimony. Possible explanations regarding the synergism were proposed. This effect provides evidence for the reduction use of halogen-contained flame-retardants in one composite system for the purpose of lowering the production cost and lessening unwanted environment effects and is very meaningful for the development of green ecological polymer-based flame retardant composites.

  20. 弹药木包装箱阻燃处理的研究%Study on Fire Retarding Treatment of Ammunition Wood Packaging Box

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何淑芬; 王伟

    2011-01-01

    简要介绍了目前弹药木包装箱由于材料和结构的特点,在部队仓储、运输等勤务处理和战时使用中存在的燃爆隐患。通过对国内木材阻燃情况的调研,并结合弹药木包装箱特点,利用开发的新型阻燃剂,通过对木材表面刷阻燃剂与不刷阻燃剂2种不同工艺状态下,燃烧时间、质量损失率2项指标的对比试验,表明经过阻燃处理的弹药木包装箱,其阻燃防火性能效果明显,可借鉴参考,指导生产。%The hidden dangers exist in current ammunition wood packaging box were introduced, which were burning and explosion, during army service such as storage, transportation and usage in war because of its materials and structures" characters. By means of survey and study into domestic wood fire-prevention condition and considering the character of ammunition wood packing box, a comparative test was carried out to find the difference in burning time and the rate of mass loss between the two kinds of wood materials, one's surface painted with the newly-developed fire retardant and the other without. The result showed that the ammunition wood packaging box treated by fire-prevention has excellent fire-prevention effect. The purpose was .to provide reference for production.

  1. Flame Retardants Used in Flexible Polyurethane Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partnership project on flame retardants in furniture seeks to update the health and environmental profiles of flame-retardant chemicals that meet fire safety standards for upholstered consumer products with polyurethane foam

  2. The Effect of Fire Retardants on the Flammability, Mechanical Properties, and Wettability of Co-Extruded PP-Based Wood-Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Turku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, fire retardants (FRs such as aluminum trihydroxide (ATH, zinc borate (ZB, melamine, graphite, and titanium oxide (TiO2 were loaded into the shell layer of a co-extruded polypropylene (PP-based wood-plastic composite (WPC. The incorporated retardants reduced the peak of the heat release rate by 8 to 22%, depending on the type of FR. Other studied parameters, such as ignition time and mass loss rate, were improved after the FR loading. The total heat release decreased slightly (except for the graphite-WPC. The effective heat of combustion was independent of the presence of the FR or, in the case of graphite, slightly increased. Carbon monoxide production increased (ZB, graphite or was not changed significantly (ATH, melamine, and TiO2. It was also observed that the tensile strength improved after the FR loading; however, the tensile modulus decreased, except for the graphite-WPC. The impact strength improved or was independent of the FR loading, as in the case of the sample with ATH. The wettability of the composites decreased with filler loading, except for ZB, which showed the highest water absorption value among the studied composites.

  3. Fire Events and Soil Thermometry: The Applications of Clay Chemistry for Tracing Temperature Changes in Soils and Sediments Below Surface Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, E.; Werts, S. P.; Gelabert, M.

    2016-12-01

    Fires in the natural environment affect the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils. However, fires may also alter the mineralogy of the geologic material in which it comes in contact. Previous experiments on high temperature alteration of clays indicate that dehydration, oxidation, and hydroxylation in clay minerals can occur progressively in that order at increasing temperatures up to 500°C. It is also well known that wildfire events can heat soils to these temperature ranges several centimeters deep. In this experiment, alterations in clay chemistry were used as a tool to investigate fire intensity along with the changing morphology of clay minerals. For data collection, small camp fires were set in York County, SC and temperatures were recorded using a datalogger system to 5 cm deep during the fire event. Control samples were taken adjacent to the fires to compare the changing morphology of the minerals when heated. Powder x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to identify the clay mineralogy. The clay from soil samples was identified as hydrous kaolinite, anhydrous kaolinite, and varying types of goethite. To observe the dehydration, oxidation, and hydroxylation of clay minerals, scanning electron microscopy with emission dispersive spectroscopy was used to identify the O/cation ratios present, which would indicate changes in the oxidation state of the clay minerals. By mapping the changes in O/cation ratios with temperature in silicates, we are able to trace the temperature of the sediments during fire events. This research suggests it may be possible to utilize these geochemical trends to aid in soil and sediment temperature investigations in both archeological and modern soil and surface process investigations.

  4. 阻燃粘胶纤维/腈氯纶混纺织物的制备及性能研究%Preparation and characterization of fire retarded viscose fiber/modacrylic fiber blended fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 徐先林; 任元林

    2012-01-01

    A kind of fire retarded woven fabric is prepared with the raw materials of modacrylic fiber and flame resistant viscose fiber with different blending ratios. The fire retardant property and mechanical performance of the fire retarded woven fabric are tested by vertical flammability test, limiting oxygen index (L.01) and universal strength tester. The results show that with the increasing of fire retarded viscose fiber content in the blended fabric, the afterglow time and aflerflame time all shorten, the damage length increases greatly, the LOI values, the longitudinal and horizontal breaking strength and elongation of the blended fabric all decrease, which indicates that the influence of content of the modacrylic fiber on the property of the blended fabric is greater than that of fire retarded viscose fiber.%以阻燃粘胶纤维和腈氯纶为原料,按照不同的混纺比制备了阻燃机织物.采用垂直燃烧法、极限氧指数(LOI)法和强力仪对织物的阻燃性能和力学性能进行测试分析.结果表明:随混纺织物中阻燃粘胶纤维含量的增加,织物的续燃时间和阴燃时间均缩短,而损毁长度大大增加,织物的LOI值下降,织物的经纬向断裂强度及断裂伸长率均下降,说明混纺织物中阻燃腈氯纶含量对混纺织物性能的贡献要大于阻燃粘胶纤维.

  5. 锥形量热仪在饰面型防火涂料防火性能研究中的应用%Application of Cone Calorimeter in the Study of Combustion Properties on Finishing Fire Retardant Paint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓小波; 王继刚; 刘白玲

    2011-01-01

    用锥形量热仪的方法研究了不同阻燃剂含量的饰面型防火涂料点燃时间、热释放速率、有效释放热及总烟气释放量等项目,结果表明:随着阻燃剂含量的增加,热释放速率、有效释放热等参数随之降低;此外,在市面上选取3种饰面型防火涂料,用大板法和锥形量热仪法进行了研究,结果表明:随着耐火极限的延长,有效释放热、热释放速率等参数数值明显减小,同理论分析一致.%Various, finishing fire retardant coatings with different content of flame retardant agent were examined with cone calorimeter according to the standard of ISO 5660:1-2002. The results indicated that the flame retardant agent could play an important role in delaying TTI and TSP, the items such as HRR, THR, EHC also decreased with the increase of the content of flame retardant agent. In addition, three kinds of finishing fire retardant coatings with obvious difference in duration of fire resistance were tested by cone calorimeter and big panel method according to GB 12441-2005. The results showed that the thickness and density of carbon layer increased with the increase of duration of fire resistance, but the parameters such as HRR, EHC decreased with the increase of duration of fire resistance, which agreed well with the theoretical analysis.

  6. 钢结构建筑防火涂料施工及其参数优化%Construction of Steel Building Fire Retardant Coating and Its Parameter Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐瑾

    2015-01-01

    In this stage, the main fire retardant way of the steel building is fire retardant coating, but in the construction process, due to the unclear technology and improper construction, the actual fire retardant effect of fire retardant coating is uneven. Therefore, this paper explores the main problems in the construction process of fire retardant coating of steel building and the specific parameters required, and proposes the optimization measures. The author hopes this paper can provide necessary theoretical basis and practical guidance for the future construction and process-related system.%现阶段,针对钢结构建筑防火的方式多以防火涂料为主,而在施工的过程中由于工艺的不明确、施工的不规范等问题造成了其在实际的防火效果中表现的参差不齐。因此,本文以钢结构建筑防火涂料施工为切入点,探究其中存在的主要问题与具体的参数要求,并结合施工现状提出可行的优化对策。希望通过本文的有你就能够为今后的相关施工以及工艺体系建设提供必要的理论基础与实践指导。

  7. A subsiding regional forest fire aerosol layer at Whistler, BC: implications for interpretation of mountaintop chemistry observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Mc Kendry

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available On 30 August 2009, intense forest fires in interior BC, together with synoptic scale meteorological subsidence and easterly winds resulted in transport of a broad forest fire plume across southwestern BC. The physico-chemical and optical characteristics of the plume as observed from Saturna island (AERONET, CORALNet-UBC and the Whistler Mountain air chemistry facility were consistent with forest fire plumes that have been observed elsewhere in continental North America. However, the importance of smoke plume subsidence in relation to the interpretation of mountaintop chemistry observations is highlighted on the basis of deployment both a CL31 ceilometer and a single particle mass spectrometer (SPMS in a mountainous setting. The SPMS was used to identify the biomass plume based on levoglucosan and potassium markers. Data from the SPMS are also used to show that the biomass plume was correlated with nitrate, but not correlated with sulphate or sodium. This study not only provides baseline measurements of biomass burning plume physico-chemical characteristics in western Canada, but also highlights the importance of lidar remote sensing methods in the interpretation of mountaintop chemistry measurements.

  8. Discussion on the Preparation and Flame-retardant Mechanism of Ultra-thin Fire-retardant Coatings for Steel Structure%超薄型钢结构防火涂料的研制及其阻燃机理探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔定伟; 张鹏飞

    2012-01-01

    Using bromine carbon styrene-acrylic emulsion as binder and additives includi ng ammonium polyphosphate, melamine and pentaerythritol, we have prepared ultra-thin fire-retardant coatings for steel structure, solving the problem of short fire- retardant efficiency. This paper discusses the flame retarding mechanism of the binder; showing that every technical indicator of the coatings can meet or exceed the requirement of the standard "Fire-retardant Coatings for Steel Structures - General Technical Conditions".%以溴碳苯丙乳液勾基料,配以聚磷酸铵、三聚氰胺、季戊四醇等助剂,配制了超薄型钢结构防火涂料;解决了现有钢结构防火涂料阻燃时效短的弊端,并对基料的阻燃机理进行了简单的探讨。自制超薄型钢结构防火涂料的各项技术指标均达到或超过了《钢结构防火涂料通用技术条件》中规定的指标。

  9. The chemistry of dimethacrylate-styrene networks, and, Development of flame retardant, halogen-free fiber reinforced vinyl ester composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Astrid Christa

    One of the major classes of polymer matrix resins under consideration for structural composite applications in the infrastructure and construction industries is vinyl ester resin. Vinyl ester resin is comprised of low molecular weight poly(hydroxyether) oligomers with methacrylate endgroups diluted with styrene monomer. The methacrylate endgroups cure with styrene via free radical copolymerization to yield thermoset networks. The copolymerization behavior of these networks was monitored by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) at various cure conditions. Reactions of the carbon-carbon double bonds of the methacrylate (943 cm-1) and styrene (910 cm-1 ) were followed independently. Oligomers possessing number average molecular weights of 700 g/mole were studied with systematically increasing levels of styrene. The Mortimer-Tidwell reactivity ratios indicated that at low conversion more styrene was incorporated into the network at lower cure temperatures. The experimental vinyl ester-styrene network compositions deviated significantly from those predicted by the Meyer-Lowry integrated copolymer equation at higher conversion, implying that the reactivity ratios for these networks may change with conversion. The kinetic data were used to provide additional insight into the physical and mechanical properties of these materials. In addition to establishing the copolymerization kinetics of these materials, the development of halogen free fiber reinforced vinyl ester composites exhibiting good flame properties was of interest. Flame retardant vinyl ester resins are used by many industries for applications requiring good thermal resistance. The current flame-retardant technology is dependent on brominated vinyl esters, which generate high levels of smoke and carbon monoxide. A series of halogen free binder systems has been developed and dispersed in the vinyl ester to improve flame retardance. The binder approach enables the vinyl ester resin to maintain its low

  10. Chemical research projects office functions accomplishments programs. [applied research in the fields of polymer chemistry and polymeric composites with emphasis on fire safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbuch, A. H.; Parker, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Basic and applied research in the fields of polymer chemistry, polymeric composites, chemical engineering, and biophysical chemistry is summarized. Emphasis is placed on fire safety and human survivability as they relate to commercial and military aircraft, high-rise buildings, mines and rapid transit transportation. Materials systems and other fire control systems developed for aerospace applications and applied to national domestic needs are described along with bench-scale and full-scale tests conducted to demonstrate the improvements in performance obtained through the utilization of these materials and fire control measures.

  11. PE基木塑复合材料的阻燃研究%Study on the Fire-Retardant Properties of PE/Wood Powder Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张会平; 何慧; 赵小科; 贾德民

    2012-01-01

    Fire retardant ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and FR synergist zinc borate(ZB) and kieselguhr were applied to prepare flame retarding wood-plastic composites. The burning behavior was studied through horizontal-vertical burning and limiting oxygen index (LOI). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was employed to measure the thermal stability and the mechanical properties of the composites were tested statically. The results showed that APP enhanced the thermal stability of the composites significantly. When the APP content was 20 phr, the UL94 was V-0 rating, while the mechanical properties didn't change obviously. The synergistic effect of ZB and kieselguhr was not sharp, which indicated that the flame retardancy laws of them in wood-plastic composites were different from that in plastic. The SEM analysis demonstrated that the carbon layer of specimen of 2 phr kieselguhr was continuously denser and insulated heat and oxgen effectively.%采用无卤阻燃剂聚磷酸铵(APP)以及阻燃协效剂硼酸锌(zB)、硅藻土,制备具有良好阻燃性能的木塑复合材料。结果表明:APP在改善木塑复合材料阻燃性能的同时,可提高材料的热稳定性,当其用量为20份时,复合材料垂直燃烧达到UL94V-0级,此时,体系的力学性能变化不大;ZB、硅藻土对木塑复合材料的协效阻燃规律不同于对塑料的阻燃规律,添加2份硅藻土的阻燃体系形成的炭层最致密,可有效地隔热隔氧。

  12. 填料对膨胀型钢结构防火涂料防火性能的影响%Filler Influences on the Fire Retardance of Intumescent Coatings for Steel structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    To treat Fe2O3 surface with coupling agent, the modified performance is tested through infrared spectrum analysis and dispersion test etc.. Comparison tests are made towards Fe2O3 modification and consumption with the fire retardance influences to achieve the best coatings performance. The results show the modification towards Fe2O3 will improve its dispersion and cohesion performances, simultaneously, the fire retardance capability is greatly improved especially when the consumption is 6% the fire retardance is best.%采用偶联剂对Fe2O3进行表面改性处理,改性后的Fe2O3作为无机填料加入防火涂料较未改性前防火性能有显著提高,通过红外光谱分析。分散性试验等证明其改性效果,并对Fe2O3的改性及用量情况对防火性能的影响程度进行对比分析试验,得到防火涂料的最佳工艺条件

  13. Incorporation of the CrossFire Beilstein Database into the Organic Chemistry Curriculum at the Royal Danish School of Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøgger Christensen, S.; Franzyk, Henrik; Frølund, Bente; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W.; Stærk, Dan; Vedsø, Per

    2002-06-01

    The CrossFire Beilstein database has been incorporated into the organic chemistry curriculum at the Royal Danish School of Pharmacy as a powerful pedagogic tool. During a laboratory course in organic synthesis the database enables the students to get comprehensive overviews of known synthetic methods for a given compound. During a laboratory course in identification and as a part of an applied course in organic spectroscopy the students use the database for obtaining lists of all recorded isomeric compounds, facilitating an exhaustive identification. The main entrances for identification purposes are molecular formulas deduced either from titrations or from mass spectra combined with partial structures identified by chemical tests, or by interpretation of spectra. Thus, identifications made using the CrossFire Beilstein database will exclude some possibilities and point to correct structures from a selection of existing compounds. This appears to help the learning process considerably.

  14. Roles of forest bioproductivity, transpiration and fire in a nine-year record of cave dripwater chemistry from southwest Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble, P. C.; Fairchild, I. J.; Baker, A.; Meredith, K. T.; Andersen, M. S.; Salmon, S. U.; Bradley, C.; Wynn, P. M.; Hankin, S. I.; Wood, A.; McGuire, E.

    2016-07-01

    Forest biomass has the potential to significantly impact the chemistry and volume of diffuse recharge to cave dripwater via the processes of nutrient uptake, transpiration and forest fire. Yet to-date, this role has been under-appreciated in the interpretation of speleothem trace element records from forested catchments. In this study, the impact of vegetation is examined and quantified in a long-term monitoring program from Golgotha Cave, SW Australia. The contribution of salts from rain and dry-deposition of aerosols and dissolved elements from soil mineral and bedrock dissolution to dripwater chemistry are also examined. This study is an essential pre-requisite for the future interpretation of trace element data from SW Australian stalagmite records, whose record of past environmental change will include alterations in these biogeochemical fluxes. Solute concentrations in dripwater vary spatially, supporting the existence of distinct flow paths governed by varying amounts of transpiration as well as nutrient uptake by deeply-rooted biomass. Applying principal components analysis, we identify a common pattern of variation in dripwater Cl, Mg, K, Ca, Sr and Si, interpreted as reflecting increasing transpiration, due to forest growth. Mass-balance calculations show that increasing elemental sequestration into biomass has the largest impact on SO4, providing an explanation for the overall falling dripwater SO4 concentrations through time, in contrast to the transpiration-driven rising trend dominating other ions. The long-term rise in transpiration and nutrient uptake driven by increased forest bioproductivity and its impact on our dripwater chemistry is attributed to (i) the post-fire recovery of the forest understorey after fire impacted the site in 2006 CE; (ii) and/or increased water and nutrient demand as trees in the overlying forest mature. The impact of climate-driven changes on the water balance is also examined. Finally, the implications for interpreting

  15. Future fire probability modeling with climate change data and physical chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard P. Guyette; Frank R. Thompson; Jodi Whittier; Michael C. Stambaugh; Daniel C. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Climate has a primary influence on the occurrence and rate of combustion in ecosystems with carbon-based fuels such as forests and grasslands. Society will be confronted with the effects of climate change on fire in future forests. There are, however, few quantitative appraisals of how climate will affect wildland fire in the United States. We demonstrated a method for...

  16. Fire Clay Coal Zone County Statistics (Chemistry) in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Fire Clay coal zone resource areas and attributed with statistics on these coal quality...

  17. Preparation and performance of antistatic ultra-thin fire retardant coating for steel structure%抗静电超薄型钢结构防火涂料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董延茂; 倪春华; 郭叶书; 姚社春; 李胜帅

    2012-01-01

    The steel structure can be protected by ultra-thin fire retardant coating (UFRC),due to the fire insulation of the protection layer formed during the combustion. In this article, the antistatic ultra-thin fire retardant coating (AUFRC) for steel structure was prepared with acrylic resin and amino resin as resin matrix, ammonium polyphosphate (APP),pentaerythritol (PER) and melamine (MEL) as flame retardant (IFR) system and aluminium hydroxide (AH) as synergists. The AUFRC and its ignitionresidue were tested by FTIR and XRD. The flame retardant mechanism was studied. The results show that the AUFRC exhibits good fire retarding properties and excellent antistatic performance,when prepared with 80 portions resin matrix (acrylic resin:amino resin=1:2,wt:wt), 25 portions APP, 10 portions MEL and 5 portions AH.%超薄(CB)型钢结构膨胀防火涂料(UFRC)在燃烧过程中可形成耐火隔热保护层,提高钢结构耐火极限。选用氨基树脂、改性丙烯酸树脂为基体树脂,以多聚磷酸铵(APP)、季戊四醇(PER)、三聚氰胺(MEL)为膨胀阻燃体系,以氢氧化铝(AH)为协效剂,制备了抗静电膨胀型防火涂料(AUFRC)。用红外(FTIR)、XRD等方法对防火涂料及其燃烧残渣进行了分析,初步探讨了阻燃机理。当基体树脂(wt(氨基树脂)∶wt(丙烯酸树脂)=1∶2)为80份,APP为25份,PER为15份,MEL为10份,AH为5份时,制备的防火涂料阻燃、抗静电等综合性能最佳。

  18. 利用CONE研究阻燃胶合板的动态燃烧行为%Dynamic Combustion Behaviors of Plywood Treated with Fire Retardant Using CONE Calorimeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奉强; 宋永明; 孙理超; 冯建稳; 谢延军; 王清文

    2012-01-01

    Fire safety of interior wooden structures is closely associated with the flammability of indoor wooden structures. The effect of the treatment with phosphoric-nitrogen-boric(P-N-B) components based fire retardant FRW on the dynamic combustion behaviors of the plywood was investigated using a CONE calorimeter at a heat fluxes of 25, 50 and 75 kW/m2 respectively. The results show that the peak value of heat release rate(pkHRR), quantity of smoke release, and fire growth index(FGI) of untreated plywood are quite high, suggesting a high fire risk. The treatment of plywood with a P-N-B components based fire retardant FRW results in a greater char yield and less release of heat and smoke compared to those of untreated controls: Increasing fire intensity during test only slightly influenced the yield of carbon monoxide. Consequently, it demonstrates that the treatment with P-N-B components based fire retardant FRW can significantly restrain the combustion and reduce the yield of heat and smoke.%利用锥形量热仪CONE调查了磷-氮-硼系阻燃剂FRW处理胶合板在不同热辐射通量条件下的动态燃烧行为.结果显示:随热辐射通量提高,未阻燃胶合板的热释放速率峰值、烟气释放量和火势增长指数上升明显,火灾危险性高;阻燃胶合板的成炭率较高、热释放和烟释放较低;在燃烧过程中CO产率受热辐射通量增大的影响较小;FRW能显著抑制胶合板的可燃性,从而降低胶合板在使用过程中的火灾安全风险.

  19. Ash chemistry aspects of straw and coal-straw co-firing in utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.; Nielsen, H.P.; Hansen, L.A.; Hansen, P.F.B.; Andersen, K.H.; Soerensen, H.S.

    1998-12-01

    Deposits formed in straw-fired grate-boilers showed significant amounts of KCl ( 40 - 80 % (w/w)) and KCl-coated Ca-Si-rich particles. CFB co-firing of straw and coal caused deposits in the convective pass containing predominantly K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (50 - 60 % (w/w)) with small amounts of KCl close to the metal surface. In pulverized coal-straw co-fired boilers, deposits almost free of KCl were found. Most of the potassium in these deposits is derived from K-Al-Si-rich fly ash particles and the rest occurs as K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The presence of K-Al-Si-rich fly ash particles indicates that solid residue quality and reuse of fly ash in cement and concrete production rather than deposit formation may be of concern when utilizing straw in pulverized fuel boilers. This paper provides a review of Danish experiences with high-temperature ash deposit formation in the following full-scale utility boilers: Slagelse CHP (31 MW{sub th}), Haslev CHP (23 MW{sub th}) and Rudkoebing CHP (10.7 MW{sub th}), all straw-fired grate-boilers; Grenaa CHP (80 MW{sub th}), a coal-straw co-fired Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler; and the Midtkraft-Studstrup Power Station, Unit l (380 MW{sub th}), a coal-straw co-fired pf-boiler. (au)

  20. Use of Modified Ammonium Polyphosphate in Indoor Water-borne Ultra-thin Fire-retardant Coatings for Steel Structure%改性聚磷酸铵在室内水性超薄型钢结构防火涂料中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈铁鑫; 郭岳峰

    2012-01-01

    With styrene-acrylic emulsion as film former, superfine ammonium polyphosphate(APP), pentacrythritol (PER) and melamine (MEL) as fire retardants we have prepared water-borne fire-retardant coatings. Based on single-factor experiment. the influence of different dispersing agent and fire retardants on water-resistance of the fire retardant coatings is studied. The physicochemical and fire retardant properties are tested according to the standard GB14907-2002. The data of physicochemical properties reaches or exceeds the requirements of national standards; water resistance time is 48 h and the fire resistant time is 80 min .%以苯丙乳液为成膜物质,加入改性超细聚磷酸铵(APP)、季戊四醇(PER)和三聚氰胺(MEL),制备了超薄钢结构防火涂料。采用单因素水平试验,考察了不同分散剂及阻燃剂对钢结构防火涂料防水性能的影响,依据GB14907-2002测试了涂料的理化性能和防火性能。涂料的各项理化性能指标均已达到或超过国家标准,耐水时间48 h,耐火时间达到80 min。

  1. Atmospheric chemistry in the Arctic and subarctic - influence of natural fires, industrial emissions, and stratospheric inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wofsy, S.C.; Sachse, G.W.; Gregory, G.L.; Blake, D.R.; Bradshaw, J.D.; Sandholm, S.T.; Singh, H.B.; Barrick, J.A.; Harriss, R.C.; Talbot, R.W. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States) NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States) California Univ., Irvine (United States) Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta (United States) NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States) New Hampshire Univ., Durham (United States))

    1992-10-01

    Layers with enhanced concentrations of trace gases intercepted by the NASA Electra aircraft over Alaska during the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) in July-August 1988 are discussed. Haze layers apparently associated with boreal fires were enriched in hydrocarbons and NO(y), with emission factors corresponding closely to laboratory data for smoldering combustion. It is argued that atmospheric composition was strongly modified by wildfires during several periods of the ABLE 3A mission. The associated enhancement of NO(y) was smaller than observed for most other combustion processes but was nonetheless significant in the context of very low background concentrations. Ozone production in fire plumes was negligible. Ambient O3 was supplied by the stratosphere, with little direct input from midlatitude source during summer. It is argued that NO(y) was supplied about equally by the stratosphere and by wildfires. Hydrocarbons and CO appear to derive from biomass fires and from human activities. 47 refs.

  2. Atmospheric chemistry in the Arctic and subarctic - Influence of natural fires, industrial emissions, and stratospheric inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofsy, S. C.; Sachse, G. W.; Gregory, G. L.; Blake, D. R.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Singh, H. B.; Barrick, J. A.; Harriss, R. C.; Talbot, R. W.

    1992-01-01

    Layers with enhanced concentrations of trace gases intercepted by the NASA Electra aircraft over Alaska during the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) in July-August 1988 are discussed. Haze layers apparently associated with boreal fires were enriched in hydrocarbons and NO(y), with emission factors corresponding closely to laboratory data for smoldering combustion. It is argued that atmospheric composition was strongly modified by wildfires during several periods of the ABLE 3A mission. The associated enhancement of NO(y) was smaller than observed for most other combustion processes but was nonetheless significant in the context of very low background concentrations. Ozone production in fire plumes was negligible. Ambient O3 was supplied by the stratosphere, with little direct input from midlatitude source during summer. It is argued that NO(y) was supplied about equally by the stratosphere and by wildfires. Hydrocarbons and CO appear to derive from biomass fires and from human activities.

  3. Fire Clay Coal Zone Point Data (Chemistry) in Kentucky, Virginia and West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset (located by latitude and longitude) is a subset of the geochemical dataset found in Chap. F, Appendix 7, Disc 1, and used in this study of the Fire Clay...

  4. Cellulosic building insulation versus mineral wool, fiberglass or perlite: installer's exposure by inhalation of fibers, dust, endotoxin and fire-retardant additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breum, N O; Schneider, T; Jørgensen, O; Valdbjørn Rasmussen, T; Skibstrup Eriksen, S

    2003-11-01

    A task-specific exposure matrix was designed for workers installing building insulation materials. A priori, a matrix element was defined by type of task (installer or helper), type of work area (attic spaces or wall cavities) and type of insulation material (slabs from mineral wool, fiberglass or flax; loose-fill cellulosic material or perlite). In the laboratory a mock-up (full scale) of a one-family house was used for simulated installation of insulation materials (four replicates per matrix element). Personal exposure to dust and fibers was measured. The dust was analyzed for content of endotoxin and some trace elements (boron and aluminum) from fire-retardant or mold-resistant additives. Fibers were characterized as WHO fibers or non-WHO fibers. In support of the exposure matrix, the dustiness of all the materials was measured in a rotating drum tester. For installers in attic spaces, risk of exposure was low for inhalation of dust and WHO fibers from slab materials of mineral wool or fiberglass. Slab materials from flax may cause high risk of exposure to endotoxin. The risk of exposure by inhalation of dust from loose-fill materials was high for installers in attic spaces and for some of the materials risk of exposure was high for boron and aluminum. Exposure by inhalation of cellulosic WHO fibers was high but little is known about the health effects and a risk assessment is not possible. For the insulation of walls, the risk of installers' exposure by inhalation of dust and fibers was low for the slab materials, while a high risk was observed for loose-fill materials. The exposure to WHO fibers was positively correlated to the dust exposure. A dust level of 6.1 mg/m3 was shown to be useful as a proxy for screening exposure to WHO fibers in excess of 10(6) fibers/m3. In the rotating drum, slabs of insulation material from mineral wool or fiberglass were tested as not dusty. Cellulosic loose-fill materials were tested as very dusty, and perlite proved to be

  5. Elements of environmental chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hites, R. A; Raff, Jonathan D

    2012-01-01

    .... Extensively revised, updated, and expanded, this second edition includes new chapters on atmospheric chemistry, climate change, and polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins, and brominated flame retardants...

  6. Boyle and the origins of modern chemistry: Newman tried in the fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Alan F

    2010-03-01

    William Newman construes the Scientific Revolution as a change in matter theory, from a hylomorphic, Aristotelian to a corpuscular, mechanical one. He sees Robert Boyle as making a major contribution to that change by way of his corpuscular chemistry. In this article it is argued that it is seriously misleading to identify what was scientific about the Scientific Revolution in terms of a change in theories of the ultimate structure of matter. Boyle showed, especially in his pneumatics, how empirically accessible, intermediate causes, as opposed to ultimate, mechanical ones can be explored and identified by experiment. Newman is right to observe that Boyle constantly sought intimate links between chemistry and the mechanical philosophy. However, by doing so he did not thereby significantly aid the cause of attaining experimental knowledge of chemical phenomena and the support that Boyle's chemistry provided for the mechanical philosophy was weaker than both Boyle and Newman imply. Boyle was intent on articulating and defending a strict, mechanical account of the ultimate structure of matter to be sure, but his contributions to the new experimental science in general, and chemistry in particular, are best seen as distinct from that endeavour.

  7. Preparation and Properties of Graphene Straw Retardant Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li-guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article was prepared by spin-coating the evaporation process graphene oxide having a shell core structure GO/straw flame retardant composite materials, through the oxygen index apparatus and SEM measured the relationship between the flame retardant properties and the morphological structure of the flame retardant composite material, the experiment preparation process is simple, environmentally friendly non-toxic, and the resulting GO/straw flame retardant composite material having a high fire retardant properties.

  8. Research on the Thermal Decomposition Characteristics of the Extruded Polystyrene and Fire Retardant Extruded Polystyrene in Air Environment%非阻燃型和阻燃型XPS在空气中的热解特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侍孝永; 陈春晓; 徐强; 绪广东

    2013-01-01

    The thermal degradation properties of two extruded polystyrene temperature holding materials were investigated using TG-DSC-MS-IR simultaneous analysis method. The research showed that the additive in the fire retardant XPS can extend the time in reaching the maximum heat release rate, reduce the variety and amounts of the products, and improve the activation energy of the reaction. Though residual fire retardant materials reacted and gave off heat after 491 ℃.%运用热重-差热-红外-质谱(TG-DSC-IR-MS)联用技术对非阻燃型和阻燃型挤出聚苯乙烯泡沫塑料(XPS)保温材料在空气中的热解特性进行研究.结果表明,阻燃添加剂延长了阻燃型XPS到达最大热释放速率所需要的时间,减少了热解产物的种类和数量,以及提高了反应的活化能;而且,材料中残留的阻燃剂在491℃以后会继续热解并放出热量.

  9. Similarity in venom alkaloid chemistry of alate queens of imported fire ants: implication for hybridization between Solenopsis richteri and S. invicta in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Lu, Yong-Yue; Hu, Qiong-Bo; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2012-04-01

    Both cis- and trans-2-methyl-6-undecylpiperidines, MC11P, have been previously reported as the major components of the venom of alate queens of the imported fire ants, Solenopsis richteri (black) and S. invicta (red). To identify the minor components of venom alkaloids from alate queens and compare the venom alkaloid chemistry of alate queen of their hybrid (S. richteri×S. invicta) with that of the two parental fire ant species (S. richteri and S. invicta), silica-gel short-column chromatography was utilized for separating cis-stereoisomers of venom alkaloids from trans-stereoisomers. GC/MS Analyses of venom-alkaloid chemistry of alate queens demonstrated that fewer alkaloid peaks were detected in the chromatograms of the alate queens compared to those of workers. Three new compounds, 7, 12, and 13, were detected as minor components in the venom of alate queens of all three fire ant species. Alate queens of hybrid fire ants showed cis- and trans-alkaloid patterns similar to those of the parental species. Similarity in venom-alkaloid chemistry of alate queens of S. richteri and S. invicta, and their hybrid may indicate their reproductive compatibility in the hybrid zone in southern United States, where all three species occur sympatrically.

