WorldWideScience

Sample records for fire fighting trainers

  1. Methods and means of sodium fire fighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemskij, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    Methods and means for coaling sodium fire fighting are analyzed. Their advantages and drawbacks are considered. Comparative data on sodium fire fighting using some of considered compositions are presented. High efficiency of self-expanding compositions (Grafeks SK-23 and RS) is noted. Properties of MGS new composition for sodium fire fighting are considered. High fighting ability of the composition independent of burning metal layer width is shown. It is noted that fire fighting MGS efficiency decreases with growth of time of free fire burning which affects fire fighting methods. Technical means of powder delivery to burning sodium are reported

  2. Chemistry fighting against fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffalsky, K.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed report is given on the general principle 'fire' and on fires as fast chemical reactions between consumable material and oxygen of the air (exothermal oxidation) as well as on the classes of fires A to D. Class D includes strongly incadescent burnable metals such as K, Na, Li, Cs, Rb, U, Pu, Ce, Zr, Be, Ca, Sr, Ba etc. The burning process, the extinguishing effects, the development of the extinguisher and its present state are individually dealt with. (HK/LH) [de

  3. Fighting fires... with science

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    CERN firefighters are working with a research centre in the United States to develop more effective firefighting techniques.   One of the UL FSRI’s model houses is set alight... in the interest of science. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) For around ten years, the Underwriters Laboratories Firefighter Safety Research Institute (UL FSRI) has been carrying out scientific research on the various techniques used by firefighters in the United States and around the world. This research has focused on evaluating the effectiveness and safety of current practices worldwide with the aim of developing even better techniques. In many cases the research has shown that a combination of techniques gives the best results. The interiors of the model houses are fully furnished. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) Art Arnalich, who has worked with fire brigades in the United States and Europe and is now a member of CERN’s Fire Brigade, has actively participated in this research since 2013. His knowledge of ...

  4. Fire fighting capability assessment program Darlington NGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This is a report on the completion of work relating to the assessment of the capability of Darlington NGS to cope with a large fire incident. This included an evaluation of an exercise scenario that would simulate a large fire incident and of their fire plans and procedures which became the subject of interim reports as part of the process of preparing for the fire fighting and rescue exercise. Finally the execution of fire plans by Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (NGS), as demonstrated by their application of human and material resources during a simulated large fire, was observed. 1 tab., 1 fig

  5. Learning fire-fighting lessons after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Fire protection measures in Soviet nuclear power plants were set out in November 1987, in the Nuclear Power Plant Design Fire Protection Standards (VSN 01-87, USSR Ministry of Atomic Energy). The most important of these measures are. Avoiding as far as possible the use of combustible materials in plant structures and equipment. Dividing buildings and areas into suitable fire-fighting zones. Ensuring reliable fire protection of the control and safety systems. Protecting technical personnel from the dangers of a fire while they are performing essential accident-repair work and facilitating evacuation procedures (providing at least two evacuation routes and exits, anti-smoke protection of evacuation routes and control panel areas etc). Installing automatic fire-extinguishing and fire alarm systems. Providing various stationary facilities and equipment to assist the use of mobile fire-fighting appliances. In addition, a special fire-fighting division is being set up in every nuclear power plant while the first unit is still being constructed. These divisions work in close co-operation with the technical personnel management of the plant and with the bodies responsible for monitoring nuclear safety. (author)

  6. Fighting fires in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantom, L.F.; Weldon, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    Since the Browns Ferry incident, the specter of fires at nuclear plants has been the focus of attention by NRC, the utilities, and the public. There are sophisticated hardware and software available - in the form of fire-protection systems and equipment and training and fire-protection programs. Potential fire losses at nuclear faclities can be staggering. Thus, it behooves all those involved to maximize fire-protection security while simultaneously minimizing the chance of human error, which cancels out the effectiveness of the most up-to-date protective systems and devices

  7. Fighting forest fires in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Carlos Mendes de Morais

    2013-01-01

    Fire has been used in Brazil for many years, but the increased use of this tool, combined with natural events and the presence of large forest and agricultural areas, has led to a significant jump in the number of forest fires, most of them caused by accident. To optimize existing resources and to cope with growing demand, action levels were adopted according to the...

  8. Estimation of Forest Fire-fighting Budgets Using Climate Indexes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Xu; G. Cornelis van Kooten

    2012-01-01

    Given the complexity and relative short length of current predicting system for fire behavior, it is inappropriate to be referred for planning fire-fighting budgets of BC government due to the severe uncertainty of fire behavior across fire seasons. Therefore, a simple weather derived index for predicting fire frequency and burned area is developed in this paper to investigate the potential feasibility to predict fire behavior and fire-fighting expenses for the upcoming fire season using clim...

  9. Manual fire fighting tactics at Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Moon Hak; Moon, Chan Kook

    2012-01-01

    The general requirements of fire protection at nuclear power plant (NPP) are fire protection program, fire hazard analysis, and fire prevention features. In addition, specific fire protection requirements such as water supplies, fire detection, fire protection of safe related equipment, and safe shutdown capabilities must be provided. Particularly, manual fire fighting is required as specific requirements with the provisions to secure manual fire suppression, fire brigade and its training, and administrative controls for manual fire fighting. If a fire is alarmed and confirmed to be a real fire, the fire brigade must take manual fire fighting activities as requested at fire protection program. According to the present requirements in itself, there is not any specific manual fire fighting ways or practical strategies. In general, fire zones or compartments at NPPs are built in a confined condition. In theory, the fire condition will change from a combustible-controlled fire to a ventilation-governing fire with the time duration. In case of pool fire with the abundant oxygen and flammable liquid, it can take just a few minutes for the flash-over to occur. For the well-confined fire zone, it will change from a flame fire to a smoldering state before the entrance door is opened by the fire brigade. In this context, the manual fire fighting activities must be based on a quantitative analysis and a fire risk evaluation. At this paper, it was suggested that the fire zones at NPPs should be grouped on the inherent functions and fire characteristics. Based on the fire risk characteristics and the fire zone grouping, the manual fire fighting tactics are suggested as an advanced fire fighting solution

  10. Fire protection and fire fighting in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Fires are a threat to all technical installations. While fire protection has long been a well established conventional discipline, its application to nuclear facilities requires special considerations. Nevertheless, for a long time fire engineering has been somewhat neglected in the design and operation of nuclear installations. In the nuclear industry, the Browns Ferry fire in 1975 brought about an essential change in the attention paid to fire problems. Designers and plant operators, as well as insurance companies and regulators, increased their efforts to develop concepts and methods for reducing fire risks, not only to protect the capital investment in nuclear plants but also to consider the potential secondary effects which could lead to nuclear accidents. Although the number of fires in nuclear installations is still relatively large, their overall importance to the safety of nuclear power plants was not considered to be very high. Only more recently have probabilistic analyses changed this picture. The results may well have to be taken into account more carefully. Various aspects of fire fighting and fire protection were discussed during the Symposium, the first of its kind to be organized by the IAEA. It was convened in co-operation with several organizations working in the nuclear or fire protection fields. The intention was to gather experts from nuclear engineering areas and the conventional fire protection field at one meeting with a view to enhancing the exchange of information and experience and to presenting current knowledge on the various disciplines involved. The presentations at the meeting were subdivided into eight sessions: standards and licensing (6 papers); national fire safety practices (7 papers); fire safety by design (11 papers); fire fighting (2 papers); computer fire modeling (7 papers); fire safety in fuel center facilities (7 papers); fire testing of materials (3 papers); fire risk assessment (5 papers). A separate abstract was

  11. Estimation of Forest Fire-fighting Budgets Using Climate Indexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Z.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    Given the complexity and relative short length of current predicting system for fire behavior, it is inappropriate to be referred for planning fire-fighting budgets of BC government due to the severe uncertainty of fire behavior across fire seasons. Therefore, a simple weather derived index for

  12. 75 FR 221 - Airworthiness Directives; Fire Fighting Enterprises Limited Portable Halon 1211 Fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Fire Fighting Enterprises Limited Portable Halon 1211 Fire Extinguishers as Installed... specification, have been supplied to the aviation industry for use in fire extinguishing equipment. * * * * * * * * * * * This Halon 1211 has subsequently been used to fill certain FFE [Fire Fighting Enterprises] portable...

  13. EFFICIENCY OF FIRE-FIGHTING PROTECTION OBJECTS IN PROVISION OF FIRE SAFETY AT INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Zhovna

    2008-01-01

    The paper gives an analysis of economic results pertaining to organization of a system for fire-fighting protection of industrial enterprises in theRepublicofBelarus. Statistical data on operational conditions of technical means of fire-fighting protection, particularly, automatic systems for detection and extinguishing of fires, systems of internal fire-fighting water-supply.  Requirements and provisions  of normative and technical documents are thoroughly studied. Observance of these docume...

  14. Crisis management with applicability on fire fighting plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaitescu, M.; Panaitescu, F. V.; Voicu, I.; Dumitrescu, L. G.

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents a case study for a crisis management analysis which address to fire fighting plants. The procedures include the steps of FTA (Failure tree analysis). The purpose of the present paper is to describe this crisis management plan with tools of FTA. The crisis management procedures have applicability on anticipated and emergency situations and help to describe and planning a worst-case scenario plan. For this issue must calculate the probabilities in different situations for fire fighting plants. In the conclusions of paper is analised the block diagram with components of fire fighting plant and are presented the solutions for each possible risk situations.

  15. Fire fighting system for inflammable liquids and process using it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levillain, C.

    1988-01-01

    For fighting fires of flammable liquids, such as liquid sodium or hydrocarbons, a layer of floating spheres (cellular concrete or hollow metal) is maintained on the surface by a square or preferentially triangular-meshed metallic net [fr

  16. Performance Evaluation of the Combined Agent Fire Fighting System (CAFFS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalberer, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    ... of the location. The Combined Agent Fire Fighting System (CAFFS) employs innovations in nozzle design, lightweight composites and combination agents to design a system with extinguishment capabilities of much larger ARFF vehicles...

  17. WILDLAND FIRE MANAGEMENT: Improved Planning Will Help Agencies Better Identify Fire-Fighting Preparedness Needs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Each year, wildland fires on federal lands burn millions of acres of forests, grasslands, and desert, and federal land management agencies expend hundreds of millions of dollars to fight these fires...

  18. Fire fighting capability assessment program Bruce B NGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This is a report on the completion of work relating to the assessment of the capability of Bruce B NGS to cope with a large fire incident. This included an evaluation of an exercise scenario that would simulate a large fire incident and of their fire plans and procedures. Finally the execution of fire plans by Bruce B NGS, as demonstrated by their application of human and material resources during a simulated large fire, was observed. The fire fighting equipment and the personal protective clothing and associated equipment that was in use was all of good quality and in good condition. There had also been notable improvement in communications equipment. Similarly, the human resources that had been assigned to fire fighting and rescue crews and that were available were more than adequate. Use of a logical incident command system, and the adoption of proper policy and procedures for radio communications were equally significant improvements. Practice should correct the breakdowns that occurred in these areas during the exercise. As well, there remains a need for the development of policy on fire fighting and rescue operations with more depth and clarity. In summary, the key point to be recognized is the degree of improvement that has been realized since the previous evaluation in 1990. Clearly the Emergency Response Teams organization of Bruce B NGS is evolving into an effective fire fighting force. Providing that the deficiencies identified in this report are addressed satisfactorily, Fire Cross is confident that the organization will have the capability to provide rescue and fire fighting services that will satisfy the need. 2 figs

  19. Fire fighting precautions at Bohunice Atomic Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Some shortcomings are discussed of the project design of fire protection at the V-1 and V-2 nuclear power plants. The basic shortcoming of the system is insufficient division of the units for fire protection. Fire fighting measures are described for cable areas, switch houses and outside transformers, primary and secondary circuits and auxiliary units. Measures are presented for increasing fire safety in Jaslovske Bohunice proceedi.ng from experience gained with a fire which had occurred at a nuclear power plant in Armenia. (E.S.)

  20. Improvement of fire fighting means for NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorov, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    The problems dealing with testing of flame dampers for NPP ventilation systems are considered. The characteristics of the Darmatt fire-resistant material developed for protection of cable lines and equipment against fire effects are given

  1. EFFICIENCY OF FIRE-FIGHTING PROTECTION OBJECTS IN PROVISION OF FIRE SAFETY AT INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zhovna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an analysis of economic results pertaining to organization of a system for fire-fighting protection of industrial enterprises in theRepublicofBelarus. Statistical data on operational conditions of technical means of fire-fighting protection, particularly, automatic systems for detection and extinguishing of fires, systems of internal fire-fighting water-supply.  Requirements and provisions  of normative and technical documents are thoroughly studied. Observance of these documents is to ensure the required level of  fire safety. On the basis of the obtained results concerning  economic analysis of efficiency optimization directions are defined for selection of technical means of fire-fighting protection at objects of industrial purpose.

  2. Computer-aided system for fire fighting in an underground mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosiek, F; Sikora, M; Urbanski, J [Politechnika Wroclawska (Poland). Instytut Gornictwa

    1989-01-01

    Discusses structure of an algorithm for computer-aided planning of fire fighting and rescue in an underground coal mine. The algorithm developed by the Mining Institute of the Wroclaw Technical University consists of ten options: regulations on fire fighting, fire alarm for miners working underground (rescue ways, fire zones etc.), information system for mine management, movements of fire fighting teams, distribution of fire fighting equipment, assessment of explosion hazards of fire gases, fire gas temperature control of blower operation, detection of endogenous fires, ventilation control. 2 refs.

  3. Impacts of fire, fire-fighting chemicals and post-fire stabilization techniques on the soil-plant system

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Fernández, María

    2017-01-01

    Forest fires, as well as fire-fighting chemicals, greatly affect the soil-plant system causing vegetation loss, alterations of soil properties and nutrient losses through volatilization, leaching and erosion. Soil recovery after fires depends on the regeneration of the vegetation cover, which protects the soil and prevents erosion. Fire-fighting chemicals contain compounds potentially toxic for plants and soil organisms, and thus their use might hamper the regeneration of burnt ecosystems. In...

  4. Combustion of metals, prevention and fire fighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellottee, H.

    1991-01-01

    The paper reviews the knowledge on metal combustion. Few works are devoted on metals such as magnesium or titanium. On the contrary liquid metals used as coolants, especially sodium, are much more studied. Results obtained on pool fires and spray fires are briefly given for global safety analysis of LMFBR. 11 refs

  5. Fire fighting in a radionuclide laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, H.

    1991-01-01

    A fire-brigade was called to a laboratory which held a handling licence for the radionuclides C-14, T, P-32, Se-75, Mo-99, and S-35. The fire-brigade was unaware of a release of radionuclides. Therefore they used respiratory equipment, and all persons present were subsequently examined for contamination. (DG) [de

  6. 46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-30 Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing systems which conform... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30...

  7. Fire fighting at Chernobyl and fire protection at UK nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindon, F.J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The fire fighting measures undertaken by the fire crews at the Chernobyl reactor accident are described. This information highlights the need to develop engineering equipment which will give a far greater degree of personnel protection to fire crews and others in radiological accidents. The British position on fire protection at nuclear power stations is outlined. The general levels of radiation exposure which would be used as a guide to persons in the vicinity of a radiation accident are also given. (UK)

  8. Monitoring system of multiple fire fighting based on computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinlong; Wang, Li; Gao, Xiaorong; Wang, Zeyong; Zhao, Quanke

    2010-10-01

    With the high demand of fire control in spacious buildings, computer vision is playing a more and more important role. This paper presents a new monitoring system of multiple fire fighting based on computer vision and color detection. This system can adjust to the fire position and then extinguish the fire by itself. In this paper, the system structure, working principle, fire orientation, hydrant's angle adjusting and system calibration are described in detail; also the design of relevant hardware and software is introduced. At the same time, the principle and process of color detection and image processing are given as well. The system runs well in the test, and it has high reliability, low cost, and easy nodeexpanding, which has a bright prospect of application and popularization.

