WorldWideScience

Sample records for fire resistant synthetic

  1. Application of synthetic fire-resistant oils in oil systems of turbine equipment for NPPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimova, L. A.

    2017-10-01

    Results of the investigation of the synthetic fire-resistant turbine oil Fyrquel-L state in oil systems of turbosets under their operation in the equipment and oil supply facilities of nuclear power plants (NPPs) are presented. On the basis of the analysis of the operating experience, it is established that, for reliable and safe operation of the turbine equipment, at which oil systems synthetic fire-resistant oils on the phosphoric acid esters basis are used, special attention should be paid to two main factors, namely, both the guarantee of the normalized oil water content under the operation and storage and temperature regime of the operation. Methods of the acid number maintenance and reduction are shown. Results of the analysis and investigation of influence of temperature and of the variation of the qualitative state of the synthetic fair-resistant oil on its water content are reported. It is shown that the fire-resistant turbine oils are characterized by high hydrophilicity, and, in distinction to the mineral turbine oils, are capable to contain a significant amount of dissolved water, which is not extracted under the use of separation technologies. It is shown that the more degradation products are contained in oil and higher acid number, the more amount of dissolved water it is capable to retain. It is demonstrated that the organization of chemical control of the total water content of fireresistant oils with the use of the coulometric method is an important element to support the reliable operation of oil systems. It is recommended to use automatic controls of water content for organization of daily monitoring of oil state in the oil system. Recommendations and measures for improvement of oil operation on the NPP, the water content control, the use of oil cleaning plants, and the oil transfer for storage during repair works are developed.

  2. Fire Resistant, Moisture Barrier Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A waterproof and breathable, fire-resistant laminate is provided for use in tents, garments, shoes, and covers, especially in industrial, military and emergency situations. The laminate permits water vapor evaporation while simultaneously preventing liquid water penetration. Further, the laminate is fire-resistant and significantly reduces the danger of toxic compound production when exposed to flame or other high heat source. The laminate may be applied to a variety of substrates and is comprised of a silicone rubber and plurality of fire-resistant, inherently thermally-stable polyimide particles.

  3. Fire Resistance of Geopolymer Concretes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-21

    and general appearance to Portland cement concrete. Geopolymer concrete has been proposed as an alternative to Portland cement concrete in...1 Project report – Grant FA23860814096, "Fire resistance of geopolymer concretes" – J. Provis, University of Melbourne 1. Background and...experimental program This project provided funding for us to carry out fire testing of geopolymer concrete specimens and associated laboratory

  4. Fire resistant nuclear fuel cask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Richard C.; Moss, Marvin

    1979-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a fire resistant nuclear fuel cask employing reversibly thermally expansible bands between adjacent cooling fins such that normal outward flow of heat is not interfered with, but abnormal inward flow of heat is impeded or blocked.

  5. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  6. Fire resistance of structural composite lumber products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White

    2006-01-01

    Use of structural composite lumber products is increasing. In applications requiring a fire resistance rating, calculation procedures are used to obtain the fire resistance rating of exposed structural wood products. A critical factor in the calculation procedures is char rate for ASTM E 119 fire exposure. In this study, we tested 14 structural composite lumber...

  7. Fire resistance of slim floor beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fellinger, J.H.H.; Twilt, L.

    1996-01-01

    Slim floor beams support decks on a wide plate welded on the lower flange of an 1- shaped beam. The air gap between the plate and the lower flange increases the fire resistance of the beam. A Finite Element Method (FEM) model, validated with three fire tests, is used to set up simple calculation

  8. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground...

  9. Heat-resistant anemometers for fire research

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Murray; Clive M. Countryman

    1968-01-01

    Heat-resistant anemometers have been developed for measuring horizontal and vertical air flow in fire behavior studies. The anemometers will continue to produce data as long as the anemometer body is less than 650°F. They can survive brief immersion in flame without major damage. These air-flow sensors have aluminum bodies and rotor hubs and stainless steel...

  10. Fire Resistant Panels for the Tunnel Linings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravit Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents the results of studies of innovative materials in the field of experimental and theoretical research fire resistance fireproof panels Pyro-Safe Aestuver T. Owing to the assembly simplicity, materials cheapness, high ecological standard, recycling, reuse potential, are benefit. Research work is running to improve the knowledge about fireproof panels Pyro-Safe Aestuver T for tunnel lining, its basic performance, its long term behavior and in particular also its fire proof for example when used for the lining of road tunnels.

  11. Fire resistant films for aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtides, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative sandwich panel decorative films were investigated as replacements for the polyvinyl fluoride currently used in aircraft interiors. Candidate films were studied for flammability, smoke emission, toxic gas emission, flame spread, and suitability as a printing surface for the decorative acrylic ink system. Several of the candidate films tested were flame modified polyvinyl fluoride, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyimide, polyamide, polysulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyethersulfone, polybenzimidazole, polycarbonate, polyparabanic acid, polyphosphazene, polyetheretherketon, and polyester. The films were evaluated as pure films only, films silk-screened with an acrylic ink, and films adhered to a phenolic fiberglass substrate. Films which exhibited the highest fire resistant properties included PEEK polyetheretherketon, Aramid polyamide, and ISO-BPE polyester.

  12. 30 CFR 77.1913 - Fire-resistant wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire-resistant wood. 77.1913 Section 77.1913 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Shaft Sinking § 77.1913 Fire-resistant wood. Except for crossties, timbers, and other wood products...

  13. Fire resistance of extruded hollow-core slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Giuliani, Luisa; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2016-01-01

    Prefabricated extruded hollow-core slabs are preferred building components for floor structures in several countries. It is therefore important to be able to document the fire resistance of these slabs proving fulfilment of standard fire resistance requirements of 60- and 120 minutes found in most...

  14. Fire resistance of extruded hollow-core slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Giuliani, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – Prefabricated extruded hollow-core slabs are preferred building components for floor structures in several countries. It is therefore important to be able to document the fire resistance of these slabs proving fulfilment of standard fire resistance requirements of 60 and 120 min found...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1107-2 - Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids... Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-2 Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements. Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and...

  16. INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF MULTILAYERED FIRE RESISTANT STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. GUOBYS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental and numerical investigations of thermal behavior under real fire conditions of new generation multilayered fire resistant structure (fire door, dimensions H × W × D: 2090 × 980 × 52 mm combining high strength and fire safety. This fire door consists of two steel sheets (thickness 1.5 and 0.7 mm with stone wool ( = 33 kg/m3, k = 0.037 W/mK, E = 5000 N/m2,  = 0.2 insulating layer in between. One surface of the structure was heated in fire furnace for specified period of time of 60 min. Temperature and deformation of opposite surface were measured from outside at selected measuring points during fire resistance test. Results are presented as temperature-time and thermal deformation-time graphs. Experimental results were compared with numerical temperature field simulation results obtained from SolidWorks®Simulation software. Numerical results were found to be in good agreement with experimental data. The percent differences between door temperatures from simulation and fire resistance test don’t exceed 8%. This shows that thermal behaviour of such multilayered structures can be investigated numerically, thus avoiding costly and time-consuming fire resistance tests. It is established that investigated structure should be installed in a way that places thicker steel sheet closer to the potential heat source than thinner one. It is also obtained that stone wool layer of higher density should be used to improve fire resistance of the structure.

  17. Post-earthquake fire resistance of steel buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelinek, T.; Zania, V.; Giuliani, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    and are responsible for casualties and major additional damage to buildings and other constructions. Despite a number of research studies on the topic, it is at present unclear as to what extent the occurrence of a previous earthquake could affect the response of a structure to fire. The response of a moment......-resistant steel frame to post-earthquake fires (PEFs) is investigated and compared with the response of the undamaged frame exposed to fire only, by means of numerical analyses performed using a commercial finite element software. The frame considered as a case study is not insulated against fire...

  18. Probability based high temperature engineering creep and structural fire resistance

    CERN Document Server

    Razdolsky, Leo

    2017-01-01

    This volume on structural fire resistance is for aerospace, structural, and fire prevention engineers; architects, and educators. It bridges the gap between prescriptive- and performance-based methods and simplifies very complex and comprehensive computer analyses to the point that the structural fire resistance and high temperature creep deformations will have a simple, approximate analytical expression that can be used in structural analysis and design. The book emphasizes methods of the theory of engineering creep (stress-strain diagrams) and mathematical operations quite distinct from those of solid mechanics absent high-temperature creep deformations, in particular the classical theory of elasticity and structural engineering. Dr. Razdolsky’s previous books focused on methods of computing the ultimate structural design load to the different fire scenarios. The current work is devoted to the computing of the estimated ultimate resistance of the structure taking into account the effect of high temperatur...

  19. Fire resistance of single pitched-roof steel portal frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Ferrán Gozálvez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The standard procedure of structural fire design is based on the simplified analysis of single members. This method leads to conservative results in the case of structures able to redistribution of forces. The failure mechanism affecting both life safety and fire propagation is unknown. This work proposes a methodology for the advanced fire calculation of single pitched-roof portal frame for an agroindustrial building according to the Spanish Specifications with the structural software SAP2000. A non-linear dynamic and plastic, geometric (P-Delta and large-displacements calculation method has been developed. The different failure mechanisms and their influence are studied in terms of fire time resistance, human hazard and good safety. Also, parametric analyses were conducted: load level, rotational stiffness of the base and finally, support fire protection.

  20. Fire resistance in American heavy timber construction history and preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Heitz, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents a history of heavy timber construction (HTC) in the United States, chronicling nearly two centuries of building history, from inception to a detailed evaluation of one of the best surviving examples of the type, with an emphasis on fire resistance. The book does not limit itself in scope to serving only as a common history. Rather, it provides critical analysis of HTC in terms of construction methods, design, technical specifications, and historical performance under fire conditions. As such, this book provides readers with a truly comprehensive understanding and exploration of heavy timber construction in the United States and its performance under fire conditions.

  1. Fire blight resistance in wild accessions of Malus sieversii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) is a devastating bacterial disease in apple that results in severe economic losses. Epidemics are becoming more common as susceptible cultivars and rootstocks are being planted, and control is becoming more difficult as antibiotic-resistant strains develop. Resistan...

  2. Numerical prediction of fire resistance of RC beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serega, Szymon; Wosatko, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Fire resistance of different structural members is an important issue of their strength and durability. A simple but effective tool to investigate multi-span reinforced concrete beams exposed to fire is discussed in the paper. Assumptions and simplifications of the theory as well as numerical aspects are briefly reviewed. Two steps of nonlinear finite element analysis and two levels of observation are distinguished. The first step is the solution of transient heat transfer problem in representative two-dimensional reinforced concrete cross-section of a beam. The second part is a nonlinear mechanical analysis of the whole beam. All spans are uniformly loaded, but an additional time-dependent thermal load due to fire acts on selected ones. Global changes of curvature and bending moment functions induce deterioration of the stiffness. Benchmarks are shown to confirm the correctness of the model.

  3. Fire resistance properties of ceramic wool fiber reinforced intumescent coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amir, N., E-mail: norlailiamir@petronas.com.my; Othman, W. M. S. W., E-mail: wamosa@gmail.com; Ahmad, F., E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my [Mechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    This research studied the effects of varied weight percentage and length of ceramic wool fiber (CWF) reinforcement to fire retardant performance of epoxy-based intumescent coating. Ten formulations were developed using ammonium polyphosphate (APP), expandable graphite (EG), melamine (MEL) and boric acid (BA). The mixing was conducted in two stages; powdered materials were grinded in Rocklabs mortar grinder and epoxy-mixed using Caframo mixer at low speed mixing. The samples were applied on mild steel substrate and exposed to 500°C heat inside Carbolite electric furnace. The char expansion and its physical properties were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were conducted to inspect the fiber dispersion, fiber condition and the cell structure of both coatings and chars produced. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted to study the thermal properties of the coating such as degradation temperature and residual weight. Fire retardant performance was determined by measuring backside temperature of substrate in 1-hour, 1000°C Bunsen burner test according to UL 1709 fire regime. The results showed that intumescent coating reinforced with CWF produced better fire resistance performance. When compared to unreinforced coating, formulation S6-15 significantly reduced steel temperature at approximately 34.7% to around 175°C. However, higher fiber weight percentage had slightly decreased fire retardant performance of the coating.

  4. Fire resistance properties of ceramic wool fiber reinforced intumescent coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, N.; Othman, W. M. S. W.; Ahmad, F.

    2015-07-01

    This research studied the effects of varied weight percentage and length of ceramic wool fiber (CWF) reinforcement to fire retardant performance of epoxy-based intumescent coating. Ten formulations were developed using ammonium polyphosphate (APP), expandable graphite (EG), melamine (MEL) and boric acid (BA). The mixing was conducted in two stages; powdered materials were grinded in Rocklabs mortar grinder and epoxy-mixed using Caframo mixer at low speed mixing. The samples were applied on mild steel substrate and exposed to 500°C heat inside Carbolite electric furnace. The char expansion and its physical properties were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were conducted to inspect the fiber dispersion, fiber condition and the cell structure of both coatings and chars produced. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted to study the thermal properties of the coating such as degradation temperature and residual weight. Fire retardant performance was determined by measuring backside temperature of substrate in 1-hour, 1000°C Bunsen burner test according to UL 1709 fire regime. The results showed that intumescent coating reinforced with CWF produced better fire resistance performance. When compared to unreinforced coating, formulation S6-15 significantly reduced steel temperature at approximately 34.7% to around 175°C. However, higher fiber weight percentage had slightly decreased fire retardant performance of the coating.

  5. Fire-resistant materials for aircraft passenger seat construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. L.; Tesoro, G. C.; Moussa, A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal response characteristics of fabric and fabric-foam assemblies are described. The various aspects of the ignition behavior of contemporary aircraft passenger seat upholstery fabric materials relative to fabric materials made from thermally stable polymers are evaluated. The role of the polymeric foam backing on the thermal response of the fabric-foam assembly is also ascertained. The optimum utilization of improved fire-resistant fabric and foam materials in the construction of aircraft passenger seats is suggested.

  6. Development of fire resistant, nontoxic aircraft interior materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, G.; Silverman, B.; Tajima, Y.

    1976-01-01

    All available newly developed nonmetallic polymers were examined for possible usage in developing fire resistant, nontoxic nonmetallic parts or assemblies for aircraft interiors. Specifically, feasibility for the development of clear films for new decorative laminates, compression moldings, injection molded parts, thermoformed plastic parts, and flexible foams were given primary considerations. Preliminary data on the flame resistant characteristics of the materials were obtained. Preliminary toxicity data were generated from samples of materials submitted from the contractor. Preliminary data on the physical characteristics of various thermoplastic materials to be considered for either compression molded, injection molded, or thermoformed parts were obtained.

  7. An evaluation of propane as a fuel for testing fire-resistant oil spill containment booms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, W. D.; Twilley, W. H.

    1997-01-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted to measure and compare the thermal exposure to a fire-resistant boom from liquid hydrocarbon fuel and propane fires. The objective was to test the potential of propane fueled fires as a fire source for testing fire-resistant oil spill containment booms.Thermal exposure from propane fires have been measured with and without waves. Results indicated that although propane diffusion flames on water look like liquid hydrocarbon fuel flames and produce very little smoke, the heat flux at the boom location from propane fires is about 60 per cent of that from liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. Despite the attractive features in terms of ease of application, control and smoke emissions, it was concluded that the low heat flux would preclude the application of propane as a fuel for evaluating fire resistant containment booms. 2 refs., 7 figs

  8. Antiangiogenic Resistance and Cancer Metabolism: Opportunities for Synthetic Lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Simon; Funes, Juan M; Harris, Adrian L; Quintela-Fandino, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Antiangiogenic resistance is a major problem in cancer therapeutics. Preclinical research has identified several compensatory proangiogenic pathways that arise upon vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition, several of which have led to the development of novel drugs. However, the combination of two or more targeted agents in the angiogenesis system is hampered by toxicity, as the system is involved in normal physiology. We propose a different approach for improving the efficacy of this drug class, which takes advantage of aberrant cancer metabolism. Several features distinguish cancer metabolism from that of normal cells, including increased glycolysis, glutaminolysis, and pentose-phosphate shunt, as well as an anaplerotic shift of the Krebs cycle. In addition, these aberrations are driven by most of the common mutations that can be targeted by drugs. Antiangiogenics may hamper the ability of cancer to sustain aberrant metabolism due to their impacts on nutrient and oxygen supplies, and thus they may induce some metabolic pathways to become essential for tumor survival (induced essentiality or contextual lethality, a type of synthetic lethality). Thus, some metabolic and signaling pathways that are otherwise nonessential may induce synthetic lethality when inhibited in combination with antiangiogenics. The key problems, however, are interpatient and intratumor heterogeneity, as not all patients with the same tumor type show the same metabolic traits and the same metabolic reprogramming in response to antiangiogenics. With each cancer there are heterogeneous hypoxic areas. Integrating dynamic tracking of metabolism may allow us to tailor our choices of companion drugs with antiangiogenics, taking advantage of window-of-opportunity designs.

  9. Evidence of fire resistance of hollow-core slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Giuliani, Luisa

    Hollow-core slabs have during the past 50 years comprised a variety of different structures with different cross-sections and reinforcement. At present the extruded hollow-core slabs without cross-reinforcement in the bottom flange and usually round or oval longitudinal channels (holes) are predo......Hollow-core slabs have during the past 50 years comprised a variety of different structures with different cross-sections and reinforcement. At present the extruded hollow-core slabs without cross-reinforcement in the bottom flange and usually round or oval longitudinal channels (holes....... The present paper analyses the evidence now available for assessment of the fire resistance of extruded hollow-core slabs. The 162 fire tests from the Holcofire report are compared against the requirements for testing from the product standard for hollow-core slabs EN1168 and knowledge about the possible...

  10. Resistance is not futile: The response of hardwoods to fire-caused wounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaine Kennedy Sutherland; Kevin Smith

    2000-01-01

    Fires wound trees; but not all of them, and not always. Specific fire behavior and differences among tree species and individual trees produce variable patterns of wounding and wound response. Our work focuses on the relationships between fire behavior and tree biology to better understand how hardwood trees resist injury to the lower stem and either survive or succumb...

  11. 76 FR 32843 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Fire-Resistant Fiber for Production of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Fire-Resistant Fiber for Production of Military Uniforms (DFARS... of the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber in solicitations issued before January 1, 2015. DATES.... [cir] E-mail: [email protected] . Include DFARS Case 2011-D021 in the subject line of the message. [cir...

  12. Resistance of eastern hardwood stems to fire injury and damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the protective features and defensive responses of eastern hardwood species exposed to fire. Trees survive fire through protective features such as thick bark and the induced defenses of compartmentalization. Dissection of trees exposed to prescribed fire in an oak forest in southern Ohio highlights the need to distinguish between bark scorch, stem...

  13. FIRE-RESISTANT SHIELDING COATING BASED ON SHUNGITE-CONTAINING PAINT

    OpenAIRE

    BELOUSOVA Elena Sergeevna; NASONOVA Natalia Viktorovna; LYNKOV Leonid Mihailovich; BORBOTKO Timofei Valentinovich; LISOVSKIY Dmitriy Nikolaevich

    2013-01-01

    Today when specific shielded facilities are designed the construction materials and shields should meet a range of fire safety requirements. A composite coating on the basis of a water-based fire-resistant paint filled with shungite nanopowder can be applied onto walls, floors, ceilings and other surfaces in the shielded areas to reduce electromagnetic radiation and simultaneously to ensure fire safety. Shungit is a mineral with multilayer carbon fullerene globules which diameter is 10–30 nm....

  14. Structural fire resistance experimental research priority needs of U.S. industry

    CERN Document Server

    Almand, Kathleen H

    2012-01-01

    Structural Fire Resistance Experimental Research – Priority Needs of U.S. Industry provides a synthesis of stakeholder input to a prioritized agenda for research at the National Fire Research Laboratory (NFRL) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) designed to accelerate the implementation of performance-based fire engineering for structures. The NFRL presents a broad range of unanswered questions regarding the performance of real structures in fire conditions, and informs performance-based design methods and standards in this field. The authors conducted a comprehensive literature review of large-scale structural fire testing and compiled research needs from a variety of sources. The book addresses major issues of broad concern in the fire community, such as real fire exposure and structural response, composite floor system performance, enhancing modeling performance, and understanding the embedded safety features in design methods. It concludes with a prioritized set of research reco...

  15. Synthetic RNA Silencing in Bacteria – Antimicrobial Discovery and Resistance Breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Liam; Stach, James E. M.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing incidence and prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria threatens the “antibiotic miracle.” Conventional antimicrobial drug development has failed to replace the armamentarium needed to combat this problem, and novel solutions are urgently required. Here we review both natural and synthetic RNA silencing and its potential to provide new antibacterials through improved target selection, evaluation, and screening. Furthermore, we focus on synthetic RNA silencers as a novel ...

  16. Fire and simulated herbivory have antagonistic effects on resistance of savanna grasslands to alien shrub invasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Beest, Mariska; Mpandza, Nokukhanya J.; Olff, Han

    Question Resistance of the native community has been identified as an important factor limiting invasion success and invader impact. However, to what extent resistance interacts with disturbance to control invasion success remains unclear. We studied the interaction between biotic resistance, fire

  17. Synthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally materials have been associated with a series of physical properties that can be used as inputs to production and manufacturing. Recently we witnessed an interest in materials considered not only as ‘true matter’, but also as new breeds where geometry, texture, tooling and finish are able to provoke new sensations when they are applied to a substance. These artificial materials can be described as synthetic because they are the outcome of various qualities that are not necessarily true to the original matter, but they are the combination of two or more parts, whether by design or by natural processes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of architectural surfaces to produce effects through the invention of new breeds of artificial matter, using micro-scale details derived from Nature as an inspiration.

  18. Fatigue Characterization of Fire Resistant Syntactic Foam Core Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Mynul

    Eco-Core is a fire resistant material for sandwich structural application; it was developed at NC A&T State University. The Eco-Core is made of very small amount of phenolic resin and large volume of flyash by a syntactic process. The process development, static mechanical and fracture, fire and toxicity safety and water absorption properties and the design of sandwich structural panels with Eco-Core material was established and published in the literature. One of the important properties that is needed for application in transportation vehicles is the fatigue performance under different stress states. Fatigue data are not available even for general syntactic foams. The objective of this research is to investigate the fatigue performance of Eco-Core under three types of stress states, namely, cyclic compression, shear and flexure, then document failure modes, and develop empherical equations for predicting fatigue life of Eco-Core under three stress states. Compression-Compression fatigue was performed directly on Eco-Core cylindrical specimen, whereas shear and flexure fatigue tests were performed using sandwich beam made of E glass-Vinyl Ester face sheet and Eco-Core material. Compression-compression fatigue test study was conducted at two values of stress ratios (R=10 and 5), for the maximum compression stress (sigmamin) range of 60% to 90% of compression strength (sigmac = 19.6 +/- 0.25 MPa) for R=10 and 95% to 80% of compression strength for R=5. The failure modes were characterized by the material compliance change: On-set (2% compliance change), propagation (5%) and ultimate failure (7%). The number of load cycles correspond to each of these three damages were characterized as on-set, propagation and total lives. A similar approach was used in shear and flexure fatigue tests with stress ratio of R=0.1. The fatigue stress-number of load cycles data followed the standard power law equation for all three stress states. The constant of the equation were

  19. Fire resistance of ultra-high performance fibre reinforced concrete due to heating and cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazri Fadzli Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the performance of ultra-high performance fibre reinforced concrete (UHPFRC at elevated temperatures. The specimens were exposed to high temperatures, specifically 200, 400, and 600 °C, for 2 h.The fire resistance performance of the specimens was classified on the basis of their compressive strength, spalling, and weight loss; residual strength after heating was also examined. Results showed that UHPFRC processes excellent fire resistance in terms of flame spread and fire growth. While strength loss was not significant at low temperatures, the specimen subjected to high temperature spalled severly and showed deterioration because of heat.

  20. High fire resistance in blocks containing coal combustion fly ashes and bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Arenas, Celia; Marrero, Madelyn; Leiva, Carlos; Solís-Guzmán, Jaime; Vilches Arenas, Luis F

    2011-08-01

    Fire resistance recycled blocks, containing fly ash and bottom ash from coal combustion power plants with a high fire resistance, are studied in this paper by testing different compositions using Portland cement type II, sand, coarse aggregate and fly ash (up to 50% of total weight) and bottom ash (up to 30% of total weight). The fire resistance, physical-chemical (density, pH, humidity, and water absorption capacity), mechanical (compressive and flexural strength), and leaching properties are measured on blocks made with different proportions of fly ash and bottom ash. The standard fire resistance test is reproduced on 28cm-high, 18cm-wide and 3cm-thick units, and is measured as the time needed to reach a temperature of 180°C on the non-exposed surface of the blocks for the different compositions. The results show that the replacement of fine aggregate with fly ash and of coarse aggregate with bottom ash have a remarkable influence on fire resistance and cause no detriment to the mechanical properties of the product. Additionally, according to the leaching tests, no environmental problems have been detected in the product. These results lead to an analysis of the recycling possibilities of these by-products in useful construction applications for the passive protection against fire. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fire-resistant pits: Reducing the probability of accidental plutonium dispersal from fuel fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    Reductions in risk of Pu dispersal from hydrocarbon fuel fires were estimated using pool and spill fire data. Improvements in FRP temperature capabilities, on a system-independent basis, lead to the following estimated reductions in risk, using three probabilistic temperature distributions normalized to a temperature capability of 640[degree]C (the melting point of plutonium): 1OOO[degree]C - factor of 3 to 5; 11OO[degree]C - factor of 10 to 13; and 1200[degree]C - factor of 120 to 300. The above values would, of course, vary for a different normalization temperature. These values were derived to be as system-independent as possible. Incorporation of fuel fire durations or of longer time-averaging (than the two minutes employed in this study) would tend to increase these FRP improvement factors. Incorporation of propellant fires, burning metal or of combined impact/fire accidents would tend to decrease them. Further studies of fuel fire durations, particularly of a fuel fire duration model, is recommended, as is an uncertainty analysis of the temperature distributions.

  2. Exposure of heat resistant materials in a synthetic biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivarsson, Bo [Avesta Sheffield Research and Development (Sweden)

    1996-08-01

    Uncooled specimens of nine heat resistant alloys have been exposed to a gas, similar to that occurring in biomass gasification. The test temperature wax {approx} 900 deg C and the exposure time {approx} 2000 hours. The flow rate of the gas was so high that it never reached its equilibrium composition. Thermodynamical evaluations indicated that, besides oxidation, both sulphidation and carbon pick-up were possible corrosion modes. In the post test examinations, however, only oxidation could be confirmed. Most alloys were only slightly attacked, since a protective chromia rich oxide layer was formed on all specimens as a result of the low oxygen partial pressure of the gas. However, in Alloys 601 and 800, the low oxygen activity led to the formation of an internal grain boundary alumina network. 353 MA was even more severely attacked. The formation of an internal silica network seems to have initiated catastrophic oxidation attacks on several locations. This unexpected behaviour is probably a result of the sheet specimen`s being heavily cold deformed and not annealed afterwards. 11 refs, 16 figs, 2 tabs

  3. FIRE-RESISTANCE PROPERTIES RESEARCH OF “WATER GLASS - GRAPHITE MICROPARTICLES” COMPOSITE MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Pitukhin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. Research results of the fire-resistance for “water glass - graphite microparticles” composite material (CM are given. The method for fire-resistance test of the micro composition is suggested in order to determine the limit state of the experimental samples under hightemperature action. Method. Test-benchequipment being used for research includes metering devices of temperature and time, as well as laboratory electric furnace PL20 with a maximum temperature in the chamber up to 1250ºC. Fire-resistance limit for the test samples of composite material is determined by the loss of insulating ability (I. For that purpose, the time is obtained from the test beginning with the standard temperature mode up to a limiting condition. Main Results. In accordance with the requirements of regulatory documents fire-resistance limit I15 has been obtained equal to 15 minutes. The qualitative and quantitative phase analysis of the CM structure has been done. By the study of samples by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy we have determined that the material retains the same chemical structure with a monotonic heating above 700° C. Practical Relevance. The composite material with obtained characteristics can be used as a protective coating for building constructions with the aim of fire-resistance enhancement and fuel hazard reduction.

  4. Low-smoke, halogenfree ship-offshore/onshore cables with improved flame retardance and fire resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, J. R.; Holte, T. A.; Johansen, E.

    Cables with improved fire resistance and flame retardance have been developed. They will continue to function at least 3 hours even at temperatures up to 1000 C and do not propagate fire when tested according to IEC 332 part 3 1982, category A. Made with halogenfree materials they give off no corrosive gases and very little visible smoke in cases of fire. Cables are made for power, signal and instrument installations in hospitals, high rise buildings, railroad cars, subways, on board ship, oil rigs and oil production platforms. The offshore cables are specially constructed to withstand the rugged climatic conditions in the North Sea area.

  5. Termites Are Resistant to the Effects of Fire at Multiple Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitabile, Sarah C.; Nimmo, Dale G.; Bennett, Andrew F.; Clarke, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Termites play an important ecological role in many ecosystems, particularly in nutrient-poor arid and semi-arid environments. We examined the distribution and occurrence of termites in the fire-prone, semi-arid mallee region of south-eastern Australia. In addition to periodic large wildfires, land managers use fire as a tool to achieve both asset protection and ecological outcomes in this region. Twelve taxa of termites were detected by using systematic searches and grids of cellulose baits at 560 sites, clustered in 28 landscapes selected to represent different fire mosaic patterns. There was no evidence of a significant relationship between the occurrence of termite species and time-since-fire at the site scale. Rather, the occurrence of species was related to habitat features such as the density of mallee trees and large logs (>10 cm diameter). Species richness was greater in chenopod mallee vegetation on heavier soils in swales, rather than Triodia mallee vegetation of the sandy dune slopes. At the landscape scale, there was little evidence that the frequency of occurrence of termite species was related to fire, and no evidence that habitat heterogeneity generated by fire influenced termite species richness. The most influential factor at the landscape scale was the environmental gradient represented by average annual rainfall. Although termites may be associated with flammable habitat components (e.g. dead wood), they appear to be buffered from the effects of fire by behavioural traits, including nesting underground, and the continued availability of dead wood after fire. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis that a fine-scale, diverse mosaic of post-fire age-classes will enhance the diversity of termites. Rather, termites appear to be resistant to the effects of fire at multiple spatial scales. PMID:26571383

  6. Termites Are Resistant to the Effects of Fire at Multiple Spatial Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Avitabile

    Full Text Available Termites play an important ecological role in many ecosystems, particularly in nutrient-poor arid and semi-arid environments. We examined the distribution and occurrence of termites in the fire-prone, semi-arid mallee region of south-eastern Australia. In addition to periodic large wildfires, land managers use fire as a tool to achieve both asset protection and ecological outcomes in this region. Twelve taxa of termites were detected by using systematic searches and grids of cellulose baits at 560 sites, clustered in 28 landscapes selected to represent different fire mosaic patterns. There was no evidence of a significant relationship between the occurrence of termite species and time-since-fire at the site scale. Rather, the occurrence of species was related to habitat features such as the density of mallee trees and large logs (>10 cm diameter. Species richness was greater in chenopod mallee vegetation on heavier soils in swales, rather than Triodia mallee vegetation of the sandy dune slopes. At the landscape scale, there was little evidence that the frequency of occurrence of termite species was related to fire, and no evidence that habitat heterogeneity generated by fire influenced termite species richness. The most influential factor at the landscape scale was the environmental gradient represented by average annual rainfall. Although termites may be associated with flammable habitat components (e.g. dead wood, they appear to be buffered from the effects of fire by behavioural traits, including nesting underground, and the continued availability of dead wood after fire. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis that a fine-scale, diverse mosaic of post-fire age-classes will enhance the diversity of termites. Rather, termites appear to be resistant to the effects of fire at multiple spatial scales.

  7. Fire Resistance of Large-Scale Cross-Laminated Timber Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henek, Vladan; Venkrbec, Václav; Novotný, Miloslav

    2017-12-01

    Wooden structures are increasingly being used in the construction of residential buildings. A common and often published reason to avoid wooden structures is their insufficient fire resistance, which reduces bearing capacity. For this reason, composite sandwich structures began to be designed to eliminate this drawback, as well as others. Recently, however, the trend is for a return to the original, wood-only variant and a search is underway for new technical means of improving the properties of such structures. Many timber structure technologies are known, but structures made from cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels have been used very often in recent years. CLT panels, also known as X-LAM, are currently gaining popularity in Europe. In the case of CLT panels composed of several layers of boards, they can be said to offer a certain advantage in that after the surface layer of a board has burnt and the subsurface layer has dried, oxygen is not drawn to the unburned wood for further combustion and thus the burning process ceases. CLT panels do not need to be specially modified or coated with fire resistant materials, although they are usually lined with gypsum-fibre fire resistant boards due to guidelines set out in the relevant standards. This paper presents a new method for the assessment of load-bearing perimeter walls fabricated from CLT panels without the use of an inner fire-retardant lining to ensure fire resistance at the level required by European standards (i.e. those harmonized for the Czech construction industry). The calculations were verified through laboratory tests which show that better parameters can be achieved during the classification of structures from the fire resistance point of view. The aim of the article is to utilize the results of assessment and testing by an accredited laboratory in order to demonstrate the possibilities of using CLT panels for the construction of multistorey as well as multi-purpose buildings in the Czech Republic.

  8. Calculation of Limits of Fire Resistance for Structures with Fire Retardant Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivtcov Artem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to fireproof processing of steel structures. The main task is to consider different types of sections of rod elements and to choose the most effective section for a steel column from the point of view of fire protection. For the solution of this task the steel columns with various cross sections working in identical entry conditions were considered. All necessary calculations for all types of sections were carried out. Results of calculations were presented in the summary table according to which the comparative analysis was made. At the end of work the conclusion that the compound section from four equal corners is the most effective from the point of view of fire protection.

  9. Study of the fire resistant behavior of unfilled and carbon nanofibers reinforced polybenzimidazole coating for structural applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, H.M.S.; Stec, A.A.; Patel, P.; Bhowmik, S.; Benedictus, R.

    2013-01-01

    With increasing interest in epoxy-based carbon fiber composites for structural applications, it is important to improve the fire resistant properties of these materials. The fire resistant performance of these materials can be improved either by using high performance epoxy resin for manufacturing

  10. Effects of Hybrid Fibre Reinforcement on Fire Resistance Performance and Char Morphology of Intumescent Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent researches of fire retardant intumescent coatings reinforced by single Rockwool and single glass wool fibre at various weight percentages and lengths showed some improvements to the mechanical properties of the coatings and the char produced. Therefore, in this research the fibres were combined together in intumescent coating formulation at several weight percentages and fibre lengths to study their effects towards fire resistance performance and char morphology. The hybrid fibre reinforced intumescent coatings were subjected to two types of fire tests; Bunsen burner at 1000°C and the electric furnace at 800°C for 1 hour, respectively. Steel temperature of the coated samples during Bunsen burner test was recorded to determine the fire resistance performance. Thermal stability of the intumescent coatings and chars was determined by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA. The morphology of the coatings and char was then examined by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS was conducted to obtain elemental composition of the samples. This research concluded that long-hybrid fibre at 12-mm length and 0.6% fibre-weight produced the top performing hybrid fibre intumescent formulation. The hybrid fibres form survived at elevated temperature, hence helped to provide structure and strengthen the char with the highest fire resistance was recorded at steel temperature of 197°C.

  11. The Fire Resistance Performance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Columns with Different Concrete Compressive Strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongying; Cao, Wanlin; Bian, Jianhui; Zhang, Jianwei

    2014-12-08

    In order to ascertain the fire resistance performance of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) components with different concrete compressive strengths, four full-scaled concrete columns were designed and tested under high temperature. Two of the four specimens were constructed by normal concrete with compressive strength ratings of C20 and C30, respectively, while the others were made from recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) concrete of C30 and C40, respectively. Identical constant axial forces were applied to specimens while being subjected to simulated building fire conditions in a laboratory furnace. Several parameters from the experimental results were comparatively analyzed, including the temperature change, vertical displacement, lateral deflection, fire endurance, and failure characteristics of specimens. The temperature field of specimens was simulated with ABAQUS Software (ABAQUS Inc., Provindence, RI, USA) and the results agreed quite well with those from the experiments. Results show that the rate of heat transfer from the surface to the interior of the column increases with the increase of the concrete's compressive strength for both RAC columns and normal concrete columns. Under the same initial axial force ratio, for columns with the same cross section, those with lower concrete compressive strengths demonstrate better fire resistance performance. The fire resistance performance of RAC columns is better than that of normal concrete columns, with the same concrete compressive strength.

  12. The Fire Resistance Performance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Columns with Different Concrete Compressive Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Dong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to ascertain the fire resistance performance of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC components with different concrete compressive strengths, four full-scaled concrete columns were designed and tested under high temperature. Two of the four specimens were constructed by normal concrete with compressive strength ratings of C20 and C30, respectively, while the others were made from recycled coarse aggregate (RCA concrete of C30 and C40, respectively. Identical constant axial forces were applied to specimens while being subjected to simulated building fire conditions in a laboratory furnace. Several parameters from the experimental results were comparatively analyzed, including the temperature change, vertical displacement, lateral deflection, fire endurance, and failure characteristics of specimens. The temperature field of specimens was simulated with ABAQUS Software (ABAQUS Inc., Provindence, RI, USA and the results agreed quite well with those from the experiments. Results show that the rate of heat transfer from the surface to the interior of the column increases with the increase of the concrete’s compressive strength for both RAC columns and normal concrete columns. Under the same initial axial force ratio, for columns with the same cross section, those with lower concrete compressive strengths demonstrate better fire resistance performance. The fire resistance performance of RAC columns is better than that of normal concrete columns, with the same concrete compressive strength.

  13. Testing and Selection of Fire-Resistant Materials for Spacecraft Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert; Jackson, Brian; Olson, Sandra

    2000-01-01

    Spacecraft fire-safety strategy emphasizes prevention, mostly through the selection of onboard items classified accord- ing to their fire resistance. The principal NASA acceptance tests described in this paper assess the flammability of materials and components under "worst-case" normal-gravity conditions of upward flame spread in controlled-oxygen atmospheres. Tests conducted on the ground, however, cannot duplicate the unique fire characteristics in the nonbuoyant low-gravity environment of orbiting spacecraft. Research shows that flammability an fire-spread rates in low gravity are sensitive to forced convection (ventilation flows) and atmospheric-oxygen concentration. These research results are helping to define new material-screening test methods that will better evaluate material performance in spacecraft.

  14. Evaluation of fire-resistant fluid lubricants for water reactor coolant pump motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degueurce, B.

    1995-07-01

    Fires occurred in different reactor coolant pumps, caused by lubricant leakage and impregnation of lagging. The application of phosphate esters in steam turbine control systems eliminated fire hazard. The use of fire resistant fluids for the lubrication of reactor coolant pump motor would eliminate these fires. In 1985, it was decided to evaluate these fluids after 1977 EDF tests' results and 1980 EPRI Reports. Commercially available lubricating fluids were evaluated in the laboratory, using representative tests, to develop data to permit to select a fluid. The recommended fluid has the best results for long-term hydrolysis and showed good radiation tolerance at exposure tests at TRICASTIN power plant. The fluid should now be tests in the actual motor to confirm its properties for the lubrication of reactor coolant pumps. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Novel spirocyclic phosphazene-based epoxy resin for halogen-free fire resistance: synthesis, curing behaviors, and flammability characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Wang, Xiaodong; Wu, Dezhen

    2012-08-01

    A novel halogen-free fire resistant epoxy resin with pendent spiro-cyclotriphosphazene groups was designed and synthesized via a three-step synthetic pathway. The chemical structures and compositions of spiro-cyclotriphosphazene precursors and final product were confirmed by (1)H, (13)C, and (31)P NMR spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermal curing behaviors of the synthesized epoxy resin with 4,4'-diamino-diphenylmethane, 4,4'-diamino-diphenyl sulfone, and novolac as hardeners were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the curing kinetics were also studied under a nonisothermal condition. The evaluation of the thermal properties demonstrated that these thermosets achieved a good thermal resistance due to their high glass transition temperatures more than 150 °C, and also gained high thermal stabilities with high char yields. The flammability characteristics of the spirocyclic phosphazene-based epoxy thermosets cured with these three hardeners were investigated on the basis of the results obtained from the limiting oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94 vertical burning experiments as well as the analysis of the residual chars collected from the vertical burning tests. The high LOI values and UL-94 V-0 classification of these epoxy thermosets indicated that the incorporation of phosphazene rings into the backbone chain imparts nonflammability to the epoxy resin owing to the unique combination of phosphorus and nitrogen following by a synergistic effect on flame retardancy. The epoxy resin obtained in this study is a green functional polymer and will become a potential candidate for fire- and heat-resistant applications in electronic and microelectronic fields with more safety and excellent performance.

  16. Synthetic versions of firefly luciferase and Renilla luciferase reporter genes that resist transgene silencing in sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Down-regulation or silencing of transgene expression can be a major hurdle to both molecular studies and biotechnology applications in many plant species. Sugarcane is particularly effective at silencing introduced transgenes, including reporter genes such as the firefly luciferase gene. Synthesizing transgene coding sequences optimized for usage in the host plant is one method of enhancing transgene expression and stability. Using specified design rules we have synthesised new coding sequences for both the firefly luciferase and Renilla luciferase reporter genes. We have tested these optimized versions for enhanced levels of luciferase activity and for increased steady state luciferase mRNA levels in sugarcane. Results The synthetic firefly luciferase (luc*) and Renilla luciferase (Renluc*) coding sequences have elevated G + C contents in line with sugarcane codon usage, but maintain 75% identity to the native firefly or Renilla luciferase nucleotide sequences and 100% identity to the protein coding sequences. Under the control of the maize pUbi promoter, the synthetic luc* and Renluc* genes yielded 60x and 15x higher luciferase activity respectively, over the native firefly and Renilla luciferase genes in transient assays on sugarcane suspension cell cultures. Using a novel transient assay in sugarcane suspension cells combining co-bombardment and qRT-PCR, we showed that synthetic luc* and Renluc* genes generate increased transcript levels compared to the native firefly and Renilla luciferase genes. In stable transgenic lines, the luc* transgene generated significantly higher levels of expression than the native firefly luciferase transgene. The fold difference in expression was highest in the youngest tissues. Conclusions We developed synthetic versions of both the firefly and Renilla luciferase reporter genes that resist transgene silencing in sugarcane. These transgenes will be particularly useful for evaluating the expression patterns conferred

  17. New methods for testing fire resistance of wood façade systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mårtensson August

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Arson in schools has been a huge problem in Sweden over the last fifteen years. The average amount of school arsons between 2000 and 2014 was 285 cases each year which corresponds to 50% of the total amount of reported fires in school buildings. This is a well-known problem and a lot of research has been done in this area. Investigations has been done about fire and heat detection systems, different technical factors significance in fire scenarios and how to prevent adolescents from starting fires. Another part of the problem that partly been investigated is how the schools are constructed. Roughly 50% of the arsons are outside of the school building. In Sweden one and two storey buildings are allowed to be built with wooden façades in accordance with the building code, which is one of the reasons many schools are built with wooden façade systems. The most critical part in a wood façade system from a fire safety perspective is concluded to be the eaves because of how they usually are built to let air pass through. Even though a wood façade isn't as well resistant to fire compared to a concrete façade, three versions of new test methods for combustible façades have been developed to make it possible to make sure in advance that a construction is resistant enough. The new test methods are focused on specific details and parts of a façade system to provide a more informative and useful result compared to SP Fire 105. Observations and measurements of flame spread and temperature changes in the eave, over the window joints and in the air gap are made. With these parameters in consideration criteria's has been chosen for a critical temperature of 280 ∘C at a critical time of 20 minutes.

  18. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Philip J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple. The purpose of the present study was to quantify rootstock-mediated differences in scion fire blight susceptibility and to identify transcripts in the scion whose expression levels correlated with this response. Results Rootstock influence on scion fire blight resistance was quantified by inoculating three-year old, orchard-grown apple trees, consisting of 'Gala' scions grafted to a range of rootstocks, with E. amylovora. Disease severity was measured by the extent of shoot necrosis over time. 'Gala' scions grafted to G.30 or MM.111 rootstocks showed the lowest rates of necrosis, while 'Gala' on M.27 and B.9 showed the highest rates of necrosis. 'Gala' scions on M.7, S.4 or M.9F56 had intermediate necrosis rates. Using an apple DNA microarray representing 55,230 unique transcripts, gene expression patterns were compared in healthy, un-inoculated, greenhouse-grown 'Gala' scions on the same series of rootstocks. We identified 690 transcripts whose steady-state expression levels correlated with the degree of fire blight susceptibility of the scion/rootstock combinations. Transcripts known to be differentially expressed during E. amylovora infection were disproportionately represented among these transcripts. A second-generation apple microarray representing 26,000 transcripts was developed and was used to test these correlations in an orchard-grown population of trees segregating for fire blight resistance. Of the 690 transcripts originally identified using the first-generation array, 39 had expression levels that correlated with fire blight resistance in the breeding population. Conclusions Rootstocks had significant effects on the fire blight

  19. Ras Labs.-CASIS-ISS NL experiment for synthetic muscle: resistance to ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Lenore; Sandberg, Eric; Albers, Leila N.; Rodriguez, Simone; Gentile, Charles A.; Meixler, Lewis D.; Ascione, George; Hitchner, Robert; Taylor, James; Hoffman, Dan; Cylinder, David; Moy, Leon; Mark, Patrick S.; Prillaman, Daniel L.; Nordarse, Robert; Menegus, Michael J.; Ratto, Jo Ann; Thellen, Christopher; Froio, Danielle; Furlong, Cosme; Razavi, Payam; Valenza, Logan; Hablani, Surbhi; Fuerst, Tyler; Gallucci, Sergio; Blocher, Whitney; Liffland, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    In anticipation of deep space travel, new materials are being explored to assist and relieve humans in dangerous environments, such as high radiation, extreme temperature, and extreme pressure. Ras Labs Synthetic Muscle - electroactive polymers (EAPs) that contract and expand at low voltages - which mimic the unique gentle-yet-strong nature of human tissue, is a potential asset to manned space travel through protective gear and human assist robotics and for unmanned space exploration through deep space. Generation 3 Synthetic Muscle was proven to be resistant to extreme temperatures, and there were indications that these materials may also be radiation resistant. The purpose of the Ras Labs-CASIS-ISS Experiment is to test the radiation resistivity of the third and fourth generation of these EAPs, as well as to make them even more radiation resistant or radiation hardened. On Earth, exposure of the Generation 3 and Generation 4 EAPs to a Cs-137 radiation source for 47.8 hours with a total dose of 305.931 kRad of gamma radiation was performed at the US Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) at Princeton University, followed by pH, peroxide, Shore Hardness Durometry, and electroactivity testing to determine the inherent radiation resistivity of these contractile EAPs and to determine whether the EAPs could be made even more radiation resistant through the application of appropriate additives and coatings. The on Earth preliminary tests determined that selected Ras Labs EAPs were not only inherently radiation resistant, but with the appropriate coatings and additives, could be made even more radiation resistant. Gforce testing to over 10 G's was performed at US Army's ARDEC Labs, with excellent results, in preparation for space flight to the International Space Station National Laboratory (ISS-NL). Selected samples of Generation 3 and Generation 4 Synthetic Muscle™, with various additives and coatings, were launched to the ISS-NL on April

  20. Competitive effects of fire-resistant saplings on their fire-sensitive neighbors are greater than the reverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Stephen Brewer

    2015-01-01

    Although repeated fires are generally thought to reduce competition, direct tests of this hypothesis are rare. Furthermore, recent theory predicts that fires can increase competitive effects of fireresistant species on fire-sensitive species and thus create stable assemblages dominated by the former. In this study, I quantified competition between saplings of fire-...