  10. Synergistic Study on the Effect of Flame Retardants on Timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwajiobi, C.C

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available the fire characteristic proportion of Halleacilliata has been carried out. The timber was treated with different concentrations of ammonium chloride (0.01, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.50, and 0.55 mol/dm3 and borax (0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.10, and 0.12 mol/dm3 . Flammability tests such as ignition time, flame propagation rate and after-glow time were carried out and the results showed that the flame retardants drastically reduced the flame propagation rate and after-glow time while ignition time and percentage add-on (% increased. Synergy was observed when the two flame retardants were mixed at different concentrations which gave better retarding properties than when treated individually. These results are interpreted as arising from the fact that on heating, these flame retardants evolve molecules that interfere with the chemistry and pyrolysis of combustion of timber.

  11. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  12. Effect of Fire Retardant Coating on the Insulation Failure of XLPE Insulated Cable in Fire Condition%防火涂料对交联聚乙烯绝缘电缆受热时绝缘失效的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霁

    2011-01-01

    The insulation failure time and temperature of XLPE insulated cable coated with various thickness of fire retardant coating or wrapped by the metal tube with various thickness of fire retardant coating were studied by using infrared radiation heating furnace and insulation resistance measurement system, and based on simulated ISO 834 standard fire condition. The results show that the insulation failure time is proportional to the coating thickness under the two protective ways. The protective effect on the cable wrapped by the metal tube with fire retardant coating is more remarkable.%利用红外辐射加热炉及绝缘电阻测量系统,模拟ISO 834火灾条件,研究了交联聚乙烯绝缘电缆在涂敷不同厚度防火涂料和穿上涂有不同厚度钢结构防火涂料金属管两种保护方式下,绝缘电阻的失效时间及温度.结果表明:在两种保护方式下,交联聚乙烯绝缘电缆的绝缘失效时间与涂层厚度成正比;与直接涂敷电缆防火涂料相比,穿上涂有防火涂料的金属管对交联聚乙烯绝缘电缆的保护效果更明显.

  13. Study of intumescent fire retardant varnish based on amino resin etherified by pentaerythritol%季戊四醇醚化氨基树脂为基材的膨胀型防火清漆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马志领; 李晓英; 丁春月

    2013-01-01

    采用季戊四醇代替部分正丁醇做醚化剂制得氨基树脂,与酸式磷酸酯树脂固化剂(PRA)复配,制得一种双组分水性膨胀型防火清漆.采用大板燃烧法和热分析法考察了漆膜的阻燃性能和阻燃机理.分析结果表明:适量的引入季戊四醇可使漆膜的膨胀度和剩炭率提高,炭层的致密度和高温抗氧化性得到改善,且热降解产物燃烧放热量减少,从而提高了漆膜阻挡火焰侵蚀底材的能力.季戊四醇的引入也提高了氨基树脂储存稳定性,但不利于漆膜的耐水性.%A two-pack intumescent fire retardant varnish was composed of the phosphate resin acid (PRA) and melamine urea formaldehyde resin (MUF) in which n-butyl alcohol that was used as etherif-ying agent was replaced by pentaerythritol partly.The flame retardancy and flame retardant mechanism of painted film were investigated from big panel method and thermal analysis.The results showed that the char yield and dilatation of painted film were enhanced; compactness and high temperature anti-oxidation of char layer were improved; and the combustion heats of the thermodegradation products were decreased.It showed that the introduction of an appropriate amount of pentaerythritol were advantage for flame retardancy of painted film.Meanwhile, the introduction of pentaerythritol improved the storability of MUF, but it was disadvantageous for the water.

  14. Firefighters and flame retardant activism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordner, Alissa; Rodgers, Kathryn M; Brown, Phil; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2015-02-01

    In the past decade, exposure to flame retardant chemicals has become a pressing health concern and widely discussed topic of public safety for firefighters in the United States. Working through local, state, and national unions and independent health and advocacy organizations, firefighters have made important contributions to efforts to restrict the use of certain flame retardants. Firefighters are key members in advocacy coalitions dedicated to developing new environmental health regulations and reforming flammability standards to reflect the best available fire science. Their involvement has been motivated by substantiated health concerns and critiques of deceptive lobbying practices by the chemical industry. Drawing on observations and interviews with firefighters, fire safety experts, and other involved stakeholders, this article describes why firefighters are increasingly concerned about their exposure to flame retardant chemicals in consumer products, and analyzes their involvement in state and national environmental health coalitions.

  15. 2D and 3D Eulerian Simulations of the Dynamics and Gas and Aerosol Chemistry of a Young Biomass Burning Smoke Plume from a Savannah Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, M. J.; Prinn, R. G.

    2007-12-01

    The growth of aerosol particles and production of ozone in young smoke plumes is the result of a complex interaction between the mean flow in the smoke plume, turbulent diffusion, gas-phase oxidation, coagulation, and mass transfer between phases. Models allow us to separate the effects of these processes and predict their impact on the global environment. We present the results of two and three-dimensional Eulerian simulations of the dynamics and chemistry of the smoke plume formed by the Timbavati savannah fire studied during SAFARI 2000 (Hobbs et al., 2003, JGR, doi:10.1029/2002JD002352). The dynamical model is an extension of an Eulerian cloud-resolving model that has previously been used to study the role of deep convective clouds on tropospheric chemistry (Wang and Prinn, 2000, JGR, 105(D17) 22,269-22,297). The model includes a source of sensible heat, gases, and particles at the surface to simulate the savannah fire. The new gas and aerosol chemistry model includes heterogeneous chemistry, kinetic mass transfer, coagulation and the formation of secondary organic and inorganic aerosol. Photolysis rates are calculated based on the solution of the radiative transfer equation within the plume, including the scattering and absorption of radiation by the smoke aerosols. Our preliminary 2D Eulerian results using standard chemistry and UV fluxes show that the model can simulate the lower but not the higher levels of O3 observed. Also, the simulated 2D O3 field shows a wave-like pattern in the downwind direction, even though the emissions from the fire are held constant. This suggests that plume heterogeneity in the downwind direction may account for some of the observed variability in O3. We will present results of runs incorporating higher resolution calculation of photolysis rates, heterogeneous HONO formation, and gas phase reactions involving the uncharacterized organic compounds observed in the gas phase of the Timbavati plume in order to better simulate these

  16. A thermodynamic study of the gaseous potassium chemistry in the convection sections of biomass fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomberg, T.

    2011-07-15

    Thermodynamic calculations of the gaseous potassium species in boiler flue gases are presented. Results show that if the K(g)/Cl(g) molar ratio is still higher than 1 after the K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}(s) aerosol formation at high gas temperatures, the excess potassium is in the form of KOH(g). K(g)/Cl(g) molar ratios at the inlet of the convection section for biomass fired boilers were estimated from the chemical analysis of the fuels, with the assumption that all the fuel sulfur had reacted to K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}(s) aerosols before the inlet of the convection section. 0-100% conversion of fuel alkali to vaporized alkali was calculated. Generally, if the conversion was more than 60%, the calculated ratios for biomass fuels were higher than 1. Furthermore, due to the thermodynamic instability of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}(g), it is likely that the formation of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}(s) on the heat transfer surfaces follows a heterogeneous route where KOH(l,s) is transformed to K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}(s) at the surface, not in the gas phase. This leads to a possible formation of a basic salt melt on the heat transfer surfaces and thus alloying with Cr may be ineffective in improving the hot corrosion resistance of steels in these environments. Based on the literature data of oxide solubilities in basic alkali melts, it is suggested that alloying with Ni or Co will provide better protection in these applications. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. 表面设置防火涂料的压型钢板混凝土组合楼板耐火性能有限元分析%The Finite Element Analysis of the Pressed Steel Concrete Composite Floor Slab Fire Performance by Setting the Fire Retardant Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段静; 麦志亨; 欧俊宏

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at the completed fire test of pr-essed steel concrete composite floor slab and uses the finite element analysis software ABQUAS to discuss the new set fire retardant coating thickness under the ISO834 standard heating environment, and analyzes the internal temperature field distri-bution influence of pressed steel concrete composite floor slab.%本文针对已完成明火试验的压型钢板混凝土组合楼板,利用ABQUAS 有限元分析软件,探讨了ISO834标准升温环境下新型防火涂料设置厚度,对压型钢板混凝土组合楼板的内部温度场分布的影响做了分析。

  18. Preparation and Application of a P-containing Polyglycerol Ester Fire-retardant Plasticizer%含磷型聚合甘油脂肪酸酯阻燃增塑剂的制备与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯国东; 胡云; 周永红; 刘朋; 马艳

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the flame retardancy of oil plasticizer and develop high value-added products using crude glycerin from by-product of diesel oil as starting materials, a novel P-containing soybean-oil-based fire-retardant plasticizer ( DOPO-EAPFAE) was synthesized using crude glycerin,oleic acid and 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide ( DOPO) as raw material through polymerization,esterification,epoxidation and ring opening reaction. The structure was verified by Fourier transform infrared ( FT-IR) spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Thermo-gravimetric behavior and flame retardant properties were evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis,oxygen index test and vertical burning test. When the amount 60% of phthalic acid dioctyl ester ( DOP) was replaced by DOPO-EAPFAE in PVC blends,PVC blends still has good mechanical properties. The limiting oxygen index ( LOI) of the blends increased from 21. 3 to 28. 7,and flame retardant level reached V0 grade. This indicated that the product can effectively improve the flame retardancy of PVC blends. The plasticity and flammability of DOPO-EAPFAE was better than tris(chlorisopropyl) phosphate(TCPP). Comparing to small molecular flame retardant tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate( TCPP) ,flame retardant of DOPO-EAPFAE was not only superior to TCPP,but also exhibited better thermal stability.%为了提高油脂增塑剂的阻燃性,开发以生物柴油副产粗甘油为直接原料的高附加值产品,以粗甘油、油酸和9,10-二氢-9-氧杂-10-磷杂菲-10-氧化物(DOPO)为主原料,经聚合、酯化、环氧化和开环反应,合成含磷型大分子阻燃增塑剂DOPO-环氧乙酰化聚合甘油脂肪酸酯( DOPO-EAPFAE),并通过红外谱图( FT-IR)和核磁共振(1H NMR)确认了其结构。研究了DOPO-EAPFAE用量对聚氯乙烯(PVC)体系力学性能的影响;通过对PVC样条的热重分析( TG)、极限氧指数( LOI)测定和垂直燃烧测试等,分析了PVC制品的

  19. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 1. Materials. State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Encyclopedia (1973-1974) and in the textbooks by Billmeyer (1971) and Srydson (1975). The Polymer Handbook (Brandrup and Immergut, 1374) and the Handbook of...formulation variables. Their chemistry is too involved to be described in detail here. More information may be found in Bydsen (1975), Billmeyer ...1973). Bhatnagar, V. M., "Fire Retardant Formulations Handbook," Vol. 1, p. 1, Technomic PuW. Co., Inc., Westport, Conn. (1972). Billmeyer , F. W

  20. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    Understanding fire dynamics and combustion is essential in fire safety engineering and in fire science curricula. Engineers and students involved in fire protection, safety and investigation need to know and predict how fire behaves to be able to implement adequate safety measures and hazard...... analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...... discipline. It covers thermo chemistry including mixtures and chemical reactions; Introduces combustion to the fire protection student; Discusses premixed flames and spontaneous ignition; Presents conservation laws for control volumes, including the effects of fire; Describes the theoretical bases...

  1. Studies on Flame Retardants on Malaysian Coir Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwaleed Awad Khidir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study to the effect of the utilization of urea and diammonium phosphate as fire retardant on Malaysian coir fiber was evaluated. Flammability and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA tests were used to evaluate the fire retardancy. Weight loss and percentage of mass residue were used as a measure from the results of flammability and TGA, respectively. The results revealed the effectiveness of using urea and diammonium phosphate as fire retardant for Malaysian coir fiber. However, for the samples treated with retardant high concentration the weight loss is not significant with the time of dipping treatment. This indicates that the just dip application for the fire retardant of higher concentration is sufficient.

  2. Eficiência de um retardante de longa duração na redução da propagação do fogo Efficiency of a long term retardant in the reduction of fire propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Assunção Ribeiro

    2006-12-01

    efeito de dosagens entre 900 e 1.200 mL/m², para melhorar a relação custo/benefício do uso desse produto.Non-natural firebreaks has been an alternative of wide use in forests, conservation units and at road borders to reduce fire propagation. The main objective of these firebreaks is to manage the fuel material, breaking the continuity of the fuel material. With the emergence of new products and equipment, the traditional firebreaks have being replaced by wet, green or chemical firebreaks. The objective of this work was to test the best dose of a fire retardant in a pasture area formed by Bracharia decumbens grass. Phos-chek retardant, a mixture of amonium phosphate and amonium sulphate, was used in the concentration of 0.134 kg/L. The doses were 300, 600, 900 and 1,200 ml/m². The application was carried out with a backpack pump in plots of 2 x 5 m, with four repetitions, using the complete randomized blocks design. The time spent by the fire to burn the plot without the product, time spent by the fire to burn the plot with the product, distance advanced by the fire within the plot with the product, and the burning intensity were measured. Relative moisture and wind speed were measured at one-hour intervals. The fire line took 25 times more to burn the plot with the product, in the plot with 1,200 ml/m², than the plot without the product. The fire burnt the entire plot with the 300 ml/m² dose, but the burning time in the plot with the product was larger than that one on the plot without the product. Phos-chek changes the combustion reaction, retarding the burning process and the greater the dose the greater the reaction of inhibition. The best dose was that of 1,200 ml/m², but further studies are necessary to final out the effects of doses from 900 to 1,200 ml/m², to improve the cost/benefit rate of product use.

  3. Investigation on Fire Retardant and Heat Insulation Performance of Sawdust/Mg(OH) 2/PMMA Composite%木屑/Mg(OH)2/PMMA复合材料阻燃隔热性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁新强; 张伟; 艾桃桃

    2013-01-01

    PMMA composite materials with the sawdust and Mg(OH) 2 as fillers were not only with low cost,but also with flame retardant and heat insulation and can be widely used in the construction,decoration industry.PMMA composite materials were prepared with sawdust (80 ~ 120mesh) as functional filler,Mg (OH) 2 as fire retardant,waste PMMA powder (200 ~ 400 mesh) as substrate,MMA as the monomer and solvent,BPO as initiator and gradient temperature bulk polymerization process.Its microstructure was tested by the JCM-5000 desktop scanning electron microscope (SEM).The combustion performance and heat insulation performance were studied.The study found that the flame retardant level of sawdust/Mg (OH) 2/PMMA composite was HB when addition amount of Mg (OH)2 was 35 phr.The heat insulation effect of sawdust/Mg(OH) 2/PMMA composite was very good when addition amount of sawdust was 40 phr and the heat insulation temperature difference was about 36 ℃.%利用木屑和Mg(OH)2制备聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯(PMMA)复合材料,不仅成本低,而且具有阻燃隔热功能,可广泛应用在建筑、家装行业.以80~ 120目木屑为功能填料、Mg(OH)2为阻燃剂、200~400目废透明有机玻璃粉末为基体,MMA为聚合单体兼溶剂、BPO为引发剂,由梯度温度本体聚合工艺制备复合材料,采用扫描电子显微镜测试其微观形貌,研究了复合材料的燃烧性能和隔热性能.研究发现,木屑/Mg(OH) 2/PMMA复合材料中Mg(OH)2加入量为35 phr时,阻燃级别为HB级.木屑/Mg(OH) 2/PMMA复合材料的隔热效果好,木屑/Mg(OH) 2/PMMA中Mg(OH)2的加入量为35 phr,木屑的加入量为40 phr时,隔热温差约为36℃.

  4. Chemistry for Potters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denio, Allen A.

    1980-01-01

    Relates pottery making to chemistry by providing chemical information about clay, its origin, composition, properties, and changes that occur during firing; also describes glaze compositions, examples of redox chemistry, salt glazing, crystalline glazes, and problems in toxicity. (CS)

  5. The Compilation of Anhui Provincial Standards "Construction Acceptance Standard for Tunnel Fire Retardant Coatings"%安徽省地方标准《隧道防火涂料施工验收标准》的编制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆阿涛

    2012-01-01

    The compilation background,main contents,compilaton principles and innovation content of Anhui Provincial Standards"Construction Acceptance Standard for Tunnel Fire Retardant Coatings"were introduced.%介绍了安徽省地方标准《隧道防火涂料施工验收标准》的编制背景、主要内容、编制原则、创新性内容等。

  6. Atmospheric chemistry effects of the 1998 Mexican/Central American fires measured in central New Mexico USA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, C. J.

    1998-12-16

    Atmospheric effects from large fires have received a great deal of interest recently, especially when the fires have the potential to effect human health when the plumes are transported long distances over areas of high population density. Examples are the recent large fires in Southeast Asia in 1997 (1) and the wildfires occurring in southern Mexico and Central America that were manifested in decreased visibility and high aerosol concentrations in the United States at distances of 2500-4000 km from the fires. In addition to fine aerosols, these biomass fires have the potential to produce and transport large quantities of oxygenated organic species such as aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids, hydrocarbons, and sulfate and nitrate species. Most of the literature reports dealing with products of biomass burning have been related to fireplace and wood burning stove emissions (2,3) and with local effects from forest fires(4). The recent super-large fires occurring in Indonesia and Mexico/Central America also bring about the issue of atmospheric reactivity because long-range transport affords long reaction times for photochemical reactions, wet and dry deposition and surface reactions on the aerosol particles. The smoke/haze conditions prompted considerable concern among the general population in New Mexico regarding health hazards and a large number of calls to the Albuquerque, NM Air Quality Division which reported the PM{sub 10} samples collected showed no significant increase in mass(5). The conclusion was that the particles were very fine and therefore had considerable influence on the visibility but did not violate health standards. In this study, organic and inorganic chemical species in the gaseous and aerosol phases have been identified and quantified under non-smoky and smoky conditions in Central New Mexico approximately 3000 km from the source of the fires.

  7. Study on combustibility of different wood and efficiency of fire-retardant treatment%不同木材燃烧性及阻燃处理的效能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洪锦

    2012-01-01

    In order to effectively prevent and control the fire caused by wood materials, it is necessary for us to analyze and study different kinds of woods' burning performance. By using cone calorimeter, various woods' burning performance were tested, the effective heat of combustion in the combustion process, heat release rate and total heat released and other related data were obtained, thus the studies of wood combustion degradation and flame retardant were carried out.%为有效预防和控制木质材料引起的火灾,需对不同木材的燃烧性能加以研究分析.本研究主要利用锥形量热仪对各种木材燃烧性能进行测试,得出了燃烧过程中的有效燃烧热量、热释放速率和总释放的热量等相关有效数据,并以此来进行木材燃烧的降解和阻燃.

  8. 芳基硼酸聚合作用下高分子防火材料制备技术%Preparation Technology of Polymer Fire Retardant Materials Under Action of Aromatic Boric Acid Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭瑶

    2016-01-01

    The preparation of polymer materials with high polymer materials under the action of boric acid polymerization was proposed. First memory aryl boric acid polymer molecular characteristics analysis, polymer of fire resistance and flame retardant characteristics analysis, experiment, hafnium chloride (I. g, 4.0 mmol) and APTES (AR) AIDRICH- thiol acrylate (1.32 g, 8.0 mmol) was dissolved in DMF, aryl boric acid polymer nanometer TiO2 powder (30%) with Tween-208- crown 6 content increased with increasing. Under temperature programmed synthesized screw [4,4]-1,6- Ren dimethyl- 3- phenyl propylene, high pressure dense phase processing, in the hyperbaric chamber with 10 DEG C- min-1 speed heated from room temperature to 240 DEG C, join for thermionic coating and improve the fireproof material of thermal stability, chemical stability and mechanical stability in the expansion and contraction of the state, the completion of aryl boric acid polymerization under the action of macromolecule fire-proof material preparation. The experimental results show that the method has good thermal stability, high heat absorption peak and flame retardant layer with high thermal stability, high temperature resistance and fire resistance.%提出采用基硼酸聚合作用下高分子防火材料制备技术.首先根据芳基硼酸聚合物的分子特性分析,进行聚合物的防火性和阻燃性特征分析,实验中,将氯化铪(1.281 g,4.0 mmol)和APTES(AR AIDRICH)3-巯丙(1.32 g,8.0 mmol)溶于DMF中,芳基硼酸聚合物TiO2纳米粉体(30%))随着Tween-208-冠-6含量的增加而增加.在程序控温下,合成了螺[4,4]-1,6-壬二甲基-3-苯基丙烯,进行高压密相处理,在高压舱中以10℃·min-1的速度从室温加热到240℃,加入换热离子涂层,在热胀冷缩状态下提高防火材料的热稳定性、化学稳定性和力学稳定性,完成芳基硼酸聚合作用下高分子防火材料制备.实验结果表明,采用该方法制

  9. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    discipline. It covers thermo chemistry including mixtures and chemical reactions; Introduces combustion to the fire protection student; Discusses premixed flames and spontaneous ignition; Presents conservation laws for control volumes, including the effects of fire; Describes the theoretical bases...... analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...... for empirical aspects of the subject of fire; Analyses ignition of liquids and the importance of evaporation including heat and mass transfer; Features the stages of fire in compartments, and the role of scale modelling in fire. The book is written by Prof. James G. Quintiere from University of Maryland...

  10. Investigating the links between ozone and organic aerosol chemistry in a biomass burning plume from a prescribed fire in California chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, M. J.; Lonsdale, C. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Akagi, S. K.; Coe, H.; Craven, J. S.; Fischer, E. V.; McMeeking, G. R.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Soni, T.; Taylor, J. W.; Weise, D. R.; Wold, C. E.

    2015-06-01

    Within minutes after emission, complex photochemistry in biomass burning smoke plumes can cause large changes in the concentrations of ozone (O3) and organic aerosol (OA). Being able to understand and simulate this rapid chemical evolution under a wide variety of conditions is a critical part of forecasting the impact of these fires on air quality, atmospheric composition, and climate. Here we use version 2.1 of the Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP) to simulate the evolution of O3 and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) within a young biomass burning smoke plume from the Williams prescribed fire in chaparral, which was sampled over California in November 2009. We demonstrate the use of a method for simultaneously accounting for the impact of the unidentified intermediate volatility, semi-volatile, and extremely low volatility organic compounds (here collectively called "SVOCs") on the formation of OA (using the Volatility Basis Set - VBS) and O3 (using the concept of mechanistic reactivity). We show that this method can successfully simulate the observations of O3, OA, NOx, ethylene (C2H4), and OH to within measurement uncertainty using reasonable assumptions about the average chemistry of the unidentified SVOCs. These assumptions were (1) a reaction rate constant with OH of ~ 10-11 cm3 s-1; (2) a significant fraction (up to ~ 50 %) of the RO2 + NO reaction resulted in fragmentation, rather than functionalization, of the parent SVOC; (3) ~ 1.1 molecules of O3 were formed for every molecule of SVOC that reacted; (4) ~ 60 % of the OH that reacted with the unidentified non-methane organic compounds (NMOC) was regenerated as HO2; and (5) that ~ 50 % of the NO that reacted with the SVOC peroxy radicals was lost, presumably to organic nitrate formation. Additional evidence for the fragmentation pathway is provided by the observed rate of formation of acetic acid (CH3COOH), which is consistent with our assumed fragmentation rate. However, the model overestimates peroxyacetyl

  11. Investigating the links between ozone and organic aerosol chemistry in a biomass burning plume from a California chaparral fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. J. Alvarado; C. R. Lonsdale; R. J. Yokelson; S. K. Akagi; I. R. Burling; H. Coe; J. S. Craven; E. Fischer; G. R. McMeeking; J. H. Seinfeld; T. Soni; J. W. Taylor; D. R. Weise; C. E. Wold

    2014-01-01

    Within minutes after emission, rapid, complex photochemistry within a biomass burning smoke plume can cause large changes in the concentrations of ozone (O3) and organic aerosol (OA). Being able to understand and simulate this rapid chemical evolution under 5 a wide variety of conditions is a critical part of forecasting the impact of these fires...

  12. RESEARCH OF EFFECTIVENESS OF „PLAMOSTOP“ FIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik MITRENGA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with testing of a water-miscible intumescent fire retardant. Experiments are conducted by thermal analysis (TG / DTG, DSC, cone calorimeter and non-standardized methods for monitoring weight loss when exposed to flame burning. Based on the experiment results and other information the most appropriate methods for testing fire retardants are reviewed. All methods by which experiments have been carried out are described. Our own method for testing fire retardants was created. It is also evaluated the effectiveness of a representative fire retardant of wood by all mentioned methods. The result of the experiment is to evaluate the suitability of each method for testing of fire retardants and evaluation fire retardant “Plamostop”.

  13. Re-investigation of venom chemistry of Solenopsis fire ants. II. Identification of novel alkaloids in S. invicta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2009-04-01

    The venom of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is dominated by trans stereoisomers of 2,6-dialkylpiperidines. cis Stereoisomers of alkaloids in the venom of S. invicta were separated from trans stereoisomers by using silica gel short column chromatography and identified by coupled gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Seven pairs of cis and trans sterecoisomers were identified based on relative retention times and mass spectral data. The GC trace of the cis stereoisomers of S. invicta alkaloids was presented for the first time. In addition to the previously described 2,6-dialkylpiperideines, eleven novel 2,6-dialkyl-delta1,2-piperideines and 2,6-dialkyl-delta1,6-piperideines were identified from S. invicta venom. The results are discussed in relation to the evolutionary significance of these piperideines and their possible biosynthetic pathways in Solenopsis fire ants.

  14. Re-investigation of venom chemistry of Solenopsis fire ants. I. Identification of novel alkaloids in S. richteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2009-04-01

    Dialkylpiperidines are characteristic of fire ants in the genus Solenopsis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Workers of the black imported fire ant, S. richteri produce cis and trans stereoisomers of 2,6-dialkylpiperidines with the trans isomer predominating. We used silica gel short column chromatography to separate both stereoisomers (cis and trans) of S. richteri venom alkaloids and coupled gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify novel minor components. The identities of various peaks in GC-MS analyses of the venom fractions were based on relative retention times and mass spectral data. GC profiles verified the presence of both cis and trans stereoisomers of C15:1 and C15 in S. richteri. The GC trace of the cis stereoisomers of S. richteri alkaloids was presented for the first time. In addition to the previously described components of S. richteri venom, seven novel 2,6-dialkyl-delta1,2-piperideines and 2,6-dialkyl-delta1,6-piperideines were detected. The chemical identities of these minor components were determined by comparing with fragmentations of known compounds. Possible biosynthetic pathways for the production of cis and trans solenopsins by S. richteri are discussed.

  15. Fire Retardancy and Thermal Conductivity Properties of PP/GNPs Nano-Platelets Composites%聚丙烯/石墨烯片纳米复合材料阻燃及导热性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦刘洋; 刘定福; 梁基照

    2016-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP)/graphene nano-platelets (GNPs) composites were prepared via melt blending. The effects of different GNPs mass fractions on the fire retardancy and thermal conductivity of the composites were discussed. The results show that the oxygen index increase,while the horizontal burning rate decrease,but the smoke density fluctuates but increases overall with the increase of the filler content. As far as specific surface area of GNPs is concerned,the smaller has greater effect on slowing the horizontal burning rate. Samples with different thickness have great influence on the horizontal burning rate. With the increase of filler mass fraction,the specific heat capacity of the composites decrease slightly,and the thermal diffusion coefficient increase obviously. As for specific surface area of GNPs,the larger has more significant influence on the heat dissipation capacity of the sample.%采用熔融共混法制备了聚丙烯(PP)/石墨烯片(GNPs)纳米复合材料。讨论了添加不同质量分数的GNPs对PP/GNPs纳米复合材料的阻燃性能以及导热性能的影响。结果表明,随着GNPs用量的增加,PP/GNPs纳米复合材料的极限氧指数升高,水平燃烧速率下降,烟密度等级虽有波动但总体呈升高趋势;与比表面积大的GNPs相比,比表面积小的对减缓水平燃烧速率作用较好;不同厚度的试样对水平燃烧速率的影响差异很大;随着GNPs质量分数的增加,复合材料的比热容有所降低,热扩散系数明显增加;与比表面积小的GNPs相比,比表面积大的对复合材料散热能力影响更显著。

  16. Fire performance and flame-retardant mechanism of organic montmorillonite/polystyrene composites%有机蒙脱土/聚苯乙烯复合材料的燃烧性能与阻燃机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘继纯; 陈权; 井蒙蒙; 陆昶; 张玉清

    2011-01-01

    Organoclay modified polystyrene composites were prepared by melt-compounding polystyrene (PS) resin and organic montmorillonite (OMMT). The structures of the OMMT/PS composites were studied by XRD and high resolution TEM (HRTEM). The pyrolysis behavior and fire performance of the composites were investigated by means of TC-A, high temperature degradation, horizontal burning, oxygen index and cone calorimetry experiments. The results indicate that the OMMT/PS composite is an intercalated composite. Compared with pure PS, adding a small amount of organoclay can evidently improve the flame retardancy of the OMMT/PS composite. The OMMT/PS composite with OMMT/PS mass ratio of 2/100 exhibits much higher thermal stability, of which the degradation temperature with 10% and 50℃ mass losses can increase by 7. 8 ℃ and 15. 2℃, respectively. The residue percentage at 500 ℃ and oxygen index rise by 2. 6% and 1.4%, respectively, while the peak heat release rate decreases by 21.0%. The shielding of OMMT layers to the intercalated polymer chains and the formation of a continuous and compact char residue layer, which covers on the burnt polymer composite surface, can prevent the polymer from further degradation and decrease its degradation rate. The increase of melt viscosity of the OMMT/PS composite decreases the transfer rate of the combustible small- molecular compounds to the flame zone and thus suppresses the supply of fuel to the fire. The flame retardancy of the composites is enhanced due to both factors.%将聚苯乙烯(PS)树脂与有机蒙脱土(Organic Montmorillonite,0MMT)进行熔融复合制备0MMT/PS复合材料,通过XRD和高分辨透射电镜(HRTEM)对OMMT/PS复合材料的微观结构进行了观察和分析。分别采用热重分析、高温热分解、水平燃烧、氧指数和锥形量热法研究了复合材料的热降解行为和燃烧性能。结果表明:用熔融复合法制备的OMMT/PS复合材料为插层

  17. Investigating the links between ozone and organic aerosol chemistry in a biomass burning plume from a prescribed fire in California chaparral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Alvarado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Within minutes after emission, rapid, complex photochemistry within a biomass burning smoke plume can cause large changes in the concentrations of ozone (O3 and organic aerosol (OA. Being able to understand and simulate this rapid chemical evolution under a wide variety of conditions is a critical part of forecasting the impact of these fires on air quality, atmospheric composition, and climate. Here we use version 2.1 of the Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP to simulate the evolution of O3 and secondary organic aerosol (SOA within a young biomass burning smoke plume from the Williams prescribed burn in chaparral, which was sampled over California in November 2009. We demonstrate the use of a method for simultaneously accounting for the impact of the unidentified semi-volatile to extremely low volatility organic compounds (here collectively called "SVOCs" on the formation of OA (using the Volatility Basis Set and O3 (using the concept of mechanistic reactivity. We show that this method can successfully simulate the observations of O3, OA, PAN, NOx, and C2H4 to within measurement uncertainty using reasonable assumptions about the chemistry of the unidentified SVOCs. These assumptions were: (1 a~reaction rate constant with OH of ~10−11cm3s−1, (2 a significant fraction (~50% of the RO2 + NO reaction resulted in fragmentation, rather than functionalization, of the parent SVOC, (3 ~1.1 molecules of O3 were formed for every molecule of SVOC that reacted, (4 ~60% of the OH that reacted with the unidentified SVOCs was regenerated as HO2, and (5 that ~50% of the NO that reacted with the SVOC peroxy radicals was lost, presumably to organic nitrate formation. Additional evidence for the fragmentation pathway is provided by the observed rate of formation of acetic acid, which is consistent with our assumed fragmentation rate. This method could provide a way for classifying different smoke plume observations in terms of the average chemistry of their SVOCs

  18. Reconstructing ozone chemistry from Asian wild fires using models, satellite and aircraft measurements during the ARCTAS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dupont

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We use ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO satellite measurements from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES, simulations from the Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS and aircraft data from the NASA DC8 aircraft to characterize the chemical and dynamical evolution of Asian wildfire plumes during the spring ARCTAS campaign 2008. On the 19 April, NASA DC8 O3 and aerosol Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL observed two biomass burning plumes originating from North-Western Asia (Kazakhstan and South-Eastern Asia (Thailand that advected eastward over the Pacific reaching North America in 10 to 12 days. Using both TES observations and RAQMS chemical analyses, we track the wildfire plumes from their source to the ARCTAS DC8 platform. Comparison between satellite O3 and CO measurements and model results show consistency when the TES averaging kernel and constraint vector are applied to the model. However, RAQMS CO simulations suggest that TES observations do not capture the full range of CO variability in the plume due to low sensitivity. In both plumes, exchanges between the stratosphere and the troposphere tend to be a major factor influencing O3 concentrations. However, fire emissions of ozone precursors increase photochemical ozone production, particularly in the Thailand wildfire plume. Analysis shows that the Kazakhstan plume is responsible for increases of O3 and CO mixing ratios up to 6.4 ppbv and 38 ppbv in the lower troposphere, and the Thailand plume is responsible for increases of O3 and CO mixing ratios up to 11 ppbv and 71 ppbv in the upper troposphere.