  9. Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wündrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

    2009-04-01

    Subsurface coal fires destroy millions of tons of coal each year, have an immense impact to the ecological surrounding and threaten further coal reservoirs. Due to enormous dimensions a coal seam fire can develop, high operational expenses are needed. As part of the Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" the research team of University of Wuppertal (BUW) focuses on fire extinction strategies and tactics as well as aspects of environmental and health safety. Besides the choice and the correct application of different extinction techniques further factors are essential for the successful extinction. Appropriate tactics, well trained and protected personnel and the choice of the best fitting extinguishing agents are necessary for the successful extinction of a coal seam fire. The chosen strategy for an extinction campaign is generally determined by urgency and importance. It may depend on national objectives and concepts of coal conservation, on environmental protection (e.g. commitment to green house gases (GHG) reductions), national funding and resources for fire fighting (e.g. personnel, infrastructure, vehicles, water pipelines); and computer-aided models and simulations of coal fire development from self ignition to extinction. In order to devise an optimal fire fighting strategy, "aims of protection" have to be defined in a first step. These may be: - directly affected coal seams; - neighboring seams and coalfields; - GHG emissions into the atmosphere; - Returns on investments (costs of fire fighting compared to value of saved coal). In a further step, it is imperative to decide whether the budget shall define the results, or the results define the budget; i.e. whether there are fixed objectives for the mission that will dictate the overall budget, or whether the limited resources available shall set the scope within which the best possible results shall be

  10. Kuwait summons more fire fighting teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-05

    Kuwait is calling in more muscle to help kill its wild wells. This paper reports on the latest action in Kuwait, the leasing of well control contracts to Abel Engineering/Well Control Inc., Houston, and China Petroleum Engineering Construction Co. (CPEC). Abel is the sixth North American well control company called to the scene, while CPEC is the first summoned from the East. In addition, the service responsible for combating well fires and blowouts in the U.S.S.R.'s Azerbaijan oil fields signed an agreement with Kuwait's government, apparently involving a contract valued at more than $100 million, to extinguish fires at 150 Kuwaiti wells, reported Eastern Bloc Energy, a publication of Eastern Bloc Research Ltd., Newton Kyme, U.K. More help likely is on the way.

  11. Fire protection at hot laboratories: Prevention, surveillance and fire-fighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappellier, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    After pointing out that fire in a hot laboratory can be an important factor contributing to a radioactivity accident, the author briefly recalls the items to be taken into account in a fire hazard analysis. He then describes various important aspects of prevention, detection and fire-fighting which - at the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique - are governed by already defined rules or by guidelines which are sufficiently advanced to give a clear idea of the final conclusions to be drawn therefrom. From the point of view protection, the concept of fire sector has been evolved, at hot laboratories, becomes the fire and contamination sector, so as to ensure under all circumstances the containment of any radioactive materials dispersed in the premises on fire. Regarding fire detection, a study should be made on the constraints specific to the facility and liable to affect detector operation. These include ventilation, radiations, neutral or corrosive atmosphere, etc. As regards fire-fighting, two particular aspects are dealt with, namely the question of using water in case of fire and action to be taken concerning ventilation. A practical example - the protection of a ventilation system - is described. In conclusion the paper refers to the need for a thorough analysis specific to each hot laboratory, and to the importance of preparing an operational plan so as to avoid any dangerous improvisations in case of an accident. (author)

  12. Performance Evaluation Facility for Fire Fighting Thermal Imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Chan; Amon, Francine; Hamins, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates the characteristics of obscuring media inside an optical smoke cell, which is a bench-scale testing facility for the evaluation of thermal imaging cameras used by fire fighters. Light extinction coefficient and visibility through the smoke cell is characterized by the measured laser transmittance. The laser transmittance along the axial direction of the smoke cell is relatively uniform at upper and lower part for various air/fuel volume flow rate. Contrast level based image quality of visible CCD camera through the smoke cell is compared with that of thermal imaging camera. The optical smoke cell can be used as well-controlled and effective laboratory-scale test apparatus to evaluate the performance of thermal imaging camera for fire fighting application

  13. Foam formation in low expansion fire fighting equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Lucy Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes an investigation into the foam generation mechanisms involved in producing foam from a low expansion fire fighting branchpipe. The investigation was carried out using scale models of branchpipes, and a high-speed video camera was used to study the formation of the foam. The experiments provided evidence of three possible methods of bubble formation within this type of system: Stage 1 - Mixing within the branchpipe; Stage 2 - Air entrainment and bubble growth during the flight of the jet; Stage 3 - Aeration produced from the collision of the high speed jet onto a surface. Each stage is described in detail and the mechanism which has the greatest effect on the expansion ratio of the foam produced has been determined. The relevance of these findings to the design of branchpipes is discussed. (author)

  14. Interim guidelines for protecting fire-fighting personnel from multiple hazards at nuclear plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.R.; Bloom, C.W.

    1989-07-01

    This report provides interim guidelines for reducing the impact to fire fighting and other supporting emergency response personnel from the multiple hazards of radiation, heat stress, and trauma when fighting a fire in a United States commercial nuclear power plant. Interim guidelines are provided for fire brigade composition, training, equipment, procedures, strategies, heat stress and trauma. In addition, task definitions are provided to evaluate and further enhance the interim guidelines over the long term. 19 refs

  15. Fires in rooms containing electrical components - incident planning, fire fighting tactics, risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, Tommy; Ottosson, Jan; Lindskog, BertiI; Soederquist Bende, Evy; Eriksson, Fredrik; Haffling, Stefan

    2006-12-01

    On July 1, 2005 a fire occurred within an electrical switch room at Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant. At the evaluation of the incident it was identified that the pre-fire plans did not give sufficient information in order to make the appropriate decisions. Questions raised based on the incident are how decisions are made and orders are delegated with respect to the incident command, which fire fighting tactic should be used, which types of extinguishing media should be used, what are the risks with respect to safety of staff and safety of the reactor. Lessons learned from the fire at Forsmark were that pre-incident planning was at hand but the information was not sufficient to make the correct initial decisions that might be critical for life and property. One of the most crucial ingredients in all safety related work is to utilize previous experience in order to maintain a high degree of safety. Lessons learnt are also the foundation on which the ability to construct or create strong barriers against a certain fault phenomena, fault mechanism or type of initial event. In the case of nuclear processes, fire is considered as an important and critical initial event which has to be recognized in a number of cases in order to maintain a safe process. The likelihood for a fire to represent an initial event should not be underestimated and can therefore not be neglected, probabilistically or deterministically, unless the inherent safety systems can not control the event in an acceptable manner. Regardless of safety measures and lessons learnt from previous experiences in the construction and the operation of the nuclear facility, fires can occur. Previous experiences point out that process system, e.g. systems that are part of the turbine, are more frequently subject to fire incidents compared to ordinary safety systems. Fires in electrical components, often electrical cabinets, can be difficult to handle and to extinguish quickly. This report presents the background work

  16. Training Effectiveness Evaluation (TEE) of the Advanced Fire Fighting Training System. Focus on the Trained Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordell, Curtis C.; And Others

    A training effectiveness evaluation of the Navy Advanced Fire Fighting Training System was conducted. This system incorporates simulated fires as well as curriculum materials and instruction. The fires are non-pollutant, computer controlled, and installed in a simulated shipboard environment. Two teams of 15 to 16 persons, with varying amounts of…

  17. A WebGIS-based command control system for forest fire fighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianyu; Ming, Dongping; Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Haitao

    2006-10-01

    Forest is a finite resource and fire prevention is crucial work. However, once a forest fire or accident occurs, timely and effective fire-fighting is the only necessary measure. The aim of this research is to build a computerized command control system based on WEBGIS to direct fire-fighting. Firstly, this paper introduces the total technique flow and functional modules of the system. Secondly, this paper analyses the key techniques for building the system, and they are data obtaining, data organizing & management, architecture of WebGIS and sharing & interoperation technique. In the end, this paper demonstrates the on line martial symbol editing function to show the running result of system. The practical application of this system showed that it played very important role in the forest fire fighting work. In addition, this paper proposes some strategic recommendations for the further development of the system.

  18. Three-dimensional tracking for efficient fire fighting in complex situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhloufi, Moulay; Rossi, Lucile

    2009-05-01

    Each year, hundred millions hectares of forests burn causing human and economic losses. For efficient fire fighting, the personnel in the ground need tools permitting the prediction of fire front propagation. In this work, we present a new technique for automatically tracking fire spread in three-dimensional space. The proposed approach uses a stereo system to extract a 3D shape from fire images. A new segmentation technique is proposed and permits the extraction of fire regions in complex unstructured scenes. It works in the visible spectrum and combines information extracted from YUV and RGB color spaces. Unlike other techniques, our algorithm does not require previous knowledge about the scene. The resulting fire regions are classified into different homogenous zones using clustering techniques. Contours are then extracted and a feature detection algorithm is used to detect interest points like local maxima and corners. Extracted points from stereo images are then used to compute the 3D shape of the fire front. The resulting data permits to build the fire volume. The final model is used to compute important spatial and temporal fire characteristics like: spread dynamics, local orientation, heading direction, etc. Tests conducted on the ground show the efficiency of the proposed scheme. This scheme is being integrated with a fire spread mathematical model in order to predict and anticipate the fire behaviour during fire fighting. Also of interest to fire-fighters, is the proposed automatic segmentation technique that can be used in early detection of fire in complex scenes.

  19. Fighting with Fires: Decentralize Control to Increase Responsiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Robert

    2001-01-01

    .... The examination of theory explains how the Army's centralized control of fires to facilitate massing of fires, coupled with a poorly developed digital fire control system are the root causes of failure...

  20. Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denise Baclawski

    2010-03-08

    The University of Nevada, Reno Fire Science Academy (FSA) applied for grant funding to develop and deliver programs for municipal, rural, and volunteer firefighters. The FSA specializes in preparing responders for a variety of emergency events, including flammable liquid fires resulting from accidents, intentional acts, or natural disasters. Live fire training on full scale burnable props is the hallmark of FSA training, allowing responders to practice critical skills in a realistic, yet safe environment. Unfortunately, flammable liquid live fire training is often not accessible to municipal, rural, or volunteer firefighters due to limited department training budgets, even though most department personnel will be exposed to flammable liquid fire incidents during the course of their careers. In response to this training need, the FSA developed a course during the first year of the grant (Year One), Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters. During the three years of the grant, a total of 2,029 emergency responders received this training. In Year Three, two new courses, a train-the-trainer for Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community and Management of Large-Scale Disasters for Public Officials were developed and pilot tested during the Real-World Disaster Management Conference held at the FSA in June of 2007. Two research projects were conducted during Years Two and Three. The first, conducted over a two year period, evaluated student surveys regarding the value of the flammable liquids training received. The second was a needs assessment conducted for rural Nevada. Both projects provided important feedback and a basis for curricula development and improvements.

  1. Fighting and preventing post-earthquake fires in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xuefeng; Zhang Xin

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power plant post-earthquake fires will cause not only personnel injury, severe economic loss, but also serious environmental pollution. For the moment, nuclear power is in a position of rapid development in China. Considering the earthquake-prone characteristics of our country, it is of great engineering importance to investigate the nuclear power plant post-earthquake fires. This article analyzes the cause, influential factors and development characteristics of nuclear power plant post-earthquake fires in details, and summarizes the three principles should be followed in fighting and preventing nuclear power plant post-earthquake fires, such as solving problems in order of importance and urgency, isolation prior to prevention, immediate repair and regular patrol. Three aspects were pointed out that should be paid attention in fighting and preventing post-earthquake fires. (authors)

  2. Improving Reliability of a fire-fighting pump set with Axiomatic Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcidiacono Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a case study featuring Axiomatic Design and Multi-Level Hierarchical model (MLH applied to redesign a fire-fighting pump set. In particular, two different design concepts are presented to be applied to the supporting frame of the system to limit a vibration problem that can arise during potential malfunctioning of the fire-fighting pump. The selection of the best design has been carried out through reliability evaluation process and through the cost of failure based on the MLH model.

  3. Criticality and fire-fighting - Recent developments at Westinghouse, Springfields Fuels Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D. A.; Clemson, P. D.

    2009-01-01

    Fire-fighting advice in criticality-controlled areas has traditionally presented unique challenges to the nuclear industry, primarily because of the introduction of moderators / reflectors from water and foam and the potential rearrangement of materials. In an actual emergency, the decision to use water-based fire extinguishing methods is best influenced by a consensus between the criticality and fire specialists as part of the emergency planning process. A recent review of the fire-fighting arrangements at the site operated by Springfields Fuels Limited (SFL) in Preston in the United Kingdom has identified that more detailed guidance may be valuable relating to the specific areas and materials at risk, particularly to highlight the degree of risk and provide guidance on the risk of criticality if water-based fire extinguishing methods were deemed necessary. This has prompted consideration of a criticality 'Fire Tag' system, consisting of colour coded markers in the area (an immediate visual indicator of both the degree of risk and the appropriate fire-fighting response) and single sheet cards (specific guidance for the areas and materials at risk), with the process supported by appropriate training. The approach is currently being trialled on a small scale, and initial feedback from personnel has been positive. (authors)

  4. Inspection of fire protection measures and fire fighting capability at nuclear power plants. A publication within the NUSS programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present publication has been developed with the help of experts from regulatory, operating and engineering organizations, all with practical experience in the field of fire protection of nuclear power plants. The publication outlines practices for inspecting the fire protection measures at nuclear power plants in accordance with Safety Series No.50-SG-D2(Rev.1), Fire Protection in Nuclear Power Plants, and includes a comprehensive fire safety inspection checklist of the specific elements to be addressed when evaluating the adequacy and effectiveness of the fire protection measures and manual fire fighting capability available at operating nuclear power plants. The publication will be useful not only to regulators and safety assessors but also to operators and designers. The book addresses a specialized topic and it is recommended that it be used in conjunction with Safety Guide No.50-SG-D2(Rev.1)

  5. Fire fighting. Measures to guarantee the safety of the radioactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orta Aguilera, R.

    1993-01-01

    The work relates the incidence of the aspects related to the fire prevention and fighting as well as the activities of rescue and saving in the radioactive facilities, with the objective of guaranteeing a strict safety regime of all installations along the country so as to reduce to the minimum the risk for the personnel, the population and the environment

  6. Indicator Systems for School and Teacher Evaluation: Fire-Fighting It Is!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz-Gibbon, C. T.

    In 1979, Gene Glass suggested that it might not be possible to evaluate schools nor to create widely applicable research findings, but that the complexity of education was such that merely "fire-fighting," establishing monitoring systems to alert about educational events, was the best approach. In the United Kingdom, monitoring systems…

  7. Applicability of ISO 16697 Data to Spacecraft Fire Fighting Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, David B.; Beeson, Harold D.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation Agenda: (1) Selected variables affecting oxygen consumption during spacecraft fires, (2) General overview of ISO 16697, (3) Estimated amounts of material consumed during combustion in typical ISS enclosures, (4) Discussion on potential applications.

  8. New technological developments in oil well fire fighting equipment and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, B.; Matthews, R.T.

    1995-12-31

    Since Drake`s first oil well in 1859, well fires have been frequent and disastrous. Hardly a year has passed in over a century without a well fire somewhere in the world. In the 1920`s the classic method of fire fighting using explosives to starve the fire of oxygen was developed and it has been used extensively ever since. While explosives are still one of the most frequently used methods today, several other methods are used to supplement it where special conditions exist. Tunneling at an angle from a safe distance is used in some cases, especially where the fire is too hot for a close approach on the ground surface. Pumping drilling muds into a well to plug it is another method that has been used successfully for some time. Diverter wells are occasionally used, and sometimes simply pumping enough water on a well fire is sufficient to extinguish it. Of course, prevention is always the best solution. Many advances in blow-out prevention devices have been developed in the last 50 years and the number of fires has been substantially reduced compared to the number of wells drilled. However, very little in new technology has been applied to oil well fire fighting in the 1960s, 1970s, or 1980s. Overall technological progress has accelerated tremendously in this period, of course, but new materials and equipment were not applied to this field for some reason. Saddam Hussein`s environmental holocaust in Kuwait changed that by causing many people throughout the world to focus their creative energy on more efficient oil well fire fighting methods.