  1. Numerical analysis of the influence of end restraints on the fire resistance of continuous reinforced concrete beams and slabs

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Fire resistance research of underground structures and structures above ground shows that the underground structures are always subjected to more severe fire disasters. Fire accidents in underground structures experience higher and longer temperature histories. From the structural side of view, the most obvious difference between the underground ones and the ones above ground is the restraint system at the boundaries. Underground structures are subjected to restraint forces which primarily re...

  2. Validating RNAi phenotypes in Drosophila using a synthetic RNAi-resistant transgene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Jonchere

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is a powerful and widely used approach to investigate gene function, but a major limitation of the approach is the high incidence of non-specific phenotypes that arise due to off-target effects. We previously showed that RNAi-mediated knock-down of pico, which encodes the only member of the MRL family of adapter proteins in Drosophila, resulted in reduction in cell number and size leading to reduced tissue growth. In contrast, a recent study reported that pico knockdown leads to tissue dysmorphology, pointing to an indirect role for pico in the control of wing size. To understand the cause of this disparity we have utilised a synthetic RNAi-resistant transgene, which bears minimal sequence homology to the predicted dsRNA but encodes wild type Pico protein, to reanalyse the RNAi lines used in the two studies. We find that the RNAi lines from different sources exhibit different effects, with one set of lines uniquely resulting in a tissue dysmorphology phenotype when expressed in the developing wing. Importantly, the loss of tissue morphology fails to be complemented by co-overexpression of RNAi-resistant pico suggesting that this phenotype is the result of an off-target effect. This highlights the importance of careful validation of RNAi-induced phenotypes, and shows the potential of synthetic transgenes for their experimental validation.

  3. The Fire Resistance Performance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Columns with Different Concrete Compressive Strengths

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Hongying; Cao, Wanlin; Bian, Jianhui; Zhang, Jianwei

    2014-01-01

    In order to ascertain the fire resistance performance of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) components with different concrete compressive strengths, four full-scaled concrete columns were designed and tested under high temperature. Two of the four specimens were constructed by normal concrete with compressive strength ratings of C20 and C30, respectively, while the others were made from recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) concrete of C30 and C40, respectively. Identical constant axial forces were...

  4. Fire Related Temperature Resistance of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyalakshmi R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presented in this paper is on the effect of heat treatment on fly ash based geopolymer mortar synthesized from fly ash (Class F –Low lime using alkaline binary activator solution containing sodium hydroxide (18 M and sodium silicate solution (MR 2.0, cured at 80oC for 24 h. 7 days aged specimen heated at elevated temperature (200°C, 400°C, 600°C and 800°C for the sustained period of 2hrs. The TGA/DTA analysis and thermal conductivity measurement as per ASTM C113 were carried out besides the compressive strengths. The thermal stability of the fly ash mortar at elevated temperature was found to be high as reflected in the observed value of f800°C/f30°C being more than 1 and this ratio was raised to about 1.3 with the addition of 2% Zirconium di oxide (ZrO2. No visible cracks were found on the specimens with and without ZrO2 when 800°C was sustained for 4 hrs in smaller specimens of size: 50 mm diameter x 100 mm height and in also bigger size specimens: 22 cm × 11 cm × 7 cm specimens. TGA/DTA analysis of the geopolymer paste showed that the retention of mass was around 90%. The addition of ZrO2 improved thermal resistance. The micro structure of the matrix found to be intact even at elevated temperature that was evident from the FESEM studies.

  5. Production of transgenic brassica juncea with the synthetic chitinase gene (nic) conferring resistance to alternaria brassicicola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, I.; Hussan, W.; Kazi, M.; Mian, A.

    2016-01-01

    Brassica juncea is an important oil seed crop throughout the world. The demand and cultivation of oil seed crops has gained importance due to rapid increase in world population and industrialization. Fungal diseases pose a great threat to Brassica productivity worldwide. Absence of resistance genes against fungal infection within crossable germplasms of this crop necessitates deployment of genetic engineering approaches to produce transgenic plants with resistance against fungal infections. In the current study, hypocotyls and cotyledons of Brassica juncea, used as explants, were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefacien strain EHA101 harboring binary vector pEKB/NIC containing synthetic chitinase gene (NIC), an antifungal gene under the control of cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (CaMV35S). Bar genes and nptII gene were used as selectable markers. Presence of chitinase gene in trangenic lines was confirmed by PCR and southern blotting analysis. Effect of the extracted proteins from non-transgenic and transgenic lines was observed on the growth of Alternaria brassicicola, a common disease causing pathogen in brassica crop. In comparison to non-transgenic control lines, the leaf tissue extracts of the transgenic lines showed considerable resistance and antifungal activity against A. brassicicola. The antifungal activity in transgenic lines was observed as corresponding to the transgene copy number. (author)

  6. The novel silicon-containing epoxy/PEPA phosphate flame retardant for transparent intumescent fire resistant coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yanchao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 Cao' an Road, Shanghai 201804 (China); Wang, Guojian, E-mail: wanggj@tongji.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 Cao' an Road, Shanghai 201804 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials, Ministry of Education, 4800 Cao' an Road, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The novel halogen-free flame retardant containing silicon and caged bicyclic phosphate was synthesized. • A novel transparent intumescent fire resistant coating was developed by the P-Si synergistic flame retardant and melamine formaldehyde resin. • Excellent fire protection of the transparent intumescent fire resistant coating. • The P-Si synergistic flame retardant could improve the thermo-oxidation resistance of transparent fire resistant coating. - Abstract: A series of novel silicon-containing epoxy/PEPA phosphate flame retardants (EPPSi) were synthesized by polyphosphoric acid (PPA), caged bicyclic phosphate 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-L-phosphabicyclo [2.2.2] octane (PEPA), and different ratios of silicon-containing epoxy 1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-1,3-bis(3-(oxiran-2-ylmethoxy)propyl)disiloxane (TMSEP) to 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDE). The chemical structure of EPPSi was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR). Afterwards, the transparent intumescent fire resistant coatings were prepared by mixing EPPSi and melamine formaldehyde resin. The influence of silicon on the fire protection of coatings was intensively investigated by fire protection test, intumescence ratio, scanning electron microscope (SEM), compressive strength test, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and real-time FTIR. It was found that the fire resistant coatings obtained the best fire protection when the ratio of TMESP/BDE was 20/100, while excessive TMSEP made the fire protection of coatings deceased sharply. The intumescence ratio, compressive strength test and SEM result showed that a synergistic effect existed between phosphorus and silicon, which improved the foam structure and compressive strength of the char layer significantly. XPS result proved the out-migration effect of silicon. The high concentration silicon on surface played

  7. A Semi-Synthetic Glycoconjugate Vaccine Candidate for Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeberger, Peter H; Pereira, Claney L; Khan, Naeem; Xiao, Guozhi; Diago-Navarro, Elizabeth; Reppe, Katrin; Opitz, Bastian; Fries, Bettina C; Witzenrath, Martin

    2017-11-06

    Hospital-acquired infections are an increasingly serious health concern. Infections caused by carpabenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) are especially problematic, with a 50 % average survival rate. CR-Kp are isolated from patients with ever greater frequency, 7 % within the EU but 62 % in Greece. At a time when antibiotics are becoming less effective, no vaccines to protect from this severe bacterial infection exist. Herein, we describe the convergent [3+3] synthesis of the hexasaccharide repeating unit from its capsular polysaccharide and related sequences. Immunization with the synthetic hexasaccharide 1 glycoconjugate resulted in high titers of cross-reactive antibodies against CR-Kp CPS in mice and rabbits. Whole-cell ELISA was used to establish the surface staining of CR-Kp strains. The antibodies raised were found to promote phagocytosis. Thus, this semi-synthetic glycoconjugate is a lead for the development of a vaccine against a rapidly progressing, deadly bacterium. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Assessment of the fire resistance of a nuclear power plant subjected to a large commercial aircraft crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Se-Jin; Jin, Byeong-Moo; Kim, Young-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A procedure to assess fire resistance of structure for aircraft crash is proposed. ► Fire scenario of containment and auxiliary building is determined for aircraft crash. ► Heat transfer and thermal stress analyses are performed to obtain section forces. ► Fire endurance time is evaluated by load–moment strength interaction diagram. - Abstract: The safety assessment of infrastructures, such as a nuclear power plant, for the crash of a large commercial aircraft has been performed worldwide after the terrorism that occurred in the U.S. on September 11, 2001. The assessment, however, has mainly focused on the techniques of impact analysis. In this study, a systematic procedure to assess the fire resistance of containment and auxiliary buildings subjected to such an aircraft crash is proposed. The intensity, duration and distribution of the fire are determined based on aircraft crash analyses and characteristics of jet fuel. A three-dimensional detailed finite element model of the containment and auxiliary buildings is established and used for heat transfer and thermal stress analyses, taking into account the material properties at an elevated temperature. Section forces can then be obtained that are based on a nonlinear stress–strain relationship. The fire resistance of the structure is assessed by comparing the fire-induced section forces with the section resistance which is evaluated using the load–moment strength interaction diagram. The study addresses the problem whereby the conventional assessment that only considers the flexural behaviour is less accurate. The assessment results support the general conclusion that the nuclear power plant structures can maintain structural integrity against external fire due to their relatively thick sections. The proposed procedure can be extensively applied to evaluate the fire endurance time of any type of structure subjected to an arbitrary fire.

  9. Failure analysis of fire resistant fluid (FRF piping used in hydraulic control system at oil-fired thermal power generation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a case study regarding frequent forced outages in an oil-fired power generating station due to failure of fire resistant fluid (FRF piping of material ASTM A-304. This analysis was done to find out the most probable cause of failure and to rectify the problem. Methods for finding and analyzing the cracks include nondestructive testing techniques such as visual testing (VT and dye penetrant testing (PT along with that periodic monitoring after rectification of problem. The study revealed that pitting and pit to crack transitions were formed in stainless steel piping containing high pressure (system pressure 115 bars fire resistant fluid. However, after replacement of piping the pitting and cracking reoccurred. It was observed that due to possible exposure to chlorinated moisture in surrounding environment pitting was formed which then transformed into cracks. The research work discussed in this paper illustrates the procedure used in detection of the problem and measures taken to solve the problem.

  10. Antibacterial Characterization of Novel Synthetic Thiazole Compounds against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Haroon; Reddy, P. V. Narasimha; Monteleone, Dennis; Mayhoub, Abdelrahman S.; Cushman, Mark; Hammac, G. Kenitra; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a commensal organism of companion animals that is a significant source of opportunistic infections in dogs. With the emergence of clinical isolates of S. pseudintermedius (chiefly methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP)) exhibiting increased resistance to nearly all antibiotic classes, new antimicrobials and therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Thiazole compounds have been previously shown to possess potent antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus of human and animal concern. Given the genetic similarity between S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius, this study explores the potential use of thiazole compounds as novel antibacterial agents against methicillin-sensitive S. pseudintermedius (MSSP) and MRSP. A broth microdilution assay confirmed these compounds exhibit potent bactericidal activity (at sub-microgram/mL concentrations) against both MSSA and MRSP clinical isolates while the MTS assay confirmed three compounds (at 10 μg/mL) were not toxic to mammalian cells. A time-kill assay revealed two derivatives rapidly kill MRSP within two hours. However, this rapid bactericidal activity was not due to disruption of the bacterial cell membrane indicating an alternative mechanism of action for these compounds against MRSP. A multi-step resistance selection analysis revealed compounds 4 and 5 exhibited a modest (two-fold) shift in activity over ten passages. Furthermore, all six compounds (at a subinihibitory concentration) demonstrated the ability to re-sensitize MRSP to oxacillin, indicating these compounds have potential use for extending the therapeutic utility of β-lactam antibiotics against MRSP. Metabolic stability analysis with dog liver microsomes revealed compound 3 exhibited an improved physicochemical profile compared to the lead compound. In addition to this, all six thiazole compounds possessed a long post-antibiotic effect (at least 8 hours) against MRSP

  11. Development of the First Cisgenic Apple with Increased Resistance to Fire Blight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D Kost

    Full Text Available The generation and selection of novel fire blight resistant apple genotypes would greatly improve the management of this devastating disease, caused by Erwinia amylovora. Such resistant genotypes are currently developed by conventional breeding, but novel breeding technologies including cisgenesis could be an alternative approach. A cisgenic apple line C44.4.146 was regenerated using the cisgene FB_MR5 from wild apple Malus ×robusta 5 (Mr5, and the previously established method involving A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the fire blight susceptible cultivar 'Gala Galaxy' using the binary vector p9-Dao-FLPi. The line C44.4.146 was shown to carry only the cisgene FB_MR5, controlled by its native regulatory sequences and no transgenes were detected by PCR or Southern blot following heat induced recombinase-mediated elimination of the selectable markers. Although this line contains up to 452 bp of vector sequences, it still matches the original definition of cisgenesis. A single insertion of T-DNA into the genome of 'Gala Galaxy' in chromosome 16 was identified. Transcription of FB_MR5 in line C44.4.146 was similar to the transcription in classically bred descendants of Mr5. Three independent shoot inoculation experiments with a Mr5 avirulent strain of Erwinia amylovora were performed using scissors or syringe. Significantly lower disease symptoms were detected on shoots of the cisgenic line compared to those of untransformed 'Gala Galaxy'. Despite the fact that the pathogen can overcome this resistance by a single nucleotide mutation, this is, to our knowledge, the first prototype of a cisgenic apple with increased resistance to fire blight.

  12. Study of thermal stability and degradation of fire resistant candidate polymers for aircraft interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, M. T. S.

    1976-01-01

    The thermochemistry of bismaleimide resins and phenolphthalein polycarbonate was studied. Both materials are fire-resistant polymers and may be suitable for aircraft interiors. The chemical composition of the polymers has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy and by elemental analysis. Thermal properties of these polymers have been characterized by thermogravimetric analyses. Qualitative evaluation of the volatile products formed in pyrolysis under oxidative and non-oxidative conditions has been made using infrared spectrometry. The residues after pyrolysis were analyzed by elemental analysis. The thermal stability of composite panel and thermoplastic materials for aircraft interiors was studied by thermogravimetric analyses.

  13. Putative resistance gene markers associated with quantitative trait loci for fire blight resistance in Malus ‘Robusta 5’ accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Breeding of fire blight resistant scions and rootstocks is a goal of several international apple breeding programs, as options are limited for management of this destructive disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. A broad, large-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fire blight resistance has been reported on linkage group 3 of Malus ‘Robusta 5’. In this study we identified markers derived from putative fire blight resistance genes associated with the QTL by integrating further genetic mapping studies with bioinformatics analysis of transcript profiling data and genome sequence databases. Results When several defined E.amylovora strains were used to inoculate three progenies from international breeding programs, all with ‘Robusta 5’ as a common parent, two distinct QTLs were detected on linkage group 3, where only one had previously been mapped. In the New Zealand ‘Malling 9’ X ‘Robusta 5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora ICMP11176, the proximal QTL co-located with SNP markers derived from a leucine-rich repeat, receptor-like protein ( MxdRLP1) and a closely linked class 3 peroxidase gene. While the QTL detected in the German ‘Idared’ X ‘Robusta 5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea222_JKI or ICMP11176 was approximately 6 cM distal to this, directly below a SNP marker derived from a heat shock 90 family protein gene ( HSP90). In the US ‘Otawa3’ X ‘Robusta5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea273 or E2002a, the position of the LOD score peak on linkage group 3 was dependent upon the pathogen strains used for inoculation. One of the five MxdRLP1 alleles identified in fire blight resistant and susceptible cultivars was genetically associated with resistance and used to develop a high resolution melting PCR marker. A resistance QTL detected on linkage group 7 of the US population co-located with another HSP90 gene-family member and a WRKY transcription factor

  14. Putative resistance gene markers associated with quantitative trait loci for fire blight resistance in Malus ‘Robusta 5’ accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardiner Susan E

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breeding of fire blight resistant scions and rootstocks is a goal of several international apple breeding programs, as options are limited for management of this destructive disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. A broad, large-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL for fire blight resistance has been reported on linkage group 3 of Malus ‘Robusta 5’. In this study we identified markers derived from putative fire blight resistance genes associated with the QTL by integrating further genetic mapping studies with bioinformatics analysis of transcript profiling data and genome sequence databases. Results When several defined E.amylovora strains were used to inoculate three progenies from international breeding programs, all with ‘Robusta 5’ as a common parent, two distinct QTLs were detected on linkage group 3, where only one had previously been mapped. In the New Zealand ‘Malling 9’ X ‘Robusta 5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora ICMP11176, the proximal QTL co-located with SNP markers derived from a leucine-rich repeat, receptor-like protein ( MxdRLP1 and a closely linked class 3 peroxidase gene. While the QTL detected in the German ‘Idared’ X ‘Robusta 5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea222_JKI or ICMP11176 was approximately 6 cM distal to this, directly below a SNP marker derived from a heat shock 90 family protein gene ( HSP90. In the US ‘Otawa3’ X ‘Robusta5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea273 or E2002a, the position of the LOD score peak on linkage group 3 was dependent upon the pathogen strains used for inoculation. One of the five MxdRLP1 alleles identified in fire blight resistant and susceptible cultivars was genetically associated with resistance and used to develop a high resolution melting PCR marker. A resistance QTL detected on linkage group 7 of the US population co-located with another HSP90 gene-family member and a WRKY

  15. The novel silicon-containing epoxy/PEPA phosphate flame retardant for transparent intumescent fire resistant coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanchao; Wang, Guojian

    2016-11-01

    A series of novel silicon-containing epoxy/PEPA phosphate flame retardants (EPPSi) were synthesized by polyphosphoric acid (PPA), caged bicyclic phosphate 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-L-phosphabicyclo [2.2.2] octane (PEPA), and different ratios of silicon-containing epoxy 1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-1,3-bis(3-(oxiran-2-ylmethoxy)propyl)disiloxane (TMSEP) to 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDE). The chemical structure of EPPSi was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR). Afterwards, the transparent intumescent fire resistant coatings were prepared by mixing EPPSi and melamine formaldehyde resin. The influence of silicon on the fire protection of coatings was intensively investigated by fire protection test, intumescence ratio, scanning electron microscope (SEM), compressive strength test, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and real-time FTIR. It was found that the fire resistant coatings obtained the best fire protection when the ratio of TMESP/BDE was 20/100, while excessive TMSEP made the fire protection of coatings deceased sharply. The intumescence ratio, compressive strength test and SEM result showed that a synergistic effect existed between phosphorus and silicon, which improved the foam structure and compressive strength of the char layer significantly. XPS result proved the out-migration effect of silicon. The high concentration silicon on surface played an important protecting role for the inner char residue and improved the fire protection of the coatings. TGA result demonstrated that silicon enhanced the thermo-oxidation resistance of coatings efficiently. Furthermore, real-time FTIR revealed the intumescent process of the fire resistant coatings according to the chemical structure changes of char residue.

  16. Optimizing Organophosphorus Fire Resistant Finish for Cotton Fabric Using Box-Behnken Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, Y.; Parag, B.; Nemeshwaree, B.; Giorgio, R.

    2016-01-01

    N-methylol dimethyl phosphono propionamide (MDPA) is one of the most utilized fire resistant (FR) finishes for cotton fabrics, utilized as part of a formulation with trimethylol melamine (TMM) to acquire better crosslinking and enhanced FR properties. The system parameters of the finishing treatment were upgraded for better FR properties and low mechanical loss to the fabric by the response surface methodology utilizing Box-Behnken statistical designed experimental strategy. The impacts of concentration on the cotton fabric’s properties (fire resistance and mechanical properties) were assessed with the regression equations. The optimum conditions by predicting the FR reagents focusing intact mechanical properties of the fabric were additionally studied. It was found that the parameters of crosslinking agents in the FR formulation have a prime role in the general FR properties of the cotton fabrics. The R-squared estimations of the considerable number of responses were above 92%, demonstrating the level of relationship between the predicted values by the Box-Behnken frameworks and the real test results.

  17. Correlation between Compressive Strength and Fire Resistant Performance of Rice Husk Ash-Based Geopolymer Binder for Panel Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Basri Mohd Salahuddin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Panel structures which are mainly used as insulation materials should possess high fire resistance characteristic. In addition, their mechanical requisites for walls and doors such as compressive strength must not be unduly compromised. Rice husk ash (RHA was used as an aluminosilicate source and two factors namely RHA/AA ratio and NaOH concentration were analyzed using statistical tool to study the effect of both factors on the compressive strength. Surface morphology and fire resistant behavior of four selected samples based on their compressive strength (brittle, semi-brittle, ductile, and semi-ductile samples were studied to determine the correlation between compressive strength and fire resistant performance of those selected samples. Results showed that RHA-based geopolymer sample recorded high compressive strength above 28 MPa when its RHA/AA ratio and NaOH concentration were high ranging from 0.7 to 0.8 and 12M to 14M, respectively. Brittle geopolymer sample (GS with low Si/Al ratio shows high compressive strength together with high degree of geopolymerization. Ductile GS in comparison, shows low compressive strength irrespective of its degree of geopolymerization. Semi-ductile GS showed the best fire resistant properties with a maximum non-exposed surface temperature of only 50°C after 50 minutes (after it was exposed to a direct fire with temperature of 900°C followed by semi-brittle and brittle GS.

  18. Identification of Fusarium virguliforme FvTox1-Interacting Synthetic Peptides for Enhancing Foliar Sudden Death Syndrome Resistance in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Swaminathan, Sivakumar; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

    2015-01-01

    Soybean is one of the most important crops grown across the globe. In the United States, approximately 15% of the soybean yield is suppressed due to various pathogen and pests attack. Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is an emerging fungal disease caused by Fusarium virguliforme. Although growing SDS resistant soybean cultivars has been the main method of controlling this disease, SDS resistance is partial and controlled by a large number of quantitative trait loci (QTL). A proteinacious toxin, FvTox1, produced by the pathogen, causes foliar SDS. Earlier, we demonstrated that expression of an anti-FvTox1 single chain variable fragment antibody resulted in reduced foliar SDS development in transgenic soybean plants. Here, we investigated if synthetic FvTox1-interacting peptides, displayed on M13 phage particles, can be identified for enhancing foliar SDS resistance in soybean. We screened three phage-display peptide libraries and discovered four classes of M13 phage clones displaying FvTox1-interacting peptides. In vitro pull-down assays and in vivo interaction assays in yeast were conducted to confirm the interaction of FvTox1 with these four synthetic peptides and their fusion-combinations. One of these peptides was able to partially neutralize the toxic effect of FvTox1 in vitro. Possible application of the synthetic peptides in engineering SDS resistance soybean cultivars is discussed.

  19. Identification of Fusarium virguliforme FvTox1-Interacting Synthetic Peptides for Enhancing Foliar Sudden Death Syndrome Resistance in Soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Wang

    Full Text Available Soybean is one of the most important crops grown across the globe. In the United States, approximately 15% of the soybean yield is suppressed due to various pathogen and pests attack. Sudden death syndrome (SDS is an emerging fungal disease caused by Fusarium virguliforme. Although growing SDS resistant soybean cultivars has been the main method of controlling this disease, SDS resistance is partial and controlled by a large number of quantitative trait loci (QTL. A proteinacious toxin, FvTox1, produced by the pathogen, causes foliar SDS. Earlier, we demonstrated that expression of an anti-FvTox1 single chain variable fragment antibody resulted in reduced foliar SDS development in transgenic soybean plants. Here, we investigated if synthetic FvTox1-interacting peptides, displayed on M13 phage particles, can be identified for enhancing foliar SDS resistance in soybean. We screened three phage-display peptide libraries and discovered four classes of M13 phage clones displaying FvTox1-interacting peptides. In vitro pull-down assays and in vivo interaction assays in yeast were conducted to confirm the interaction of FvTox1 with these four synthetic peptides and their fusion-combinations. One of these peptides was able to partially neutralize the toxic effect of FvTox1 in vitro. Possible application of the synthetic peptides in engineering SDS resistance soybean cultivars is discussed.

  20. [Study on discrimination of varieties of fire resistive coating for steel structure based on near-infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gang; Song, Wen-qi; Li, Shu-chao

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve the rapid identification of fire resistive coating for steel structure of different brands in circulating, a new method for the fast discrimination of varieties of fire resistive coating for steel structure by means of near infrared spectroscopy was proposed. The raster scanning near infrared spectroscopy instrument and near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were applied to collect the spectral curve of different brands of fire resistive coating for steel structure and the spectral data were preprocessed with standard normal variate transformation(standard normal variate transformation, SNV) and Norris second derivative. The principal component analysis (principal component analysis, PCA)was used to near infrared spectra for cluster analysis. The analysis results showed that the cumulate reliabilities of PC1 to PC5 were 99. 791%. The 3-dimentional plot was drawn with the scores of PC1, PC2 and PC3 X 10, which appeared to provide the best clustering of the varieties of fire resistive coating for steel structure. A total of 150 fire resistive coating samples were divided into calibration set and validation set randomly, the calibration set had 125 samples with 25 samples of each variety, and the validation set had 25 samples with 5 samples of each variety. According to the principal component scores of unknown samples, Mahalanobis distance values between each variety and unknown samples were calculated to realize the discrimination of different varieties. The qualitative analysis model for external verification of unknown samples is a 10% recognition ration. The results demonstrated that this identification method can be used as a rapid, accurate method to identify the classification of fire resistive coating for steel structure and provide technical reference for market regulation.

  1. The effect of heat treatment simulating porcelain firing processes on titanium corrosion resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowski, Grzegorz; Rylska, Dorota; Sokołowski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion resistance of titanium used in metal-ceramic restorations in manufacturing is based on the presence of oxide layer on the metal surface. The procedures used during combining metallic material with porcelain may affect the changes in oxide layers structure, and thus anticorrosive properties of metallic material. The aim of the study was an evaluation of potential changes in the structure and selected corrosion properties of titanium after sandblasting and thermal treatment applicable to the processes of ceramics fusion. Milled titanium elements were subjected to a few variants of the processes typical of ceramics fusion and studied in terms of resistance to electrochemical corrosion. The study included the OCP changes over time, measurements of Icorr, Ecorr and Rp as well as potentiodynamic examinations. Surface microstructure and chemical composition were analyzed using SEM and EDS methods. The results obtained allow us to conclude that the processes corresponding to ceramic oxidation and fusion on titanium in the variants used in the study do not cause deterioration of its anticorrosive properties, and partially enhance the resistance. This depends on the quality of oxide layers structure. Titanium elements treated by porcelain firing processes do not lose their corrosion resistance.

  2. Properties of fly ash and metakaolín based geopolymer panels under fire resistance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna-Galiano, Y.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study about the effect of fire on geopolymer paste composed of fly ashes, metakaolin and sodium silicate. 2 cm thick, 28 cm high and 18 cm wide panels were filled with the paste obtained. After 28 days of curing at 20 °C and 45% of relative humidity, different tests were carried out in the geopolymers: physico-chemical (density, water absorption, porosity, mechanical (flexural and compressive strength, fire resistance and environmental (leaching and radioactivity. The panels manufactured have been compared with other commercial panels in order to determine the recycling possibilities of fly ashes in manufacturing new fire-insulating geopolymers. The panels obtained can be utilized for the production of interior wall materials, with a good physical, mechanical, fire resistant properties without any environmental problem.Este documento presenta los resultados de un estudio sobre el efecto del fuego sobre pastas de geopolímeros compuestas de cenizas volantes, metacaolín y silicato sódico. Con la pasta obtenida se han rellenado paneles de dimensiones 2 cm de espesor, 28 cm de altura y 18 cm de ancho. Tras 28 días de curado a 20 °C y un 45% de humedad relativa, diferentes ensayos fueron realizados en los geopolímeros obtenidos: fisicoquímicos (densidad, absorción de agua, porosidad, mecánicos (resistencia a compresión y a flexión, de resistencia al fuego y medioambientales (lixiviación y radioactividad. Los paneles fabricados han sido comparados con paneles comerciales para determinar las posibilidades de reciclaje de las cenizas volantes para la fabricación de nuevos productos geopoliméricos con propiedades aislantes al fuego. Los paneles obtenidos pueden ser utilizados para la producción de paredes interiores, con buenas propiedades físicas, mecánicas y de resistencia al fuego sin ningún problema medioambiental.

  3. Performance of Link-To-Stub Bolted Connection in Column-Tree Moment Resisting Frames under Fire Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Yahyai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Column-tree moment resisting frames, as the efficient shop-welded and field-bolted structural systems, are used in many countries. Very limited research has been carried out on such systems under fire conditions. This paper presents experimental investigations of the behavior of beam and bolted splice connections in steel column-tree moment resisting frames exposed to fire. Two full-scale steel sub-frames with different splice connections were tested under ISO 834 standard fire. The flange splice plates were configured as a single plate with single shear bolts in first specimen, and as double plates with double shear bolts in second specimen. The observation of thermal and structural fire behaviors including temperature histories, temperature-deflection of the beam, temperature-rotation of splice connections and failure modes were investigated. The temperature-deflection and temperature-rotation curves remained in the elastic range until about 600°C. Beyond 600°C, the behavior would be highly nonlinear plastic. The beam splice connection failed due to shear fracture of top bolts at temperatures beyond 750°C. Consequently, stub beam web failed at those temperatures because of block-shear. Using double plates with double shear bolts for flange splices would enhance the temperature resistance and rotational capacity of the beam splice connections. Both tests results confirmed that specimens retain the capacity to support the design load when the average beam temperature does not exceed 600°C. This temperature limit confirms the temperature criteria provided by ASTM E119 and ANSI/UL 263 for a restrained beam, and can be used to specify the minimum fire resistance criteria for beams in column-tree MRFs. The measured time-deflection curves showed that the restrained fire resistance rating for both unprotected specimens obtained about 15 minutes in both tests.

  4. FIRE-RESISTANT SHIELDING COATING BASED ON SHUNGITE-CONTAINING PAINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELOUSOVA Elena Sergeevna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Today when specific shielded facilities are designed the construction materials and shields should meet a range of fire safety requirements. A composite coating on the basis of a water-based fire-resistant paint filled with shungite nanopowder can be applied onto walls, floors, ceilings and other surfaces in the shielded areas to reduce electromagnetic radiation and simultaneously to ensure fire safety. Shungit is a mineral with multilayer carbon fullerene globules which diameter is 10–30 nm. Due to the high conductivity shungite is able to weaken electromagnetic radiation. A coating made of schungite-containing paint on a cellulose substrate was subjected to the open flame under the temperature of 1700° C for 3 minutes and 40 seconds. That resulted in the formation of insulating foam layer without mechanical damage of the substrate. The XRD diffraction analysis of the powder obtained in the process of flame influence on the coating showed the formation of the such substances as orthoclase, barite, rutile, etc. Carbon contained in shungit and used as a filler for the fireproof paint wasn’t detected. This fact indicates carbon oxidation as the result of its burning out. The shielding efficiency of the composite coating after open flame exposure was measured for the frequency range 8…12 GHz with the use of the panoramic attenuation meter and voltage standing wave ratio meter YA2R-67-61 with a sweep generator and waveguides. After that the reflection and transmission coefficients were calculated. The results of measurements and calculations showed decrease of the reflection and transmission coefficients due to conductivity decrease and dielectric losses changes of the composite coating provided by silica content increase and carbon percentage decrease.

  5. FREEZE-THAW AND FIRE RESISTANCE OF GEOPOLYMER MORTAR BASED ON NATURAL AND WASTE POZZOLANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Nurhayat Degirmenci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the resistance of pozzolan-based geopolymer mortars subjected to high temperatures and freeze-thaw cycles. Low calcium fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag as waste pozzolans and natural zeolite as a natural pozzolan were used as base materials for producing geopolymer mortar. The other purpose the research was to study the effect of alkaline activator ratio (Na₂SiO₃/NaOH on the performance of pozzolan-based geopolymer mortar specimens subjected to extreme temperatures. The influence of high temperatures on the properties of mortars was investigated at 300°C, 600°C, and 900°C. Fire and freeze-thaw and resistance of mortars were investigated in terms of visual appearance, weight loss and residual compressive strength. The minimal values of the residual compressive strength were obtained at 900°C for all mixtures. The residual compressive strength of all specimens was lower than the values obtained for specimens not subjected to any freeze-thaw resistance test, except those containing GGBS. The Na₂SiO₃/NaOH ratios of the alkaline activator solution used to prepare the geopolymer mortars have an effect on the weight losses and residual compressive strengths of the specimens subjected to high temperatures and freeze-thaw cycles. As the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratios increased, the weight and strength losses decreased.

  6. Fire-resistance, physical, and mechanical characterization of particleboard containing Oceanic Posidonia waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saval, J. M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, particleboards manufactured with Oceanic Posidonia waste and bonded with cement are investigated. The particleboards are made with 3/1.5/0.5 parts of cement per part of Posidonia waste. The physical properties of bulk density, swelling, surface absorption, and dimensional changes due to relative humidity as well as the mechanical properties of modulus of elasticity, bending strength, surface soundness, perpendicular tensile strength and impact resistance are studied. In terms of the above properties, the best results were obtained for particleboards with high cement content and when the waste “leaves” are treated (crushed before board fabrication, due to internal changes to the board structure under these conditions. Based on the results of fire tests, the particleboard is non-flammable without any fire-resistant treatment.En esta investigación se han diseñado y fabricado tableros con residuo de Posidonia Oceánica y cemento. Los tableros se han fabricado con 3/1.5/0.5 partes de cemento por cada parte de Posidonia estudiándose sus propiedades físicas (densidad, hinchazón, absorción superficial, variaciones dimensionales por humedad y mecánicas (módulo de elasticidad, resistencia a flexión, al arranque de superficie, al arranque de tornillo, a la tracción perpendicular y al choque. Se observa una mejora de los resultados de resistencia mecánica con el incremento de la cantidad de cemento y si la hoja del residuo es previamente tratada ya que proporciona una mejor estructura interna en el tablero. Además, tras los ensayos de reacción al fuego, se observa que el material es no inflamable sin ningún tipo de tratamiento ignifugante.

  7. Experimental research on fire resistance of circular steel tube column filled with steel-reinforced high-strength concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Siyi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Circular steel tube filled with steel-reinforced high-strength concrete is a new model of composite column design.The fire resistance of this composite column was investigated experimentally.One circular steel tube column filled with steel-reinforced high-strength concrete and one circular steel tube column filled with high- strength concrete were tested under axial load and fire.The test results show that the axial deformations of both kinds of the composite columns under the same load level have experienced three stages variation:the initial expansion deformation stage,the compression deformation gradual growth stage and the damage stage with the dramatic increasing in compression deformation.The second compression stable development stage of the circular steel tube filled with steel-reinforced high-strength concrete is much longer than that of the circular steel tube column filled with high-strength concrete.Thus the fire endurance of the circular steel tube filled with steel-reinforced high-strength concrete reaches 166 minutes while the fire endurance of the circular steel tube column filled with high-strength concrete only reaches 46 minutes.Thus encasig section steel can remarkably improve the fire endurance of the circular steel tube filled with high-strength concrete.The research results can provide beneficial reference for the fire design of circular steel tube composite columns filled with steel-reinforced concrete.

  8. Advanced fire-resistant forms of activated carbon and methods of adsorbing and separating gases using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yongliang; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-02-03

    Advanced, fire-resistant activated carbon compositions useful in adsorbing gases; and having vastly improved fire resistance are provided, and methods for synthesizing the compositions are also provided. The advanced compositions have high gas adsorption capacities and rapid adsorption kinetics (comparable to commercially-available activated carbon), without having any intrinsic fire hazard. They also have superior performance to Mordenites in both adsorption capacities and kinetics. In addition, the advanced compositions do not pose the fibrous inhalation hazard that exists with use of Mordenites. The fire-resistant compositions combine activated carbon mixed with one or more hydrated and/or carbonate-containing minerals that release H.sub.2O and/or CO.sub.2 when heated. This effect raises the spontaneous ignition temperature to over 500.degree. C. in most examples, and over 800.degree. C. in some examples. Also provided are methods for removing and/or separating target gases, such as Krypton or Argon, from a gas stream by using such advanced activated carbons.

  9. Experimental research on fire resistance of circular steel tube column filled with steel-reinforced high-strength concrete

    OpenAIRE

    ZHU Siyi; ZHU Meichun; ZHENG Lilan; YANG Jinghua; WANG Lvyi

    2014-01-01

    Circular steel tube filled with steel-reinforced high-strength concrete is a new model of composite column design.The fire resistance of this composite column was investigated experimentally.One circular steel tube column filled with steel-reinforced high-strength concrete and one circular steel tube column filled with high- strength concrete were tested under axial load and fire.The test results show that the axial deformations of both kinds of the composite columns under the same load level...

  10. Luminescent, Fire-Resistant, and Water-Proof Ultralong Hydroxyapatite Nanowire-Based Paper for Multimode Anticounterfeiting Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ri-Long; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Chen, Fei-Fei; Dong, Li-Ying; Xiong, Zhi-Chao

    2017-08-02

    Counterfeiting of valuable certificates, documents, and banknotes is a serious issue worldwide. As a result, the need for developing novel anticounterfeiting materials is greatly increasing. Herein, we report a new kind of ultralong hydroxyapatite nanowire (HAPNW)-based paper with luminescence, fire resistance, and waterproofness properties that may be exploited for anticounterfeiting applications. In this work, lanthanide-ion-doped HAPNWs (HAPNW:Ln 3+ ) with lengths over 100 μm have been synthesized and used as a raw material to fabricating a free-standing luminescent, fire-resistant, water-proof paper through a simple vacuum filtration process. It is interesting to find that the luminescence intensity, structure, and morphology of HAPNW:Ln 3+ highly depend on the experimental conditions. The as-prepared HAPNW:Ln 3+ paper has a unique combination of properties, such as high flexibility, good processability, writing and printing abilities, luminescence, tunable emission color, waterproofness, and fire resistance. In addition, a well-designed pattern can be embedded in the paper that is invisible under ambient light but viewable as a luminescent color under ultraviolet light. Moreover, the HAPNW:Ln 3+ paper can be well-preserved without any damage after being burned by fire or soaked in water. The unique combination of luminescence, fire resistance, and waterproofness properties and the nanowire structure of the as-prepared HAPNW:Ln 3+ paper may be exploited toward developing a new kind of multimode anticounterfeiting technology for various high-level security antiforgery applications, such as in making forgery-proof documents, certificates, labels, and tags and in packaging.

  11. Heterologous expression of MlcE in Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides resistance to natural and semi-synthetic statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statins are inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. Their extensive use in treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases placed statins among the best selling drugs. Construction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell factory for the production of high concentrations of natural statins will require establishment of a non-destructive self-resistance mechanism to overcome the undesirable growth inhibition effects of statins. To establish active export of statins from yeast, and thereby detoxification, we integrated a putative efflux pump-encoding gene mlcE from the mevastatin-producing Penicillium citrinum into the S. cerevisiae genome. The resulting strain showed increased resistance to both natural statins (mevastatin and lovastatin and semi-synthetic statin (simvastatin when compared to the wild type strain. Expression of RFP-tagged mlcE showed that MlcE is localized to the yeast plasma and vacuolar membranes. We provide a possible engineering strategy for improvement of future yeast based production of natural and semi-synthetic statins. Keywords: Polyketide, Statins, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Transport, Cell factory, Resistance

  12. Susceptibility of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) to synthetic acaricides in Uruguay: Varroa mites' potential to develop acaricide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Matías Daniel; Ruffinengo, Sergio Roberto; Mendoza, Yamandú; Ojeda, Pilar; Ramallo, Gustavo; Floris, Iganazio; Eguaras, Martín Javier

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the acaricide susceptibility of Varroa destructor populations from Uruguay, which had never been exposed to synthetic acaricides. It was also to determine whether acaricide resistance to coumaphos occurred in apiaries in which acaricide rotation had been applied. Bioassays with acaricides against mite populations that had never been exposed to synthetic acaricides were performed, also against mite populations in which control failures with coumaphos had been reported. Additionally, coumaphos' effectiveness in honeybee colonies was experimentally tested. The lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed animals (LC(50)) for susceptible mite populations amounted to 0.15 μg/Petri dish for coumaphos and to less than 0.3 μg/Petri dish for the other acaricides. Coumaphos LC(50) was above 40 μg/Petri dish for resistant mites. The effectiveness of coumaphos in honeybee colonies parasitized by V. destructor ranged from 17.6% to 93.9%. LC(50) for mite populations susceptible to the most commonly applied miticides was determined, and the first case of coumaphos resistance recorded in Uruguay was established.

  13. Activity and biophysical inhibition resistance of a novel synthetic lung surfactant containing Super-Mini-B DATK peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Notter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives. This study examines the surface activity, resistance to biophysical inhibition, and pulmonary efficacy of a synthetic lung surfactant containing glycerophospholipids combined with Super Mini-B (S-MB DATK, a novel and stable molecular mimic of lung surfactant protein (SP-B. The objective of the work is to test whether S-MB DATK synthetic surfactant has favorable biophysical and physiological activity for future use in treating surfactant deficiency or dysfunction in lung disease or injury.Methods. The structure of S-MB DATK peptide was analyzed by homology modeling and by FTIR spectroscopy. The in vitro surface activity and inhibition resistance of synthetic S-MB DATK surfactant was assessed in the presence and absence of albumin, lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC, and free fatty acids (palmitoleic and oleic acid. Adsorption and dynamic surface tension lowering were measured with a stirred subphase dish apparatus and a pulsating bubble surfactometer (20 cycles/min, 50% area compression, 37 °C. In vivo pulmonary activity of S-MB DATK surfactant was measured in ventilated rabbits with surfactant deficiency/dysfunction induced by repeated lung lavages that resulted in arterial PO2 values <100 mmHg.Results. S-MB DATK surfactant had very high surface activity in all assessments. The preparation adsorbed rapidly to surface pressures of 46–48 mN/m at 37 °C (low equilibrium surface tensions of 22–24 mN/m, and reduced surface tension to <1 mN/m under dynamic compression on the pulsating bubble surfactometer. S-MB DATK surfactant showed a significant ability to resist inhibition by serum albumin, C16:0 lyso-PC, and free fatty acids, but surfactant inhibition was mitigated by increasing surfactant concentration. S-MB DATK synthetic surfactant quickly improved arterial oxygenation and lung compliance after intratracheal instillation to ventilated rabbits with severe surfactant deficiency.Conclusions. S-MB DATK is an active mimic

  14. Synthetic lung surfactants containing SP-B and SP-C peptides plus novel phospholipase-resistant lipids or glycerophospholipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Notter

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background This study examines the biophysical and preclinical pulmonary activity of synthetic lung surfactants containing novel phospholipase-resistant phosphonolipids or synthetic glycerophospholipids combined with Super Mini-B (S-MB DATK and/or SP-Css ion-lock 1 peptides that replicate the functional biophysics of surfactant proteins (SP-B and SP-C. Phospholipase-resistant phosphonolipids used in synthetic surfactants are DEPN-8 and PG-1, molecular analogs of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC and palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylglycerol (POPG, while glycerophospholipids used are active lipid components of native surfactant (DPPC:POPC:POPG 5:3:2 by weight. The objective of the work is to test whether these novel lipid/peptide synthetic surfactants have favorable preclinical activity (biophysical, pulmonary for therapeutic use in reversing surfactant deficiency or dysfunction in lung disease or injury. Methods Surface activity of synthetic lipid/peptide surfactants was assessed in vitro at 37 °C by measuring adsorption in a stirred subphase apparatus and dynamic surface tension lowering in pulsating and captive bubble surfactometers. Shear viscosity was measured as a function of shear rate on a Wells-Brookfield micro-viscometer. In vivo pulmonary activity was determined by measuring lung function (arterial oxygenation, dynamic lung compliance in ventilated rats and rabbits with surfactant deficiency/dysfunction induced by saline lavage to lower arterial PO2 to <100 mmHg, consistent with clinical acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Results Synthetic surfactants containing 5:3:2 DPPC:POPC:POPG or 9:1 DEPN-8:PG-1 combined with 3% (by wt of S-MB DATK, 3% SP-Css ion-lock 1, or 1.5% each of both peptides all adsorbed rapidly to low equilibrium surface tensions and also reduced surface tension to ≤1 mN/m under dynamic compression at 37 °C. However, dual-peptide surfactants containing 1.5% S-MB DATK + 1.5% SP-Css ion-lock 1 combined with

  15. New broad-spectrum resistance to septoria tritici blotch derived from synthetic hexaploid wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabib Ghaffary, M.S.; Faris, J.D.; Friesen, T.L.; Visser, R.G.F.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Robert, O.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Septoria tritici blotch (STB), caused by the ascomycete Mycosphaerella graminicola, is one of the most devastating foliar diseases of wheat. We screened five synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHs), 13 wheat varieties that represent the differential set of cultivars and two susceptible checks with a global

  16. Short Synthetic β-Sheet Antimicrobial Peptides for the Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Burn Wound Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guansheng; Cheng, Junchi; Liang, Zhen Chang; Xu, Liang; Lou, Weiyang; Bao, Chang; Ong, Zhan Yuin; Dong, Huihui; Yang, Yi Yan; Fan, Weimin

    2017-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is often implicated in burn wound infections; its inherent drug resistance often renders these infections extremely challenging to treat. This is further compounded by the problem of emerging drug resistance and the dearth of novel antimicrobial drug discovery in recent years. In the perennial search for effective antimicrobial compounds, the authors identify short synthetic β-sheet folding peptides, IRIKIRIK (IK8L), IRIkIrIK (IK8-2D), and irikirik (IK8D) as prime candidates owing to their high potency against Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, the peptides are first assayed against 20 clinically isolated multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa strains in comparison with the conventional antibiotics imipenem and ceftazidime, and IK8L is demonstrated to be the most effective. IK8L also exhibits superior antibacterial killing kinetics compared to imipenem and ceftazidime. From transmission electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and protein release analyses, IK8L shows membrane-lytic antimicrobial mechanism. Repeated use of IK8L does not induce drug resistance, while the bacteria develop resistance against the antibiotics after several times of treatment at sublethal doses. Analysis of mouse blood serum chemistry reveals that peptide does not induce systemic toxicity. The potential utility of IK8L in the in vivo treatment of P. aeruginosa-infected burn wounds is further demonstrated in a mouse model. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Ras Labs-CASIS-ISS NL experiment for synthetic muscle returned to Earth: resistance to ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Lenore; Albers, Leila N.; Rodriguez, Simone; Gentile, Charles; Meixler, Lewis D.; Ascione, George; Hitchner, Robert; Taylor, James; Hoffman, Dan; Cylinder, David; Gaza, Ramona; Moy, Leon; Mark, Patrick S.; Prillaman, Daniel L.; Nodarse, Robert; Menegus, Michael J.; Ratto, Jo Ann; Thellen, Christopher T.; Froio, Danielle; Valenza, Logan; Poirier, Catherine; Sinkler, Charles; Corl, Dylan; Hablani, Surbhi; Fuerst, Tyler; Gallucci, Sergio; Blocher, Whitney; Liffland, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    In anticipation of deep space travel, new materials are being explored to assist and relieve humans in dangerous environments, such as high radiation, extreme temperature, and extreme pressure. Ras Labs Synthetic Muscle™ - electroactive polymers (EAPs) that contract and expand at low voltages - which mimic the unique gentle-yet-strong nature of human tissue, is a potential asset to manned space travel through protective gear and human assist robotics and for unmanned space exploration through deep space. Gen 3 Synthetic Muscle™ was proven to be resistant to extreme temperatures, and there were indications that these materials would also be radiation resistant. The purpose of the Ras Labs-CASIS-ISS Experiment was to test the radiation resistivity of the third and fourth generation of these EAPs, as well as to make them even more radiation resistant. On Earth, exposure of the Generation 3 and Generation 4 EAPs to a Cs-137 radiation source for 47.8 hours with a total dose of 305.931 kRad of gamma radiation was performed at the US Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) at Princeton University, followed by pH, peroxide, Shore Hardness durometer, and electroactivity testing to determine the inherent radiation resistivity of these contractile EAPs, and to determine whether the EAPs could be made even more radiation resistant through the application of appropriate additives and coatings. The on Earth preliminary tests determined that selected Ras Labs EAPs were not only inherently radiation resistant, but with the appropriate coatings and additives, could be made even more radiation resistant. G-force testing to over 10 G's was performed at US Army's ARDEC Labs, with excellent results, in preparation for space flight to the International Space Station National Laboratory (ISS-NL). Selected samples of Generation 3 and Generation 4 Synthetic Muscle™, with various additives and coatings, were launched to the ISS-NL on April 14, 2015 on the

  18. Fire and grazing influence site resistance to Bromus tectorum through their effects on shrub, bunchgrass and biocrust communities in the Great Basin (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Lea A.; Pyke, David A.