  19. Polymer Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  20. Porous Flame-retarded Asphalt Pavement for Highway Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shuguang; HUANG Shaolong; Ding Qingjun

    2008-01-01

    A new way to improve the tunnel fire protection by using flame-retarded porous asphalt pavement containing ATH powders was introduced. Based on the miniature burning test designed and conducted, the burning time and temperature of porous asphalt (PA) and flame-retarded porous asphalt (FRPA) were studied comparing with cement concrete pavement, dense-graded HMA and S MA. Results of burning test and pavement performance test indicate that FRPA is appropriate and suitable as the pavement material of highway tunnel.

  1. 聚氨酯泡沫塑料无卤阻燃技术的研究进展%Research progress of halogen-free fire-retardant polyurethane foams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓光; 王列平; 宁斌科; 薛超; 苏天铎

    2012-01-01

    The necessity and importance of halogen-free flame retardants for polyurethane foam(PUF) were presented.And the flame-retardant mechanism of PUF composites was introduced.Both the reactive and additive halogen-free flame retardants for polyurethane foams were summarized.Additive flame retardants included organic and inorganic additive.Additionally,expandable graphite(EG) as an intumescent flame retardant in polyurethane foams was reviewed.Finally,the development trend of the halogen-free flame retardants for PUF was prospected.%简要介绍了研究无卤阻燃技术对聚氨酯泡沫塑料(PUF)阻燃的必要性和重要性,并对不同类型阻燃剂对PUF的阻燃剂机理做了介绍。较全面地综述了反应型和添加型无卤阻燃剂对PUF阻燃的研究进展。其包括添加型阻燃剂中的有机添加型和无机添加型阻燃剂。另外,在无机膨胀型阻燃剂中,特别介绍无卤可膨胀石墨(EG)对PUF阻燃的研究进展。最后指出功能化的核壳结构无卤复合阻燃剂将是聚氨酯泡沫塑料无卤阻燃技术研究和发展的必然趋势。

  2. Alternatives Assessment: Partnership to Evaluate Flame Retardants in Printed Circuit Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partnership project on flame retardants in printed circuit boards seeks to improve understanding of the environmental and human health impacts of new and current materials that can be used to meet fire safety standards

  3. X linked mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejeb, Imen; Ben Jemaa, Lamia; Chaabouni, Habiba

    2009-05-01

    Mental retardation (MR) is a group of heterogeneous clinical conditions. There are more than 900 genetic disorders associated with MR and it affects around 3% of the general population. Many MR conditions described are syndromic, fragile X syndrome being the most common clinical entity among them. X linked mental retardation (XLMR) is subdivided in two categories: syndromic XLMR (MRXS) when MR is associated with clinical features and non-syndromic XLMR (MRX) when MR is isolated. The aim of this systematic review of the literature was to join together the results of several studies related to X linked mental retardation and to present various genes implicated in this disease. In this review, focus has been given on genes implicated in mental retardation, the clinical data and on phenotype-genotype correlations. An exhaustive electronic and library research of the recent literature was carried out on the Web sites "Science Direct" and "Interscience Wiley". The key words used were "mental retardation", "X chromosome", "gene", "syndromic mental retardation", "non-syndromic mental retardation". In this review a number of X linked genes, the clinical features associated with the gene abnormality, and the prevalence of the disease gene are discussed. We classified these genes by order of their first implication in MR. A table presented on the XLMR Update Web site who list the 82 known XLMR genes is available as XLMR Genes and corresponding proteins.

  4. Polyethylene flame retarded with expandable graphite and a novel intumescent additive

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Focke, WW

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available retardant performance of this compound as a primary fire retardant and in combination with expandable graphite (EG) was evaluated by cone calorimetry. Cone calorimeter results showed that addition of 10 wt % EG alone lowers peak heat release rate (p...

  5. Flame Retardancy of Chemically Modified Lignin as Functional Additive to Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Howarter; Gamini P. Mendis; Alex N. Bruce; Jeffrey P. Youngblood; Mark A. Dietenberger; Laura Hasburgh

    2015-01-01

    Epoxy printed circuit boards are used in a variety of electronics applications as rigid, thermally stable substrates. Due to the propensity of components on the boards, such as batteries and interconnects, to fail and ignite the epoxy, flame retardant additives are required to minimize fire risk. Currently, industry uses brominated flame retardants, such as TBBPA, to...

  6. Litter-Spinning Retarders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Aerodynamic plates stop litter from spinning during hoisting by helicopter. Features of proposed litter-spinning retarders include convenience of deployment and independence from ground restraint. Retarder plate(s) folded flat against bottom of litter during storage or while litter is loaded. Plate(s) held in storage position by latch that releases manually or automatically as litter is hoisted. Upon release, springs move plates into deployed position.

  7. Genetics of mental retardation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahuja A; Thapar Anita; Owen M

    2005-01-01

    Mental retardation can follow any of the biological, environmental and psychological events that are capable of producing deficits in cognitive functions. Recent advances in molecular genetic techniques have enabled us to understand more about the molecular basis of several genetic syndromes associated with mental retardation. In contrast, where there is no discrete cause, the interplay of genetic and environmental influences remains poorly understood. This article presents a critical review ...

  8. Fire phenomena and nonlinearity (II). Catastrophic fire dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Z. [University of Science and Technology, Hefei (China). State Key Laboratory of Fire Science

    2000-09-01

    As one of the most important non-linear mechanisms to cause fire or exacerbate fire disaster, there is a great deal of catastrophe behaviours existing in fire processes. The main tasks of the study of catastrophic fire dynamics are: 1) analysis of the catastrophe mechanisms of discontinuity behaviours in fire systems; 2) investigation of the controlling methods of discontinuity behaviours of fire system; 3) qualitative analysis of the dynamical characteristics of fire systems; and 4) catastrophe classifying of discontinuity phenomena in fire system. The other disciplines, such as physics, chemistry, biology, geoscience, astronomy, or even social sciences (for instance, political, economics, strategics and management science), may also take the similar method to establish the corresponding branch discipline of catastrophe science and catastrophe classification method. It is pointed out that an ignition behaviour of the uniform temperature thermal explosion system under the control of radiation has cusp catastrophe mechanism. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  9. The Influence of Flame Retardant Treated Timber Density on Combustibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbignev Karpovič

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Timber is widely used as a construction material in the majority of countries. In most cases, timber is the main structural material. Timber and timber fabrics used in building structure elements have to fulfill the requirements of fire safety. This article presents factors affecting the combustibility of timber, mainly the influence of flame retardants on the combustion phase, timber density and moisture. The influence of flame retardant treated timber density on combustibility is analyzed in this paper. Research was performed according to the requirements of the standard LST ISO 5657:1999 “Reaction to fire tests – ignitibility of building products using a radiant heat source”. The influence of flame retardant treated timber density on combustibility is assessed according to duration up to the combustion of the specimen. Article in Lithuanian

  10. Fire History

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  11. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  12. Neurotoxicity of past, present and future flame retardants - neurotoxic hazard characterization and risk assessment of (alternative) flame retardants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), and to a lesser extent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are widely used chemicals that prevent or slow the onset and spreading of fire in order to reduce injuries and death. Unfortunately, many of these compounds pose serious threats for human health and the envi

  13. Reduction of Fire Hazard in Materials for Irrigators and Water Collectors in Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, N. V.; Konstantinova, N. I., E-mail: konstantinova-n@inbox.ru [FGBU VNIIPO of EMERCOM of Russia (All-Russian Scientific-research Institute of Fire Protection) (Russian Federation); Gordon, E. P. [Research and Production Center “Kaustik” (Russian Federation); Poedintsev, E. A. [FGBU VNIIPO of EMERCOM of Russia (All-Russian Scientific-research Institute of Fire Protection) (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    A way of reducing the fire hazard of PVC film used to make cooling-tower irrigators and water collectors is examined. A new generation of fire retardant, nanostructured magnesium hydroxide, is used to impart fire retardant properties. The fabrication technology is optimized with a roller-calendering manufacturing technique, and the permissible ranges of fire hazard indicators for materials in irrigators and water collectors are determined.

  14. Contribution of peat fires to the 2015 Indonesian fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Johannes W.; Heil, Angelika; Wooster, Martin J.; van der Werf, Guido R.

    2016-04-01

    Indonesia experienced widespread fires and severe air quality degradation due to smoke during September and October 2015. The fires are thought to have originated from the combination of El-Niño-induced drought and human activities. Fires ignited for land clearing escaped into drained peatlands and burned until the onset of the monsoonal rain. In addition to the health impact, these fires are thought to have emitted large amounts of greenhouse gases, e.g. more than Japan over the entire year. The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) has detected and quantified the fires with the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) and the smoke dispersion with the Chemistry-Integrated Forecasting System (C-IFS) in near real time. GFAS and C-IFS are constrained by satellite-based observations of fire and smoke constituents, respectively. The distinction between peat and above-ground fires is a crucial and difficult step in fire emission estimation as it introduces errors of up to one order of magnitude. Here, we quantify the contribution of peat fires to the total emission flux of the 2015 Indonesian fires by (1) using an improved peat map in GFAS and (2) analysing the observed diurnal cycle of the fire activity as represented in a new development for GFAS. Furthermore, we link the fires occurrence to economic activity by analysing the coincidence with concessions for palm oil plantations and other industrial forest uses.

  15. Fire and Smoke Model Evaluation Experiment (FASMEE): Modeling gaps and data needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongqiang Liu; Adam Kochanski; Kirk Baker; Ruddy Mell; Rodman Linn; Ronan Paugam; Jan Mandel; Aime Fournier; Mary Ann Jenkins; Scott Goodrick; Gary Achtemeier; Andrew Hudak; Matthew Dickson; Brian Potter; Craig Clements; Shawn Urbanski; Roger Ottmar; Narasimhan Larkin; Timothy Brown; Nancy French; Susan Prichard; Adam Watts; Derek McNamara

    2017-01-01

    Fire and smoke models are numerical tools for simulating fire behavior, smoke dynamics, and air quality impacts of wildland fires. Fire models are developed based on the fundamental chemistry and physics of combustion and fire spread or statistical analysis of experimental data (Sullivan 2009). They provide information on fire spread and fuel consumption for safe and...

  16. Aluminum hypophosphite microencapsulated to improve its safety and application to flame retardant polyamide 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Hua [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Tang, Gang [School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, 59 Hudong Road, Ma’anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Hu, Wei-Zhao; Wang, Bi-Bo; Pan, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Song, Lei, E-mail: leisong@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren’ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • MCAHP was prepared and applied in polyamide 6. • MCA as the capsule material can improve the fire safety of AHP. • Flame retardant polyamide 6 composites with MCAHP show good flame retardancy. - Abstract: Aluminum hypophosphite (AHP) is an effective phosphorus-containing flame retardant. But AHP also has fire risk that it will decompose and release phosphine which is spontaneously flammable in air and even can form explosive mixtures with air in extreme cases. In this paper, AHP has been microencapsulated by melamine cyanurate (MCA) to prepare microencapsulated aluminum hypophosphite (MCAHP) with the aim of enhancing the fire safety in the procedure of production, storage and use. Meanwhile, MCA was a nitrogen-containing flame retardant that can work with AHP via the nitrogen-phosphorus synergistic effect to show improved flame-retardant property than other capsule materials. After microencapsulation, MCA presented as a protection layer inhibit the degradation of AHP and postpone the generation of phosphine. Furthermore, the phosphine concentration could be effectively diluted by inert decomposition products of MCA. These nonflammable decomposition products of MCA could separate phosphine from air delay the oxidizing reaction with oxygen and decrease the heat release rate, which imply that the fire safety of AHP has been improved. Furthermore, MCAHP was added into polyamide 6 to prepare flame retardant polyamide 6 composites (FR-PA6) which show good flame retardancy.

  17. Innovative green technique for preparing of flame retardant cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to its environmentally benign character, microwave-assisted or supercritical carbon dioxide high pressure reactors are considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical reactions. In this paper, an innovative approach for preparation of flame retardant cotton fabric ...

  18. Aryl Polyphosphonates: Useful Halogen-Free Flame Retardants for Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aryl polyphosphonates (ArPPN have been demonstrated to function in wide applications as flame retardants for different polymer materials, including thermosets, polycarbonate, polyesters and polyamides, particularly due to their satisfactory thermal stability compared to aliphatic flame retardants, and to their desirable flow behavior observed during the processing of polymeric materials. This paper provides a brief overview of the main developments in ArPPN and their derivatives for flame-retarding polymeric materials, primarily based on the authors’ research work and the literature published over the last two decades. The synthetic chemistry of these compounds is discussed along with their thermal stabilities and flame-retardant properties. The possible mechanisms of ArPPN and their derivatives containing hetero elements, which exhibit a synergistic effect with phosphorus, are also discussed.

  19. Part I. Improved flame retardant textiles. Part II. Novel approach to layer-by-layer processing for flame retardant textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this presentation, new approaches for flame retardant textile by using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and layer-by-layer processing will be discussed. Due to its environmentally benign character, the scCO2 is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical re...

  20. Turbulence-chemistry interactions in reacting flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, R.S.; Carter, C.D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Interactions between turbulence and chemistry in nonpremixed flames are investigated through multiscalar measurements. Simultaneous point measurements of major species, NO, OH, temperature, and mixture fraction are obtained by combining spontaneous Raman scattering, Rayleigh scattering, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). NO and OH fluorescence signals are converted to quantitative concentrations by applying shot-to-shot corrections for local variations of the Boltzmann fraction and collisional quenching rate. These measurements of instantaneous thermochemical states in turbulent flames provide insights into the fundamental nature of turbulence-chemistry interactions. The measurements also constitute a unique data base for evaluation and refinement of turbulent combustion models. Experimental work during the past year has focused on three areas: (1) investigation of the effects of differential molecular diffusion in turbulent combustion: (2) experiments on the effects of Halon CF{sub 3}Br, a fire retardant, on the structure of turbulent flames of CH{sub 4} and CO/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}; and (3) experiments on NO formation in turbulent hydrogen jet flames.

  1. The influence to flame retardance characteristics of flame retardant painting by microencapsulation flame retardant%微胶囊化阻燃剂对防火涂料的性能影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓宁; 丁璐; 胡源; 姜利

    2011-01-01

    针对普通水性膨胀型防火涂料在使用过程中耐水性差的问题,应用在阻燃剂领域的微胶囊技术,自制水性膨胀型防火涂料.将含密胺包裹聚磷酸铵或普通聚磷酸铵的两种防火涂料进行试验,对比两种涂料的防火性能、热稳定性和耐水性能.结果表明:密胺包裹APP的热分解温度比普通APP的热分解温度提高了约100~150℃.采用微胶囊技术包裹APP可使膨胀型防火涂料的耐水性得到很大改善,受火后炭层内部较添加普通型APP的涂料致密,能起到持久有效的防火作用.%A waterborne intumescent fire-retardant painting was synthesized with the microencapsulation technology aiming at the bad water resisting property of normal waterborne intumes cent fire-retardant painting. The thermal stability, fire retarding performance, and water-resistant property of flame retardant painting with microencapsulation APP( MAPP) or general APP were studied. The results showed that: The pyrolysis temperature of MAPP is 100~150 'C higher than APP. MAPP enhances the water-resistant property of flame retardant painting obviously. The intumescent fire-retardant painting with MAPP has compacter carbon layer than the painting with APP after fire, and can resist fire longer.

  2. 膨胀型阻燃剂的研究现状%The research status of Intumescent Flame Retardant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓双; 张亮

    2012-01-01

    介绍了IFR的阻燃机理,着重对混合型膨胀型阻燃剂,聚磷酸铵膨胀阻燃体系等几种常见的阻燃膨胀体系进行了具体阐述,指出膨胀型阻燃剂必将会在火灾预防、室内装修材料阻燃等方面发挥巨大的作用。%This paper introduced the flame retardant mechanism of IFR, emphatically elaborated mixed type intumescent flame retardant, ammo nium polyphosphate intumescent flame retardant system and other common flame retardant intumescent systems, pointed OUt that the intumescent flame retardant would play a huge role in fire prevention, indoor decoration materials fire retardant and other aspects.

  3. Investigating the links between ozone and organic aerosol chemistry in a biomass burning plume from a prescribed fire in California chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J. Alvarado; C.R. Lonsdale; R.J. Yokelson; S.K. Akagi; I.R. Burling; H. Coe; J.S. Craven; E. Fischer; G.R. McMeeking; J.H. Seinfeld; T. Soni; J.W. Taylor; D.R. Weise; C.E. Wold

    2015-01-01

    Within minutes after emission, complex photochemistry in biomass burning smoke plumes can cause large changes in the concentrations of ozone (O3) and organic aerosol (OA). Being able to understand and simulate this rapid chemical evolution under a wide variety of conditions is a critical part of forecasting the impact of these fires on air...

  4. Fire-safety engineering and performance-based codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    Fire-safety Engineering is written as a textbook for Engineering students at universities and other institutions of higher education that teach in the area of fire. The book can also be used as a work of reference for consulting engineers, Building product manufacturers, contractors, building...... project administrators, etc. The book deals with the following topics: • Historical presentation on the subject of fire • Legislation and building project administration • European fire standardization • Passive and active fire protection • Performance-based Codes • Fire-safety Engineering • Fundamental...... and respiratory physiology • Combustion and natural fires • Explosion theory • Fire ChemistryFire Extinction Chemistry and Physics • Evacuation and human behaviour during a fire • Sensitivity and risk analysis • Fire Models • Emission and Radiation Theory...

  5. Nanotechnology finding its way into flame retardancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schartel, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.schartel@bam.de [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Nanotechnology is one of the key technologies of the 21{sup st} century. The exploitation of 'new' effects that arise from materials structured on the nano-scale has also been proposed successfully for flame retardancy of polymers since the end of the 90s. Of all of the approaches these include, at this time the use of nanocomposites offers the best potential for industrial application, also some other ideas are sketched, such as using electrospun nanofibers mats or layer-by-layer deposits as protection coatings, as well as sub-micrometer multilayer coatings as effective IR-mirrors. The general phenomena, inducing a flow limit in the pyrolysing melt and changing the fire residue, are identified in nanocomposites. Key experiments are performed such as quasi online investigation of the protection layer formation to understand what is going on in detail. The flame retardancy mechanisms are discussed and their impact on fire behaviour quantified. With the latter, the presentation pushes forward the state of the art. For instance, the heat shielding is experimentally quantified for a layered silicate epoxy resin nanocomposite proving that it is the only import mechanism controlling the reduction in peak heat release rate in the investigated system for different irradiations. The flame retardancy performance is assessed comprehensively illuminating not only the strengths but also the weak points of the concepts. Guidelines for materials development are deduced and discussed. Apart from inorganic fillers (layered silicate, boehmite, etc.) not only carbon nanoobjects such as multiwall carbon nanotubes, multilayer graphene and graphene are investigated, but also nanoparticles that are more reactive and harbor the potential for more beneficial interactions with the polymer matrix.

  6. Retardo mental Mental retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio M. Vasconcelos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esta revisão aborda as recentes descobertas da neurobiologia do retardo mental, enfatizando os novos recursos da citogenética, das técnicas moleculares e da neurorradiologia para esclarecer o diagnóstico. FONTES DE DADOS: O autor pesquisou o banco de dados MEDLINE da National Library of Medicine utilizando as palavras-chave "mental retardation", "developmental disability", "child" e "adolescent" em diferentes combinações, abrangendo o período de janeiro de 2000 a outubro de 2003. Também foram utilizados os bancos de dados das revistas científicas Pediatrics e New England Journal of Medicine através da palavra-chave "mental retardation". No total, o autor consultou cerca de 1.500 títulos de artigos e 500 resumos, e teve acesso direto a 150 artigos completos pertinentes. Quando oportuno, algumas referências dos artigos consultados também foram consideradas. O site Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man foi utilizado como fonte de informações em genética clínica. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Em outubro de 2003, o total de síndromes genéticas associadas a retardo mental chegou a 1.149. Considerando-se o conjunto das causas genéticas ou ambientais e congênitas ou adquiridas de retardo mental, a avaliação diagnóstica atual é capaz de esclarecer a etiologia em 50 a 70% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: O autor sugere uma avaliação diagnóstica do retardo mental em etapas lógicas, visando ao uso racional dos dispendiosos recursos da citogenética, biologia molecular e neuroimagem.OBJECTIVE: This paper describes recent advances in the neurobiology of mental retardation, emphasizing new diagnostic resources provided by cytogenetics, molecular testing, and neuroimaging. SOURCES OF DATA: MEDLINE (January 2000 through October 2003, using the following key words: mental retardation, developmental disability, child, and adolescent. Search of the Pediatrics and New England Journal of Medicine websites using the key word mental retardation. The

  7. Brominated flame retardant: environmental and exposed individuals' health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Patrice; Charlier, Corinne

    2017-04-01

    Since Antiquity, men have used chemicals to protect their goods against fire. Effective and easy to use, brominated flame retardants are used since decades massively in plastic industry. Such like other organohalogenated compounds, brominated flame retardants are very persistent in the environment and able to accumulate along the food chain. Many authors highlight their presence in the environment, in many animal species and in the human serum. Worryingly, man is exposed as soon as the pregnancy and then by the breastfeeding. This exposition may have consequence on our health. Many studies (in vitro, in vivo or epidemiologic) highlight brominated flame retardant negative effects on the endocrine system, mainly on the thyroid function but also on the reproduction, the neurodevelopment in the children and on the metabolism with increasing diabetes risk. If authorities and some big enterprises are aware about the problematic, new studies are needed to confirm previous results, elucidate endocrine disrupting mechanisms and highlight hypothetical synergies with other pollutants such like PCBs.

  8. Hyperbranched Polyurethane Acrylate Applied to UV Curable Flame Retardant Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ UV curable hyperbranched prepolymers based on amine-ester, ester-amide and ether-amide started with AB2-type monomers have been prepared by the authors[1~3]. A se-ries of work on allyl ether maleate hyperbranched polyesters for UV curing coatings by Hult and his colleagues has been reported[4]. However, the UV cured films from those materials are all flammable when attached to fire without addition of flame retardants.

  9. Flame Retardant Effects of Nano-Clinoptilolite on AcrylonitrileButadiene-Styrene (ABS Nano-Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboulfazl Barati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, intumescent technology has found a place in polymer science as a method of providing flame retardance to polymeric materials. On heating, fire-retardant intumescent material restricts the action of the heat flux or flame. The proposed mechanism is based on charred layer acting as physical barrier, which slows down heat and mass transfer between the gas and the condensed phases. In this paper, the flammability of intumescent fire-retardant acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS matrix composites consisting of hydromagnesite (HMg as an acid source and blowing agent, pentaerythritol (PER as a carbonisation agent and natural zeolite (clinoptilolite rich, Kansar Shargh as a synergistic agent were examined. The flammability of composites was characterized by limiting oxygen index (LOI measurement and horizontal burning tests. A synergistic effect in flame retardancy was observed when natural zeolites were used in combination with HMg and PER.

  10. Key Role of Reinforcing Structures in the Flame Retardant Performance of Self-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Bocz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The flame retardant synergism between highly stretched polymer fibres and intumescent flame retardant systems was investigated in self-reinforced polypropylene composites. It was found that the structure of reinforcement, such as degree of molecular orientation, fibre alignment and weave type, has a particular effect on the fire performance of the intumescent system. As little as 7.2 wt % additive content, one third of the amount needed in non-reinforced polypropylene matrix, was sufficient to reach a UL-94 V-0 rating. The best result was found in self-reinforced polypropylene composites reinforced with unidirectional fibres. In addition to the fire retardant performance, the mechanical properties were also evaluated. The maximum was found at optimal consolidation temperature, while the flame retardant additive in the matrix did not influence the mechanical performance up to the investigated 13 wt % concentration.

  11. Guide to PBDE: Toxic Flame Retardant--What Women, Children and School Personnel Need to Know. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Chemical flame-retardants are used in a variety of products to prevent the spread and occurrence of fire. While fire safety is critical, this family of chemicals, known as Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are highly toxic. They are found in carpeting, foam cushions, polyester clothing and bedding, wallpaper, toys, household dust, a variety…

  12. Boerhaave on Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemente, Damon

    2000-01-01

    In 1741 an English translation of Herman Boerhaave's celebrated textbook Elementa Chemic was published under the title A New Method of Chemistry. True to its time, this book included elaborate discussions of the elements earth, water, air, and fire. This article offers to teachers for classroom use a selection of passages from Boerhaave's chapter on fire. Now, today's teacher of chemistry is apt to feel that little of significance to the modern classroom can be gleaned from a two-and-a-half-centuries-old text, and especially from a topic as old-fashioned as fire. But this view is decidedly shortsighted. Boerhaave offers demonstrations and experiments that can be instructively performed today, quantitative data that can be checked against modern equations, and much theory and hypothesis that can be assessed in light of modern chemical ideas. In the readings presented here I have found material for discussion in class, for investigation in the laboratory, and for a few homework assignments. Modern students are well able to comprehend and paraphrase Boerhaave, to check his results, appreciate his insights, and identify his shortfalls. From him they learn firsthand how painstaking and difficult it was to imagine and develop the concepts of thermochemistry. To read from his chapter on fire is to stand witness to the birth and infancy of thermodynamics as conceived in the mind of a great chemist from the age when coherent chemical theory was just beginning to emerge.

  13. Fire Propagation Performance of Intumescent Fire Protective Coatings Using Eggshells as a Novel Biofiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Yew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to synthesize and characterize an effective intumescent fire protective coating that incorporates eggshell powder as a novel biofiller. The performances of thermal stability, char formation, fire propagation, water resistance, and adhesion strength of coatings have been evaluated. A few intumescent flame-retardant coatings based on these three ecofriendly fire retardant additives ammonium polyphosphate phase II, pentaerythritol and melamine mixed together with flame-retardant fillers, and acrylic binder have been prepared and designed for steel. The fire performance of the coatings has conducted employing BS 476: Part 6-Fire propagation test. The foam structures of the intumescent coatings have been observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy. On exposure, the coated specimens’ B, C, and D had been certified to be Class 0 due to the fact that their fire propagation indexes were less than 12. Incorporation of ecofriendly eggshell, biofiller into formulation D led to excellent performance in fire stopping (index value, (I=4.3 and antioxidation of intumescent coating. The coating is also found to be quite effective in water repellency, uniform foam structure, and adhesion strength.

  14. Hypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalenahalli Jagadish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hypoparathyroidism, growth retardation and facial dysmorphism is a rare autosomal recessive disorder seen among children born to consanguineous couple of Arab ethnicity. This syndrome is commonly known as Sanjad-Sakati or hypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism syndrome (HRD. We report 13-year-old Hindu boy with hypoparathyroidism, tetany, facial dysmorphism and developmental delay, compatible with HRD syndrome.

  15. X-linked mental retardation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ropers, H.H.; Hamel, B.C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Genetic factors have an important role in the aetiology of mental retardation. However, their contribution is often underestimated because in developed countries, severely affected patients are mainly sporadic cases and familial cases are rare. X-chromosomal mental retardation is the exception to

  16. US Fire Administration Fire Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Fire Administration collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United...

  17. BROMINATION OF 4-VINYLCYCLOHEXANE AND APPLYING THE RESULTING PRODUCT TO IMPROVE THE FLAME RETARDANT PROPERTIES OF WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Nikulina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the demand for timber is increasing. Wood and products on its basis are considered to be the most popular in the construction industry, furniture industry, as building materials and other However, along with the positive features of this material there are also negative factors, which include low resistance to biological degradation, high temperature, resistance. Wood and materials based on it are the most flammable, and fire safety is characterized by the velocity of propagation of fire on the wooden structure. He is able to destroy it in a matter of minutes. So the wooden house elements must be protected from fire. It was therefore necessary for the fire protection of wood. It is in the handling of wood with flame retardants. Basic fire fighting methods is the impregnation of wood antipyrene composition, painting fire paint and constructive ways - insulation of timber, non-combustible compositions which can resist the fire. In the work of brominated 4-vinylcyclohexane formed as a by-product in the petrochemical industry, in chloroform synthesized compound with bromine 62-64 % and the possibility of using this product to get antiferromag composition. It is established that the application for the protective treatment of wood synthesized flame retardant has shown that this product can be used for the protective treatment of natural wood to make it flame retardant properties. Use as antiperiodic compositions bromodomain based products 4-vinylcyclohexane allows to obtain images of wood first group of flame retardant efficiency.

  18. An Overview of Mode of Action and Analytical Methods for Evaluation of Gas Phase Activities of Flame Retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifah A. Salmeia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The latest techniques used to prove, describe and analyze the gas phase activity of a fire retardant used in polymeric materials are briefly reviewed. Classical techniques, such as thermogravimetric analysis or microscale combustion calorimetry, as well as complex and advanced analytical techniques, such as modified microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC, molecular beam mass spectroscopy and vacuum ultra violet (VUV photoionization spectroscopy coupled with time of flight MS (TOF-MS, are described in this review. The recent advances in analytical techniques help not only in determining the gas phase activity of the flame-retardants but also identify possible reactive species responsible for gas phase flame inhibition. The complete understanding of the decomposition pathways and the flame retardant activity of a flame retardant system is essential for the development of new eco-friendly-tailored flame retardant molecules with high flame retardant efficiency.

  19. The effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the toxicity of fire-fighting chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, R.D.; Little, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    The interactive effects of ultraviolet (UV) and fire-retardant chemicals were evaluated by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) juveniles and tadpoles of southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) to six fire-retardant formulations with and without sodium ferrocyanide (yellow prussiate of soda [YPS]) and to YPS alone under three simulated UV light treatments. Yellow prussiate of soda is used as a corrosion inhibitor in some of the fire-retardant chemical formulations. The underwater UV intensities measured were about 2 to 10% of surface irradiance measured in various aquatic habitats and were within tolerance limits for the species tested. Mortality of trout and tadpoles exposed to Fire-Trol?? GTS-R, Fire-Trol 300-F, Fire-Trol LCA-R, and Fire-Trol LCA-F was significantly increased in the presence of UV radiation when YPS was present in the formulation. The boreal toad (Bufo boreas), listed as endangered by the state of Colorado (USA), and southern leopard frog were similar in their sensitivity to these chemicals. Photoenhancement of fire-retardant chemicals can occur in a range of aquatic habitats and may be of concern even when optical clarity of water is low; however, other habitat characteristics can also reduce fire retardant toxicity.

  20. Applying of copper(ІІ carbonate as a decrease mode of a fire hazard of epoxy-amine composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Іванівна Лавренюк

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Being based on data about electronic and crystal structure of copper salts, their using perspective for fire retardants of epoxy-amine composites have been foreseen. Epoxy-amine composites modified by copper compounds, in particular, by copper(ІІ carbonate have been elaborated. Influence of fire retardant onto processes of thermal-oxidative decomposition of epoxy-amine composites and their fire hazard has been studied

  1. Fire performance of multi-storey wooden facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östman Birgit A.-L.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Two series of full scale fire tests of wooden facades according to the Swedish test SP Fire 105 are presented, one series for different shares of untreated wood (partial wood and structural fire protection with a fire shield above the window and another series for fire retardant treated, FRT, wood. The results are compared with data from the Single Burning Item test and the cone calorimeter. For FRT wood, the need for verification of the weather durability of the treatment is stressed and a new European technical specification CEN/TS 15912 presented. The need to use fire stops behind multi-storey façade claddings to avoid fire spread in the cavities is underlined and the possibilities of fire safety design with sprinklers is briefly presented.

  2. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire...

  3. Epigenetic mechanisms of mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Anne; Tarakhovsky, Alexander; Greengard, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Mental retardation is a common form of cognitive impairment affecting approximately 3% of the population in industrialized countries. The mental retardation syndrome incorporates a highly diverse group of mental disorders characterized by the combination of cognitive impairment and defective adaptive behavior. The genetic basis of the disease is strongly supported by identification of the genetic lesions associated with impaired cognition, learning, and social adaptation in many mental retardation syndromes. Several of the impaired genes encode epigenetic regulators of gene expression. These regulators exert their function through genome-wide posttranslational modification of histones or by mediating and/or recognizing DNA methylation. In this chapter, we review the most recent advances in the field of epigenetic mechanisms of mental retardation. In particular, we focus on animal models of the human diseases and the mechanism of transcriptional deregulation associated with changes in the cell epigenome.

  4. Recurrence risks in mental retardation.

    OpenAIRE

    Crow, Y J; Tolmie, J L

    1998-01-01

    Despite improvements in diagnostic techniques and progress made in mapping genes associated with syndromal mental handicap, the estimation of recurrence risks in non-syndromal mental retardation is still dependent on empirical data. Unfortunately, few studies are available to guide the clinician and their results differ significantly. For example, recurrence risks to all sibs of a male index patient with severe mental retardation vary between 3.5% and 14% in commonly quoted series. The presen...