  9. Weather Observation Systems and Efficiency of Fighting Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarov, N.; Moltchanova, E.; Obersteiner, M.

    2007-12-01

    Weather observation is an essential component of modern forest fire management systems. Satellite and in-situ based weather observation systems might help to reduce forest loss, human casualties and destruction of economic capital. In this paper, we develop and apply a methodology to assess the benefits of various weather observation systems on reductions of burned area due to early fire detection. In particular, we consider a model where the air patrolling schedule is determined by a fire hazard index. The index is computed from gridded daily weather data for the area covering parts Spain and Portugal. We conduct a number of simulation experiments. First, the resolution of the original data set is artificially reduced. The reduction of the total forest burned area associated with air patrolling based on a finer weather grid indicates the benefit of using higher spatially resolved weather observations. Second, we consider a stochastic model to simulate forest fires and explore the sensitivity of the model with respect to the quality of input data. The analysis of combination of satellite and ground monitoring reveals potential cost saving due to a "system of systems effect" and substantial reduction in burned area. Finally, we estimate the marginal improvement schedule for loss of life and economic capital as a function of the improved fire observing system.

  10. Ecotoxicity of waste water from industrial fires fighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobes, P.; Danihelka, P.; Janickova, S.; Marek, J.; Bernatikova, S.; Suchankova, J.; Baudisova, B.; Sikorova, L.; Soldan, P.

    2012-04-01

    As shown at several case studies, waste waters from extinguishing of industrial fires involving hazardous chemicals could be serious threat primary for surrounding environmental compartments (e.g. surface water, underground water, soil) and secondary for human beings, animals and plants. The negative impacts of the fire waters on the environment attracted public attention since the chemical accident in the Sandoz (Schweizerhalle) in November 1986 and this process continues. Last October, special Seminary on this topic has been organized by UNECE in Bonn. Mode of interaction of fire waters with the environment and potential transport mechanisms are still discussed. However, in many cases waste water polluted by extinguishing foam (always with high COD values), flammable or toxic dangerous substances as heavy metals, pesticides or POPs, are released to surface water or soil without proper decontamination, which can lead to environmental accident. For better understanding of this type of hazard and better coordination of firemen brigades and other responders, the ecotoxicity of such type of waste water should be evaluated in both laboratory tests and in water samples collected during real cases of industrial fires. Case studies, theoretical analysis of problem and toxicity tests on laboratory model samples (e.g. on bacteria, mustard seeds, daphnia and fishes) will provide additional necessary information. Preliminary analysis of waters from industrial fires (polymer material storage and galvanic plating facility) in the Czech Republic has already confirmed high toxicity. In first case the toxicity may be attributed to decomposition of burned material and extinguishing foams, in the latter case it can be related to cyanides in original electroplating baths. On the beginning of the year 2012, two years R&D project focused on reduction of extinguish waste water risk for the environment, was approved by Technology Agency of the Czech Republic.

  11. Applying Open Source Game Engine for Building Visual Simulation Training System of Fire Fighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Diping; Jin, Xuesheng; Zhang, Jin; Han, Dong

    There's a growing need for fire departments to adopt a safe and fair method of training to ensure that the firefighting commander is in a position to manage a fire incident. Visual simulation training systems, with their ability to replicate and interact with virtual fire scenarios through the use of computer graphics or VR, become an effective and efficient method for fire ground education. This paper describes the system architecture and functions of a visual simulated training system of fire fighting on oil storage, which adopting Delat3D, a open source game and simulation engine, to provide realistic 3D views. It presents that using open source technology provides not only the commercial-level 3D effects but also a great reduction of cost.

  12. Fires in rooms containing electrical components - incident planning, fire fighting tactics, risks; Braender i driftrum - Insatsplaner, slaeckteknik, risker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Tommy; Ottosson, Jan; Lindskog, BertiI; Soederquist Bende, Evy; Eriksson, Fredrik; Haffling, Stefan

    2006-12-15

    On July 1, 2005 a fire occurred within an electrical switch room at Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant. At the evaluation of the incident it was identified that the pre-fire plans did not give sufficient information in order to make the appropriate decisions. Questions raised based on the incident are how decisions are made and orders are delegated with respect to the incident command, which fire fighting tactic should be used, which types of extinguishing media should be used, what are the risks with respect to safety of staff and safety of the reactor. Lessons learned from the fire at Forsmark were that pre-incident planning was at hand but the information was not sufficient to make the correct initial decisions that might be critical for life and property. One of the most crucial ingredients in all safety related work is to utilize previous experience in order to maintain a high degree of safety. Lessons learnt are also the foundation on which the ability to construct or create strong barriers against a certain fault phenomena, fault mechanism or type of initial event. In the case of nuclear processes, fire is considered as an important and critical initial event which has to be recognized in a number of cases in order to maintain a safe process. The likelihood for a fire to represent an initial event should not be underestimated and can therefore not be neglected, probabilistically or deterministically, unless the inherent safety systems can not control the event in an acceptable manner. Regardless of safety measures and lessons learnt from previous experiences in the construction and the operation of the nuclear facility, fires can occur. Previous experiences point out that process system, e.g. systems that are part of the turbine, are more frequently subject to fire incidents compared to ordinary safety systems. Fires in electrical components, often electrical cabinets, can be difficult to handle and to extinguish quickly. This report presents the background work

  13. Peace-time radiological training for fire fighting and paramedic staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shipment of radioactive materials over commercial highways has had a proven record of safety for many years. Accidents involving radioactive material have been rare. However, good emergency planning requires that fire protection agencies be prepared for such an incident. In an effort to provide this preparedness, the Benton County Department of Emergency Services, with the cooperation of the Washington Public Power Supply System and US Department of Energy, Richland Office, has prepared this manual for local fire fighting and paramedic staff. This manual provides a basic understanding of radioactivity and the role of these teams during an emergency involving radioactive material

  14. A WSN-based tool for urban and industrial fire-fighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De San Bernabe Clemente, Alberto; Martínez-de Dios, José Ramiro; Ollero Baturone, Aníbal

    2012-11-06

    This paper describes a WSN tool to increase safety in urban and industrial fire-fighting activities. Unlike most approaches, we assume that there is no preexisting WSN in the building, which involves interesting advantages but imposes some constraints. The system integrates the following functionalities: fire monitoring, firefighter monitoring and dynamic escape path guiding. It also includes a robust localization method that employs RSSI-range models dynamically trained to cope with the peculiarities of the environment. The training and application stages of the method are applied simultaneously, resulting in significant adaptability. Besides simulations and laboratory tests, a prototype of the proposed system has been validated in close-to-operational conditions.

  15. Fighting Smoldering Fires in Silos – A Cautionary Note on Using Carbon Dioxide to Inert

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2017-01-01

    This communication seeks to draw attention to the hazards of releasing liquid carbon dioxide into environments where an ignitable atmosphere may exist. Static discharges have sufficient energy to ignite flammable vapors and an internal explosion may result when fighting smoldering fires using...... this approach. A recent article in Biomass and Bioenergy examines an explosion in a Norwegian wood pellet silo when attempting to suppress a smoldering fire with CO₂. The article argues that the electrostatic hazard of CO₂ is widely under-appreciated and incidents like this are avoidable....

  16. Evaluation of a wearable physiological status monitor during simulated fire fighting activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Denise L; Haller, Jeannie M; Dolezal, Brett A; Cooper, Christopher B; Fehling, Patricia C

    2014-01-01

    A physiological status monitor (PSM) has been embedded in a fire-resistant shirt. The purpose of this research study was to examine the ability of the PSM-shirt to accurately detect heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) when worn under structural fire fighting personal protective equipment (PPE) during the performance of various activities relevant to fire fighting. Eleven healthy, college-aged men completed three activities (walking, searching/crawling, and ascending/descending stairs) that are routinely performed during fire fighting operations while wearing the PSM-shirt under structural fire fighting PPE. Heart rate and RR recorded by the PSM-shirt were compared to criterion values measured concurrently with an ECG and portable metabolic measurement system, respectively. For all activities combined (overall) and for each activity, small differences were found between the PSM-shirt and ECG (mean difference [95% CI]: overall: -0.4 beats/min [-0.8, -0.1]; treadmill: -0.4 beats/min [-0.7, -0.1]; search: -1.7 beats/min [-3.1, -.04]; stairs: 0.4 beats/min [0.04, 0.7]). Standard error of the estimate was 3.5 beats/min for all tasks combined and 1.9, 5.9, and 1.9 beats/min for the treadmill walk, search, and stair ascent/descent, respectively. Correlations between the PSM-shirt and criterion heart rates were high (r = 0.95 to r = 0.99). The mean difference between RR recorded by the PSM-shirt and criterion overall was 1.1 breaths/min (95% CI: -1.9 to -0.4). The standard error of the estimate for RR ranged from 4.2 breaths/min (treadmill) to 8.2 breaths/min (search), with an overall value of 6.2 breaths/min. These findings suggest that the PSM-shirt provides valid measures of HR and useful approximations of RR when worn during fire fighting duties.

  17. Clinimetric quality of the fire fighting simulation test as part of the Dutch fire fighters Workers' Health Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sluiter Judith K

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinimetric data for the fire fighting simulation test (FFST, a new test proposed for the Workers' Health Surveillance (WHS of Dutch fire fighters, were evaluated. Methods Twenty-one fire fighters took the FFST three times with one and three weeks between testing. Clinimetric quality was determined by means of reliability, agreement and validity. For reliability and agreement, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, and standard error of measurement (SEM, were analysed. For construct validity, the tests from 45 fire fighters were correlated with their own and their supervisors' rated work ability. Results The ICCs were 0.56 and 0.79 at the one-week and three-week test-retest periods, respectively. Testing times ranged from 9 to 17 minutes; the SEMs were 70 s at the one-week and 40 s at the three-week test-retest periods. The construct validity was moderate (-0.47 ≤ r ≤ -0.33; p Conclusions The FFST was reliable with acceptable agreement after three weeks. Construct validity was moderate. We recommend using FFST as a part of the WHS for Dutch fire fighters. It is advised that fire fighters should perform the FFST once as a trial before judging their performance in testing time during the second performance.

  18. Computer code structure for evaluation of fire protection measures and fighting capability at nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, V.

    1997-01-01

    In this work a computer code structure for Fire Protection Measures (FPM) and Fire Fighting Capability (FFC) at Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) is presented. It allows to evaluate the category (satisfactory (s), needs for further evaluation (n), unsatisfactory (u)) to which belongs the given NPP for a self-control in view of an IAEA inspection. This possibility of a self assessment resulted from IAEA documents. Our approach is based on international experience gained in this field and stated in IAEA recommendations. As an illustration we used the FORTRAN programming language statement to make clear the structure of the computer code for the problem taken into account. This computer programme can be conceived so that some literal message in English and Romanian languages be displayed beside the percentage assessments. (author)

  19. A WSN-Based Tool for Urban and Industrial Fire-Fighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Ollero Baturone

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a WSN tool to increase safety in urban and industrial fire-fighting activities. Unlike most approaches, we assume that there is no preexisting WSN in the building, which involves interesting advantages but imposes some constraints. The system integrates the following functionalities: fire monitoring, firefighter monitoring and dynamic escape path guiding. It also includes a robust localization method that employs RSSI-range models dynamically trained to cope with the peculiarities of the environment. The training and application stages of the method are applied simultaneously, resulting in significant adaptability. Besides simulations and laboratory tests, a prototype of the proposed system has been validated in close-to-operational conditions.

  20. A portable W-band radar system for enhancement of infrared vision in fire fighting operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenner, Mathias; Zech, Christian; Hülsmann, Axel; Kühn, Jutta; Schlechtweg, Michael; Hahmann, Konstantin; Kleiner, Bernhard; Ulrich, Michael; Ambacher, Oliver

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we present a millimeter wave radar system which will enhance the performance of infrared cameras used for fire-fighting applications. The radar module is compact and lightweight such that the system can be combined with inertial sensors and integrated in a hand-held infrared camera. This allows for precise distance measurements in harsh environmental conditions, such as tunnel or industrial fires, where optical sensors are unreliable or fail. We discuss the design of the RF front-end, the antenna and a quasi-optical lens for beam shaping as well as signal processing and demonstrate the performance of the system by in situ measurements in a smoke filled environment.

  1. Utilisation of a new fire fighting device on board of a diesel vehicle in the underground German black coal industry; Einsatz einer neuartigen bordfesten Loeschanlage auf dieselgetriebenen Fahrzeugen im untertaegigen deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetting, Dieter; Alze, Matthias [Bergwerk Ost, Hamm (Germany); Cerny, Udo [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany). Servicebereich Technik und Logistik - DZGR

    2010-03-15

    In the German hard coal mining industry approximately since the 1970ies, automatically releasing stationary powder snow based fire fighting systems are built on diesel vehicles due to reasons of fire protection. These fire fighting systems are to recognize a developing fire by sensors and to extinguish the fire by an automatic output of a fire fighting agent with high rate (HRD = High Rate Discharge) into a closed engine compartment or within the range of hydraulics. Simultaneously with the releasing of the fire extinguishing system the engine of the vehicle is stop automatically. Due to the stationary fire fighting systems diesel vehicles are not classified with views of risk as fire load.

  2. PERENCANAAN DAN ANALISA SISTEM SPRINKLER OTOMATIS DAN KEBUTUHAN AIR PEMADAMAN FIRE FIGHTING HOTEL XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahesa Dwi Putri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dalam pembangunan sebuah gedung terdapat suatu utilitas keamanan salah satunya adalah sistem instalasi sprinkler yang dirancang sesuai dengan standar proteksi kebakaran yang disiapkan untuk mencegah, memadamkan dan menanggulangi kebakaran dalam bangunan gedung. Pada perencanaan sistem sprinkler ini bertujuan untuk memahami dan melakukan perhitungan pada kecepatan aliran dan tekanan serta merencanakan kebutuhan air pada pemadaman fire fighting gedung hotel. Penulis melakukan penganalisaan dan perhitungan dengan menentukan discharge coefficient of the sprinkler k-factor pada kecepatan aliran fluida, selanjutnya menggunakan presure loss dari Hazen-Williams dan dilakukan kebutuhan air dengan mengacu pada Azas Bernoulli, yang penulis sebut dengan metode Step by Step. Dari hasil perhitungan ini didapat bahwa hubungan antara kecepatan aliran pada sprinkler otomatis ini dengan pressure loss yang terjadi dipengaruhi oleh area yang direncanakan, diameter pipa yang digunakan serta panjang pipa. Dimana perencanaan ini mengacu pada standar yang berlaku seperti Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI dan National Fire Protection Association (NFPA yang harus dipakai dalam perencanaan siste sprinkler otomatis pada sebuah gedung.

  3. Normalization of water flow rate for external fire fighting of the buildings in settlements with zone water supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deryushev Leonid Georgievich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the requirements for fire safety assurance are justified for the objects, in which water is supplied with account for serial and parallel area zoning. In the process of zoning the district is segregated into such parts, for which head rate in any point of selection of water from network will not exceed 6 bar. In the current regulatory rules the requirements for the calculation of the costs of water points are stated, as well as in case of extinguishing fires at the sites with water-supply systems zones. It is recommended to analyze each zone of the system of water-supply separately, without interrelation with the common water feeders, water consumers and services of fire extinguishing. Such an approach to assign water discharge for fire extinguishing results in the decrease of fire safety of an object, deforms calculation technique of outside systems of water-supply of the similar-type objects located in different parts of the terrain. Taking the number of fires and water consumption for fire suppression by the number of residents in each zone, we thus underestimate the capacity of the pipeline system. It is offered to make changes in Norms and Standards in force on fire safety of settlements. The recommendations on regulation of the number of fires and water flow for fire fighting in residential objects with zoned systems of water-supply are formulated.