    2018-01-01

    Shrubs, bunchgrasses and biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are believed to contribute to site resistance to plant invasions in the presence of cattle grazing. Although fire is a concomitant disturbance with grazing, little is known regarding their combined impacts on invasion resistance. We are the first to date to test the idea that biotic communities mediate the effects of disturbance on site resistance. We assessed cover of Bromus tectorum, shrubs, native bunchgrasses, lichens and mosses in 99 burned and unburned plots located on similar soils where fires occurred between 12 and 23 years before sampling. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships between environmental and disturbance characteristics, the biotic community and resistance to B. tectorum cover. Characteristics of fire and grazing did not directly relate to cover of B. tectorum. Relationships were mediated through shrub, bunchgrass and biocrust communities. Increased site resistance following fire was associated with higher bunchgrass cover and recovery of bunchgrasses and mosses with time since fire. Evidence of grazing was more pronounced on burned sites and was positively correlated with the cover of B. tectorum, indicating an interaction between fire and grazing that decreases site resistance. Lichen cover showed a weak, negative relationship with cover of B. tectorum. Fire reduced near-term site resistance to B. tectorum on actively grazed rangelands. Independent of fire, grazing impacts resulted in reduced site resistance to B. tectorum, suggesting that grazing management that enhances plant and biocrust communities will also enhance site resistance.

  19. Synthetic lung surfactants containing SP-B and SP-C peptides plus novel phospholipase-resistant lipids or glycerophospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notter, Robert H; Gupta, Rohun; Schwan, Adrian L; Wang, Zhengdong; Shkoor, Mohanad Gh; Walther, Frans J

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the biophysical and preclinical pulmonary activity of synthetic lung surfactants containing novel phospholipase-resistant phosphonolipids or synthetic glycerophospholipids combined with Super Mini-B (S-MB) DATK and/or SP-Css ion-lock 1 peptides that replicate the functional biophysics of surfactant proteins (SP)-B and SP-C. Phospholipase-resistant phosphonolipids used in synthetic surfactants are DEPN-8 and PG-1, molecular analogs of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylglycerol (POPG), while glycerophospholipids used are active lipid components of native surfactant (DPPC:POPC:POPG 5:3:2 by weight). The objective of the work is to test whether these novel lipid/peptide synthetic surfactants have favorable preclinical activity (biophysical, pulmonary) for therapeutic use in reversing surfactant deficiency or dysfunction in lung disease or injury. Surface activity of synthetic lipid/peptide surfactants was assessed in vitro at 37 °C by measuring adsorption in a stirred subphase apparatus and dynamic surface tension lowering in pulsating and captive bubble surfactometers. Shear viscosity was measured as a function of shear rate on a Wells-Brookfield micro-viscometer. In vivo pulmonary activity was determined by measuring lung function (arterial oxygenation, dynamic lung compliance) in ventilated rats and rabbits with surfactant deficiency/dysfunction induced by saline lavage to lower arterial PO 2 to surfactants containing 5:3:2 DPPC:POPC:POPG or 9:1 DEPN-8:PG-1 combined with 3% (by wt) of S-MB DATK, 3% SP-Css ion-lock 1, or 1.5% each of both peptides all adsorbed rapidly to low equilibrium surface tensions and also reduced surface tension to ≤1 mN/m under dynamic compression at 37 °C. However, dual-peptide surfactants containing 1.5% S-MB DATK + 1.5% SP-Css ion-lock 1 combined with 9:1 DEPN-8:PG-1 or 5:3:2 DPPC:POPC:POPG had the greatest in vivo activity in improving arterial oxygenation and dynamic lung

  20. Transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing MsrA1, a synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptide, exhibit resistance to fungal phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Anjana; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Yusuf, Mohd Aslam; Misra, Santosh; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2014-06-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) have shown potential against broad spectrum of phytopathogens. Synthetic versions with desirable properties have been modeled on these natural peptides. MsrA1 is a synthetic chimera of cecropin A and melittin CAPs with antimicrobial properties. We generated transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing the msrA1 gene aimed at conferring fungal resistance. Five independent transgenic lines were evaluated for resistance to Alternaria brassicae and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, two of the most devastating pathogens of B. juncea crops. In vitro assays showed inhibition by MsrA1 of Alternaria hyphae growth by 44-62 %. As assessed by the number and size of lesions and time taken for complete leaf necrosis, the Alternaria infection was delayed and restricted in the transgenic plants with the protection varying from 69 to 85 % in different transgenic lines. In case of S. sclerotiorum infection, the lesions were more severe and spread profusely in untransformed control compared with transgenic plants. The sclerotia formed in the stem of untransformed control plants were significantly more in number and larger in size than those present in the transgenic plants where disease protection of 56-71.5 % was obtained. We discuss the potential of engineering broad spectrum biotic stress tolerance by transgenic expression of CAPs in crop plants.

  1. Flexible, High-Wettability and Fire-Resistant Separators Based on Hydroxyapatite Nanowires for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng; Wu, Dabei; Wu, Jin; Dong, Li-Ying; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Hu, Xianluo

    2017-11-01

    Separators play a pivotal role in the electrochemical performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The commercial microporous polyolefin-based separators often suffer from inferior electrolyte wettability, low thermal stability, and severe safety concerns. Herein, a novel kind of highly flexible and porous separator based on hydroxyapatite nanowires (HAP NWs) with excellent thermal stability, fire resistance, and superior electrolyte wettability is reported. A hierarchical cross-linked network structure forms between HAP NWs and cellulose fibers (CFs) via hybridization, which endows the separator with high flexibility and robust mechanical strength. The high thermal stability of HAP NW networks enables the separator to preserve its structural integrity at temperatures as high as 700 °C, and the fire-resistant property of HAP NWs ensures high safety of the battery. In particular, benefiting from its unique composition and highly porous structure, the as-prepared HAP/CF separator exhibits near zero contact angle with the liquid electrolyte and high electrolyte uptake of 253%, indicating superior electrolyte wettability compared with the commercial polyolefin separator. The as-prepared HAP/CF separator has unique advantages of superior electrolyte wettability, mechanical robustness, high thermal stability, and fire resistance, thus, is promising as a new kind of separator for advanced LIBs with enhanced performance and high safety. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Investigation of the resistance of some naturally occurring and synthetic inorganic ion exchangers against gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilchi, A.; Khanchi, A.; Ghanadi Maragheh, M.; Bagheri, A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of various doses of gamma radiation on the ion-exchange capacity, distribution coefficient values, elution behaviour, physical effect, pH titration and infrared spectra of some synthetic inorganic ion exchangers, namely the cerium substituted phosphates; and naturally occurring inorganic ion exchangers, zeolites from different parts of Iran, have been studied systematically. No significant change has been observed in the ion-exchange capacity (with the exception of CeP(Na), CeP(Di·Na) and zeolite 5 (deposits of arababad talas)), elution behaviour, physical effect, chemical stability and the infrared spectra of the synthetic ion exchangers irradiated up to a total dose of 200 kGy, while a change has been observed in the pH-titration and distribution behaviour. The increase in pH is sharper for irradiated samples with divalent cations than for the normal samples. Furthermore, the K d values, and hence the selectivity towards certain cations increase with the total dose absorbed, reaching its optimum selectivity with the dose of 50-100 kGy. The natural zeolites chosen for these studies, show, similar pattern to those of synthetic ion exchangers, and in some cases an extremely high selectivity toward certain cations, like Be II . These make, zeolites, which are naturally occurring ion exchangers more viable economically, and extremely useful alternative in this industry

  3. Fire, safety and ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-02-01

    Correct ventilation in tunnel environments is vital for the comfort and safety of the people passing through. This article gives details of products from several manufacturers of safety rescue and fire fighting equipment, fire and fume detection equipment, special fire resistant materials, fire resistant hydraulic oils and fire dampers, and ventilation systems. Company addresses and fax numbers are supplied. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 10 photos.

  4. In vitro acaricidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Ahanger, R R; Bhutyal, A D S; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Dutta, S; Nisa, F; Singh, N K

    2015-09-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin and cypermethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Jammu (India) was carried out using larval packet test (LPT). The results showed the presence of resistance level II and I against deltamethrin and cypermethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test (AIT) and LPT were used to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus. Four concentrations (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 %) of each extract with four replications for each concentration were used in both the bioassays. A concentration dependent mortality was observed and it was more marked with ethanolic extract. In AIT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were calculated as 9.9 and 12.9 %, respectively. The egg weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts was significantly lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and the percent inhibition of oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced. The complete inhibition of hatching was recorded at 10 % of ethanolic extract. The 10 % extracts caused 100 % mortality of larvae after 24 h. In LPT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were determined to be 2.6 and 3.2 %, respectively. It can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis had better acaricidal properties against adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus than the aqueous extract.

  5. Disease resistance conferred by the expression of a gene encoding a synthetic peptide in transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Kanniah; Cary, Jeffrey W; Jaynes, Jesse M; Cleveland, Thomas E

    2005-11-01

    Fertile, transgenic cotton plants expressing the synthetic antimicrobial peptide, D4E1, were produced through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR products and Southern blots confirmed integration of the D4E1 gene, while RT-PCR of cotton RNA confirmed the presence of D4E1 transcripts. In vitro assays with crude leaf protein extracts from T0 and T1 plants confirmed that D4E1 was expressed at sufficient levels to inhibit the growth of Fusarium verticillioides and Verticillium dahliae compared to extracts from negative control plants transformed with pBI-d35S(Omega)-uidA-nos (CGUS). Although in vitro assays did not show control of pre-germinated spores of Aspergillus flavus, bioassays with cotton seeds in situ or in planta, inoculated with a GFP-expressing A. flavus, indicated that the transgenic cotton seeds inhibited extensive colonization and spread by the fungus in cotyledons and seed coats. In planta assays with the fungal pathogen, Thielaviopsis basicola, which causes black root rot in cotton, showed typical symptoms such as black discoloration and constriction on hypocotyls, reduced branching of roots in CGUS negative control T1 seedlings, while transgenic T1 seedlings showed a significant reduction in disease symptoms and increased seedling fresh weight, demonstrating tolerance to the fungal pathogen. Significant advantages of synthetic peptides in developing transgenic crop plants that are resistant to diseases and mycotoxin-causing fungal pathogens are highlighted in this report.

  6. FIRE RESISTANCE OF DOUGLAS FIR [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco] WOOD TREATED WITH SOME CHEMICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kemal YALINKILIÇ

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Combustible properties of treated douglas wood specimens and fire-retardancy of some preservatives were tested in this study. Crib test of ASTM E 160-150 was followed. Results indicated that, aqueous solutions of boric acid (BA, borax (Bx (Na2BO7 10H2O or BA + Bx mixture (7: 3, w: w had fire retardant efficacy (FRE over untreated wood and reduced the combustibility of vinil monomers (Styrene and methylmetacrylate which were applied as secondary treatment.

  7. Transgenic rice plants expressing synthetic cry2AX1 gene exhibits resistance to rice leaffolder (Cnaphalocrosis medinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, R; Balakrishnan, N; Sudhakar, D; Udayasuriyan, V

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a major source of insecticidal genes imparting insect resistance in transgenic plants. Level of expression of transgenes in transgenic plants is important to achieve desirable level of resistance against target insects. In order to achieve desirable level of expression, rice chloroplast transit peptide sequence was fused with synthetic cry2AX1 gene to target its protein in chloroplasts. Sixteen PCR positive lines of rice were generated by Agrobacterium mediated transformation using immature embryos. Southern blot hybridization analysis of T 0 transgenic plants confirmed the integration of cry2AX1 gene in two to five locations of rice genome and ELISA demonstrated its expression. Concentration of Cry2AX1 in transgenic rice events ranged 5.0-120 ng/g of fresh leaf tissue. Insect bioassay of T 0 transgenic rice plants against neonate larvae of rice leaffolder showed larval mortality ranging between 20 and 80 % in comparison to control plant. Stable inheritance and expression of cry2AX1 gene was demonstrated in T 1 progenies through Southern and ELISA. In T 1 progenies, the highest concentration of Cry2AX1 and mortality of rice leaffolder larvae were recorded as 150 ng/g of fresh leaf tissue and 80 %, respectively. The Cry2AX1 expression even at a very low concentration (120-150 ng/g) in transgenic rice plants was found effective against rice leaffolder larvae.

  8. Heterologous expression of MlcE in Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides resistance to natural and semi-synthetic statins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Ana; Coumou, Hilde Cornelijne; Frandsen, Rasmus John Normand

    2015-01-01

    -encoding gene mlcE from the mevastatin-producing Penicillium citrinum into the S. cerevisiae genome. The resulting strain showed increased resistance to both natural statins (mevastatin and lovastatin) and semi-synthetic statin (simvastatin) when compared to the wild type strain. Expression of RFP-tagged mlc...

  9. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF THE MECHANICAL RESISTANCE OF FORENSIC MARKING BY MEANS SYNTHETIC DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek HÜTTER

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with experimental verification of resistance of forensic identification marks (microdots in combination with artificial DNA to property. It is considered mechanical abrasion from potential offender to remove or damage readability of marking and following identification. The aim of this work is to test the hypothesis that forensic marking can be completely removed by the process of mechanical abrasion without causing damages to a protected object. To fulfill this purpose it was designed and built a test equipment, where experiments were carried out to confirm or refute the above mentioned hypothesis.

  10. Fabrication of Robust Superhydrophobic Bamboo Based on ZnO Nanosheet Networks with Improved Water-, UV-, and Fire-Resistant Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingpeng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo with water-resistant, UV-resistant, and fire-resistant properties was desirable in modern society. In this paper, the original bamboo was firstly treated with ZnO sol and then hydrothermally the ZnO nanosheet networks grow onto the bamboo surface and subsequently modified with fluoroalkyl silane (FAS-17. The FAS-17 treated bamboo substrate exhibited not only robust superhydrophobicity with a high contact angle of 161° but also stable repellency towards simulated acid rain (pH = 3 with a contact angle of 152°. Except for its robust superhydrophobicity, such a bamboo also presents superior water-resistant, UV-resistant, and fire-resistant properties.

  11. Synthetic and Biological Studies of Sesquiterpene Polygodial: Activity of 9-Epipolygodial Against Drug Resistant Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Ramesh; De Carvalho, Annelise; Medellin, Derek C.; Middleton, Kelsey N.; Hague, Frédéric; Volmar, Marie N. M.; Frolova, Liliya V.; Rossato, Mateus F.; De La Chapa, Jorge J.; Dybdal-Hargreaves, Nicholas F.; Pillai, Akshita; Mathieu, Véronique; Rogelj, Snezna; Gonzales, Cara B.; Calixto, João B.; Evidente, Antonio; Gautier, Mathieu; Munirathinam, Gnanasekar; Glass, Rainer; Burth, Patricia; Pelly, Stephen C.; van Otterlo, Willem A. L.; Kiss, Robert; Kornienko, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Polygodial, a terpenenoid dialdehyde isolated from Polygonum hydropiper L., is a known TRPV1 agonist. In this investigation a series of polygodial analogues were prepared and investigated for TRPV1 agonistic and anticancer activities. These experiments led to the identification of 9-epipolygodial, possessing antiproliferative potency significantly exceeding that of polygodial. Epipolygodial maintained potency against apoptosis-resistant cancer cells as well as those displaying the MDR phenotype. In addition, a chemical feasibility for the previously proposed mechanism of action of polygodial, involving the Paal-Knorr pyrrole formation with a lysine residue on the target protein, was demonstrated through the synthesis of a stable polygodial pyrrole derivative. These studies reveal rich chemical and biological properties associated with polygodial and its direct derivatives. They should inspire further work in this area aimed at the development of new pharmacological agents or exploration of novel mechanisms of covalent modification of biological molecules with natural products. PMID:26434977

  12. Role of Firing Temperature, Sheet Resistance, and Contact Area in Contact Formation on Screen-Printed Metal Contact of Silicon Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Samir Mahmmod; Leong, Cheow Siu; Sopian, K.; Zaidi, Saleem H.

    2018-03-01

    Formation of an Ohmic contact requires a suitable firing temperature, appropriate doping profile, and contact dimensions within resolution limits of the screen-printing process. In this study, the role of the peak firing temperature in standard rapid thermal annealing (RTA) six-zone conveyor belt furnace (CBF) and two inexpensive alternate RTA systems [a custom-designed, three-zone, 5″-diameter quartz tube furnace (QTF) and a tabletop, 3″-diameter rapid thermal processing (RTP)] has been investigated. In addition, the role of sheet resistance and contact area in achieving low-resistance ohmic contacts has been examined. Electrical measurements of ohmic contacts between silver paste/ n +-emitter layer with varying sheet resistances and aluminum paste/ p-doped wafer were carried out in transmission line method configuration. Experimental measurements of the contact resistivity ( ρ c) exhibited the lowest values for CBF at 0.14 mΩ cm2 for Ag and 100 mΩ cm2 for Al at a peak firing temperature of 870°C. For the QTF configuration, lowest measured contact resistivities were 3.1 mΩ cm2 for Ag and 74.1 mΩ cm2 for Al at a peak firing temperature of 925°C. Finally, for the RTP configuration, lowest measured contact resistivities were 1.2 mΩ cm2 for Ag and 68.5 mΩ cm2 for Al at a peak firing temperature of 780°C. The measured contact resistivity exhibits strong linear dependence on sheet resistance. The contact resistivity for Ag decreases with contact area, while for Al the opposite behavior is observed.

  13. Fire resistant behaviour of cellulosic textile functionalized with wastage plant bio-molecules: A comparative scientific report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Santanu; Wazed Ali, S

    2018-03-21

    Three different wastage plant based bio-molecules named banana peel powder (Musa acuminata) (BPP), coconut shell (Cocos nucifera) extract (CSE) and pomegranate rind (Punica granatum) extract (PRE) have been explored as fire resistant material on the cellulosic polymer (cotton fabric). To this end, extracts have been applied to the cotton fabric in different concentration at elevated temperature for specific time period. Treated cotton fabric showed 6 (BPP), 8.5 (CSE) and 12 (PRE) times lower vertical burning rate compared to the control cotton fabric. Thermo-gravimetry (TG) curves and the limiting oxygen index (LOI) value revealed that the PRE extract (LOI: 32) treated fabric encompassed more thermal stability compared to the BPP (LOI:26) and the CSE (LOI: 27) treated fabric as it showed higher oxygen index and more weight retention (40%) at higher temperature 450°C. Moreover, the carbonaceous samples remained after the burning of the extracts and the treated fabrics showed structural integration and more carbon content [65.6 (PRE extract) and 76.3% (PRE treated cotton)] compared to the fragile, net like char of the control cotton fabric, having less carbon content (49.8%). Gas Chromatography Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) of the different extracts (CSE, PRE, BPP) used for the study showed the presence of high molecular weight aromatic phenolic compounds, tannin based compound and the nitrogen containing alkaloids, responsible for fire resistant effect of the different extract treated fabric. Besides fire retardancy, all the treated fabric showed attractive natural colour (measured by colour strength values) and there has been no adverse effect on the tensile strength property of the fabric after the treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Development of aircraft lavatory compartments with improved fire resistance characteristics. Phase 4: Sandwich panel decorative ink development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarajan, A.; Johnson, G. A.; Korver, G. L.; Anderson, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Five chemically different resin systems with improved fire resistance properties were studied for a possible screenprinting ink application. Fire resistance is hereby defined as the cured ink possessing improvements in flammability, smoke emission, and thermal stability. The developed ink is for application to polyvinyl fluoride film. Only clear inks without pigments were considered. Five formulations were evaluated compared with KC4900 clear acrylic ink, which was used as a baseline. The tests used in the screening evaluation included viscosity, smoke and toxic gas emission, limiting oxygen index (LOI), and polyvinyl fluoride film (PVF) printability. A chlorofluorocarbon resin (FPC461) was selected for optimization studies. The parameters for optimization included screenprinting process performance, quality of coating, and flammability of screenprinted 0.051-mm (0.002-in.) white Tedlar. The quality of the screenprinted coating on Tedlar is dependent on viscosity, curing time, adhesion to polyvinyl fluoride film, drying time (both inscreen and as an applied film), and silk screen mesh material and porosity.

  15. Resistance to invasion and resilience to fire in desert shrublands of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew L. Brooks; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2011-01-01

    Settlement by Anglo-Americans in the desert shrublands of North America resulted in the introduction and subsequent invasion of multiple nonnative grass species. These invasions have altered presettlement fire regimes, resulted in conversion of native perennial shrublands to nonnative annual grasslands, and placed many native desert species at risk. Effective...

  16. Water resistance and surface morphology of synthetic fabrics covered by polysiloxane/acrylate followed by electron beam irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    El-Naggar, A M; Mohammed, S S; Alam, E A

    2003-01-01

    Different synthetic fabrics were treated by electron beam surface coating with two formulations based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polystyrene (PS) or poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) oligomers. The water resistance properties were investigated in terms of the percentage of water repellency and absorption. Also, the surface coated fabrics were examined by scanning electron microscopy/microscope (SEM) connected to an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) unit to determine the percentage atomic contents of elements. The results showed that the adhesion of the polysiloxane formulation to the surface depends largely on the kind of acrylate oligomer and textile fabric as indicated by the EDX analysis for silicon. In this regard, PDMS/PS formulation is more compatible with polyester and nylon-6 fabrics than PDMS/PMMA one. However, it was found that PDMS/PMMA formulation is more compatible with cotton/polyester blend than PDMS/PS. The SEM micrographs give further supports to the EDX analysis. On the basis of the perce...

  17. Ultralight, highly thermally insulating and fire resistant aerogel by encapsulating cellulose nanofibers with two-dimensional MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Mukhopadhyay, Alolika; Jiao, Yucong; Yong, Qiang; Chen, Liao; Xing, Yingjie; Hamel, Jonathan; Zhu, Hongli

    2017-08-17

    Thermally insulating materials, made from earth-abundant and sustainable resources, are highly desirable in the sustainable construction of energy efficient buildings. Cellulose from wood has long been recognized for these characteristics. However, cellulose can be a flammability hazard, and for construction this has been addressed via chemical treatment such as that with halogen and/or phosphorus, which leads to further environmental concerns. Fortunately, the structure of cellulose lends itself well to chemical modification, giving great potential to explore interaction with other compounds. Thus, in this study, cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) were nano-wrapped with ultrathin 1T phase molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) nanosheets via chemical crosslinking, to produce an aerogel. Thermal and combustion characterization revealed highly desirable properties (thermal conductivity k = 28.09 mW m -1 K -1 , insulation R value = 5.2, limit oxygen index (LOI) = 34.7%, total heat release = 0.4 MJ m -2 ). Vertical burning tests also demonstrated excellent fire retardant and self-extinguishing capabilities. Raman spectra further revealed that MoS 2 remained unscathed after 30 seconds of burning in a 1300 °C butane flame. Considering the inherently low density of this material, there is significant opportunity for its usage in a number of insulating applications demanding specific fire resistance properties.

  18. A Synthetic HIV-1 Subtype C Backbone Generates Comparable PR and RT Resistance Profiles to a Subtype B Backbone in a Recombinant Virus Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Nauwelaers, David; Van Houtte, Margriet; Winters, Bart; Steegen, Kim; Van Baelen, Kurt; Chi, Ellen; Zhou, Mimi; Steiner, Derek; Bonesteel, Rachelle; Aston, Colin; Stuyver, Lieven J.

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine phenotypic protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitor-associated resistance in HIV subtype C virus, we have synthetically constructed an HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1-C) viral backbone for use in a recombinant virus assay. The in silico designed viral genome was divided into 4 fragments, which were chemically synthesized and joined together by conventional subcloning. Subsequently, gag-protease-reverse-transcriptase (GPRT) fragments from 8 HIV-1 subtype C-infected patient sam...

  19. Alkali resistant Cu/zeolite deNOx catalysts for flue gas cleaning in biomass fired applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Cu/zeolite catalysts have been prepared by wet impregnation and characterized by N2 physisorption, EPR, H2-TPR and NH3-TPD methods. The Cu content was varied to optimize the loading as well as surface acidity. Optimized Cu/zeolite catalysts showed high surface acidity and excellent activity...... in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3. Furthermore, Cu/zeolite catalysts showed high SCR activity even after doping with potassium (0–500μmol/g) compared to a commercial vanadium catalyst which deactivated at lower potassium content. Fresh and deactivated catalysts were further examined...... to investigate the redox and acidic properties of the catalysts. The poisoning resistivity seems to be due to a combination of high surface area and strong acidity of the Cu/zeolite catalysts. The catalysts might be attractive alternatives to conventional catalysts for deNOx of flue gases from biomass fired...

  20. Identification of a major QTL together with several minor additive or epistatic QTLs for resistance to fire blight in apple in two related progenies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calenge, F.; Drouet, D.; Denance, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Brisset, M.N.; Paulin, J.P.; Durel, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    Although fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most destructive diseases of apple (Malus x domestica) worldwide, no major, qualitative gene for resistance to this disease has been identified to date in apple. We conducted a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis in

  1. Predictions of fire behavior and resistance to control: for use with photo series for the ponderosa pine type, ponderosa pine and associated species type, and lodgepole pine type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin R. Ward; David V. Sandberg

    1981-01-01

    This publication presents tables on the behavior of fire and the resistance of fuels to control. The information is to be used with the publication, "Photo Series for Quantifying Forest Residues in the Ponderosa Pine Type, Ponderosa Pine and Associated Species Type, Lodgepole Pine Type" (Maxwell, Wayne G.; Ward, Franklin R. 1976. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-052....

  2. A Highly Sensitive Assay Using Synthetic Blood Containing Test Microbes for Evaluation of the Penetration Resistance of Protective Clothing Material under Applied Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimasaki, Noriko; Hara, Masayuki; Kikuno, Ritsuko; Shinohara, Katsuaki

    2016-01-01

    To prevent nosocomial infections caused by even either Ebola virus or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), healthcare workers must wear the appropriate protective clothing which can inhibit contact transmission of these pathogens. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the performance of protective clothing for penetration resistance against infectious agents. In Japan, some standard methods were established to evaluate the penetration resistance of protective clothing fabric materials under applied pressure. However, these methods only roughly classified the penetration resistance of fabrics, and the detection sensitivity of the methods and the penetration amount with respect to the relationship between blood and the pathogen have not been studied in detail. Moreover, no standard method using bacteria for evaluation is known. Here, to evaluate penetration resistance of protective clothing materials under applied pressure, the detection sensitivity and the leak amount were investigated by using synthetic blood containing bacteriophage phi-X174 or S. aureus. And the volume of leaked synthetic blood and the amount of test microbe penetration were simultaneously quantified. Our results showed that the penetration detection sensitivity achieved using a test microbial culture was higher than that achieved using synthetic blood at invisible leak level pressures. This finding suggested that there is a potential risk of pathogen penetration even when visual leak of contaminated blood through the protective clothing was not observed. Moreover, at visible leak level pressures, it was found that the amount of test microbe penetration varied at least ten-fold among protective clothing materials classified into the same class of penetration resistance. Analysis of the penetration amount revealed a significant correlation between the volume of penetrated synthetic blood and the amount of test microbe penetration, indicating that the leaked volume of synthetic

  3. Study of fire-resistance of reinforced concrete slab of a new type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalmykov Oleg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete structures with complex inner geometry under the effect of high temperatures considering void former materials were examined. The analysis of strain-stress state of new type of architectural and construction system ‘Monofant’ under the effect of high temperature heating in standard fire mode, considering the change of design pattern was carried out. Numerical study of concrete slab with given reinforcement and complex inner geometry was carried out with use of software packages based on finite element method. Temperature fields throughout the depth of cross section of the slab of new type of architectural and construction system ‘Monofant’ upon heating in standard fire mode for time interval 0-240 min. were obtained. The carrying capacity of sections exposed to high temperatures was determined by deformation method. Offered the algorithm that considers the transformation of design patterns depending on temperature values and excessive pressure in thermal insulation cavities taking into account influence of deformation fields on temperature distribution.

  4. Modification of synthetic fibers by radiation-induced grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Kanako

    1981-05-01

    The present report describes studies to modify properties of synthetic fibers by radiation-induced grafting technique. This technique was employed since it is considered to be generally applicable to the grafting of a radically polymerizable monomer onto fiber. Three synthetic fibers were used mainly in the present studies; (1) polyester fiber which is ranked as the first in the amount of production in the synthetic fibers at present and is expected to increase in its importance in the future, (2) poly (vinyl chloride) fiber which is inexpensive and fire-retardant, and (3) polyethylene fiber which is not yet used in apparel at present. In order to perform the grafting, the following two methods were studied; one is to graft monomer uniformly in the fiber preventing homopolymerization of the monomer outside of the fiber, and the other to graft monomer only on the fiber surface. Using these methods, the following experiments were carried out and fairly good results as expected were obtained. (1) In the case of polyester fiber it was intended to make this more hydrophilic and fire-retardant. (2) Concerning to poly(vinyl chloride) fiber experiments were carried out to make the fiber more hydrophilic and simultaneously more heat-resistant. (3) In the case of polyethylene fiber, target was fire-retardance and heat-resistance. (author)

  5. Development of a new composite system: fire resistant and highly structural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure and rail sectors share two singularities in terms of materials: highly structural performance and strict fire requirements. Moreover, there is a common growing interest in both sectors: the use of organic matrix composite materials due to their high performance, lightweight and in-service behavior. Traditionally, fire fillers have been added to the matrix, decreasing its mechanical performance in a critical way. A study about composite materials formed by three different matrices and four different carbon fibers will be presented in this paper. A number of laminates have been manufactured by using these composite materials in order to analyze both the resin processing and the compatibility of the different matrices and fibers. This study is a need due to the fact that these matrices are fire-related and therefore further problems may arise in comparison with standard matrices.

    Los sectores de la construcción y del ferrocarril tienen dos aspectos en común en el ámbito de los materiales: la utilización de materiales altamente estructurales y la aplicación de estrictos requerimientos de fuego. Asimismo, en ambos sectores existe un interés creciente en el uso de materiales compuestos de matriz orgánica por sus excelentes prestaciones, ligereza y comportamiento en servicio. Tradicionalmente, se han aplicado cargas anti-fuego a la matriz orgánica, disminuyendo sus propiedades mecánicas de forma importante. En este artículo se presentará un estudio de materiales compuestos formados por tres matrices orgánicas diferentes y cuatro tipos de fibras de carbono. Con estos constituyentes se han fabricado diferentes laminados para analizar, por un lado, la procesabilidad de estas resinas, y, por otro, la compatibilidad de estas resinas con las fibras de refuerzo utilizadas. Este estudio es necesario debido a que al tratarse de resinas formuladas con características frente a fuego y humos, su fabricabilidad puede

  6. Fire safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Hostikka, S.; Mangs, J.; Huhtanen, R.; Palmen, H.; Salminen, A.; Turtola, A.

    1998-01-01

    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  7. Fire retardant formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions where a substrate is liable to catch fire such as bituminous products, paints, carpets or the like. The invention relates to a composition comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant such as bituminous material or paint......, carpets which substrate is mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant component. The invention relates to a fire retardant component comprising or being constituted of attapulgite, and a salt being a source of a blowing or expanding agent, where the attapulgite and the salt are electrostatically...... connected by mixing and subjecting the mixture of the two components to agitation. Also, the invention relates to compositions comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant according to claim 1 or 2, which fire retardant component...

  8. Small-molecule synthetic compound norcantharidin reverses multi-drug resistance by regulating Sonic hedgehog signaling in human breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Chen

    Full Text Available Multi-drug resistance (MDR, an unfavorable factor compromising treatment efficacy of anticancer drugs, involves upregulated ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters and activated Sonic hedgehog (Shh signaling. By preparing human breast cancer MCF-7 cells resistant to doxorubicin (DOX, we examined the effect and mechanism of norcantharidin (NCTD, a small-molecule synthetic compound, on reversing multidrug resistance. The DOX-prepared MCF-7R cells also possessed resistance to vinorelbine, characteristic of MDR. At suboptimal concentration, NCTD significantly inhibited the viability of DOX-sensitive (MCF-7S and DOX-resistant (MCF-7R cells and reversed the resistance to DOX and vinorelbine. NCTD increased the intracellular accumulation of DOX in MCF-7R cells and suppressed the upregulated the mdr-1 mRNA, P-gp and BCRP protein expression, but not the MRP-1. The role of P-gp was strengthened by partial reversal of the DOX and vinorelbine resistance by cyclosporine A. NCTD treatment suppressed the upregulation of Shh expression and nuclear translocation of Gli-1, a hallmark of Shh signaling activation in the resistant clone. Furthermore, the Shh ligand upregulated the expression of P-gp and attenuated the growth inhibitory effect of NCTD. The knockdown of mdr-1 mRNA had not altered the expression of Shh and Smoothened in both MCF-7S and MCF-7R cells. This indicates that the role of Shh signaling in MDR might be upstream to mdr-1/P-gp, and similar effect was shown in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and BT-474 cells. This study demonstrated that NCTD may overcome multidrug resistance through inhibiting Shh signaling and expression of its downstream mdr-1/P-gp expression in human breast cancer cells.

  9. Resistance of mixed subalpine forest to fire frequency changes: the ecological function of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo ssp. mugo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Bérangère; Carcaillet, Christopher; Blarquez, Olivier; Lami, Andrea; Musazzi, Simona; Trevisan, Renata

    2014-04-01

    The availability of fuel and climate are major factors responsible for forest fire activity over time. Here, we tested the hypothesis that forest ecosystems containing a high shrub biomass, which constitutes a fuel load, and affected by a warmer climate, which is associated with drier conditions and a longer fire season, are more prone to fire. Fire occurrence and woody vegetation histories were reconstructed for a subalpine site (Lago di Colbricon Inferiore) in the Dolomites, part of the eastern Italian Alps, for the past 13,000 years. The modern wet climate prevents fire in this area, in spite of the warm summers and an abundant biomass of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo) and three other conifer tree species (Pinus cembra, Picea abies, and Larix decidua). Past fire history reconstructed from sedimentary charcoal showed a median fire return interval of 140 years (30-735 yr fire-1), with a high variability (SD ± 170 years) throughout the Holocene, suggesting that the past environment was more favourable to fire than the modern one, probably due to a drier climate or to different fuel availability. The subalpine community containing P. mugo remained stable for the past 9000 years, despite the variability of the fire return interval. Interestingly, the fire frequency is higher at Lago di Colbricon than at sites in the western Alps that lack P. mugo, suggesting that this species tolerates fire disturbance. In fact, it probably favours the spread of fire due to its flammable biomass, prostrated form, and dense layering canopy, thus offsetting the influence of the wet climate. Since the 19th century, the removal of dwarf pine to promote subalpine grasslands may have suppressed fires in this region.

  10. Control of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) on apple trees with trunk-injected plant resistance inducers and antibiotics and assessment of induction of pathogenesis-related protein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aćimović, Srđan G; Zeng, Quan; McGhee, Gayle C; Sundin, George W; Wise, John C

    2015-01-01

    Management of fire blight is complicated by limitations on use of antibiotics in agriculture, antibiotic resistance development, and limited efficacy of alternative control agents. Even though successful in control, preventive antibiotic sprays also affect non-target bacteria, aiding the selection for resistance which could ultimately be transferred to the pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Trunk injection is a target-precise pesticide delivery method that utilizes tree xylem to distribute injected compounds. Trunk injection could decrease antibiotic usage in the open environment and increase the effectiveness of compounds in fire blight control. In field experiments, after 1-2 apple tree injections of either streptomycin, potassium phosphites (PH), or acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM), significant reduction of blossom and shoot blight symptoms was observed compared to water injected control trees. Overall disease suppression with streptomycin was lower than typically observed following spray applications to flowers. Trunk injection of oxytetracycline resulted in excellent control of shoot blight severity, suggesting that injection is a superior delivery method for this antibiotic. Injection of both ASM and PH resulted in the significant induction of PR-1, PR-2, and PR-8 protein genes in apple leaves indicating induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) under field conditions. The time separating SAR induction and fire blight symptom suppression indicated that various defensive compounds within the SAR response were synthesized and accumulated in the canopy. ASM and PH suppressed fire blight even after cessation of induced gene expression. With the development of injectable formulations and optimization of doses and injection schedules, the injection of protective compounds could serve as an effective option for fire blight control.

  11. Control of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora on apple trees with trunk-injected plant resistance inducers and antibiotics and assessment of induction of pathogenesis-related protein genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan G. Aćimović

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Management of fire blight is complicated by limitations on use of antibiotics in agriculture, antibiotic resistance development, and limited efficacy of alternative control agents. Even though successful in control, preventive antibiotic sprays also affect non-target bacteria, aiding the selection for resistance which could ultimately be transferred to the pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Trunk injection is a target-precise pesticide delivery method that utilizes tree xylem to distribute injected compounds. Trunk injection could decrease antibiotic usage in the open environment and increase the effectiveness of compounds in fire blight control. In field experiments, after 1-2 apple tree injections of either streptomycin, potassium phosphites (PH or acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM, significant reduction of blossom and shoot blight symptoms was observed compared to water- or non-injected control trees. Overall disease suppression with streptomycin was lower than typically observed following spray applications to flowers. Trunk injection of oxytetracycline resulted in excellent control of shoot blight severity, suggesting that injection is a superior delivery method for this antibiotic. Injection of both ASM and PH resulted in the significant induction of PR-1, PR-2 and PR-8 protein genes in apple leaves indicating induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR under field conditions. The time separating SAR induction and fire blight symptom suppression indicated that various defensive compounds within the SAR response were synthesized and accumulated in the canopy. ASM and PH suppressed fire blight even after cessation of induced gene expression. With the development of injectable formulations and optimization of doses and injection schedules, the injection of protective compounds could serve as an effective option for fire blight control.

  12. Technologies for Protection and Resistance Enhancement of Critical Infrastructures againstExtreme Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    installations dont la fonction est vitale pour la société et l’économie. Par conséquent, en plus d’assurer la sécurité des personnes, ce qui est toujours...in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2014 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le...ministre de la Défense nationale, 2014 NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL CANADA Technologies For Protection and Resistance Enhancement of

  13. Microstructure Control of Fire-resistant, Low-alloy Steel; An in-situ 3D X-ray Diffraction and A Small-angle X-ray Scattering Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dere, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis aims at deepening our understanding of the formation of the microstructure of steel during thermal processing in order to control the microstructure and thereby improve the fire-resistance of low-alloy steel. The strength of steel decreases during a fire mainly

  14. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanooctahedra MnFe₂O₄ onto the Wood Surface with Soft Magnetism, Fire Resistance and Electromagnetic Wave Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanwei; Yao, Qiufang; Wang, Chao; Ma, Zhongqing; Sun, Qingfeng; Fan, Bitao; Jin, Chunde; Chen, Yipeng

    2017-05-23

    In this study, nanooctahedra MnFe₂O₄ were successfully deposited on a wood surface via a low hydrothermal treatment by hydrogen bonding interactions. As-prepared MnFe₂O₄/wood composite (MW) had superior performance of soft magnetism, fire resistance and electromagnetic wave absorption. Among them, small hysteresis loops and low coercivity (magnetization-field curve of MW with saturation magnetization of 28.24 emu/g, indicating its excellent soft magnetism. The MW also exhibited a good fire-resistant property due to its initial burning time at 20 s; while only 6 s for the untreated wood (UW) in combustion experiments. Additionally, this composite revealed good electromagnetic wave absorption with a minimum reflection loss of -9.3 dB at 16.48 GHz. Therefore, the MW has great potential in the fields of special decoration and indoor electromagnetic wave absorbers.

  15. Cost Effective Approaches to Impart Flame Resistance to Cotton Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent changes in the flammability laws require improvements in the flame resistance of cotton-containing consumer goods such as upholstered furniture, mattresses, and pillows. Cotton, synthetic fibers, fabrics, and foam are the basic constituents of these goods, often the first to engulf by a fire....

  16. Molecular mapping of stripe rust resistance gene YrSE5756 in synthetic hexaploid wheat and its transfer to common wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.J.; Wang, C.Y.; Zhang, H.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic hexaploid wheat is an important germplasm resource for transfer of beneficial genes from alien species to common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Synthetic hexaploid wheat SE5756 confers a high level of resistance against a wide range of races of Puccinia striiformis West. f. sp. tritici Eriks. et Henn.(Pst). The objectives of this study were to determine the inheritance pattern, adjacent molecular markers, and chromosomal location of the stripe rust resistance gene in SE5756 and to develop new germplasm. We constructed a segregating population of 116 F2 plants and corresponding F2:3 families from a cross between SE5756 and Xinong979 with Pst races CYR32. Genetic analysis revealed that a single dominant gene, tentatively designated as YrSE5756, was responsible for seedling stage stripe rust resistance in SE5756. A genetic map, encompassing Xwmc626, Xwmc269, Xgwm11, Xbarx137, Xwmc419, Xwmc85, Xgpw5237, Xwmc134, WE173, Xwmc631, and YrSE5756, spanned 70.1 cM on chromosome 1BS. Xwmc419 and Xwmc85 were flanking markers tightly linked to YrSE5756 at genetic distances of 2.3 and 1.8 cM. Typical adult plant responses of the SE5756, varieties of the carrier Yr10 and Yr15, Chuanmai 42 (Yr24/Yr26), Yuanfeng 175 (Yr24/Yr26) and Huixianhong resistant to mixture Pst races (CYR32, CYR33 and V26) were experimented. The results showed that YrSE5756 was likely a new resistance stripe rust gene different from Yr24/Yr26, Yr10 and Yr15. From cross and backcross populations of SE5756/Xinong 979, we developed four new wheat lines with large seeds, stripe rust resistance, and improved agronomic traits: N07178-1, N07178-2, N08256-1, and N08256-2. These new germplasm lines could serve as sources of resistance to stripe rust in wheat breeding. SE5756 has the very vital significance in the development of breeding and expand our resistance germplasm resource gene pool. (author)

  17. Synthetic peptides derived from human antimicrobial peptide ubiquicidin accumulate at sites of infections and eradicate (multi-drug resistant) Staphylococcus aureus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Carlo P J M; Bogaards, Sylvia J P; Wulferink, Marty; Velders, Markwin P; Welling, Mick M

    2006-11-01

    The presence and antimicrobial activity of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) has been widely recognized as an evolutionary preserved part of the innate immune system. Based on evidence in animal models and humans, AMPs are now positioned as novel anti-infective agents. The current study aimed to evaluate the potential antimicrobial activity of ubiquicidin and small synthetic fragments thereof towards methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), as a high priority target for novel antibiotics. In vitro killing of MRSA by synthetic peptides derived from the alpha-helix or beta-sheet domains of the human cationic peptide ubiquicidin (UBI 1-59), allowed selection of AMPs for possible treatment of MRSA infections. The strongest antibacterial activity was observed for the entire peptide UBI 1-59 and for synthetic fragments comprising amino acids 31-38. The availability, chemical synthesis opportunities, and size of these small peptides, combined with their strong antimicrobial activity towards MRSA make these compounds promising candidates for antimicrobial therapy and detection of infections in man.