  5. Balanced translocations in mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweyer, Geert; Kooy, R Frank

    2009-07-01

    Over the past few decades, the knowledge on genetic defects causing mental retardation has dramatically increased. In this review, we discuss the importance of balanced chromosomal translocations in the identification of genes responsible for mental retardation. We present a database-search guided overview of balanced translocations identified in patients with mental retardation. We divide those in four categories: (1) balanced translocations that helped to identify a causative gene within a contiguous gene syndrome, (2) balanced translocations that led to the identification of a mental retardation gene confirmed by independent methods, (3) balanced translocations disrupting candidate genes that have not been confirmed by independent methods and (4) balanced translocations not reported to disrupt protein coding sequences. It can safely be concluded that balanced translocations have been instrumental in the identification of multiple genes that are involved in mental retardation. In addition, many more candidate genes were identified with a suspected but (as yet?) unconfirmed role in mental retardation. Some balanced translocations do not disrupt a protein coding gene and it can be speculated that in the light of recent findings concerning ncRNA's and ultra-conserved regions, such findings are worth further investigation as these potentially may lead us to the discovery of novel disease mechanisms.

  6. Research Progress on Halogen-free Flame Retardant Silicone Rubber%无卤阻燃硅橡胶的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴建; 王安营; 孙道兴

    2012-01-01

    简单介绍了阻燃剂的分类和今后的发展趋势,综述了铝-镁系阻燃剂、成炭或促进成炭型阻燃剂、铂系阻燃剂和纳米阻燃体系的阻燃机理及其在硅橡胶中的应用,对阻燃硅橡胶的研发前景进行了展望.%The classification and development tendency of various flame retardants were briefly described. The fire-retardant mechanisms of aluminum-magnesium flame retardants, char forming or char accelerating flame retardants, platinum flame retardants, and nano flame-retardant system and their applications in the silicone rubber were reviewed. Furthermore, the research and development prospects of the flame-retardant silicone rubber were discussed.

  7. Issues in Numerical Simulation of Fire Suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tieszen, S.R.; Lopez, A.R.

    1999-04-12

    This paper outlines general physical and computational issues associated with performing numerical simulation of fire suppression. Fire suppression encompasses a broad range of chemistry and physics over a large range of time and length scales. The authors discuss the dominant physical/chemical processes important to fire suppression that must be captured by a fire suppression model to be of engineering usefulness. First-principles solutions are not possible due to computational limitations, even with the new generation of tera-flop computers. A basic strategy combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation techniques with sub-grid model approximations for processes that have length scales unresolvable by gridding is presented.

  8. 36 CFR 1234.12 - What are the fire safety requirements that apply to records storage facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engineer that describes the design intent of the fire detection and suppression system, detailing the... maintain the same rating as the wall. (g) Roof support structures that cross or penetrate fire barrier... be fully enclosed in a drywall containment constructed of metal studs with fire retardant...

  9. Measuring the Flight Speed of Fire Bombers from Photos: An In-Class Exercise in Introductory Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Greg W.; Ayars, Eric

    2010-01-01

    In the western half of the United States, fire bombers are not an uncommon sight. During the "fire season," which can extend from June through November, these specially modified aircraft are used to drop fire retardant chemicals or water on wildfires. It can be an entertaining and instructive classroom exercise to use pictures of these planes in…

  10. FIRE RESISTANCE OF DOUGLAS FIR [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco] WOOD TREATED WITH SOME CHEMICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kemal YALINKILIÇ

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Combustible properties of treated douglas wood specimens and fire-retardancy of some preservatives were tested in this study. Crib test of ASTM E 160-150 was followed. Results indicated that, aqueous solutions of boric acid (BA, borax (Bx (Na2BO7 10H2O or BA + Bx mixture (7: 3, w: w had fire retardant efficacy (FRE over untreated wood and reduced the combustibility of vinil monomers (Styrene and methylmetacrylate which were applied as secondary treatment.

  11. Synthesis and Application of a Novel Polyamide Charring Agent for Halogen-Free Flame Retardant Polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel charring agent, poly(p-ethylene terephthalamide (PETA, for halogen-free flame retardant polypropylene was synthesized by using p-phthaloyl chloride (TPC and ethylenediamine through solution polycondensation at low temperature, and the effects of PETA on flame retardance of polypropylene (PP/IFR systems were studied. The experimental results showed that PETA could considerably enhance the fire retardant performance as proved by evidence of the increase of limiting oxygen index (LOI values, the results of UL-94 tests, and cone calorimeter tests (CCT. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscope (SEM demonstrated that an appropriate amount of PETA could react with PP/IFR system to form cross-link network; a more compact char layer could be formed which was responsible for the improved thermal and flame retardant properties of PP/IFR systems. However, the superfluous amount of PETA would play the negative role.

  12. Cone calorimeter study of polyethylene flame retarded with expandable graphite and intumescent fire-retardant additives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, HR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available of expandable graphite, also differing with respect to their onset temperatures for exfoliation. Hot-pressed sheet specimens were subjected to evaluation in a cone calorimeter. Although the best char yields were obtained with formulations containing the higher...

  13. Environmental monitoring of brominated flame retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagula, Mary C.; Kubeldis, Nathan; Nelatury, Charles F.

    2011-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are synthetic organobromide compounds which inhibit ignition and combustion processes. Because of their immense ability to retard fire and save life and property, they have been extensively used in many products such as TVs, computers, foam, plastics etc. The five major classes of BFRs are tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), pentabromodiphenyl ether, octabromodiphenyl ether, and decabromodiphenyl ether. The last three are also commonly called PBDEs. BDE-85 and BDE-209 are the two prominent congeners of PBDEs and this study reports the adverse effects of these congeners in rodents. Exposure of rat sciatic nerves to 5 μg/mL and 20 μg/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 respectively lead to significant, concentration dependent reduction in nerve conduction function. Glucose absorption in the rat intestinal segments exposed to 5 μg/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 was significantly reduced for both the compounds tested. Lastly, mice when exposed to 0.25 mg/kg body weight for four days showed a disruption in oxidant and antioxidant equilibrium. The tissues namely liver and brain have shown increase in the levels of lipid hydroperoxides indicating oxidative stress. Moreover, all the protective enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and glutathione S transferase (GST) have shown tissue specific alterations indicating the induction of damaging oxidative stress and setting in of lipid peroxidation in exposed animals. The results indicate monitoring of PBDEs in the environment is essential because levels as low as 5 μg/mL and 0.25 mg/kg body weight were able to cause damage to the functions of rodents.

  14. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  15. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  16. On fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifier...

  17. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must...

  18. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  19. Terminal Performance of Lead Free Pistol Bullets in Ballistic Gelatin Using Retarding Force Analysis from High Speed Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    2013) and Keys et al. (2015) were applied on a number of different lead- free bullet loads. Rounds in 9mm NATO, .357 SIG, and .40 S&W were fired...encountered shot angles . This bullet also fails to meet the FBI recommended minimum penetration depth of 12 inches for duty use. Figure 4: Retarding...Terminal Performance of Lead- Free Pistol Bullets in Ballistic Gelatin Using Retarding Force Analysis from High Speed Video ELIJAH COURTNEY, AMY

  20. STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF TLCP ON PYROLYSIS OF PET AND ITS RETARDANT MECHANISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The flame retardancy of aromatic thermotropic liquid crystal phosphorus-containing copolyester,TLCP,on PET was investigated.The results show that the presence of TLCP promotes char formation of the substrate and enhances thermal stability of char,hence delay its decomposition.SEM pictures show that the char formed from PET/TLCP is more compact,therefore is more resistant to fire and heat than that from pure PET.Evolved gas analysis by I.R measurements indicates that TLCP would decompose to produce phosphorus containing small molecular compounds in pyrolysis process.Phosphoruscontaining volatile compounds are detected in gas pyrolytical products.It is suggested that TLCP could play an important role of flame retardancy in vapor phase.TLCP could inhibit the generation of combustible volatile in the pyrolytical process of PET,and therefore prevent the fire propagation during the combustion since combustible volatile is necessary for the generation of fire.

  1. Environmental cycling of cellulosic thermal insulation and its influence on fire performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, J. R.

    1984-08-01

    A study was conducted on climatological data for eleven cities located throughout the United States. Findings from this environmental study were used to develop conditioning cycles for a research project on the influence of environments on the fire performance of loose-fill cellulosic thermal insulation. Six cellulosic insulation materials with different compositions of fire retardant chemicals at an add-on level of 25% by weight were specially manufactured for this study. These materials were tested for fire performance using the smoldering combustion test and the attic flooring radiant panel test to establish a baseline. After the materials were exposed to the various environmental cycles, they were tested for fire performance. Results from these tests show that environmental exposure can have a significant effect on the fire performance of cellulosic insulation materials and indicates that long term fire protection provided by fire retardant compounds may be limited.

  2. Auto cannibalism in mental retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental retardation (MR deems an individual more vulnerable to psychopathologies. The individual may develop an array of behavioral disturbances manifesting themselves in the form of aggressive and destructive conduct, violent fits of anger, stereotyped, or self-injuring behavior. Self-injurious behavior is heterogeneous in nature ranging from mild to severe variant. We report a case of a 7-year-old boy with MR with self-inflicted severe oral injuries of cannibalistic nature presenting as cleft lip and palate. A more extensive research is needed on the problem behaviors in mentally retarded patients for early detection and effective and timely intervention leading to a better outcome.

  3. Auto cannibalism in mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rohit; Mina, Shaily; Sachdeva, Ankur

    2014-01-01

    Mental retardation (MR) deems an individual more vulnerable to psychopathologies. The individual may develop an array of behavioral disturbances manifesting themselves in the form of aggressive and destructive conduct, violent fits of anger, stereotyped, or self-injuring behavior. Self-injurious behavior is heterogeneous in nature ranging from mild to severe variant. We report a case of a 7-year-old boy with MR with self-inflicted severe oral injuries of cannibalistic nature presenting as cleft lip and palate. A more extensive research is needed on the problem behaviors in mentally retarded patients for early detection and effective and timely intervention leading to a better outcome.

  4. Green application of flame retardant cotton fabric using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to its environmentally benign character, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical reactions. In this poster, an innovative approach for preparation of flame retardant woven and nonwoven fabrics were obtained by utiliz...

  5. Research on flame retardation of wool fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Ichiro; Ametani, Kazuo; Sawai, Takeshi (Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan))

    1990-01-01

    Flame retardant, vinyl phosphonate oligomer, was uniformly impregnated in wool fibers, and by irradiating low energy electron beam or cobalt-60 gamma ray, the flame retardation of fabrics was attempted, as the results, the following knowledges were obtained. At the rate of sticking of flame retardant lower than that in cotton fabrics, sufficient flame retarding property can be given. The flame retarding property withstands 30 times of washing. The lowering of strength due to the processing hardly arose. For the flame retardation, gamma-ray was more effective than electron beam. Since the accidents of burning clothes have occurred frequently, their flame retardation has been demanded. So far the flame retardation of cotton fabrics has been advanced, but this time the research on the flame retardation of wool fabrics was carried out by the same method. The experimental method is explained. As for the performance of the processed fabrics, the rate of sticking of the flame retardant, the efficiency of utilization, the flame retarding property, the endurance in washing and the tensile and tearing strength were examined. As the oxygen index was higher, the flame retarding property was higher, and in the case of the index being more than 27, the flame retarding property is sufficient, that is, the rate of sticking of 6% in serge and 5% in muslin. (K.I.).

  6. Influence of Flame Retardants on the Melt Dripping Behaviour of Thermoplastic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Matzen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Melt flow and dripping of the pyrolysing polymer melt can be both a benefit and a detriment during a fire. In several small-scale fire tests addressing the ignition of a defined specimen with a small ignition source, well-adjusted melt flow and dripping are usually beneficial to pass the test. The presence of flame retardants often changes the melt viscosity crucially. The influence of certain flame retardants on the dripping behaviour of four commercial polymers, poly(butylene terephthalate (PBT, polypropylene (PP, polypropylene modified with ethylene-propylene rubber (PP-EP and polyamide 6 (PA 6, is analysed based on an experimental monitoring of the mass loss due to melt dripping, drop size and drop temperature as a function of the furnace temperature applied to a rod-shaped specimen. Investigating the thermal transition (DSC, thermal and thermo-oxidative decomposition, as well as the viscosity of the polymer and collected drops completes the investigation. Different mechanisms of the flame retardants are associated with their influence on the dripping behaviour in the UL 94 test. Reduction in decomposition temperature and changed viscosity play a major role. A flow limit in flame-retarded PBT, enhanced decomposition of flame-retarded PP and PP-EP and the promotion of dripping in PA 6 are the salient features discussed.

  7. Detection of Malingered Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandera, Anne L.; Berry, David T. R.; Clark, Jessica A.; Schipper, Lindsey J.; Graue, Lili O.; Harp, Jordan P.

    2010-01-01

    In a cross-validation of results from L. O. Graue et al. (2007), standard psychological assessment instruments, as well as tests of neurocognitive and psychiatric feigning, were administered under standard instructions to 24 participants diagnosed with mild mental retardation (MR) and 10 demographically matched community volunteers (CVH). A 2nd…

  8. Idiots Savants: Retarded and Gifted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yewchuk, Carolyn

    The paper reviews the paradoxical nature of idiots savants, persons who, although retarded, have exceptional skills in certain areas. Various explanations for the phenomenon are discussed, such as a specific genetic endowment, a specialized compensatory response to general intellectual deficiency, and possession of an eidetic memory. Various…

  9. Fire safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Hostikka, S.; Mangs, J. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland); Huhtanen, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Palmen, H.; Salminen, A.; Turtola, A. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-07-01

    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  10. Chemical Solutions of Fire Protection Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakhitova, L.M.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern approaches to the creation of fire protective coatings by modifying intumescent systems by nanomaterials with study of the chemical reaction mechanisms under the high temperatures influence were considered. A systematic study of the interactions of components of polyphosphate type intumescent blend were carried out, a well-defined correlations between the directions of chemical processes and fire retardant properties of intumescent coatings were found. Efficient ways to simultaneous increase of fireprotective efficiency and performance characteristics of intumescent coatings (operatin life, resistance to environmental factors and bioсontamination were proposed. The results of fundamental research allowed to develop new formulations of flame retardant compositions, whose properties have been confirmed by tests in accordance with existing standardized methods, these results were introduced into production.

  11. Mental Retardation and Parenting Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Siamaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: The presence, upbringing and looking after of a mentally retarded child in the family, can become a threat to the mental health of its parents and is the main predisposing factor of stress for the parents.Aim: The purpose of this systematic review is (a to document the contemporary research bibliography related to the stress of parents with mentally retarded children, (b to aggregate the factors and secondary parameters based on the contemporary research related to the influence of the (child’s mental retardation on the parents and (c to show an intercultural aspect regarding the presence of stress to parents with mentally retarded children.Methods: Systematic review of research articles published in scientific journals included in the international academic databases HEAL-LING, SAGE, ELSEVIER, WILSON, SCIENCEDIRECT, MEDLINE, PUBMED, PsycINFO, Cochrane, EMBASE, SCIRUS and CINAHL having as search criteria and key words the terms («parental stress and mental retardation» [MeSH], «parenting stress and persons with special needs» [MeSH], «mental retardation and family problems» [MeSH], «stress and parents» [MeSH], «parenting and stress» [MeSH], «mental delay and parents» [MeSH], «developmental disabilities and family stress» [MeSH], «intellectual handicap and parenting» [MeSH], «maternal stress and child with disabilities» [MeSH].Discussion: The review has proven that all forms of mental retardation have an important -from a statistic point of viewimpacton the parents’ mental health. Anxiety, stress and depression are common symptoms mentioned by the parents.Additionally, there are individual variables such as the husband-wife relationship, the parents’ approach to their child’s disability, the parental strategies used in order to cope with the daily life of the child’s disability and the behavioural problems of their child, all of which contribute to the increase of the level of parental stress

  12. Mental Retardation: Prevention Strategies That Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    The report by the President's Committee on Mental Retardation reviews the current state of knowledge in the area of biological and environmental prevention of mental retardation and describes programs on the frontiers of research or service delivery. Section I examines programs that are effectively preventing mental retardation through biomedical…

  13. MENTAL RETARDATION--THE PRESENT PROBLEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHAFTER, ALBERT J.

    MENTAL RETARDATION IS DEFINED AS A MENTAL DEFECT, NOT A DISEASE. LEVELS OF SEVERITY IN MENTAL RETARDATION ARE CAUSED BY AN INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEREDITY AND ENVIRONMENT. ONE OF THE MAJOR PROBLEMS CONCERNS THE LONGER LIFE EXPECTANCY OF THE RETARDATE DUE TO IMPROVEMENTS IN MODERN MEDICINE. THIS IS CREATING A SITUATION WHERE RESIDENTIAL…

  14. The effect of electron-beam irradiation and halogen-free flame retardants on properties of poly butylene terephthalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshangi, Zhila; Feghhi, Seyed Amir Hossein; Sheikh, Nasrin

    2015-03-01

    Engineering plastics like Poly (butylene terephthalate) due to their desirable properties have various industrial applications. Neat PBT is highly combustible, so it is necessary to improve significantly its fire retardancy to meet the fire safety requirements. The combustion performance of PBT can be improved by addition of appropriate flame retardant additives. In this study we have investigated the effect of halogen free flame retardants, i.e. melamine and aluminum phosphate, and instantaneously electron beam radiation-induced crosslinking in the presence of Triallyl cyanurate on various properties of PBT. The results of gel content showed that a dose range of 200-400 kGy leads to high cross linked structure in this polymer. Also mechanical experiments showed that its structure became rigid and fragile due to irradiation. Radiation crosslinking of this polymer made its dielectric loss coefficient ten times lower than non-irradiated polymer, but had no effect on its dielectric constant. Moreover the addition of the fire retardant additives as impurity decreased the dielectric loss coefficient. TGA analysis in nitrogen exhibited that irradiation increases char formation and use of the fire retardant additives leads to reduction of onset temperature and formation of higher char quantity than pure PBT. According to the results of UL-94, irradiated samples burned with lower speed and less dripping in vertical and horizontal positions than pure polymer. Finally irradiation of the polymers containing fire retardant additives with a dose of 400 kGy led to self-extinguishing and non-dripping and reach to V-0 level in the UL-94 V.

  15. 汽车内饰材料的阻燃性研究现状%Flame Retardancy Research Status of Automotive Interior Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊洁; 何勇; 黄胜; 梁列峰

    2012-01-01

    介绍了阻燃理论和国内外汽车内饰材料的阻燃研究现状,概述了汽车内饰阻燃材料、阻燃整理剂开发和阻燃整理等技术措施,以及汽车内饰材料阻燃研究发展方向。%The theory of flame retardant and domestic and international flame retardant research status of automotive interior material were introduced. The automotive interior fire-retardant materials, development of flame retardant and flame retardant finishing were summarized, and the development trends of automotive interior materials flame retardant in the future were proposed.

  16. Chemistry Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  17. Heterocyclic chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Hemming, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress in the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds is presented\\ud 2010 offered highlights in pericyclic chemistry, particularly 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition chemistry, asymmetric synthesis, gold catalysis, organocatalysis, hydroamination, C–H activation and multicomponent reactions.

  18. Chemistry Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemistry Dashboard is part of a suite of dashboards developed by EPA to help evaluate the safety of chemicals. The Chemistry Dashboard provides access to a variety of information on over 700,000 chemicals currently in use.

  19. Biophysical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häussinger, Daniel; Pfohl, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Biophysical chemistry at the Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, covers the NMR analysis of protein-protein interaction using paramagnetic tags and sophisticated microscopy techniques investigating the dynamics of biological matter.

  20. Colour Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, J.; Rattee, I. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the course offerings in pure color chemistry at two universities and the three main aspects of study: dyestuff chemistry, color measurement, and color application. Indicates that there exists a constant challenge to ingenuity in the subject discipline. (CC)

  1. Combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1994-01-01

    An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds.......An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds....

  2. Combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1994-01-01

    An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds.......An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds....

  3. Positronium chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Green, James

    1964-01-01

    Positronium Chemistry focuses on the methodologies, reactions, processes, and transformations involved in positronium chemistry. The publication first offers information on positrons and positronium and experimental methods, including mesonic atoms, angular correlation measurements, annihilation spectra, and statistical errors in delayed coincidence measurements. The text then ponders on positrons in gases and solids. The manuscript takes a look at the theoretical chemistry of positronium and positronium chemistry in gases. Topics include quenching, annihilation spectrum, delayed coincidence

  4. Flame Retardancy of Polysiloxane Solid Powder Combined with Organophosphate in Polycarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effects of methylphenyl-polsiloxane solid powder and organophosphate flame retardant for polycarbonate (PC were investigated by limiting oxygen index(LOI, and cone calorimeter. It was found that the LOI of the flame-retarded PC (FR-PC with polysiloxane and organophosphate binary flame retardants didn’t increase in comparison with that of FR-PC containing a single species flame retardant. The cone calorimeter results show that the heat release rate (HRR of the PC/polysiloxane/organophosphate(PX230 composition is approximately 50% lower than that of the PC/polysiloxane or the PC/PX230. Total heat release (THR of PC/polysiloxane/PX230 also significantly reduce in comparison with that of PC/polysiloxane and PC/PX230 binary composites, which indicates a clear synergistic effect of the polysiloxane and PX230 in the PC flame retardant composites. The CO production rate of the PC/polysiloxane/PX230 during combustion is slightly lower than that of the virgin PC. So the combination of the polysiloxane with PX230 used in PC could synergic inhibit the combustion heat release, and achieve environmental friendly fire-retardant effect.

  5. Fire Research Enclosure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities .DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400 cu...

  6. Fire Research Enclosure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities . DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400...

  7. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  8. Forensic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  9. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Part 2. Research study on restraint of carbon dioxide generation by green chemistry; 1999 nendo green chemistry ni yoru CO{sub 2} hassei yokusei ni kakawaru chosa kenkyu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In connection with green chemistry, a concept of bringing paradigm shift to chemical technologies as something that makes reduction in environmental load compatible with economic activities; surveys were made this year on the developments of fine chemicals from renewable resources such as cellulose among the cases of developing chemical substances/products to be called 'green chemicals' reducing environmental load; developments of surfactants produced by certain microorganism, plastic additives with reduced pollutant loads, particularly fire retardants and environmentally benign reactant solvents; concept of green chemistry in the development of chlorofluorocarbon-alternatives; and up-to-date technological level concerning a design method of chemical materials and an estimation method for chemical safety using quantum chemistry calculation. In regard to the chemical materials and products intrinsically containing a certain level of risk, R and D should be reinforced and accelerated in the future on the alternative materials/products reducing their toxicity. In this case, along with the importance of discussing compatibility of technological possibility with economical adaptability, sociological study seems to be necessary in incorporating environmental load reduction into economic evaluation. (NEDO)

  10. Fire Models and Design Fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Annemarie

    The aim of this project is to perform an experimental study on the influence of the thermal feedback on the burning behavior of well ventilated pre-flashover fires. For the purpose an experimental method has been developed. Here the same identical objects are tested under free burn conditions...... carried out by Carleton University and NRC-IRC performed on seven different types of fire loads representing commercial premises, comprise the tests used for the study. The results show that for some of the room test the heat release rate increased due to thermal feedback compared to free burn for a pre......-flashover fire. Two phenomena were observed, that relate well to theory was found. In an incipient phase the heat release rate rose with the temperature of the smoke layer/enclosure boundaries. This increase was also found to depend on the flammability properties of the burning object. The results also...

  11. 木材阻燃研究及发展趋势%Research on Wood Flame-retardant and Development Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    嘎力巴; 刘姝; 王鲁英; 张园园

    2012-01-01

    近年,随着我国阻燃法规的建立健全,阻燃技术的不断发展,新型的木材阻燃剂及阻燃技术不断涌现.阐述了木材的化学组成及燃烧过程、木材阻燃剂类型、阻燃机理、木材阻燃处理方法及各种处理方法的优缺点,同时介绍了国内外木材阻燃研究的发展方向,对我国木材阻燃剂工业进一步发展提出了建议.木材阻燃的发展趋势是开发一剂多效的新型复合阻燃剂,同时深入探索阻燃机理,为组合新的阻燃体系提供有效的途径,使木材阻燃研究与市场实际需求相结合,为生产实践的应用提供了理论基础.%In recent years, with establishing regulations and improved flame-retardant technology, new wood flame梤etardants and flame retardant technology constantly emerges. The chemical composition of wood and the combustion process, retardant type, the mechanism of fire retardant, fire-re-taidant treatment of wood and the advantages and disadvantages of various treatment methods were describes. Also the development of fire-retardant research at home and abroad is introduced, and some .suggestions are proposed about the future development of industry of wood fire retardant in our country. The development trend of wood fire retardant is that developing new composite flame-retardant with more than one effect, while further exploring the flame retardant mechanism to provide effective means for combination of new fire-retardant systems. The combination of wood flame-retardant with the actual market demand provides a theoretical basis for the production and application.

  12. Encapsulation of flame retardants for application in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pei-Hsuan; Chang, Shinn-Jen; Li, Chia-Chen

    2017-01-01

    In this investigation, improvements in the fire-extinguishing behavior of the cathode/electrolyte mixture are achieved using the lithium iron phosphate cathode with a pre-embedded flame retardant. To minimize the possible negative effects of the embedded retardant on the electrochemical properties of the cathode, two commercially available flame retardants, triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene 10-oxide (DOPO), are encapsulated by chemically stable poly(urea-formaldehyde) and denoted as en-TPP and en-DOPO, respectively. The additions of en-TPP and en-DOPO improve the dispersion of the cathode slurry, while the additions of bare TPP and DOPO cause severe powder aggregation and poor electrochemical conductivity. The self-extinguishing efficiency of the cathode/electrolyte mixture is greatly increased by 30%-40% without sacrificing the electrochemical performance of the cathodes when 15 wt% of en-TPP is added.

  13. AN EVA/UNMODIFIED NANO-MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE/SILICONE RUBBER NANOCOMPOSITE WITH SYNERGISTIC FLAME RETARDANCY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel EVA/unmodified nano-magnesium hydroxide (NMH)/silicone rubber ternary nanocomposite was prepared by using a special compound flame retardant of NMH and silicone rubbet (CFR).The flammability of the ternary composite was studied by cone calorimeter test (CCT).Synergistic effect on flame retardancy was found between silicone rubber and NMH.EVA/CFR ternary nanocomposite showed the lowest peak heat release rate (PHRR) and mass loss rate (MLR) among the samples of virgin EVA,EVA composites.The synergistic flame retardancy of silicone rubber and NMH in EVA system is attributed to the enhanced char layers in the condensed phase that prevents the heat and mass transfer in the fire.

  14. Combustion Properties of Textiles Applied in Tibet Ancient Buildings and Their Clean Flame Retarding Designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Fei; HU Yuan; SHI Hu

    2006-01-01

    In the Tibet ancient buildings, there are large amounts of combustible decorative textiles that pose great potential fire hazards. Some typical textile samples were collected from the Potala Palace. Their combustion properties were analyzed by UL 94 Vertical Burning test and Limiting Oxygen Index test. The effects of plateau climate on combustion properties, an important fact required to be considered in the flame retarding design for combustible textiles, were preliminarily compared via test data in the plain and those in the plateau. Based on the foregoing analyses, some thoughts were presented on the clean and feasible flame retarding means for the decorative textiles due to their special applications in Tibet, in ancient buildings and in plateau climate. The fire resistance, weather resistance, UV resistance, endurance, ornamentation and religious performances for these textiles must be taken into considerations comprehensively in the designs.

  15. Fire Brigade

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    With effect from 15 April 2004, the Fire Brigade will no longer issue master keys on loan. Contractors' personnel requiring access to locked premises in order to carry out work must apply to the CERN staff member responsible for the contract concerned.

  16. Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... way to the nearest exit. Don't stop. Don't go back . In case of fire, do not try to rescue pets or possessions. Once you are out, do not go back in for any reason. Firefighters have the best chance of rescuing people who are trapped. Let firefighters know right away if anyone is missing. ...

  17. 41 CFR 102-80.135 - Who is a qualified fire protection engineer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... thorough knowledge and understanding of the principles of physics and chemistry governing fire growth... safety engineering, plus a minimum of 4 years work experience in fire protection engineering. (b) A professional engineer (P.E. or similar designation) registered in Fire Protection Engineering. (c) A...

  18. Functionalized layered double hydroxide-based epoxy nanocomposites with improved flame retardancy and mechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Naderi Kalali; Xin Wanga; De-Yi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Functionalized layered double hydroxides (LDHs) based on a multi-modifier system composed of hydroxypropyl-sulfobutyl-beta-cyclodextrin sodium (sCD), dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS) and taurine (T) have been designed and fabricated in this paper, aiming at developing high performance fire retardant epoxy nanocomposites. In this multi-modifier system, sCD was utilized to improve the char yield, DBS was used to enlarge the inter-layer distance of LDH and T was used to enhance the interaction betw...

  19. Novel routes in flame retardancy of bisphenol A polycarbonate/impact modifier/aryl phosphate blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawrzyn, Eliza

    2013-07-01

    The massive use of electronic engineering products accompanied by high demands on fire safety has led to increasing interest in environmentally friendly flame retardancy of bisphenol A polycarbonate (PC) based materials. In this work, novel routes for enhancing the flame retardancy of PC/Impact Modifier/Aryl phosphate were studied with respect to pyrolysis (TG, TG-FTIR, ATR-FTIR, NMR), flammability (LOI and UL 94) and fire behavior (cone calorimeter at different irradiations). To improve charring of PC/ABS{sub PTFE}+Aryl phosphate, the exchange of bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BDP) with novel aryl phosphates was proposed. Two novel flame retardants were synthesized: 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexylbisphenol-bis(diphenyl phosphate) (TMC-BDP) and bisphenol A-bis(diethylphosphate) (BEP). TMC-BDP was more stable than BDP, thus gave a potential to increase the chemical reactions between the components of the PC/ABS{sub PTFE}+Aryl phosphate, whereas more reactive BEP was expected to increase the cross linking activity with the polymer matrix. Nevertheless, the corresponding blends did not enhance the flame retardancy compared to PC/ABS{sub PTFE}+BDP. BEP in PC/ABS{sub PTFE} preferred to cross-link with itself instead of with PC, thus it showed poor fire protection performance. TMC-BDP gave as good results as BDP in PC/ABS PTFE material. The results delivered evidence that BDP possesses a high degree of optimization in PC/ABS{sub PTFE} system. To provide a novel impact modifier improving not only mechanical properties but also the fire retardancy of PC/BDP material, the replacement of highly flammable acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) with silicon acrylate rubber (SiR) with high content of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was studied. In PC/SiR{sub PTFE}/BDP the replacement of ABS is beneficial, but PDMS worsened the BDP gas phase and condensed phase action. PDMS reacted also with PC during combustion. PDMS-PC and PDMS-BDP interactions led to silicon dioxide. In fact, the

  20. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1998 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1998 award winner, PYROCOOL Technologies, developed a nontoxic, highly biodegradable fire extinguishing foam to replace ozone-depleting gases and foams that release toxic chemicals.

  1. Fire resistance properties of ceramic wool fiber reinforced intumescent coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amir, N., E-mail: norlailiamir@petronas.com.my; Othman, W. M. S. W., E-mail: wamosa@gmail.com; Ahmad, F., E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my [Mechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    This research studied the effects of varied weight percentage and length of ceramic wool fiber (CWF) reinforcement to fire retardant performance of epoxy-based intumescent coating. Ten formulations were developed using ammonium polyphosphate (APP), expandable graphite (EG), melamine (MEL) and boric acid (BA). The mixing was conducted in two stages; powdered materials were grinded in Rocklabs mortar grinder and epoxy-mixed using Caframo mixer at low speed mixing. The samples were applied on mild steel substrate and exposed to 500°C heat inside Carbolite electric furnace. The char expansion and its physical properties were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were conducted to inspect the fiber dispersion, fiber condition and the cell structure of both coatings and chars produced. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted to study the thermal properties of the coating such as degradation temperature and residual weight. Fire retardant performance was determined by measuring backside temperature of substrate in 1-hour, 1000°C Bunsen burner test according to UL 1709 fire regime. The results showed that intumescent coating reinforced with CWF produced better fire resistance performance. When compared to unreinforced coating, formulation S6-15 significantly reduced steel temperature at approximately 34.7% to around 175°C. However, higher fiber weight percentage had slightly decreased fire retardant performance of the coating.