  4. Multi-Level Wild Land Fire Fighting Management Support System for an Optimized Guidance of Ground and Air Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almer, Alexander; Schnabel, Thomas; Perko, Roland; Raggam, Johann; Köfler, Armin; Feischl, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Climate change will lead to a dramatic increase in damage from forest fires in Europe by the end of this century. In the Mediterranean region, the average annual area affected by forest fires has quadrupled since the 1960s (WWF, 2012). The number of forest fires is also on the increase in Central and Northern Europe. The Austrian forest fire database shows a total of 584 fires for the period 2012 to 2014, while even large areas of Sweden were hit by forest fires in August 2014, which were brought under control only after two weeks of intense fire-fighting efforts supported by European civil protection modules. Based on these facts, the improvements in forest fire control are a major international issue in the quest to protect human lives and resources as well as to reduce the negative environmental impact of these fires to a minimum. Within this paper the development of a multi-functional airborne management support system within the frame of the Austrian national safety and security research programme (KIRAS) is described. The main goal of the developments is to assist crisis management tasks of civil emergency teams and armed forces in disaster management by providing multi spectral, near real-time airborne image data products. As time, flexibility and reliability as well as objective information are crucial aspects in emergency management, the used components are tailored to meet these requirements. An airborne multi-functional management support system was developed as part of the national funded project AIRWATCH, which enables real-time monitoring of natural disasters based on optical and thermal images. Airborne image acquisition, a broadband line of sight downlink and near real-time processing solutions allow the generation of an up-to-date geo-referenced situation map. Furthermore, this paper presents ongoing developments for innovative extensions and research activities designed to optimize command operations in national and international fire-fighting

  5. Methods and means for reducing pressure in systems for fire fighting and water spraying in mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlyuk, A I; Grin' , G V; Yushchenko, Yu N

    1986-01-01

    Valves are evaluated used in water systems for fire fighting and dust suppression in underground black coal mines in the USSR. Specifications of the KR-2, the KR-3 and the R-86 pressure-reducing valves used in deep mines are analyzed. The valves are characterized by low reliability, low capacity and low pressure reducing range. Therefore groups (parallel arrangement) of pressure-reducing valves are used. Using valve groups increases equipment cost. The pressure-reducing systems should consist of no more than 2 valves. The VNIIGD Institute developed the RKGD pressure-reducing valve with the following specifications: inlet pressure 6.87 MPa, outlet pressure from 0.98 to 2.45 MPa, water discharge 100 m/sup 3//h). The RKGD valves are characterized by high reliability but extremely high weight. Therefore, the VNIIGD Institute developed a modified version of pressure-reducing valve, called the PRK (with maximum inlet pressure of 5 MPa, outlet pressure ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 MPa, water discharge 80 m/sup 3//h and weighing 5 kg). Design of the PRK pressure-reducing valve is shown.

  6. Numerical modelling of the work of a pulsed aerosol system for fire fighting at the ignitions of liquid hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychkov, A. D.

    2009-06-01

    The work of a pulsed aerosol system for fire fighting is modelled, which is designed for fire fighting at oil storages and at the spills of oil products, whose vapors were modelled by gaseous methane. The system represents a device for separate installation, which consists of a charge of solid propellant (the gas generator) and a container with fine-dispersed powder of the flame-damper substance. The methane combustion was described by a one-stage gross-reaction, the influence of the concentration of vapors of the flame-damper substance on the combustion process was taken into account by reducing the pre-exponent factor in the Arrhenius law and was described by an empirical dependence. The computational experiment showed that the application of the pulsed aerosol system for fire fighting ensures an efficient transport of fine-dispersed aerosol particles of the flame-damping substance and its forming vapors to the combustion zone; the concentration of particles ensures the damping of the heat source.

  7. Fighting Fire with Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossetta, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Advancing the concept of populism as a political style, this study compares the debate performances of two British party leaders, Nick Clegg and Nigel Farage, as they clashed in a pair of televised debates over Britain’s EU membership ahead of the 2014 European Parliament elections. The argument ...

  8. Development of Human Factors Engineering Requirements for Fire Fighting Protective Equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hopmeier, Michael; Christen, Hank T; Malone, Michael V

    2005-01-01

    This report is the result of an effort to develop an understanding of fire fighter needs through an assessment of relevant research and fire fighter-related literature, forums, conferences, and symposia...

  9. SIMULATION OF LANDMARK APPROACH FOR WALL FOLLOWING ALGORITHM ON FIRE-FIGHTING ROBOT USING V-REP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumarsih Condroayu Purbarani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous mobile robot has been implemented to assist humans in their daily activity. Autonomous robots have also contributed significantly in human safety. Autonomous mobile robot have been implemented to assist humans in their daily activity. Autonomous robots Have also contributed significantly in human safety. An example of the autonomous robot in the human safety sector is the fire fighting robot, which is the main topic of this paper. As an autonomous robot, the fire fighting robot needs a robust navigation ability to execute a given task in the shortest time interval. Wall-following algorithm is one of several navigating algorithm that simplifies this autonomous navigation problem. As a contribution, we propose two methods that could be combined to make the existing wall-following algorithm more robust. The combined wall-flowing algorithm will be compared to the original wall-following algorithm. By doing so, we could determine which method has more impact on the robot’s navigation robustness. Our goal is to see which method is more effective when combined with the wall-following algorithm.

  10. Effects of fire and three fire-fighting chemicals on main soil properties, plant nutrient content and vegetation growth and cover after 10 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Fernández, M., E-mail: mariafernandez@iiag.csic.es; Gómez-Rey, M.X., E-mail: mxgomez@iiag.csic.es; González-Prieto, S.J., E-mail: serafin@iiag.csic.es

    2015-05-15

    The study addresses a knowledge-gap in the long-term ecological consequences of fire and fire-fighting chemicals. Ten years after a prescribed fire and the application of three fire-fighting chemicals, their effects on the soil–plant system were evaluated. Five treatments were established: unburnt soils (US) and burnt soils treated with water alone (BS), foaming agent (BS + Fo), Firesorb (BS + Fi) and ammonium polyphosphate (BS + Ap). Soils (0–2 cm depth) and foliar material of shrubs (Erica umbellata, Pterospartum tridentatum and Ulex micranthus) and trees (Pinus pinaster) were analysed for total N, δ{sup 15}N, and soil-available and plant total macronutrients and trace elements. Soil pH, NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N and NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N; pine basal diameter and height; and shrub cover and height were also measured. Compared with US plots, burnt soils had less nitrates and more Mo. Although differences were not always significant, BS + Ap had the highest levels of soil available P, Na and Al. Plants from BS + Ap plots had higher values of δ{sup 15}N (P. pinaster and E. umbellata), P (all species), Na (P. tridentatum and U. micranthus) and Mg (E. umbellata and P. tridentatum) than other treatments; while K in plants from BS + Ap plots was the highest among treatments for P. pinaster and the lowest for the shrubs. Pines in US plots were higher and wider than in burnt treatments, except for BS + Ap, where the tallest and widest trees were found, although half of them were either dead (the second highest mortality after BS + Fi) or had a distorted trunk. BS + Ap was the treatment with strongest effects on plants, showing E. umbellata the lowest coverage and height, P. tridentatum the highest coverage, U. micranthus one of the lowest coverages and being the only treatment where Genista triacanthos was absent. Consequently, it is concluded that both fire and ammonium polyphosphate application had significant effects on the soil–plant system after 10 years

  11. Effects of fire and three fire-fighting chemicals on main soil properties, plant nutrient content and vegetation growth and cover after 10 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Fernández, M.; Gómez-Rey, M.X.; González-Prieto, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    The study addresses a knowledge-gap in the long-term ecological consequences of fire and fire-fighting chemicals. Ten years after a prescribed fire and the application of three fire-fighting chemicals, their effects on the soil–plant system were evaluated. Five treatments were established: unburnt soils (US) and burnt soils treated with water alone (BS), foaming agent (BS + Fo), Firesorb (BS + Fi) and ammonium polyphosphate (BS + Ap). Soils (0–2 cm depth) and foliar material of shrubs (Erica umbellata, Pterospartum tridentatum and Ulex micranthus) and trees (Pinus pinaster) were analysed for total N, δ 15 N, and soil-available and plant total macronutrients and trace elements. Soil pH, NH 4 + –N and NO 3 − –N; pine basal diameter and height; and shrub cover and height were also measured. Compared with US plots, burnt soils had less nitrates and more Mo. Although differences were not always significant, BS + Ap had the highest levels of soil available P, Na and Al. Plants from BS + Ap plots had higher values of δ 15 N (P. pinaster and E. umbellata), P (all species), Na (P. tridentatum and U. micranthus) and Mg (E. umbellata and P. tridentatum) than other treatments; while K in plants from BS + Ap plots was the highest among treatments for P. pinaster and the lowest for the shrubs. Pines in US plots were higher and wider than in burnt treatments, except for BS + Ap, where the tallest and widest trees were found, although half of them were either dead (the second highest mortality after BS + Fi) or had a distorted trunk. BS + Ap was the treatment with strongest effects on plants, showing E. umbellata the lowest coverage and height, P. tridentatum the highest coverage, U. micranthus one of the lowest coverages and being the only treatment where Genista triacanthos was absent. Consequently, it is concluded that both fire and ammonium polyphosphate application had significant effects on the soil–plant system after 10 years. - Highlights: • We hypothesized

  12. Fighting fire with gas. CO{sub 2} extinguishes smouldering fires in biomass silos and waste bunkers; Effizientes Feuerwehr-Gas. CO{sub 2} loescht Schwelbraende in Biomasse-Silos und Abfallbunkern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-07-01

    Organic materials are a great source of energy and so biomass is in big demand. But wherever large amounts of wood, waste and straw are stored in huge silos, there is also a risk of smouldering fires and even explosions. Conventional methods are relatively ineffective at extinguishing fires such as these. But a new extinguishing system from Linde uses CO{sub 2} to effectively fight smouldering fires at the source. (orig.)

  13. Environmental contamination by perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates following the use of fire-fighting foam in Tomakomai, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Horii, Yuichi; Hanari, Nobuyasu; Okazawa, Tsuyoshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan); Kannan, K. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Petrick, G. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Marine Research

    2004-09-15

    On September 26, 2003, a magnitude (M) 8.3 offshore earthquake struck Hokkaido, Japan. The earthquake and ensuing tsunami injured hundreds of people and resulted in significant damage to port and coastal communities. Immediately following the earthquake, a major fire occurred at an oil storage facility of a refinery (Idematsu Kosan Company Ltd) located in the west part of Tomakomai, a Pacific coast city in southern Hokkaido. Idemitsu Kosan Company is the second largest oil refinery in Japan, with a capacity of 140,000 barrels per day (bpd) in Tomakomai. Forty five of the 105 oil storage tanks were damaged following the earthquake and resulted in release of petroleum naphtha, which ignited accidentally. The first fire was reported immediately after the earthquake on 26 September 2003 and was extinguished after 7 hours. The second fire occurred on 28 September and lasted for 44 h. More than three hundred fireman and about one hundred fire engines were brought from several prefectures by air carriers to extinguish the fire. More than 130,000 L of fire fighting foams (FFF) was delivered to extinguish these fires and at least 40,000 L was used. Detailed information regarding the type of FFF used was not available, but aqueous film forming foams (AFFF) have been used in the control of fuel-related fires. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related perfluorinated acids are a component of AFFF. The issue of environmental pollution by perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) including perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates has received much attention in the last four years. PFCs possess unique physicochemical properties and exhibit a wide range of volatility/ water solubility depending on the functional group. Environmental dynamics of PFCs is complex due to their unique characteristics and to their release from multitude of sources with various compositions. Previous studies have reported on environmental contamination by PFCs due to accidental release of AFFF. Large amount of

  14. Automatic Code Checking Applied to Fire Fighting and Panic Projects in a BIM Environment - BIMSCIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Franco Porto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a computational implementation of an automatic conformity verification of building projects using a 3D modeling platform for BIM. This program was developed in C# language and based itself on the 9th Technical Instruction from Military Fire Brigade of the State of Minas Gerais which covers regulations of fire load in buildings and hazardous areas.

  15. Updating of the fire fighting systems and organization at the Embalse nuclear power plant, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, C.F.

    1998-01-01

    A brief description is given of the updating carried out at the Embalse NPP after commissioning, covering the station fire equivalent loads, the station weak points from the fire point of view, the possible upgrading of systems or technological improvements, early alarm and automatic actions, organizations, education and training, and drills. (author)

  16. Effects of fire and three fire-fighting chemicals on main soil properties, plant nutrient content and vegetation growth and cover after 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fernández, M; Gómez-Rey, M X; González-Prieto, S J

    2015-05-15

    The study addresses a knowledge-gap in the long-term ecological consequences of fire and fire-fighting chemicals. Ten years after a prescribed fire and the application of three fire-fighting chemicals, their effects on the soil-plant system were evaluated. Five treatments were established: unburnt soils (US) and burnt soils treated with water alone (BS), foaming agent (BS+Fo), Firesorb (BS+Fi) and ammonium polyphosphate (BS+Ap). Soils (0-2 cm depth) and foliar material of shrubs (Erica umbellata, Pterospartum tridentatum and Ulex micranthus) and trees (Pinus pinaster) were analysed for total N, δ(15)N, and soil-available and plant total macronutrients and trace elements. Soil pH, NH₄(+)-N and NO₃(-)-N; pine basal diameter and height; and shrub cover and height were also measured. Compared with US plots, burnt soils had less nitrates and more Mo. Although differences were not always significant, BS+Ap had the highest levels of soil available P, Na and Al. Plants from BS+Ap plots had higher values of δ(15)N (P. pinaster and E. umbellata), P (all species), Na (P. tridentatum and U. micranthus) and Mg (E. umbellata and P. tridentatum) than other treatments; while K in plants from BS+Ap plots was the highest among treatments for P. pinaster and the lowest for the shrubs. Pines in US plots were higher and wider than in burnt treatments, except for BS+Ap, where the tallest and widest trees were found, although half of them were either dead (the second highest mortality after BS+Fi) or had a distorted trunk. BS+Ap was the treatment with strongest effects on plants, showing E. umbellata the lowest coverage and height, P. tridentatum the highest coverage, U. micranthus one of the lowest coverages and being the only treatment where Genista triacanthos was absent. Consequently, it is concluded that both fire and ammonium polyphosphate application had significant effects on the soil-plant system after 10 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Action taken by the french safety authorities for fire protection and fire fighting in basic nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savornin, J.; Gibault, M.; Berger, R.; Kaluzny, Y.; Wallard, H.E.; Winter, D.

    1989-03-01

    The safety goal for nuclear installations is to prevent the dispersal of radioactive substances, both in the work area and outside the buildings into the environment. It is therefore at the design stage, then during construction and subsequent operation that it is necessary to take preventive measures against the outbreak of fire, and to take precautions to ensure that the consequences will always be limited. The paper describes the arrangements made by the French safety authorities to provide protection against fire in both nuclear plants and nuclear fuel cycle installations at all these stages

  18. Dangers of releasing CO₂ to fight fires in the cargo hold of seagoing bulk carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess; Jarleivson Hilduberg, Øssur

    the application of CO₂ to deep-seated fires involving solids subject to smoldering, but without identifying or alerting the reader to the potential presence of explosive pyrolysis gases. NFPA 12 appears to presume that electrostatic discharges will dissipate safety if metal nozzles are used and the entire system......On seagoing general cargo vessels, the cargo is stored in bulk in the holds. Fire protection for cargo holds comprises detection and firefighting capability. Detection normally incorporates a smoke sampling system that continuously draws air from each cargo hold and passes it to a smoke detector...... cabinet. The fire can be fought by flooding the cargo hold with inert carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is stored in its liquid form at pressures in excess of 50 bar and kept in multiple vertical steel cylinders arranged in a battery. For firefighting to be effective, SOLAS regulations require...