  18. The resistance evaluation: Effects of a specific training program on professional fire-fighter cardio-respiratory fitness

    OpenAIRE

    P.J. Mourão; F.J. Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    The fire-fighters have an increased risk for developing cardiac pathologies and also a higher index of premature death than other individuals that perform high risk jobs. In this way, low physical fitness obviously limits fire-fighter performance, as well as degrades their health. However this fact not only damages the individual fire-fighter but also the institution that he represents hence severely questioning property and general public safety. The cardio-respiratory fitness had been ident...

  19. Random chromosome elimination in synthetic Triticum-Aegilops amphiploids leads to development of a stable partial amphiploid with high grain micro- and macronutrient content and powdery mildew resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vijay K; Rawat, Nidhi; Neelam, Kumari; Kumar, Sundip; Randhawa, Gursharn S; Dhaliwal, Harcharan S

    2010-12-01

    Synthetic amphiploids are the immortal sources for studies on crop evolution, genome dissection, and introgression of useful variability from related species. Cytological analysis of synthetic decaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) - Aegilops kotschyi Boiss. amphiploids (AABBDDUkUkSkSk) showed some univalents from the C1 generation onward followed by chromosome elimination. Most of the univalents came to metaphase I plate after the reductional division of paired chromosomes and underwent equational division leading to their elimination through laggards and micronuclei. Substantial variation in the chromosome number of pollen mother cells from different tillers, spikelets, and anthers of some plants also indicated somatic chromosome elimination. Genomic in situ hybridization, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and simple sequence repeat markers analysis of two amphiploids with reduced chromosomes indicated random chromosome elimination of various genomes with higher sensitivity of D followed by the Sk and Uk genomes to elimination, whereas 1D chromosome was preferentially eliminated in both the amphiploids investigated. One of the partial amphiploids, C4 T. aestivum 'Chinese Spring' - Ae. kotschyi 396 (2n = 58), with 34 T. aestivum, 14 Uk, and 10 Sk had stable meiosis and high fertility. The partial amphiploids with white glumes, bold seeds, and tough rachis with high grain macro- and micronutrients and resistance to powdery mildew could be used for T. aestivum biofortification and transfer of powdery mildew resistance.

  20. Engineering fire blight resistance into the apple cultivar 'Gala' using the FB_MR5 CC-NBS-LRR resistance gene of Malus × robusta 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggini, Giovanni A L; Wöhner, Thomas; Fahrentrapp, Johannes; Kost, Thomas D; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Maria-Viola; Richter, Klaus; Patocchi, Andrea; Gessler, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    The fire blight susceptible apple cultivar Malus × domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala' was transformed with the candidate fire blight resistance gene FB_MR5 originating from the crab apple accession Malus × robusta 5 (Mr5). A total of five different transgenic lines were obtained. All transgenic lines were shown to be stably transformed and originate from different transgenic events. The transgenic lines express the FB_MR5 either driven by the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter and the ocs terminator or by its native promoter and terminator sequences. Phenotyping experiments were performed with Mr5-virulent and Mr5-avirulent strains of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Significantly less disease symptoms were detected on transgenic lines after inoculation with two different Mr5-avirulent E. amylovora strains, while significantly more shoot necrosis was observed after inoculation with the Mr5-virulent mutant strain ZYRKD3_1. The results of these experiments demonstrated the ability of a single gene isolated from the native gene pool of apple to protect a susceptible cultivar from fire blight. Furthermore, this gene is confirmed to be the resistance determinant of Mr5 as the transformed lines undergo the same gene-for-gene interaction in the host-pathogen relationship Mr5-E. amylovora. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. McGISH identification and phenotypic description of leaf rust and yellow rust resistant partial amphiploids originating from a wheat × Thinopyrum synthetic hybrid cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruppa, Klaudia; Türkösi, Edina; Mayer, Marianna; Tóth, Viola; Vida, Gyula; Szakács, Éva; Molnár-Láng, Márta

    2016-11-01

    A Thinopyrum intermedium × Thinopyrum ponticum synthetic hybrid wheatgrass is an excellent source of leaf and stem rust resistance produced by N.V.Tsitsin. Wheat line Mv9kr1 was crossed with this hybrid (Agropyron glael) in Hungary in order to transfer its advantageous agronomic traits into wheat. As the wheat parent was susceptible to leaf rust, the transfer of resistance was easily recognizable in the progenies. Three different partial amphiploid lines with leaf rust resistance were selected from the wheat/Thinopyrum hybrid derivatives by multicolour genomic in situ hybridization. Chromosome counting on the partial amphiploids revealed 58 chromosomes (18 wheatgrass) in line 194, 56 (14 wheatgrass) in line 195 and 54 (12 wheatgrass) in line 196. The wheat chromosomes present in these lines were identified and the wheatgrass chromosomes were characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization using the repetitive DNA probes Afa-family, pSc119.2 and pTa71. The 3D wheat chromosome was missing from the lines. Molecular marker analysis showed the presence of the Lr24 leaf rust resistance gene in lines 195 and 196. The morphological traits were evaluated in the field during two consecutive seasons in two different locations.

  2. A study of the evolution of rust on Mo–Cu-bearing fire-resistant steel submitted to simulated atmospheric corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Long; Zhang Sixun; Dong Junhua; Ke Wei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The rusting evolution of a Mo–Cu-bearing fire-resistant steel in a simulated industrial atmosphere was investigated. ► The rusting evolution of the steel is related to the rust composition, structure, and electrochemical characteristics. ► Increased content of α-FeOOH and decreased γ-FeOOH and Fe 3 O 4 indicate the enhanced resistance of the rust. ► Mo and Cu are involved in the formation of molybdate and Cu(I)-bearing compounds in the rust. - Abstract: The corrosion evolution of a Mo–Cu-bearing fire-resistant steel in a simulated industrial atmosphere was investigated by corrosion weight gain, XRD, EPMA, XPS, and polarization curves. The results indicate that the corrosion kinetics is closely related to the rust composition and electrochemical properties. As the corrosion proceeds, the relative content of γ-FeOOH and Fe 3 O 4 decreases and α-FeOOH increases, and the rust layer becomes compact and adherent to steel substrate. Molybdenum and copper enrich in the inner rust layer, especially at the bottom of the corrosion nest, forming non-soluble molybdate and Cu(I)-bearing compounds responsible for enhanced corrosion resistance of the rust layer.

  3. A New Synthetic Amphiploid (AADDAA) between Gossypium hirsutum and G. arboreum Lays the Foundation for Transferring Resistances to Verticillium and Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Yingying; Zhao, Ting; Yang, Jianwei; Feng, Shouli; Nazeer, Wajad; Zhang, Tianzhen; Zhou, Baoliang

    2015-01-01

    Gossypium arboreum, a cultivated cotton species (2n = 26, AA) native to Asia, possesses invaluable characteristics unavailable in the tetraploid cultivated cotton gene pool, such as resistance to pests and diseases and tolerance to abiotic stresses. However, it is quite difficult to transfer favorable traits into Upland cotton through conventional methods due to the cross-incompatibility of G. hirsutum (2n = 52, AADD) and G. arboreum. Here, we improved an embryo rescue technique to overcome the cross-incompatibility between these two parents for transferring favorable genes from G. arboreum into G. hirsutum. Our results indicate that MSB2K supplemented with 0.5 mgl-1 kinetin and 250 mg-1 casein hydrolysate is an efficient initial medium for rescuing early (3 d after pollination) hybrid embryos. Eight putative hybrids were successfully obtained, which were further verified and characterized by cytology, molecular markers and morphological analysis. The putative hybrids were subsequently treated with different concentrations of colchicine solution to double their chromosomes. The results demonstrate that four putative hybrid plants were successfully chromosome-doubled by treatment with 0.1% colchicine for 24 h and become amphiploid, which were confirmed by cytological observation, self-fertilization and backcrossing. Preliminary assessments of resistance at seedling stage indicate that the synthetic amphiploid showed highly resistant to Verticillium and drought. The synthetic amphiploid between G. hirsutum × G. arboreum would lay the foundation for developing G. arboreum-introgressed lines with the uniform genetic background of G. hirsutum acc TM-1, which would greatly enhance and simplify the mining, isolation, characterization, cloning and use of G. arboreum-specific desirable genes in future cotton breeding programs. PMID:26061996

  4. A New Synthetic Amphiploid (AADDAA between Gossypium hirsutum and G. arboreum Lays the Foundation for Transferring Resistances to Verticillium and Drought.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    Full Text Available Gossypium arboreum, a cultivated cotton species (2n = 26, AA native to Asia, possesses invaluable characteristics unavailable in the tetraploid cultivated cotton gene pool, such as resistance to pests and diseases and tolerance to abiotic stresses. However, it is quite difficult to transfer favorable traits into Upland cotton through conventional methods due to the cross-incompatibility of G. hirsutum (2n = 52, AADD and G. arboreum. Here, we improved an embryo rescue technique to overcome the cross-incompatibility between these two parents for transferring favorable genes from G. arboreum into G. hirsutum. Our results indicate that MSB2K supplemented with 0.5 mg l(-1 kinetin and 250 mg(-1 casein hydrolysate is an efficient initial medium for rescuing early (3 d after pollination hybrid embryos. Eight putative hybrids were successfully obtained, which were further verified and characterized by cytology, molecular markers and morphological analysis. The putative hybrids were subsequently treated with different concentrations of colchicine solution to double their chromosomes. The results demonstrate that four putative hybrid plants were successfully chromosome-doubled by treatment with 0.1% colchicine for 24 h and become amphiploid, which were confirmed by cytological observation, self-fertilization and backcrossing. Preliminary assessments of resistance at seedling stage indicate that the synthetic amphiploid showed highly resistant to Verticillium and drought. The synthetic amphiploid between G. hirsutum × G. arboreum would lay the foundation for developing G. arboreum-introgressed lines with the uniform genetic background of G. hirsutum acc TM-1, which would greatly enhance and simplify the mining, isolation, characterization, cloning and use of G. arboreum-specific desirable genes in future cotton breeding programs.

  5. A New Synthetic Amphiploid (AADDAA) between Gossypium hirsutum and G. arboreum Lays the Foundation for Transferring Resistances to Verticillium and Drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Yingying; Zhao, Ting; Yang, Jianwei; Feng, Shouli; Nazeer, Wajad; Zhang, Tianzhen; Zhou, Baoliang

    2015-01-01

    Gossypium arboreum, a cultivated cotton species (2n = 26, AA) native to Asia, possesses invaluable characteristics unavailable in the tetraploid cultivated cotton gene pool, such as resistance to pests and diseases and tolerance to abiotic stresses. However, it is quite difficult to transfer favorable traits into Upland cotton through conventional methods due to the cross-incompatibility of G. hirsutum (2n = 52, AADD) and G. arboreum. Here, we improved an embryo rescue technique to overcome the cross-incompatibility between these two parents for transferring favorable genes from G. arboreum into G. hirsutum. Our results indicate that MSB2K supplemented with 0.5 mg l(-1) kinetin and 250 mg(-1) casein hydrolysate is an efficient initial medium for rescuing early (3 d after pollination) hybrid embryos. Eight putative hybrids were successfully obtained, which were further verified and characterized by cytology, molecular markers and morphological analysis. The putative hybrids were subsequently treated with different concentrations of colchicine solution to double their chromosomes. The results demonstrate that four putative hybrid plants were successfully chromosome-doubled by treatment with 0.1% colchicine for 24 h and become amphiploid, which were confirmed by cytological observation, self-fertilization and backcrossing. Preliminary assessments of resistance at seedling stage indicate that the synthetic amphiploid showed highly resistant to Verticillium and drought. The synthetic amphiploid between G. hirsutum × G. arboreum would lay the foundation for developing G. arboreum-introgressed lines with the uniform genetic background of G. hirsutum acc TM-1, which would greatly enhance and simplify the mining, isolation, characterization, cloning and use of G. arboreum-specific desirable genes in future cotton breeding programs.

  6. Glovebox fire experiment, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Keiichi; Sunaoshi, Mitsugu; Mishima, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Koichi.

    1979-01-01

    The gloveboxes used for plutonium facilities in Japan and foreign countries have considerable combustibles as their components, so that the fire resistivity of the gloveboxes is a serious problem in the safety evaluation of the facilities. Actually, a big fire having burned gloveboxes occurred in a foreign weapon facility. But the fire in the weapon facility should be distinguished from that in nuclear fuel facilities, since the former handles quite combustible plutonium metal, while the latter handle quite stable plutonium oxide. The countermeasures to fires should be decided, considering the properties and quantity of combustibles around gloveboxes and ventilation systems, as the probability and scale of fires can be presumed from them. From the viewpoint of safety, the experiment on glovebox fires was carried out by the Plutonium Fuel Division, PNC. The experimental conditions are explained. The samples were the acrylic resin panels with four glove ports and a small glovebox currently used. The glovebox showed the considerable fire resistance, and the panel hardly burned. The weakest component of the glovebox against fire was the gloves. The countermeasure to curtain the gloves with an insulating material seemed to be effective. The ventilation of the room and the glovebox worked as fire preventer at least in the first stage of fire. (Kako, I.)

  7. The economics of fire protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ramachandran, Ganapathy

    2003-01-01

    This important new book, the first of its kind in the fire safety field, discusses the economic problems faced by decision-makers in the areas of fire safety and fire precautions. The author considers the theoretical aspects of cost-benefit analysis and other relevant economic problems with practical applications to fire protection systems. Clear examples are included to illustrate these techniques in action. The work covers: * the performance and effectiveness of passive fire protection measures such as structural fire resistance and means of escape facilities, and active systems such as sprinklers and detectors * the importance of educating for better understanding and implementation of fire prevention through publicity campaigns and fire brigade operations * cost-benefit analysis of fire protection measures and their combinations, taking into account trade-offs between these measures. The book is essential reading for consultants and academics in construction management, economics and fire safety, as well ...

  8. Fire History

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  9. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  10. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  11. Fire History

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  12. Taxonomically-linked growth phenotypes during arsenic stress among arsenic resistant bacteria isolated from soils overlying the Centralia coal seam fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunivin, Taylor K; Miller, Justine; Shade, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    Arsenic (As), a toxic element, has impacted life since early Earth. Thus, microorganisms have evolved many As resistance and tolerance mechanisms to improve their survival outcomes given As exposure. We isolated As resistant bacteria from Centralia, PA, the site of an underground coal seam fire that has been burning since 1962. From a 57.4°C soil collected from a vent above the fire, we isolated 25 unique aerobic As resistant bacterial strains spanning seven genera. We examined their diversity, resistance gene content, transformation abilities, inhibitory concentrations, and growth phenotypes. Although As concentrations were low at the time of soil collection (2.58 ppm), isolates had high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of arsenate and arsenite (>300 mM and 20 mM respectively), and most isolates were capable of arsenate reduction. We screened isolates (PCR and sequencing) using 12 published primer sets for six As resistance genes (AsRGs). Genes encoding arsenate reductase (arsC) and arsenite efflux pumps (arsB, ACR3(2)) were present, and phylogenetic incongruence between 16S rRNA genes and AsRGs provided evidence for horizontal gene transfer. A detailed investigation of differences in isolate growth phenotypes across As concentrations (lag time to exponential growth, maximum growth rate, and maximum OD590) showed a relationship with taxonomy, providing information that could help to predict an isolate's performance given As exposure in situ. Our results suggest that microbiological management and remediation of environmental As could be informed by taxonomically-linked As tolerance, potential for resistance gene transferability, and the rare biosphere.

  13. Taxonomically-linked growth phenotypes during arsenic stress among arsenic resistant bacteria isolated from soils overlying the Centralia coal seam fire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor K Dunivin

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As, a toxic element, has impacted life since early Earth. Thus, microorganisms have evolved many As resistance and tolerance mechanisms to improve their survival outcomes given As exposure. We isolated As resistant bacteria from Centralia, PA, the site of an underground coal seam fire that has been burning since 1962. From a 57.4°C soil collected from a vent above the fire, we isolated 25 unique aerobic As resistant bacterial strains spanning seven genera. We examined their diversity, resistance gene content, transformation abilities, inhibitory concentrations, and growth phenotypes. Although As concentrations were low at the time of soil collection (2.58 ppm, isolates had high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of arsenate and arsenite (>300 mM and 20 mM respectively, and most isolates were capable of arsenate reduction. We screened isolates (PCR and sequencing using 12 published primer sets for six As resistance genes (AsRGs. Genes encoding arsenate reductase (arsC and arsenite efflux pumps (arsB, ACR3(2 were present, and phylogenetic incongruence between 16S rRNA genes and AsRGs provided evidence for horizontal gene transfer. A detailed investigation of differences in isolate growth phenotypes across As concentrations (lag time to exponential growth, maximum growth rate, and maximum OD590 showed a relationship with taxonomy, providing information that could help to predict an isolate's performance given As exposure in situ. Our results suggest that microbiological management and remediation of environmental As could be informed by taxonomically-linked As tolerance, potential for resistance gene transferability, and the rare biosphere.

  14. Highly Flexible, Fire Resistant HybridSil Foams for Next Generation Fireproofing, Insulation, and Energy Absorption NASA Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this Phase I STTR program is to adapt NanoSonic's HybridSil™ nanocomposite technology for the creation of next generation highly flexible, fire...

  15. Resistance of particleboard panels made of agricultural residues and bonded with synthetic resins or PVC plastic to wood-rotting fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divino Eterno Teixeira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the resistance of three types of particleboard panel to biodeterioration, two of which bonded with synthetic resins and one bonded with PVC plastic. Composite panels were made using sugar cane straw particles as raw material which were bonded together with urea-formaldehyde (UF, tannin-formaldehyde (TANI and PVC plastic (PVC resins. Decay tests were performed following procedures outlined in the ASTM D2017-81/1994 standard, whereby sample specimens were subjected to attack by white rot fungus Trametes versicolor and brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum using pine (Pinus sp. and embaúba (Cecropia sp. as reference timber. Panels bonded with PVC resin were rated ‘resistant’ to attack by both fungi while those bonded with UF and TANI resins were rated ‘slightly resistant’ to their attack.

  16. The resistance evaluation: Effects of a specific training program on professional fire-fighter cardio-respiratory fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Mourão

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The fire-fighters have an increased risk for developing cardiac pathologies and also a higher index of premature death than other individuals that perform high risk jobs. In this way, low physical fitness obviously limits fire-fighter performance, as well as degrades their health. However this fact not only damages the individual fire-fighter but also the institution that he represents hence severely questioning property and general public safety. The cardio-respiratory fitness had been identify as the most important physical fitness component. In this way, we developed a 12 weeks training program, to improve the cardio-respiratory fitness in a Professional fire-fighters corporation. According to reference values, before training these fire-fighters did not have enough cardio-respiratory fitness to adequately perform their job requirements with efficacy and safety (VO2máx=44,17ml/kg/min. However after training there was great improvement (VO2máx=52,69 ml/kg/min, providing a safe and more qualified service for the general population.

  17. bba, a synthetic derivative of 23-hydroxybutulinic acid, reverses multidrug resistance by inhibiting the efflux activity of MRP7 (ABCC10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jiang Chen

    Full Text Available Natural products are frequently used for adjuvant chemotherapy in cancer treatment. 23-O-(1,4'-bipiperidine-1-carbonyl betulinic acid (BBA is a synthetic derivative of 23-hydroxybutulinic acid (23-HBA, which is a natural pentacyclic triterpene and the major active constituent of the root of Pulsatillachinensis. We previously reported that BBA could reverse P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR. In the present study, we investigated whether BBA has the potential to reverse multidrug resistance protein 7 (MRP7/ABCC10-mediated MDR. We found that BBA concentration-dependently enhanced the sensitivity of MRP7-transfected HEK293 cells to paclitaxel, docetaxel and vinblastine. Accumulation and efflux experiments demonstrated that BBA increased the intracellular accumulation of [(3H]-paclitaxel by inhibiting the efflux of [(3H]-paclitaxel from HEK293/MRP7 cells. In addition, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses indicated no significant alteration of MRP7 protein expression and localization in plasma membranes after treatment with BBA. These results demonstrate that BBA reverses MRP7-mediated MDR through blocking the drug efflux function of MRP7 without affecting the intracellular ATP levels. Our findings suggest that BBA has the potential to be used in combination with conventional chemotherapeutic agents to augment the response to chemotherapy.

  18. Staphylococcal phenotypes induced by naturally occurring and synthetic membrane-interactive polyphenolic β-lactam resistance modifiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Palacios

    Full Text Available Galloyl catechins, in particular (--epicatechin gallate (ECg, have the capacity to abrogate β-lactam resistance in methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; they also prevent biofilm formation, reduce the secretion of a large proportion of the exoproteome and induce profound changes to cell morphology. Current evidence suggests that these reversible phenotypic traits result from their intercalation into the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. We have endeavoured to potentiate the capacity of ECg to modify the MRSA phenotype by stepwise removal of hydroxyl groups from the B-ring pharmacophore and the A:C fused ring system of the naturally occurring molecule. ECg binds rapidly to the membrane, inducing up-regulation of genes responsible for protection against cell wall stress and maintenance of membrane integrity and function. Studies with artificial membranes modelled on the lipid composition of the staphylococcal bilayer indicated that ECg adopts a position deep within the lipid palisade, eliciting major alterations in the thermotropic behaviour of the bilayer. The non-galloylated homolog (--epicatechin enhanced ECg-mediated effects by facilitating entry of ECg molecules into the membrane. ECg analogs with unnatural B-ring hydroxylation patterns induced higher levels of gene expression and more profound changes to MRSA membrane fluidity than ECg but adopted a more superficial location within the bilayer. ECg possessed a high affinity for the positively charged staphylococcal membrane and induced changes to the biophysical properties of the bilayer that are likely to account for its capacity to disperse the cell wall biosynthetic machinery responsible for β-lactam resistance. The ability to enhance these properties by chemical modification of ECg raises the possibility that more potent analogs could be developed for clinical evaluation.

  19. Staphylococcal Phenotypes Induced by Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Membrane-Interactive Polyphenolic β-Lactam Resistance Modifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Lucia; Rosado, Helena; Micol, Vicente; Rosato, Adriana E.; Bernal, Patricia; Arroyo, Raquel; Grounds, Helen; Anderson, James C.; Stabler, Richard A.; Taylor, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Galloyl catechins, in particular (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECg), have the capacity to abrogate β-lactam resistance in methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); they also prevent biofilm formation, reduce the secretion of a large proportion of the exoproteome and induce profound changes to cell morphology. Current evidence suggests that these reversible phenotypic traits result from their intercalation into the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. We have endeavoured to potentiate the capacity of ECg to modify the MRSA phenotype by stepwise removal of hydroxyl groups from the B-ring pharmacophore and the A:C fused ring system of the naturally occurring molecule. ECg binds rapidly to the membrane, inducing up-regulation of genes responsible for protection against cell wall stress and maintenance of membrane integrity and function. Studies with artificial membranes modelled on the lipid composition of the staphylococcal bilayer indicated that ECg adopts a position deep within the lipid palisade, eliciting major alterations in the thermotropic behaviour of the bilayer. The non-galloylated homolog (-)-epicatechin enhanced ECg-mediated effects by facilitating entry of ECg molecules into the membrane. ECg analogs with unnatural B-ring hydroxylation patterns induced higher levels of gene expression and more profound changes to MRSA membrane fluidity than ECg but adopted a more superficial location within the bilayer. ECg possessed a high affinity for the positively charged staphylococcal membrane and induced changes to the biophysical properties of the bilayer that are likely to account for its capacity to disperse the cell wall biosynthetic machinery responsible for β-lactam resistance. The ability to enhance these properties by chemical modification of ECg raises the possibility that more potent analogs could be developed for clinical evaluation. PMID:24699700

  20. Effective hydraulic resistance of a nozzle generating hybrid-synthetic jet in an electrodynamic actuator - Part II: Analysis and correlations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Kordík, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 199, September (2013), s. 391-400 ISSN 0924-4247 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02020795; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019; GA ČR GPP101/12/P556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : nozzle * periodic jet * hydraulic resistance Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.943, year: 2013 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2013.01.003

  1. Synthetic (+)-antroquinonol exhibits dual actions against insulin resistance by triggering AMP kinase and inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase IV activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, C Y; Sulake, R S; Huang, P-K; Shih, H-Y; Sie, H-W; Lai, Y-K; Chen, C; Weng, C F

    2015-01-01

    The fungal product (+)-antroquinonol activates AMP kinase (AMPK) activity in cancer cell lines. The present study was conducted to examine whether chemically synthesized (+)-antroquinonol exhibited beneficial metabolic effects in insulin-resistant states by activating AMPK and inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) activity. Effects of (+)-antroquinonol on DPP IV activity were measured with a DPPIV Assay Kit and effects on GLP-1-induced PKA were measured in AR42J cells. Translocation of the glucose transporter 4, GLUT4, induced either by insulin-dependent PI3K/AKT signalling or by insulin-independent AMPK activation, was assayed in differentiated myotubes. Glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation were assayed in L6 myocytes. Mice with diet-induced obesity were used to assess effects of acute and chronic treatment with (+)-antroquinonol on glycaemic control in vivo. The results showed that of (+)-antroquinonol (100 μM ) inhibited the DPP IV activity as effectively as the clinically used inhibitor, sitagliptin. The phosphorylation of AMPK Thr(172) in differentiated myotubes was significantly increased by (+)-antroquinonol. In cells simultaneously treated with S961 (insulin receptor antagonist), insulin and (+)-antroquinonol, the combination of (+)-antroquinonol plus insulin still increased both GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake. Further, (+)-antroquinonol and sitagliptin reduced blood glucose, when given acutely or chronically to DIO mice. Chemically synthesized (+)-antroquinonol exhibits dual effects to ameliorate insulin resistance, by increasing AMPK activity and GLUT4 translocation, along with inhibiting DPP IV activity. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. A Synthetic HIV-1 Subtype C Backbone Generates Comparable PR and RT Resistance Profiles to a Subtype B Backbone in a Recombinant Virus Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauwelaers, David; Van Houtte, Margriet; Winters, Bart; Steegen, Kim; Van Baelen, Kurt; Chi, Ellen; Zhou, Mimi; Steiner, Derek; Bonesteel, Rachelle; Aston, Colin; Stuyver, Lieven J.

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine phenotypic protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitor-associated resistance in HIV subtype C virus, we have synthetically constructed an HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1-C) viral backbone for use in a recombinant virus assay. The in silico designed viral genome was divided into 4 fragments, which were chemically synthesized and joined together by conventional subcloning. Subsequently, gag-protease-reverse-transcriptase (GPRT) fragments from 8 HIV-1 subtype C-infected patient samples were RT-PCR-amplified and cloned into the HIV-1-C backbone (deleted for GPRT) using In-Fusion reagents. Recombinant viruses (1 to 5 per patient sample) were produced in MT4-eGFP cells where cyto-pathogenic effect (CPE), p24 and Viral Load (VL) were monitored. The resulting HIV-1-C recombinant virus stocks (RVS) were added to MT4-eGFP cells in the presence of serial dilutions of antiretroviral drugs (PI, NNRTI, NRTI) to determine the fold-change in IC50 compared to the IC50 of wild-type HIV-1 virus. Additionally, viral RNA was extracted from the HIV-1-C RVS and the amplified GPRT products were used to generate recombinant virus in a subtype B backbone. Phenotypic resistance profiles in a subtype B and subtype C backbone were compared. The following observations were made: i) functional, infectious HIV-1 subtype C viruses were generated, confirmed by VL and p24 measurements; ii) their rate of infection was slower than viruses generated in the subtype B backbone; iii) they did not produce clear CPE in MT4 cells; and iv) drug resistance profiles generated in both backbones were very similar, including re-sensitizing effects like M184V on AZT. PMID:21629677

  3. A synthetic HIV-1 subtype C backbone generates comparable PR and RT resistance profiles to a subtype B backbone in a recombinant virus assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nauwelaers

    Full Text Available In order to determine phenotypic protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitor-associated resistance in HIV subtype C virus, we have synthetically constructed an HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1-C viral backbone for use in a recombinant virus assay. The in silico designed viral genome was divided into 4 fragments, which were chemically synthesized and joined together by conventional subcloning. Subsequently, gag-protease-reverse-transcriptase (GPRT fragments from 8 HIV-1 subtype C-infected patient samples were RT-PCR-amplified and cloned into the HIV-1-C backbone (deleted for GPRT using In-Fusion reagents. Recombinant viruses (1 to 5 per patient sample were produced in MT4-eGFP cells where cyto-pathogenic effect (CPE, p24 and Viral Load (VL were monitored. The resulting HIV-1-C recombinant virus stocks (RVS were added to MT4-eGFP cells in the presence of serial dilutions of antiretroviral drugs (PI, NNRTI, NRTI to determine the fold-change in IC50 compared to the IC50 of wild-type HIV-1 virus. Additionally, viral RNA was extracted from the HIV-1-C RVS and the amplified GPRT products were used to generate recombinant virus in a subtype B backbone. Phenotypic resistance profiles in a subtype B and subtype C backbone were compared. The following observations were made: i functional, infectious HIV-1 subtype C viruses were generated, confirmed by VL and p24 measurements; ii their rate of infection was slower than viruses generated in the subtype B backbone; iii they did not produce clear CPE in MT4 cells; and iv drug resistance profiles generated in both backbones were very similar, including re-sensitizing effects like M184V on AZT.

  4. A synthetic HIV-1 subtype C backbone generates comparable PR and RT resistance profiles to a subtype B backbone in a recombinant virus assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauwelaers, David; Van Houtte, Margriet; Winters, Bart; Steegen, Kim; Van Baelen, Kurt; Chi, Ellen; Zhou, Mimi; Steiner, Derek; Bonesteel, Rachelle; Aston, Colin; Stuyver, Lieven J

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine phenotypic protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitor-associated resistance in HIV subtype C virus, we have synthetically constructed an HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1-C) viral backbone for use in a recombinant virus assay. The in silico designed viral genome was divided into 4 fragments, which were chemically synthesized and joined together by conventional subcloning. Subsequently, gag-protease-reverse-transcriptase (GPRT) fragments from 8 HIV-1 subtype C-infected patient samples were RT-PCR-amplified and cloned into the HIV-1-C backbone (deleted for GPRT) using In-Fusion reagents. Recombinant viruses (1 to 5 per patient sample) were produced in MT4-eGFP cells where cyto-pathogenic effect (CPE), p24 and Viral Load (VL) were monitored. The resulting HIV-1-C recombinant virus stocks (RVS) were added to MT4-eGFP cells in the presence of serial dilutions of antiretroviral drugs (PI, NNRTI, NRTI) to determine the fold-change in IC50 compared to the IC50 of wild-type HIV-1 virus. Additionally, viral RNA was extracted from the HIV-1-C RVS and the amplified GPRT products were used to generate recombinant virus in a subtype B backbone. Phenotypic resistance profiles in a subtype B and subtype C backbone were compared. The following observations were made: i) functional, infectious HIV-1 subtype C viruses were generated, confirmed by VL and p24 measurements; ii) their rate of infection was slower than viruses generated in the subtype B backbone; iii) they did not produce clear CPE in MT4 cells; and iv) drug resistance profiles generated in both backbones were very similar, including re-sensitizing effects like M184V on AZT.

  5. Documentation for Calculations of Standard Fire Resistance of Slabs and Walls of Concrete with Expanded Clay Aggregate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    that the methods are applicable for slabs and walls of light weight aggregate concrete. It is shown that the temperatures for standard fire exposed cross sections can be calculated, that the ultimate moment capacity can be calculated for slabs, and that the anchorage capacity and the shear tension capacity can...... the transient strains into account....

  6. Developing a neem-based pest management product: laboratory evaluations of neem extracts on insect pests resistance to synthetic pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Permana, A.D.; Rahadian, R.; Wibowo, S.A

    1998-12-16

    Laboratory studies has been conducted as a part of a project aimed at the development of a neem-based insecticide for pest management purposes. Permethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, and neem (Azadirachta indica) products were tested against larvae of Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella, and Helicoverpa armigera collected from several locations in West Java, Indonesia. The results of bioassay showed that the average LC{sub 50} values of permethrin for Plutella xylostella had been 60-100 fold higher as compared with the normal dosage recommended. Similarly, the LC{sub 50} values obtained for Helicoverpa armigera had been 46-73 fold as compared with the recommended dosage. These facts suggest that both insects have developed resistance to permethrin. The results of bioassay with neem-products tested against Plutella xylostella and Helicoverpa armigera larvae showed that statistically LC{sub 50} values of neem-products for each strain of either Plutella xylostella or Helicoverpa armigera were not significantly different one to another. We also found that neem-treated insects, even though they were not killed directly by the insecticide, were not able to molt to the next instar or pupae, so that very low percentage of adults emerged. The susceptibility of neem-products could not be easily determined by only measuring the LC{sub 50} values from the larval stage, but the disruption of the growth and development of the insect should be considered as well. Our findings suggest that neem-products could be used effectively to control insects which have developed resistance to conventional insecticide. (author)

  7. Synthetic Cannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic cannabinoids which is a subgroup of cannabinoids are commonly used for recreational drug use throughout the whole world. Although both marijuana and synthetic cannabinoids stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2, studies have shown that synthetic cannabinoids are much more potent than marijuana. The longer use of synthetic cannabinoids can cause severe physical and psychological symptoms that might even result in death, similar to many known illicit drugs. Main treatment options mostly involve symptom management and supportive care. The aim of this article is to discuss clinical and pharmacological properties of the increasingly used synthetic cannabinoids. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 317-328

  8. Underground fires involving conveyor systems, 1958-78

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D.P.; Currie, J.L.

    1979-12-01

    Discusses the emergence of fire resistant conveyor belts for use in British mines, following the fires at Creswell and Whitfield Collieries, and the development of fire tests. The principle tests for belting are described and their relevance to the real fire situation is shown. The role of the conveyor as a cause of fire, and the effects of fire on conveyors, are identified from the fire statistics for the past 21 years.

  9. Synthetic Nanoparticles That Promote Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2 Expressing Regulatory T Cells in the Lung and Resistance to Allergic Airways Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohimah Mohamud

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic glycine coated 50 nm polystyrene nanoparticles (NP (PS50G, unlike ambient NP, do not promote pulmonary inflammation, but instead, render lungs resistant to the development of allergic airway inflammation. In this study, we show that PS50G modulate the frequency and phenotype of regulatory T cells (Treg in the lung, specifically increasing the proportion of tumor necrosis factor 2 (TNFR2 expressing Treg. Mice pre-exposed to PS50G, which were sensitized and then challenged with an allergen a month later, preferentially expanded TNFR2+Foxp3+ Treg, which further expressed enhanced levels of latency associated peptide and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated molecule-4. Moreover, PS50G-induced CD103+ dendritic cell activation in the lung was associated with the proliferative expansion of TNFR2+Foxp3+ Treg. These findings provide the first evidence that engineered NP can promote the selective expansion of maximally suppressing TNFR2+Foxp3+ Treg and further suggest a novel mechanism by which NP may promote healthy lung homeostasis.

  10. Aircraft Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    fabrics of seats, carpets, drapes, lap robes, and sound deadening insulation. Also of concern are the polymeric based plastics used in interior walls...intumescent paints and foams is considered to be feasible; cabin transparencies with improved fire resistance and structure integrity over thermoformed...aircraft fire safety as well as provide a sound basis for further : long-term imp-ovem nts in new aircraft. REFERENCES 1. Final Report of the Special

  11. Synthetic oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Synthetic lubricants are discussed by chemical class and their general strengths and weaknesses in terms of lubrication properties are analyzed. Comparative ratings are given for 14 chemical classes and are used as a guide for lubricant selection. The effects of chemical structure on the properties of the lubricant are described with special emphasis on thermal stability. The diversity of synthetic lubricants which is provided by the wide range of properties permits many applications, some of which are reported.

  12. Using resistance and resilience concepts to reduce impacts of invasive annual grasses and altered fire regimes on the sagebrush ecosystem and greater sage-grouse: A strategic multi-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; David A. Pyke; Jeremy D. Maestas; Mike Pellant; Chad S. Boyd; Steven B. Campbell; Shawn Espinosa; Douglas W. Havlina; Kenneth E. Mayer; Amarina Wuenschel

    2014-01-01

    This Report provides a strategic approach for conservation of sagebrush ecosystems and Greater Sage- Grouse (sage-grouse) that focuses specifically on habitat threats caused by invasive annual grasses and altered fire regimes. It uses information on factors that influence (1) sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive annual grasses and (2...

  13. Synthetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  14. Generation of advanced fire blight-resistant apple (Malus × domestica) selections of the fifth generation within 7 years of applying the early flowering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlathölter, Ina; Jänsch, Melanie; Flachowsky, Henryk; Broggini, Giovanni Antonio Lodovico; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Patocchi, Andrea

    2018-03-14

    The approach presented here can be applied to reduce the time needed to introduce traits from wild apples into null segregant advanced selections by one-fourth. Interesting traits like resistances to pathogens are often found within the wild apple gene pool. However, the long juvenile phase of apple seedlings hampers the rapid introduction of these traits into new cultivars. The rapid crop cycle breeding approach used in this paper is based on the overexpression of the birch (Betula pendula) MADS4 transcription factor in apple. Using the early flowering line T1190 and 'Evereste' as source of the fire blight resistance (Fb_E locus), we successfully established 18 advanced selections of the fifth generation in the greenhouse within 7 years. Fifteen individuals showed the habitus expected of a regular apple seedling, while three showed very short internodes. The null segregants possessing a regular habitus maintained the high level of fire blight resistance typical for 'Evereste'. Using SSR markers, we estimated the percentage of genetic drag from 'Evereste' still associated with Fb_E on linkage group 12 (LG12). Eight out of the 18 selections had only 4% of 'Evereste' genome left. Since genotypes carrying the apple scab resistance gene Rvi6 and the fire blight resistance QTL Fb_F7 were used as parents in the course of the experiments, these resistances were also identified in some of the null segregants. One seedling is particularly interesting as, beside Fb_E, it also carries Fb_F7 heterozygously and Rvi6 homozygously. If null segregants obtained using this method will be considered as not genetically modified in Europe, as is already the case in the USA, this genotype could be a very promising parent for breeding new fire blight and scab-resistant apple cultivars in European apple breeding programs.

  15. Fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janetzky, E.

    1980-01-01

    Safety and fire prevention measurements have to be treated like the activities developing, planning, construction and erection. Therefore it is necessary that these measurements have to be integrated into the activities mentioned above at an early stage in order to guarantee their effectiveness. With regard to fire accidents the statistics of the insurance companies concerned show that the damage caused increased in the last years mainly due to high concentration of material. Organization of fire prevention and fire fighting, reasons of fire break out, characteristics and behaviour of fire, smoke and fire detection, smoke and heat venting, fire extinguishers (portable and stationary), construction material in presence of fire, respiratory protection etc. will be discussed. (orig./RW)

  16. Synthetic Rutile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burastero, J.

    1975-01-01

    This work is about the laboratory scale investigation of the conditions in the rutile synthetic production from one me nita in Aguas Dulces reservoir. The iron mineral is chlorinated and volatilized selectively leaving a residue enriched in titanium dioxide which can be used as a substitute of rutile mineral

  17. Fire investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, A.

    There was considerable progress made on several fronts of fire investigation in the United States in recent years. Progress was made in increasing the quantity of fire investigation and reporting, through efforts to develop the National Fire Incident Reporting System. Improving overall quality of fire investigation is the objective of efforts such as the Fire Investigation Handbook, which was developed and published by the National Bureau of Standards, and the upgrading and expanding of the ""dictionary'' of fire investigation and reporting, the NFPA 901, Uniform Coding for Fire Protection, system. The science of fire investigation as furthered also by new approaches to post fire interviews being developed at the University of Washington, and by in-depth research into factors involved in several large loss fires, including the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas. Finally, the use of special study fire investigations - in-depth investigations concentrating on specific fire problems - is producing new glimpses into the nature of the national fire problem. A brief description of the status of efforts in each of these areas is discussed.

  18. Fire and smoke retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  19. Fire Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  20. Synthetic biology for therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abil, Zhanar; Xiong, Xiong; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-02-02

    Synthetic biology is a relatively new field with the key aim of designing and constructing biological systems with novel functionalities. Today, synthetic biology devices are making their first steps in contributing new solutions to a number of biomedical challenges, such as emerging bacterial antibiotic resistance and cancer therapy. This review discusses some synthetic biology approaches and applications that were recently used in disease mechanism investigation and disease modeling, drug discovery and production, as well as vaccine development and treatment of infectious diseases, cancer, and metabolic disorders.

  1. Polyfire project- an example of an industrial research project promoting safe industrial production of fire-resistant nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaquero, C; Lopez de Ipina, J; Galarza, N [TECNALIA, Leonardo Da Vinci No 11, 01510 Minano (Alava) (Spain); Hargreaves, B; Weager, B [NetComposites Ltd, 4A Broom Business Park, Chesterfield S41 9QG (United Kingdom); Breen, C, E-mail: celinav@leia.es [Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-06

    New developments based on nanotechnology have to guarantee safe products and processes to be accepted by society. The Polyfire project will develop and scale-up techniques for processing halogen-free, fire-retardant nanocomposite materials and coatings based on unsaturated polyester resins and organoclays. The project includes a work package that will assess the Health and Environmental impacts derived from the manipulation of nanoparticles. This work package includes the following tasks: (1) Identification of Health and Environment Impacts derived from the processes, (2) Experimentation to study specific Nanoparticle Emissions, (3) Development of a Risk Management Methodology for the process, and (4) A Comparison of the Health and Environmental Impact of New and Existing Materials. To date, potential exposure scenarios to nanomaterials have been identified through the development of a Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of the new production processes. In the next step, these scenarios will be studied and simulated to evaluate potential emissions of nanomaterials. Polyfire is a collaborative European project, funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme (Grant Agreement No 229220). It features 11 partners from 5 countries (5 SMEs, 3 research institutes, 2 large companies, 1 association) and runs for three years (1st September 2009 - 31st August 2012). This project is an example of an industrial research development which aims to introduce to the market new products promoting the safe use of nanomaterials.

  2. Polyfire project- an example of an industrial research project promoting safe industrial production of fire-resistant nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaquero, C; Lopez de Ipina, J; Galarza, N; Hargreaves, B; Weager, B; Breen, C

    2011-01-01

    New developments based on nanotechnology have to guarantee safe products and processes to be accepted by society. The Polyfire project will develop and scale-up techniques for processing halogen-free, fire-retardant nanocomposite materials and coatings based on unsaturated polyester resins and organoclays. The project includes a work package that will assess the Health and Environmental impacts derived from the manipulation of nanoparticles. This work package includes the following tasks: (1) Identification of Health and Environment Impacts derived from the processes, (2) Experimentation to study specific Nanoparticle Emissions, (3) Development of a Risk Management Methodology for the process, and (4) A Comparison of the Health and Environmental Impact of New and Existing Materials. To date, potential exposure scenarios to nanomaterials have been identified through the development of a Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of the new production processes. In the next step, these scenarios will be studied and simulated to evaluate potential emissions of nanomaterials. Polyfire is a collaborative European project, funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme (Grant Agreement No 229220). It features 11 partners from 5 countries (5 SMEs, 3 research institutes, 2 large companies, 1 association) and runs for three years (1st September 2009 - 31st August 2012). This project is an example of an industrial research development which aims to introduce to the market new products promoting the safe use of nanomaterials.

  3. US Fire Administration Fire Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Fire Administration collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United...

  4. Forest fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, M.

    1991-01-01

    This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire on plants and animals. In addition, the book examines firefighting methods and equipment, including new minimum impact techniques and compressed air foam; prescribed burning; and steps that can be taken to protect individuals and human structures. A history of forest fire policies in the U.S. and a discussion of solutions to fire problems around the world completes the coverage. With one percent of the earth's surface burning every year in the last decade, this is a penetrating book on a subject of undeniable importance

  5. Forest fires in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Haines; William A. Main; Eugene F. McNamara

    1978-01-01

    Describes factors that contribute to forest fires in Pennsylvania. Includes an analysis of basic statistics; distribution of fires during normal, drought, and wet years; fire cause, fire activity by day-of-week; multiple-fire day; and fire climatology.

  6. Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Lisa M. Holsinger; Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2016-01-01

    Several aspects of wildland fire are moderated by site- and landscape-level vegetation changes caused by previous fire, thereby creating a dynamic where one fire exerts a regulatory control on subsequent fire. For example, wildland fire has been shown to regulate the size and severity of subsequent fire. However, wildland fire has the potential to influence...

  7. Synthetic Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Brooke; Yepes, Andres; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), also known under the brand names of "Spice," "K2," "herbal incense," "Cloud 9," "Mojo" and many others, are becoming a large public health concern due not only to their increasing use but also to their unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential. There are many types of SCBs, each having a unique binding affinity for cannabinoid receptors. Although both Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and SCBs stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), studies have shown that SCBs are associated with higher rates of toxicity and hospital admissions than is natural cannabis. This is likely due to SCBs being direct agonists of the cannabinoid receptors, whereas THC is a partial agonist. Furthermore, the different chemical structures of SCBs found in Spice or K2 may interact in unpredictable ways to elicit previously unknown, and the commercial products may have unknown contaminants. The largest group of users is men in their 20s who participate in polydrug use. The most common reported toxicities with SCB use based on studies using Texas Poison Control records are tachycardia, agitation and irritability, drowsiness, hallucinations, delusions, hypertension, nausea, confusion, dizziness, vertigo and chest pain. Acute kidney injury has also been strongly associated with SCB use. Treatment mostly involves symptom management and supportive care. More research is needed to identify which contaminants are typically found in synthetic marijuana and to understand the interactions between different SBCs to better predict adverse health outcomes.