  2. Electrospun core-shell microfiber separator with thermal-triggered flame-retardant properties for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Liu, Wei; Qiu, Yongcai; Kong, Biao; Sun, Yongming; Chen, Zheng; Zhuo, Denys; Lin, Dingchang; Cui, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Although the energy densities of batteries continue to increase, safety problems (for example, fires and explosions) associated with the use of highly flammable liquid organic electrolytes remain a big issue, significantly hindering further practical applications of the next generation of high-energy batteries. We have fabricated a novel “smart” nonwoven electrospun separator with thermal-triggered flame-retardant properties for lithium-ion batteries. The encapsulation of a flame retardant inside a protective polymer shell has prevented direct dissolution of the retardant agent into the electrolyte, which would otherwise have negative effects on battery performance. During thermal runaway of the lithium-ion battery, the protective polymer shell would melt, triggered by the increased temperature, and the flame retardant would be released, thus effectively suppressing the combustion of the highly flammable electrolytes. PMID:28097221

  3. Electrospun core-shell microfiber separator with thermal-triggered flame-retardant properties for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Liu, Wei; Qiu, Yongcai; Kong, Biao; Sun, Yongming; Chen, Zheng; Zhuo, Denys; Lin, Dingchang; Cui, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Although the energy densities of batteries continue to increase, safety problems (for example, fires and explosions) associated with the use of highly flammable liquid organic electrolytes remain a big issue, significantly hindering further practical applications of the next generation of high-energy batteries. We have fabricated a novel "smart" nonwoven electrospun separator with thermal-triggered flame-retardant properties for lithium-ion batteries. The encapsulation of a flame retardant inside a protective polymer shell has prevented direct dissolution of the retardant agent into the electrolyte, which would otherwise have negative effects on battery performance. During thermal runaway of the lithium-ion battery, the protective polymer shell would melt, triggered by the increased temperature, and the flame retardant would be released, thus effectively suppressing the combustion of the highly flammable electrolytes.

  4. Lithium Battery Fire Tests and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-25

    developed by the battery industry include thionyl chloride , sulfuryl chloride , sulfur dioxide, carbon monofluoride, and manganese dioxide. These cells have......Frederick W. Williams Senior Scientific Staff Office Chemistry Division Lithium Battery Fire Tests and Mitigation Gerard G. Back Hughes Associates

  5. Dust-Firing of Straw and Additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Frandsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, the ash chemistry and deposition behavior during straw dust-firing were studied by performing experiments in an entrained flow reactor. The effect of using spent bleaching earth (SBE) as an additive in straw combustion was also investigated by comparing with kaolinite. During...

  6. Organic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-15

    This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.

  7. Computational chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Computational chemistry has come of age. With significant strides in computer hardware and software over the last few decades, computational chemistry has achieved full partnership with theory and experiment as a tool for understanding and predicting the behavior of a broad range of chemical, physical, and biological phenomena. The Nobel Prize award to John Pople and Walter Kohn in 1998 highlighted the importance of these advances in computational chemistry. With massively parallel computers ...

  8. [Clinical studies on pramipexol retard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klivényi, Péter; Vécsei, László

    2010-05-30

    Pramipexol retard is the newest drug for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The prolonged release of the agent in this preparation allows a more continuous dopaminergic stimulation than previous preparations, without reducing the agent's already known and proven clinical efficiency. In addition, it has a more favourable adverse effect profile than previous preparations, and patient compliance can also be better as it needs to be taken only once daily. These benefits have been proven in recent clinical studies, of which the most important ones are reviewed here.

  9. Our Sedation Experience on Mentally Retarded Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Metin Alkan

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The majority of dental treatments can be performed under local anesthesia. However, sedation or general anesthesia are often required for mentally retarded patients presenting a lack of cooperation. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the outcomes of mentally retarded patients treated under sedation. Material and Method: The records of the 214 mentally retarded patients that were treated under sedation between 2010-2012 were retrospectively evaluated. The retrospective ...

  10. Non-specific X linked mental retardation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, B.; Turner, G; Mulley, J.; Gedeon, A; PARTINGTON, M.

    1991-01-01

    Non-specific X linked mental retardation (MRX) is mental retardation in persons of normal physical appearance who have no recognisable features apart from a characteristic pedigree. Review of published reports shows that there is clinical variability in the degree of mental retardation within families and genetic heterogeneity, based on gene localisation, between families. We propose a classification based on genetic localisation and a set of minimal clinical features that should be recorded ...

  11. Chemistry Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Chemistry technology experts at NCATS engage in a variety of innovative translational research activities, including:Design of bioactive small molecules.Development...

  12. Orthopaedic Problems of the Mentally Retarded

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Anthony

    1972-01-01

    Problems encountered by orthopedic surgeons treating the mentally retarded are identified, and cooperation among pediatricians, psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and orthopedic surgeons is recommended. (GW)

  13. Orthopaedic Problems of the Mentally Retarded

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Anthony

    1972-01-01

    Problems encountered by orthopedic surgeons treating the mentally retarded are identified, and cooperation among pediatricians, psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and orthopedic surgeons is recommended. (GW)

  14. Fires in refugee and displaced persons settlements: The current situation and opportunities to improve fire prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazerooni, Yasaman; Gyedu, Adam; Burnham, Gilbert; Nwomeh, Benedict; Charles, Anthony; Mishra, Brijesh; Kuah, Solomon S; Kushner, Adam L; Stewart, Barclay T

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to describe the burden of fires in displaced persons settlements and identify interventions/innovations that might address gaps in current humanitarian guidelines. We performed a systematic review of: (i) academic and non-academic literature databases; and (ii) guidelines from leading humanitarian agencies/initiatives regarding fire prevention/control. Of the 1521 records retrieved, 131 reports described settlement fires in 31 hosting countries since 1990. These incidents resulted in 487 deaths, 790 burn injuries, displacement of 382,486 individuals and destruction of 50,509 shelters. There was a 25-fold increase in the rate of settlement fires from 1990 to 2015 (0.002-0.051 per 100,000 refugees, respectively). Only 4 of the 15 leading humanitarian agencies provided recommendations about fire prevention/control strategies. Potentially useful interventions/innovations included safer stoves (e.g. solar cookers) and fire retardant shelter materials. The large and increasing number of fires in displaced persons settlements highlights the need to redress gaps in humanitarian fire prevention/control guidelines. The way forward includes: (i) developing consensus among aid agencies regarding fire prevention/control strategies; (ii) evaluating the impact of interventions/innovations on the burden of fires; and (iii) engaging agencies in a broader discussion about protecting camp residents from armed groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  15. Fire Symfonier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Svend Hvidtfelt

    2009-01-01

    sidste fire symfonier. Den er måske snarere at opfatte som et præludium til disse. At påstå, at symfonierne fra Holmboes side er planlagt til at være beslægtede, ville være at gå for vidt. Alene de 26 år, der skiller den 10. fra den 13., gør påstanden - i bedste fald - dubiøs. Når deres udformning...... udkrystallisering som i de sidste små 30 år af hans virke har afkastet disse fire variationer over en grundlæggende central holmboesk fornemmelse for form, melodi, klang og rytme. Denne oplevelse har fået mig til at udforske symfonierne, for at finde til bunds i dette holmboeske fællestræk, som jeg mener her står...

  16. Firing membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappert, Emiel Jan

    2015-01-01

    Thermal processing is commonly employed to alter the chemistry and microstructure of membrane layers. It can shape, strengthen, and give functionality to a membrane. A good understanding of the processes taking place during the thermal processing of a membrane material allows for optimization and tu

  17. Upscaling Radionuclide Retardation?Linking the Surface Complexation and Ion Exchange Mechanistic Approach to a Linear Kd Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, M; Carle, S; Maxwell, R

    2004-05-14

    The LLNL near-field hydrologic source term (HST) model is based on a mechanistic approach to radionuclide retardation-that is, a thermodynamic description of chemical processes governing retardation in the near field, such as aqueous speciation, surface complexation, ion exchange, and precipitation The mechanistic approach allows for radionuclide retardation to vary both in space and time as a function of the complex reaction chemistry of the medium. This level of complexity is necessary for near-field HST transport modeling because of the non-linear reaction chemistry expected close to the radiologic source. Large-scale Corrective Action Unit (CAU) models-into which the near-field HST model results feed-require that the complexity of the mechanistic approach be reduced to a more manageable form (e.g. Linear, Langmuir, or Freundlich sorption isotherms, etc). The linear sorption isotherm (or K{sub d}) approach is likely the most simple approach for large-scale CAU models. It may also be the most appropriate since the reaction chemistry away from the near field is expected to be less complex and relatively steady state. However, if the radionuclide retardation approaches in near-field HST and large-scale CAU models are different, they must be proved consistent. In this report, we develop a method to link the near-field HST and large-scale CAU model radionuclide retardation approaches.

  18. Heat shields for aircraft - A new concept to save lives in crash fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, C. B.; Parker, J. A.; Fish, R. H.; Henshaw, J.; Newland, J. H.; Tempesta, F. L.

    1971-01-01

    A passenger compartment surrounded by a fire-retardant shell, to protect the occupants long enough for the fire to burn out or for fire-fighting equipment to reach the aircraft and extinguish it, is proposed as a new concept for saving lives in crash fires. This concept is made possible by the recent development of two new fire-retardant materials: a very lightweight foam plastic, called polyisocyanurate foam, and an intumescent paint. Exposed to heat, the intumescent paint expands to many times its original thickness and insulates the surface underneath it. Demonstration tests are illustrated, described and discussed. However, some problems, such as preventing fuselage rupture and protecting windows, must be solved before such a system can be used.

  19. Experiments of the selection of a method evaluating the fire resistance of some materials based on macromolecular compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Steln; Sebe, Mircea Octavian

    1987-01-01

    A comparative experimental study on the application of various tests for the evaluation of the fire-resistant properties of plastic materials is presented. On the basis of the results obtained conclusions are drawn on the advantages and disadvantages of the methods used, and a preferred test method is picked, i.e., the introduction of fire retardant materials into the polymers.

  20. Research Progress in Flame-retardant Rigid Polyurethane Foam%阻燃型硬质聚氨酯泡沫塑料研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇军; 李斌; 刘岚; 何燕岭; 杨正高; 罗远芳; 贾德民

    2012-01-01

    The combustion mechanism of rigid polyurethane foam, the flame retardant mechanisms of fire retardant and the common flame retardants for rigid polyurethane foam were reviewed. The technical problems related to flame retardant rigid polyurethane foam was summarized and the related research ideas were also put forward. The flame retardant development prospect of rigid polyurethane foam was elaborated.%对硬质聚氨酯泡沫塑料燃烧机制、阻燃剂的阻燃原理以及硬泡常用阻燃剂进行了全面综述,并总结了阻燃硬质泡沫塑料待研究解决的相关技术问题,提出了相应的研究思路,最后阐述了硬质泡沫塑料阻燃发展前景.

  1. Fire Protection for Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Jane

    1972-01-01

    Reviews attack on fire safety in high rise buildings made by a group of experts representing the iron and steel industry at a recent conference. According to one expert, fire problems are people oriented, which calls for emphasis on fire prevention rather than reliance on fire suppression and for fire pretection to be built into a structure.…

  2. Flame Retardant and Pyrolytic Behaviors of Polyamide 6/Montmorillonite Nanocomposite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-guo; OU Yu-xiang; WU Jun-hao

    2005-01-01

    Na+-montmorillonite(Na+-MMT) was converted to organic montmorillonite(OMMT) using modifier which was synthesized at authors' laboratory. PA6/OMMT nanocomposite was prepared via in situ intercalative polymerization. The limiting oxygen index (LOI), UL 94V flame retardancy and thermal stability of PA6/OMMT using thermal gravity analysis (TGA) were measured. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) technique was used to analyze the pyrolytic residuum and the cone calorimeter (CONE) was applied to determine a number of combustion parameters which were closely related to fire safety, including heat release rate, mass loss rate, effective combustion heat, total heat release, specific extinction area and the time of ignition. In addition, the elemental composition of the surface pyrolytic residuum and the corresponding X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data were obtained, and the morphology of the residuum from CONE measurement was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  3. AN S- AND P-CONTAINING FLAME RETARDANT FOR POLYPROPYLENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-qiao Peng; De-yi Wang; Qian Zhou; Yu-zhong Wang

    2008-01-01

    A novel charring agent, bis(1-oxo-4-hydroxymethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-l-phosphabicyclo[2.2.2]octane) phenylphosphine sulfide (BCPPS), has been synthesized, and it is combined with ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and melamine phosphate (MP) to impart flame retardance and dripping resistance for polypropylene (PP). The fire performance of the treated PP is investigated by limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning test (UL-94) and cone calorimeter, and the thermal stability and thermal oxidative stability of the composites are studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TG). It has been found that the treated PP with the optimal flame retardant formulation of APP:MP:BCPPS = 12:6:12 (weight ratio, formulation 10)gives an LOI of 31.3 and UL-94 V-0 rating. The results from cone calorimeter indicate that both the heat release rate (HRR)and the total heat evolved (THE) of IFR-PP (formulation 10) decrease significantly compared with those of neat PP. The TG result shows that the IFR-PP (formulation 10) has a high yield of residual char at high temperature. FTIR is used to investigate the residue of the treated PP that degrades at 400℃ for different time. The compact outer surface and the shaggy inner surface can be observed from the SEM graph of the residual chars after LOI test, which form a much better barrier for the transfer of heat and fuel during combustion and show good flame retardancy. Moreover, the treated PP and its residue are investigated by XPS analysis.

  4. Recycling of plastic waste: Screening for brominated flame retardants (BFRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnenko, K; Granby, K; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2017-08-30

    Flame retardants are chemicals vital for reducing risks of fire and preventing human casualties and property losses. Due to the abundance, low cost and high performance of bromine, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have had a significant share of the market for years. Physical stability on the other hand, has resulted in dispersion and accumulation of selected BFRs in the environment and receiving biota. A wide range of plastic products may contain BFRs. This affects the quality of waste plastics as secondary resource: material recycling may potentially reintroduce the BFRs into new plastic product cycles and lead to increased exposure levels, e.g. through use of plastic packaging materials. To provide quantitative and qualitative data on presence of BFRs in plastics, we analysed bromophenols (tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), dibromophenols (2,4- and 2,6-DBP) and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP)), hexabromocyclododecane stereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD), as well as selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in samples of household waste plastics, virgin and recycled plastics. A considerable number of samples contained BFRs, with highest concentrations associated with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS, up to 26,000,000ngTBBPA/g) and polystyrene (PS, up to 330,000ng∑HBCD/g). Abundancy in low concentrations of some BFRs in plastic samples suggested either unintended addition in plastic products or degradation of higher molecular weight BFRs. The presence of currently restricted flame retardants (PBDEs and HBCD) identified in the plastic samples illustrates that circular material flows may be contaminated for extended periods. The screening clearly showed a need for improved documentation and monitoring of the presence of BFRs in plastic waste routed to recycling. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Human Sexuality for the Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzow, Darryl; And Others

    The Human Sexuality for the Mentally Retarded program sought to provide cognitive awareness of human sexuality for mentally retarded trainable residents (5 to 21 years old) as well as inservice staff training regarding attitudes and cognitive awareness changes. Cognitive awareness training focused on body parts, discrimination of the sexes,…

  6. MR 76. Mental Retardation: Past and Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    The tenth annual report of the President's Committee on Mental Retardation reviews the history of America's services for the retarded from the 1850's to the present. Traced is governmental involvement through conferences on children and youth, and reviewed is the role of parents and volunteers in securing appropriate services. Among agencies…

  7. Operant Conditioning of Mental Retardates' Visual Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Roy E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    To study improvement of visual monitoring of retardates, specialized training methods backed up by incentives were used. The extent to which these training techniques might be expected to produce results which would generalize was explored. Subjects were eight female mental retardates (ages 15-22) with IQs from 38 to 69. (Author/SJL)

  8. Flame retardant cotton based highloft nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flame retardancy has been a serious bottleneck to develop cotton blended very high specific volume bulky High loft fabrics. Alternately, newer approach to produce flame retardant cotton blended High loft fabrics must be employed that retain soft feel characteristics desirable of furnishings. Hence, ...

  9. Political Philosophy and the Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanovich, Keith E.

    The effects of Social Darwinism, eugenics, and contemporary political conservatism on the status of advocacy efforts for the mentally retarded are reviewed. Provided are historical sketches of Social Darwinism, which viewed the retarded as members of an inferior race, and eugenics, which argued for sterilization of the "genetically…

  10. Flame-retardant-wrapped polyphosphazene nanotubes: A novel strategy for enhancing the flame retardancy and smoke toxicity suppression of epoxy resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shuilai; Wang, Xin; Yu, Bin; Feng, Xiaming; Mu, Xiaowei; Yuen, Richard K K; Hu, Yuan

    2017-03-05

    The structure of polyphosphazene nanotubes (PZS) is similar to that of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) before modification. For applications of CNTs in polymer composites, surface wrapping is an economically attractive route to achieve functionalized nanotubes. Based on this idea, functionalized polyphosphazene nanotubes (FR@PZS) wrapped with a cross-linked DOPO-based flame retardant (FR) were synthesized via one-step strategy and well characterized. Then, the obtained FR@PZS was introduced into epoxy resin (EP) to investigate flame retardancy and smoke toxicity suppression performance. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that FR@PZS significantly enhanced the thermal stability of EP composites. Cone calorimeter results revealed that incorporation of FR@PZS obviously improved flame retardant performance of EP, for example, 46.0% decrease in peak heat release rate and 27.1% reduction in total heat release were observed in the case of epoxy composite with 3wt% FR@PZS. The evolution of toxic CO and other volatile products from the EP decomposition was significantly suppressed after the introduction of FR@PZS, Therefore, the smoke toxicity associates with burning EP was reduced. The presence of both PZS and a DOPO-based flame retardant was probably responsible for this substantial diminishment of fire hazard. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Engineering Biodegradable Flame Retardant Wood-Plastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linxi

    Wood-plastic composites (WPCs), which are produced by blending wood and polymer materials, have attracted increasing attentions in market and industry due to the low cost and excellent performance. In this research, we have successfully engineered WPC by melt blending Polylactic Acid (PLA) and Poly(butylene adipate-co-terphthalate) (PBAT) with recycled wood flour. The thermal property and flammability of the composite are significantly improved by introducing flame retardant agent resorcinol bis(biphenyl phosphate) (RDP). The mechanical and morphological properties are also investigated via multiple techniques. The results show that wood material has increased toughness and impact resistance of the PLA/PBAT polymer matrix. SEM images have confirmed that PLA and PBAT are immiscible, but the incompatibility is reduced by the addition of wood. RDP is initially dispersed in the blends evenly. It migrates to the surface of the sample after flame application, and serves as a barrier between the fire and underlying polymers and wood mixture. It is well proved in the research that RDP is an efficient flame retardant agent in the WPC system.

  12. Organophosphate ester flame retardant-induced acute intoxications in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Andreas F; Samsing, Francisca; Rumbeiha, Wilson K

    2010-12-01

    Flame retardants have wide industrial applications and are incorporated into articles found in automobiles and home environments, including seat cushions. These compounds differ widely chemically and in their toxic potential. We report here two cases involving dogs following ingestion of car seat cushions impregnated with organophosphate ester fire retardants. Two case reports are presented. Two adult American Pit Bull dogs were presented at an emergency clinic with acute signs of central nervous system excitation including seizures. The most severely affected dog died 15 min after presentation, while the less affected dog fully recovered following treatment. In the second case, both a German Shepherd and a Rottweiler were found dead in the morning after they were left in a car overnight. A comprehensive toxicological analysis of samples from both cases revealed the presence of significant amounts (>2 ppm) of tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP) in stomach contents. This compound is a known inducer of epileptic seizures. Some other structurally related organophosphate ester compounds were found, and their role in the acute intoxications reported here is not known and remains to be determined. This is the first report linking acute deaths in dogs to the ingestion of car seat cushions found to contain large amounts of TCEP, an organophosphate ester compound. It is highly likely that this compound caused death through its known seizure-inducing activity.

  13. 溴系阻燃剂对阻燃HIPS耐候性能的影响%Study on the Weathering Performance of Flame Retardant HIPS by Brominated Flame Retardant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建中; 叶南飚; 李影; 刘涛; 周永胜; 熊建平

    2014-01-01

    Through different types of brominated flame retardants and Sb2 O3 complex to prepare flame retardant HIPS,the effect of different types of brominated flame retardants on flame retardant HIPS UV resistant aging proper-ty was examined. The results show the effects of different types of brominated flame retardant on the fire-retardant HIPS are very different ( color values of different types brominated flame retardant HIPS by xenon lamp aging 300 h are from 3. 5 to 56. 8),by analyzing the effect of different flame retardant brominated flame retardant HIPS weathe-ring performance,find that a stable flame structure is the main factor affecting the durability. With the increase of the content of bromine to the same structure,weather resistance is reduced.%通过不同类型溴系阻燃剂与Sb2 O3复配制备阻燃HIPS,考察不同类型溴系阻燃剂对阻燃HIPS耐紫外光老化性能影响,结果表明不同类型溴系阻燃对阻燃HIPS的影响有很大差异(300 h氙灯老化的不同类型溴系阻燃HIPS色差值从3.5到56.8),通过分析不同溴系阻燃剂对阻燃HIPS耐候性能的影响,发现阻燃剂结构的稳定性是影响耐候性的主要因素,相同结构下随着溴含量增加,耐候性降低。

  14. Global Consumption of Flame Retardants and Related Environmental Concerns: A Study on Possible Mechanical Recycling of Flame Retardant Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Yasin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flame retardants (FRs have been around us for decades to increase the chances of survival against fire or flame by limiting its propagation. The FR textiles, irrespective of their atmospheric presence are used in baby clothing, pushchairs, car seats, etc. The overall FR market in Asia, Europe, and the United States in 2007 was around 1.8 million metric tonnes. It is estimated that the worldwide consumption of FRs will reach 2.8 million tonnes in 2018. Unfortunately, a sustainable approach for textile waste, especially in the case of FR textiles, is absent. Incineration and landfill of FR textiles are hindered by various toxic outcomes. To address the need for sustainable methods of discarding FR textiles, the mechanical recycling of cotton curtains was evaluated.

  15. CASE REPORT OF A MENTALLY RETARDED CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilka GALEVSKA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Mental retardation is a complex individual and social problem. According to WHO, around 1-3 % of world population are mentally retarded people and the percentage between school children is around 2 %.The development of a mentally retarded child depends on factors related to the disability itself, all the limitations and characteristics which results from that. But, physical, psychical, educational and social development of a mentally retarded child, also, depend on other conditions, such as the family and the wider environment, their reactions, attitudes, awareness and sensitivity for special needs of the child, as well as their preparedness and possibilities to respond.At the same time, it is necessary that the mentally retarded child is detected and diagnosed in time, as well as the early start of an adequate treatment.

  16. ATTITUDE OF PARENTS TOWARDS THEIR MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN1

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi, C. K.

    1981-01-01

    SUMMARY Parents of 50 mentally retarded children were investigated for their attitudes towards their retarded children. Both the parents showed more negative attitudes toward their severely retarded child. In general mothers exhibited more negative attitude than the fathers.

  17. Crown Fire Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  18. Fire Ant Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatments ▸ Library ▸ Allergy Library ▸ Fire ant allergy Share | Fire Ant Allergy This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Fire ants are a stinging insect typically found in ...

  19. Fire safety at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over the smoke alarm as needed. Using a fire extinguisher can put out a small fire to keep it from getting out of control. Tips for use include: Keep fire extinguishers in handy locations, at least one on ...

  20. Fire Ant Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  1. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    1993-01-01

    Praised for its appealing writing style and clear pedagogy, Lowe's Quantum Chemistry is now available in its Second Edition as a text for senior undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students. The book assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry, thus enabling students to comprehend much of the current chemical literature in which quantum chemical methods or concepts are used as tools. The book begins with a six-chapter introduction of standard one-dimensional systems, the hydrogen atom,

  2. Thermal Behavior of Nano-TiO2 in Fire-Resistant Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The dispersion state of nano-TiO2 particles was studied by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM)and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Nanoparticles can be fully dispersed by specific hyperdispersant. The improvement of nano-TiO2 in thermal behavior and flame retardation of acrylic polymer and fire-resistant coating was investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetry (TG)and fire-resistant time test. It is demonstrated that nano-TiO2 is helpful for enhancing the thermal stability,anti-oxidation and fire-resistant properties of acrylic polymer and fire-resistant coating.

  3. Development of magnesium hydroxide flame retardant%氢氧化镁阻燃剂发展概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝建文; 杨保俊

    2012-01-01

    介绍Mg(OH)2阻燃剂的优势以及阻燃抑烟机理,评述了Mg(OH)2阻燃剂的制备方法,提出了新的制备工艺以及有针对性的发展方向与建议.%The advantages and fire resistant of magnesium hydroxide flame retardant are introduced. The method for preparation of magnesium hydroxide flame retardant is also emphatically estimated. A new preparation technology as well as targeted development direction and suggestion are put forward.

  4. Introductory Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Mark; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Jose; Stevens, Gary; Gray, Nathan; Atherton, Thomas; Winn, Joss

    2010-01-01

    Teaching and Learning resources for the 1st Year Introductory Chemistry course (Forensic Science). 30 credits. These are Open Educational Resources (OER), made available for re-use under a Creative Commons license.

  5. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  6. Nuclear Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  7. Recent Developments in Organophosphorus Flame Retardants Containing P-C Bond and Their Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendels, Sophie; Chavez, Thiebault; Bonnet, Martin; Salmeia, Khalifah A; Gaan, Sabyasachi

    2017-07-11

    Organophosphorus compounds containing P-C bonds are increasingly developed as flame retardant additives due to their excellent thermal and hydrolytic stability and ease of synthesis. The latest development (since 2010) in organophosphorus flame retardants containing P-C bonds summarized in this review. In this review, we have broadly classified such phosphorus compounds based on the carbon unit linked to the phosphorus atom i.e., could be a part of either an aliphatic or an aromatic unit. We have only considered those published literature where a P-C bond was created as a part of synthetic strategy to make either an intermediate or a final organophosphorus compound with an aim to use it as a flame retardant. General synthetic strategies to create P-C bonds are briefly discussed. Most popular synthetic strategies used for developing P-C containing phosphorus based flame retardants include Michael addition, Michaelis-Arbuzov, Friedels-Crafts and Grignard reactions. In general, most flame retardant derivatives discussed in this review have been prepared via a one- to two-step synthetic strategy with relatively high yields greater than 80%. Specific examples of P-C containing flame retardants synthesized via suitable synthetic strategy and their applications on various polymer systems are described in detail. Aliphatic phosphorus compounds being liquids or low melting solids are generally applied in polymers via coatings (cellulose) or are incorporated in the bulk of the polymers (epoxy, polyurethanes) during their polymerization as reactive or non-reactive additives. Substituents on the P atoms and the chemistry of the polymer matrix greatly influence the flame retardant behavior of these compounds (condensed phase vs. the gas phase). Recently, aromatic DOPO based phosphinate flame retardants have been developed with relatively higher thermal stabilities (>250 °C). Such compounds have potential as flame retardants for high temperature processable polymers such as

  8. Cluster Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Cansisting of eight scientists from the State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Xiamen University, this creative research group is devoted to the research of cluster chemistry and creation of nanomaterials.After three-year hard work, the group scored a series of encouraging progresses in synthesis of clusters with special structures, including novel fullerenes, fullerene-like metal cluster compounds as well as other related nanomaterials, and their properties study.

  9. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  10. SEXUAL ABUSE OF PEOPLE WITH MENTAL RETARDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera RASHICH

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available People from the”Normal“ population don't have enough knowledge about the problems caused by mental retardation. Very often they have wrong sense and biases about mentally retarded people, considering them as people who suffer from pshychic illness. Mentally retarded people, very often are considered very different from the ”Normal“ population, but if we come closer to them we will see that there are more similarities than differences. The period in which we live today is full of challenges and fulfillments, which are frightening for people with mental retardation. It will be logical if the progress and contemporary techniques and the society go together with progress of human relationships, but, in fact, we are witnesses of lots of unhuman acts. The number of mental retarded people who have been victims of sexual abuse increases more and more everyday, and the most tragic is that they are not even aware of the situation in most cases. Persons with mental retardation in most situations become victims of this kind of unhuman acts because they don't know to say ”No“ to adults.This paper is a supplement for investigations about frequency, reasons and possibilities for prevention of sexual abuse of people with mental retardation.

  11. Fire and fire ecology: Concepts and principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Cochrane; Kevin C. Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Fire has been central to terrestrial life ever since early anaerobic microorganisms poisoned the atmosphere with oxygen and multicellular plant life moved onto land. The combination of fuels, oxygen, and heat gave birth to fire on Earth. Fire is not just another evolutionary challenge that life needed to overcome, it is, in fact, a core ecological process across much...

  12. The status and challenge of global fire modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantson, Stijn; Arneth, Almut; Harrison, Sandy P.; Kelley, Douglas I.; Prentice, I. Colin; Rabin, Sam S.; Archibald, Sally; Mouillot, Florent; Arnold, Steve R.; Artaxo, Paulo; Bachelet, Dominique; Ciais, Philippe; Forrest, Matthew; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Hickler, Thomas; Kaplan, Jed O.; Kloster, Silvia; Knorr, Wolfgang; Lasslop, Gitta; Li, Fang; Mangeon, Stephane; Melton, Joe R.; Meyn, Andrea; Sitch, Stephen; Spessa, Allan; van der Werf, Guido R.; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Yue, Chao

    2016-06-01

    Biomass burning impacts vegetation dynamics, biogeochemical cycling, atmospheric chemistry, and climate, with sometimes deleterious socio-economic impacts. Under future climate projections it is often expected that the risk of wildfires will increase. Our ability to predict the magnitude and geographic pattern of future fire impacts rests on our ability to model fire regimes, using either well-founded empirical relationships or process-based models with good predictive skill. While a large variety of models exist today, it is still unclear which type of model or degree of complexity is required to model fire adequately at regional to global scales. This is the central question underpinning the creation of the Fire Model Intercomparison Project (FireMIP), an international initiative to compare and evaluate existing global fire models against benchmark data sets for present-day and historical conditions. In this paper we review how fires have been represented in fire-enabled dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) and give an overview of the current state of the art in fire-regime modelling. We indicate which challenges still remain in global fire modelling and stress the need for a comprehensive model evaluation and outline what lessons may be learned from FireMIP.

  13. Environmental Health Risk Assessment and Countermeasures on a Fire Extinguisher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.K.; Jeong, D.W. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    Brominated flame retardants encompass a large number of different organic compounds sharing the common feature of containing bromine, which has an inhibitory effect on the development of fire. The substances are added to plastic materials, insulation foam, and other materials so as to enable the products to comply with fire safety requirements and wishes. The most problematic groups of compounds are polybrominated biphenyls(PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers(PBDEs). The objective of this project is to develop a management strategy for all problematic brominated flame retardants. A number of studies have shown that several of the brominated flame retardants occur in increasing concentrations in nature and in human beings. This is of concern because certain of the brominated flame retardants are suspected of having undesirable effects on the environment and health. The substances are generally very stable, especially so in the case of PBBs and PBDEs. These are strong reasons for hastening the phase-out of PBBs and PBDEs as group. Moreover, PBBs and PBDEs have attracted international attention. Within the OECD, business organisations have made voluntary agreements concerning PBBs and PBDEs. Rules of the EU forbid the use of PBBs in textiles coming into contact with the skin. The environmental and health risks of PBDEs are currently being evaluated as a part of an EU programme for existing substances. In Germany, PBBs and PBDEs are restricted through the Dioxin Ordinance and voluntary agreements with industry. Brominated flame retardants encompass a large number of different organic compounds sharing the common feature of containing bromine, which has an inhibitory effect on the development of fire. The substances are added to plastic materials, insulation foam, and other materials so as to enable the products to comply with fire safety requirements and wishes. The most problematic groups of compounds are polybrominated biphenyls(PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl

  14. Persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of halogen-free flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaijers, Susanne L; Kong, Deguo; Hendriks, Hester S; de Wit, Cynthia A; Cousins, Ian T; Westerink, Remco H S; Leonards, Pim E G; Kraak, Michiel H S; Admiraal, Wim; de Voogt, Pim; Parsons, John R

    2013-01-01

    Polymers are synthetic organic materials having a high carbon and hydrogen content, which make them readily combustible. Polymers have many indoor uses and their flammability makes them a fire hazard. Therefore, flame retardants (FRs) are incorporated into these materials as a safety measure. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which accounted for about 21% of the total world market of FRs, have several unintended negative effects on the environment and human health. Hence, there is growing interest in finding appropriate alternative halogen-free flame retardants (HFFRs). Many of these HFFRs are marketed already, although their environ- mental behavior and toxicological properties are often only known to a limited extent, and their potential impact on the environment cannot yet be properly assessed. Therefore, we undertook this review to make an inventory of the available data that exists (up to September 2011) on the physical-chemical properties, pro- duction volumes, persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity (PBT) of a selection of HFFRs that are potential replacements for BFRs in polymers. Large data gaps were identified for the physical-chemical and the PBT properties of the reviewed HFFRs. Because these HFFRs are currently on the market, there is an urgent need to fill these data gaps. Enhanced transparency of methodology and data are needed to reevaluate certain test results that appear contradictory, and, if this does not provide new insights, further research should be performed. TPP has been studied quite extensively and it is clearly persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic. So far, RDP and BDP have demonstrated low to high ecotoxicity and persistence. The compounds ATH and ZB exerted high toxicity to some species and ALPI appeared to be persistent and has low to moderate reported ecotoxicity. DOPO and MPP may be persistent, but this view is based merely on one or two studies, clearly indicating a lack of information. Many degradation studies have been

  15. Influence of radiation-crosslinking on flame retarded polymer materials-How crosslinking disrupts the barrier effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnier, Rodolphe; Caro-Bretelle, Anne-Sophie; Dumazert, Loïc; Longerey, Marc; Otazaghine, Belkacem

    2015-01-01

    Fire behavior of flame retardant-free and flame retarded PP/PA6 blends was studied using pyrolysis-combustion flow calorimeter, cone calorimeter and epiradiator equipped with infrared camera and pyrometer. Blends were previously γ-irradiated in presence of crosslinking agents at various doses (up to 100 kGy) in order to assess the influence of irradiation crosslinking on flame retardancy. Crosslinked specimens exhibit a solid-like behavior under high temperature gradient in cone calorimeter and then distort considerably. The influence of such a behavior depends on the material properties. When the flame retardancy is provided by heat shielding effect, heat distortion disrupts the top protective layer leading to a substantial increase of peak of heat release rate (pHRR). The barrier layer is no longer able to prevent the heat transfer to the underlying condensed phase. In other cases (flame retardant-free blends or flame retardancy provided by other effects than heat shielding), heat distortion has negligible influence on heat release rate curves in cone calorimeter tests.