  19. Forest Service Turns to NREL for Help Fighting Fires More Sustainably |

    Science.gov (United States)

    to need power," said Mike Ferris, public information officer for the Forest Service. "We're going to need phones and some sort of internet connectivity." Ferris said he's worked in fire camps bring in a caterer and a shower unit," Ferris said. "Both of those are going to need power. If

  20. Assessment of exposure to carbon monoxide group of firefighters from fire fighting and rescue units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Lembas-Bogaczyk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Firemen threat during fire burning of chemical substances indicated presence of carbon monoxide (CO in all cases. Carbon monoxide causes death of fire. Inhaled through respiratory system, links with hemoglobin, thus blocking transport and distribution of oxygen in the body. This leads to tissue anoxia, which is a direct threat to firefighters’ life. The purpose of this study was to assess the exposure to carbon monoxide of participating firefighters extinguishing fire. Estimation of carbon monoxide quantity absorbed by firefighters was isolated in a group of 40 firefighters from Fire Extinguishing and Rescue Unit of State Fire in Nysa. The study was conducted by measuring carbon monoxide in exhaled air. For measurement of carbon monoxide concentration in exhaled air Micro CO meter was used. Results were demonstrated separately for nonsmokers (n425 and smokers (n415. Mean COHb[%] levels in nonsmokers, measured prior the rescue action was 0,3950,3% and increased statistically significant after the action to 0,6150,34%, while in the group smokers, this level was 2,1750,64% before the action and increased insignificantly after the action to 2,3350,63%. The average COHb level in the same groups before and after exercise, was respectively: for nonsmokers prior to exercise was 0,4850,28% and after exercise decreased statistically significant to 0,3050,27%. In the group of smokers before exercise was 2,2350,61% and decreased statistically significant up to 1,5450,71%. It was no difference between the group of age and time of employment.

  1. Short- and medium-term effects of three fire fighting chemicals on the properties of a burnt soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couto-Vazquez, A.; Gonzalez-Prieto, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of three fire fighting chemicals (FFC) on 11 chemical soil properties and on soil recovery (0-2 cm depth) was evaluated 1, 30, 90 and 365 days after a prescribed fire. Five treatments were considered: unburnt soil (United States) and burnt soil with 2 l m -2 of water alone (BS) or mixed with the foaming agent Auxquimica RFC-88 at 1% (BS + Fo), Firesorb at 1.5% (BS + Fi) and FR Cross ammonium polyphosphate at 20% (BS + Ap). At t = 1 day, soil pH increases in the order US 15 N decreased in all burnt soils (significatively in BS + Ap) due to the inputs of 15 N depleted ashes from leguminous vegetation. Compared with US, soil δ 15 N increased significantly in all burnt plots between t = 90 days (30 days in BS + Ap) and t = 365 days, suggesting a medium-term fire-triggered increment of N outputs ( 15 N depleted). As is habitually the case, there was a transient post-fire increase of NH 4 + -N levels (significative for BS + FFC plots) that lasted for 30 (BS, BS + Fo and BS + Fi) to 90 days (BS + Ap). The high initial NH 4 + -N levels in BS + Ap (200x that of US; 9-18x those of BS, BS + Fo and BS + Fi), and its persistence can delay the post-fire vegetation recovery due to the toxicity of NH 4 + to seeds and seedlings. NO 3 -N levels changed significantly only in BS + Ap between t = 30 and t = 90 days due to the nitrification of its large NH 4 + -N pool. Except in BS + Ap, whose soil P levels were 70-140x (t = 1 days) and 10-20x (t = 365 days) higher than in the other treatments, available P content in BS and BS + FFC was not significatively higher than in US. The concentrations of available cations in BS and BS + FFC were higher (not always significatively, except for K) than in US until t = 90 days, likely due to ashes- and FFC-derived cations. Contrarily to divalent cations, monovalent cations (more soluble and easily leached) decreased slowly until t = 90 days

  2. Models for fleet sizing and localization of fire-fighting for attendance to accidents in platforms; Modelos para dimensionamento de frota e localizacao de embarcacoes fire-fighting para atendimento a acidentes em plataformas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Afonso Celso; Brinati, Marco Antonio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    1996-12-31

    The increasing degree of use of maritime resources claims the establishment of a modern protection and assistance system to prevent and control maritime accidents. The usual safety systems for maritime accidents, generally, have the aid of specialized fleets in the attendance. This work presents models to determine the location and the profile of a specialized fleet for fire fighting, in order to guarantee the adequate attendance to expected accidents in a marine oil field. To modelling the problem, two means of analysis are considered: a deterministic model of integer programming and a probabilistic model. Considering the geographic location and the size of platforms as input data, the deterministic model establishes, among the available vessels, the fleet profile and location in order to minimize the fleet cost assuring the attendance to each platform within the standard requirements. The probabilistic model starts from a given solution for the fleet profile and vessel location and, by means of estimating the utilization factors of each vessel, proposes possible improvements in the fleet location, in order to maximize the probability of attending the accidents. A simulation model was elaborated to validate the results from the probabilistic model. The obtained results indicate the usefulness of every model, not only to a rational location problem solution, but also, for the analysis of the operational fleet performance. (author) 11 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Fighting Fires with Fire - An Airman's Perspective on the Development of Joint Publication 3-09, Doctrine for Joint Fire Support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vittori, Jay

    1999-01-01

    This study is an Air Force doctrinaire's account of the development of Joint Publication 3-09, Doctrine for Joint Fire Support, the most controversial joint military doctrine publication ever produced...

  4. Trainer certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couser, S.; Moore, J.

    1988-01-01

    A DOE Technical Safety Appraisal in October 1986 found that training at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant was fragmented and lacked uniformity. Training was localized in departments and was more often handled by line supervisors, etc. - with no certification. The Trainer Certification Program has provided the means for applying standard guidelines to ensure that training is designed, applied, and evaluated in a consistent, effective, and efficient manner. The program is in a state of substantial change and a target date for compliance is set for 1989. Trainer certification will provide both current and future resources to ensure consistent and effective training. 22 figures

  5. The “Forest Fire Project”, National cartographic portal of the Italian Environmental Department: an example of management of cartographic data to support forest fires fighting plans in national parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrucci B

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The “Forest Fire Project” on the National cartographic portal (http://www.pcn.minambiente.it has been created by the Italian Ministry of Environment Territory and Sea (METS. The project is intended to support forest fire fighting plans in national protected areas as provided for by article 8 of the law November 21th 2000, no. 353 “Framework law on forest fires”. The project brings out the results of previous projects carried out in collaboration with several research institutes. Cartographic information is made available as free and reliable knowledge base in order to facilitate the draw up and implementation of the “Forest Fire Plans”, including the actual activity of forest fire extinction. Map information can be further implemented by various subjects such as researchers, land planning programmers or managers. The National cartographic portal gives the opportunity of overlaying various cartographic information and base maps supporting the “Forest Fire Project”; moreover it is possible to add other layers from other sources, through URL. Adequate “personalised” overlaps - which can be saved on one’s own GIS - allow in depth analysis and deductions aimed at specific objectives of territorial planning and management and in particular of Forest Fire Fighting Plans.

  6. 浅谈火电厂稳高压消防给水系统的若干问题%Existing problems of stabilized high pressure fire fighting water supply system in thermal power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵佰波; 王欣

    2012-01-01

    The definitions of stabilized high pressure fire fighting water supply system and temporary high pressure fire fighting water supply system were introduced, and a comparison between the two systems was carried out. Some suggestions for the setup of pump adapters and fire water tanks of stabilized high pressure fire fighting water supply system in thermal power plant were pointed out.%介绍了稳高压消防给水系统与临时高压消防给水系统的定义,进行了两类消防给水系统的对比,对火电厂稳高压消防给水系统水泵接合器及消防水箱的设置提出建议.

  7. A Feasibility Study on the Establishment of a Fire Fighting Academy for the State of New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Alex A.

    The report on the desirability and feasibility of establishing the New Mexico State Fire Academy and firemen training program is presented in three parts: (1) the result of a survey of firemen training, (2) a proposal for a total system of firemen training, and (3) an analysis of the cost of implementing this program of training and education. The…

  8. Are post-fire silvicultural treatments a useful tool to fight the climate change threat in terms of plant diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedo de Santiago, Javier; Esteban Lucasr Borja, Manuel; de las Heras, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Adaptative forest management demands a huge scientific knowledge about post-fire vegetation dynamics, taking into account the current context of global change. We hypothesized that management practices should be carry out taking into account the climate change effect, to obtain better results in the biodiversity maintenance across time. All of this with respect to diversity and species composition of the post-fire naturally regenerated Aleppo pine forests understory. The study was carried out in two post-fire naturally regenerated Aleppo pine forests in the Southeastern of the Iberian Peninsula, under contrasting climatic conditions: Yeste (Albacete) shows a dry climate and Calasparra (Murcia) shows a semiarid climate. Thinning as post-fire silvicultural treatment was carried out five years after the wildfire event, in the year 1999. An experiment of artificial drought was designed to evacuate 15% of the natural rainfall in both sites, Yeste and Calasparra, to simulate climate change. Taking into account all the variables (site, silvicultural treatment and artificial drought), alpha diversity indices including species richness, Shannon and Simpson diversity indices, and plant cover, were analyzed as a measure of vegetation abundance. The results showed that plant species were affected by thinning, whereas induced drought affected total cover and species, with lower values at Yeste. Significant site variation was also observed in soil properties, species richness and total plant cover, conversely to the plant species diversity indices. We conclude that the plant community shows different responses to a simulated environment of climate change depending on the experimental site.

  9. Bridging the divide between fire safety research and fighting fire safely: How do we convey research innovation to contribute more effectively to wildland firefighter safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore Ted Adams; Bret W. Butler; Sara Brown; Vita Wright; Anne Black

    2017-01-01

    Creating a safe workplace for wildland firefighters has long been at the centre of discussion for researchers and practitioners. The goal of wildland fire safety research has been to protect operational firefighters, yet its contributions often fall short of potential because much is getting lost in the translation of peer-reviewed results to potential and intended...

  10. Fighting fire in the heat of the day: An analysis of operational and environmental conditions of use for large airtankers in United States fire suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal S. Stonesifer; Dave Calkin; Matthew P. Thompson; Keith D. Stockmann

    2016-01-01

    Large airtanker use is widespread in wildfire suppression in the United States. The current approach to nationally dispatching the fleet of federal contract airtankers relies on filling requests for airtankers to achieve suppression objectives identified by fire managers at the incident level. In general, demand is met if resources are available, and the...

  11. A systematic review of job-specific workers' health surveillance activities for fire-fighting, ambulance, police and military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plat, M J; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2011-12-01

    Some occupations have tasks and activities that require monitoring safety and health aspects of the job; examples of such occupations are emergency services personnel and military personnel. The two objectives of this systematic review were to describe (1) the existing job-specific workers' health surveillance (WHS) activities and (2) the effectiveness of job-specific WHS interventions with respect to work functioning, for selected jobs. The search strategy systematically searched the PubMed, PsycINFO and OSH-update databases. The search strategy consisted of several synonyms of the job titles of interest, combined with synonyms for workers' health surveillance. The methodological quality was checked. At least one study was found for each of the following occupations fire fighters, ambulance personnel, police personnel and military personnel. For the first objective, 24 studies described several job-specific WHS activities aimed at aspects of psychological, 'physical' (energetic, biomechanical and balance), sense-related, environmental exposure or cardiovascular requirements. The seven studies found for the second objective measured different outcomes related to work functioning. The methodological quality of the interventions varied, but with the exception of one study, all scored over 55% of the maximum score. Six studies showed effectiveness on at least some of the defined outcomes. The studies described several job-specific interventions: a trauma resilience training, healthy lifestyle promotion, physical readiness training, respiratory muscle training, endurance and resistance training, a physical exercise programme and comparing vaccines. Several examples of job-specific WHS activities were found for the four occupations. Compared to studies focusing on physical tasks, a few studies were found that focus on psychological tasks. Effectiveness studies for job-specific WHS interventions were scarce, although their results were promising. We recommend studying

  12. Fighting Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academe, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In this new feature of the "Academe" journal, work by faculty members is highlighted who are mobilizing in support of academic freedom on their campuses and beyond. This September-October issue of the journal includes the following brief reflections from faculty all relating to the central theme of "fighting back": "Free…

  13. Turbine oil fires in the Moabit and Reuter power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissmann, G.

    1977-01-01

    The article describes the fire resulting from turbine oil ignition after a manometer line break, the fire fighting measures, the amount of damage, and secondary damage. Conclusions are drawn for the prevention and fighting of oil fires. (ORU) [de

  14. Developing Effective Clinical Trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Khamarko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuing education and training provides a means to improve performance among health care professionals (HCP. Research shows, however, that continuing professional education activities have inconsistent effects on HCP competence, performance, and patient health outcomes. Furthermore, the trainer’s role as a facilitator of knowledge translation (KT has been understudied. To understand how clinical trainers support their trainees in translating what they learned into practice, we conducted 16 in-depth interviews with expert trainers. These interviews yielded a variety of KT-enhancing strategies, including tailoring training activities to their trainees’ needs. In addition, participants recommended trainers familiarize themselves with their trainees’ work environments, be able to identify their knowledge deficits, and devote time to provide trainees with post-training support. Creating an effective training, one that leads to transfer, requires active planning, communication, and command of the training topic by skilled trainers.

  15. Browns Ferry fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkleroad, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A synopsis of the March 22, 1975 fire at Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant is discussed. Emphasis is placed on events prior to and during the fire. How the fire started, fire fighting activities, fire and smoke development, and restoration activities are discussed

  16. FIRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brtis, J.S.; Hausheer, T.G.

    1990-01-01

    FIRE, a microcomputer based program to assist engineers in reviewing and documenting the fire protection impact of design changes has been developed. Acting as an electronic consultant, FIRE is designed to work with an experienced nuclear system engineer, who may not have any detailed fire protection expertise. FIRE helps the engineer to decide if a modification might adversely affect the fire protection design of the station. Since its first development, FIRE has been customized to reflect the fire protection philosophy of the Commonwealth Edison Company. That program is in early production use. This paper discusses the FIRE program in light of its being a useful application of expert system technologies in the power industry

  17. Fighting Windmills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2004-01-01

    the environmentalists) demand changes in behaviour on moral grounds. In contrast, the Bootleggers (the producers of renewable energy), who profit from the very regulation, keep a low profile. The actual heavy subsidisation of renewable energy sources, such as wind energy, can be viewed as a successful policy outcome...... to be just as tough as fighting windmills and needs to be addressed in future and more rigorous empirical research. At the end of the day, transparent incentives of relevant stakeholders in the climate change issue are necessary preconditions for progress in the climate change negotiations....

  18. Cyborg mini-trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosso, José L; Nieto, Jesus J; Carbajal, Manuel F; Marmolejo, Jorge; Ochoa, Enrique; De La Fuente, Mireya; Almazan, Andrew; Obrador, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We present the smallest surgical trainer with a total weight of 400 gr, built in aluminum of 25 cm large and 24 cm wide, and 23 cm high. It's a system integrated by a small and open module, a lamp and a microcamera connected to a Head Mounted display. It holds two endoscopic instruments, and items to make knots or sutures and enhance visual-motor coordination. The vision we got is by a small microcamera displayed to a Head Mounted Display HMD. This surgical trainer is the smallest in the worldwide, easy to install, and easy to carry.