  8. Synthetic Botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christian R; Pollak, Bernardo; Purswani, Nuri; Patron, Nicola; Haseloff, Jim

    2017-07-05

    Plants are attractive platforms for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. Plants' modular and plastic body plans, capacity for photosynthesis, extensive secondary metabolism, and agronomic systems for large-scale production make them ideal targets for genetic reprogramming. However, efforts in this area have been constrained by slow growth, long life cycles, the requirement for specialized facilities, a paucity of efficient tools for genetic manipulation, and the complexity of multicellularity. There is a need for better experimental and theoretical frameworks to understand the way genetic networks, cellular populations, and tissue-wide physical processes interact at different scales. We highlight new approaches to the DNA-based manipulation of plants and the use of advanced quantitative imaging techniques in simple plant models such as Marchantia polymorpha. These offer the prospects of improved understanding of plant dynamics and new approaches to rational engineering of plant traits. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  9. Synthetic Brainbows

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Brainbow is a genetic engineering technique that randomly colorizes cells. Biological samples processed with this technique and imaged with confocal microscopy have distinctive colors for individual cells. Complex cellular structures can then be easily visualized. However, the complexity of the Brainbow technique limits its applications. In practice, most confocal microscopy scans use different florescence staining with typically at most three distinct cellular structures. These structures are often packed and obscure each other in rendered images making analysis difficult. In this paper, we leverage a process known as GPU framebuffer feedback loops to synthesize Brainbow-like images. In addition, we incorporate ID shuffing and Monte-Carlo sampling into our technique, so that it can be applied to single-channel confocal microscopy data. The synthesized Brainbow images are presented to domain experts with positive feedback. A user survey demonstrates that our synthetic Brainbow technique improves visualizations of volume data with complex structures for biologists.

  10. Printability of Synthetic Papers by Electrophotography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozália Szentgyörgyvölgyi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the printability of synthetic papers by the electrophotography technique. Prints of cmyk colour fields from 20% to 100% raster tone values were printed on three types of synthetic papers (one film synthetic paper and two fiber synthetic papers. The investigation of the appearance included densitometric measurement of the cmyk prints. The results have shown differences in the optical density and optical tone value between cmyk prints made on various synthetic papers. The highest optical density and the increase of the optical tone value were observed on the film synthetic paper, where cmyk prints were more saturated. The highest abrasion resistance of cmyk prints was obtained from the fibre synthetic paper.

  11. Synthetic antibiofilm peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente-Núñez, César; Cardoso, Marlon Henrique; de Souza Cândido, Elizabete; Franco, Octavio Luiz; Hancock, Robert E W

    2016-05-01

    Bacteria predominantly exist as multicellular aggregates known as biofilms that are associated with at least two thirds of all infections and exhibit increased adaptive resistance to conventional antibiotic therapies. Therefore, biofilms are major contributors to the global health problem of antibiotic resistance, and novel approaches to counter them are urgently needed. Small molecules of the innate immune system called host defense peptides (HDPs) have emerged as promising templates for the design of potent, broad-spectrum antibiofilm agents. Here, we review recent developments in the new field of synthetic antibiofilm peptides, including mechanistic insights, synergistic interactions with available antibiotics, and their potential as novel antimicrobials against persistent infections caused by biofilms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Constructive fire protection of steel corrugated beams of buildings and other structures

    OpenAIRE

    Ilyin Nikolay; Panfilov Denis; Lukin Aleksey

    2017-01-01

    The research introduces a methodology of establishing indicators of fire safety of a building in relation to a guaranteed duration of steel fire-proof corrugated beams resistance in conditions of standard fire tests. Indicators of fire safety are also established in the assessment of design limits of steel fire-proof corrugated beams during design process, construction or maintenance of the building as well as in reducing economic costs when testing steel structures for fire resisting propert...

  13. Fire Whirls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidi, Ali; Gollner, Michael J.; Xiao, Huahua

    2018-01-01

    Fire whirls present a powerful intensification of combustion, long studied in the fire research community because of the dangers they present during large urban and wildland fires. However, their destructive power has hidden many features of their formation, growth, and propagation. Therefore, most of what is known about fire whirls comes from scale modeling experiments in the laboratory. Both the methods of formation, which are dominated by wind and geometry, and the inner structure of the whirl, including velocity and temperature fields, have been studied at this scale. Quasi-steady fire whirls directly over a fuel source form the bulk of current experimental knowledge, although many other cases exist in nature. The structure of fire whirls has yet to be reliably measured at large scales; however, scaling laws have been relatively successful in modeling the conditions for formation from small to large scales. This review surveys the state of knowledge concerning the fluid dynamics of fire whirls, including the conditions for their formation, their structure, and the mechanisms that control their unique state. We highlight recent discoveries and survey potential avenues for future research, including using the properties of fire whirls for efficient remediation and energy generation.

  14. On fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifie...... of frustrations and riots...

  15. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1000ºC or special infrastructure which require careful maintenance. In such a situation fire synthesis is a simpler method that can be adopted for the bulk production of high purity alumina and related oxides. Fire Synthesis. Preparation of Alumina ...

  16. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  17. On fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifie...

  18. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  19. Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes F2365 cells to synthetic gastric fluid is greater following growth on ready-to-eat deli turkey meat than in brain heart infusion broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Luke D; Faith, Nancy G; Czuprynski, Charles J

    2007-11-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) deli meats have been categorized as high-risk foods for contraction of foodborne listeriosis. Several recent listeriosis outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of RTE deli turkey meat. In this study, we examined whether the growth of Listeria monocytogenes F2365 on commercially prepared RTE deli turkey meat causes listerial cells to become more resistant to inactivation by synthetic gastric fluid (SGF). Listerial cells grown on turkey meat to late logarithmic-early stationary phase were significantly more resistant to SGF at pH 7.0, 5.0, or 3.5 than listerial cells grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth. The pH was lower in the fluid in packages of turkey meat than in BHI broth (6.5 versus 7.5). However, listerial cells grown in BHI broth adjusted to a lower pH (6.0) did not exhibit enhanced resistance to SGF. The lesser resistance to SGF of listerial cells grown in BHI broth may be due, in part, to the presence of glucose (0.2%). This study indicates the environment presented by the growth of L. monocytogenes on deli turkey meat affects its ability to survive conditions it encounters in the gastrointestinal tract.

  20. Fire characteristics associated with firefighter injury on large federal wildland fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Carla; Lynch, Charles F; Torner, James; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-02-01

    Wildland fires present many injury hazards to firefighters. We estimate injury rates and identify fire-related factors associated with injury. Data from the National Interagency Fire Center from 2003 to 2007 provided the number of injuries in which the firefighter could not return to his or her job assignment, person-days worked, and fire characteristics (year, region, season, cause, fuel type, resistance to control, and structures destroyed). We assessed fire-level risk factors of having at least one reported injury using logistic regression. Negative binomial regression was used to examine incidence rate ratios associated with fire-level risk factors. Of 867 fires, 9.5% required the most complex management and 24.7% required the next-highest level of management. Fires most often occurred in the western United States (82.8%), during the summer (69.6%), caused by lightening (54.9%). Timber was the most frequent fuel source (40.2%). Peak incident management level, person-days of exposure, and the fire's resistance to control were significantly related to the odds of a fire having at least one reported injury. However, the most complex fires had a lower injury incidence rate than less complex fires. Although fire complexity and the number of firefighters were associated with the risk for at least one reported injury, the more experienced and specialized firefighting teams had lower injury incidence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Differences in the motor unit firing rates and amplitudes in relation to recruitment thresholds during submaximal contractions of the first dorsal interosseous between chronically resistance trained and physically active men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterczala, Adam J; Miller, Jonathan D; Trevino, Michael A; Dimmick, Hannah L; Herda, Trent J

    2018-02-26

    Previous investigations report no changes in motor unit (MU) firing rates during submaximal contractions following resistance training. These investigations did not account for MU recruitment or examine firing rates as a function of recruitment threshold (REC).Therefore, MU recruitment and firing rates in chronically resistance trained (RT) and physically active controls (CON) were examined. Surface electromyography signals were collected from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) during isometric muscle actions at 40% and 70% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). For each MU, force at REC, mean firing rate (MFR) during the steady force, and MU action potential amplitude (MUAPAMP) were analyzed. For each individual and contraction, the MFRs were linearly regressed against REC, whereas, exponential models were applied to the MFR vs. MUAPAMP and MUAPAMP vs. REC relationships with the y-intercepts and slopes (linear) and A and B terms (exponential) calculated. For the 40% MVC, the RT group had less negative slopes (p=0.001) and lower y-intercepts (p=0.006) of the MFR vs. REC relationships and lower B terms (p=0.011) of the MUAPAMP vs. REC relationships. There were no differences in either relationship between groups for the 70% MVC. During the 40% MVC, the RT had a smaller range of MFRs and MUAPAMPS in comparison to the CON, likely due to reduced MU recruitment. The RT had lower MFRs and recruitment during the 40% MVC that may indicate a leftward shift in the force-frequency relationship, and thus require less excitation to the motoneuron pool to match the same relative force.

  2. Methodology for developing and implementing alternative temperature-time curves for testing the fire resistance of barriers for nuclear power plant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, L.Y.; Steckler, K.D.

    1996-08-01

    Advances in fire science over the past 40 years have offered the potential for developing technically sound alternative temperature-time curves for use in evaluating fire barriers for areas where fire exposures can be expected to be significantly different than the ASTM E-119 standard temperature-time exposure. This report summarizes the development of the ASTM E-119, standard temperature-time curve, and the efforts by the federal government and the petrochemical industry to develop alternative fire endurance curves for specific applications. The report also provides a framework for the development of alternative curves for application at nuclear power plants. The staff has concluded that in view of the effort necessary for the development of nuclear power plant specific temperature-time curves, such curves are not a viable approach for resolving the issues concerning Thermo-Lag fire barriers. However, the approach may be useful to licensees in the development of performance-based fire protection methods in the future

  3. Fire ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. Poisonous Ingredient Fire ant venom contains a chemical called ... Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 140. Otten EJ. Venomous animal injuries. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill ...

  4. Efficacy of bio and synthetic pesticides against the American ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management for the bollworm complex in Uganda is largely synthetic chemical use with little or no biopesticide use which reduces natural enemies population and resistance development to continuous use of a single synthetic pesticide product. Therefore this study aimed at determining the efficacy of bio and synthetic ...

  5. Joint inversion of lake-floor electrical resistivity tomography and boat-towed radio-magnetotelluric data illustrated on synthetic data and an application from the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory site, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunguo; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Bastani, Mehrdad; Malehmir, Alireza; Pedersen, Laust B.; Dahlin, Torleif; Meqbel, Naser

    2018-04-01

    The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method provides moderately good constraints for both conductive and resistive structures, while the radio-magnetotelluric (RMT) method is well suited to constrain conductive structures. Additionally, RMT and ERT data may have different target coverage and are differently affected by various types of noise. Hence, joint inversion of RMT and ERT data sets may provide a better constrained model as compared to individual inversions. In this study, joint inversion of boat-towed RMT and lake-floor ERT data has for the first time been formulated and implemented. The implementation was tested on both synthetic and field data sets incorporating RMT transverse electrical mode and ERT data. Results from synthetic data demonstrate that the joint inversion yields models with better resolution compared with individual inversions. A case study from an area adjacent to the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in southeastern Sweden was used to demonstrate the implementation of the method. A 790-m-long profile comprising lake-floor ERT and boat-towed RMT data combined with partial land data was used for this purpose. Joint inversions with and without weighting (applied to different data sets, vertical and horizontal model smoothness) as well as constrained joint inversions incorporating bathymetry data and water resistivity measurements were performed. The resulting models delineate subsurface structures such as a major northeasterly directed fracture system, which is observed in the HRL facility underground and confirmed by boreholes. A previously uncertain weakness zone, likely a fracture system in the northern part of the profile, is inferred in this study. The fractures are highly saturated with saline water, which make them good targets of resistivity-based geophysical methods. Nevertheless, conductive sediments overlain by the lake water add further difficulty to resolve these deep fracture zones. Therefore, the joint inversion of RMT

  6. A synthetic cryIC gene, encoding a Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxin, confers Spodoptera resistance in alfalfa and tobacco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strizhov, N.; Keller, M.; Mathur, J.; Koncz-Kaiman, Z.; Bosch, D.; Prudovksy, E.; Schell, J.; Sneh, B.; Koncz, C.; Zilberstein, A.

    1996-01-01

    Spodoptera species, representing widespread polyphagous insect pests, are resistant to Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxins used thus far as insecticides in transgenic plants. Here we describe the chemical synthesis of a cryIC gene by a novel template directed ligation–PCR method. This simple and

  7. Using resistance and resilience concepts to reduce impacts of annual grasses and altered fire regimes on the sagebrush ecosystem and sage-grouse- A strategic multi-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pyke, David A.; Maestas, Jeremy D.; Boyd, Chad S.; Campbell, Steve; Espinosa, Shawn; Havlina, Doug; Mayer, Kenneth F.; Wuenschel, Amarina

    2014-01-01

    This Report provides a strategic approach for conservation of sagebrush ecosystems and Greater Sage- Grouse (sage-grouse) that focuses specifically on habitat threats caused by invasive annual grasses and altered fire regimes. It uses information on factors that influence (1) sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive annual grasses and (2) distribution, relative abundance, and persistence of sage-grouse populations to develop management strategies at both landscape and site scales. A sage-grouse habitat matrix links relative resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems with sage-grouse habitat requirements for landscape cover of sagebrush to help decision makers assess risks and determine appropriate management strategies at landscape scales. Focal areas for management are assessed by overlaying matrix components with sage-grouse Priority Areas for Conservation (PACs), breeding bird densities, and specific habitat threats. Decision tools are discussed for determining the suitability of focal areas for treatment and the most appropriate management treatments.

  8. Mutations in an auxin receptor homolog AFB5 and in SGT1b confer resistance to synthetic picolinate auxins and not to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or indole-3-acetic acid in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Terence A; Neal, Roben; Merlo, Ann Owens; Honma, Mary; Hicks, Glenn R; Wolff, Karen; Matsumura, Wendy; Davies, John P

    2006-10-01

    Although a wide range of structurally diverse small molecules can act as auxins, it is unclear whether all of these compounds act via the same mechanisms that have been characterized for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). To address this question, we used a novel member of the picolinate class of synthetic auxins that is structurally distinct from 2,4-D to screen for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants that show chemically selective auxin resistance. We identified seven alleles at two distinct genetic loci that conferred significant resistance to picolinate auxins such as picloram, yet had minimal cross-resistance to 2,4-D or IAA. Double mutants had the same level and selectivity of resistance as single mutants. The sites of the mutations were identified by positional mapping as At4g11260 and At5g49980. At5g49980 is previously uncharacterized and encodes auxin signaling F-box protein 5, one of five homologs of TIR1 in the Arabidopsis genome. TIR1 is the recognition component of the Skp1-cullin-F-box complex associated with the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway involved in auxin signaling and has recently been shown to be a receptor for IAA and 2,4-D. At4g11260 encodes the tetratricopeptide protein SGT1b that has also been associated with Skp1-cullin-F-box-mediated ubiquitination in auxin signaling and other pathways. Complementation of mutant lines with their corresponding wild-type genes restored picolinate auxin sensitivity. These results show that chemical specificity in auxin signaling can be conferred by upstream components of the auxin response pathway. They also demonstrate the utility of genetic screens using structurally diverse chemistries to uncover novel pathway components.

  9. Mutations in an Auxin Receptor Homolog AFB5 and in SGT1b Confer Resistance to Synthetic Picolinate Auxins and Not to 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid or Indole-3-Acetic Acid in Arabidopsis[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Terence A.; Neal, Roben; Merlo, Ann Owens; Honma, Mary; Hicks, Glenn R.; Wolff, Karen; Matsumura, Wendy; Davies, John P.

    2006-01-01

    Although a wide range of structurally diverse small molecules can act as auxins, it is unclear whether all of these compounds act via the same mechanisms that have been characterized for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). To address this question, we used a novel member of the picolinate class of synthetic auxins that is structurally distinct from 2,4-D to screen for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants that show chemically selective auxin resistance. We identified seven alleles at two distinct genetic loci that conferred significant resistance to picolinate auxins such as picloram, yet had minimal cross-resistance to 2,4-D or IAA. Double mutants had the same level and selectivity of resistance as single mutants. The sites of the mutations were identified by positional mapping as At4g11260 and At5g49980. At5g49980 is previously uncharacterized and encodes auxin signaling F-box protein 5, one of five homologs of TIR1 in the Arabidopsis genome. TIR1 is the recognition component of the Skp1-cullin-F-box complex associated with the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway involved in auxin signaling and has recently been shown to be a receptor for IAA and 2,4-D. At4g11260 encodes the tetratricopeptide protein SGT1b that has also been associated with Skp1-cullin-F-box-mediated ubiquitination in auxin signaling and other pathways. Complementation of mutant lines with their corresponding wild-type genes restored picolinate auxin sensitivity. These results show that chemical specificity in auxin signaling can be conferred by upstream components of the auxin response pathway. They also demonstrate the utility of genetic screens using structurally diverse chemistries to uncover novel pathway components. PMID:16920877

  10. The fire-safe cigarette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botkin, J R

    1988-07-08

    Fires caused by cigarettes through the ignition of upholstered furniture and mattresses are a serious public health problem, accounting for more than 1500 deaths and 7000 serious injuries per year in the United States. Fire-resistant fabrics and stuffings, public education, and smoke detectors have had a limited impact on this problem. The federal government recently has completed a three-year study of possible modifications in cigarette design. The study has demonstrated the technical feasibility of product design changes that would substantially reduce the propensity of cigarettes to ignite fires. Legislation currently is pending in Congress and in three state legislatures to mandate a cigarette fire safety standard. This legislation deserves strong support by the medical profession.

  11. Ketogenic Diet as Preferred Treatment of FIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Millichap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from the University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, and University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, report 2 children who presented with FIRES and prolonged AED-resistant status epilepticus.

  12. A novel synthetic peptide inspired on Lys49 phospholipase A2from Crotalus oreganus abyssus snake venom active against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, José R; Mendes, Bruno; Lancellotti, Marcelo; Marangoni, Sergio; Vale, Nuno; Passos, Óscar; Ramos, Maria J; Fernandes, Pedro A; Gomes, Paula; Da Silva, Saulo L

    2018-04-10

    Currently, the evolving and complex mechanisms of bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics are increasing, while alternative medicines are drying up, which urges the need to discover novel agents able to kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Lys49 phospholipase A 2 s (PLA 2 s) from snake venoms are multifunctional toxins able to induce a huge variety of therapeutic effects and consequently serve as templates for new drug leads. Hence, the present study was aimed at the synthesis of oligopeptides mimicking regions of the antibacterial Lys49 PLA 2 toxin (CoaTx-II), recently isolated from Crotalus oreganus abyssus snake venom, to identify small peptides able to reproduce the therapeutic action of the toxin. Five peptides, representing major regions of interest within CoaTx-II, were synthesized and screened for their antibacterial properties. The 13-mer peptide pC-CoaTxII, corresponding to residues 115-129 of CoaTx-II, was able to reproduce the promising bactericidal effect of the toxin against multi-resistant clinical isolates. Peptide pC-CoaTxII is mainly composed by positively charged and hydrophobic amino acids, a typical trait in most antimicrobial peptides, and presented no defined secondary structure in aqueous environment. The physicochemical properties of pC-CoaTxII are favorable towards a strong interaction with anionic lipid membranes as those in bacteria. Additional in silico studies suggest formation of a water channel across the membrane upon peptide insertion, eventually leading to bacterial cell disruption and death. Overall, our findings confirm the valuable potential of snake venom toxins towards design and synthesis of novel antimicrobials, thus representing key insights towards development of alternative efficient antimicrobials to fight bacterial resistance to current antibiotics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Shear and anchorage behaviour of fire exposed hollow core slabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fellinger, J.

    2005-01-01

    The fire resistance of hollow core slabs is currently assessed considering flexural failure only. However, fire tests show that shear or anchorage failure can also govern the load bearing behaviour. This paper is based on the dissertation by the author1 and discusses existing and new fire tests. It

  14. Terminology and biology of fire scars in selected central hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland

    2001-01-01

    Dendrochronological analysis of fire scars requires tree survival of fire exposure. Trees survive fire exposure by: (1) avoidance of injury through constitutive protection and (2) induced defense. Induced defenses include (a) compartmentalization processes that resist the spread of injury and infection and (b) closure processes that restore the continuity of the...

  15. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains... pump connected to a fixed piping system. This pump must be capable of delivering an effective stream of...

  16. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps... be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire pump connected to a fixed piping system. (1) A...

  17. Synthetic biology platform technologies for antimicrobial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braff, Dana; Shis, David; Collins, James J

    2016-10-01

    The growing prevalence of antibiotic resistance calls for new approaches in the development of antimicrobial therapeutics. Likewise, improved diagnostic measures are essential in guiding the application of targeted therapies and preventing the evolution of therapeutic resistance. Discovery platforms are also needed to form new treatment strategies and identify novel antimicrobial agents. By applying engineering principles to molecular biology, synthetic biologists have developed platforms that improve upon, supplement, and will perhaps supplant traditional broad-spectrum antibiotics. Efforts in engineering bacteriophages and synthetic probiotics demonstrate targeted antimicrobial approaches that can be fine-tuned using synthetic biology-derived principles. Further, the development of paper-based, cell-free expression systems holds promise in promoting the clinical translation of molecular biology tools for diagnostic purposes. In this review, we highlight emerging synthetic biology platform technologies that are geared toward the generation of new antimicrobial therapies, diagnostics, and discovery channels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    special infrastructure which require careful maintenance. In such situation fire synthesis is a simpler method that can be adopted for the bulk production of high purity .... reaction between Ti and B to form titanium boride. The reaction between titanium (fuel- electron donor) and boron (oxidiser-electron acceptor) once initiated ...

  19. Forest Fires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 11. Forest Fires - Origins and Ecological Paradoxes. K Narendran. General Article Volume 6 Issue 11 November 2001 pp 34-41. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/11/0034-0041 ...

  20. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Fire Synthesis - Preparation of Alumina Products. Tanu Mimani. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1324-1332. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/12/1324-1332 ...

  1. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 2. Fire Synthesis - Preparation of Alumina Products. Tanu Mimani. General Article Volume 5 Issue 2 February 2000 pp 50-57. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/02/0050-0057 ...

  2. Esterase and glutathione S-transferase levels associated with synthetic pyrethroid resistance in Hyalomma anatolicum and Rhipicephalus microplus ticks from Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Abhijit; Jyoti; Singh, Harkirat; Singh, Nirbhay Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Larval packet test was used for assessment of resistance status against cypermethrin and deltamethrin in Hyalomma anatolicum and Rhipicephalus microplus from various districts of Punjab (India). Among the various field isolates of H. anatolicum susceptible status was recorded against cypermethrin in all isolates, whereas against deltamethrin resistance status (level I-III) was recorded. In R. microplus lower resistance levels (I-II) were recorded against cypermethrin in comparison to deltamethrin (level I-IV). Quantitative analysis of general esterase activity revealed a range of 4.21 ± 0.46 to 6.05 ± 0.55 and 2.23 ± 0.23 to 2.66 ± 0.24 µmol/min/mg protein for α- and β-esterase activity, respectively, in different field isolates of H. anatolicum and the increase in comparison to susceptible was not significant (P > 0.05). In contrast to H. anatolicum, the α- and β-esterase activity in all field isolates (except Jalandhar) of R. microplus was higher (range of 3.89 ± 0.26 to 10.85 ± 0.47 and 1.75 ± 0.08 to 5.87 ± 0.29 µmol/min/mg protein, respectively) (P GST) activity in field isolates of H. anatolicum and R. microplus was in the range of 0.01 ± 0.001 to 0.03 ± 0.001 and 0.02 ± 0.0003 to 0.03 ± 0.001 mM/mg/min. The enzyme ratios (α-and β-esterase and GST) and RR95 against deltamethrin of H. anatolicum isolates were correlated (P < 0.05), whereas in R. microplus only α-and β-esterase and RR50 against deltamethrin were correlated (P < 0.05).

  3. Antibacterial Evaluation of Synthetic Thiazole Compounds In Vitro and In Vivo in a Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Skin Infection Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Haroon; Cushman, Mark; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), including strains resistant to current antibiotics, has contributed to an increase in the number of skin infections reported in humans in recent years. New therapeutic options are needed to counter this public health challenge. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential of thiazole compounds synthesized by our research group to be used topically to treat MRSA skin and wound infections. The broth microdilution method confirmed that the lead thiazole compound and four analogues are capable of inhibiting MRSA growth at concentrations as low as 1.3 μg/mL. Additionally, three compounds exhibited a synergistic relationship when combined with the topical antibiotic mupirocin against MRSA in vitro via the checkerboard assay. Thus the thiazole compounds have potential to be used alone or in combination with mupirocin against MRSA. When tested against human keratinocytes, four derivatives of the lead compound demonstrated an improved toxicity profile (were found to be non-toxic up to a concentration of 20 μg/mL). Utilizing a murine skin infection model, we confirmed that the lead compound and three analogues exhibited potent antimicrobial activity in vivo, with similar capability as the antibiotic mupirocin, as they reduced the burden of MRSA present in skin wounds by more than 90%. Taken altogether, the present study provides important evidence that these thiazole compounds warrant further investigation for development as novel topical antimicrobials to treat MRSA skin infections.

  4. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthetic antifreeze peptide

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    A synthetic antifreeze peptide and a synthetic gene coding for the antifreeze peptide have been produced. The antifreeze peptide has a greater number of repeating amino acid sequences than is present in the native antifreeze peptides from winter flounder upon which the synthetic antifreeze peptide was modeled. Each repeating amino acid sequence has two polar amino acid residues which are spaced a controlled distance apart so that the antifreeze peptide may inhibit ice formation. The synthetic...

  6. [SYNTHETIC PEPTIDE VACCINES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeyev, O V; Barinsky, I F

    2016-01-01

    An update on the development and trials of synthetic peptide vaccines is reviewed. The review considers the successful examples of specific protection as a result of immunization with synthetic peptides using various protocols. The importance of conformation for the immunogenicity of the peptide is pointed out. An alternative strategy of the protection of the organism against the infection using synthetic peptides is suggested.

  7. Fire Behavior (FB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fire Behavior (FB) method is used to describe the behavior of the fire and the ambient weather and fuel conditions that influence the fire behavior. Fire behavior methods are not plot based and are collected by fire event and time-date. In general, the fire behavior data are used to interpret the fire effects documented in the plot-level sampling. Unlike the other...

  8. Fire Symfonier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Svend Hvidtfelt

    2009-01-01

    sidste fire symfonier. Den er måske snarere at opfatte som et præludium til disse. At påstå, at symfonierne fra Holmboes side er planlagt til at være beslægtede, ville være at gå for vidt. Alene de 26 år, der skiller den 10. fra den 13., gør påstanden - i bedste fald - dubiøs. Når deres udformning...... udkrystallisering som i de sidste små 30 år af hans virke har afkastet disse fire variationer over en grundlæggende central holmboesk fornemmelse for form, melodi, klang og rytme. Denne oplevelse har fået mig til at udforske symfonierne, for at finde til bunds i dette holmboeske fællestræk, som jeg mener her står...

  9. Fuel moisture influences on fire-altered carbon in masticated fuels: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan W. Brewer; Alistair M.S. Smith; Jeffery A. Hatten; Philip E. Higuera; Andrew T. Hudak; Roger D. Ottmar; Wade T. Tinkham

    2013-01-01

    Biomass burning is a significant contributor to atmospheric carbon emissions but may also provide an avenue in which fire-affected ecosystems can accumulate carbon over time, through the generation of highly resistant fire-altered carbon. Identifying how fuel moisture, and subsequent changes in the fire behavior, relates to the production of fire-altered carbon is...

  10. Pre-oxidation and its effect on reducing high-temperature corrosion of superheater tubes during biomass firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Kvisgaard, M.; Montgomery, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    with a synthetic deposit of KCl and exposed at 560°C for 1 week to a gas mixture typical of biomass firing. Results show that pre-oxidation could hinder the corrosion attack; however, the relative success was different for the two alloys. While corrosion attack was observed on the pre-oxidised Kanthal APM, the pre......-oxidised Nimonic 80A remained unaffected suggesting protection of the alloy from the corrosive environment.......Superheater tubes in biomass-fired power plants experience high corrosion rates due to condensation of corrosive alkali chloride-rich deposits. To explore the possibility of reducing the corrosion attack by the formation of an initial protective oxide layer, the corrosion resistance of pre...

  11. Fire Models and Design Fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Annemarie

    The aim of this project is to perform an experimental study on the influence of the thermal feedback on the burning behavior of well ventilated pre-flashover fires. For the purpose an experimental method has been developed. Here the same identical objects are tested under free burn conditions...... documented a simple relation that can be used for estimating the impact of thermal feedback for pre-flashover design fires. A rapid increase of the heat release rate commenced after the incipient phase. This is seen as thermal runaway caused by the energy gain in the smoke layer exceeding the energy that can...... and in two different rooms, which only are varied by linings of significantly different thermal inertia. As all linings were non-combustible the heat release rate could be found without the influence of thermal feedback and for two different levels of thermal feedback. The ISO 9705 Room Corner Test facility...

  12. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHANDLER, L.T.

    AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

  13. Protease-sensitive synthetic prions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Colby

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prions arise when the cellular prion protein (PrP(C undergoes a self-propagating conformational change; the resulting infectious conformer is designated PrP(Sc. Frequently, PrP(Sc is protease-resistant but protease-sensitive (s prions have been isolated in humans and other animals. We report here that protease-sensitive, synthetic prions were generated in vitro during polymerization of recombinant (rec PrP into amyloid fibers. In 22 independent experiments, recPrP amyloid preparations, but not recPrP monomers or oligomers, transmitted disease to transgenic mice (n = 164, denoted Tg9949 mice, that overexpress N-terminally truncated PrP. Tg9949 control mice (n = 174 did not spontaneously generate prions although they were prone to late-onset spontaneous neurological dysfunction. When synthetic prion isolates from infected Tg9949 mice were serially transmitted in the same line of mice, they exhibited sPrP(Sc and caused neurodegeneration. Interestingly, these protease-sensitive prions did not shorten the life span of Tg9949 mice despite causing extensive neurodegeneration. We inoculated three synthetic prion isolates into Tg4053 mice that overexpress full-length PrP; Tg4053 mice are not prone to developing spontaneous neurological dysfunction. The synthetic prion isolates caused disease in 600-750 days in Tg4053 mice, which exhibited sPrP(Sc. These novel synthetic prions demonstrate that conformational changes in wild-type PrP can produce mouse prions composed exclusively of sPrP(Sc.

  14. Assessment of dermal hazard from acid burns with fire retardant garments in a full-size simulation of an engulfment flash fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Christopher E; Vivanco, Stephanie N; Yeboah, George; Vercellone, Jeff

    2016-09-01

    There have been concerns that fire-derived acid gases could aggravate thermal burns for individuals wearing synthetic flame retardant garments. A comparative risk assessment was performed on three commercial flame retardant materials with regard to relative hazards associated with acidic combustion gases to skin during a full engulfment flash fire event. The tests were performed in accordance with ASTM F1930 and ISO 13506: Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Flame Resistant Clothing for Protection against Fire Simulations Using an Instrumented Manikin. Three fire retardant textiles were tested: an FR treated cotton/nylon blend, a low Protex(®) modacrylic blend, and a medium Protex(®) modacrylic blend. The materials, in the form of whole body coveralls, were subjected to propane-fired flash conditions of 84kW/m(2) in a full sized simulator for a duration of either 3 or 4s. Ion traps consisting of wetted sodium carbonate-impregnated cellulose in Teflon holders were placed on the chest and back both above and under the standard undergarments. The ion traps remained in position from the time of ignition until 5min post ignition. Results indicated that acid deposition did increase with modacrylic content from 0.9μmol/cm(2) for the cotton/nylon, to 12μmol/cm(2) for the medium modacrylic blend. The source of the acidity was dominated by hydrogen chloride. Discoloration was inversely proportional to the amount of acid collected on the traps. A risk assessment was performed on the potential adverse impact of acid gases on both the skin and open wounds. The results indicated that the deposition and dissolution of the acid gases in surficial fluid media (perspiration and blood plasma) resulted in an increase in acidity, but not sufficient to induce irritation/skin corrosion or to cause necrosis in open third degree burns. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Fire Ant Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  16. Crown Fire Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  17. Protease-Sensitive Synthetic Prions

    OpenAIRE

    Colby, David W.; Wain, Rachel; Baskakov, Ilia V.; Legname, Giuseppe; Palmer, Christina G.; Nguyen, Hoang-Oanh B.; Lemus, Azucena; Cohen, Fred E.; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2010-01-01

    Prions arise when the cellular prion protein (PrPC) undergoes a self-propagating conformational change; the resulting infectious conformer is designated PrPSc. Frequently, PrPSc is protease-resistant but protease-sensitive (s) prions have been isolated in humans and other animals. We report here that protease-sensitive, synthetic prions were generated in vitro during polymerization of recombinant (rec) PrP into amyloid fibers. In 22 independent experiments, recPrP amyloid preparations, but no...

  18. Analysis of Fire Data in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Al-Jabri

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to illustrate the problem of fire accidents in the Sultanate of Oman and their causes in order to find out how the existing data could be used as a base to improve fire resistance, to detect the weak points (vulnerability to fire in existing structures, and to minimize fire occurrences in places where it is high. This will also provide useful recommendations with regard to fire safety including causes, people’s awareness and education, etc.  Fire data in Oman were collected from two sources: The Directorate General of Civil Defence (Public Relations Department and Sultan Qaboos University library. The collected data represent the number of fires in Oman during the last decade.  It also includes fire distribution by type and averages.  The analysis shows that there is a linear increase in the number of fire accidents in the last decade with time.  Many factors are included as potential sources, which are explained in the paper, and suggestions are made for possible control.

  19. [From synthetic biology to synthetic humankind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvel, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an historical survey of the expression "synthetic biology" in order to identify its main philosophical components. The result of the analysis is then used to investigate the meaning of the notion of "synthetic man". It is shown that both notions share a common philosophical background that can be summed up by the short but meaningful assertion: "biology is technology". The analysis allows us to distinguish two notions that are often confused in transhumanist literature: the notion of synthetic man and the notion of renewed man. The consequences of this crucial distinction are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cathinones? Behavioral therapy can be used to treat addiction to synthetic cathinones. Examples include: cognitive-behavioral therapy contingency management, or motivational incentives—providing rewards to ...

  1. Temperature calculation in fire safety engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Wickström, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a consistent scientific background to engineering calculation methods applicable to analyses of materials reaction-to-fire, as well as fire resistance of structures. Several new and unique formulas and diagrams which facilitate calculations are presented. It focuses on problems involving high temperature conditions and, in particular, defines boundary conditions in a suitable way for calculations. A large portion of the book is devoted to boundary conditions and measurements of thermal exposure by radiation and convection. The concepts and theories of adiabatic surface temperature and measurements of temperature with plate thermometers are thoroughly explained. Also presented is a renewed method for modeling compartment fires, with the resulting simple and accurate prediction tools for both pre- and post-flashover fires. The final chapters deal with temperature calculations in steel, concrete and timber structures exposed to standard time-temperature fire curves. Useful temperature calculat...

  2. Controls on variations in MODIS fire radiative power in Alaskan boreal forests: implications for fire severity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Kirsten; Kasischke, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    is the most fire prone, but deciduous vegetation is not particularly fire resistant, as the proportion of active fire detections in deciduous stands is roughly the same as the fraction of deciduous vegetation in the region. Qualitative differences between periods of high and low fire activity are likely to reflect important differences in fire severity. Large fire years are likely to be more severe, characterized by more late season fires and a greater proportion of residual burning. Given the potential for severe fires to effect changes in vegetation cover, the shift toward a greater proportion of area burning during large fire years may influence vegetation patterns in the region over the medium to long term.

  3. Fire and fire ecology: Concepts and principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Cochrane; Kevin C. Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Fire has been central to terrestrial life ever since early anaerobic microorganisms poisoned the atmosphere with oxygen and multicellular plant life moved onto land. The combination of fuels, oxygen, and heat gave birth to fire on Earth. Fire is not just another evolutionary challenge that life needed to overcome, it is, in fact, a core ecological process across much...

  4. Constructive fire protection of steel corrugated beams of buildings and other structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyin Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research introduces a methodology of establishing indicators of fire safety of a building in relation to a guaranteed duration of steel fire-proof corrugated beams resistance in conditions of standard fire tests. Indicators of fire safety are also established in the assessment of design limits of steel fire-proof corrugated beams during design process, construction or maintenance of the building as well as in reducing economic costs when testing steel structures for fire resisting property. The suggested methodology introduces the system of actions aimed to design constructive fire protection of steel corrugated beams of buildings. Technological effect is achieved by conducting firing tests of steel construction by non-destructive methods; the evaluation of fire resistance of fire-proof elements of corrugated beams (corrugated web, upper and lower shelves is identified by the least fire-proof element of a welded I-beam. In this methodology fire resistance duration of the constituent elements of a welded I-beam with account of its fire protection ability is described with an analytic function taken as variables. These variables are intensity strength of stresses and the degree of fire protection of a compound element.

  5. Quantum synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Jitrik, Oliverio; Uhlmann, Jeffrey; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador E.

    2017-05-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) uses sensor motion to generate finer spatial resolution of a given target area. In this paper we explore the theoretical potential of quantum synthetic aperture quantum radar (QSAR). We provide theoretical analysis and simulation results which suggest that QSAR can provide improved detection performance over classical SAR in the high-noise low-brightness regime.

  6. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  7. Fires, ecological effects of

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Bond; Robert Keane

    2017-01-01

    Fire is both a natural and anthropogenic disturbance influencing the distribution, structure, and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems around the world. Many plants and animals depend on fire for their continued existence. Others species, such as rainforest plants species, are extremely intolerant of burning and need protection from fire. The properties of a fire...

  8. Fire-Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  9. Smoldering - The Fire Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Torero, Jose L

    2000-01-01

    There are certain fire initiation scenarios that are particularly common, one of great significance is a fire initiated from the ignition of a porous fuel. Nearly 40% of the deaths due to fire can be traced to cigarette induced smolder of upholstered furniture and the mechanisms that control the process that transforms the weak smolder reaction occurring in the cigarette to a fire are still mostly unknown. A general description of this fire scenario and a discussion of its threats is pr...

  10. Synthetic biology era: Improving antibiotic's world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Trampe, Silvia; Ceapa, Corina D; Manzo-Ruiz, Monserrat; Sánchez, Sergio

    2017-06-15

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogen microorganisms is problematic in the context of the current spectrum of available medication. The poor specificity and the high toxicity of some available molecules have made imperative the search for new strategies to improve the specificity and to pursue the discovery of novel compounds with increased bioactivity. Using living cells as platforms, synthetic biology has counteracted this problem by offering novel pathways to create synthetic systems with improved and desired functions. Among many other biotechnological approaches, the advances in synthetic biology have made it possible to design and construct novel biological systems in order to look for new drugs with increased bioactivity. Advancements have also been made in the redesigning of RNA and DNA molecules in order to engineer antibiotic clusters for antibiotic overexpression. As for the production of these antibacterial compounds, yeasts and filamentous fungi as well as gene therapy are utilized to enhance protein solubility. Specific delivery is achieved by creating chimeras using plant genes into bacterial hosts. Some of these synthetic systems are currently in clinical trials, proving the proficiency of synthetic biology in terms of both pharmacological activities as well as an increase in the biosafety of treatments. It is possible that we may just be seeing the tip of the iceberg, and synthetic biology applications will overpass expectations beyond our present knowledge. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Synthetic biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, Eric; Süel, Gürol M

    2013-01-01

    Despite their obvious relationship and overlap, the field of physics is blessed with many insightful laws, while such laws are sadly absent in biology. Here we aim to discuss how the rise of a more recent field known as synthetic biology may allow us to more directly test hypotheses regarding the possible design principles of natural biological networks and systems. In particular, this review focuses on synthetic gene regulatory networks engineered to perform specific functions or exhibit particular dynamic behaviors. Advances in synthetic biology may set the stage to uncover the relationship of potential biological principles to those developed in physics. (review article)

  12. Synthetic Base Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M.; Fotheringham, J. D.; Hoyes, T. J.; Mortier, R. M.; Orszulik, S. T.; Randles, S. J.; Stroud, P. M.

    The chemical nature and technology of the main synthetic lubricant base fluids is described, covering polyalphaolefins, alkylated aromatics, gas-to-liquid (GTL) base fluids, polybutenes, aliphatic diesters, polyolesters, polyalkylene glycols or PAGs and phosphate esters.Other synthetic lubricant base oils such as the silicones, borate esters, perfluoroethers and polyphenylene ethers are considered to have restricted applications due to either high cost or performance limitations and are not considered here.Each of the main synthetic base fluids is described for their chemical and physical properties, manufacture and production, their chemistry, key properties, applications and their implications when used in the environment.

  13. Determining the degree of fire retardancy of plywood with thermogravimetry, part I: Beech plywood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović-Grmuša Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic motive of this work is the ever more pronounced need for fire-resistant plywood. In this work, beech veneers have been impregnated with solutions of chosen fire retardants, which are diammonium phosphate monoammonium phosphate, sodium acetate, water glass, sodium tetra borate and boric acid. To determine the preliminary level of fire retardancy achieved in veneers before manufacturing of finished plywood, thermo gravimetric (TG and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG methods are used. TG and DTG analyses of treated and untreated wood, as well as of fire retardants alone, were performed on a Perkin-Elmer TGS-2 thermo gravimetric equipment. Fire resistance of plywood was tested in accordance with standard test for resistance to the effects of fire and the most efficient fire retardants monoammonium phosphate and sodium tetra borate, had the same results as TG/DTG analyses, which points out the validity of TG methods in predicting success of fire retardants in future products.

  14. Shear and anchorage behaviour of fire exposed hollow core slabs

    OpenAIRE

    Fellinger, J.H.H.; Stark, J.; Walraven, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The fire resistance of hollow core slabs is currently assessed considering flexural failure only. However, fire tests showed that shear or anchorage failure can also govern the load bearing behaviour. As the shear and anchorage capacity of these slabs rely on the tensile strength of the concrete, the load bearing capacity with respect to these failure modes decreases dramatically during fire due to the impact of thermal stresses. This paper presents a FE model for the shear and anchorage beha...

  15. Davis Fire: Fire behavior and fire effects analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaWen T. Hollingsworth

    2010-01-01

    The Davis Fire presents an interesting example of fire behavior in subalpine fir, partially dead lodgepole pine with multiple age classes, and moist site Douglas-fir vegetation types. This has been summer of moderate temperatures and intermittent moisture that has kept live herbaceous and live woody moistures fairly high and dead fuel moistures at a moderate level....

  16. FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System - A program for fire danger rating analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Larry S. Bradshaw

    1997-01-01

    A computer program, FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System, provides methods for evaluating the performance of fire danger rating indexes. The relationship between fire danger indexes and historical fire occurrence and size is examined through logistic regression and percentiles. Historical seasonal trends of fire danger and fire occurrence can be...

  17. Synthetic Biological Membrane (SBM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ultimate goal of the Synthetic Biological Membrane project is to develop a new type of membrane that will enable the wastewater treatment system required on...

  18. Hybridization with synthetic oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szostak, J.W.; Stiles, J.I.; Tye, B.K.; Sherman, F.; Wu, R.

    1978-01-01

    Procedures are described for the use of synthetic oligonucleotides for Southern blot experiments and gene bank screening, and the effect of various mismatches on the efficiency of hybridization is demonstrated. The following topics are discussed: sensitivity vs. specificity, hybridization of a 12-mer to the lambda endolysin gene; hybridization of oligonucleotide probes to the E. coli lac operator; hybridization of synthetic probes to the CYC1 gene of yeast; and cloning eucaryotic genes. (HLW)

  19. Mammalian Synthetic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Martella, Andrea; Pollard, Steven M; Dai, Junbiao; Cai, Yizhi

    2016-01-01

    The enabling technologies of synthetic biology are opening up new opportunities for engineering and enhancement of mammalian cells. This will stimulate diverse applications in many life science sectors such as regenerative medicine, development of biosensing cell lines, therapeutic protein production, and generation of new synthetic genetic regulatory circuits. Harnessing the full potential of these new engineering-based approaches requires the design and assembly of large DNA constructs-pote...

  20. Test Data on Intumescent Fire Protection for Structural Steel Sections in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanyawat Pothisiri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Current fire safety regulations in Thailand require that primary structural steel components of buildings be protected to achieve a minimum of 3-hour fire-resistance rating. For steel roof structures, 1-hour or 2-hour fire-resistance ratings may be specified depending on the number of stories. The verification methods of fire-resistance ratings set forth in the regulations are ISO 834 and ASTM E119 standards. The current trend of fire protection system for steel structures is intumescent paint due to aesthetical reasons. However, the fire-resistance ratings attained by proprietary intumescent systems currently available in the market are inconclusive. It is therefore the aim of this paper to provide an insight of the fire-resistance ratings of different intumescent products based on the data collected from the fire tests conducted by the Fire Safety Research Center of Chulalongkorn University during the period of 2009 - 2011. A statistical analysis was also conducted to compare the test data with the fire-resistance ratings specified in the current fire safety regulations.

  1. Studying the effect of fire retardant coating on the fire hazard characteristics of wood using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasymov, Denis; Agafontsev, Mikhail

    2017-10-01

    This paper represents a study concerning the effect of fire retardant treatment «FUKAM» on the fire hazard characteristics of pine, aspen and larch. The front of model ground fire was investigated to estimate its effect on the surface of wood samples. Infrared thermography was used as a diagnostic method. The surface temperature distribution was obtained for the test wood samples after exposure to a fire front that was modeled using pine needles. The probability of ignition was estimated for the chosen experimental parameters for each kind of wood. The fire hazard characteristics of wood after fire retardant treatment showed a significant reduction in the surface temperature and the resistance to fire for the chosen parameters of the experiment compared to the same untreated samples.

  2. Fire safety engineering applied to high-rise building facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sassi Samuele

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire safety of high-rise building facades is a complex problem, therefore the use of prescriptive fire codes could not be sufficient to ensure a proper building fire safety level. In new high rise buildings the fire safety of facades can be taken into account by means of performance based fire design that can help in the selection of the best technological solutions and material choices. This article deals with a case study done on the Piedmont Region Headquarters (TORRE REGIONE PIEMONTE which is one of the highest office buildings in Italy. The “Torre Regione Piemonte” is located in Turin and has 45 storey and a total height of 183,61 m. The building is characterized by the closed enclosure called “Grand Space” which is continuous for almost the entire height of the building and contains volumes such as offices/meeting rooms named as “Satellites”. In order to fulfil Italian fire safety requirements, the “Torre Regione Piemonte” building has been assessed using the performance base design and fire safety engineering approach. This paper deals with the design process selection of the most representative fire scenarios focusing on the fire resistance performance requirements of structural and glazed elements of the facades. Furthermore, all the simulation, calculations and performance fire resistant requirements of the high rise building have been supported by specific laboratory tests and experimental results, that are reported and discussed within paper.