  16. Acute toxicity of fire-control chemicals, nitrogenous chemicals, and surfactants to rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Hamilton, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the acute toxicity of three ammonia-based fire retardants (Fire-Trol LCA-F, Fire-Trol LCM-R, and Phos-Chek 259F), five surfactant-based fire-suppressant foams (FireFoam 103B, FireFoam 104, Fire Quench, ForExpan S, and Pyrocap B-136), three nitrogenous chemicals (ammonia, nitrate, and nitrite), and two anionic surfactants (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate [LAS] and sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS]) to juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in soft water. The descending rank order of toxicity (96-h concentration lethal to 50% of test organisms [96-h LC50]) for the fire retardants was as follows: Phos-Chek 259F (168 mg/L) > Fire-Trol LCA-F (942 mg/L) = Fire-Trol LCM-R (1,141 mg/L). The descending rank order of toxicity for the foams was as follows: FireFoam 103B (12.2 mg/L) = FireFoam 104 (13.0 mg/L) > ForExpan S (21.8 mg/L) > Fire Quench (39.0 mg/L) > Pyrocap B-136 [156 mg/L). Except for Pyrocap B-136, the foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. Un-ionized ammonia (NH3; 0.125 mg/L as N) was about six times more toxic than nitrite (0.79 mg/L NO2-N) and about 13,300 times more toxic than nitrate (1,658 mg/L NO3-N). Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (5.0 mg/L) was about five times more toxic than SDS (24.9 mg/L). Estimated total ammonia and NH3 concentrations at the 96-h LC50s of the fire retardants indicated that ammonia was the primary toxic component in these formulations. Based on estimated anionic surfactant concentrations at the 96-h LC50s of the foams and reference surfactants, LAS was intermediate in toxicity and SDS was less toxic to rainbow trout when compared with the foams. Comparisons of recommended application concentrations to the test results indicate that accidental inputs of these chemicals into streams require substantial dilutions (100-1,750-fold to reach concentrations nonlethal to rainbow trout.

  17. Engineering Flame Retardant Biodegradable Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Yang, Kai; Guo, Yichen; Zhang, Linxi; Pack, Seongchan; Davis, Rachel; Lewin, Menahem; Ade, Harald; Korach, Chad; Kashiwagi, Takashi; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2013-03-01

    Cellulose-based PLA/PBAT polymer blends can potentially be a promising class of biodegradable nanocomposites. Adding cellulose fiber reinforcement can improve mechanical properties of biodegradable plastics, but homogeneously dispersing hydrophilic cellulose in the hydrophobic polymer matrix poses a significant challenge. We here show that resorcinol diphenyl phosphates (RDP) can be used to modify the surface energy, not only reducing phase separation between two polymer kinds but also allowing the cellulose particles and the Halloysite clay to be easily dispersed within polymer matrices to achieve synergy effect using melt blending. Here in this study we describe the use of cellulose fiber and Halloysite clay, coated with RDP surfactant, in producing the flame retardant polymer blends of PBAT(Ecoflex) and PLA which can pass the stringent UL-94 V0 test. We also utilized FTIR, SEM and AFM nanoindentation to elucidate the role RDP plays in improving the compatibility of biodegradable polymers, and to determine structure property of chars that resulted in composites that could have optimized mechanical and thermal properties. Supported by Garcia Polymer Center and NSF Foundation.

  18. A, a Brominated Flame Retardant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Takeshita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA, a brominated flame retardant, has been found to exacerbate pneumonia in respiratory syncytial virus- (RSV- infected mice. We examined the effect of Brazilian propolis (AF-08 on the exacerbation of RSV infection by TBBPA exposure in mice. Mice were fed a powdered diet mixed with 1% TBBPA alone, 0.02% AF-08 alone, or 1% TBBPA and 0.02% AF-08 for four weeks and then intranasally infected with RSV. TBBPA exposure increased the pulmonary virus titer and level of IFN-γ, a representative marker of pneumonia due to RSV infection, in the lungs of infected mice without toxicity. AF-08 was significantly effective in reducing the virus titers and IFN-γ level increased by TBBPA exposure. Also, AF-08 significantly reduced proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the lungs of RSV-infected mice with TBBPA exposure, but Th2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-10 levels were not evidently increased. Neither TBBPA exposure nor AF-08 treatment affected the anti-RSV antibody production in RSV-infected mice. In flow cytometry analysis, AF-08 seemed to be effective in reducing the ratio of pulmonary CD8a+ cells in RSV-infected mice with TBBPA exposure. TBBPA and AF-08 did not exhibit anti-RSV activity in vitro. Thus, AF-08 probably ameliorated pneumonia exacerbated by TBBPA exposure in RSV-infected mice by limiting excess cellular immune responses.

  19. Acute oral toxicities of wildland fire control chemicals to birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hill, E.F.

    2009-01-01

    Wildland fire control chemicals are released into the environment by aerial and ground applications to manage rangeland, grassland, and forest fires. Acute oral 24 h median lethal dosages (LD50) for three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R?) and two Class A fire suppressant foams (Silv-Ex? and Phos-Chek WD881?) were estimated for northern bobwhites, Colinus virginianus, American kestrels, Falco sparverius, and red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoeniceus. The LD50s of all chemicals for the bobwhites and red-winged blackbirds and for kestrels dosed with Phos-Chek WD881? and Silv-Ex? were above the predetermined 2000 mg chemical/kg body mass regulatory limit criteria for acute oral toxicity. The LD50s were not quantifiable for kestrels dosed with Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R? because of the number of birds which regurgitated the dosage. These chemicals appear to be of comparatively low order of acute oral toxicity to the avian species tested.

  20. Fires, ecological effects of

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Bond; Robert Keane

    2017-01-01

    Fire is both a natural and anthropogenic disturbance influencing the distribution, structure, and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems around the world. Many plants and animals depend on fire for their continued existence. Others species, such as rainforest plants species, are extremely intolerant of burning and need protection from fire. The properties of a fire...

  1. Radiation Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnárovits, L.

    Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

  2. Video Tape and the Mentally Retarded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, H. F.

    1972-01-01

    Three uses of video tape recordings with the mentally retarded; discussed briefly are staff training or teacher education, parental involvement in the child's education, and therapeutic uses by psychiatrists and psychologists. (CB)

  3. Intrauterine growth retardation - small events, big consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Syed R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intrauterine growth retardation refers to a rate of growth of a fetus that is less than normal for the growth potential of a fetus (for that particular gestational age. As one of the leading causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity, intrauterine growth retardation has immense implications for the short term and long term growth of children. It is an important public health concern in the developing countries. Health statistics encompassing parameters for maternal and child health in the Indian subcontinent have shown improvement in the past few years but they are still far from perfect. Maternal health, education and empowerment bears a strong influence on perinatal outcomes including intrauterine growth retardation and should be the primary focus of any stratagem targeted at reducing the incidence of intrauterine growth retardation. A concerted liaison of various medical and social disciplines is imperative in this regard.

  4. Cortical Response of Retardates for AER Audiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Donald D.

    1971-01-01

    Averaged auditory evoked responses were obtained from 15 retarded and motor-handicapped subjects and from 15 nonretarded subjects in order to investigate comparative responsiveness and response features. (Author)

  5. Approximations of solutions to retarded integrodifferential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirendra Bahuguna

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a retarded integrodifferential equation and prove existence, uniqueness and convergence of approximate solutions. We also give some examples to illustrate the applications of the abstract results.

  6. Inequalities applicable to retarded Volterra integral equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Pachpatte

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to establish explicit bounds on certain integral inequialities which can be used as tools in the study of certain classes of retarded Volterra integral equations.

  7. Video Tape and the Mentally Retarded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, H. F.

    1972-01-01

    Three uses of video tape recordings with the mentally retarded; discussed briefly are staff training or teacher education, parental involvement in the child's education, and therapeutic uses by psychiatrists and psychologists. (CB)

  8. ON SOME RETARDED INTEGRAL INEQUALITIES AND APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We establish explicit bounds on some more general retarded integral inequalities which can be used as convenient tools in some applications, and give some examples which show the feasibility of our results.

  9. Opitz C syndrome: Trigonocephaly, mental retardation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.A. Avina Fierro

    2015-06-09

    Jun 9, 2015 ... including speech delay and early motor development retarded; she rolled over at age ... alized hypotonia, clumsiness and awkward movements, global ... ular monitoring of growth and receives speech therapy, her cognitive ...

  10. Intumescent flame retardants/CaCO3 synergistic flame retardant epoxy resin%膨胀阻燃剂/CaCO3协效阻燃环氧树脂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨守生; 王学宝; 陈英辉

    2013-01-01

    The effects on the flame retardant and mechanical properties of epoxy resin by compounded flame retardant system consisting of DOPOMPC/APP and composite flame retardant system of nano-sized CaCO3 were studied. It was found that nano-sized CaCO3 and intumescent flame retardant system showed synergistic effect. Comparing with flame retarded epox-y resin without nano-sized CaCO3 , with 3 % of nano-sized Ca-CO3 , the LOI of flame retarded epoxy resin reached to 39. 4 and the pk-HRR decreased by 33. 6%. It was also observed that the flame retarded epoxy resin showed 187% improvement in tensile strength, 53. 3% improvement in flexural strength and 255% improvement in impact strength. The comprehensive performance of fire retardant resin is good.%研究了六(4一DOPO羟甲基苯氧基)环三磷腈/多聚磷酸铵(DOPOMPC/APP)膨胀阻燃体系与纳米碳酸钙构成的复合阻燃体系对环氧树脂阻燃性能和力学性能的影响.结果表明,纳米碳酸钙与膨胀阻燃体系有一定的阻燃协同作用,当添加3% CaCO3时,阻燃EP的LOI达到39.4,与未加纳米CaCO3比较,pk— HRR降低了33.6%,拉伸强度、弯曲强度、冲击强度分别提高了1.87倍、53.3%、2.55倍,呈现出良好的综合性能.

  11. Handbook of heterocyclic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katritzky, Alan R

    2010-01-01

    ... Heterocyclic Chemistry I (1984) Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry II (1996) Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry III (2008) Comprehensive Organic Functional Group Transformations I (1995) Compreh...

  12. Nanoparticles Decorated on Resin Particles and Their Flame Retardancy Behavior for Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour F. Attia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New nanocomposites have been developed by doping of amberlite IR120 resin with spherical TiO2 nanoparticles in the presence of maleate diphosphate. Polystyrene composites of resin, maleate diphosphate, and resin-maleate diphosphate were prepared individually. This is in addition to preparation of polymer nanocomposites of polystyrene-resin doped TiO2 nanoparticles-maleate diphosphate. The flame retardancy and thermal stability properties of these developed polymer composites were evaluated. The inclusion of resin and resin doped nanoparticles improved the fire retardant behavior of polystyrene composites and enhanced their thermal stability. Synergistic behavior between flame retardant, resin, and nanoparticles was detected. The rate of burning of the polymer nanocomposites was recorded as 10.7 mm/min achieving 77% reduction compared to pure polystyrene (46.5 mm/min. The peak heat release rate (PHRR of the new polymer composites has reduced achieving 46% reduction compared to blank polymer. The morphology and dispersion of nanoparticles on resin and in polymer nanocomposites were characterized using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The flame retardancy and thermal properties were evaluated using UL94 flame chamber, cone tests, and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively.

  13. Flame-retardant contamination of firefighter personal protective clothing - A potential health risk for firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara M; Baxter, C Stuart

    2016-09-01

    There is a high incidence of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers in firefighters that may be related to their occupational exposure to hazardous substances. Exposure may result from contaminated personal protective gear, as well as from direct exposure at fire scenes. This study characterized flame-retardant contamination on firefighter personal protective clothing to assess exposure of firefighters to these chemicals. Samples from used and unused firefighter protective clothing, including gloves, hoods and a coat wristlet, were extracted with methylene chloride and analyzed by EPA method 8270D Specific Ion Method (SIM) for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Until recently PBDEs were some of the most common flame-retardant chemicals used in the US. Fifteen of the seventeen PBDEs for which analysis was performed were found on at least one clothing swatch. Every clothing sample, including an unused hood and all three layers of an unused glove, held a detectable concentration of at least one PBDE. These findings, along with previous research, suggest that firefighters are exposed to PBDE flame retardants at levels much higher than the general public. PBDEs are found widely dispersed in the environment and still persist in existing domestic materials such as clothing and furnishings. Firefighter exposure to flame retardants therefore merits further study.

  14. The Fabrication and Properties Characterization of Wood-Based Flame Retardant Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood-based flame retardant composites were fabricated based on vacuum-pressure impregnating method after high intensive microwave pretreatment. The effects of ammonium polyphosphate (APP and modified nano-zinc borate (nZB addition on flame-retardation and smoke-suppression properties of wood were investigated by cone calorimeter method (CONE and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results show that the heat release rate (HRR, peak heat release rate (pk-HRR, and total heat release (THR of APP-treated woods decreased greatly with increasing concentration of APP. However, mean yield of CO (Mean COY of APP-treated wood was much higher (3.5 times than that of untreated wood. Compared with wood treated with APP at a concentration of 15%, the total smoke product (TSP, Mean COY, and pk-HRR decreased by 78.4%, 71.43%, and 31.23%, when wood was treated with APP and nZB (both concentrations were at 15%. APP and nZB have synergistic effects of flame-retardation and smoke-suppression. Nano-zinc borate combined with APP would be used in wood-based composites to efficiently retard flame, reduce fire intensity, and decrease noxious (CO/smoke release.

  15. Fire-Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  16. Fire-Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  17. Fire Resistance of Wood Impregnated with Soluble Alkaline Silicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Giudice

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the fire performance of wood panels (Araucaria angustifolia impregnated with soluble alkaline silicates. Commercial silicates based on sodium and potassium with 2.5/1.0 and 3.0/1.0 silica/alkali molar ratios were selected; solutions and glasses were previously characterized. Experimental panels were tested in a limiting oxygen chamber and in a two-foot tunnel. Results displayed a high fire-retardant efficiency using some soluble silicates.

  18. Environmental Health Risk Assessment and Countermeasures on a Fire Extinguisher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.K.; Jeong, D.W. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    Brominated flame retardants encompass a large number of different organic compounds sharing the common feature of containing bromine, which has an inhibitory effect on the development of fire. The substances are added to plastic materials, insulation foam, and other materials so as to enable the products to comply with fire safety requirements and wishes. The most problematic groups of compounds are polybrominated biphenyls(PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers(PBDEs). The objective of this project is to develop a management strategy for all problematic brominated flame retardants. A number of studies have shown that several of the brominated flame retardants occur in increasing concentrations in nature and in human beings. This is of concern because certain of the brominated flame retardants are suspected of having undesirable effects on the environment and health. The substances are generally very stable, especially so in the case of PBBs and PBDEs. These are strong reasons for hastening the phase-out of PBBs and PBDEs as group. Moreover, PBBs and PBDEs have attracted international attention. Within the OECD, business organisations have made voluntary agreements concerning PBBs and PBDEs. Rules of the EU forbid the use of PBBs in textiles coming into contact with the skin. The environmental and health risks of PBDEs are currently being evaluated as a part of an EU programme for existing substances. In Germany, PBBs and PBDEs are restricted through the Dioxin Ordinance and voluntary agreements with industry. Brominated flame retardants encompass a large number of different organic compounds sharing the common feature of containing bromine, which has an inhibitory effect on the development of fire. The substances are added to plastic materials, insulation foam, and other materials so as to enable the products to comply with fire safety requirements and wishes. The most problematic groups of compounds are polybrominated biphenyls(PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl

  19. PE基木塑复合材料的阻燃研究%Study on flame retardancy of polyethylene/wood composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董二莹; 任元林; 金银山

    2012-01-01

    以纳米SiO2和NH4Cl协效聚磷酸铵(APP)作为阻燃剂制备了聚乙烯(PE)木粉复合材料(wpc),利用热重分析(TGA)、极限氧指数(LOI)、傅里叶红外光谱分析(FTIR)以及扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对木塑复合材料的热性能、阻燃性能、阻燃机理及炭残渣结构进行了分析表征.结果表明:当APP、SiO2和NH4Cl的质量比为9.8∶1.1∶1.6时,WPC的LOI值增加到29.4%;800℃时阻燃WPC的成炭量提高了170%,热性能显著提高;燃烧后木塑复合材料的化学成分发生了变化,阻燃WPC炭残渣表面出现鳞片状的晶体.%As synergistic agent, nano-silica (SiO2) and ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) with ammonium polyphosphate (APP) are used as flame retardant to prepare fire retardant polyethylene/wood composite (WPC). The thermal property, fire retardancy, flame retardant mechanism , and the structure of the char residue of the fire retardant WPC are analyzed by TGA, LOI, FTIR and SEM. The results show that the LOI increases to 29.4% with the addition of flame retardants of APP, SiO2 and NH4C1 with the mass ratio of 9.8 : 1.1 : 1.6. The char residue of fire retardant WPC improves by 170% at 800 ℃, and its chemical composition changes after fired, at the same time, somescalelike crystals can be seen on the surface of the char residue of fire retardant WPC.

  20. Multistage Pressure-Retarded Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Devesh; Fyles, Thomas M.; Struchtrup, Henning

    2016-10-01

    One promising sustainable energy source is the chemical potential difference between salt and freshwater. The membrane process of pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) has been the most widely investigated means to harvest salinity gradient energy. In this report, we analyse the thermodynamic efficiency of multistage PRO systems to optimize energy recovery from a salinity gradient. We establish a unified description of the efficiencies of the component pumps (P), turbines (T), pressure exchangers (PX), and membrane modules (M) and exploit this model to determine the maximum available work with respect to the volume of the brine produced, the volume of the sea water consumed, or the volume of the freshwater that permeates the membrane. In an idealized series configuration of 1-20 modules (P-M-T), the three optimization conditions have significantly different intermediate operating pressures in the modules, but demonstrate that multistage systems can recover a significantly larger fraction of the available work compared to single-stage PRO. The biggest proportional advantage occurs for one to three modules in series. The available work depends upon the component efficiencies, but the proportional advantage of multistage PRO is retained. We also optimize one- and two-stage PX-M-T and P-M-T configurations with respect to the three volume parameters, and again significantly different optimal operating conditions are found. PX-M-T systems are more efficient than P-M-T systems, and two-stage systems have efficiency advantages that transcend assumed component efficiencies. The results indicate that overall system design with a clear focus on critical optimization parameters has the potential to significantly improve the near-term practical feasibility of PRO.

  1. Fire fatality study: demographics of fire victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillo, D J; Goode, R

    1996-03-01

    Injury or death caused by fire is frequent and largely preventable. This study was undertaken to define the populations, locations, times and behaviours associated with fatal fires. Seven hundred and twenty-seven fatalities occurring within the State of New Jersey, between the years 1985 and 1991, were examined retrospectively. Most deaths were attributed to a combination of smoke inhalation and burn injury. Five hundred and seventy-four fatalities occurred in residential fires. Smoking materials were the most common source of ignition for residential fires. More than half of the fatal residential fires started between the hours of 11 p.m. and 7 a.m. Children and the elderly represented a disproportionate percentage of fire victims. Victims under the age of 11 years or over the age of 70 years constituted 22.1 per cent of the state population but 39.5 per cent of all fire fatalities. Fire-prevention efforts should target home fire safety, and should concentrate on children and the elderly. The development of fire-safe smoking materials should be encouraged.

  2. Position Paper: The Feasibility of Lowering Oxygen Concentrations Aboard Submarines in Order to Improve Fire Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    judgment. Impaired coordination. (32) 0 114 Intermittent breathing. Rapid fatigue. Loss of muscle control. (21) 10,000 109 COMPENSATED HYPOXIA (25...fire safety; fire retardance; submarines; submersibles; oxygen: aerohypoxia; hypoxia ; hypercapnia; carbon dioxide; carbon monoxide; altitude...reduce the partial pressure of atmos- pheric oxygen (P.)2) to the point of causing hypoxia . Since residents of Denver per- form complex tas&s at a P0

  3. Flame retardant polyamide 6 by in situ polymerization of ε-caprolactam in the presence of melamine derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Yong Wu; Wei Xu; Jin Kui Xia; Yao Chi Liu; Qian Xin Wu; Wei Jian Xu

    2008-01-01

    An improved method for preparing melamine cyanurate (MCA)based flame retardant polyamide 6 (FRPA6)materials has been proposed.This processing method,i.e.,improved in situ polymerization,was used to synthesize flame retardant PA6.In situ formed MCA nanoparticles were supposed to be linked to PA6 chains in the ε-caprolactam hydrolytic polymerization system to obtain startype polymers for the first time.Through TEM photographs,it can be found that the in situ formed MCA nanoparticles with diametric size of less than 50 nm,are nanoscaled,highly uniformly dispersed in the PA6 matrix.Synthesized flame retardant PA6 have good fire performance which can achieve UL-94 V-0 rating at 1.6 mm thickness with the presence of 7.34 wt.% MCA in the matrix.

  4. A Study on Normal Siblings of Mentally Retarded Persons

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    This study examined how normal people perceive their mentally retarded siblings and what they see to be their future relationship. Normal siblings of mentally retarded persons were given a questionnaire regarding their relationships with their parents and mentally retarded siblings during childhood and how they introduced their mentally retarded siblings to their fiancees. In most cases, they had good relationships with their mentally retarded siblings during childhood. Most of them also inte...

  5. Flame retardancy and thermal stability of polyurethane foam composites containing carbon additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pyoung-Chan; Kim, Bo-Ram; Jeoung, Sun Kyoung; Lee, Geesoo; Han, San Wook; Kim, Hyunchul; Lee, Ki-Dong; Han, Joo-Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Polyurethane (PU) is an important class of polymers that have wide application in a number of different industrial sectors. The goal of this work was the synthesis of flame-retarded PU foam with expandable graphite (EG) or commercial graphene. The flame retardancy and thermal stability of the foams has been studied through cone calorimeter analysis, the limited oxygen index and thermal conductivity. The presence of expandable graphite brings an improvement in fire behavior. In particular, the limited oxygen index increases in a linear way and the highest limited oxygen index values are obtained for EG-PU foams. The results from the cone calorimeter are in agreement with those of oxygen index; EG filled foams show a considerable decrease of maximum-heat release rate (M-HRR) with respect to unfilled foams. The results of thermal conductivity show that an increase in expandable graphite amount in PU foams lead to an increased conductivity.

  6. Analysis and occurrence of emerging brominated flame retardants in the Llobregat River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Paula; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià

    2010-03-01

    SummaryIn response to increasing international regulations on brominated flame retardants (BFR) formulations, alternative additive flame retardants for achieving commercial product fire safety standards are being developed and used. Some of these non-BDE (brominated diphenyl ethers) BFRs are pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), hexabromobenzene (hexaBBz), and decabromodiphenylethane (deBDethane). The present study investigated the occurrence of these emerging BFRs, together with 38 BDE congeners (from di- to deca-BDE) in sediments sampled from different points along Llobregat basin (Spain) in three different sampling campaigns between 2005 and 2006. Emerging BFRs were detected in all sediment samples analyzed, at concentrations ranging from 3.1 to 9.6 ng/g for PBEB, from 0.4 to 2.4 ng/g for hexaBBz and from 4.8 to 23 ng/g for deBDethane. These levels are lower than concentrations obtained for PBDEs (from nd to 82 ng/g).

  7. Colorful Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, P. Teal; Carsten Conner, L. D.; Guthrie, Mareca; Pompea, Stephen; Tsurusaki, Blakely K.; Tzou, Carrie

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a chemistry/art activity that originated in an National Science Foundation--funded two-week STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, and Math) academy for grade 4-6 girls. The authors recommend using this investigation in conjunction with other activities focusing on chemical change as a step toward fulfilling the…

  8. FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System - A program for fire danger rating analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Larry S. Bradshaw

    1997-01-01

    A computer program, FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System, provides methods for evaluating the performance of fire danger rating indexes. The relationship between fire danger indexes and historical fire occurrence and size is examined through logistic regression and percentiles. Historical seasonal trends of fire danger and fire occurrence can be...

  9. Influence of wooden materials and inflaming retarding agents on the properties of particleboard panel%木质原料和阻燃剂对刨花板性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓平; 吴章康; 刘刚连; 邹全; 张清伟

    2014-01-01

    分析了5种不同阻燃剂( FR-A、FR-B、FR-C、FR-D、FR-E)、阻燃剂添加量(6%、8%、10%、12%)以及2种不同木质原料(木材刨花和工业大麻秆)对刨花板物理力学性能和燃烧性能的影响。结果表明:阻燃剂对板材的物理力学性能可产生不利影响,但随着阻燃剂添加量的增加,板材的氧指数增加,烟密度等级变小;工业大麻秆刨花板的氧指数和烟密度等级均小于木材刨花板。试验表明,阻燃剂FR-A和FR-B适合用于制备工业大麻秆阻燃刨花板,阻燃剂FR-C、FR-D和FR-E适合用于制备木材阻燃刨花板,即木质原料的物理结构以及阻燃剂化学成分对刨花板的物理力学性能和燃烧性能影响较大。%To confirm the influence of different wooden materials and inflaming retarding agents on the properties of par-ticleboard panel and manufacture the fire-retarding particleboard panel with better properties for reducing the harm due to the fire indoor. Influences of five kinds of fire-retarding agents ( FR-A, FR-B, FR-C, FR-D and FR-E) and their differ-ent added amount ( 6%, 8%, 10% and 12%) and two kinds of wooden materials ( wooden particles and hemp-shiv par-ticles) on the physical properties, mechanical properties and inflaming properties of the particleboard panels were inves-tigated to provide the information for manufacturing particle board panels with better inflaming retarding properties. The results showed that the fire-retarding agents, additive amount and wooden materials all had great influences on the physi-cal, mechanical and inflaming properties of particle board panels. The fire-retarding agents had disadvantageous influence on the physical and mechanical properties of particle panels and those were worse with the additive amount of fire-retarding agents increasing from 6% to 12%. Besides, as the additive amount of fire-retarding agents increased, the oxygen index ( OI) increased and the smoking

  10. Retardance and flicker modeling and characterization of electro-optic linear retarders by averaged Stokes polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Francisco J; Márquez, Andrés; Gallego, Sergi; Francés, Jorge; Pascual, Inmaculada; Beléndez, Augusto

    2014-02-15

    A polarimetric method for the measurement of linear retardance in the presence of phase fluctuations is presented. This can be applied to electro-optic devices behaving as variable linear retarders. The method is based on an extended Mueller matrix model for the linear retarder containing the time-averaged effects of the instabilities. As a result, an averaged Stokes polarimetry technique is proposed to characterize both the retardance and its flicker magnitude. Predictive capability of the approach is experimentally demonstrated, validating the model and the calibration technique. The approach is applied to liquid crystal on silicon displays (LCoS) using a commercial Stokes polarimeter. Both the magnitude of the average retardance and the amplitude of its fluctuation are obtained for each gray level value addressed, thus enabling a complete phase characterization of the LCoS.

  11. Industrial chemistry engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-01-15

    This book on industrial chemistry engineering is divided in two parts. The first part deals with industrial chemistry, inorganic industrial chemistry, organic industrial chemistry, analytical chemistry and practical questions. The last parts explain the chemical industry, a unit parts and thermodynamics in chemical industry and reference. It reveals the test subjects for the industrial chemistry engineering with a written examination and practical skill.

  12. Thermal damping and retardation in karst conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Luhmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Water temperature is a non-conservative tracer in the environment. Variations in recharge temperature are damped and retarded as water moves through an aquifer due to heat exchange between water and rock. However, within karst aquifers, seasonal and short-term fluctuations in recharge temperature are often transmitted over long distances before they are fully damped. Using analytical solutions and numerical simulations, we develop relationships that describe the effect of flow path properties, flow-through time, recharge characteristics, and water and rock physical properties on the damping and retardation of thermal peaks/troughs in karst conduits. Using these relationships, one can estimate the thermal retardation and damping that would occur under given conditions with a given conduit geometry. Ultimately, these relationships can be used with thermal damping and retardation field data to estimate parameters such as conduit diameter. We also examine sets of numerical experiments where we relax some of the assumptions used to develop these relationships, testing the effects of variable diameter, variable velocity, open channels, and recharge shape on thermal damping and retardation to provide some constraints on uncertainty. Finally, we discuss a tracer experiment that provides field confirmation of our relationships. High temporal resolution water temperature data are required to obtain sufficient constraints on the magnitude and timing of thermal peaks and troughs in order to take full advantage of water temperature as a tracer.

  13. [Clinical features of strabismus in psychomotor retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Cabello, Belina; Arroyo-Yllanes, María Estela; Pérez-Pérez, José Fernando; Fonte-Vázquez, Anselmo

    2016-01-01

    In psychomotor retardation there is an abnormal development of mental, sensory and motor skills associated with ocular manifestations. There are biological and psychosocial risk factors that predispose an individual to neurological damage. From 50% to 80% of patients with strabismus retardation have special features that differentiate it from the rest of strabismus in healthy patients. To determine the most common type of strabismus in patients with psychomotor retardation and their clinical features. Patients with psychomotor retardation and strabismus were included. An ophthalmological examination was performed, as well as an evaluation of the characteristics of strabismus, including perinatal and post-natal history. Esotropia was the most frequent squint with 65.3%, followed by exotropia with 32.7%. The variability in the squint magnitude was 60% in both types, and 6 patients had dissociated vertical deviation. Most of the patients started to present strabismus since they were born. The most frequent perinatal risk factors were threatened miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, foetal distress, and hypoxia. Esotropia is the most common type of strabismus in psychomotor retardation. The variability of squint magnitude is a characteristic in these patients. The moderate variability is the most frequent in both esotropia and exotropia. The most common refractive error is hyperopic astigmatism in esotropia and the myopic kind in exotropia. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. Aluminium trihydroxide in combination with ammonium polyphosphate as flame retardants for unsaturated polyester resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The thermal and reaction to fire characteristics of a flame retardant unsaturated polyester (UP ternary system are presented here. Thermal gravimetric analysis showed an improved thermal stability between 200–600°C with the addition of ammonium polyphosphate (APP and aluminium trihydroxide (ATH formulation. Cone calorimetry tests indicated that ATH is more efficient than calcium carbonate at delaying the ignition time, lowering the carbon monoxide yield and lowering the peak heat release (PHRR. However the addition of APP and ATH to the formulation failed to demonstrate any significant synergistic effect at reducing the PHRR.

  15. Forest fire forecasting tool for air quality modelling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Jose, R.; Perez, J. L.; Perez, L.; Gonzalez, R. M.; Pecci, J.; Palacios, M.

    2015-07-01

    Adverse effects of smoke on air quality are of great concern; however, even today the estimates of atmospheric fire emissions are a key issue. It is necessary to implement systems for predicting smoke into an air quality modelling system, and in this work a first attempt towards creating a system of this type is presented. Wild land fire spread and behavior are complex phenomena due to both the number of involved physic-chemical factors, and the nonlinear relationship between variables. WRF-Fire was employed to simulate spread and behavior of some real fires occurred in South-East of Spain and North of Portugal. The use of fire behavior models requires the availability of high resolution environmental and fuel data. A new custom fuel moisture content model has been developed. The new module allows each time step to calculate the fuel moisture content of the dead fuels and live fuels. The results confirm that the use of accurate meteorological data and a custom fuel moisture content model is crucial to obtain precise simulations of fire behavior. To simulate air pollution over Europe, we use the regional meteorological-chemistry transport model WRF-Chem. In this contribution, we show the impact of using two different fire emissions inventories (FINN and IS4FIRES) and how the coupled WRF-Fire- Chem model improves the results of the forest fire emissions and smoke concentrations. The impact of the forest fire emissions on concentrations is evident, and it is quite clear from these simulations that the choice of emission inventory is very important. We conclude that using the WRF-fire behavior model produces better results than using forest fire emission inventories although the requested computational power is much higher. (Author)

  16. Forest fire forecasting tool for air quality modelling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Jose, R.; Perez, J.L.; Perez, L.; Gonzalez, R.M.; Pecci, J.; Palacios, M.