  19. Training of Trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Wilma J.; Austin, John H.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses specific training methods and common characteristics of participants in workshops sponsored by Agency for International Development Water and Sanitation for Health Project for extension agents, who will act as trainers in transfer of sanitation technology in developing nations. Recommendations for conducting such workshops in…

  20. Fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janetzky, E.

    1980-01-01

    Safety and fire prevention measurements have to be treated like the activities developing, planning, construction and erection. Therefore it is necessary that these measurements have to be integrated into the activities mentioned above at an early stage in order to guarantee their effectiveness. With regard to fire accidents the statistics of the insurance companies concerned show that the damage caused increased in the last years mainly due to high concentration of material. Organization of fire prevention and fire fighting, reasons of fire break out, characteristics and behaviour of fire, smoke and fire detection, smoke and heat venting, fire extinguishers (portable and stationary), construction material in presence of fire, respiratory protection etc. will be discussed. (orig./RW)

  1. Fighting discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wientjens, Wim; Cairns, Douglas

    2012-10-01

    In the fight against discrimination, the IDF launched the first ever International Charter of Rights and Responsibilities of People with Diabetes in 2011: a balance between rights and duties to optimize health and quality of life, to enable as normal a life as possible and to reduce/eliminate the barriers which deny realization of full potential as members of society. It is extremely frustrating to suffer blanket bans and many examples exist, including insurance, driving licenses, getting a job, keeping a job and family affairs. In this article, an example is given of how pilots with insulin treated diabetes are allowed to fly by taking the responsibility of using special blood glucose monitoring protocols. At this time the systems in the countries allowing flying for pilots with insulin treated diabetes are applauded, particularly the USA for private flying, and Canada for commercial flying. Encouraging developments may be underway in the UK for commercial flying and, if this materializes, could be used as an example for other aviation authorities to help adopt similar protocols. However, new restrictions implemented by the new European Aviation Authority take existing privileges away for National Private Pilot Licence holders with insulin treated diabetes in the UK. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiology trainer. Musculoskeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, A.; Erlt-Wagner, B.

    2006-01-01

    This book enables students to simulate examinations. The Radiology Trainer series comprises the whole knowledge of radiology in the form of case studies for self-testing. It is based on the best-sorted German-language collection of radiological examinations of all organ regions. Step by step, radiological knowledge is trained in order to make diagnoses more efficient. The book series ensures optimal preparation for the final medical examinations and is also a valuable tool for practical training. (orig.)

  3. Fire precautions at petroleum refineries and bulk storage installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    Topics covered in this Code of Practice include petroleum products and combustion, site evaluation for fire defence, and fire prevention, protection, detection, systems, fighting, and fire fighting facilities in storage areas. Appendices cover legal requirements and enforcement arrangements, application rates for fire water and foam, codes of practice, flammable limits of petroleum compounds, flash points and spontaneous ignition temperatures and classification of fires. (UK)

  4. Automatic fire hydrant valve development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drumheller, K.

    1976-01-01

    The development of a remotely-controlled valve to operate a fire hydrant is described. Assembled from off-the-shelf components, the prototype illustrates that a valve light enough to be handled by one man is possible. However, it does not have the ruggedness or reliability needed for actual fire-fighting operations. Preliminary testing by City of Tacoma fire department personnel indicates that the valve may indeed contribute significantly to fire-fighting efficiency

  5. Fire, safety and ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-02-01

    Correct ventilation in tunnel environments is vital for the comfort and safety of the people passing through. This article gives details of products from several manufacturers of safety rescue and fire fighting equipment, fire and fume detection equipment, special fire resistant materials, fire resistant hydraulic oils and fire dampers, and ventilation systems. Company addresses and fax numbers are supplied. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 10 photos.

  6. Cost of two fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of the protection of nuclear sites in connection with the fires in summer of 2000 near two greatest nuclear sites: the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory located on the site of Hanford Nuclear Center, and Los Alamos National Laboratory is considered. Both fires occur beyond the Laboratories. Undertaken urgent procedures for fire fighting and recovery of the objects are characterized [ru

  7. 29 CFR 1915.505 - Fire response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accomplished; (3) Set up an incident management system to coordinate and direct fire response functions...-2000 Standard on Protective Ensemble for Structural Fire Fighting (incorporated by reference, see... for Proximity Fire Fighting (incorporated by reference, see § 1915.5). (6) Personal Alert Safety...

  8. Are family practice trainers and their host practices any better? comparing practice trainers and non-trainers and their practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hombergh, P. van den; Schalk-Soekar, S.; Kramer, A.; Bottema, B.J.; Campbell, S.M.; Braspenning, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Family Physician (FP) trainees are expected to be provided with high quality training in well organized practice settings. This study examines differences between FP trainers and non-trainers and their practices to see whether there are differences in trainers and non-trainers and in how

  9. Working with a personal trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... workout time Offer support, guidance, and feedback Provide motivation to continue exercising Work with your health care ... American Council on Exercise. How to Choose the Right Personal Trainer. 2014. www.acefitness.org/acefit/healthy_ ...

  10. Training Fires on Indian Reservations in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Federal Air Rules for Reservations (FARR) Open Burning Rule allows Fire Protection Services to request permission from EPA to conduct an outdoor burn by qualified personnel to train firefighters on fire suppression and fire fighting techniques.

  11. Cock-fighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2018-01-01

    That Cock-fighting was extremely popular the ancient Greece, is clearly showed by the numerous depictions on vases and its symbolic and metaphorical range among the language of the Athenians. Greek comedy exploits and expands the metaphorical use of cock-fighting in both the linguistic and the pe...

  12. Social-pedagogical aspects of trainer's activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramskoy S.I.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysed social-pedagogical aspect of activity of trainer-teacher on preparation of sporting reserve of different level. Activity of trainer is studied on forming socially-active personalities of sportsman. The personal long-term experience is presented to trainer-teaching works of child's trainer, trainer of student command, trainer of command of major league on a handball. It is shown that multilateral activity of trainer is estimated not only the sporting results of his pupils but also has considerably more wide circle of influence on the ward. Influence of employments is represented sport on forming socially-meaningful qualities of personality. It is marked that to the basic personal qualities of trainer behave: creative activity, flexibility of mind, industriousness, honesty, disinterestedness, of principle, self-control, demand, modesty, culture.

  13. Analysis of fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosser, D.; Schneider, U.

    1982-01-01

    Regulations and test specifications for fire prevention in nuclear power plants are presented as well as the fire protection measures in a newly constructed nuclear power plant. Although the emphasis is placed differently, all rules are based on the following single measures: Fire prevention, fire detection, fire fighting, fire checking, attack, flight, and rescue, organisational measures. (orig./GL) [de

  14. Evaluation Of Fire Safety And Protection At PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Nabil Ab Rahim; Alfred Sanggau Ligam; Nurhayati Ramli; Mohd Fazli Zakaria; Naim Syauqi Hamzah; Phongsakorn Prak; Mohammad Suhaimi Kassim; Zarina Masood

    2014-01-01

    Fire hazard is one of many risks that can affect the safety operation of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. Reactor building in Malaysian Nuclear Agency was built in 1980s and the fire system has been introduced since then. The evaluation of the fire safety system at this time is important to ensure the efficiency of fire prevention, fighting and mitigation task that probably occurs. This evaluation involves with the fire fighting system and equipment, integrity of the system from the perspective of management and equipment, fire fighting procedure and fire fighting response team. (author)

  15. Pre-fire planning for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Regardless of the fire prevention measures which are taken, plant experience indicates that fires will occur in a nuclear power plant. When a fire occurs, the plant staff must handle the fire emergency. Pre-fire planning is a method of developing detailed fire attack plans and salvage operations to protect equipment from damage due to fire and fire fighting operations. This paper describes the purpose and use of a pre-fire plan to achieve these goals in nuclear power plants

  16. Trainer Burnout: The Syndrome Explored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, C. Keith; Judd, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    The educators' version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory was completed by 40 of 156 in-house trainers. More than one-third experience emotional exhaustion weekly, and almost half feel a lack of personal accomplishment. Subscales of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment correlated with perceptions of organizations'…

  17. Fire-fighting burning oil wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbury, Herbert; Risk, Stewart.

    1993-01-01

    A method of extinguishing burning oil wells is presented which involves dispensing liquid nitrogen to the burning site to prevent or inhibit oxygen from fuelling the flames. To carry out the method a remotely operated vehicle is described which is provided with a source of liquid nitrogen and an articulated deployment boom capable of supplying the liquid nitrogen to the site of a burning oil well. (Author)

  18. Fire Safety. Managing School Facilities, Guide 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This booklet discusses how United Kingdom schools can manage fire safety and minimize the risk of fire. The guide examines what legislation school buildings must comply with and covers the major risks. It also describes training and evacuation procedures and provides guidance on fire precautions, alarm systems, fire fighting equipment, and escape…

  19. 46 CFR 132.120 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... deck. (g) No branch line may be directly connected to the fire main except for fighting fires or for... main system, it must lead from a discharge manifold near the fire pump. (i) The total cross-sectional... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 132.120 Section 132.120 Shipping COAST GUARD...

  20. Are family practice trainers and their host practices any better? Comparing practice trainers and non-trainers and their practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hombergh, Pieter; Schalk-Soekar, Saskia; Kramer, Anneke; Bottema, Ben; Campbell, Stephen; Braspenning, Jozé

    2013-02-21

    Family Physician (FP) trainees are expected to be provided with high quality training in well organized practice settings. This study examines differences between FP trainers and non-trainers and their practices to see whether there are differences in trainers and non-trainers and in how their practices are organized and their services are delivered. 203 practices (88 non-training and 115 training) with 512 FPs (335 non-trainers and 177 trainers) were assessed using the "Visit Instrument Practice organization (VIP)" on 369 items (142 FP-level; 227 Practice level). Analyses (ANOVA, ANCOVA) were conducted for each level by calculating differences between FP trainees and non-trainees and their host practices. Trainers scored higher on all but one of the items, and significantly higher on 47 items, of which 13 remained significant after correcting for covariates. Training practices scored higher on all items and significantly higher on 61 items, of which 23 remained significant after correcting for covariates. Trainers (and training practices) provided more diagnostic and therapeutic services, made better use of team skills and scored higher on practice organization, chronic care services and quality management than non-training practices. Trainers reported more job satisfaction and commitment and less job stress than non-trainers. There are positive differences between FP trainers and non-trainers in both the level and the quality of services provided by their host practices. Training institutions can use this information to promote the advantages of becoming a FP trainer and training practice as well as to improve the quality of training settings for FPs.

  1. Cascading effects of fire exclusion in the Rocky Mountain ecosystems: a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Kevin C. Ryan; Tom T. Veblen; Craig D. Allen; Jessie Logan; Brad Hawkes

    2002-01-01

    The health of many Rocky Mountain ecosystems is in decline because of the policy of excluding fire in the management of these ecosystems. Fire exclusion has actually made it more difficult to fight fires, and this poses greater risks to the people who fight fires and for those who live in and around Rocky Mountain forests and rangelands. This paper discusses the extent...

  2. Plutonium fires; Incendies de plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestre, E.

    1959-06-23

    The author reports an information survey on accidents which occurred when handling plutonium. He first addresses accidents reported in documents. He indicates the circumstances and consequences of these accidents (explosion in glove boxes, fires of plutonium chips, plutonium fire followed by filter destruction, explosion during plutonium chip dissolution followed by chip fire). He describes hazards associated with plutonium fires: atmosphere and surface contamination, criticality. The author gives some advices to avoid plutonium fires. These advices concern electric installations, the use of flammable solvents, general cautions associated with plutonium handling, venting and filtration. He finally describes how to fight plutonium fires, and measures to be taken after the fire (staff contamination control, atmosphere control)

  3. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Kuznetsova, R I [eds.

    1989-07-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires.

  4. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Kuznetsova, R.I.

    1989-01-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires

  5. Fire and the Design of Educational Buildings. Building Bulletin 7. Sixth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education and Science, London (England).

    This bulletin offers guidance on English school premises regulations applying to safety protection against fires in the following general areas: means of escape in case of fire; precautionary measures to prevent fire; fire warning systems and fire fighting; fire spreading speed; structures and materials resistant to fires; and damage control. It…

  6. Evaluation of a Spoken Dialogue System for Virtual Reality Call for Fire Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, Susan M; Roque, Antonio; Vaswani, Ashish; Traum, David; Hernandez, Charles; Millspaugh, Bill

    2007-01-01

    .... We briefly describe aspects of the Joint Fires and Effects Trainer System, and the Radiobot-CFF dialogue system, which can engage in voice communications with a trainee in call for fire dialogues...

  7. Fighting status inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Landes, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Status inequalities seem to play a fairly big role in creating inequalities in health. This article assumes that there can be good reasons to fight status inequalities in order to reduce inequalities in health. It examines whether the neorepublican ideal of non-dominance does a better job as a th...

  8. Flavonoids Fight Diseases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 2. Flavonoids Fight Diseases. G Nagendrappa. Article-in-a-Box Volume 9 Issue 2 February 2004 pp 5-5. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/02/0005-0005. Author Affiliations.

  9. All fired up

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Directorate and their support staff took part in a fire-fighting course organised by the CERN Fire Brigade just before the end-of-year break.  The Bulletin takes a look at the fire-fighting training on offer at CERN.   At CERN the risk of fire can never be under-estimated. In order to train personnel in the use of fire extinguishers, CERN's fire training centre in Prévessin acquired a fire-simulation platform in 2012. On the morning of 17 December 2012, ten members of the CERN directorate and their support staff tried out the platform, following in the footsteps of 400 other members of the CERN community who had already attended the course. The participants were welcomed to the training centre by Gilles Colin, a fire-fighter and instructor, who gave them a 30-minute introduction to general safety and the different types of fire and fire extinguishers, followed by an hour of practical instruction in the simulation facility. There they were able to pract...

  10. Excel VBA 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Urtis, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Master VBA automation quickly and easily to get more out of Excel Excel VBA 24-Hour Trainer, 2nd Edition is the quick-start guide to getting more out of Excel, using Visual Basic for Applications. This unique book/video package has been updated with fifteen new advanced video lessons, providing a total of eleven hours of video training and 45 total lessons to teach you the basics and beyond. This self-paced tutorial explains Excel VBA from the ground up, demonstrating with each advancing lesson how you can increase your productivity. Clear, concise, step-by-step instructions are combined wit

  11. Java programming 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, Yakov

    2015-01-01

    Quick and painless Java programming with expert multimedia instruction Java Programming 24-Hour Trainer, 2nd Edition is your complete beginner's guide to the Java programming language, with easy-to-follow lessons and supplemental exercises that help you get up and running quickly. Step-by-step instruction walks you through the basics of object-oriented programming, syntax, interfaces, and more, before building upon your skills to develop games, web apps, networks, and automations. This second edition has been updated to align with Java SE 8 and Java EE 7, and includes new information on GUI b

  12. Corrosion of fire extinguishing systems and fire fighting fittings

    OpenAIRE

    RAKOWSKA JOANNA; ŚLOSORZ ZUZANNA

    2011-01-01

    Устройства пожаротушения должны характеризоваться высокой эффективностью и надёжностью. Одним из вопросов, связанных с надёжностью таких устройств, является задержка развития коррозии благодаря правильному выбору материалов, из которых изготавливаются детали или применение оптимальных методов защиты от коррозийного разрушительного воздействия. В статье представлены типы коррозии, каким могут подвергаться отдельные элементы установок пожаротушения и пожарной арматуры, на которые воздействуют в...

  13. Fighting fire with fire: the revival of thermotherapy for gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Titsworth, William; Murad, Greg J A; Hoh, Brian L; Rahman, Maryam

    2014-02-01

    In 1891, an orthopedic surgeon in New York noted the disappearance of an inoperable sarcoma in a patient after a febrile illness. This observation resulted in experiments assessing the utility of heat therapy or thermotherapy for the treatment of cancer. While it initially fell from favor, thermotherapy has recently made a resurgence, sparking investigations into its anticancer properties. This therapy is especially attractive for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) which is difficult to target due to the blood-brain barrier and recalcitrant to treatment. Here we briefly review the history of thermotherapy and then more methodically present the current literature as it relates to central nervous system malignancies. Recent developments show that heat is preferentially cytotoxic to tumor cells and induces cellular pathways which result in apoptotic and non-apoptotic death. Techniques to induce hyperthermia include regional hyperthermia by water bath, focused ultrasound, radiofrequency microwaves, laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy, and magnetic energy. The recent revival of these therapeutic approaches and their preliminary outcomes in the treatment of GBM is reviewed. From bacterial toxins to infusion of magnetic nanoparticles, hyperthermia has the potential to be an effective and easy-to-execute adjuvant therapy for GBM. Hyperthermia for GBM is a promising therapy as part of a growing armamentarium for malignant glioma treatment.