  3. Shear and anchorage behaviour of fire exposed hollow core slabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fellinger, J.H.H.; Stark, J.; Walraven, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The fire resistance of hollow core slabs is currently assessed considering flexural failure only. However, fire tests showed that shear or anchorage failure can also govern the load bearing behaviour. As the shear and anchorage capacity of these slabs rely on the tensile strength of the concrete,

  4. Nonlinear phased analysis of reinforced concrete tunnels under fire exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lilliu, G.; Meda, A.

    2013-01-01

    Fire analysis of precast segmental tunnels involves several problems, mainly related to the soil-structure interaction during fire exposure, coupled with material degradation. Temperature increase in the tunnel is the cause of thermal expansion of the lining, which is resisted by the soil pressure.

  5. Effect of Post-Fire Curing on the Residual Mechanical Properties of Fire-Damaged Self-Compacting Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirmomeni, M.; Heidarpour, A.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Smith, S; Saouma, V.; Bolander, J.; Landis, E.

    2016-01-01

    Concrete is recognized for being a fire-resistant construction material. At elevated temperatures concrete can, however, undergo considerable damage such as strength degradation, cracking, and explosive spalling. In recent decades, reuse of fire-damaged concrete structures by means of developing

  6. Connective Heating Improvement for Emergency Fire Shelters (CHIEFS): Composition and Performance of Fire Shelter Concepts at Close-Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fody, Joshua M.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Bruce, Walter E., III; Wells, John M.; Wusk, Mary E.; Calomino, Anthony M.; Miller, Steve D.

    2018-01-01

    Summary of highlights of the Convective Heating Improvement for Emergency Fire Shelters (CHIEFS) taskunder NASA. CHIEFS was tasked with providing the US Forest Service with an emergency fire shelter forimproved resistance to flame contact. Emphasis is on the final shelter designs at task close-out (end of FY17).

  7. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Brown; Jane Kapler Smith

    2000-01-01

    VOLUME 2: This state-of-knowledge review about the effects of fire on flora and fuels can assist land managers with ecosystem and fire management planning and in their efforts to inform others about the ecological role of fire. Chapter topics include fire regime classification, autecological effects of fire, fire regime characteristics and postfire plant community...

  8. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore, used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery. PMID:23654251

  9. Modeling Urban Fire Growth,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear explosion damage, *Explosion effects, *Fires, *Flame propagation, Growth (General), Area coverage, Ignition, Combustion, Casualties...Computerized simulation, Predictions, Countermeasures, Fire suppression, Damage assessment, Urban areas, Vulnerability, Data acquisition, Methodology, Symposia

  10. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  11. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  12. Buildings exposed to fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 24 lectures presented to the colloquium cover the following subject fields: (1) Behaviour of structural components exposed to fire; (2) Behaviour of building materials exposed to fire; (3) Thermal processes; (4) Safety related, theoretical studies. (PW) [de

  13. Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rorty, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober......Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober...

  14. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  15. Fire Making, Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2002-04-01

    In the late 1930's and early 1940's, JCE published several historical accounts on methods for igniting fires. This "From Past Issues" summarizes an article by Warren N. Watson on the fire making arts of primitive peoples.

  16. Fires and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Fires and Food Safety Fire! Few words can strike such terror. Residential ...

  17. Interagency Wildland Fire Cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    Wildlife Fire Assistance includes training personnel, forms partnerships for prescribed burns, state and regional data for fire management plans, develops agreements for DoD civilians to be reimbursed...

  18. Tunnel fire dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

  19. FIRE CHARACTERISTICS FOR ADVANCED MODELLING OF FIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Dvořák

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the material and fire properties of solid flammable/combustible materials /substances /products, which are used as inputs for the computer numerical fire models. At the same time it gives the test standards for their determination.

  20. 30 CFR 75.1107-13 - Approval of other fire suppression devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-13 Approval of... suppression equipment shall be designed to withstand the rigors of the mine environment. Where used, pressure...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1107-6 - Capacity of fire suppression devices; location and direction of nozzles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment... withstand rough usage and vibration when installed on mining equipment. (b) The extinguishant-discharge...

  2. Mass Fire Model Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-31

    done by several investigators, the theoretical work of Nielsen (Reference 12) and Nielsen and Tao (Refer- ence 13) specifically models the global...which are approximately equal. This procedure permits computation of the fire..induced wind by a superpositlon of effects from each usub -fire." Outsid...Storm Analysis, ITT Research Institute, Janu- ary 1970. .324 13. Nielsen , H.J. and L.N. Tao, "The Fire Plume Above a Large Free- Burning Fire,’ Tenth S

  3. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de

    1998-01-01

    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  4. Fire Department Emergency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services.

  5. Fire as Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project that deals with fire production as an aspect of technology. The project challenges students to be survivors in a five-day classroom activity. Students research various materials and methods to produce fire without the use of matches or other modern combustion devices, then must create "fire" to keep…

  6. Fire and forest meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    SA Ferguson; T.J. Brown; M. Flannigan

    2005-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society symposia series on Fire and Forest Meteorology provides biennial forums for atmospheric and fire scientists to introduce and discuss the latest and most relevant research on weather, climate and fire. This special issue highlights significant work that was presented at the Fifth Symposium in Orlando, Florida during 16-20 November...

  7. Synthetic guide star generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A [Castro Valley, CA; Page, Ralph H [Castro Valley, CA; Ebbers, Christopher A [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J [Livermore, CA

    2008-06-10

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  8. Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2008-01-01

    A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective...... is stored. The second stage applies the focused image lines from the first stage as input data. The SASB method has been investigated using simulations in Field II and by off-line processing of data acquired with a commercial scanner. The performance of SASB with a static image object is compared with DRF...

  9. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The development of fire-retardant coatings to protect surfaces which may be exposed to fire or extreme heat is a subject of intense interest to many industries. A fire-retardant paint has been developed which represents a new chemical approach for preparing intumescent coatings, and potentially, is very important to fire-prevention authorities. The requirements for a superior coating include ease of application, suitability to a wide variety of surfaces and finishes, and stability over an extended period of time within a broad range of ambient temperature and humidity conditions. These innovative coatings, when activated by the heat of a fire, react to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction. Two fire-protection mechanisms thus become available: (1) the char layer retards the flow of heat, due to the extremely low thermal conductivity; and (2) water vapor and sulfur dioxide are released, providing fire quenching properties. Still another mechanism functions in cases where the char, by virtue of its high oxidation resistance and low thermal conductivity, reaches a sufficiently high temperature to re-radiate much of the incident heat load. The coatings consist of dispersions of selective salts of a nitro-amino-arornatic compound. Specifically, para-nitroaniline bisulfate and the ammonium salt of para-nitroaniline-ortho sulphuric acid (2-amino-5-nitrobenzenesulphuric acid) are used. Suitable vehicles are cellulose nitrate of lacquer grade, a nitrite-phenolic modified rubber, or epoxy-polysulfide copolymer. Three separate formulations have been developed. A solvent is usually employed, such as methylethyl ketone, butyl acetate, or toluene, which renders the coatings suitably thin and which evaporates after the coatings are applied. Generally, the intumescent material is treated as insoluble in the vehicle, and is ground and dispersed in the vehicle and solvent like an

  10. Fire Protection Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  11. Development of novel protective high temperature coatings on heat exchanger steels and their corrosion resistance in simulated coal firing environment; Developpement de revetements pour les aciers d'echangeurs thermiques et amelioration de leur resistance a la corrosion en environnement simulant les fumees de combustion et de charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohr, V.

    2005-10-15

    Improving the efficiencies of thermal power plants requires an increase of the operating temperatures and thus of the corrosion resistance of heat exchanger materials. Therefore, the present study aimed at developing protective coatings using the pack cementation process. Two types of heat exchanger steels were investigated: a 17% Cr-13% Ni austenitic steel and three ferritic-martensitic steels with 9 (P91 and P92) and 12% Cr (HCM12A). The austenitic steel was successfully aluminized at 950 C. For the ferritic-martensitic steels, the pack cementation temperature was decreased down to 650 C, in order to maintain their initial microstructure. Two types of aluminides, made of Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and FeAl, were developed. A mechanism of the coating formation at low temperature is proposed. Furthermore, combining the pack cementation with the conventional heat treatment of P91 allowed to take benefit of higher temperatures for the deposition of a two-step Cr+Al coating. The corrosion resistance of coated and uncoated steels is compared in simulated coal firing environment for durations up to 2000 h between 650 and 700 C. It is shown that the coatings offer a significant corrosion protection and, thus, an increase of the component lifetime. Finally, the performance of coated 9-12% Cr steels is no longer limited by corrosion but by interdiffusion between the coating and the substrate. (author)

  12. Parametric study for the fire safety design of steel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aiuti, Riccardo; Giuliani, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing knowledge on the behaviour of structures in fire and the development of new design tools for fire safety, current prescriptive regulations and design procedures present several shortcomings. These are mostly due to an oversimplification of the problem, in order to allow...... for a simple integration of the fire design procedures in the common practice. In this view, the structural fire safety of a building can be accomplished by verifying that single elements can resist a standard fire exposure for a required time, without taking into consideration the effect of restrained...... temperatures. Different parameters, as the grade of restrain, the loading resistance ratio and the slenderness of the elements are varied, thus a parametric study of the phenomenon is realized....

  13. What Are Synthetic Cannabinoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... market and are intended to produce the same effects as illegal drugs. Some of these substances may have been around for years but have reentered the market in altered chemical forms, or due to renewed popularity. False Advertising Synthetic cannabinoid products are often labeled "not for ...

  14. Towards a synthetic chloroplast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Agapakis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of eukaryotic cells is widely agreed to have proceeded through a series of endosymbiotic events between larger cells and proteobacteria or cyanobacteria, leading to the formation of mitochondria or chloroplasts, respectively. Engineered endosymbiotic relationships between different species of cells are a valuable tool for synthetic biology, where engineered pathways based on two species could take advantage of the unique abilities of each mutualistic partner.We explored the possibility of using the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 as a platform for studying evolutionary dynamics and for designing two-species synthetic biological systems. We observed that the cyanobacteria were relatively harmless to eukaryotic host cells compared to Escherichia coli when injected into the embryos of zebrafish, Danio rerio, or taken up by mammalian macrophages. In addition, when engineered with invasin from Yersinia pestis and listeriolysin O from Listeria monocytogenes, S. elongatus was able to invade cultured mammalian cells and divide inside macrophages.Our results show that it is possible to engineer photosynthetic bacteria to invade the cytoplasm of mammalian cells for further engineering and applications in synthetic biology. Engineered invasive but non-pathogenic or immunogenic photosynthetic bacteria have great potential as synthetic biological devices.

  15. Synthetic Metabolic Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Synthetic Metabolic Pathways: Methods and Protocols aims to ensure successful results in the further study...

  16. Synthetic growth reference charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanussen, Michael; Stec, Karol; Aßmann, Christian; Meigen, Christof; Van Buuren, Stef

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To reanalyze the between-population variance in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI), and to provide a globally applicable technique for generating synthetic growth reference charts. Methods: Using a baseline set of 196 female and 197 male growth studies published since 1831, common

  17. A formidable synthetic challenge

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Isolation and characterization of maoecrystal V, a C19 terpenoid, having potent and selective cytotoxicity towards HeLa cells was recently reported. Unusually complex pentacyclic molecular structure, presence of spirofused rings and several stereogenic centres posed a great synthetic challenge. In this short review, efforts ...

  18. Synthetic antiferromagnetic spintronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duine, R. A.; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Parkin, Stuart S. P.; Stiles, M. D.

    2018-03-01

    Spintronic and nanomagnetic devices often derive their functionality from layers of different materials and the interfaces between them. We discuss the opportunities that arise from synthetic antiferromagnets consisting of two or more ferromagnetic layers that are separated by metallic spacers or tunnel barriers and have antiparallel magnetizations.

  19. Synthetic Plant Defense Elicitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin eBektas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of the some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection.

  20. Fire Danger and Fire Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (formerly Weather Bureau) and Forest Service developed a program to track meteorological conditions conducive to forest fires, resulting...

  1. Synthetic antifreeze peptide and synthetic gene coding for its production

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    A synthetic antifreeze peptide and a synthetic gene coding for the antifreeze peptide have been produced. The antifreeze peptide has a greater number of repeating amino acid sequences than is present in the native antifreeze peptides from winter flounder upon which the synthetic antifreeze peptide was modeled. Each repeating amino acid sequence has two polar amino acid residues which are spaced a controlled distance apart so that the antifreeze peptide may inhibit ice formation. The synthetic...

  2. Kerosene fires in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, W.

    1990-08-01

    The thermodynamic and radiological consequences of accidental kerosene fires in have been investigated and analyzed. The burning rate of kerosene fires depends mainly on the burning area and in closed containments on the available oxygen and the ventilation rate in the cells of the reprocessing plants. Maximum burning rates of 150 kg/m 2 xh were measured. Burning kerosene-TBP mixtures produce large amounts of airborne soot. These particles agglomerate very fast to chainlike aerosols. The soot formation rate depends on TBP concentration and can be 10% of the organic layer. The smoke production has a maximum at the end of combustion. Uranium containing TBP releases radioactive particles during fires. The release rate depends on the uranium concentration in the organic liquid and might be up to 10% at the uranium solved in the organic liquid. Special safety filters were developed and tested under accident conditions. Multilayer sandbed filters have filtration efficiencies as high as HEPA filters and proved to have high resistivity against pressure, temperature, and chemicals. (orig.) [de

  3. Evaluation of Steel Element’s Strength at High Temperature (fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Diana Ancaş

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the paper there shall be considerations on the hypothesis and possibilities of assessing the fire resistance of the steel structural elements. After the critical presentation and analysis of the breaking criteria used regarding structures’ calculations at high temperatures, the way of determining the fire resistance of a metal beam stressed at pure bending is presented.

  4. All fired up

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Directorate and their support staff took part in a fire-fighting course organised by the CERN Fire Brigade just before the end-of-year break.  The Bulletin takes a look at the fire-fighting training on offer at CERN.   At CERN the risk of fire can never be under-estimated. In order to train personnel in the use of fire extinguishers, CERN's fire training centre in Prévessin acquired a fire-simulation platform in 2012. On the morning of 17 December 2012, ten members of the CERN directorate and their support staff tried out the platform, following in the footsteps of 400 other members of the CERN community who had already attended the course. The participants were welcomed to the training centre by Gilles Colin, a fire-fighter and instructor, who gave them a 30-minute introduction to general safety and the different types of fire and fire extinguishers, followed by an hour of practical instruction in the simulation facility. There they were able to pract...

  5. Managing wildland fires: integrating weather models into fire projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne M. Rosenthal; Francis Fujioka

    2004-01-01

    Flames from the Old Fire sweep through lands north of San Bernardino during late fall of 2003. Like many Southern California fires, the Old Fire consumed susceptible forests at the urban-wildland interface and spread to nearby city neighborhoods. By incorporating weather models into fire perimeter projections, scientist Francis Fujioka is improving fire modeling as a...

  6. Opportunities for synthetic biology in antibiotics: expanding glycopeptide chemical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Maulik N; Wright, Gerard D

    2015-03-20

    Synthetic biology offers a new path for the exploitation and improvement of natural products to address the growing crisis in antibiotic resistance. All antibiotics in clinical use are facing eventual obsolesce as a result of the evolution and dissemination of resistance mechanisms, yet there are few new drug leads forthcoming from the pharmaceutical sector. Natural products of microbial origin have proven over the past 70 years to be the wellspring of antimicrobial drugs. Harnessing synthetic biology thinking and strategies can provide new molecules and expand chemical diversity of known antibiotic scaffolds to provide much needed new drug leads. The glycopeptide antibiotics offer paradigmatic scaffolds suitable for such an approach. We review these strategies here using the glycopeptides as an example and demonstrate how synthetic biology can expand antibiotic chemical diversity to help address the growing resistance crisis.

  7. Fire Propagation Performance of Intumescent Fire Protective Coatings Using Eggshells as a Novel Biofiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Yew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to synthesize and characterize an effective intumescent fire protective coating that incorporates eggshell powder as a novel biofiller. The performances of thermal stability, char formation, fire propagation, water resistance, and adhesion strength of coatings have been evaluated. A few intumescent flame-retardant coatings based on these three ecofriendly fire retardant additives ammonium polyphosphate phase II, pentaerythritol and melamine mixed together with flame-retardant fillers, and acrylic binder have been prepared and designed for steel. The fire performance of the coatings has conducted employing BS 476: Part 6-Fire propagation test. The foam structures of the intumescent coatings have been observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy. On exposure, the coated specimens’ B, C, and D had been certified to be Class 0 due to the fact that their fire propagation indexes were less than 12. Incorporation of ecofriendly eggshell, biofiller into formulation D led to excellent performance in fire stopping (index value, (I=4.3 and antioxidation of intumescent coating. The coating is also found to be quite effective in water repellency, uniform foam structure, and adhesion strength.

  8. Fire and fire-adapted vegetation promoted C4 expansion in the late Miocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiter, Simon; Higgins, Steven I; Osborne, Colin P; Bradshaw, Catherine; Lunt, Dan; Ripley, Brad S; Taylor, Lyla L; Beerling, David J

    2012-08-01

    Large proportions of the Earth's land surface are covered by biomes dominated by C(4) grasses. These C(4)-dominated biomes originated during the late Miocene, 3-8 million years ago (Ma), but there is evidence that C(4) grasses evolved some 20 Ma earlier during the early Miocene/Oligocene. Explanations for this lag between evolution and expansion invoke changes in atmospheric CO(2), seasonality of climate and fire. However, there is still no consensus about which of these factors triggered C(4) grassland expansion. We use a vegetation model, the adaptive dynamic global vegetation model (aDGVM), to test how CO(2), temperature, precipitation, fire and the tolerance of vegetation to fire influence C(4) grassland expansion. Simulations are forced with late Miocene climates generated with the Hadley Centre coupled ocean-atmosphere-vegetation general circulation model. We show that physiological differences between the C(3) and C(4) photosynthetic pathways cannot explain C(4) grass invasion into forests, but that fire is a crucial driver. Fire-promoting plant traits serve to expand the climate space in which C(4)-dominated biomes can persist. We propose that three mechanisms were involved in C(4) expansion: the physiological advantage of C(4) grasses under low atmospheric CO(2) allowed them to invade C(3) grasslands; fire allowed grasses to invade forests; and the evolution of fire-resistant savanna trees expanded the climate space that savannas can invade. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Standardization in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kristian M; Arndt, Katja M

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is founded on the idea that complex biological systems are built most effectively when the task is divided in abstracted layers and all required components are readily available and well-described. This requires interdisciplinary collaboration at several levels and a common understanding of the functioning of each component. Standardization of the physical composition and the description of each part is required as well as a controlled vocabulary to aid design and ensure interoperability. Here, we describe standardization initiatives from several disciplines, which can contribute to Synthetic Biology. We provide examples of the concerted standardization efforts of the BioBricks Foundation comprising the request for comments (RFC) and the Registry of Standardized Biological parts as well as the international Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) competition.

  10. Little Bear Fire Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Melanie Stidham; Hannah. Brenkert-Smith

    2013-01-01

    In June 2012, immediately after the Little Bear Fire burned outside Ruidoso, New Mexico, a team of researchers interviewed fire managers, local personnel, and residents to understand perceptions of the event itself, communication, evacuation, and pre-fire preparedness. The intensity of fire behavior and resulting loss of 242 homes made this a complex fire with a...

  11. The human and fire connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa B. Jain

    2014-01-01

    We refer to fire as a natural disturbance, but unlike other disturbances such as forest insects and diseases, fire has had an intimate relationship with humans. Fire facilitated human evolution over two million years ago when our ancestors began to use fire to cook. Fire empowered our furbearers to adapt to cold climates, allowing humans to disperse and settle into...

  12. Optical synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilovitsh, Asaf; Zach, Shlomo; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2013-06-01

    A method is proposed for increasing the resolution of an object and overcoming the diffraction limit of an optical system installed on top of a moving imaging system, such as an airborne platform or satellite. The resolution improvement is obtained via a two-step process. First, three low resolution differently defocused images are captured and the optical phase is retrieved using an improved iterative Gershberg-Saxton based algorithm. The phase retrieval allows numerical back propagation of the field to the aperture plane. Second, the imaging system is shifted and the first step is repeated. The obtained optical fields at the aperture plane are combined and a synthetically increased lens aperture is generated along the direction of movement, yielding higher imaging resolution. The method resembles a well-known approach from the microwave regime called the synthetic aperture radar in which the antenna size is synthetically increased along the platform propagation direction. The proposed method is demonstrated via Matlab simulation as well as through laboratory experiment.

  13. Wildland Fire Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwager, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) is written to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) Integrated Safety Management Policy; Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; and Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and Implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes resulting from new policies on the national level as well as significant changes to available resources and other emerging issues, and replaces BNL's Wildland FMP dated 2014.

  14. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...... as a visiting professor at BYG.DTU financed by the Larsen and Nielsen Foundation, and is entered to the research database by Kristian Hertz responsible for the visiting professorship....

  15. Fire safety engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.N.

    1989-01-01

    The periodic occurrence of large-scale, potentially disastrous industrial accidents involving fire in hazardous environments such as oilwell blowouts, petrochemical explosions and nuclear installations highlights the need for an integrated approach to fire safety engineering. Risk reduction 'by design' and rapid response are of equal importance in the saving of life and property in such situations. This volume of papers covers the subject thoroughly, touching on such topics as hazard analysis, safety design and testing, fire detection and control, and includes studies of fire hazard in the context of environment protection. (author)

  16. WebFIRE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Factor Information Retrieval (FIRE) Data System is a database management system containing EPA's recommended emission estimation factors for criteria and...

  17. Synthetic cannabis and respiratory depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinwala, Felecia N; Gupta, Mayank

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, synthetic cannabis use has been increasing in appeal among adolescents, and its use is now at a 30 year peak among high school seniors. The constituents of synthetic cannabis are difficult to monitor, given the drug's easy accessibility. Currently, 40 U.S. states have banned the distribution and use of some known synthetic cannabinoids, and have included these drugs in the Schedule I category. The depressive respiratory effect in humans caused by synthetic cannabis inhalation has not been thoroughly investigated in the medical literature. We are the first to report, to our knowledge, two cases of self-reported synthetic cannabis use leading to respiratory depression and necessary intubation.

  18. Natural and synthetic peptides with antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciociola, Tecla; Giovati, Laura; Conti, Stefania; Magliani, Walter; Santinoli, Claudia; Polonelli, Luciano

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, the increase of invasive fungal infections and the emergence of antifungal resistance stressed the need for new antifungal drugs. Peptides have shown to be good candidates for the development of alternative antimicrobial agents through high-throughput screening, and subsequent optimization according to a rational approach. This review presents a brief overview on antifungal natural peptides of different sources (animals, plants, micro-organisms), peptide fragments derived by proteolytic cleavage of precursor physiological proteins (cryptides), synthetic unnatural peptides and peptide derivatives. Antifungal peptides are schematically reported based on their structure, antifungal spectrum and reported effects. Natural or synthetic peptides and their modified derivatives may represent the basis for new compounds active against fungal infections.

  19. The Next Generation of Synthetic Biology Chassis: Moving Synthetic Biology from the Laboratory to the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-26

    atures between 45 and 70 °C, they may prove to be useful chassis for high temperature operational conditions. This genus is currently used by industry for...many extreme stresses. The bacterial genus Deinococcus is well-known for its resistance to ionizing radiation, however it also shows remarkable...based state machines in living cells. Science 353, aad8559. (2) Elowitz, M. B., and Leibler, S. (2000) A synthetic oscillatory network of transcriptional

  20. National Fire News- Current Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 to 5) Current hours for the National Fire Information Center are (MST) 8:00 am - 4: ... information. March 9, 2018 Nationally, 35 new large fires were reported. Fire activity picked up in the ...

  1. Connection Temperatures during the Mokrsko Fire Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chlouba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mokrsko fire test focused on the overall behaviour of the structure, which cannot be observed on the separate elements, and also on the temperature of connections with improved fire resistance. During the test, measurements were made of the temperature of the gas and of the elements, the overall and relative deformations, gas pressure, humidity, the radiation of the compartment to structural element and the external steel column, transport of the moisture through the walls, and also the climatic conditions. The results of the test show the differences between the behaviour of the element and the behaviour of the structure exposed to high temperatures during a fire. The collapse of the composite slab was reached. The results of the numerical simulations using the SAFIR program compared well with the measured temperature values in the structure and also in the connections. 

  2. Metrology for fire experiments in outdoor conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Silvani, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Natural fires can be considered as scale-dependant, non-linear processes of mass, momentum and heat transport, resulting from a turbulent reactive and radiative fluid medium flowing over a complex medium, the vegetal fuel. In natural outdoor conditions, the experimental study of natural fires at real scale needs the development of an original metrology, one able to capture the large range of time and length scales involved in its dynamic nature and also able to resist the thermal, mechanical and chemical aggression of flames on devices. Robust, accurate and poorly intrusive tools must be carefully set-up and used for gaining very fluctuating data over long periods. These signals also need the development of original post-processing tools that take into account the non-steady nature of their stochastic components. Metrology for Fire Experiments in Outdoor Conditions closely analyzes these features, and also describes measurements techniques, the thermal insulation of fragile electronic systems, data acquisitio...

  3. Research on Fire-Resistant Diesel Fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    glycol monomethyl ether (EGME or 2-methoxyethanol) at 5 vol%; ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGDME or dimethoxyethanol) at 1 to 5 vol%; diethylene ... glycol monomethyl ether (DEGME or 4-methoxy n-butanol) at 5 vol%; and ethylene glycol monomethyl monoethyl ether or [l,2-bis(2-methoxyethoxy) ethane] at...Displacement CN - Cetane Number DEGME - Diethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether DTA - Differential Thermal Analysis EA - Emulsifying Agent

  4. Behavior of one-way reinforced concrete slabs subjected to fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said M. Allam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A finite difference analysis was performed to investigate the behavior of one-way reinforced concrete slabs exposed to fire. The objective of the study was to investigate the fire resistance and the fire risk after extinguishing the fire. Firstly, the fire resistance was obtained using the ISO834 standard fire without cooling phase. Secondly, the ISO834 parametric fire with cooling phase was applied to study the effect of cooling time. Accordingly, the critical time for cooling was identified and the corresponding failure time was calculated. Moreover, the maximum risk time which is the time between the fire extinguishing and the collapse of slab was obtained. Sixteen one-way reinforced concrete slabs were considered to study the effect of important parameters namely: the concrete cover thickness; the plaster; and the live load ratio. Equations for heat transfer through the slab thickness were used in the fire resistance calculations. Studying the cooling time revealed that the slabs are still prone to collapse although they were cooled before their fire resistance. Moreover, increasing the concrete cover thickness and the presence of plaster led to an increase in the maximum risk time. However, the variation in the live load ratio has almost no effect on such time.

  5. Small Scale Hydrocarbon Fire Test Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Søreng Bjørge

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the oil and gas industry, hydrocarbon process equipment was previously often thermally insulated by applying insulation directly to the metal surface. Fire protective insulation was applied outside the thermal insulation. In some cases, severe corrosion attacks were observed due to ingress of humidity and condensation at cold surfaces. Introducing a 25 mm air gap to prevent wet thermal insulation and metal wall contact is expected to solve the corrosion issues. This improved insulation methodology does, however, require more space that may not be available when refurbishing older process plants. Relocating structural elements would introduce much hot work, which should be minimized in live plants. It is also costly. The aim of the present study is therefore to develop a test concept for testing fire resistance of equipment protected with only air-gap and thermal insulation, i.e., without the fire-protective insulation. The present work demonstrates a conceptual methodology for small scale fire testing of mockups resembling a section of a distillation column. The mockups were exposed to a small-scale propane flame in a test configuration where the flow rate and the flame zone were optimized to give heat flux levels in the range 250–350 kW/m2. Results are presented for a mockup resembling a 16 mm thick distillation column steel wall. It is demonstrated that the modern distance insulation in combination with the heat capacity of the column wall indicates 30+ minutes fire resistance. The results show that this methodology has great potentials for low cost fire testing of other configurations, and it may serve as a set-up for product development.

  6. The influence of fire retardants on the properties of beech and poplar veneers and plywood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković Jovan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising demands for fire resistance properties of wood construction and elements matching new standards have been an important part of building codes during the last decade. On the other side, lack of more detailed research on interaction between wood species and selected fire retardant chemicals even with basically one is evident. This is particularly truth with domestic wood species. In this research, beech and poplar veneers were immersed in 25% solutions of monoammonium phosphate (MP and sodium acetate (SA and impregnated for different periods of time. To determine the preliminary level of fire retardancy achieved in veneers before manufacturing of finished plywood, thermo gravimetric (TG and derivative thermo gravimetric (DTG methods were used. TG and DTG analyses of treated and untreated wood, as well as of fire retardants alone, were performed. The next properties of impregnated and no impregnated veneers and plywood were determined: absorption of imp regnant solution (A, weight percent gain (WPG of imp regnant, equilibrium moisture content (EMC, pH values, and in the case of plywood, strength and fire resistance. Fire resistance of plywood was tested in accordance with standard test for resistance to the effects of fire and the most efficient fire retardant, monoammonium phosphate, had the same result as TG/DTG analyses, which pointed out the validity of TG methods in predicting fire resistance of future products.

  7. Forest Fires 3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    heat from within the Earth could be transferred to the charcoal layers above, from there onto the peat and other vegetation in the soil and finally when it comes in contact with forest litter it would develop into a natural forest fire. Ironically, in regions usually thought of as cool and wet, forest fires do occur naturally frop1 time to ...

  8. Fire research issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. McArdle; Donald N. Matthews

    1934-01-01

    This number of Forest Research Motes is primarily for the forest fire protectionist. It consists of a number of very short articles, each of which gives the essence of the results of a study made recently by this Forest Experiment Station. These so-called fire studies which are represented herein by brief fragments are all part of an organized research program, having...

  9. Biomass co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus...

  10. Fire forum 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference contains 18 presentations on various aspects of fire prevention and protection within the power production plants and industry, safety of building constructions, cable and transformer problems, risk and safety evaluation methods, management aspects, relevant Norwegian and Icelandic laws and regulations and oil analysis. Some examples of fires and explosions are also presented. (tk)

  11. Hot fire, cool soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Moore, D.; Fernandes, P.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Fernandes, R.; Ferreira, A.J.D.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfires greatly increase a landscape's vulnerability to flooding and erosion events by removing vegetation and changing soils. Fire damage to soil increases with increasing soil temperature, and, for fires where smoldering combustion is absent, the current understanding is that soil temperatures

  12. The fire brigade renovates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The new fire engine at CERN's Fire Station. A shiny brand-new fire engine is now attracting all the attention of the members of CERN's fire brigade. Since the beginning of last week this engine has taken over from an 18-year-old one, which has now been 'retired' from service. This modern vehicle, built in Brescia, Italy, is much lighter and more powerful than the old one and is equipped to allow the fire service to tackle most call-outs without the support of at least one other vehicle, as is currently necessary. The new fire engine is designed to transport six fire-fighters, 2000 litres of water, and is equipped not only for fire fighting actions but also to respond initially to any other kind of call-out, such as traffic accidents, chemical incidents, pollution, lightning, etc. It goes almost without saying that it is provided with the most modern safety measures, a low centre of gravity, as well as a special chassis and a combination pump (low and high pressure), which improve the safety and performance ...

  13. Advanced fire information system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Frost, PE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS) is the first near real-time satellite-based fire monitoring system in Africa. It was originally developed for, and funded by, the electrical power utility Eskom, to reduce the impact of wild...

  14. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.; Soetens, F.

    2005-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  15. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.

    2006-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  16. Synthetic cannabinoids revealing adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, Avi; Benninger, Felix; Djaldetti, Ruth

    2016-02-01

    We report a 41-year-old man who presented with a first generalized tonic-clonic seizure after recent consumption of a synthetic cannabinoid. MRI showed extensive bilateral, mainly frontal, white matter lesions. Blood analysis for very long chain fatty acids was compatible with adrenoleukodystrophy, and a missense mutation in the ABCD1 gene confirmed the diagnosis. We hypothesize that cannabinoid use might have contributed to metabolic decompensation with subacute worsening of the underlying condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. CASH vs. SYNTHETIC CDOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Eduard Dinca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, in the recent post-crisis aftermath, global asset managers are constantly searching new ways to optimize their investment portfolios while financial and banking institutions around the world are exploring new alternatives to better secure their financing and refinancing demands altogether with the enhancement of their risk management capabilities. We will exhibit herewith a comparison between the true-sale and synthetic CDO securitizations as financial markets-based funding, investment and risks mitigation techniques, highlighting certain key structuring and implementation specifics on each of them.

  18. FIRE_AX_MALBAL_SONDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) Malcolm Baldridge Radiosonde Data in native format (FIRE_AX_MALBAL_SONDE)

  19. FIRE_AX_VALDIV_SONDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) Malcolm Baldridge Radiosonde Data in Native format (FIRE_AX_VALDIV_SONDE)

  20. Synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Abhigyan; Vemparala, Satyavani; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Tew, Gregory N

    2008-01-01

    Infectious diseases and antibiotic resistance are now considered the most imperative global healthcare problem. In the search for new treatments, host defense, or antimicrobial, peptides have attracted considerable attention due to their various unique properties; however, attempts to develop in vivo therapies have been severely limited. Efforts to develop synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides (SMAMPs) have increased significantly in the last decade, and this review will focus primarily on the structural evolution of SMAMPs and their membrane activity. This review will attempt to make a bridge between the design of SMAMPs and the fundamentals of SMAMP-membrane interactions. In discussions regarding the membrane interaction of SMAMPs, close attention will be paid to the lipid composition of the bilayer. Despite many years of study, the exact conformational aspects responsible for the high selectivity of these AMPs and SMAMPs toward bacterial cells over mammalian cells are still not fully understood. The ability to design SMAMPs that are potently antimicrobial, yet nontoxic to mammalian cells has been demonstrated with a variety of molecular scaffolds. Initial animal studies show very good tissue distribution along with more than a 4-log reduction in bacterial counts. The results on SMAMPs are not only extremely promising for novel antibiotics, but also provide an optimistic picture for the greater challenge of general proteomimetics.

  1. Sodium fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, C.; Kale, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

  2. Seed Pubescence and Shape Modulate Adaptive Responses to Fire Cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Gómez-González

    Full Text Available Post-fire recruitment by seeds is regarded as an adaptive response in fire-prone ecosystems. Nevertheless, little is known about which heritable seed traits are functional to the main signals of fire (heat and smoke, thus having the potential to evolve. Here, we explored whether three seed traits (pubescence, dormancy and shape and fire regime modulate seed response to fire cues(heat and smoke. As a model study system, we used Helenium aromaticum (Asteraceae, a native annual forb from the Chilean matorral, where fires are anthropogenic. We related seed trait values with fitness responses (germination and survival after exposure to heat-shock and smoke experimental treatments on seeds from 10 H. aromaticum wild populations. We performed a phenotypic selection experiment to examine the relationship of seed traits with post-treatment fitness within a population (adaptive hypothesis. We then explored whether fire frequency in natural habitats was associated with trait expression across populations, and with germination and survival responses to experimental fire-cues. We found that populations subjected to higher fire frequency had, in average, more rounded and pubescent seeds than populations from rarely burned areas. Populations with more rounded and pubescent seeds were more resistant to 80°C heat-shock and smoke treatments.There was correlated selection on seed traits: pubescent-rounded or glabrouscent-elongated seeds had the highest probability of germinating after heat-shock treatments. Seed pubescence and shape in H. aromaticum are heritable traits that modulate adaptive responses to fire. Our results provide new insights into the process of plant adaptation to fire and highlight the relevance of human-made fires as a strong evolutionary agent in the Anthropocene.

  3. USFA NFIRS 2000 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2000 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  4. USFA NFIRS 2002 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2002 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  5. USFA NFIRS 2004 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2004 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  6. USFA NFIRS 2009 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2009 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  7. USFA NFIRS 2001 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2001 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  8. Fire science at LLNL: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.K. (ed.)

    1990-03-01

    This fire sciences report from LLNL includes topics on: fire spread in trailer complexes, properties of welding blankets, validation of sprinkler systems, fire and smoke detectors, fire modeling, and other fire engineering and safety issues. (JEF)

  9. USFA NFIRS 2003 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2003 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  10. USFA NFIRS 1999 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 1999 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  11. Synthetic collective intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Ricard; Amor, Daniel R; Duran-Nebreda, Salva; Conde-Pueyo, Núria; Carbonell-Ballestero, Max; Montañez, Raúl

    2016-10-01

    Intelligent systems have emerged in our biosphere in different contexts and achieving different levels of complexity. The requirement of communication in a social context has been in all cases a determinant. The human brain, probably co-evolving with language, is an exceedingly successful example. Similarly, social insects complex collective decisions emerge from information exchanges between many agents. The difference is that such processing is obtained out of a limited individual cognitive power. Computational models and embodied versions using non-living systems, particularly involving robot swarms, have been used to explore the potentiality of collective intelligence. Here we suggest a novel approach to the problem grounded in the genetic engineering of unicellular systems, which can be modified in order to interact, store memories or adapt to external stimuli in collective ways. What we label as Synthetic Swarm Intelligence defines a parallel approach to the evolution of computation and swarm intelligence and allows to explore potential embodied scenarios for decision making at the microscale. Here, we consider several relevant examples of collective intelligence and their synthetic organism counterparts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Compressed Sensing Strategy for Synthetic Transmit Aperture Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; He, Qiong; Luo, Jianwen

    2017-04-01

    A novel beamforming technique, named compressed sensing based synthetic transmit aperture (CS-STA) is proposed to speed up the acquisition of ultrasound imaging. This technique consists of three steps. First, the ultrasound transducer transmits randomly apodized plane waves for a number of times and receives the backscattered echoes. Second, the recorded backscattered echoes are used to recover the full channel dataset of synthetic transmit aperture (STA) with a compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction algorithm. Finally, an STA image is beamformed from the recovered full STA dataset. As CS allows recovering a signal from its few linear measurements with high probability, CS-STA is capable of recovering the STA image with fewer firings (i.e., higher frame rate) and retaining the high resolution of STA. In addition, the contrast of the STA image can be improved at the same time owing to the higher energy of plane wave firing in CS-STA. Simulations demonstrate that CS-STA is capable of recovering the STA channel dataset with a smaller number of firings. The performance of CS-STA is evaluated in phantom experiments through comparisons with STA, multi-element STA, conventional focused mode and coherent plane wave imaging. The results demonstrate that, implemented with the same frame rate, CS-STA achieves higher or comparable resolution and contrast. Moreover, comparisons are conducted on the biceps brachii muscle and thyroid of a human subject, and the results demonstrate the feasibility and competitiveness of CS-STA in the in vivo conditions.

  13. Recurrent corneal ulceration in presence of synthetic microfibrils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barsam A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A Barsam1, N Patel1, H Laganowski2, HD Perry31Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Queen Mary's Hospital, Sidcup, Kent, UK; 3Ophthalmic Consultants of Long Island, Nassau University, Long Island, NY, USAAbstract: Recurrence of microbial keratitis in the presence of protozoal infection is very rare and infrequently reported unless predisposing factors are present. The association of recurrent microbial keratitis and synthetic microfibrils has never previously been reported to our knowledge. This single interventional case study describes the clinical course and treatment of a contact lens wearer who was treated for Acanthamoeba keratitis with superinfection from bacterial organisms in the presence of synthetic microfibrils. The presence of synthetic fibrils on a corneal ulcer base may act as a nidus for pathological organisms and interfere with normal corneal healing. This may result in infection recurrence and the growth of resistant opportunistic organisms.Keywords: Acanthamoeba, microbial keratitis, cornea ulcer, contact lens infection, synthetic microfibrils

  14. Humans, Fires, and Forests - Social science applied to fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna J. Cortner; Donald R. Field; Pam Jakes; James D. Buthman

    2003-01-01

    The 2000 and 2002 fire seasons resulted in increased political scrutiny of the nation's wildland fire threats, and given the fact that millions of acres of lands are still at high risk for future catastrophic fire events, the issues highlighted by the recent fire seasons are not likely to go away any time soon. Recognizing the magnitude of the problem, the...

  15. The contribution of natural fire management to wilderness fire science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Miller

    2014-01-01

    When the federal agencies established policies in the late 1960s and early 1970s to allow the use of natural fires in wilderness, they launched a natural fire management experiment in a handful of wilderness areas. As a result, wildland fire has played more of its natural role in wilderness than anywhere else. Much of what we understand about fire ecology comes from...

  16. Mapping landscape fire frequency for fire regime condition class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale A. Hamilton; Wendel J. Hann

    2015-01-01

    Fire Regime Condition Class (FRCC) is a departure index that compares the current amounts of the different vegetation succession classes, fire frequency, and fire severity to historic reference conditions. FRCC assessments have been widely used for evaluating ecosystem status in many areas of the U.S. in reports such as land use plans, fire management plans, project...

  17. Alaska’s changing fire regime - Implications for the vulnerability of its boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasischke, Eric S.; Verbyla, David L.; Rupp, T. Scott; McGuire, A. David; Murphy, Karen A.; Jandt, R.; Barnes, Jennifer L.; Hoy, E.; Duffy, Paul A.; Calef, Monika; Turetsky, Merritt R.

    2010-01-01

    A synthesis was carried out to examine Alaska’s boreal forest fire regime. During the 2000s, an average of 767 000 ha·year–1 burned, 50% higher than in any previous decade since the 1940s. Over the past 60 years, there was a decrease in the number of lightning-ignited fires, an increase in extreme lightning-ignited fire events, an increase in human-ignited fires, and a decrease in the number of extreme human-ignited fire events. The fraction of area burned from human-ignited fires fell from 26% for the 1950s and 1960s to 5% for the 1990s and 2000s, a result from the change in fire policy that gave the highest suppression priorities to fire events that occurred near human settlements. The amount of area burned during late-season fires increased over the past two decades. Deeper burning of surface organic layers in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) forests occurred during late-growing-season fires and on more well-drained sites. These trends all point to black spruce forests becoming increasingly vulnerable to the combined changes of key characteristics of Alaska’s fire regime, except on poorly drained sites, which are resistant to deep burning. The implications of these fire regime changes to the vulnerability and resilience of Alaska’s boreal forests and land and fire management are discussed.

  18. Electronic firing systems and methods for firing a device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickey, Steven J [Boise, ID; Svoboda, John M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-04-24

    An electronic firing system comprising a control system, a charging system, an electrical energy storage device, a shock tube firing circuit, a shock tube connector, a blasting cap firing circuit, and a blasting cap connector. The control system controls the charging system, which charges the electrical energy storage device. The control system also controls the shock tube firing circuit and the blasting cap firing circuit. When desired, the control system signals the shock tube firing circuit or blasting cap firing circuit to electrically connect the electrical energy storage device to the shock tube connector or the blasting cap connector respectively.

  19. Space Synthetic Biology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David; Roman, Monsi; Mansell, James (Matt)

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an effort to make genetic engineering more useful by standardizing sections of genetic code. By standardizing genetic components, biological engineering will become much more similar to traditional fields of engineering, in which well-defined components and subsystems are readily available in markets. Specifications of the behavior of those components and subsystems can be used to model a system which incorporates them. Then, the behavior of the novel system can be simulated and optimized. Finally, the components and subsystems can be purchased and assembled to create the optimized system, which most often will exhibit behavior similar to that indicated by the model. The Space Synthetic Biology project began in 2012 as a multi-Center effort. The purpose of this project was to harness Synthetic Biology principals to enable NASA's missions. A central target for application was to Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLS). Engineers from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) ECLS Systems Development Branch (ES62) were brought into the project to contribute expertise in operational ECLS systems. Project lead scientists chose to pursue the development of bioelectrochemical technologies to spacecraft life support. Therefore, the ECLS element of the project became essentially an effort to develop a bioelectrochemical ECLS subsystem. Bioelectrochemical systems exploit the ability of many microorganisms to drive their metabolisms by direct or indirect utilization of electrical potential gradients. Whereas many microorganisms are capable of deriving the energy required for the processes of interest (such as carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation) from sunlight, it is believed that subsystems utilizing electrotrophs will exhibit smaller mass, volume, and power requirements than those that derive their energy from sunlight. In the first 2 years of the project, MSFC personnel conducted modeling, simulation, and conceptual design efforts to assist the

  20. Life after the synthetic cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self-replicating ......Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self...

  1. Synthetic biology and occupational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir; Schulte, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy. A greater number and variety of workers will be exposed to commercial synthetic biology risks in the future, including risks to a variety of workers from the use of lentiviral vectors as gene transfer devices. There is a need to review and enhance current protection measures in the field of synthetic biology, whether in experimental laboratories where new advances are being researched, in health care settings where treatments using viral vectors as gene delivery systems are increasingly being used, or in the industrial bioeconomy. Enhanced worker protection measures should include increased injury and illness surveillance of the synthetic biology workforce; proactive risk assessment and management of synthetic biology products; research on the relative effectiveness of extrinsic and intrinsic biocontainment methods; specific safety guidance for synthetic biology industrial processes; determination of appropriate medical mitigation measures for lentiviral vector exposure incidents; and greater awareness and involvement in synthetic biology safety by the general occupational safety and health community as well as by government occupational safety and health research and regulatory agencies.

  2. Finding Hope in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Tuija

    2017-04-01

    For some, synthetic biology represents great hope in offering possible solutions to many of the world's biggest problems, from hunger to sustainable development. Others remain fearful of the harmful uses, such as bioweapons, that synthetic biology can lend itself to, and most hold that issues of biosafety are of utmost importance. In this article, I will evaluate these points of view and conclude that although the biggest promises of synthetic biology are unlikely to become reality, and the probability of accidents is fairly substantial, synthetic biology could still be seen to benefit humanity by enhancing our ethical understanding and by offering a boost to world economy.

  3. Cable tray fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klamerus, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    Funds were authorized by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data needed for confirmation of the suitability of current design standards and regulatory guides for fire protection and control in water reactor power plants. The activities of this program through August 1978 are summarized. A survey of industry to determine current design practices and a screening test to select two cable constructions which were used in small scale and full scale testing are described. Both small and full scale tests to assess the adequacy of fire retardant coatings and full scale tests on fire shields to determine their effectiveness are outlined

  4. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  5. Ames T-3 fire test facility - Aircraft crash fire simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    There is a need to characterize the thermal response of materials exposed to aircraft fuel fires. Large scale open fire tests are costly and pollute the local environment. This paper describes the construction and operation of a subscale fire test that simulates the heat flux levels and thermochemistry of typical open pool fires. It has been termed the Ames T-3 Test and has been used extensively by NASA since 1969 to observe the behavior of materials exposed to JP-4 fuel fires.