    2015-07-01

    Adverse effects of smoke on air quality are of great concern; however, even today the estimates of atmospheric fire emissions are a key issue. It is necessary to implement systems for predicting smoke into an air quality modelling system, and in this work a first attempt towards creating a system of this type is presented. Wildland fire spread and behavior are complex Phenomena due to both the number of involved physic-chemical factors, and the nonlinear relationship between variables. WRF-Fire was employed to simulate spread and behavior of some real fires occurred in South-East of Spain and North of Portugal. The use of fire behavior models requires the availability of high resolution environmental and fuel data. A new custom fuel moisture content model has been developed. The new module allows each time step to calculate the fuel moisture content of the dead fuels and live fuels. The results confirm that the use of accurate meteorological data and a custom fuel moisture content model is crucial to obtain precise simulations of fire behavior. To simulate air pollution over Europe, we use the regional meteorological-chemistry transport model WRF-Chem. In this contribution, we show the impact of using two different fire emissions inventories (FINN and IS4FIRES) and how the coupled WRF-FireChem model improves the results of the forest fire emissions and smoke concentrations. The impact of the forest fire emissions on concentrations is evident, and it is quite clear from these simulations that the choice of emission inventory is very important. We conclude that using the WRF-fire behavior model produces better results than using forest fire emission inventories although the requested computational power is much higher. (Author)

  17. Smoking and Home Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Working with the Media Fire Protection Technology Smoking fire safety outreach materials As a member of ... Electronic Cigarette Explosions and Fires: The 2015 Experience Smoking fire safety messages to share It is important ...

  18. Computational chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  19. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LIGHTLY MENTALLY RETARDED PERSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran AJDINSKI

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind the fact that many scientific researches, the mental retardation are treated as a complex and specific human phenomenon, the author of this paper likes to point out three basic questions. Those are the definition of mental retardation, classification of the some of the characteristics of the mentally retarded persons.In connection with this questions practically all of the former awareness is presented and also for this aim is used a huge list of literature.Here is made a synthesis of many opinions of the eminent authors. With this presentation, concerned specialists, parents and students could be acquaintance with most important facts about the mentioned problems, which are elaborated in this paper.

  20. Laser Feedback Technique for Precise Retardation Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Li-Gang; ZHANG Shu-Lian

    2006-01-01

    @@ A simple and precise retardation measurement based on laser feedback is demonstrated. The measurement principle is based on polarization flipping induced by optical feedback from an external birefringence cavity.The measured wave plate is located in the external cavity. When the length of the external cavity is tuned,the polarization states of laser will flip between two eigenstates, and the position of polarization flipping in one period of intensity modulation will vary with retardation of the wave plate. The duty ratio of two eigenstates is used to determine the retardation. Main advantages of the technique are that it is compact, low cost, fast and flexible. Especially, it is insensitive to a fluctuation of laser intensity and is suitable for on-line measurement. The experimental results have shown that the measurement uncertainty is better than 0.03° in the range 30°-150°.

  1. "Idiopathic" mental retardation and new chromosomal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galasso, Cinzia; Lo-Castro, Adriana; El-Malhany, Nadia; Curatolo, Paolo

    2010-02-14

    Mental retardation is a heterogeneous condition, affecting 1-3% of general population. In the last few years, several emerging clinical entities have been described, due to the advent of newest genetic techniques, such as array Comparative Genomic Hybridization. The detection of cryptic microdeletion/microduplication abnormalities has allowed genotype-phenotype correlations, delineating recognizable syndromic conditions that are herein reviewed. With the aim to provide to Paediatricians a combined clinical and genetic approach to the child with cognitive impairment, a practical diagnostic algorithm is also illustrated. The use of microarray platforms has further reduced the percentage of "idiopathic" forms of mental retardation, previously accounted for about half of total cases. We discussed the putative pathways at the basis of remaining "pure idiopathic" forms of mental retardation, highlighting possible environmental and epigenetic mechanisms as causes of altered cognition.

  2. Atmospheric chemistry over southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2012-03-01

    Changing Chemistry in a Changing Climate: Human and Natural Impacts Over Southern Africa (C4-SAR); Midrand, South Africa, 31 May to 3 June 2011 During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semipermanent atmospheric gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite- derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from Eskom, the South African power utility; and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

  3. Campus Fire Safety Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Reviews information on recent college and university dormitory fire fatalities, and highlights five examples of building features reported to be major contributing factors in residence-hall fires. Explains how public awareness and expectations are affecting school dormitory safety. (GR)

  4. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  5. Coal fires in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Yao(车遥); HUANG Wen-hui(黄文辉); ZHANG Ai-yun(张爱云)

    2004-01-01

    Coal fires have a very long history in China; the oldest coal fires have being burning for many million years. Up to now more than 56 coal fires spots were distinguished. They mainly locate in West-North of China, North of China and East-North of China. About millions of tons of coal have been burned in fires every year. Xinjiang Autonomy is the most serious region in coal fires as it has 38 coal fires spots and about 6.85 million tons of coal was burned every year. Coal fires in China ignited by wildfires, spontaneous combustion and human being during mining activities. These fires have released about 0.9 million tons of gasses (including CO, CO2, SO2, NO2 CH4, CO2, H2S etc.) into the atmosphere every year, most of which are brought to the east by wind and resulting more heavier air pollution in northern China.

  6. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  7. Tunnel fire dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

  8. Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rorty, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober......Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober...

  9. Fires and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Fires and Food Safety Fire! Few words can strike such terror. Residential ...

  10. National Fire Protection Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or closed List of NFPA codes & standards National Fire Codes® Subscription Service NEC® Online Subscription Free online ... Toggle this sub-menu open or closed The fire risk of exterior walls containing combustible components Resources ...

  11. Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rorty, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober......Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober...

  12. Urban Fire Risk Clustering Method Based on Fire Statistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Lizhi; REN Aizhu

    2008-01-01

    Fire statistics and fire analysis have become important ways for us to understand the law of fire,prevent the occurrence of fire, and improve the ability to control fire. According to existing fire statistics, the weighted fire risk calculating method characterized by the number of fire occurrence, direct economic losses,and fire casualties was put forward. On the basis of this method, meanwhile having improved K-mean clus-tering arithmetic, this paper established fire dsk K-mean clustering model, which could better resolve the automatic classifying problems towards fire risk. Fire risk cluster should be classified by the absolute dis-tance of the target instead of the relative distance in the traditional cluster arithmetic. Finally, for applying the established model, this paper carded out fire risk clustering on fire statistics from January 2000 to December 2004 of Shenyang in China. This research would provide technical support for urban fire management.

  13. Study of coatings for improved fire and decay resistance of mine timbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, B.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to find a fire- and rot-retardant polymer/fungicide reaction product for coating mine timbers. Fire-retardant polymers were screened as films and coatings on fir wood. Curable polyimide appeared to be flame retardant and evolved a minimum of fumes when exposed to a flame. Several organic and metal, low toxicity, fungicides were reacted with the polyimide in-situ on the wood. These coated samples were screened for fungus resistance. All formulations rated well - even the polyimide film without additives was fungicidal. The fir wood control itself resisted internal damage during the ten weeks of fungus exposure. A more severe test for fungus resistance will be required.

  14. Preparation and properties of superfine Mg(OH)2 flame retardant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hui; DENG Xin-rong

    2006-01-01

    Preparation of superfine magnesium hydroxide with the bittern and ammonia was studied. The properties of the products were analyzed by laser granularity, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, the limiting oxygen index and the wetting angle measurements. The results show that the mean particle size of the magnesium hydroxide is about 230 nm with a platelet shape and the specific surface area is about 48 m2/g when the temperature is 55 ℃, and the ammonia and bittern are instilled simultaneously during the reaction process. After the modification, the limiting oxygen index and physical chemistry performance of the magnesium hydroxide were examined. The results show that the contact angle of magnesium hydroxide is 132.5° and the limiting oxygen index is 31.5 %, indicating that the modified magnesium hydroxide is an effective flame retardant and can be applied as flame retardant additives of the macromolecule compounds such as plastic, synthetic rubber and synthetic fibre.

  15. FIRE CHARACTERISTICS FOR ADVANCED MODELLING OF FIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Dvořák

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the material and fire properties of solid flammable/combustible materials /substances /products, which are used as inputs for the computer numerical fire models. At the same time it gives the test standards for their determination.

  16. Experimental Study on the Polyester-Cotton Blended Fabrics' Flame Retardancy%涤棉混纺织物阻燃性能的实验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章梦洁; 伍仲; 方园

    2013-01-01

    In the light of the problem that it's difficult to apply flame retardant finish to cotton-polyester blended fabric as a result of wick effect, the authors adopt a new type of flame retardant to finish the fabric. Additionally, the compositions of fire retardant will coordinate to achieve flame retardancy. Based on this, the authors utilize orthogonal experiment to analyze the way in which how blending ratio, fabric density and fabric structure affect the flame retardant performance of cotton-polyester blended fabric. It turns out that the vertical burning damage length is from 40 to 47 mm, which is less than 50 mm, and the limiting oxygen index is greater than 27. 5, which reaches the requirements for flame retardancy. The flame retardant performance of cotton-polyester blended fabric is closely related to the contents of the fire retardant and the way to apply fire retardant finish. It also proves that the flame retardant performance of cotton-polyester blended fabric increases and then decreases when the contents increase, the performance is positively correlated to the density of fabric, while the fabric structure does not significantly connect with it.%针对涤棉混纺织物“烛芯效应”而引起的阻燃整理难度大的问题,采用复合新型阻燃剂复配技术对涤棉混纺织物进行阻燃处理.通过正交试验的方法综合分析了混纺比、织物密度、织物组织结构等影响因素与涤棉织物阻燃性能之间的关联性.研究结果表明,经复配阻燃处理后的涤棉混纺织物的垂直燃烧损毁长度在40~47 mm范围内,均<50 mm,极限氧指数均>27.5,达到难燃织物的标准;随着织物中涤纶含量的增加,阻燃性能先增大后减小,涤纶含量为35%时阻燃效果最好;阻燃性能与织物密度正相关,而织物组织结构对阻燃影响并不显著.

  17. Fire as Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project that deals with fire production as an aspect of technology. The project challenges students to be survivors in a five-day classroom activity. Students research various materials and methods to produce fire without the use of matches or other modern combustion devices, then must create "fire" to keep…

  18. Fire and fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon Collins; Carl Skinner

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of historical fire regimes indicate that fires occurring prior to Euro-American settlement were characterized by a high degree of spatial complexity that was driven by heterogeneity in vegetation/fuels and topography and influenced by variability in climate, which mediated the timing, effects, and extents of fires over time. Although there are many...

  19. Fire Department Emergency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services.

  20. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de

    1998-01-01

    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  1. Fire as Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project that deals with fire production as an aspect of technology. The project challenges students to be survivors in a five-day classroom activity. Students research various materials and methods to produce fire without the use of matches or other modern combustion devices, then must create "fire" to keep…

  2. Theoretical chemistry periodicities in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Periodicities in Chemistry and Biology, Volume 4 covers the aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the stably rotating patterns of reaction and diffusion; the chemistry of inorganic systems exhibiting nonmonotonic behavior; and population cycles. The text also describes the mathematical modeling of excitable media in neurobiology and chemistry; oscillating enzyme reactions; and oscillatory properties and excitability of the heart cell membrane. Selected topics from the theory of physico-chemical instabilities are also encompassed. Chemists, mechanical engin

  3. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  4. Fire Protection Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  5. Surface chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Desai, KR

    2008-01-01

    The surface Chemistry of a material as a whole is crucially dependent upon the Nature and type of surfaces exposed on crystallites. It is therefore vitally important to independently Study different, well - defined surfaces through surface analytical techniques. In addition to composition and structure of surface, the subject also provides information on dynamic light scattering, micro emulsions, colloid Stability control and nanostructures. The present book endeavour to bring before the reader that the understanding and exploitation of Solid state phenomena depended largely on the ability to

  6. Euthanasia and Mental Retardation: Suggesting the Unthinkable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Russell

    1989-01-01

    The article examines current opinions toward euthanasia of persons with mental retardation in light of the history of public and professional attitudes. It also discusses the rejection of euthanasia on moral and religious grounds, and notes the use of lifelong incarceration, based on eugenics principles, to accomplish similar ends. (DB)

  7. PENETRATING KERATOPLASTY IN MENTALLY RETARDED PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušica Pahor

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Penetrating keratoplasty (PK is rarely performed in mentally retarded patients, first of all because of numerous complications after surgery such as inflammation, self-inflicted injury, injury and because of difficult post-operative treatment. The aim of this study was to present the success of PK in this patients. In 16 years (from May 1984 to May 2000 201 PK were performed, but only three in mentally retarded patients.Methods. We present three cases of PK in mentally retarded patients. All the patients were men. They were 14, 16 and 27 year old. The indication for PK were in two cases acute keratoconus and in one case acute keratoglobus. The mean followup was 24.6 months. Trepanation was made with rotor threpin and donor material was sutured using single continuous 10-0 nylon suture.Results. In two cases keratoplasties stayed clear. Visual acuities were 0,4 and 0,5. In one patient with very aggressive behaviour graft failure developed with significant corneal vascularisation. Re-keratoplasty was not performed.Conclusions. Adequate post-operative care following PK in mentally retarded patients is the most important factor for the success of transplantation. The indication for the surgery must be made very carefully especially in self-aggressive patients in residential care.

  8. Puberty in the Girl Who is Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattullo, Ann

    Designed to help mothers of mentally retarded girls deal with the problems and concerns of puberty, the booklet provides information on physical and emotional changes, menstruation, masturbation, heterosexual behavior, contraception, protection against sexual aggression, the possibilities of marriage, and additional sources of information.…

  9. Language Transference by Mentally Retarded Spanish Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Carol

    In an investigation of language transference vs. language interference, 12 trainable mentally retarded Spanish speakers (5 to 9 years old) were trained to name in English objects previously identified receptively and objects not previously identified receptively in Spanish. Results indicated no significant difference in the number of words learned…

  10. Flame retardant cotton barrier nonwovens for mattresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to regulation CPSC 16 CFR 1633, every new residential mattress sold in the United States since July 2007 must resist ignition by open flame. An environmentally benign “green”, inexpensive way to meet this regulation is to use a low-cost flame retardant (FR) barrier fabric. In this study, a...

  11. Brominated flame retardants and endocrine disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.G.; Becher, G.; Berg, van den M.; Boer, de J.; Leonards, P.E.G.

    2003-01-01

    From an environmental point of view, an increasing important group of organohalogen compounds are the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which are widely used in polymers and textiles and applied in construction materials, furniture, and electronic equipment. BFRs with the highest production volume

  12. Teaching Mending Skills to Mentally Retarded Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Kathleen A.; Cuvo, Anthony J.

    1979-01-01

    A task analysis model for analyzing and teaching community living skills to the mentally handicapped was developed and validated with five moderately retarded youths (ages 17 to 20 years) who were taught mending skills (sewing hems, buttons, and seams). (Author/DLS)

  13. Let the Mentally-Retarded Shine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG BORONG

    2007-01-01

    @@ Of all the people with disabilities, the mentallyretarded not only are the most difficult to be part of the society and to get jobs but also add to the family burdens. This has become a big headache for Shanghai, the leading industrial city of China, which has about 70,000 mentally-retarded among the 520,000 persons with disabilities.

  14. Euthanasia and Mental Retardation: Suggesting the Unthinkable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Russell

    1989-01-01

    The article examines current opinions toward euthanasia of persons with mental retardation in light of the history of public and professional attitudes. It also discusses the rejection of euthanasia on moral and religious grounds, and notes the use of lifelong incarceration, based on eugenics principles, to accomplish similar ends. (DB)

  15. Psychomotor Retardation in Elderly Untreated Depressed Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beheydt, L.L.; Schrijvers, D.L.; Docx, L.; Bouckaert, F.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychomotor retardation (PR) is one of the core features in depression according to DSM V (1), but also aging in itself causes cognitive and psychomotor slowing. This is the first study investigating PR in relation to cognitive functioning and to the concomitant effect of depression and

  16. Genetic and epigenetic defects in mental retardation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, J.M.; Bokhoven, H. van

    2009-01-01

    Mental retardation (MR) is a highly diverse group of cognitive disorders. The high incidence of MR, 2-3% in most populations, and the high burden for families and society makes this condition one of the major unsolved problems in modern medicine. Gene defects account for about half of all patients a

  17. MENTAL RETARDATION. CATALOG OF LIBRARY ACCESSIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FEARON, ROSS E.

    LISTING ABOUT 570 ITEMS, THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY REPRESENTS THE MENTAL RETARDATION COLLECTION AT MANTOR LIBRARY, FARMINGTON STATE COLLEGE. ITEMS ARE LISTED BY DEWEY DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION NUMBER OR VERTICAL FILE NUMBER, INCLUDED ARE CURRICULUM AND TEACHER GUIDES, PROGRAM DESCRIPTIONS, PARENT HANDBOOKS, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, DIRECTORIES, RESEARCH…

  18. Theories of Dual Diagnosis in Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Sevin, Jay A.

    1994-01-01

    Provides historical review of theory development in the field of dual diagnosis, defined as co-occurrence of mental health disorders with mental retardation. Noting that current etiological theories have practical implications for treatment and prevention of dual diagnosis, discusses current status of etiological theories and future directions for…

  19. Daphnid life cycle response to new generation of flame retardants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaijers, S.L.; Bleyenberg, T.E.; Dits, A; Schoorl, M.; Schütt, J; Kools, S.A.E.; de Voogt, P.; Admiraal, W.; Parsons, J.R.; Kraak, M.H.S.

    2013-01-01

    Relatively hazardous brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are currently substituted with halogen-free flame retardants (HFFRs). Consequently, information on their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity (PBT) is urgently needed. Therefore, we investigated the chronic toxicity to the water flea

  20. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study.

  1. Fire risk in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Seth Howard

    Fire is an integral part of ecosystems in the western United States. Decades of fire suppression have led to (unnaturally) large accumulations of fuel in some forest communities, such as the lower elevation forests of the Sierra Nevada. Urban sprawl into fire prone chaparral vegetation in southern California has put human lives at risk and the decreased fire return intervals have put the vegetation community at risk of type conversion. This research examines the factors affecting fire risk in two of the dominant landscapes in the state of California, chaparral and inland coniferous forests. Live fuel moisture (LFM) is important for fire ignition, spread rate, and intensity in chaparral. LFM maps were generated for Los Angeles County by developing and then inverting robust cross-validated regression equations from time series field data and vegetation indices (VIs) and phenological metrics from MODIS data. Fire fuels, including understory fuels which are not visible to remote sensing instruments, were mapped in Yosemite National Park using the random forests decision tree algorithm and climatic, topographic, remotely sensed, and fire history variables. Combining the disparate data sources served to improve classification accuracies. The models were inverted to produce maps of fuel models and fuel amounts, and these showed that fire fuel amounts are highest in the low elevation forests that have been most affected by fire suppression impacting the natural fire regime. Wildland fires in chaparral commonly burn in late summer or fall when LFM is near its annual low, however, the Jesusita Fire burned in early May of 2009, when LFM was still relatively high. The HFire fire spread model was used to simulate the growth of the Jesusita Fire using LFM maps derived from imagery acquired at the time of the fire and imagery acquired in late August to determine how much different the fire would have been if it had occurred later in the year. Simulated fires were 1.5 times larger

  2. Industry-sponsored research on the potential health and environmental effects of selected brominated flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, M L; Biesemeier, J; Manor, O; Gentit, W

    2003-09-01

    Modern fire-fighting techniques, equipment and fire-resistant building design has lead to less destruction than in the previous centuries. However, a high fuel load in either a residence or a commercial building can overwhelm even the best firefighters or building construction, and factors affecting the fuel load have changed in recent decades. The fire load in a typical home has doubled over the last 50 years, furnishings typically include those made of petrochemicals that can behave as if containing built-in accelerant, and modern energy-efficient buildings are less able to disperse heat in the event of a fire. Flame retardant chemicals (FRs) are one means used to reduce the risk of fire. FRs are typically added or incorporated chemically into a polymer to slow or hinder the ignition or growth of a fire in low-to-moderate cost commodity polymers. One type of FR contains bromine atoms as the active moiety. The FR industry, either as individual companies or as consortia, has conducted a broad range of studies on the commercial deca-, octa- and pentabromodiphenyl oxide/ether, tetrabromobisphenol A and hexabromocyclododecane products. These five products have data in excess of the OECD Screening Informational Data Set (SIDS) and the U.S. High Production Volume (HPV) program, and sufficient data for the performance of formal EU risk assessments. The objective of this paper is to present the range of data developed by industry consortia and to provide sources for the information. We hope to facilitate further research by assembling references to industry consortia-sponsored research here.

  3. Migration and Retardation of Chemical Toxic Components from Radioactive Waste - Hydrochemical Aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedinakova-Krizova, V.; Hanslik, E.

    2003-02-24

    A systematic analysis of nuclear power plant (NPP) operation and radioactive wastes disposal (near-surface disposal and geologic disposal) in underground repositories has provided the basis for a comparison between the radiotoxicity and chemotoxicity as part of an EIA (environmental impact assessment) procedure. This contribution summarizes the hydrochemical mechanisms of transport and retardation processes, chemistry and migration behavior of radionuclides and chemical toxics in natural sorbents, especially bentonites. The effect of solubility and dissolution reactions, diffusion and sorption/desorption, complexation and variations in the aqueous phase composition, pH-value and oxidation-reduction properties and other phenomena affecting distribution coefficients (Kd values) is discussed.

  4. Preparation and characterizations of flame retardant polyamide 66 fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. Y.; Liu, K.; Xiao, R.

    2017-06-01

    The polyamide 66 (PA66) is one of the most important thermoplastic materials, but it has the drawback of flammability. So the flame retardant PA66 was prepared by condensation polymerization using nylon salt and DOPO-based flame retardant in this paper. Then the flame retardant PA66 fiber was manufactured via melt spinning. The properties of flame retardant PA66 and flame retardant PA66 fiber were investigated by relative viscosity, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile test, vertical burning test (UL94) and limiting oxygen index (LOI) test. Although the loading of the DOPO-based flame retardant decreased the molecular weight, the melting temperature, the crystallinity and the mechanical properties of flame retardant PA66, the flame retardancy properties improved. The flame retardant PA66 loaded with 5.5 wt% of DOPO-based flame retardant can achieve a UL94 V-0 rating with a LOI value of 32.9%. The tenacity at break decreased from 4.51 cN·dtex-1 for PA66 fiber to 2.82 cN·dtex-1 for flame retardant PA66 fiber which still satisfied the requirements for fabrics. The flame retardant PA66 fiber expanded the application of PA66 materials which had a broad developing prospect.

  5. Conjunctive Visual Search in Individuals with and without Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Michael; Chrysler, Christina; Sullivan, Kate

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the basic visual and cognitive abilities of individuals with mental retardation is critical for understanding the basis of mental retardation and for the design of remediation programs. We assessed visual search abilities in individuals with mild mental retardation and in MA- and CA-matched comparison groups. Our…

  6. Flame retardancy and its mechanism of polymers flame retarded by DBDPE/Sb2O3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Jian-dong; LI Rong-xun; FENG Shao-hua; LIU Guang-ye; ZHAO Jian-qing

    2008-01-01

    The flammability characterization and thermal composition of polymers flame retarded by decabromodiphenylethane(DBDPE) and antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) were studied by cone calorimeter and thermogravimetry (TG). The results show thatABS/DBDPE/Sb2O3 has the similar flammability parameters and thermal composition curves to ABS/DBDPO/Sb3O3. It suggests thatDBDPE/Sb2O3 has the similar flame retardant behavior to DBDPO/Sb2O3. The heat release rate (HRR) and the effect heat combustion (EHC) curves of polymers flame retarded by DBDPE/Sb2O3 all decrease, but the mass loss rate (MLR) curve slightly increase. It shows that the decrease of HRR is not due to the increase of char formation ratio but the generation of incombustible gases. The major flame retardant mechanism of DBDPE/Sb2O3 is gas phase flame retardant mechanism. Increasing content of Sb2O3in DBDPE/Sb2O3 can improve the flame retardant property and thermal stability of aerylonitrile butadiene styrene. Sb203 has a good synergistic effect with DBDPE.

  7. Flame Retardancy of PA6 Using a Guanidine Sulfamate/Melamine Polyphosphate Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Coquelle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyamide 6 (PA6 is a widely-used polymer that could find applications in various sectors, including home textiles, transportation or construction. However, due to its organic nature, PA6 is flammable, and flame-retardant formulations have to be developed to comply with fire safety standards. Recently, it was proposed to use ammonium sulfamate as an effective flame retardant for PA6, even at low loading content. However, processing issues could occur with this additive considering large-scale production. This paper thus studies the use of another sulfamate salt—guanidine sulfamate (GAS—and evidences its high efficiency when combined with melamine polyphosphate (MPP as a flame retardant for PA6. A decrease of the peak of the heat release rate by 30% compared to pure PA6 was obtained using only 5 wt% of a GAS/MPP mixture in a microscale calorimeter. Moreover, PA6 containing the mixture GAS/MPP exhibits a Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI of 37 vol% and is rated V0 for the UL 94 test (Vertical Burning Test; ASTM D 3801. The mechanisms of degradation were investigated analyzing the gas phase and solid phase when the material degrades. It was proposed that MPP and GAS modify the degradation pathway of PA6, leading to the formation of nitrile end-group-containing molecules. Moreover, the formation of a polyaromatic structure by the reaction of MPP and PA6 was also shown.

  8. THE SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF HYBRID FLAME RETARDANTS ON PYROLYSIS BEHAVIOUR OF HYBRID COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. ALBDIRY

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to comprehensively understand the polymeric composite behavior under direct fire sources. The synergistic effects of hybrid flame retardant material on inhabiting the pyrolysis of hybrid reinforced fibers, woven roving (0°- 45° carbon and kevlar (50/50 wt/wt, and an araldite resin composites were studied. The composites were synthesised and coated primarily by zinc borate (2ZnO.3B2O3.3.5H2O and modified by antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 with different amounts (10-30 wt% of flame retardant materials. In the experiments, the composite samples were exposed to a direct flame source generated by oxyacetylene flame (~3000ºC at variable exposure distances of 10-20 mm. The synergic flame retardants role of antimony trioxide and zinc borate on the composite surface noticeably improves the flame resistance of the composite which is attributed to forming a protective mass and heat barrier on the composite surface and increasing the melt viscosity.

  9. Flame Retardancy of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Sorbitol Based Bioepoxy Composites with Phosphorus-Containing Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Toldy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fibre reinforced flame-retarded bioepoxy composites were prepared from commercially available sorbitol polyglycidyl ether (SPE cured with cycloaliphatic amine hardener. Samples containing 1, 2, and 3% phosphorus (P were prepared using additive type flame retardants (FRs resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate (RDP, ammonium polyphosphate (APP, and their combinations. The fire performance of the composites was investigated by limiting oxygen index (LOI, UL-94 tests, and mass loss calorimetry. The effect of FRs on the glass transition temperature, and storage modulus was evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, while the mechanical performance was investigated by tensile, bending, and interlaminar shear measurements, as well as by Charpy impact test. In formulations containing both FRs, the presence of RDP, acting mainly in gas phase, ensured balanced gas and solid-phase mechanism leading to best overall fire performance. APP advantageously compensated the plasticizing (storage modulus and glass transition temperature decreasing effect of RDP in combined formulations; furthermore, it led to increased tensile strength and Charpy impact energy.

  10. Highly Efficient Flame Retardant Polyurethane Foam with Alginate/Clay Aerogel Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Bing; Shen, Peng; Chen, Ming-Jun; Zhao, Hai-Bo; Schiraldi, David A

    2016-11-30

    Highly efficient flame retardant polyurethane foams with alginate/clay aerogel coatings were fabricated using a freeze-drying method. The microstructure and the interaction of the samples were characterized with scanning electron and optical microscopy (SEM) and (OM). The results show that PU foam has a porous structure with pore sizes of several hundred microns, and that of aerogel ranges from 10 to 30 μm. The PU foam matrix and the aerogel coatings have strong interactions, due to the infusion of aerogel into the porous structure of the foam and the tension generated during the freeze-drying process. Both the PU foam and the aerogel exhibit good thermal stabilities, with onset decomposition temperatures above 240 °C. Combustion parameters, including LOI, TTI, HRR, TSR, FIGRA, CO, and CO2, all indicate significantly reduced fire risk. Total heat release of all but one of the samples was maintained, indicating that the flame retardant mechanism is to decrease flame spread rate by forming a heat, oxygen, and smoke barrier, rather than by reducing fuel content. This facile and inexpensive post-treatment of PU foam could expand its fire safe applications.

  11. Fire Danger and Fire Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (formerly Weather Bureau) and Forest Service developed a program to track meteorological conditions conducive to forest fires, resulting...

  12. Why Teach Environmental Chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Marjorie H.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the importance of teaching environmental chemistry in secondary school science classes, and outlines five examples of environmental chemistry problems that focus on major concepts of chemistry and have critical implications for human survival and well-being. (JR)

  13. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1978-01-01

    This first in a series of articles describing the state of the art of various branches of chemistry reviews inorganic chemistry, including bioinorganic, photochemistry, organometallic, and solid state chemistries. (SL)

  14. Physical and Chemical Aspects of Fire Suppression in Extraterrestrial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, F.; Linteris, G. T.; Katta, V. R.

    2001-01-01

    A fire, whether in a spacecraft or in occupied spaces on extraterrestrial bases, can lead to mission termination or loss of life. While the fire-safety record of US space missions has been excellent, the advent of longer duration missions to Mars, the moon, or aboard the International Space Station (ISS) increases the likelihood of fire events, with more limited mission termination options. The fire safety program of NASA's manned space flight program is based largely upon the principles of controlling the flammability of on-board materials and greatly eliminating sources of ignition. As a result, very little research has been conducted on fire suppression in the microgravity or reduced-gravity environment. The objectives of this study are: to obtain fundamental knowledge of physical and chemical processes of fire suppression, using gravity and oxygen concentration as independent variables to simulate various extraterrestrial environments, including spacecraft and surface bases in Mars and moon missions; to provide rigorous testing of analytical models, which include comprehensive descriptions of combustion and suppression chemistry; and to provide basic research results useful for technological advances in fire safety, including the development of new fire-extinguishing agents and approaches, in the microgravity environment associated with ISS and in the partial-gravity Martian and lunar environments.

  15. Fires in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Anderson, Liana O.; Lima, André; Arai, Egidio

    2016-11-01

    Fire has been used since the first humans arrived in Amazonia; however, it has recently become a widely used instrument for large-scale forest clearance. Patterns of fire incidence in the region have been exacerbated by recent drought events. Understanding temporal and spatial fire patterns as well as their consequences for forest structure, species composition, and the carbon cycle is critical for minimising global change impacts on Amazonian ecosystems and people. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the state of our knowledge on the spatial and temporal patterns of fire incidence in Amazonia, depicting the historical fire usage in the region, their relationship with land use and land cover, and their responses to climate seasonality and droughts. We subsequently focus on the impacts of fire, by quantifying the extent of burnt forests during major droughts and describing the main impacts on forest structure, composition, and carbon stocks. Finally, we present an overview of modelling initiatives for forecasting fire incidence in the region. We conclude by providing a comprehensive view of the processes that influence fire occurrence, potential feedbacks, and impacts in Amazonia. We also highlight how key areas within fire ecology must be improved for a better understanding of the long-term effect of fire on the Amazon forest 'biome'.

  16. All fired up

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Directorate and their support staff took part in a fire-fighting course organised by the CERN Fire Brigade just before the end-of-year break.  The Bulletin takes a look at the fire-fighting training on offer at CERN.   At CERN the risk of fire can never be under-estimated. In order to train personnel in the use of fire extinguishers, CERN's fire training centre in Prévessin acquired a fire-simulation platform in 2012. On the morning of 17 December 2012, ten members of the CERN directorate and their support staff tried out the platform, following in the footsteps of 400 other members of the CERN community who had already attended the course. The participants were welcomed to the training centre by Gilles Colin, a fire-fighter and instructor, who gave them a 30-minute introduction to general safety and the different types of fire and fire extinguishers, followed by an hour of practical instruction in the simulation facility. There they were able to pract...

  17. The theory, direction, and magnitude of ecosystem fire probability as constrained by precipitation and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyette, Richard; Stambaugh, Michael C; Dey, Daniel; Muzika, Rose Marie

    2017-01-01

    The effects of climate on wildland fire confronts society across a range of different ecosystems. Water and temperature affect the combustion dynamics, irrespective of whether those are associated with carbon fueled motors or ecosystems, but through different chemical, physical, and biological processes. We use an ecosystem combustion equation developed with the physical chemistry of atmospheric variables to estimate and simulate fire probability and mean fire interval (MFI). The calibration of ecosystem fire probability with basic combustion chemistry and physics offers a quantitative method to address wildland fire in addition to the well-studied forcing factors such as topography, ignition, and vegetation. We develop a graphic analysis tool for estimating climate forced fire probability with temperature and precipitation based on an empirical assessment of combustion theory and fire prediction in ecosystems. Climate-affected fire probability for any period, past or future, is estimated with given temperature and precipitation. A graphic analyses of wildland fire dynamics driven by climate supports a dialectic in hydrologic processes that affect ecosystem combustion: 1) the water needed by plants to produce carbon bonds (fuel) and 2) the inhibition of successful reactant collisions by water molecules (humidity and fuel moisture). These two postulates enable a classification scheme for ecosystems into three or more climate categories using their position relative to change points defined by precipitation in combustion dynamics equations. Three classifications of combustion dynamics in ecosystems fire probability include: 1) precipitation insensitive, 2) precipitation unstable, and 3) precipitation sensitive. All three classifications interact in different ways with variable levels of temperature.