  14. Fight fire with fire: Gene therapy strategies to cure HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghe, Jon; Magdalena, Sips; Vandekerckhove, Linos

    2017-08-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) to date remains one of the most notorious viruses mankind has ever faced. Despite enormous investments in HIV research for more than 30 years an effective cure for HIV has been elusive. Areas covered: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) suppresses active viral replication, but is not able to eliminate the virus completely due to stable integration of HIV inside the host genome of infected cells and the establishment of a latent reservoir, that is insensitive to cART. Nevertheless, this latent HIV reservoir is fully capable to refuel viral replication when treatment is stopped, creating a major obstacle towards a cure for HIV. Several gene therapy approaches ranging from the generation of HIV resistant CD4 + T cells to the eradication of HIV infected cells by immune cell engineering are currently under pre-clinical and clinical investigation and may present a promising road to a cure. In this review, we focus on the status and the prospects of gene therapy strategies to cure/eradicate HIV. Expert commentary: Recent advances in gene therapy for oncology and infectious diseases indicate that gene therapy may be a feasible and very potent cure strategy, and therefore a potential game changer in the search for an effective HIV cure.

  15. Morphing into a 21st Century Trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, R. F.

    1996-01-01

    Forces that will affect trainers into the next century include rapid change, information overload, globalization, downsizing, empowerment, and remote worksites. Key characteristics of a 21st-century trainer include performance orientation, technical skills, social skills, self-employability, bilingualism, and international competence. (JOW)

  16. Imaging of Nuclear Weapon Trainers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwellenbach, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-12-06

    The Configurable Muon Tracker (CMT) is an adaptation of the existing drift tube detector commercially available from Decision Sciences International Corporation (DSIC). NSTec engineered the CMT around commercially available drift tube assemblies to make a detector that is more versatile than previous drift tube assemblies. The CMT became operational in February 2013. Traditionally, cosmic-ray muon trackers rely on near-vertical trajectory muons for imaging. Since there are scenarios where imaging using vertical trajectory muons is not practical, NSTec designed the CMT specifically for quick configurability to track muons from any trajectory. The CMT was originally designed to be changed from vertical imaging mode to horizontal imaging mode in a few hours with access to a crane or other lifting equipment. In FY14, locations for imaging weapon trainers and SNM were identified and it was determined that lifting equipment would not typically be available in experimental areas. The CMT was further modified and a portable lifting system was developed to allow reconfiguration of the CMT without access to lifting equipment at the facility. This system was first deployed at Los Alamos National Laboratory’s W-division, where several trainers were imaged in both horizontal and vertical modes. Real-time images have been compared in both modes showing that imaging can be done in both modes with the expected longer integration time for horizontal mode. Further imaging and post processing of the data is expected to continue into early FY15.

  17. The Experiences of Female Athletic Trainers in the Role of the Head Athletic Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Burton, Laura; Cotrufo, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Very few women have leadership positions in athletic training (ie, head athletic training positions) in intercollegiate athletics. Research exists on the barriers to attaining the role; however, our understanding about the experiences of those currently engaged in the role is limited. Objective: To examine the experiences of female head athletic trainers as they worked toward and attained the position of head athletic trainer. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Patients or Other Participants: Eight female athletic trainers serving in the role of head athletic trainer participated in our study. The mean age of the participants was 45 ± 12 years, with 5 ± 1.5 years of experience in the role of head athletic trainer and 21 ± 10 years of experience as athletic trainers. Data Collection and Analysis: We conducted phone interviews with the 8 participants following a semistructured format. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed following a general inductive approach as described by Thomas. To establish credibility, we used a peer reviewer, member checks, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Results: Six major themes emerged from our analysis regarding the experiences of female head athletic trainers. Opportunities to become a head athletic trainer, leadership qualities, and unique personal characteristics were discussed as factors leading to the assumption of the role of the head athletic trainer. Where women hold back, family challenges, and organizational barriers speak to the potential obstacles to assuming the role of head athletic trainer. Conclusions: Female head athletic trainers did not seek the role, but through persistence and encouragement, they find themselves assuming the role. Leadership skills were discussed as important for success in the role of head athletic trainer. Life balancing and parenting were identified as barriers to women seeking the role of head athletic

  18. The experiences of female athletic trainers in the role of the head athletic trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Burton, Laura; Cotrufo, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    Very few women have leadership positions in athletic training (ie, head athletic training positions) in intercollegiate athletics. Research exists on the barriers to attaining the role; however, our understanding about the experiences of those currently engaged in the role is limited. To examine the experiences of female head athletic trainers as they worked toward and attained the position of head athletic trainer. Qualitative study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Eight female athletic trainers serving in the role of head athletic trainer participated in our study. The mean age of the participants was 45 ± 12 years, with 5 ± 1.5 years of experience in the role of head athletic trainer and 21 ± 10 years of experience as athletic trainers. We conducted phone interviews with the 8 participants following a semistructured format. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed following a general inductive approach as described by Thomas. To establish credibility, we used a peer reviewer, member checks, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Six major themes emerged from our analysis regarding the experiences of female head athletic trainers. Opportunities to become a head athletic trainer, leadership qualities, and unique personal characteristics were discussed as factors leading to the assumption of the role of the head athletic trainer. Where women hold back, family challenges, and organizational barriers speak to the potential obstacles to assuming the role of head athletic trainer. Female head athletic trainers did not seek the role, but through persistence and encouragement, they find themselves assuming the role. Leadership skills were discussed as important for success in the role of head athletic trainer. Life balancing and parenting were identified as barriers to women seeking the role of head athletic trainer.

  19. 46 CFR 27.209 - What are the requirements for training crews to respond to fires?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... are familiar with their fire-fighting duties, and, specifically, with the following contingencies: (1) Fighting a fire in the engine room and elsewhere on board the vessel, including how to— (i) Operate all of the fire-extinguishing equipment on board the vessel; (ii) Stop any mechanical ventilation system for...

  20. Fighting Child Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesanayi Gwirayi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated secondary school pupils’ views on strategies that can be used to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA. A survey design was adopted as the operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected from three secondary schools, all in the Gweru district of Zimbabwe. The sample comprised 268 secondary pupils (50% female; M age = 15.42, SD = 1.376. Each participant was asked to write down three main strategies that can be used to fight CSA on a given questionnaire. The responses were then analyzed using the thematic content analysis technique. The study revealed that most pupils believed that CSA can be prevented through teaching them about it and also reporting to the police. Another significant finding was that pupils’ responses tended to vary with gender and level of education. Whereas female respondents suggested that CSA can be fought by avoiding strangers, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends, their male counterparts suggested teaching the community about CSA, forming new clubs, and enacting life imprisonment for perpetrators, among other suggestions. In terms of level of education, Form 2 participants suggested avoiding strangers, staying home at night, whereas their Form 4 counterparts suggested lessons for Guidance and Counseling, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends. These findings unequivocally demonstrate the need to vigorously engage secondary school pupils in activities aimed at fighting CSA to safeguard their inalienable human rights.

  1. Presentation Trainer Prototype 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch comprises the first prototype of the presentation trainer. The application uses the Microsoft Kinect sensor and was built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under the GNU LGPL licence version 3 or higher.

  2. Training the Trainers - from an EU Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Bodil

    of Language and Business Communication at the Aarhus School of Business.The other project participants are from Belgium, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain. The project, whose overall objective is to create the means to obtain competent trainers, is a follow-up to three previous projects (Grotius...... trainers have to be made available to them. The aim of this paper is to present the EU project, AGIS II, Making things happen: Training the trainers of legal interpreters and translators throughout the EU, coordinated by Kirsten W. RAsmussen and Bodil Martinsen, associate professors at the Department...... of legal interpreting. This process includes, among other things, the development of exemplary curricula, course designs, sample lesson plans and teaching materials, which will be presented and discussed/evaluated at a concluding Seminar on training the trainers, which is to be held in Aarhus, Denmark...

  3. Training of fire protection personnel in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaser, W.

    1980-01-01

    Training of fire protection personnel in nuclear power plants is divided up in three categories: training of fire protection commissioners which is mostly carried out externally; training of fire fighting personnel in the form of basic and repeated training usually by the fire protection commissioner; training of other employers with regard to behaviour in case of fire and during work involving a fire hazard. (orig.) [de

  4. The fire course and consequences to be drawn from the fire in the Browns Ferry nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmeister, N.

    1977-01-01

    After a short description of the fire course and the fire fighting measures during the cable fire at Browns Ferry nuclear power station, the effects on the safety system are given in chronological order, and consequences are drawn for a general fire protection programme for nuclear power plants. In this context, the licensing guideline of the NRC for fire protection in nuclear power plants is mentioned, which took particular account of the consequences to be drawn from the Browns Ferry fire. (ORU) [de

  5. Fighting for the family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Maj Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    ‘relational spaces’ that allow them to preserve intimate relationships despite geographical distances. Besides dealing with the practical responsibilities of everyday life, soldiers’ partners also fight to maintain the sense of closeness associated with normative ideals about family relations and a ‘good......The article explores how military deployment affects the everyday lives of Danish soldiers’ families. By approaching the challenges faced by soldiers and their partners from an anthropological perspective of the family, the article provides new insights into the social consequences of military...... deployment and the processes of militarization at home. Drawing on ethnographic examples from recent fieldwork among women, children, and soldiers at different stages of deployment, the article demonstrates how soldiers and their families attempt to live up to ideals about parenthood and family by creating...

  6. Inexpensive anatomical trainer for bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Stefano; Simonassi, Claudio; Chessa, Leonardo

    2007-08-01

    Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy is an indispensable tool for optimal management of intensive care unit patients. However, the acquisition of sufficient training in bronchoscopy is not straightforward during residency, because of technical and ethical problems. Moreover, the use of commercial simulators is limited by their high cost. In order to overcome these limitations, we realized a low-cost anatomical simulator to acquire and maintain the basic skill to perform bronchoscopy in ventilated patients. We used 1.5 mm diameter iron wire to construct the bronchial tree scaffold; glazier-putty was applied to create the anatomical model. The model was covered by several layers of newspaper strips previously immersed in water and vinilic glue. When the model completely dried up, it was detached from the scaffold by cutting it into six pieces, it was reassembled, painted and fitted with an endotracheal tube. We used very cheap material and the final cost was euro16. The trainer resulted in real-scale and anatomically accurate, with appropriate correspondence on endoscopic view between model and patients. All bronchial segments can be explored and easily identified by endoscopic and external vision. This cheap simulator is a valuable tool for practicing, particularly in a hospital with limited resources for medical training.

  7. 77 FR 67340 - National Fire Codes: Request for Comments on NFPA's Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Water Mist Fire P Protection Systems. NFPA 921 Guide for Fire and Explosion P Investigations. NFPA 1005 Standard for Professional P Qualifications for Marine Fire Fighting for Land-Based Fire Fighters. NFPA 1192... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology National Fire Codes: Request...

  8. Flood Fighting Products Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A wave research basin at the ERDC Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory has been modified specifically for testing of temporary, barrier-type, flood fighting products....

  9. Women's Perspectives of Personal Trainers: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Deana; Dail, Teresa K; Katula, Jeffrey A; Mustian, Karen M

    2011-01-01

    Personal trainers play an integral role in the day-to-day operation of the facilities in which they work. Research has identified a number of qualities and competencies necessary to be an effective exercise leader, but there is little scholarly work addressing clients' attitudes related to the performance of personal trainers. Utilizing focus group methodology, female clients of personal trainers were recruited to provide viewpoints related to the desirable qualities of personal trainers, as well as opinions regarding trainer certification and academic preparation. Responses of the participants were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes. Four global themes emerged: Selection Rationale, Personal Trainer Rationale, Loyalty Rationale and Negative Characteristics. Selection Rationale consisted of qualities that influence a client's decision to hire a particular trainer (e.g., physique, results observed in other clients, social skills). Personal Trainer Rationale referred to the clients' reasons (e.g., frustration with current fitness level) for hiring a specific trainer. Loyalty Rationale referred to the credentials of a personal trainer that solidify the client/trainer relationship and Negative Characteristics referred to qualities considered unethical or unprofessional. The results suggest that undergraduate exercise science programs should devote additional time toward the development of future fitness trainers' affective qualities and that clients' would benefit from information about the credentials of personal trainers.

  10. Women's Perspectives of Personal Trainers: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Deana; Dail, Teresa K.; Katula, Jeffrey A.; Mustian, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    Personal trainers play an integral role in the day-to-day operation of the facilities in which they work. Research has identified a number of qualities and competencies necessary to be an effective exercise leader, but there is little scholarly work addressing clients' attitudes related to the performance of personal trainers. Utilizing focus group methodology, female clients of personal trainers were recruited to provide viewpoints related to the desirable qualities of personal trainers, as well as opinions regarding trainer certification and academic preparation. Responses of the participants were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes. Four global themes emerged: Selection Rationale, Personal Trainer Rationale, Loyalty Rationale and Negative Characteristics. Selection Rationale consisted of qualities that influence a client's decision to hire a particular trainer (e.g., physique, results observed in other clients, social skills). Personal Trainer Rationale referred to the clients' reasons (e.g., frustration with current fitness level) for hiring a specific trainer. Loyalty Rationale referred to the credentials of a personal trainer that solidify the client/trainer relationship and Negative Characteristics referred to qualities considered unethical or unprofessional. The results suggest that undergraduate exercise science programs should devote additional time toward the development of future fitness trainers' affective qualities and that clients' would benefit from information about the credentials of personal trainers. PMID:26005398

  11. PG BN 1600 sodium fire protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar, J.; Urbancik, L.

    1978-12-01

    A design was developed of a fire protection system for steam generator of a 1600 MW sodium cooled fast reactor (BN-1600). Chemical reactions are described of liquid sodium with atmospheric components and solid materials coming into contact with sodium in its release from the steam generator, and in safeguarding protection against sodium fires. The requirements for the purity of nitrogen as an atmosphere inert to liquid sodium are given. Characteristics and basic parameters are shown of level and spray fires, elementary terms are explained concerning the properties of aerosols formed during fires, the methods and means of release signalling and fire alarm are described as are fire precautions using fire-fighting equipment, modifying the support tank and the cell bottom and building sewage pits. The design of the system comprises an alarm system for liquid sodium using point and line electric contact sensors and flame photometer based aerosol sensors as well as a fire-fighting system based on the system of channelling liquid sodium into emergency discharge tanks filled with an inert gas, a set of fire extinguishers and other fire fighting material, and measures for the elimination of sodium fire consequences. (J.B.)

  12. The Neglected World of the Workplace Trainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Elshafie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this small-scale research is to explore the hidden world of the workplace trainer. Four trainers from a training institute in Qatar were interviewed and asked about their opinions of the employee as a learner, the trainer’s work, and the role of quality compliance in the training process. After transcribing and analysing the semi- structured interviews, several themes concerning the employee as a learner emerged such as the employees’ motivation and the effects of the workplace environment on learning. The findings also showed the trainers’ need for an adequate professional development plan and a reconsideration of their power inside the classroom. Regarding the quality compliance, there were various insights and suggestions for improvement. The results of this study are important to any workplace trainers, human development, and quality compliance employees or anyone interested in knowing more about the world of adult learning.