  6. Laboratory fire behavior measurements of chaparral crown fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Sanpakit; S. Omodan; D. Weise; M Princevac

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, there was an estimated 9,900 wildland fires that claimed more than 577,000 acres of land. That same year, about 542 prescribed fires were used to treat 48,554 acres by several agencies in California. Being able to understand fires using laboratory models can better prepare individuals to combat or use fires. Our research focused on chaparral crown fires....

  7. Synthetic Aperture Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk

    Medical ultrasound imaging is used for many purposes, e.g. for localizing and classifying cysts, lesions, and other processes. Almost any mass is first observed using B-mode imaging and later classified using e.g. color flow, strain, or attenuation imaging. It is therefore important that the B......, it is demonstrated through theoretical considerations that the compound effect achieved is close to a theoretical maximum for the amount of compounding attainable and using a -pitch convex array transducer, the first in-vivo images are created. The computational demands for an implementation are massive...... and the limiting factor is the amount of memory IO resources available. An equally high demand for memory throughput is found in the computer gaming industry, where a large part of the processing takes place on the graphics processing unit (GPU). Using the GPU, a framework for synthetic aperture imaging...

  8. Transionospheric synthetic aperture imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Gilman, Mikhail; Tsynkov, Semyon

    2017-01-01

    This landmark monograph presents the most recent mathematical developments in the analysis of ionospheric distortions of SAR images and offers innovative new strategies for their mitigation. As a prerequisite to addressing these topics, the book also discusses the radar ambiguity theory as it applies to synthetic aperture imaging and the propagation of radio waves through the ionospheric plasma, including the anisotropic and turbulent cases. In addition, it covers a host of related subjects, such as the mathematical modeling of extended radar targets (as opposed to point-wise targets) and the scattering of radio waves off those targets, as well as the theoretical analysis of the start-stop approximation, which is used routinely in SAR signal processing but often without proper justification. The mathematics in this volume is clean and rigorous – no assumptions are hidden or ambiguously stated. The resulting work is truly interdisciplinary, providing both a comprehensive and thorough exposition of the field,...

  9. East bay fire chiefs' consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Bradley

    1995-01-01

    The traditional approach to planning for public fire protection has been based on independent actions by each fire department or district. The county fire chiefs’ associations, while providing interagency communication, were not adequate to deal with the regional nature of the wildland urban interface problem. The formation of the East Bay Fire Chiefs’ Consortium grew...

  10. Fire safety of wood construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2010-01-01

    Fire safety is an important concern in all types of construction. The high level of national concern for fire safety is reflected in limitations and design requirements in building codes. These code requirements and related fire performance data are discussed in the context of fire safety design and evaluation in the initial section of this chapter. Because basic data...

  11. An 800-year fire history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley G. Kitchen

    2010-01-01

    "Fire in the woods!" The words are a real heart stopper. Yet in spite of its capacity to destroy, fire plays an essential role in shaping plant communities. Knowledge of the patterns of fire over long time periods is critical for understanding this role. Trees often retain evidence of nonlethal fires in the form of injuries or scars in the annual growth rings...

  12. Fire propagation over combustible exterior facades exposed to intensified flame in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishio Yuhei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to fire safety for exterior walls of a building, fire-resistance performance is considered, according to the current Building Standard Law of Japan. And it was revealed that the fire safety is not specifically regulated from the viewpoint of reaction-to-fire performance, such as fire propagation caused by combustible materials or products installed on the exterior side of fire-resistant load-bearing walls. Actual fire incidents in the world have shown that massive façade fire could occur at the exterior side of building wall even when the wall itself is fire resistant. In previous studies of the authors, a test method of façade fire was proposed for evaluating the vertical fire propagation over an external wall within the same building [1,2]. Based on these studies, new domestic standard test method was established in Japan as JIS A 1310: 2015, “Test method for fire propagation over building façades” at the end of January 2015 [3]. But there was the argument that heat output of burner inside the combustion chamber was not sufficiently high in the previous study. In this paper, results of fire tests on combustible façades are discussed from the viewpoints of different strength of flame exposing facade. In this research, it was clearly found that JIS A 1310 with heat output of 900kW could be applicable for evaluating fire propagation behaviour over various types of combustible exterior façades.

  13. Computational modeling of synthetic microbial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudge, Timothy J; Steiner, Paul J; Phillips, Andrew; Haseloff, Jim

    2012-08-17

    Microbial biofilms are complex, self-organized communities of bacteria, which employ physiological cooperation and spatial organization to increase both their metabolic efficiency and their resistance to changes in their local environment. These properties make biofilms an attractive target for engineering, particularly for the production of chemicals such as pharmaceutical ingredients or biofuels, with the potential to significantly improve yields and lower maintenance costs. Biofilms are also a major cause of persistent infection, and a better understanding of their organization could lead to new strategies for their disruption. Despite this potential, the design of synthetic biofilms remains a major challenge, due to the complex interplay between transcriptional regulation, intercellular signaling, and cell biophysics. Computational modeling could help to address this challenge by predicting the behavior of synthetic biofilms prior to their construction; however, multiscale modeling has so far not been achieved for realistic cell numbers. This paper presents a computational method for modeling synthetic microbial biofilms, which combines three-dimensional biophysical models of individual cells with models of genetic regulation and intercellular signaling. The method is implemented as a software tool (CellModeller), which uses parallel Graphics Processing Unit architectures to scale to more than 30,000 cells, typical of a 100 μm diameter colony, in 30 min of computation time.

  14. Synthetic biology: Novel approaches for microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Vaca, Felipe; Anaya-Velázquez, Fernando; Franco, Bernardo

    2015-06-01

    In the past twenty years, molecular genetics has created powerful tools for genetic manipulation of living organisms. Whole genome sequencing has provided necessary information to assess knowledge on gene function and protein networks. In addition, new tools permit to modify organisms to perform desired tasks. Gene function analysis is speed up by novel approaches that couple both high throughput data generation and mining. Synthetic biology is an emerging field that uses tools for generating novel gene networks, whole genome synthesis and engineering. New applications in biotechnological, pharmaceutical and biomedical research are envisioned for synthetic biology. In recent years these new strategies have opened up the possibilities to study gene and genome editing, creation of novel tools for functional studies in virus, parasites and pathogenic bacteria. There is also the possibility to re-design organisms to generate vaccine subunits or produce new pharmaceuticals to combat multi-drug resistant pathogens. In this review we provide our opinion on the applicability of synthetic biology strategies for functional studies of pathogenic organisms and some applications such as genome editing and gene network studies to further comprehend virulence factors and determinants in pathogenic organisms. We also discuss what we consider important ethical issues for this field of molecular biology, especially for potential misuse of the new technologies. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  15. Synthetic biology for pharmaceutical drug discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology (SB) is an emerging discipline, which is slowly reorienting the field of drug discovery. For thousands of years, living organisms such as plants were the major source of human medicines. The difficulty in resynthesizing natural products, however, often turned pharmaceutical industries away from this rich source for human medicine. More recently, progress on transformation through genetic manipulation of biosynthetic units in microorganisms has opened the possibility of in-depth exploration of the large chemical space of natural products derivatives. Success of SB in drug synthesis culminated with the bioproduction of artemisinin by microorganisms, a tour de force in protein and metabolic engineering. Today, synthetic cells are not only used as biofactories but also used as cell-based screening platforms for both target-based and phenotypic-based approaches. Engineered genetic circuits in synthetic cells are also used to decipher disease mechanisms or drug mechanism of actions and to study cell–cell communication within bacteria consortia. This review presents latest developments of SB in the field of drug discovery, including some challenging issues such as drug resistance and drug toxicity. PMID:26673570

  16. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Kuznetsova, R.I.

    1989-01-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires

  17. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longwell, R.; Keifer, J.; Goodin, S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  18. Development of Fire Resistant/Heat Resistant Sewing Thread

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    properties. Modified acrylic fiber shed during processing and bi-component construction could not be dyed successfully to a solid , level Tan 499...9      2.1.3 NeC 16/2  Lubrication  and Final Winding...10      2.2.4 NeC 16/2  Lubrication  and Final Winding

  19. Hydrogen Fire Spectroscopy Issues

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The detection of hydrogen fires is important to the aerospace community. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has devoted significant effort to...

  20. RETRO_FIRES_WCS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — Within the RETRO project, global gridded data sets for anthropogenic and vegetation fire emissions of several trace gases were generated, covering the period from...

  1. RETRO Fires Aggr

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — Within the RETRO project, global gridded data sets for anthropogenic and vegetation fire emissions of several trace gases were generated, covering the period from...

  2. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  3. Fire Mapper, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The design of a UAV mounted Fire Mapper system is proposed. The system consists of a multi-band imaging sensor, a data processing system and a data communication...

  4. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  5. Burns and Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control Website. Unintentional fire/burn fatalities and nonfatal injuries, children ages 19 and under. Available from: http: / / www. ... Prevention and Control. Protect the ones you love: child injuries are preventable. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ...

  6. National Fire Protection Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Harvey became 'a landmark in the evolution of drone usage.' Learn more in NFPA Journal Storm stats ... YouTube GooglePlus Blogger Pinterest RSSFeeds Instagram Terms of Use Privacy Policy © National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 2017

  7. Forest Fire Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Carol; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

  8. Fire Perimeters (2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Group, or GeoMAC, is an internet-based mapping tool originally designed for fire managers to access online maps of current...

  9. Fire History Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past fire occurrence from tree rings, charcoal found in lake sediments, and other proxies. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set....

  10. Findings From Fire Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — The purpose of this study data is to provide a metric with which to assess the effectiveness of improvements to the U.S. NRC's fire protection regulations in support...

  11. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  12. Angora Fire, Lake Tahoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    On the weekend of June 23, 2007, a wildfire broke out south of Lake Tahoe, which stretches across the California-Nevada border. By June 28, the Angora Fire had burned more than 200 homes and forced some 2,000 residents to evacuate, according to The Seattle Times and the Central Valley Business Times. On June 27, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the burn scar left by the Angora fire. The burn scar is dark gray, or charcoal. Water bodies, including the southern tip of Lake Tahoe and Fallen Leaf Lake, are pale silvery blue, the silver color a result of sunlight reflecting off the surface of the water. Vegetation ranges in color from dark to bright green. Streets are light gray, and the customary pattern of meandering residential streets and cul-de-sacs appears throughout the image, including the area that burned. The burn scar shows where the fire obliterated some of the residential areas just east of Fallen Leaf Lake. According to news reports, the U.S. Forest Service had expressed optimism about containing the fire within a week of the outbreak, but a few days after the fire started, it jumped a defense, forcing the evacuation of hundreds more residents. Strong winds that had been forecast for June 27, however, did not materialize, allowing firefighters to regain ground in controlling the blaze. On June 27, authorities hoped that the fire would be completely contained by July 3. According to estimates provided in the daily report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the fire had burned 3,100 acres (about 12.5 square kilometers) and was about 55 percent contained as of June 28. Some mandatory evacuations remained in effect. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  13. Fire characteristics charts for fire behavior and U.S. fire danger rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith Ann Heinsch; Pat Andrews

    2010-01-01

    The fire characteristics chart is a graphical method of presenting U.S. National Fire Danger Rating indices or primary surface or crown fire behavior characteristics. A desktop computer application has been developed to produce fire characteristics charts in a format suitable for inclusion in reports and presentations. Many options include change of scales, colors,...

  14. High severity fires, positive fire feedbacks and alternative stable states in Athrotaxis rainforest ecosystems in western Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, A.; Wood, S.; Fletcher, M. S.; Ward, C.; Hopf, F.; Veblen, T. T.; Bowman, D. M. J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Recurrent landscape fires present a powerful selective force on plant regeneration strategies that form a continuum between vegetative resprouters and obligate seeders. In the latter case, reduction of the interval between fires, combined with factors that affect plant traits and regeneration dynamics can drive plant population to local extinction. Here we use Athrotaxis selaginoides, a relict fire-sensitive Gondwanan tree species that occurs in western Tasmania, as model system to investigate the putative impacts of climate change and variability and human management of fire. We integrate landscape ecology (island-wide scale), with field survey and dendrochronology (stand-scale) and sedimentary records (watershed and landscape-scales) to garner a better understanding of the timing and impact of landscape fire on the vegetation dynamics of Athrotaxis at multiple scales. Across the species range sedimentary charcoal and pollen concentrations indicate that the recovery time since the last fire has consistently lengthened over the last 10,000 yrs. Stand-scale tree-age and fire-scar reconstructions suggest that populations of the Athrotxis have survive very infrequent landscape fires over the last 4-6 centuries, but that fire severity has increased following European colonization causing population collapse of Athrotaxis and an associate shift in stand structure and composition that favor resprouter species over obligate seeders. Overall our findings suggest that the resistance to fires and postfire recovery of populations of A. selaginoides have gradually declined throughout the Holocene and rapidly declined after Europeans altered fire regimes, a trend that matches the fate other Gondwanan conifers in temperate rainforests elsewhere in the southern Hemisphere.

  15. Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2012-11-16

    Metabolic engineering emerged 20 years ago as the discipline occupied with the directed modification of metabolic pathways for the microbial synthesis of various products. As such, it deals with the engineering (design, construction, and optimization) of native as well as non-natural routes of product synthesis, aided in this task by the availability of synthetic DNA, the core enabling technology of synthetic biology. The two fields, however, only partially overlap in their interest in pathway engineering. While fabrication of biobricks, synthetic cells, genetic circuits, and nonlinear cell dynamics, along with pathway engineering, have occupied researchers in the field of synthetic biology, the sum total of these areas does not constitute a coherent definition of synthetic biology with a distinct intellectual foundation and well-defined areas of application. This paper reviews the origins of the two fields and advances two distinct paradigms for each of them: that of unit operations for metabolic engineering and electronic circuits for synthetic biology. In this context, metabolic engineering is about engineering cell factories for the biological manufacturing of chemical and pharmaceutical products, whereas the main focus of synthetic biology is fundamental biological research facilitated by the use of synthetic DNA and genetic circuits.

  16. Synthetic cannabinoids: new matrix addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antsyborov A.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available the majority of synthetic cannabinoids (SC, belongs to the group of so-called designer drugs distributed through illegal online shopping. The first reports of this group of psychoactive substances appeared in the 70s of the last century. Today, according to various estimates, there are over 160 varieties of synthetic cannabinoids, and this figure is increasing annually due to the synthesis of new substances in the group. This group of substances is designed to «copy» the psychoactive effects of cannabis. Initially, these substances were created solely for research purposes, to study the endocannabinoid system of the person. Natural THC is a partial agonist of cannabinoid receptors. Synthetic cannabinoids are full agonists CB1R and CB2R types of cannabinoid receptors. Most countries in the world, including Russia, at the legislative level have taken restrictive measures for preventing the spread of this group of substances. In order to circumvent the legislative measures, the producers of synthetic cannabinoids regularly changing the chemical formula. Each year, an increasing number of emergency hospital admissions associated with the use of synthetic cannabinoids in the peer-reviewed literature describes the deaths directly attributable to medical complications after taking synthetic cannabinoids. Numerous studies have proven the possibility of developing psychological dependence due to the use of synthetic cannabinoids. The proposed review of the literature is presented for the purpose of organizing data in the field of synthetic cannabinoids.

  17. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.D. Zegers (Netty)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractSynthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps

  18. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps that lead to the

  19. Imaging with Synthetic Aperture Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Massonnet, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Describing a field that has been transformed by the recent availability of data from a new generation of space and airborne systems, the authors offer a synthetic geometrical approach to the description of synthetic aperture radar, one that addresses physicists, radar specialists, as well as experts in image processing.  

  20. Synthetic biology of polyketide synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuzawa, Satoshi; Backman, Tyler W.H.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2018-01-01

    ). The modules are composed of enzymatic domains that share sequence and functional similarity across all known PKSs. We have used the nomenclature of synthetic biology to classify the enzymatic domains and modules as parts and devices, respectively, and have generated detailed lists of both. In addition, we...... realize the potential that synthetic biology approaches bring to this class of molecules....

  1. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristov Denis Ivanovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The All-Russian Congress “Fire Stop Moscow” was de-voted to the analysis of the four segments of the industry of fire protection systems and technologies: the design of fire protec-tion systems, the latest developments and technologies of active and passive fire protection of buildings, the state and the devel-opment of the legal framework, the practice of fire protection of buildings and structures. The forum brought together the repre-sentatives of the industry of fire protection systems, scientists, leading experts, specialists in fire protection and representatives of construction companies from different regions of Russia. In parallel with the Congress Industrial Exhibition of fire protection systems, materials and technology was held, where manufacturers presented their products. The urgency of the “Fire Stop Moscow” Congress in 2015 organized by the Congress Bureau ODF Events lies primarily in the fact that it considered the full range of issues related to the fire protection of building and construction projects; studied the state of the regulatory framework for fire safety and efficiency of public services, research centers, private companies and busi-nesses in the area of fire safety. The main practical significance of the event which was widely covered in the media space, was the opportunity to share the views and information between management, science, and practice of business on implementing fire protection systems in the conditions of modern economic relations and market realities. : congress, fire protection, systems, technologies, fire protection systems, exhibition

  2. Effects of natural and synthetic auxins on the gravitropic growth habit of roots in two auxin-resistant mutants of Arabidopsis, axr1 and axr4: evidence for defects in the auxin influx mechanism of axr4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M.; Yamamoto, K. T.

    1999-01-01

    The partially agravitropic growth habit of roots of an auxin-resistant mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, axr4, was restored by the addition of 30-300 nM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) to the growth medium. Neither indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) nor 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) showed such an effect. Growth of axr4 roots was resistant to IAA and 2,4-D, but not at all to NAA. The differential effects of the three auxins suggest that the defects of axr4 result from a lower auxin influx into its cells. The partially agravitropic growth habit of axr1 roots, which was less severe than that of axr4 roots, was only slightly affected by the three auxins in the growth medium at concentrations up to 300 nM; growth of axr1 roots was resistant to all three of the auxins. These results suggest that the lesion of axrl mutants is different from that of axr4.

  3. Fire protection and fire fighting in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Fires are a threat to all technical installations. While fire protection has long been a well established conventional discipline, its application to nuclear facilities requires special considerations. Nevertheless, for a long time fire engineering has been somewhat neglected in the design and operation of nuclear installations. In the nuclear industry, the Browns Ferry fire in 1975 brought about an essential change in the attention paid to fire problems. Designers and plant operators, as well as insurance companies and regulators, increased their efforts to develop concepts and methods for reducing fire risks, not only to protect the capital investment in nuclear plants but also to consider the potential secondary effects which could lead to nuclear accidents. Although the number of fires in nuclear installations is still relatively large, their overall importance to the safety of nuclear power plants was not considered to be very high. Only more recently have probabilistic analyses changed this picture. The results may well have to be taken into account more carefully. Various aspects of fire fighting and fire protection were discussed during the Symposium, the first of its kind to be organized by the IAEA. It was convened in co-operation with several organizations working in the nuclear or fire protection fields. The intention was to gather experts from nuclear engineering areas and the conventional fire protection field at one meeting with a view to enhancing the exchange of information and experience and to presenting current knowledge on the various disciplines involved. The presentations at the meeting were subdivided into eight sessions: standards and licensing (6 papers); national fire safety practices (7 papers); fire safety by design (11 papers); fire fighting (2 papers); computer fire modeling (7 papers); fire safety in fuel center facilities (7 papers); fire testing of materials (3 papers); fire risk assessment (5 papers). A separate abstract was

  4. Fire propagation equation for the explicit identification of fire scenarios in a fire PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ho Gon; Han, Sang Hoon; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    When performing fire PSA in a nuclear power plant, an event mapping method, using an internal event PSA model, is widely used to reduce the resources used by fire PSA model development. Feasible initiating events and component failure events due to fire are identified to transform the fault tree (FT) for an internal event PSA into one for a fire PSA using the event mapping method. A surrogate event or damage term method is used to condition the FT of the internal PSA. The surrogate event or the damage term plays the role of flagging whether the system/component in a fire compartment is damaged or not, depending on the fire being initiated from a specified compartment. These methods usually require explicit states of all compartments to be modeled in a fire area. Fire event scenarios, when using explicit identification, such as surrogate or damage terms, have two problems: there is no consideration of multiple fire propagation beyond a single propagation to an adjacent compartment, and there is no consideration of simultaneous fire propagations in which an initiating fire event is propagated to multiple paths simultaneously. The present paper suggests a fire propagation equation to identify all possible fire event scenarios for an explicitly treated fire event scenario in the fire PSA. Also, a method for separating fire events was developed to make all fire events a set of mutually exclusive events, which can facilitate arithmetic summation in fire risk quantification. A simple example is given to confirm the applicability of the present method for a 2x3 rectangular fire area. Also, a feasible asymptotic approach is discussed to reduce the computational burden for fire risk quantification

  5. Computing with synthetic protocells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbet, Alexis; Molina, Franck; Amar, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    In this article we present a new kind of computing device that uses biochemical reactions networks as building blocks to implement logic gates. The architecture of a computing machine relies on these generic and composable building blocks, computation units, that can be used in multiple instances to perform complex boolean functions. Standard logical operations are implemented by biochemical networks, encapsulated and insulated within synthetic vesicles called protocells. These protocells are capable of exchanging energy and information with each other through transmembrane electron transfer. In the paradigm of computation we propose, protoputing, a machine can solve only one problem and therefore has to be built specifically. Thus, the programming phase in the standard computing paradigm is represented in our approach by the set of assembly instructions (specific attachments) that directs the wiring of the protocells that constitute the machine itself. To demonstrate the computing power of protocellular machines, we apply it to solve a NP-complete problem, known to be very demanding in computing power, the 3-SAT problem. We show how to program the assembly of a machine that can verify the satisfiability of a given boolean formula. Then we show how to use the massive parallelism of these machines to verify in less than 20 min all the valuations of the input variables and output a fluorescent signal when the formula is satisfiable or no signal at all otherwise.

  6. Synthetic biology: lessons from the history of synthetic organic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Brian J; Lim, Wendell A

    2007-09-01

    The mid-nineteenth century saw the development of a radical new direction in chemistry: instead of simply analyzing existing molecules, chemists began to synthesize them--including molecules that did not exist in nature. The combination of this new synthetic approach with more traditional analytical approaches revolutionized chemistry, leading to a deep understanding of the fundamental principles of chemical structure and reactivity and to the emergence of the modern pharmaceutical and chemical industries. The history of synthetic chemistry offers a possible roadmap for the development and impact of synthetic biology, a nascent field in which the goal is to build novel biological systems.

  7. Cinema Fire Modelling by FDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasa, J; Valasek, L; Weisenpacher, P; Halada, L

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in computer fluid dynamics (CFD) and rapid increase of computational power of current computers have led to the development of CFD models capable to describe fire in complex geometries incorporating a wide variety of physical phenomena related to fire. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) for cinema fire modelling. FDS is an advanced CFD system intended for simulation of the fire and smoke spread and prediction of thermal flows, toxic substances concentrations and other relevant parameters of fire. The course of fire in a cinema hall is described focusing on related safety risks. Fire properties of flammable materials used in the simulation were determined by laboratory measurements and validated by fire tests and computer simulations

  8. Fire blight in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dali L. Gaganidze

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire blight is distinguished among the fruit tree diseases by harmfulness. Fire blight damages about 180 cultural and wild plants belonging to the Rosaceae family. Quince, apple and pear are the most susceptible to the disease. At present, the disease occurs in over 40 countries of Europe and Asia. Economic damage caused by fire blight is expressed not only in crop losses, but also, it poses threat of eradication to entire fruit tree gardens. Erwinia amylovora, causative bacteria of fire blight in fruit trees, is included in the A2 list of quarantine organisms. In 2016, the employees of the Plant Pest Diagnostic Department of the Laboratory of the Georgian Ministry of Agriculture have detected Erwinia amylovora in apple seedlings from Mtskheta district. National Food Agency, Ministry of Agriculture of Georgia informed FAO on pathogen detection. The aim of the study is detection of the bacterium Erwinia amylovora by molecular method (PCR in the samples of fruit trees, suspicious on fire blight collected in the regions of Eastern (Kvemo Kartli, Shida Kartli and Kakheti and Western Georgia (Imereti.The bacterium Erwinia amylovora was detected by real time and conventional PCR methods using specific primers and thus the fire blight disease confirmed in 23 samples of plant material from Shida Kartli (11 apples, 6 pear and 6 quince samples, in 5 samples from Kvemo Kartli (1 quince and 4 apple samples, in 2 samples of apples from Kakheti region and 1 sample of pear collected in Imereti (Zestafoni. Keywords: Fire blight, Erwinia amylovora, Conventional PCR, Real time PCR, DNA, Bacterium

  9. Postglacial fire history and interactions with vegetation and climate in southwestern Yunnan Province of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiayun; Haberle, Simon G.; Shen, Ji; Xue, Bin; Burrows, Mark; Wang, Sumin

    2017-06-01

    A high-resolution, continuous 18.5 kyr (1 kyr = 1000 cal yr BP) macroscopic charcoal record from Qinghai Lake in southwestern Yunnan Province, China, reveals postglacial fire frequency and variability history. The results show that three periods with high-frequency and high-severity fires occurred during the periods 18.5-15.0, 13.0-11.5, and 4.3-0.8 ka, respectively. This record was compared with major pollen taxa and pollen diversity indices from the same core, and tentatively related to the regional climate proxy records with the aim to separate climate- from human-induced fire activity, and discuss vegetation-fire-climate interactions. The results suggest that fire was mainly controlled by climate before 4.3 ka and by the combined actions of climate and humans after 4.3 ka. Before 4.3 ka, high fire activity corresponded to cold and dry climatic conditions, while warm and humid climatic conditions brought infrequent and weak fires. Fire was an important disturbance factor and played an important role in forest dynamics around the study area. Vegetation responses to fire after 4.3 ka are not consistent with those before 4.3 ka, suggesting that human influence on vegetation and fire regimes may have become more prevalent after 4.3 ka. The comparisons between fire activity and vegetation reveal that evergreen oaks are flammable plants and fire-tolerant taxa. Alnus is a fire-adapted taxon and a nonflammable plant, but density of Alnus forest is a key factor to decide its fire resistance. The forests dominated by Lithocarpus/Castanopsis and/or tropical trees and shrubs are not easy to ignite, but Lithocarpus/Castanopsis and tropical trees and shrubs are fire-sensitive taxa. Fire appears to be unfavourable to plant diversity in the study area.

  10. Contribution of peat fires to the 2015 Indonesian fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Johannes W.; Heil, Angelika; Wooster, Martin J.; van der Werf, Guido R.

    2016-04-01

    Indonesia experienced widespread fires and severe air quality degradation due to smoke during September and October 2015. The fires are thought to have originated from the combination of El-Niño-induced drought and human activities. Fires ignited for land clearing escaped into drained peatlands and burned until the onset of the monsoonal rain. In addition to the health impact, these fires are thought to have emitted large amounts of greenhouse gases, e.g. more than Japan over the entire year. The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) has detected and quantified the fires with the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) and the smoke dispersion with the Chemistry-Integrated Forecasting System (C-IFS) in near real time. GFAS and C-IFS are constrained by satellite-based observations of fire and smoke constituents, respectively. The distinction between peat and above-ground fires is a crucial and difficult step in fire emission estimation as it introduces errors of up to one order of magnitude. Here, we quantify the contribution of peat fires to the total emission flux of the 2015 Indonesian fires by (1) using an improved peat map in GFAS and (2) analysing the observed diurnal cycle of the fire activity as represented in a new development for GFAS. Furthermore, we link the fires occurrence to economic activity by analysing the coincidence with concessions for palm oil plantations and other industrial forest uses.

  11. Spicing things up: synthetic cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaderna, Max; Addy, Peter H; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2013-08-01

    Recently, products containing synthetic cannabinoids, collectively referred to as Spice, are increasingly being used recreationally. The availability, acute subjective effects-including self-reports posted on Erowid-laboratory detection, addictive potential, and regulatory challenges of the Spice phenomenon are reviewed. Spice is sold under the guise of potpourri or incense. Unlike delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the synthetic cannabinoids present in Spice are high-potency, high-efficacy, cannabinoid receptor full agonists. Since standard urine toxicology does not test for the synthetic cannabinoids in Spice, it is often used by those who want to avoid detection of drug use. These compounds have not yet been subjected to rigorous testing in humans. Acute psychoactive effects include changes in mood, anxiety, perception, thinking, memory, and attention. Adverse effects include anxiety, agitation, panic, dysphoria, psychosis, and bizarre behavior. Psychosis outcomes associated with Spice provide additional data linking cannabinoids and psychosis. Adverse events necessitating intervention by Poison Control Centers, law enforcement, emergency responders, and hospitals are increasing. Despite statutes prohibiting the manufacture, distribution, and sale of Spice products, manufacturers are replacing banned compounds with newer synthetic cannabinoids that are not banned. There is an urgent need for better research on the effects of synthetic cannabinoids to help clinicians manage adverse events and to better understand cannabinoid pharmacology in humans. The reported psychosis outcomes associated with synthetic cannabinoids contribute to the ongoing debate on the association between cannabinoids and psychosis. Finally, drug detection tests for synthetic cannabinoids need to become clinically available.

  12. Synthetic Biology and Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology, application of synthetic chemistry to biology, is a broad term that covers the engineering of biological systems with structures and functions not found in nature to process information, manipulate chemicals, produce energy, maintain cell environment and enhance human health. Synthetic biology devices contribute not only to improve our understanding of disease mechanisms, but also provide novel diagnostic tools. Methods based on synthetic biology enable the design of novel strategies for the treatment of cancer, immune diseases metabolic disorders and infectious diseases as well as the production of cheap drugs. The potential of synthetic genome, using an expanded genetic code that is designed for specific drug synthesis as well as delivery and activation of the drug in vivo by a pathological signal, was already pointed out during a lecture delivered at Kuwait University in 2005. Of two approaches to synthetic biology, top-down and bottom-up, the latter is more relevant to the development of personalized medicines as it provides more flexibility in constructing a partially synthetic cell from basic building blocks for a desired task. PMID:22907209

  13. How will climate change affect wildland fire severity in the western US?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Sean A.; Miller, Carol; Abatzoglou, John T.; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Parisien, Marc-André; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.

    2016-03-01

    Fire regime characteristics in North America are expected to change over the next several decades as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Although some fire regime characteristics (e.g., area burned and fire season length) are relatively well-studied in the context of a changing climate, fire severity has received less attention. In this study, we used observed data from 1984 to 2012 for the western United States (US) to build a statistical model of fire severity as a function of climate. We then applied this model to several (n = 20) climate change projections representing mid-century (2040-2069) conditions under the RCP 8.5 scenario. Model predictions suggest widespread reduction in fire severity for large portions of the western US. However, our model implicitly incorporates climate-induced changes in vegetation type, fuel load, and fire frequency. As such, our predictions are best interpreted as a potential reduction in fire severity, a potential that may not be realized due human-induced disequilibrium between plant communities and climate. Consequently, to realize the reductions in fire severity predicted in this study, land managers in the western US could facilitate the transition of plant communities towards a state of equilibrium with the emerging climate through means such as active restoration treatments (e.g., mechanical thinning and prescribed fire) and passive restoration strategies like managed natural fire (under suitable weather conditions). Resisting changes in vegetation composition and fuel load via activities such as aggressive fire suppression will amplify disequilibrium conditions and will likely result in increased fire severity in future decades because fuel loads will increase as the climate warms and fire danger becomes more extreme. The results of our study provide insights to the pros and cons of resisting or facilitating change in vegetation composition and fuel load in the context of a changing climate.

  14. Bistatic synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Gillian

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) allows all-weather, day and night, surface surveillance and has the ability to detect, classify and geolocate objects at long stand-off ranges. Bistatic SAR, where the transmitter and the receiver are on separate platforms, is seen as a potential means of countering the vulnerability of conventional monostatic SAR to electronic countermeasures, particularly directional jamming, and avoiding physical attack of the imaging platform. As the receiving platform can be totally passive, it does not advertise its position by RF emissions. The transmitter is not susceptible to jamming and can, for example, operate at long stand-off ranges to reduce its vulnerability to physical attack. This thesis examines some of the complications involved in producing high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery. The effect of bistatic operation on resolution is examined from a theoretical viewpoint and analytical expressions for resolution are developed. These expressions are verified by simulation work using a simple 'point by point' processor. This work is extended to look at using modern practical processing engines for bistatic geometries. Adaptations of the polar format algorithm and range migration algorithm are considered. The principal achievement of this work is a fully airborne demonstration of bistatic SAR. The route taken in reaching this is given, along with some results. The bistatic SAR imagery is analysed and compared to the monostatic imagery collected at the same time. Demonstrating high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery using two airborne platforms represents what I believe to be a European first and is likely to be the first time that this has been achieved outside the US (the UK has very little insight into US work on this topic). Bistatic target characteristics are examined through the use of simulations. This also compares bistatic imagery with monostatic and gives further insight into the utility of bistatic SAR.

  15. The Ethics of Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    The dissertation analyses and discusses a number of ethical issues that have been raised in connection with the development of synthetic biology. Synthetic biology is a set of new techniques for DNA-level design and construction of living beings with useful properties. The dissertation especially......) popular responsesto them succeed, and whether the objections are ultimately persuasive.2. Given that synthetic biology is a new technology, there is a certain degree of uncertainty about its ultimate effects, and many perceive the technology as risky. I discuss two common approaches in risk regulation...

  16. Fire design of aluminium structures according to Eurocode 9; Part 1-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.

    2007-01-01

    There is a tendency to use aluminium as structural material in heavily loaded structures. In a number of these structures, the resistance to fire should be considered in the structural design. Because of the low melting temperature of aluminium, aluminium structures are sensitive to fire and extra

  17. Development of lightweight fire retardant, low-smoke, high-strength, thermally stable aircraft floor paneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, D. B.; Burnside, J. V.; Hajari, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    Fire resistance mechanical property tests were conducted on sandwich configurations composed of resin-fiberglass laminates bonded with adhesives to Nomex honeycomb core. The test results were compared to proposed and current requirements for aircraft floor panel applications to demonstrate that the fire safety of the airplane could be improved without sacrificing mechanical performance of the aircraft floor panels.

  18. Aerosol generation from Kerosene fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, S.; Lindner, W.

    1981-01-01

    The course of solvent surface fires is dependent on the surface area on fire; depth of pool and solvent composition do not influence the fire rate. But the fire rate increases rapidly with the burning area. The residual oxygen concentration after a fire in a closed container is dependent on the violence of the fire, i.e. on the burning surface. Moreover the ending of the fire is influenced by the TBP-concentration of the solvent. With sufficient supply of solvent the TBP-concentration changes only slightly during the fire, so that a fire at 14% O 2 -concentration is extinguished within the container. With the TBP-concentration changing considerably, i.e. little mass, a fire with a similar burning surface is already extinguished at an O 2 -content of 18%. The aerosol generation depends on the fire rate, and so it is higher in free atmosphere than in closed containers. The soot production in the mixture fire (kerosene /TBP 70/30) is higher by a factor 7 than in the pure kerosene fire. Primary soot-particles have a diameter of approximately 0,05 μm and agglomerate rapidly into aggregates of 0,2-0,4 μm. (orig.) [de

  19. FARSITE: a fire area simulator for fire managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Finney

    1995-01-01

    A fire growth model (FARSITE) has been developed for use on personal computers (PC’s). Because PC’s are commonly used by land and fire managers, this portable platform would be an accustomed means to bring fire growth modeling technology to management applications. The FARSITE model is intended for use in projecting the growth of prescribed natural fires for wilderness...

  20. Nuclear insurance fire risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressler, E.G.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear facilities operate under the constant risk that radioactive materials could be accidentally released off-site and cause injuries to people or damages to the property of others. Management of this nuclear risk, therefore, is very important to nuclear operators, financial stakeholders and the general public. Operators of these facilities normally retain a portion of this risk and transfer the remainder to others through an insurance mechanism. Since the nuclear loss exposure could be very high, insurers usually assess their risk first-hand by sending insurance engineers to conduct a nuclear insurance inspection. Because a serious fire can greatly increase the probability of an off-site release of radiation, fire safety should be included in the nuclear insurance inspection. This paper reviews essential elements of a facility's fire safety program as a key factor in underwriting nuclear third-party liability insurance. (author)

  1. Evidence for nonuniform permafrost degradation after fire in boreal landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsley, Burke J.; Pastick, Neal J.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Brown, Dana R.N.; Kass, M. Andy

    2016-01-01

    Fire can be a significant driver of permafrost change in boreal landscapes, altering the availability of soil carbon and nutrients that have important implications for future climate and ecological succession. However, not all landscapes are equally susceptible to fire-induced change. As fire frequency is expected to increase in the high latitudes, methods to understand the vulnerability and resilience of different landscapes to permafrost degradation are needed. We present a combination of multiscale remote sensing, geophysical, and field observations that reveal details of both near-surface (1 m) impacts of fire on permafrost. Along 11 transects that span burned-unburned boundaries in different landscape settings within interior Alaska, subsurface electrical resistivity and nuclear magnetic resonance data indicate locations where permafrost appears to be resilient to disturbance from fire, areas where warm permafrost conditions exist that may be most vulnerable to future change, and also areas where permafrost has thawed. High-resolution geophysical data corroborate remote sensing interpretations of near-surface permafrost and also add new high-fidelity details of spatial heterogeneity that extend from the shallow subsurface to depths of about 10 m. Results show that postfire impacts on permafrost can be variable and depend on multiple factors such as fire severity, soil texture, soil moisture, and time since fire.

  2. USFA NFIRS 2013 Fire Incident & Cause Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2013 Fire Causes & Incident data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration’s (USFA) National Fire Data Center’s (NFDC’s) National Fire Incident Reporting...

  3. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB....... The first part of the scientific contribution investigates an implementation of pulse inversion for THI on the experimental ultrasound system SARUS. The technique is initially implemented for linear array transducers and then expanded for convex array transducers. The technique is evaluated based on spatial...

  4. Adaptive Synthetic Forces: Situation Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Randall

    2001-01-01

    ...: perception, comprehension, and prediction. Building on these ideas, we developed techniques for improving the situation awareness in synthetic helicopter pilots for the ModSAF military simulation by giving them more human-like perception...

  5. Designing synthetic networks in silico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Robert W.; Sluijs, van Bob; Fleck, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Background: Evolution has led to the development of biological networks that are shaped by environmental signals. Elucidating, understanding and then reconstructing important network motifs is one of the principal aims of Systems & Synthetic Biology. Consequently, previous research has focused

  6. Synthetic Biology for Specialty Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Kelly A; Alper, Hal S

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we address recent advances in the field of synthetic biology and describe how those tools have been applied to produce a wide variety of chemicals in microorganisms. Here we classify the expansion of the synthetic biology toolbox into three different categories based on their primary function in strain engineering-for design, for construction, and for optimization. Next, focusing on recent years, we look at how chemicals have been produced using these new synthetic biology tools. Advances in producing fuels are briefly described, followed by a more thorough treatment of commodity chemicals, specialty chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. Throughout this review, an emphasis is placed on how synthetic biology tools are applied to strain engineering. Finally, we discuss organism and host strain diversity and provide a future outlook in the field.

  7. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  8. Programming languages for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, P; Naveen, F; Rao, Chanchala Uma Maheswara; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2010-12-01

    In the backdrop of accelerated efforts for creating synthetic organisms, the nature and scope of an ideal programming language for scripting synthetic organism in-silico has been receiving increasing attention. A few programming languages for synthetic biology capable of defining, constructing, networking, editing and delivering genome scale models of cellular processes have been recently attempted. All these represent important points in a spectrum of possibilities. This paper introduces Kera, a state of the art programming language for synthetic biology which is arguably ahead of similar languages or tools such as GEC, Antimony and GenoCAD. Kera is a full-fledged object oriented programming language which is tempered by biopart rule library named Samhita which captures the knowledge regarding the interaction of genome components and catalytic molecules. Prominent feature of the language are demonstrated through a toy example and the road map for the future development of Kera is also presented.

  9. Hollow tree fire is a useless forest fire category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chromek Ivan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, the term “hollow tree fire“ was first used in a publication in 1956 without being well defined and was then uncritically used in other publications. The term refers to fires occurring in the rotted, inner trunks of trees. The main aim of the current study was to determine whether the term should be considered a useful category for the statistical analysis of forest fires. The nature and causes of fires from 2006–2015 were assessed by performing a detailed analysis of the Fire Rescue Service of the Czech Republic (FRS CR database. The database included a total of 7,256 fires in the natural environment, but only 18 of these were hollow tree fires. Most hollow tree fires were initiated by human carelessness, and only three were initiated by lightning. Based on our critical consideration of fire attributes, hollow tree fires should not be considered a category of forest fire. The presence of rotten trees is, however, a serious problem because such trees represent long-lasting sources of fire in forest stands and because they complicate firefighting. The numbers of rotten trees in forests is increasing, and firefighters should be made aware of the complications of extinguishing fires involving rotten trees in forests.

  10. Quantitative comparison of fire danger index performance using fire activity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steenkamp, KC

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available and in logistic planning of fire fighting resources. In this study historical fire activity from remotely sensed data are compared with various FDIs to identify which index has the strongest statistical relationship with fire occurrences and therefore the highest...

  11. Returning fire to the land: celebrating traditional knowledge and fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank K. Lake; Vita Wright; Penelope Morgan; Mary McFadzen; Dave McWethy; Camille Stevens-Rumann

    2017-01-01

    North American tribes have traditional knowledge about fire effects on ecosystems, habitats, and resources. For millennia, tribes have used fire to promote valued resources. Sharing our collective understanding of fire, derived from traditional and western knowledge systems, can benefit landscapes and people. We organized two workshops to investigate how traditional...

  12. Numerical simulation on behaviour of timber-concrete composite beams in fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hao; Hu, Xiamin; Zhang, Bing; Minli, Yao

    2017-08-01

    This paper established sequentially coupled thermal-mechanical models of timber--concrete composite (TCC) beams by finite element software ANSYS to investigate the fire resistance of TCC beam. Existing experimental results were used to verify the coupled thermal-mechanical model. The influencing parameters consisted of the width of timber beam, the thickness of the concrete slab and the timber board. Based on the numerical results, the effects of these parameters on fire resistance of TCC beams were investigated in detail. The results showed that modeling results agreed well with test results, and verified the reliability of the finite element model. The width of the timber beam had a significant influence on the fire resistance of TCC beams. The fire resistance of TCC beams would be enhanced by increasing the width of timber beam, the thickness of concrete slab and the timber board.

  13. Wilderness fire management planning guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Fischer

    1984-01-01

    Outlines a procedure for fire management planning for parks; wilderness areas; and other wild, natural, or essentially undeveloped areas. Discusses background and philosophy of wilderness fire management, planning concepts, planning elements, and planning methods.

  14. Generating realistic synthetic meteoroid orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Denis; Brown, Peter G.; Campbell-Brown, Margaret

    2017-11-01

    Context. Generating a synthetic dataset of meteoroid orbits is a crucial step in analysing the probabilities of random grouping of meteoroid orbits in automated meteor shower surveys. Recent works have shown the importance of choosing a low similarity threshold value of meteoroid orbits, some pointing out that the recent meteor shower surveys produced false positives due to similarity thresholds which were too high. On the other hand, the methods of synthetic meteoroid orbit generation introduce additional biases into the data, thus making the final decision on an appropriate threshold value uncertain. Aims. As a part of the ongoing effort to determine the nature of meteor showers and improve automated methods, it was decided to tackle the problem of synthetic meteoroid orbit generation, the main goal being to reproduce the underlying structure and the statistics of the observed data in the synthetic orbits. Methods. A new method of generating synthetic meteoroid orbits using the Kernel Density Estimation method is presented. Several types of approaches are recommended, depending on whether one strives to preserve the data structure, the data statistics or to have a compromise between the two. Results. The improvements over the existing methods of synthetic orbit generation are demonstrated. The comparison between the previous and newly developed methods are given, as well as the visualization tools one can use to estimate the influence of different input parameters on the final data.

  15. Evidence of fuels management and fire weather influencing fire severity in an extreme fire event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydersen, Jamie M; Collins, Brandon M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Matchett, John R.; Shive, Kristen L.; Povak, Nicholas A.; Kane, Van R.; Smith, Douglas F.

    2017-01-01

    Following changes in vegetation structure and pattern, along with a changing climate, large wildfire incidence has increased in forests throughout the western U.S. Given this increase there is great interest in whether fuels treatments and previous wildfire can alter fire severity patterns in large wildfires. We assessed the relative influence of previous fuels treatments (including wildfire), fire weather, vegetation and water balance on fire severity in the Rim Fire of 2013. We did this at three different spatial scales to investigate whether the influences on fire severity changed across scales. Both fuels treatments and previous low to moderate severity wildfire reduced the prevalence of high severity fire. In general, areas without recent fuels treatments and areas that previously burned at high severity tended to have a greater proportion of high severity fire in the Rim Fire. Areas treated with prescribed fire, especially when combined with thinning, had the lowest proportions of high severity. Proportion of the landscape burned at high severity was most strongly influenced by fire weather and proportional area previously treated for fuels or burned by low to moderate severity wildfire. The proportion treated needed to effectively reduce the amount of high fire severity fire varied by spatial scale of analysis, with smaller spatial scales requiring a greater proportion treated to see an effect on fire severity. When moderate and high severity fire encountered a previously treated area, fire severity was significantly reduced in the treated area relative to the adjacent untreated area. Our results show that fuels treatments and low to moderate severity wildfire can reduce fire severity in a subsequent wildfire, even when burning under fire growth conditions. These results serve as further evidence that both fuels treatments and lower severity wildfire can increase forest resilience.

  16. Automatic fire hydrant valve development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drumheller, K.

    1976-01-01

    The development of a remotely-controlled valve to operate a fire hydrant is described. Assembled from off-the-shelf components, the prototype illustrates that a valve light enough to be handled by one man is possible. However, it does not have the ruggedness or reliability needed for actual fire-fighting operations. Preliminary testing by City of Tacoma fire department personnel indicates that the valve may indeed contribute significantly to fire-fighting efficiency

  17. Fire as a Removal Mechanism of Pyrogenic Carbon in Soils: Effects of Fire Characteristics and Pyrogenic Carbon Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, C.; Doerr, S.; Merino, A.