  18. Environmental chemistry. Seventh edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1999-11-01

    This book presents a basic understanding of environmental chemistry and its applications. In addition to providing updated materials in this field, the book emphasizes the major concepts essential to the practice of environmental chemistry. Topics of discussion include the following: toxicological chemistry; toxicological chemistry of chemical substances; chemical analysis of water and wastewater; chemical analysis of wastes and solids; air and gas analysis; chemical analysis of biological materials and xenobiotics; fundamentals of chemistry; and fundamentals of organic chemistry.

  19. Thermal Stability, Combustion Behavior, and Mechanical Property in a Flame-Retardant Polypropylene System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to comprehensively improve the strength, toughness, flame retardancy, smoke suppression, and thermal stability of polypropylene (PP, layered double hydroxide (LDH Ni0.2Mg2.8Al–LDH was synthesized by a coprecipitation method coupled with the microwave-hydrothermal treatment. The X-ray diffraction (XRD, morphology, mechanical, thermal, and fire properties for PP composites containing 1 wt %–20 wt % Ni0.2Mg2.8Al–LDH were investigated. The cone calorimeter tests confirm that the peak heat release rate (pk–HRR of PP–20%LDH was decreased to 500 kW/m2 from the 1057 kW/m2 of PP. The pk–HRR, average mass loss rate (AMLR and effective heat of combustion (EHC analysis indicates that the condensed phase fire retardant mechanism of Ni0.2Mg2.8Al–LDH in the composites. The production rate and mean release yield of CO for composites gradually decrease as Ni0.2Mg2.8Al–LDH increases in the PP matrix. Thermal analysis indicates that the decomposition temperature for PP–5%LDH and PP–10%LDH is 34 °C higher than that of the pure PP. The mechanical tests reveal that the tensile strength of PP–1%LDH is 7.9 MPa higher than that of the pure PP. Furthermore, the elongation at break of PP–10%LDH is 361% higher than PP. In this work, the synthetic LDH Ni0.2Mg2.8Al–LDH can be used as a flame retardant, smoke suppressant, thermal stabilizer, reinforcing, and toughening agent of PP products.

  20. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  1. Astronomical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemperer, William

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of polar polyatomic molecules in higher-density regions of the interstellar medium by means of their rotational emission detected by radioastronomy has changed our conception of the universe from essentially atomic to highly molecular. We discuss models for molecule formation, emphasizing the general lack of thermodynamic equilibrium. Detailed chemical kinetics is needed to understand molecule formation as well as destruction. Ion molecule reactions appear to be an important class for the generally low temperatures of the interstellar medium. The need for the intrinsically high-quality factor of rotational transitions to definitively pin down molecular emitters has been well established by radioastronomy. The observation of abundant molecular ions both positive and, as recently observed, negative provides benchmarks for chemical kinetic schemes. Of considerable importance in guiding our understanding of astronomical chemistry is the fact that the larger molecules (with more than five atoms) are all organic.

  2. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  3. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratory The Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  4. Biomass co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus......Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized......-bed combustion (FBC) systems, and grate-firing systems, which are employed in about 50%, 40% and 10% of all the co-firing plants, respectively. Their basic principles, process technologies, advantages, and limitations are presented, followed by a brief comparison of these technologies when applied to biomass co...

  5. Biomass co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus......Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized......-bed combustion (FBC) systems, and grate-firing systems, which are employed in about 50%, 40% and 10% of all the co-firing plants, respectively. Their basic principles, process technologies, advantages, and limitations are presented, followed by a brief comparison of these technologies when applied to biomass co...

  6. Fire-Induced Response in Foam Encapsulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borek, T.T.; Chu, T.Y.; Erickson, K.L.; Gill, W.; Hobbs, M.L.; Humphries, L.L.; Renlund, A.M.; Ulibarri, T.A.

    1999-04-02

    The paper provides a concise overview of a coordinated experimental/theoretical/numerical program at Sandia National Laboratories to develop an experimentally validated model of fire-induced response of foam-filled engineered systems for nuclear and transportation safety applications. Integral experiments are performed to investigate the thermal response of polyurethane foam-filled systems exposed to fire-like heat fluxes. A suite of laboratory experiments is performed to characterize the decomposition chemistry of polyurethane. Mass loss and energy associated with foam decomposition and chemical structures of the virgin and decomposed foam are determined. Decomposition chemistry is modeled as the degradation of macromolecular structures by bond breaking followed by vaporization of small fragments of the macromolecule with high vapor pressures. The chemical decomposition model is validated against the laboratory data. Data from integral experiments is used to assess and validate a FEM foam thermal response model with the chemistry model developed from the decomposition experiments. Good agreement was achieved both in the progression of the decomposition front and the in-depth thermal response.

  7. Large-scale, thick, self-assembled, nacre-mimetic brick-walls as fire barrier coatings on textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Paramita; Thomas, Helga; Moeller, Martin; Walther, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Highly loaded polymer/clay nanocomposites with layered structures are emerging as robust fire retardant surface coatings. However, time-intensive sequential deposition processes, e.g. layer-by-layer strategies, hinders obtaining large coating thicknesses and complicates an implementation into existing technologies. Here, we demonstrate a single-step, water-borne approach to prepare thick, self-assembling, hybrid fire barrier coatings of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/montmorillonite (MTM) with well-defined, bioinspired brick-wall nanostructure, and showcase their application on textile. The coating thickness on the textile is tailored using different concentrations of CMC/MTM (1–5 wt%) in the coating bath. While lower concentrations impart conformal coatings of fibers, thicker continuous coatings are obtained on the textile surface from highest concentration. Comprehensive fire barrier and fire retardancy tests elucidate the increasing fire barrier and retardancy properties with increasing coating thickness. The materials are free of halogen and heavy metal atoms, and are sourced from sustainable and partly even renewable building blocks. We further introduce an amphiphobic surface modification on the coating to impart oil and water repellency, as well as self-cleaning features. Hence, our study presents a generic, environmentally friendly, scalable, and one-pot coating approach that can be introduced into existing technologies to prepare bioinspired, thick, fire barrier nanocomposite coatings on diverse surfaces.

  8. Genetics of non-syndromic autosomal recessive mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroze, Bushra; Chaudhry, Bushra

    2013-01-01

    Non-syndromic mental retardation is one of the most serious neurodevelopmental disorders, which has a serious impact not only on the affected individuals and their families but also on the health care system and society. Previously research has been more focused on the X-linked mental retardation and only recently studies have shown that non-syndromic autosomal recessive mental retardation is extremely heterogeneous and contributes much more than the X-linked mental retardation. But very little is known about the genes and loci involved in nonsyndromic autosomal recessive mental retardation than the X-linked mental retardation. To date only thirty loci and ten genes have been established associated with the non-syndromic autosomal recessive mental retardation. This short review presents an overview of the current knowledge on clinical information available for the ten genes associated with this unexplored group of genetic disorder.

  9. Flame Retardant Fibers for Human Space Exploration - Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndoff, Evelyne

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has led the development of unique flame retardant fibers for the specific requirements of different space programs. Three of these fibers have greatly contributed to the safety of all the space missions since the Apollo program. Beta alumina-silica microfiber developed for the outer layer of the space suit after the Apollo 1 fire is no longer used and has been replaced by other glass fibers. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) fiber used in the current spacesuit is mostly known today through its trade mark Gore-Tex®. Polybenzimidazole (PBI) filament fiber used in many applications from the Apollo to the Space Shuttle program is no longer available. More recently, TOR"TM" copolymer of polyimide fiber developed during the space shuttle program to resist the atomic oxygen present in Low Earth Orbit has been barely used. The high cost and narrow range of aeronautical and aerospace applications have, however, led to a limited production of these fibers. Only fibers that found niche markets survived. Yet, deep space exploration will require more of these inherently flame retardant fibers than what is available today. There is a need for new flame retardant fabrics inside the space vehicles as well as a need for logistics reduction for long term space missions. Materials like modacrylic and polyimide are good candidates for future flame retardant aerospace fabrics. New fabrics must be developed for astronauts' clothing, as well as crew quarters and habitat. Therefore, both staple and filament fibers of various linear densities are needed for a three years mission to Mars.

  10. Associations between brominated flame retardants in house dust and hormone levels in men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paula I. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stapleton, Heather M. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Box 90328, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Mukherjee, Bhramar [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hauser, Russ [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Meeker, John D., E-mail: meekerj@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used in the manufacture of a variety of materials and consumer products in order to meet fire safety standards. BFRs may persist in the environment and have been detected in wildlife, humans and indoor dust and air. Some BFRs have demonstrated endocrine and reproductive effects in animals, but human studies are limited. In this exploratory study, we measured serum hormone levels and flame retardant concentrations [31 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 6 alternate flame retardants] in house dust from men recruited through a US infertility clinic. PBDE congeners in dust were grouped by commercial mixtures (i.e. penta-, octa- and deca-BDE). In multivariable linear regression models adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), significant positive associations were found between house dust concentrations of pentaBDEs and serum levels of free T4, total T3, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), along with an inverse association with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). There were also positive associations of octaBDE concentrations with serum free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and an inverse association of decaBDE concentrations with testosterone. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was associated with decreased SHBG and increased free androgen index. Dust concentrations of bis-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE) and tetrabromo-diethylhexylphthalate (TBPH) were positively associated with total T3. These findings are consistent with our previous report of associations between PBDEs (BDE 47, 99 and 100) in house dust and hormone levels in men, and further suggest that exposure to contaminants in indoor dust may be leading to endocrine disruption in men. - Highlights: ► Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including PBDEs and alternates were measured. ► Exposure to BFRs is characterized from concentrations in participant vacuum bag dust. ► Exposure to PBDEs and

  11. Fire protection design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  12. WebFIRE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Factor Information Retrieval (FIRE) Data System is a database management system containing EPA's recommended emission estimation factors for criteria and...

  13. Kilns and Firing Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of firing pottery is to change clay, a plastic material, into ceramic, which is aplastic. Examined here are structures designed to fire pottery or faience or to make glass (although the latter might be better described as furnaces). Firing can take place in an open, bonfire-like environment, which can also be enclosed as a firing structure. Beyond this is the development of the true kiln of which there are two main types: updraft and downdraft. The first of these is by far the mos...

  14. Determination of Survivable Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Niehaus, J. E.; Ruff, G. A.; Urban, D. L.; Takahashi, F.; Easton, J. W.; Abbott, A. A.; Graf, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    At NASA, there exists no standardized design or testing protocol for spacecraft fire suppression systems (either handheld or total flooding designs). An extinguisher's efficacy in safely suppressing any reasonable or conceivable fire is the primary benchmark. That concept, however, leads to the question of what a reasonable or conceivable fire is. While there exists the temptation to over-size' the fire extinguisher, weight and volume considerations on spacecraft will always (justifiably) push for the minimum size extinguisher required. This paper attempts to address the question of extinguisher size by examining how large a fire a crew member could successfully survive and extinguish in the confines of a spacecraft. The hazards to the crew and equipment during an accidental fire include excessive pressure rise resulting in a catastrophic rupture of the vehicle skin, excessive temperatures that burn or incapacitate the crew (due to hyperthermia), carbon dioxide build-up or other accumulation of other combustion products (e.g. carbon monoxide). Estimates of these quantities are determined as a function of fire size and mass of material burned. This then becomes the basis for determining the maximum size of a target fire for future fire extinguisher testing.

  15. A process-based fire parameterization of intermediate complexity in a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Li

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A process-based fire parameterization of intermediate complexity has been developed for global simulations in the framework of a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM in an Earth System Model (ESM. Burned area in a grid cell is estimated by the product of fire counts and average burned area of a fire. The scheme comprises three parts: fire occurrence, fire spread, and fire impact. In the fire occurrence part, fire counts rather than fire occurrence probability are calculated in order to capture the observed high burned area fraction in areas of high fire frequency and realize parameter calibration based on MODIS fire counts product. In the fire spread part, post-fire region of a fire is assumed to be elliptical in shape. Mathematical properties of ellipses and some mathematical derivations are applied to improve the equation and assumptions of an existing fire spread parameterization. In the fire impact part, trace gas and aerosol emissions due to biomass burning are estimated, which offers an interface with atmospheric chemistry and aerosol models in ESMs. In addition, flexible time-step length makes the new fire parameterization easily applied to various DGVMs.

    Global performance of the new fire parameterization is assessed by using an improved version of the Community Land Model version 3 with the Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (CLM-DGVM. Simulations are compared against the latest satellite-based Global Fire Emission Database version 3 (GFED3 for 1997–2004. Results show that simulated global totals and spatial patterns of burned area and fire carbon emissions, regional totals and spreads of burned area, global annual burned area fractions for various vegetation types, and interannual variability of burned area are reasonable, and closer to GFED3 than CLM-DGVM simulations with the commonly used Glob-FIRM fire parameterization and the old fire module of CLM-DGVM. Furthermore, average error of simulated trace gas and aerosol

  16. A process-based fire parameterization of intermediate complexity in a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Zeng, X. D.; Levis, S.

    2012-07-01

    A process-based fire parameterization of intermediate complexity has been developed for global simulations in the framework of a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) in an Earth System Model (ESM). Burned area in a grid cell is estimated by the product of fire counts and average burned area of a fire. The scheme comprises three parts: fire occurrence, fire spread, and fire impact. In the fire occurrence part, fire counts rather than fire occurrence probability are calculated in order to capture the observed high burned area fraction in areas of high fire frequency and realize parameter calibration based on MODIS fire counts product. In the fire spread part, post-fire region of a fire is assumed to be elliptical in shape. Mathematical properties of ellipses and some mathematical derivations are applied to improve the equation and assumptions of an existing fire spread parameterization. In the fire impact part, trace gas and aerosol emissions due to biomass burning are estimated, which offers an interface with atmospheric chemistry and aerosol models in ESMs. In addition, flexible time-step length makes the new fire parameterization easily applied to various DGVMs. Global performance of the new fire parameterization is assessed by using an improved version of the Community Land Model version 3 with the Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (CLM-DGVM). Simulations are compared against the latest satellite-based Global Fire Emission Database version 3 (GFED3) for 1997-2004. Results show that simulated global totals and spatial patterns of burned area and fire carbon emissions, regional totals and spreads of burned area, global annual burned area fractions for various vegetation types, and interannual variability of burned area are reasonable, and closer to GFED3 than CLM-DGVM simulations with the commonly used Glob-FIRM fire parameterization and the old fire module of CLM-DGVM. Furthermore, average error of simulated trace gas and aerosol emissions due to biomass burning

  17. Psychomotor Retardation in untreated depressed elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve Lia Beheydt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychomotor retardation (PR is one of the core features in depression according to 17 DSM V1, but also aging in itself causes cognitive and psychomotor slowing. This is the first study 18 investigating psychomotor retardation in relation to cognitive functioning and to the concomitant 19 effect of depression and aging in a geriatric population ruling out contending effects of psychotropic 20 medication. Methods: A group of 28 non-demented depressed elderly is compared to a matched 21 control group of 20 healthy elderly. All participants underwent a test battery containing clinical 22 depression measures, cognitive measures of processing speed, executive function and memory, 23 clinical ratings of psychomotor retardation and objective computerized fine motor skill-tests. 24 Statistical analysis consisted of a General Linear Method (GLM multivariate analysis of variance to 25 compare the clinical, cognitive and psychomotor outcomes of the two groups. Results: Patients 26 performed worse on all clinical, cognitive and psychomotor retardation measures. Both groups 27 showed an effect of cognitive load on fine motor function but the influence was significantly larger 28 for patients than for healthy elderly except for the initiation time. Limitations: due to the restrictive 29 inclusion criteria, only a relatively limited sample size could be obtained. Conclusion: With a 30 medication free sample, an additive effect of depression and aging on cognition and PR in geriatric 31 patients was found,. As this effect was independent of demand of effort (by varying the cognitive 32 load, it was apparently not a motivational slowing effect of depression.

  18. Pediatric alacrima, achalasia, and mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornek, Kemal; Atilla, Huban; Zilelioğlu, Güler

    2002-08-01

    Absence or deficiency of tear volume (alacrima) is rarely seen in pediatric ophthalmology. It is often a part of the multiple systemic anomalies like Riley-Day syndrome and anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, or it may be associated with adrenal gland insufficiency, achalasia, and neurologic disorders like Allgrove's syndrome. We report on a 7-year-old girl presenting alacrima, achalasia, and mental retardation with normal adrenocortical function.

  19. Flexible PVC flame retarded with expandable graphite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Focke, WW

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available by the polymer matrix and the exfoliating graphite prevents the formation of a flammable air fuel mixture. Keywords: Expandable graphite; graphite oxide; graphite intercalation compound; exfoliation; thermal analysis ________________ *Corresponding author: Tel... char residue [6] and this contributes to the mechanisms of flame retardant action [5]. Expandable graphite (EG) is a partially oxidized form of graphite containing intercalated guest species (e.g., sulfuric acid anions) in-between the stacked...

  20. MRI in children with mental retardation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto-Ares, Gustavo; Joyes, Beatrice; Pruvo, Jean-Pierre [Department of Neuroradiology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Lemaitre, Marie-Pierre; Vallee, Louis [Department of Paediatric Neurology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille, Lille (France)

    2003-05-01

    In mental retardation (MR) an aetiological diagnosis is not always obtained despite a detailed history, physical examination and metabolic or genetic investigations. In some of these patients, MRI is recommended and may identify subtle abnormal brain findings. We reviewed the cerebral MRI of children with non-specific mental retardation in an attempt to establish a neuroanatomical picture of this disorder. Thirty children with non-specific MR were selected to undergo cerebral MRI. The examination included supratentorial axial slices, mid-sagittal images and posterior fossa coronal images. Brain malformations, midline and cerebellar abnormalities were studied. In 27 of 30 patients, the neuroimaging evaluation revealed a relatively high incidence of cerebral and posterior fossa abnormalities. The most frequent were: dysplasia of the corpus callosum (46%; hypoplasia, short corpus callosum and vertical splenium), partially opened septum pellucidum and/or cavum vergae (33%), ventriculomegaly (33%), cerebral cortical dysplasia (23%), subarachnoid space enlargement (16.6%), vermian hypoplasia (33%), cerebellar and/or vermian disorganised folia (20%), and subarachnoid spaces enlargement in the posterior fossa (20%). Other anomalies were: enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces (10%), white matter anomalies (10%) and cerebellar or vermian atrophy. MRI has shown a high incidence of subtle cerebral abnormalities and unexpected minor forms of cerebellar cortical dysplasia. Even if most of these abnormalities are considered as subtle markers of brain dysgenesis, their role in the pathogenesis of mental retardation needs further investigation. (orig.)

  1. Fire Environment Mechanism of Lightning Fire for Daxing an Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Lightning fire is one of natural fires; its mechanism is very complex and difficult to control. Daxing'an Mountain is the main region that lightning fires occur in China. Research on lightning fires indicates that special fuel, dry-storm weather and high altitude form the lightning fire environment. Lightning fires have close relation with lights. When lightning occurs, especially dry-lightning which brings little precipitation with surface temperature growing and fuel dehydrating, these often lead to l...

  2. Flame Retardant Polyamide Fibres: The Challenge of Minimising Flame Retardant Additive Contents with Added Nanoclays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Horrocks

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This work shows that halogen-free, flame retarded polyamide 6 (PA6, fabrics may be produced in which component fibres still have acceptable tensile properties and low levels (preferably ≤10 wt % of additives by incorporating a nanoclay along with two types of flame retardant formulations. The latter include (i aluminium diethyl phosphinate (AlPi at 10 wt %, known to work principally in the vapour phase and (ii ammonium sulphamate (AS/dipentaerythritol (DP system present at 2.5 and 1 wt % respectively, believed to be condense phase active. The nanoclay chosen is an organically modified montmorillonite clay, Cloisite 25A. The effect of each additive system is analysed in terms of its ability to maximise both filament tensile properties relative to 100% PA6 and flame retardant behaviour of knitted fabrics in a vertical orientation. None of the AlPi-containing formulations achieved self-extinguishability, although the presence of nanoclay promoted lower burning and melt dripping rates. The AS/DP-containing formulations with total flame retardant levels of 5.5 wt % or less showed far superior properties and with nanoclay, showed fabric extinction times ≤ 39 s and reduced melt dripping. The tensile and flammability results, supported by thermogravimetric analysis, have been interpreted in terms of the mechanism of action of each flame retardant/nanoclay type.

  3. Fire-safe polymers and polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiqing

    The intrinsic relationships between polymer structure, composition and fire behavior have been explored to develop new fire-safe polymeric materials. Different experimental techniques, especially three milligram-scale methods---pyrolysis-combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) and pyrolysis GC/MS---have been combined to fully characterize the thermal decomposition and flammability of polymers and polymer composites. Thermal stability, mass loss rate, char yield and properties of decomposition volatiles were found to be the most important parameters in determining polymer flammability. Most polymers decompose by either an unzipping or a random chain scission mechanism with an endothermic decomposition of 100--900 J/g. Aromatic or heteroaromatic rings, conjugated double or triple bonds and heteroatoms such as halogens, N, O, S, P and Si are the basic structural units for fire-resistant polymers. The flammability of polymers can also be successfully estimated by combining pyrolysis GC/MS results or chemical structures with TGA results. The thermal decomposition and flammability of two groups of inherently fire-resistant polymers---poly(hydroxyamide) (PHA) and its derivatives, and bisphenol C (BPC II) polyarylates---have been systematically studied. PHA and most of its derivatives have extremely low heat release rates and very high char yields upon combustion. PHA and its halogen derivatives can completely cyclize into quasi-polybenzoxazole (PBO) structures at low temperatures. However, the methoxy and phosphate derivatives show a very different behavior during decomposition and combustion. Molecular modeling shows that the formation of an enol intermediate is the rate-determining step in the thermal cyclization of PHA. BPC II-polyarylate is another extremely flame-resistant polymer. It can be used as an efficient flame-retardant agent in copolymers and blends. From PCFC results, the total heat of combustion of these copolymers or blends

  4. Flame-Retardancy Properties of Intumescent Ammonium Poly(Phosphate and Mineral Filler Magnesium Hydroxide in Combination with Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Dittrich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermally reduced graphite oxide (TRGO, containing only four single carbon layers on average, was combined with ammonium polyphosphate (APP and magnesium hydroxide (MH, respectively, in polypropylene (PP. The nanoparticle’s influence on different flame-retarding systems and possible synergisms in pyrolysis, reaction to small flame, fire behavior and mechanical properties were determined. TRGO has a positive effect on the yield stress, which is decreased by both flame-retardants and acts as a synergist with regard to Young’s modulus. The applicability and effects of TRGO as an adjuvant in combination with conventional flame-retardants depends strongly on the particular flame-retardancy mechanism. In the intumescent system, even small concentrations of TRGO change the viscosity of the pyrolysing melt crucially. In case of oxygen index (OI and UL 94 test, the addition of increasing amounts of TRGO to PP/APP had a negative impact on the oxygen index and the UL 94 classification. Nevertheless, systems with only low amounts (≤1 wt% of TRGO achieved V-0 classification in the UL 94 test and high oxygen indices (>31 vol%. TRGO strengthens the residue structure of MH and therefore functions as a strong synergist in terms of OI and UL 94 classification (from HB to V-0.

  5. Hierarchical Polyphosphazene@Molybdenum Disulfide Hybrid Structure for Enhancing the Flame Retardancy and Mechanical Property of Epoxy Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xia; Qiu, Shuilai; Xing, Weiyi; Gangireddy, Chandra Sekhar Reddy; Gui, Zhou; Hu, Yuan

    2017-08-30

    A novel polyphosphazene (PZS) microsphere@molybdenum disulfide nanoflower (MoS2) hierarchical hybrid architecture was first synthesized and applied for enhancing the mechanical performance and flame retardancy of epoxy (EP) resin via a cooperative effect. Herein, using PZS microsphere as the template, a layer of MoS2 nanoflowers were anchored to PZS spheres via a hydrothermal strategy. The well-designed PZS@MoS2 exhibits excellent fire retardancy and a reinforcing effect. The obtained PZS@MoS2 significantly enhanced the flame-retardant performance of EP composites, which can be proved by thermogravimetric and cone calorimeter results. For instance, the incorporation of 3 wt % PZS@MoS2 brought about a 41.3% maximum reduction in the peak heat-release rate and decreased by 30.3% maximum in the total heat release, accompanying the higher graphitized char layer. With regard to mechanical property, the storage modulus of EP/PZS@MoS23.0 in the glassy state was dramatically increased to 22.4 GPa in comparison with that of pure EP (11.15 GPa). It is sensible to know that the improved flame-retardant performance for EP composites is primarily assigned to a physical barrier effect of the MoS2 nanoflowers and the polyphosphazene structure has an positive impact on promoting char formation in the condensed phase.

  6. School Fire Protection: Contents Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School and University, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The heart of a fire protection system is the sprinkler system. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) statistics show that automatic sprinklers dramatically reduce fire damage and loss of life. (Author)

  7. National Fire News- Current Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 to 5) Current hours for the National Fire Information Center are (MST) 8:00 am - 4: ... the daily report. October 6, 2017 Minimal large fire activity was reported yesterday. Four large fires have ...

  8. Parenting provided by adults with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdney, L; Skuse, D

    1993-01-01

    Studies assessing the quality of parenting provided by adults with mental retardation present conflicting conclusions. Some consider the majority to be doing reasonably well, whilst others report frequently unsatisfactory caretaking. There are a number of reasons for such different views. First, inconsistent selection criteria make it hard to compare across studies. In particular, sample composition will be influenced by the recruitment source. For example, if parents have been chosen from voluntary educational programmes a rather different picture is likely to be found than if they have been selected from individuals known to, or referred by, statutory agencies. On the whole, authors working with subjects from the former source have been rather more optimistic than those working with parents referred because there were already serious concerns about parenting difficulties or about delayed child development. Secondly, the majority of studies have used poorly defined global measures of parenting, with variable criteria of what constitutes adequate care. Some have concentrated on physical care and hygiene, whilst others have looked for the presence of affection and warmth. A child's reception into care as the sole measure of the quality of parenting is an unsatisfactory criterion because parental retardation has itself occasionally been used as the basis for removal of a child into care, even in the absence of other evidence of neglect or abuse. Thirdly, methodological flaws are found in studies that have used observational assessments of parenting. Such studies have suggested mothers with mental retardation tend to lack interactive skills (such as high levels of praise and imitation, and low restrictiveness) which are known to be associated with optimal child development. Control groups have often not been matched on social and other variables which might be expected to exert a significant influence upon parenting practices. In addition, the generalisability of

  9. The Fire-Alarm Game: Exit Training Using Negative and Positive Reinforcement under Varied Stimulus Conditions. Short Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holburn, C. Steven; Dougher, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques for training a severely retarded blind client to exit his living unit during a fire drill used a combination of negative and positive reinforcement. Following a shaping procedure, the client learned to leave his living unit from any internal point through generalization training and subsequent test probes. (Author/CL)

  10. Assessing Pediatric Nurses' Knowledge About Chemical Flame Retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distelhorst, Laura; Bieda, Amy; DiMarco, Marguerite; Tullai-McGuinness, Susan

    Chemical flame retardants are routinely applied to children's products and are harmful to their health. Pediatric nurses are in a key position to provide education to caregivers on methods to decrease their children's exposure to these harmful chemicals. However, a critical barrier is the absence of any program to educate nurses about chemical flame retardants. In order to overcome this barrier, we must first assess their knowledge. This article provides key highlights every pediatric nurse should know about chemical flame retardants and reports the results of a knowledge assessment study. The purpose of this study was to (1) assess pediatric nurses' knowledge of chemical flame retardants, (2) determine what topic areas of chemical flame retardants pediatric nurses lack knowledge in, and (3) determine the best method to educate nurses about chemical flame retardants. A single sample cross-sectional questionnaire design was used. A total sample of 417 advanced practice registered nurses and registered nurses completed an online survey about chemical flame retardants. Pediatric nurses' knowledge of chemical flame retardants was low (M=13.4 out of 51). Articles, webinars, and e-mails were the primary preferred methods for education on the subject identified as a result of the survey. Pediatric nurses have a large knowledge deficit related to chemical flame retardants. The data collected from this study will help structure future educational formats for pediatric nurses on chemical flame retardants to increase their knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.

    2006-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical pr

  12. The fire brigade renovates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The new fire engine at CERN's Fire Station. A shiny brand-new fire engine is now attracting all the attention of the members of CERN's fire brigade. Since the beginning of last week this engine has taken over from an 18-year-old one, which has now been 'retired' from service. This modern vehicle, built in Brescia, Italy, is much lighter and more powerful than the old one and is equipped to allow the fire service to tackle most call-outs without the support of at least one other vehicle, as is currently necessary. The new fire engine is designed to transport six fire-fighters, 2000 litres of water, and is equipped not only for fire fighting actions but also to respond initially to any other kind of call-out, such as traffic accidents, chemical incidents, pollution, lightning, etc. It goes almost without saying that it is provided with the most modern safety measures, a low centre of gravity, as well as a special chassis and a combination pump (low and high pressure), which improve the safety and performance ...

  13. Fire forum 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference contains 18 presentations on various aspects of fire prevention and protection within the power production plants and industry, safety of building constructions, cable and transformer problems, risk and safety evaluation methods, management aspects, relevant Norwegian and Icelandic laws and regulations and oil analysis. Some examples of fires and explosions are also presented. (tk)

  14. Fire Incident Reporting Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    are backstage areas, dressing rooms, ice rinks, boxing rings, and basketball floors. 37. Projection room or area. Included are stage light and...or taper . 45. Match. 46. Lighter (flame type). 47. Open fire. Included are campfires, bonfires, warning flares, rubbish fires, open trash burners, open

  15. Hot fire, cool soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Moore, D.; Fernandes, P.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Fernandes, R.; Ferreira, A.J.D.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfires greatly increase a landscape's vulnerability to flooding and erosion events by removing vegetation and changing soils. Fire damage to soil increases with increasing soil temperature, and, for fires where smoldering combustion is absent, the current understanding is that soil temperatures i

  16. Advanced fire information system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Frost, PE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS) is the first near real-time satellite-based fire monitoring system in Africa. It was originally developed for, and funded by, the electrical power utility Eskom, to reduce the impact of wild...

  17. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.

    2006-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  18. Flame Retardation Modification of Paper-Based PVC Wallcoverings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The flame-retarded paper-based polyvinyl chloride (PVC wallcoverings were successfully prepared, using plant fiber paper as base material and adding inorganic flame retardants and flame-retarded plasticizer as additives. Flame retardancy, thermostability, smoke suppression and mechanical properties were tested regarding to the prepared wallcoverings. The results showed that 2ZnO·3B2O3·3.5H2O could improve flame retardancy and thermostability of paper-based PVC wallcoverings; plasticizer tricresyl phosphate increased flame retardancy of the prepared materials auxiliarily. Also, flame-retarded paper-based PVC wallcoverings with higher flame retardancy, smoke suppression and mechanical property was prepared using plant fiber paper with fix quantity of 90 g/m3 as base material, using 2ZnO·3B2O3·3.5H2O as inorganic flame retardant, and using tricresyl phosphate as plasticizer. For the flame-retarded paper-based PVC wallcoverings in this study, the limit oxygen index (LOI reaches 32.3, maximal smoke density is 16.91 %, and the horizontal and longitudinal wet tensile strength reaches 1.38 kN·m−1 and 1.51 kN·m−1 respectively. Meanwhile, its flame retardancy meets the requirements about flame retardancy for material Class B1 listed in Chinese National Standards GB 8624-2012, Classification for burning behavior of building materials and products. This research creates an effective path to prepare paper-based PVC wallcoverings with high flame retardancy.

  19. Reciprocal Fire Protection Agreement between Silver Creek Rangeland Fire Protection Association and Burns Interagency Fire Zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Reciprocal Fire Protection Agreement between the Silver Creek Rangeland Fire Protection Association and the Burns Interagency Fire Zone. The objectives...

  20. Evaluation of the flammability and thermal properties of a new flame retardant coating applied on polyester fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Younis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of non-durable flame retardant (NDFR coating of samples of polyester fabric untreated and treated with UV/Ozone for different periods. For this purpose, these samples were tested by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, thermal analysis tests as thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. The ignition test was applied using limiting oxygen index (LOI, flame chamber (UL/94. Results indicated that both AZ2 (dried at room temperature and AZ8–12 (dried at 80 °C for 30 min after coating with non-durable fire retardant (NDFR coating polyester samples have significantly decreased the rate of burning and increased the limiting oxygen index.