    2016-12-01

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) produced during vegetation fires represents one of the most degradation resistant organic carbon pools and has important implications for the global carbon cycle. Its long-term fate in the environment and the processes leading to its degradation are the subject of much debate. Its consumption in subsequent fires is usually highlighted in the literature as a possible major abiotic loss mechanism of PyC in soils. However, the only two studies that have empirically tested this hypothesis found only minor losses of existing PyC, suggesting that subsequent fire is not a major cause of PyC loss (Santin et al. 2013 median mass losses Geoderma, 219, 40-45. - Santin C, Doerr SH, Preston C, Bryant R (2013) Consumption of residual pyrogenic carbon by wildfire. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 22, 1072-1077.

  18. Microstructural study of synthetic spinel from natural raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Y.; Hagni, R.D. (Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics); Caballero, A. (Inst. de Ceramica y Vidrio, Madrid (Spain)); Moore, R.E. (Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Ceramic Engineering)

    1993-03-01

    Alumina-magnesia spinel is being used increasingly as a high quality refractory in furnace and cement rotary kiln applications, but the costs of synthetic powders and grains limit its application. Different sources of bauxite from Guyana and China and diaspore from Missouri have been utilized to synthesize spinel for refractories in order to reduce the cost. The purpose of this research is to examine extent and character or spinel formation under different firing conditions and varying Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]:MgO ratios. Finely ground raw materials were mixed with hardburned magnesia in certain ratios to form spinel. X-ray analysis has been completed and shows that spinel readily occurs, after heating at 1,550 C, together with some impurity minerals such as mullite, rutile, corundum and some glassy phases. In order to study the microstructure, quantitative analysis, reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and automatic image analysis are currently being utilized to determine the amount and distribution of each phase present in 39 samples prepared at different firing temperatures and with different chemical compositions. The results of this investigation provide a better understanding of the character of the microstructures of synthetic spinels.

  19. Robustness of steel joints with stainless steel bolts in fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheeskumar, N.; Davison, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    The robustness of steel joints in fire is important for steel building structures because of the need to prevent progressive collapse. Stainless steel is widely used in building construction mainly because of its corrosion resistance, but it also possesses improved fire resistance compared with conventional non-alloy, fine grain structural steels. Extensive research performed on the robustness of steel joints in fire has revealed that failure at elevated temperature may be controlled by bolt shear for fin plate and web cleat connections. Hence, this study focussed on the use of stainless steel in experimental tests conducted on fin plate and web cleat connections at high temperatures. In addition, this study investigated the use of a component-based model to predict connection performance at elevated temperature.

  20. Fire Retardancy of Natural Fibre Reinforced Sheet Moulding Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapuarachchi, T. D.; Ren, G.; Fan, M.; Hogg, P. J.; Peijs, T.

    2007-07-01

    Due to environmental awareness and economical considerations, natural fibre reinforced polymer composites seem to present a viable alternative to synthetic fibre reinforced polymer composites such as glass fibres. This is a feasibility study to asses the potential application of natural fibre reinforced sheet moulding compound materials (NF-SMC) for the use in building applications, with particular emphases to their reaction to fire. The reinforcing fibres in this study were industrial hemp fibres. The cone calorimeter which asses the fire hazard of materials by Heat Release Rate (HRR) was used, radiant heat fluxes of 25 and 50 kW/m2 were utilised to simulate an ignition source and fully developed room fire conditions respectively. The results acquired here demonstrate that the NF-SMC can compete with current building materials in terms of their fire behaviour. The peak heat release value for the fire retardant (FR) NF-SMC was 176 kW/m2 conversely for a non-FR NF-SMC was 361 kW/m2.

  1. Gene Expression Profiling of Cecropin B-Resistant Haemophilus parasuis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Chunmei; Chen, Fangzhou; Hu, Han; Li, Wentao; Wang, Yang; Chen, Pin; Liu, Yingyu; Ku, Xugang; He, Qigai; Chen, Huanchun; Xue, Feiqun

    2014-01-01

    Synthetically designed antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) present the potential of replacing antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial infections. However, microbial resistance to AMPs has been reported and little is known regarding the underlying mechanism of such resistance. The naturally occurring AMP

  2. Sodium fires in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzenhauer, P.

    1974-01-01

    The work deals with the behaviour of liquid sodium when it comes into contact with air, especially in the course of fires in technical plants. The most important fire procedures are constructed as realistically as possible, that is to say that the fires were not only carried out on a laboratory scale but with quantities of up to 200 kg sodium at temperatures of up to 800 0 C. The following was investigated: 1) the course of the fire in rooms, 2) restriction of the fire, 3) removal of the burnt remains, 4) protection measures. The fire was varied in its most important physical appearance such as surface fire, spurt fire and fire on isolated pipe lines. The fires were checked by precautionary, contructive measures - it was not necessary to place persons at the site of the fire - and by active measures such as for example by covering with extinguishing powder. All important test phases were captured in film and slides series. Visible material is thus available for the operation team of sodium plants and fire brigades who might possibly be called upon. (orig./LH) [de

  3. Fire and bark beetle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken Gibson; Jose F. Negron

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetle populations are at outbreak conditions in many parts of the western United States and causing extensive tree mortality. Bark beetles interact with other disturbance agents in forest ecosystems, one of the primary being fires. In order to implement appropriate post-fire management of fire-damaged ecosystems, we need a better understanding of...

  4. Measuring fire size in tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qihui

    2013-01-01

    A new measure of fire size Q′ has been introduced in longitudinally ventilated tunnel as the ratio of flame height to the height of tunnel. The analysis in this article has shown that Q′ controls both the critical velocity and the maximum ceiling temperature in the tunnel. Before the fire flame reaches tunnel ceiling (Q′ 1.0), Fr approaches a constant value. This is also a well-known phenomenon in large tunnel fires. Tunnel ceiling temperature shows the opposite trend. Before the fire flame reaches the ceiling, it increases very slowly with the fire size. Once the flame has hit the ceiling of tunnel, temperature rises rapidly with Q′. The good agreement between the current prediction and three different sets of experimental data has demonstrated that the theory has correctly modelled the relation among the heat release rate of fire, ventilation flow and the height of tunnel. From design point of view, the theoretical maximum of critical velocity for a given tunnel can help to prevent oversized ventilation system. -- Highlights: • Fire sizing is an important safety measure in tunnel design. • New measure of fire size a function of HRR of fire, tunnel height and ventilation. • The measure can identify large and small fires. • The characteristics of different fire are consistent with observation in real fires

  5. Fire effects on noxious weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin Innes

    2012-01-01

    The Fire Effects Information System (FEIS, www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/) has been providing reviews of scientific knowledge about fire effects since 1986. FEIS is an online collection of literature reviews on more than 1,100 species and their relationships with fire. Reviews cover plants and animals throughout the United States, providing a wealth of information for...

  6. Techniques for extinguishing sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, Chander; Kale, R.D.

    1979-02-01

    The experimental work done to evaluate the performance of commercially available fire extinguishants and powders for sodium fires is described. Dry chemical powder with sodium bicarbonate base was found very effective. Another effective method of extinghishing fire by using perforated covered tray is also discussed. (auth.)

  7. The CERN fire-fighters

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1959-01-01

    CERN is one of the few laboratories to have its own fire station. The CERN fire brigade was set up in July 1956 to provide a rapid response in the event of an accident and to tackle the risks specific to the Organisation's activities. Six members of the CERN fire brigade in 1959. From left to right: Messrs. Ubertin, Dalbignat, Verny, Vosdey, Lissajoux, Favre.

  8. Fire behavior, fuel treatments, and fire suppression on the Hayman Fire - Part 1: Fire weather, meteorology, and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry Bradshaw; Roberta Bartlette; John McGinely; Karl Zeller

    2003-01-01

    The Hayman Fire in June 2002 was heavily influenced by antecedent regional weather conditions, culminating in a series of daily weather events that aligned to produce widely varying fire behavior. This review of weather conditions associated with the Hayman Fire consists of two parts: 1) A brief overview of prior conditions as described by a regional climate review and...

  9. Fire models for assessment of nuclear power plant fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolette, V.F.; Nowlen, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in available fire models for the assessment of nuclear power plants fires. The advantages and disadvantages of three basic types of fire models (zone, field, and control volume) and Sandia's experience with these models will be discussed. It is shown that the type of fire model selected to solve a particular problem should be based on the information that is required. Areas of concern which relate to all nuclear power plant fire models are identified. 17 refs., 6 figs

  10. Specifics of fire-preventing arrangements in the forests of Baikal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Evdokimenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fire risk in major forest types and concomitant vegetation complexes across all altitudinal belts has been analyzed. High fire risk in woodlands is determined by domination of light needle coniferous stands in their structure and specific climate with continuous spring-summer droughts. Thus, the risk of landscape wildfires is high. The most drastic situations occur in very dry years of climatic cycles during forest pyrogenic anomalies when fire spreads across the main landscapes in several nature areas. Current fire-frequency is incompatible with high biosphere status of nature complex of Lake Baikal as an object of the World nature heritage. Extensive forest exploitation is unacceptable as well. Fire-prevention measures in the area require modernization. According to the results of many years of comparative studies of fire risk in phytocenoses with different species composition and structure of tree layers, the techniques of making fire stopping barriers were developed. The scheme of dividing the managed forests into isolated cells separated by special obstacles and fire-resistant forest borders combined with commonly used fire barriers is suggested. Fire-resistant barriers should be formed on both sides of main roads, passing through the intensively exploited woodlands dominating with common pine Pinus sylvestris L., Siberian stone pine Pinus sibirica Du Tour, Siberian spruce Picea obovata Ledeb., and Siberian fir Abies sibirica Ledeb. tree species. Such barriers are intended to stop the fire front of crown fires. The barrier width is determined by the cell order. The barriers are bordered with clearings with scarified soil strips of 3–4 meters in width. Trees and shrubs damaged in the process are removed during clutter cleaning. In places where the barrier passes through coniferous tree stands longitudinal corridors with scarified soil strips every 20–30 meters should be made. Reforestation and thinning are supposed to be combined with

  11. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D; Mathews, Debra J H

    2015-08-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) PROJECT is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with this field of research and operate under a common set of principles. In this commentary, we survey the current ethics and regulatory landscape of synthetic biology and present the Sc2.0 Statement of Ethics and Governance to which all members of the project adhere. This statement focuses on four aspects of the Sc2.0 PROJECT: societal benefit, intellectual property, safety, and self-governance. We propose that such project-level agreements are an important, valuable, and flexible model of self-regulation for similar global, large-scale synthetic biology projects in order to maximize the benefits and minimize potential harms. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  12. Modelling initial mortality of Abies religiosa in a crown fire in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Temiño Villota, Salomé; Rodríguez Trejo, Dante A.; Molina Terrén, Domingo; Ryan, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim of study: The objectives of this work were to determine which morphological and fire severity variables may help explain the mortality of adult Abies religiosa (Kunth) Schltdl. & Cham., to model the probability of this species after being affected by crown fire, and to obtain more elements to classify the sacred fir in terms of fire resistance. This type of studies are relevant to estimate the impact of crown fires on the climax forests that forms this species.Area of study: The burne...

  13. Hiring without Firing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Araoz, Claudio

    1999-01-01

    Describes the problems related to the hiring of senior-level positions. Suggests that regardless of the hiring process used, between 30% and 50% of executive-level appointments end in firing or resignation. Discusses the most common mistakes used in hiring. (JOW)

  14. Fire Protection Informational Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    batteries were charged at 260 amps and 30 volts. • Time to first visible signs of thermal runaway ranged from 30 to 70 minutes. 1 uNcLAssiFIED The... casas . JP-8 Spray fires as large as 8 GPH were used in most tests. All flame extinction times were less than 475 ms. Note: 1 Current prototype weights

  15. Fire, ice, and metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of tree injury often begins with a loss assessment. For winter storm injury, percent crow loss or branch breakage is often estimated. For injury from fire or some mechanical source to the lower trunk, the height and width of the killed vascular cambium and resulting scar are often measured. Both crown breakage and stem wounds provide the opportunity for...

  16. Fire in the forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Saveland

    1995-01-01

    From ancient philosophies to present day science, the ubiquity of change and the process of transformation are core concepts. The primary focus of a recent white paper on disturbance ecology is summed up by the Greek philosopher Heraclitus who stated, "Nothing is permanent but change." Disturbance processes, such as fire, provide a window into the emerging...

  17. Fire Incident Reporting Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    the result of an incident that requires (or should require) treatment by a practitioner of medicine , a registered emergency medical technician, or a...UNANNOUNCED AIRCRAFT EMERGENCYS ~~PRIOR TO TAKE OFF OR AFTERLADN 5 FUEL OPERATIONS REQUIRING 1AREING G A FIRE10 ARRESTING GEAR’BARRIER FR . ENGAGEMENTS AND

  18. Fire on Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Daly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The nineteenth century theatre was fire-prone, to say the least. Across the century there were more than 1,100 major conflagrations in the world’s theatres, and countless smaller fires. In Great Britain almost every theatre seems to have burned down at some point. And yet, despite, or perhaps in part because of, this appalling record, fires were a staple feature of stage spectacle. Some plays placed them at the very centre of the entertainment, and as the century went on stage fires became more and more elaborate. Actual or simulated conflagrations were conjured up using a diverse array of technologies, some of them very simple, some depending on the most recent scientific discoveries. Here, I give a short tour of these technologies and their use in the plays of the period, and suggest some of the pleasures that they offered. While onstage flames could draw people in, offering an experience of immersive suspense, for instance, they also interrupted the dramatic flow, reminding audiences that they were seeing a performance, getting something for their money. To this extent, we are reminded that nineteenth-century drama provided something of a mixed and spectacular ‘theatre of attractions’, closer at times to the circus than to the novel.

  19. Direct fired heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Robert C.; Root, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

  20. Motorcoach Fire Safety Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This purpose of this study was to collect and analyze information from Government, industry, and media sources on the causes, frequency, and severity of motorcoach fires in the U.S., and to identify potential risk reduction measures. The Volpe Center...

  1. De fire dimensioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mihail

    De fire dimensioner er en humanistisk håndbog beregnet især på studerende og vejledere inden for humaniora, men kan også læses af andre med interesse for, hvad humanistisk forskning er og kan. Den er blevet til over et langt livs engageret forskning, uddannelse og formidling på Roskilde Universitet...... og udgør på den måde også et bidrag til universitetets historie, som jeg var med til at grundlægge. De fire dimensioner sætter mennesket i centrum. Men det er et centrum, der peger ud over sig selv; et centrum, hvorfra verden anskues, erfares og forstås. Alle mennesker har en forhistorie og en...... fremtid, og udstrakt mellem disse punkter i tiden tænker og handler de i rummet. Den menneskelige tilværelse omfatter alle fire dimensioner. De fire dimensioner udgør derfor også et forsvar for en almen dannelse, der gennemtrænger og kommer kulturelt til udtryk i vores historie, viden, praksis og kunst....

  2. Fire Ant Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... venom in a fire ant sting will kill bacteria and some of your skin cells. This results in the formation of a blister that fills with a cloudy white material in about 24 hours. While this looks like a pus-filled lesion that should be drained, ...

  3. Fire When Ready.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrass, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    There are ways to fire an unproductive volunteer and still do minimal damage to both the volunteer and the alumni association, but an ounce of prevention is advocated. Some types of volunteers that might cause problems are identified and advice on what to do when dismissing a volunteer is provided. (MLW)

  4. Boerhaave on Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemente, Damon

    2000-01-01

    In 1741 an English translation of Herman Boerhaave's celebrated textbook Elementa Chemic was published under the title A New Method of Chemistry. True to its time, this book included elaborate discussions of the elements earth, water, air, and fire. This article offers to teachers for classroom use a selection of passages from Boerhaave's chapter on fire. Now, today's teacher of chemistry is apt to feel that little of significance to the modern classroom can be gleaned from a two-and-a-half-centuries-old text, and especially from a topic as old-fashioned as fire. But this view is decidedly shortsighted. Boerhaave offers demonstrations and experiments that can be instructively performed today, quantitative data that can be checked against modern equations, and much theory and hypothesis that can be assessed in light of modern chemical ideas. In the readings presented here I have found material for discussion in class, for investigation in the laboratory, and for a few homework assignments. Modern students are well able to comprehend and paraphrase Boerhaave, to check his results, appreciate his insights, and identify his shortfalls. From him they learn firsthand how painstaking and difficult it was to imagine and develop the concepts of thermochemistry. To read from his chapter on fire is to stand witness to the birth and infancy of thermodynamics as conceived in the mind of a great chemist from the age when coherent chemical theory was just beginning to emerge.

  5. A Novel Approach for Overcoming Drug Resistance in Breast Cancer Chemotherapy by Targeting new Synthetic Curcumin Analogues Against Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1A1) and Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 β (GSK-3β).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesharwani, Rajesh Kumar; Srivastava, Vandana; Singh, Prabhakar; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim; Adeppa, Kuruba; Misra, Krishna

    2015-08-01

    Breast cancer stem cells are well known to resist the traditional methods like chemo and radio therapy. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDHIA1) and glycogen synthase kinase-3 β (GSK-3β) are the two selected proteins for study, due to their overexpression and upregulation in breast cancer cells. Curcumin, the yellow pigment of the spice turmeric, is widely reported as an antioxidant and acts as a synergist along with traditional drugs. Under hypoxic conditions, it gets converted to free radical which causes apoptosis. Three naturally occurring curcuminoids, i.e. curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin along with five derivatives/analogues of curcumin, viz. 4,4'-di-O-(carboxy-methyl)-curcumin, 4-O-(2-hydroxyethyl)curcumin, 4,4'-di-O-allyl-curcumin, 4,4'-di-O-(acetyl)-curcumin, and 3,3'-bisdemethylcurcumin were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-breast cancer potential by docking simulation and assessment of their antioxidant character, studied via 2, 2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(·+)) radical cation scavenging assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radical, and ferric reducing ability potential (FRAP) assay. A co-relation between structure and activity of curcuminoids/its analogues and derivatives has been worked out.

  6. Evidence of fuels management and fire weather influencing fire severity in an extreme fire event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydersen, Jamie M; Collins, Brandon M; Brooks, Matthew L; Matchett, John R; Shive, Kristen L; Povak, Nicholas A; Kane, Van R; Smith, Douglas F

    2017-10-01

    Following changes in vegetation structure and pattern, along with a changing climate, large wildfire incidence has increased in forests throughout the western United States. Given this increase, there is great interest in whether fuels treatments and previous wildfire can alter fire severity patterns in large wildfires. We assessed the relative influence of previous fuels treatments (including wildfire), fire weather, vegetation, and water balance on fire-severity in the Rim Fire of 2013. We did this at three different spatial scales to investigate whether the influences on fire severity changed across scales. Both fuels treatments and previous low to moderate-severity wildfire reduced the prevalence of high-severity fire. In general, areas without recent fuels treatments and areas that previously burned at high severity tended to have a greater proportion of high-severity fire in the Rim Fire. Areas treated with prescribed fire, especially when combined with thinning, had the lowest proportions of high severity. The proportion of the landscape burned at high severity was most strongly influenced by fire weather and proportional area previously treated for fuels or burned by low to moderate severity wildfire. The proportion treated needed to effectively reduce the amount of high severity fire varied by spatial scale of analysis, with smaller spatial scales requiring a greater proportion treated to see an effect on fire severity. When moderate and high-severity fire encountered a previously treated area, fire severity was significantly reduced in the treated area relative to the adjacent untreated area. Our results show that fuels treatments and low to moderate-severity wildfire can reduce fire severity in a subsequent wildfire, even when burning under fire growth conditions. These results serve as further evidence that both fuels treatments and lower severity wildfire can increase forest resilience. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. FIRE-PRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterfall, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V. (SIPM), is a service company in the Royal Dutch/Shell Group of Companies who provides services worldwide (outside of the USA) to Shell Operating Companies. It has defined and recommended for implementation by Shell Companies a policy on safety (Enhanced Safety Management policy) to manage the total safety aspects of all they do, including the design, engineering, installation and operation of their facilities worldwide. This policy affects all activities in such a way as to avoid harm to health of, or injury to employees and others as well as avoiding damage to property. This in turn reflects through specific policies and standards for investment strategy, engineering and operations of facilities. With average Group losses due to major fires and explosion (for each incident over Brit-pounds 100,000) between 1988 and 1990 being of the order of Brit-pounds 28 million, there is an obvious potential to effectively employ fire protection criteria in design. However, Shell need to ensure the cost-effective application of protective measures, but first and foremost it is essential not to jeopardize life or risk damage to the environment. FIRE-PRAN has the possibility to do this efficiently as it is A systematic team approach for identification of all potential fire and explosion hazards and consequences, and a means for developing optimal means of protection for all types of facilities. It should thus be considered as an auditing technique, but one that fits into the overall safe management of activities. This paper discusses the status of development of the FIRE-PRAN technique following its successful application over a number of years to a variety of equipment and installations

  8. Stochastic representation of fire behavior in a wildland fire protection planning model for California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Keith Gilless; Jeremy S. Fried

    1998-01-01

    A fire behavior module was developed for the California Fire Economics Simulator version 2 (CFES2), a stochastic simulation model of initial attack on wildland fire used by the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection. Fire rate of spread (ROS) and fire dispatch level (FDL) for simulated fires "occurring" on the same day are determined by making...

  9. Using the Large Fire Simulator System to map wildland fire potential for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaWen Hollingsworth; James Menakis

    2010-01-01

    This project mapped wildland fire potential (WFP) for the conterminous United States by using the large fire simulation system developed for Fire Program Analysis (FPA) System. The large fire simulation system, referred to here as LFSim, consists of modules for weather generation, fire occurrence, fire suppression, and fire growth modeling. Weather was generated with...

  10. Fire Regimes of Remnant Pitch Pine Communities in the Ridge and Valley Region of Central Pennsylvania, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Marschall

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many fire-adapted ecosystems in the northeastern U.S. are converting to fire-intolerant vegetation communities due to fire suppression in the 20th century. Prescribed fire and other vegetation management activities that increase resilience and resistance to global changes are increasingly being implemented, particularly on public lands. For many fire-dependent communities, there is little quantitative data describing historical fire regime attributes such as frequency, severity, and seasonality, or how these varied through time. Where available, fire-scarred live and remnant trees, including stumps and snags, offer valuable insights into historical fire regimes through tree-ring and fire-scar analyses. In this study, we dated fire scars from 66 trees at two sites in the Ridge and Valley Province of the Appalachian Mountains in central Pennsylvania, and described fire frequency, severity, and seasonality from the mid-17th century to 2013. Fires were historically frequent, of low to moderate severity, occurred mostly during the dormant season, and were influenced by aspect and topography. The current extended fire-free interval is unprecedented in the previous 250–300 years at both sites.

  11. Fire patterns in the range of the greater sage-grouse, 1984-2013 — Implications for conservation and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Matthew L.; Matchett, John R.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Coates, Peter S.

    2015-09-10

    Fire ranks among the top three threats to the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) throughout its range, and among the top two threats in the western part of its range. The national research strategy for this species and the recent U.S. Department of the Interior Secretarial Order 3336 call for science-based threats assessment of fire to inform conservation planning and fire management efforts. The cornerstone of such assessments is a clear understanding of where fires are occurring and what aspects of fire regimes may be shifting outside of their historical range of variation. This report fulfills this need by describing patterns of fire area, fire size, fire rotation, and fire season length and timing from 1984 to 2013 across the range of the greater sage-grouse. This information need is further addressed by evaluating the ecological and management implications of these fire patterns. Analyses are stratified by major vegetation types and the seven greater sage-grouse management zones, delineated regionally as four western and three eastern management zones. Soil temperature and moisture indicators of resilience to fire and resistance to cheatgrass invasion, and the potential for establishment of a grass/fire cycle, are used as unifying concepts in developing fire threat assessments for each analysis strata.

  12. Fire Safety's My Job. Eighth Grade. Fire Safety for Texans: Fire and Burn Prevention Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Commission on Fire Protection, Austin.

    This booklet comprises the eighth grade component of a series of curriculum guides on fire and burn prevention. Designed to meet the age-specific needs of eighth grade students, its objectives include: (1) focusing on technical aspects of fire hazards and detection, and (2) exploring fire hazards outside the home. Texas essential elements of…

  13. Meeting Report: Synthetic Biology Jamboree for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology (the name is derived from an analogy to synthetic chemistry) has recognized itself as a "field" only since about 2002. Synthetic biology has gotten some high-profile attention recently, but most people are not aware the field even exists. Synthetic biologists apply engineering principles to genomic circuits to…

  14. FIRE PERMIT NOW ON EDH!

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS General Safety Group or

    2001-01-01

    The electronic version of the Fire Permit form is now active. The aim of the Fire Permit procedure is to reduce the risk of fire or explosion. It is mandatory when performing 'hot work' (mainly activities which involve the use of naked flames or other heat sources - e.g. welding, brazing, cutting, grinding, etc.). Its use is explained in the CERN Fire Protection Code E. (Fire Protection) The new electronic form, which is substantially unchanged from the previous authorizing procedure, will be available on the Electronic Document Handling system (https://edh.cern.ch/) as of 1st September 2001. From this date use of the paper version should be discontinued.

  15. Geomorphology of coal seam fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

    2012-02-01

    Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires

  16. Teach yourself visually Fire tablets

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Expert visual guidance to getting the most out of your Fire tablet Teach Yourself VISUALLY Fire Tablets is the comprehensive guide to getting the most out of your new Fire tablet. Learn to find and read new bestsellers through the Kindle app, browse the app store to find top games, surf the web, send e-mail, shop online, and much more! With expert guidance laid out in a highly visual style, this book is perfect for those new to the Fire tablet, providing all the information you need to get the most out of your device. Abundant screenshots of the Fire tablet graphically rich, touch-based Androi

  17. Fire detection in warehouse facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Dinaburg, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Automatic sprinklers systems are the primary fire protection system in warehouse and storage facilities. The effectiveness of this strategy has come into question due to the challenges presented by modern warehouse facilities, including increased storage heights and areas, automated storage retrieval systems (ASRS), limitations on water supplies, and changes in firefighting strategies. The application of fire detection devices used to provide early warning and notification of incipient warehouse fire events is being considered as a component of modern warehouse fire protection.Fire Detection i

  18. Antimicrobial activity of a new synthetic peptide loaded in polylactic acid or poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, J.; Flórez, J.; Torres, R.; Urquiza, M.; Gutiérrez, J. A.; Guzmán, F.; Ortiz, C. C.

    2017-03-01

    Nanocarrier systems are currently being developed for peptide, protein and gene delivery to protect them in the blood circulation and in the gastrointestinal tract. Polylactic acid (PLA) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with a new antimicrobial GIBIM-P5S9K peptide were obtained by the double emulsion solvent extraction/evaporation method. PLA- and PLGA-NPs were spherical with sizes between 300 and 400 nm for PLA and 200 and 300 nm for PLGA and 20 mV. The peptide-loading efficiency of PLA-NP and PLGA-NPs was 75% and 55%, respectively. PLA- and PLGA-NPs released around 50% of this peptide over 8 h. In 10% human sera the size of peptide loaded PLA- and PLGA-NPs increased between 25.2% and 39.3%, the PDI changed from 3.2 to 5.1 and the surface charge from -7.15 to 14.6 mV. Both peptide loaded PLA- and PLGA-NPs at 0.5 μM peptide concentration inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas. aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). In contrast, free peptide inhibited at 10 μM but did not inhibit at 0.5 and 1 μM. These PLA- and PLGA-NPs presented <10% hemolysis indicating that they are hemocompatible and promising for delivery and protection system of GIBIM-P5S9K peptide.

  19. Control theory meets synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Domitilla; Dy, Aaron J; Qian, Yili

    2016-07-01

    The past several years have witnessed an increased presence of control theoretic concepts in synthetic biology. This review presents an organized summary of how these control design concepts have been applied to tackle a variety of problems faced when building synthetic biomolecular circuits in living cells. In particular, we describe success stories that demonstrate how simple or more elaborate control design methods can be used to make the behaviour of synthetic genetic circuits within a single cell or across a cell population more reliable, predictable and robust to perturbations. The description especially highlights technical challenges that uniquely arise from the need to implement control designs within a new hardware setting, along with implemented or proposed solutions. Some engineering solutions employing complex feedback control schemes are also described, which, however, still require a deeper theoretical analysis of stability, performance and robustness properties. Overall, this paper should help synthetic biologists become familiar with feedback control concepts as they can be used in their application area. At the same time, it should provide some domain knowledge to control theorists who wish to enter the rising and exciting field of synthetic biology. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Synthetic biology, metaphors and responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Carmen; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2017-08-29

    Metaphors are not just decorative rhetorical devices that make speech pretty. They are fundamental tools for thinking about the world and acting on the world. The language we use to make a better world matters; words matter; metaphors matter. Words have consequences - ethical, social and legal ones, as well as political and economic ones. They need to be used 'responsibly'. They also need to be studied carefully - this is what we want to do through this editorial and the related thematic collection. In the context of synthetic biology, natural and social scientists have become increasingly interested in metaphors, a wave of interest that we want to exploit and amplify. We want to build on emerging articles and books on synthetic biology, metaphors of life and the ethical and moral implications of such metaphors. This editorial provides a brief introduction to synthetic biology and responsible innovation, as well as a comprehensive review of literature on the social, cultural and ethical impacts of metaphor use in genomics and synthetic biology. Our aim is to stimulate an interdisciplinary and international discussion on the impact that metaphors can have on science, policy and publics in the context of synthetic biology.

  1. Synthetic biology, the bioeconomy, and a societal quandary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, Jim C; Ritchie, Rachael J; Allan, Jacqueline E M

    2013-05-01

    Opinions on what synthetic biology actually is range from a natural extension of genetic engineering to a new manufacturing paradigm. It offers, for the first time in the life sciences, rational design and engineering standardisation. It could address problems across a broad spectrum of human concerns, including energy and food security, and health of growing and aging populations. It also offers great scope for public resistance to its introduction to daily life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Experimentally Manipulated Fire Regimes on the Response of Forests to Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refsland, T. K.; Knapp, B.; Fraterrigo, J.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change is expected to increase drought stress in many forests and alter fire regimes. Fire can reduce tree density and thus competition for limited water, but the effects of changing fire regimes on forest productivity during drought remain poorly understood. We measured the annual ring-widths of adult oak (Quercus spp.) trees in Mark Twain National Forest, Missouri USA that experienced unburned, annual or periodic (every 4 years) surface fire treatments from 1951 - 2015. Severe drought events were identified using the BILJOU water balance model. We determined the effect of fire treatment on stand-level annual growth rates as well as stand-level resistance and resilience to drought, defined as the drought-induced reduction in growth and post-drought recovery in growth, respectively. During favorable wet years, annual and periodic fire treatments reduced annual growth rates by approximately 10-15% relative to unburned controls (P forest productivity.

  3. Factors in adoption of a fire department wellness program: champ-and-chief model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Hannah; Mabry, Linda; Elliot, Diane L; Kuehl, Kerry S; Favorite, Kim C

    2013-04-01

    To identify and evaluate determinants of fire departments' wellness program adoption. The Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models' Effects fire service wellness program was offered for free to all medium-sized fire departments in Oregon and Washington. An invitation to participate was mailed to key fire department decision makers (chief, union president, and wellness officer). These key decision makers from 12 sites that adopted the program and 24 matched nonadopting sites were interviewed and results were analyzed to define adoption determinants. Three adoption requirements were identified: (1) mailer connection, (2) local firefighter wellness champion, and (3) willing fire chief, whereas a fourth set of organizational factors had little or no impact on adoption including previous and ongoing wellness activities, financial pressures, and resistance to change. Findings identified determinants of medium-sized fire service wellness program adoption.

  4. Biscuit Fire, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In southwest Oregon, the Biscuit Fire continues to grow. This image, acquired from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on August 14, 2002, shows the pillars of smoke arising from the fires. Active fire areas are in red. More than 6,000 fire personnel are assigned to the Biscuit Fire alone, which was 390,276 acres as of Thursday morning, August 15, and only 26 percent contained. Among the resources threatened are thousands of homes, three nationally designated wild and scenic rivers, and habitat for several categories of plants and animals at risk of extinction. Firefighters currently have no estimate as to when the fire might be contained.With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next six years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission

  5. Microfluidic Technologies for Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kuk Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic technologies have shown powerful abilities for reducing cost, time, and labor, and at the same time, for increasing accuracy, throughput, and performance in the analysis of biological and biochemical samples compared with the conventional, macroscale instruments. Synthetic biology is an emerging field of biology and has drawn much attraction due to its potential to create novel, functional biological parts and systems for special purposes. Since it is believed that the development of synthetic biology can be accelerated through the use of microfluidic technology, in this review work we focus our discussion on the latest microfluidic technologies that can provide unprecedented means in synthetic biology for dynamic profiling of gene expression/regulation with high resolution, highly sensitive on-chip and off-chip detection of metabolites, and whole-cell analysis.

  6. US Competitiveness in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronvall, Gigi Kwik

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technical field that aims to make biology easier to engineer; the field has applications in strategically important sectors for the US economy. While the United States currently leads in synthetic biology R&D, other nations are heavily investing in order to boost their economies, which will inevitably diminish the US leadership position. This outcome is not entirely negative--additional investments will expand markets--but it is critical that the US government take steps to remain competitive: There are applications from which the US population and economy may benefit; there are specific applications with importance for national defense; and US technical leadership will ensure that US experts have a leading role in synthetic biology governance, regulation, and oversight. Measures to increase competitiveness in S&T generally are broadly applicable for synthetic biology and should be pursued. However, the US government will also need to take action on fundamental issues that will affect the field's development, such as countering anti-GMO (genetically modified organism) sentiments and anti-GMO legislation. The United States should maintain its regulatory approach so that it is the product that is regulated, not the method used to create a product. At the same time, the United States needs to ensure that the regulatory framework is updated so that synthetic biology products do not fall into regulatory gaps. Finally, the United States needs to pay close attention to how synthetic biology applications may be governed internationally, such as through the Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity, so that beneficial applications may be realized.

  7. Synthetic biology as red herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Beth

    2013-12-01

    It has become commonplace to say that with the advent of technologies like synthetic biology the line between artifacts and living organisms, policed by metaphysicians since antiquity, is beginning to blur. But that line began to blur 10,000 years ago when plants and animals were first domesticated; and has been thoroughly blurred at least since agriculture became the dominant human subsistence pattern many millennia ago. Synthetic biology is ultimately only a late and unexceptional offshoot of this prehistoric development. From this perspective, then, synthetic biology is a red herring, distracting us from more thorough philosophical consideration of the most truly revolutionary human practice-agriculture. In the first section of this paper I will make this case with regard to ontology, arguing that synthetic biology crosses no ontological lines that were not crossed already in the Neolithic. In the second section I will construct a parallel case with regard to cognition, arguing that synthetic biology as biological engineering represents no cognitive advance over what was required for domestication and the new agricultural subsistence pattern it grounds. In the final section I will make the case with regard to human existence, arguing that synthetic biology, even if wildly successful, is not in a position to cause significant existential change in what it is to be human over and above the massive existential change caused by the transition to agriculture. I conclude that a longer historical perspective casts new light on some important issues in philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Deterioration of Synthetic Fiber Rope during Marine Usage. Appendix A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-31

    and Untwist.ing Processes. !I. Ob- servation by the Microbeam X-Ray Technique, ._...Sci. 24. 2303-2309 (1979). uI , h-6 * ~~~~- rS u u : ., I o e . Kum...Resistance", AS:E, Acoustic Group, July, 1980. R254 Parsey, Mike, "Fatigue resistance of man-made fibre ropes", 4th International Offshore Craft Conference ...R255 O’Hear, N., "Ropes and Cables cf KEVLA" , 4tth International Offshore Craft Conference . R256 Vanderveldt, H.H., "Acoustic E-issions from Synthetic

  9. Behaviour of Passive Fire Protection K-Geopolymer under Successive Severe Fire Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkas, Konstantinos; Sofianos, Alexandros; Nomikos, Pavlos; Panias, Dimitrios

    2015-09-11

    The performance of a fire resistant coating for tunnel passive fire protection under successive severe thermal loading is presented. The material falls under the class of potassium based geopolymers (K-geopolymer) and was prepared by mixing ferronickel (FeNi) slag, doped with pure alumina, with a highly alkaline potassium hydroxide aqueous phase. Its performance was assessed by subjecting a concrete slab with a five cm thick K-geopolymer coating layer into successive RijksWaterStaat (RWS) fire incidents. During the first test, the maximum measured temperature in the K-geopolymer/concrete interface was 250 °C, which is 130 °C lower than the RWS test requirement, while, during the second fire test, the maximum temperature was almost 370 °C, which is still lower than the RWS requirement proving the effectiveness of the material as a thermal barrier. In addition, the material retained its structural integrity, during and after the two tests, without showing any mechanical or thermal damages.

  10. Synthetic Phage for Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling structural organization and signaling motif display is of great importance to design the functional tissue regenerating materials. Synthetic phage, genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage has been recently introduced as novel tissue regeneration materials to display a high density of cell-signaling peptides on their major coat proteins for tissue regeneration purposes. Structural advantages of their long-rod shape and monodispersity can be taken together to construct nanofibrous scaffolds which support cell proliferation and differentiation as well as direct orientation of their growth in two or three dimensions. This review demonstrated how functional synthetic phage is designed and subsequently utilized for tissue regeneration that offers potential cell therapy.

  11. Synthetic biology and its promises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel De Cózar Escalante

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology is a new science and emerging technology, or rather a technoscience, which converges with others such as nanotechnology, information technology, robotics, artificial intelligence and neuroscience. All have common features that could have highly concerning social and environmental impacts. With its ambitious goals of controlling complexity, redesigning and creating new living entities, synthetic biology perfectly exemplifies the new bioeconomic reality. This requires expanding the focus of the discussion beyond the limited comparative analysis of risks and benefits, to address uncertainties, reassign responsibilities and initiate a thorough social assessment of what is at stake.

  12. Synthetic methodologies for carbon nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoping; Zhou, Xufeng; Qian, Yitai

    2010-05-04

    Carbon nanomaterials have advanced rapidly over the last two decades and are among the most promising materials that have already changed and will keep on changing human life. Development of synthetic methodologies for these materials, therefore, has been one of the most important subjects of carbon nanoscience and nanotechnology, and forms the basis for investigating the physicochemical properties and applications of carbon nanomaterials. In this Research News article, several synthetic strategies, including solvothermal reduction, solvothermal pyrolysis, hydrothermal carbonization, and soft-chemical exfoliation are specifically discussed and highlighted, which have been developed for the synthesis of novel carbon nanomaterials over the last decade.

  13. Synergistic Antipseudomonal Effects of Synthetic Peptide AMP38 and Carbapenems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudilla, Héctor; Fusté, Ester; Cajal, Yolanda; Rabanal, Francesc; Vinuesa, Teresa; Viñas, Miguel

    2016-09-12

    The aim was to explore the antimicrobial activity of a synthetic peptide (AMP38) and its synergy with imipenem against imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The main mechanism of imipenem resistance is the loss or alteration of protein OprD. Time-kill and minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) determinations were carried out by using clinical imipenem-resistant strains. AMP38 was markedly synergistic with imipenem when determined in imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa. MBEC obtained for the combination of AMP38 and imipenem was of 62.5 μg/mL, whereas the MBEC of each antimicrobial separately was 500 μg/mL. AMP38 should be regarded as a promising antimicrobial to fight MDR P. aeruginosa infections. Moreover, killing effect and antibiofilm activity of AMP38 plus imipenem was much higher than that of colistin plus imipenem.

  14. Fighting fires... with science

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    CERN firefighters are working with a research centre in the United States to develop more effective firefighting techniques.   One of the UL FSRI’s model houses is set alight... in the interest of science. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) For around ten years, the Underwriters Laboratories Firefighter Safety Research Institute (UL FSRI) has been carrying out scientific research on the various techniques used by firefighters in the United States and around the world. This research has focused on evaluating the effectiveness and safety of current practices worldwide with the aim of developing even better techniques. In many cases the research has shown that a combination of techniques gives the best results. The interiors of the model houses are fully furnished. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) Art Arnalich, who has worked with fire brigades in the United States and Europe and is now a member of CERN’s Fire Brigade, has actively participated in this research since 2013. His knowledge of ...

  15. The effect of leaf beetle herbivory on the fire behaviour of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima Lebed.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drus, Gail M.; Dudley, Tom L.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Matchett, John R.

    2012-01-01

    The non-native tree, Tamarix spp. has invaded desert riparian ecosystems in the south-western United States. Fire hazard has increased, as typically fire-resistant native vegetation is replaced by Tamarix. The tamarisk leaf beetle, Diorhabda carinulata Desbrochers, introduced for biological control, may affect fire behaviour by converting hydrated live Tamarix leaves and twigs into desiccated and dead fuels. This potentially increases fire hazard in the short term before native vegetation can be re-established. This study investigates how fire behaviour is altered in Tamarix fuels desiccated by Diorhabda herbivory at a Great Basin site, and by herbivory simulated by foliar herbicide at a Mojave Desert site. It also evaluates the influence of litter depth on fire intensity. Fire behaviour was measured with a fire intensity index that integrates temperature and duration (degree-minutes above 70°C), and with maximum temperature, duration, flame lengths, rates of spread and vegetation removal. Maximum temperature, flame length and rate of spread were enhanced by foliar desiccation of Tamarix at both sites. At only the Mojave site, there was a trend for desiccated trees to burn with greater fire intensity. At both sites, fire behaviour parameters were influenced to a greater degree by litter depth, vegetation density and drier and windier conditions than by foliar desiccation.

  16. Holocene fire dynamics in Fennoscandia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clear, Jennifer; Seppa, Heikki; Kuosmanen, Niina; Molinari, Chiara; Lehsten, Veiko; Allen, Katherine; Bradshaw, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Prescribed burning is advocated in Fennoscandia to promote regeneration and to encourage biodiversity. This method of forest management is based on the perception that fire was much more frequent in the recent past and over a century of active fire suppression has created a boreal forest ecosystem almost free of natural fire. The absence of fire is thought to have contributed to the widespread dominance of Picea abies (Norway spruce) with the successive spruce dominated forest further reducing fire ignition potential. However, humans have altered the natural fire dynamics of Fennoscandia since the early- to mid-Holocene and disentangling the anthropogenic driven fire dynamics from the natural fire dynamics is challenging. Through palaeoecology and sedimentary charcoal deposits we are able to explore the Holocene spatial and temporal variability and changing drivers of fire and vegetation dynamics in Fennoscandia. At the local-scale, two forest hollow environments (history are compared to identify unique and mutual changes in disturbance history. Pollen derived quantitative reconstruction of vegetation at both the local- and regional-scale identifies local-scale disturbance dynamics and large-scale ecosystem response. Spatio-temporal heterogeneity and variability in biomass burning is explored throughout Fennoscandia and Denmark to identify the changing drives of fire dynamics throughout the Holocene. Palaeo-vegetation reconstructions are compared to process-based, climate driven dynamic vegetation model output to test the significance of fire frequency as a driver of vegetation composition and dynamics. Early-Holocene fire regimes in Fennoscandia are driven by natural climate variations and fuel availability. The establishment and spread of Norway spruce is driven by an increase in continentality of climate, but local natural and anthropogenic ecosystem disturbance may have aided this spread. The expansion of spruce led to a step-wise reduction in regional biomass

  17. Coal fire interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Genderen, J.L.; Prakash, A.; Gens, R.; Van Veen, B.; Liding, Chen; Tao, Tang Xiao; Feng, Guan

    2000-07-01

    This BCRS project demonstrates the use of SAR interferometry for measuring and monitoring land subsidence caused by underground coal fires and underground mining in a remote area of north west China. China is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. Throughout the N.W., N. and N.E. of China, the coal-seams are very susceptible to spontaneous combustion, causing underground coal fires. As the thick coal seams are burned out, the overburden collapses, causing land subsidence, and producing new cracks and fissures, which allow more air to penetrate and continue the fire to spread. SAR interferometry, especially differential interferometry has been shown to be able to measure small differences in surface height caused by such land subsidence. This report describes the problems, the test area, the procedures and techniques used and the results obtained. It concludes with a description of some of the problems encountered during the project plus provides some general conclusions and recommendations. 127 refs

  18. Fire weather conditions and fire-atmosphere interactions observed during low-intensity prescribed fires - RxCADRE 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig B. Clements; Neil P. Lareau; Daisuke Seto; Jonathan Contezac; Braniff Davis; Casey Teske; Thomas J. Zajkowski; Andrew T. Hudak; Benjamin C. Bright; Matthew B. Dickinson; Bret W. Butler; Daniel Jimenez; J. Kevin. Hiers

    2016-01-01

    The role of fire-atmosphere coupling on fire behaviour is not well established, and to date few field observations have been made to investigate the interactions between fire spread and fire-induced winds. Therefore, comprehensive field observations are needed to better understand micrometeorological aspects of fire spread. To address this need, meteorological...

  19. Fire protection for launch facilities using machine vision fire detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Douglas B.

    1993-01-01

    Fire protection of critical space assets, including launch and fueling facilities and manned flight hardware, demands automatic sensors for continuous monitoring, and in certain high-threat areas, fast-reacting automatic suppression systems. Perhaps the most essential characteristic for these fire detection and suppression systems is high reliability; in other words, fire detectors should alarm only on actual fires and not be falsely activated by extraneous sources. Existing types of fire detectors have been greatly improved in the past decade; however, fundamental limitations of their method of operation leaves open a significant possibility of false alarms and restricts their usefulness. At the Civil Engineering Laboratory at Tyndall Air Force Base in Florida, a new type of fire detector is under development which 'sees' a fire visually, like a human being, and makes a reliable decision based on known visual characteristics of flames. Hardware prototypes of the Machine Vision (MV) Fire Detection System have undergone live fire tests and demonstrated extremely high accuracy in discriminating actual fires from false alarm sources. In fact, this technology promises to virtually eliminate false activations. This detector could be used to monitor fueling facilities, launch towers, clean rooms, and other high-value and high-risk areas. Applications can extend to space station and in-flight shuttle operations as well; fiber optics and remote camera heads enable the system to see around obstructed areas and crew compartments. The capability of the technology to distinguish fires means that fire detection can be provided even during maintenance operations, such as welding.

  20. Where Synthetic Biology Meets ET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. And what about the limits for life? Can we create organisms that expand the envelope for life? In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.