  13. O Personal Trainer na Perspectiva do Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Biehl Bossle

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo apresenta mapeamento das referências dedicadas à formação do personal trainer em bases de dados eletrônicas. Essa garimpagem revelou baixa produção científica sobre o assunto e mostrou que na literatura sobre personal trainer predominam livros com linguagem corrente no mundo dos negócios. Esses achados nos levaram a indagar sobre a força do discurso físico-empresarial, especialmente o marketing, na constituição desta ocupação profissional. Jeremy Rifkin, Zygmunt Bauman, Paula Sibilia e Denise Sant'Anna permitiram visualizar que o marketing dirigido ao personal trainer tem como tarefa reinventar, ressignificar e "repaginar" esta modalidade de serviço em nome da sobrevivência no disputado mercado da vida ativa.

  14. MOECSW trains master trainers and supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Ministry of Education, Culture and Social Welfare (MOECSW), as part of the Population Education Programs (formal and informal), undertook a series of training programs to upgrade the knowledge and skills of master trainers, supervisors, and resource persons. As part of the Population Education in the Formal School Sector Project (NEP/93/P01), under the Curriculum Development Centre five training courses were organized to train 220 master trainers. Under the "Three Steps Training Strategy," these 220 master trainers would teach 825 secondary school headmasters who would reach 2025 secondary school teachers. The training courses were held in Dhangadi, April 23-27, 1995; in Pokhara, April 2-7; and in Biratnagar, February 20-24. The areas covered included: 1) the pedagogical aspect of population education (content, scope, objectives, nature, teaching methodologies); 2) demography and population dynamics (composition, distribution and density, sources of population data, demographic transition, consequences and determinants of population growth); 3) family life and adolescence and human sexuality education, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) education; 4) maternal and child health, and family planning; 5) environment; and 6) population policy and programs. As part of the Population Education Programme (NEP/93/P08), a Master Trainers Training Workshop was held in Makwanpur, March 26-28, 1995. These master trainers would train trainers who would train the facilitators and teachers at learning centers for adult learners under the literacy and post literacy programs. This course focused on the approaches and strategies for integrating population education in development programs, and non-formal education, adult literacy, post literacy, and out-of-school children programs. Dr. D. de Rebello and Mr. S. Hutabarat, CST Advisors on Population Education, organized the training courses and served as resource persons.

  15. Trainer module for security control center operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    An operator trainer module has been developed to be used with the security control center equipment to be installed as part of a safeguards physical protection system. The module is designed to provide improved training and testing capabilities for control center operators through the use of simulations for perimeter equipment operations. Operators, through the trainer module, can be challenged with a variety of realistic situations which require responsive action identical to that needed in an actual system. This permits a consistent evaluation and confirmation of operator capabilities prior to assignment as an operator and allows for periodic retesting to verify that adequate performance levels are maintained

  16. Educational CPD: how UK GP trainers develop themselves as teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Mark; Wall, David

    2007-09-01

    There is little in the literature giving the perspective of UK General Practice (GP) trainers on their development as teachers. What motivates GP trainers develop themselves as teachers? What obstacles to their professional development do GP trainers perceive? A questionnaire to all GP trainers in the West Midlands Deanery in 2004. 360/444 (81%) questionnaires were returned. 56.6% of GP trainers had another educational role in addition to training GP Registrars in the practice. 15.8% of trainers possessed an educational qualification. 13 had completed a Certificate in Medical Education and 28 were engaged in study towards that qualification. Trainers wanted more time to spend on their development as teachers than they presently have, and would then be interested in a wider variety of learning methods. However, 56.6% of trainers would still not choose to undertake a university-accredited course. Female GP trainers perceived more difficulty in obtaining protected time for their development as teachers (Educational CPD) (p = 0.021), were significantly less sure of their partners' support for this development (p = 0.033), and were more likely to agree with trainers undertaking a Certificate in Medical Education (p = 0.003). Having an additional educational role did not affect trainers' ability to take protected time, but significantly increased the amount of time aspired to (p = 0.005). Nothing made more difference to trainers' perception of their ability to undertake Educational CPD than did the perceived attitude of their partners. Educational CPD was very important to GP trainers, but getting protected time was difficult. Consideration of the needs and opinions of partners was a very strong barrier to trainers taking sufficient protected time. Given more available time, GP trainers would be more likely to consider gaining academic qualifications in education. However, this was not be something that all trainers wanted.

  17. Development of a Smart Residential Fire Protection System

    OpenAIRE

    Juhwan Oh; Zhongwei Jiang; Henry Panganiban

    2013-01-01

    Embedded system is applied for the development of smart residential fire detection and extinguishing system. Wireless communication capability is integrated into various fire sensors and alarm devices. The system activates the fire alarm to warn occupants, executes emergency and rescue calls to remote residents and fire-fighting facility in an intelligent way. The effective location of extra-sprinklers within the space of interest for the fire extinguishing system is also investigated. Actual...

  18. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE... § 194.15-7 Fire protection. (a) If a fixed or semiportable fire-fighting system is installed, it shall...

  19. Fire and explosion security in the petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The conference has 12 presentations on topics regarding fire fighting, explosions and development scenarios, safety and security aspects, management of safety issues and measures and preparedness. Some accidents and fires are discussed. Some important problems with LNG with respects to plants, transport, fires and risk assessment are presented.

  20. Validation of open-surgery VR trainer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, A.J.B.; Luursema, J.M.; Warntjes, P.; Mastboom, W.J.B.; Geelkerken, R.H.; Klaase, J.M.; Rödel, S.G.J.; ten Cate Hoedemaker, H.O.; Kommers, P.A.M.; Verwey, W.B.; Kunst, E.E.; Westwood, James D.

    2006-01-01

    VREST (Virtual Reality Educational Surgical Tools) is developing a universal and autonomous simulation platform which can be used for training and assessment of medical students and for continuing education of physicians. With the VREST - Virtual Lichtenstein Trainer, simulating the open surgery

  1. Tic Tac Toe Math. Train the Trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Alternative Learning, Bryn Mawr, PA.

    This report describes a project that developed a "Train the Trainer" program that would enable individuals to learn and teach the alternative instructional technique, Tic Tac Toe Math, developed by Richard Cooper for adult basic education students. The pilot workshop conducted as part of the project identified problems that traditional…

  2. 10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... service-water/fire-water uses the minimum volume for fire uses shall be ensured by means of dedicated... knowledge of his or her role in the fire fighting strategy for the area assumed to contain the fire... LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. R Appendix R to Part 50—Fire Protection...

  3. French research on a general approach to sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, JC.

    1989-01-01

    This document gives a general idea of how one may deal with the safety of an installation in case of a sodium leak generating either a sodium pool fire, or a sodium spray fire, or a combined sodium fire, and in case of a sodium leak either with or without fire and/or any aggravating phenomenon such as aerosols or sodium-concrete reactions, for example. This paper describes the means used to reduce fire consequences. These means are either design codes used for dimensioning premises with their ventilation system or for defining a course of action to be taken in case of fire, or equipment and components (fire fighting equipment, detection devices, etc.) used to prevent or to fight fires, or finally, to repair the installation after a fire, the latter operation including the processing of the residues. (author)

  4. The fire brigade renovates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The new fire engine at CERN's Fire Station. A shiny brand-new fire engine is now attracting all the attention of the members of CERN's fire brigade. Since the beginning of last week this engine has taken over from an 18-year-old one, which has now been 'retired' from service. This modern vehicle, built in Brescia, Italy, is much lighter and more powerful than the old one and is equipped to allow the fire service to tackle most call-outs without the support of at least one other vehicle, as is currently necessary. The new fire engine is designed to transport six fire-fighters, 2000 litres of water, and is equipped not only for fire fighting actions but also to respond initially to any other kind of call-out, such as traffic accidents, chemical incidents, pollution, lightning, etc. It goes almost without saying that it is provided with the most modern safety measures, a low centre of gravity, as well as a special chassis and a combination pump (low and high pressure), which improve the safety and performance ...

  5. Forest Monitoring and Wildland Early Fire Detection by a Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Molina-Pico

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wildland fire is an uncontrolled fire that occurs mainly in forest areas, although it can also invade urban or agricultural areas. Among the main causes of wildfires, human factors, either intentional or accidental, are the most usual ones. The number and impact of forest fires are expected to grow as a consequence of the global warming. In order to fight against these disasters, it is necessary to adopt a comprehensive, multifaceted approach that enables a continuous situational awareness and instant responsiveness. This paper describes a hierarchical wireless sensor network aimed at early fire detection in risky areas, integrated with the fire fighting command centres, geographical information systems, and fire simulators. This configuration has been successfully tested in two fire simulations involving all the key players in fire fighting operations: fire brigades, communication systems, and aerial, coordination, and land means.

  6. Water Supply Systems For Aircraft Fire And Rescue Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This Advisory Circular (AC) provides guidance for the selection : of a water source and standards for the design of a distribution system to : support aircraft rescue and fire fighting (ARFF) service operations on : airports.

  7. The French fire protection concept. Vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaercher, M.

    1998-01-01

    The French fire protection concept is based on a principle of three levels of defence in depth: fire prevention, fire containing and fire controlling. Fire prevention is based on arrangements which prevent the fire from starting or which make difficult for the fire to start. Fire containing is based on design measures so that the fire will have no impact on the safety of the installation. For fire controlling, equipment nad personnel are on duty in order to detect, to fight and to gain control over the fire as early as possible. The French fire protection concept gives priority to fire containing based on passive structural measures. All buildings containing safety equipment are divided into fire compartments (or fire areas) and fire cells (or fire zones). Basically, a compartment houses safety equipment belonging to one division (or train) so that the other division is always available to reach the plant safe shut down or to mitigate an accident. Because there is a large number of fire compartments and fire cells, deviations from the general principle can be observed. To this reason the RCC-I (Design and Construction Rules applicable for fire protection) requires to implement an assessment of the principle of division. This assessment is called vulnerability analysis. The vulnerability analysis is usually performed at the end of the project, before erection. It is also possible to perform a vulnerability analysis in an operating nuclear power plant in the scope of a fire safety upgrading programme. In the vulnerability analysis, the functional failure of all the equipment (except for those protected by a qualified fire barrier, designed or able to withstand the fire consequences) within the fire compartment or cell, where the fire breaks out, is postulated. The potential consequences for the plant safety are analysed

  8. Szendro - type Integrated Vegetation Fire Management--Wildfire Management Program from Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ágoston Restás

    2006-01-01

    Szendrő Fire Department is located in the northeastern part of Hungary. The main task is to fight against wildfire and mitigate the impact of fire at the Aggtelek National Park -- which belongs to the UNESCO World Heritage list. Because of greater effectiveness, in 2004 the Fire Department started a project named Integrated Vegetation Fire Management (IVFM)....

  9. Ferocious fighting between male grasshoppers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate D L Umbers

    Full Text Available Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual's role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders. Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group.

  10. Ferocious Fighting between Male Grasshoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbers, Kate D. L.; Tatarnic, Nikolai J.; Holwell, Gregory I.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2012-01-01

    Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis) is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual’s role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders). Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group. PMID:23166725

  11. Fight Bac! | Partnership for Food Safety Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fight Bac! Fight Bac! Fight Bac! Partnership for Food Safety Education Supporting consumers to & Symptoms Food Safety Glossary Food Safety Education Food Safety Education Month 2017 Don't Wing Spanish Resources Food Safety Education Food Safety Education Month 2017 Don't Wing It The Story of Your

  12. Personal trainer demographics, current practice trends and common trainee injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R. Waryasz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing emphasis on maintaining a healthy lifestyle has led many individuals to seek advice on exercise from personal trainers. There are few studies to date that evaluate personal trainer education, practice trends, and injuries they have seen while training clients. A survey was distributed to personal trainers using Survey Monkey® (Palo Alto, CA, USA with 605 personal trainers accessing the survey. An exercise related bachelor’s degree was held by 64.2% of survey participants and a certification in personal training by 89.0%. The most common personal trainer certifications were from American College of Sports Medicine (59.2% and National Strength and Conditioning Association (28.9%. Only 2.9% of all personal trainers surveyed had no exercise-related bachelor’s degree and no personal trainer certification. The most common injuries seen by personal trainers during sessions were lumbar muscle strain (10.7%, rotator cuff tear/tendonitis (8.9%, shin splints (8.1%, ankle sprain (7.5%, and cervical muscle strain (7.4%. There is variability in the practices between different personal trainers when analyzing differences in collegiate education, personal trainer certifications, and strength and conditioning certifications. The clinical implication of the differences in practices is unknown as to the impact on injuries or exercise prescription effectiveness.

  13. Personal Trainer Demographics, Current Practice Trends and Common Trainee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waryasz, Gregory R.; Daniels, Alan H.; Gil, Joseph A.; Suric, Vladimir; Eberson, Craig P.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing emphasis on maintaining a healthy lifestyle has led many individuals to seek advice on exercise from personal trainers. There are few studies to date that evaluate personal trainer education, practice trends, and injuries they have seen while training clients. A survey was distributed to personal trainers using Survey Monkey® (Palo Alto, CA, USA) with 605 personal trainers accessing the survey. An exercise related bachelor’s degree was held by 64.2% of survey participants and a certification in personal training by 89.0%. The most common personal trainer certifications were from American College of Sports Medicine (59.2%) and National Strength and Conditioning Association (28.9%). Only 2.9% of all personal trainers surveyed had no exercise-related bachelor’s degree and no personal trainer certification. The most common injuries seen by personal trainers during sessions were lumbar muscle strain (10.7%), rotator cuff tear/tendonitis (8.9%), shin splints (8.1%), ankle sprain (7.5%), and cervical muscle strain (7.4%). There is variability in the practices between different personal trainers when analyzing differences in collegiate education, personal trainer certifications, and strength and conditioning certifications. The clinical implication of the differences in practices is unknown as to the impact on injuries or exercise prescription effectiveness. PMID:27761219

  14. Training aids: the motor operator valve trainer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, B.

    1987-01-01

    The spectrum of training aids used in the nuclear industry runs the gamut from the very basic (i.e., valve training aids - gate, globe, check) to the highly complex (i.e., nuclear full scope simulator). Designing and purchasing the best training aids take much time, detailed investigation, and good understanding of plant operations. The training aid that has given the New York Power Authority the best results has been the motor operator valve (MOV) trainer. Some of the items that make the MOV trainer a good choice are: (1) large number of MOVs in the plant, (2) importance of MOVs to safe plant operation, (3) detailed MOV procedures used by the plant, (4) history of MOV problems, and (5) ability to demonstrate important concepts and operation - hammer blow effect, torque and limit switch adjustment and functions, and actual sequence of operation of the limitorque valve operator

  15. Prove of structural fire design in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, U.; Hosser, D.; Max, U.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the application of comprehensive heat balance calculations the whole parameters like geometry, fire load, ventilation conditions etc. of a German PWR were covered. A practical design procedure based on diagrams was developed whereby separate diagrams for oil and cable fires were presented. A probabilistic safety concept was employed as to account for the specific variations of fire parameters as fire load and area, ventilation condition, rate of burning. With respect to the frequency of fire occurrences and the impact of fire fighting measures on the spread of fires latest statistical data of a special BMI investigation were used. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Development of a Smart Residential Fire Protection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhwan Oh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded system is applied for the development of smart residential fire detection and extinguishing system. Wireless communication capability is integrated into various fire sensors and alarm devices. The system activates the fire alarm to warn occupants, executes emergency and rescue calls to remote residents and fire-fighting facility in an intelligent way. The effective location of extra-sprinklers within the space of interest for the fire extinguishing system is also investigated. Actual fire test suggests that the developed wireless system for the smart residential fire protection system is reliable in terms of sensors and their communication linkage.

  17. Vision Trainer Teaches Focusing Techniques at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Based on work Stanford Research Institute did for Ames Research Center, Joseph Trachtman developed a vision trainer to treat visual focusing problems in the 1980s. In 2014, Trachtman, operating out of Seattle, released a home version of the device called the Zone-Trac. The inventor has found the biofeedback process used by the technology induces an alpha-wave brain state, causing increased hand-eye coordination and reaction times, among other effects

  18. Radiology trainer. Torso, internal organs and vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, A.; Ertl-Wagner, B.

    2006-01-01

    This book enables students to simulate examinations. The Radiology Trainer series comprises the whole knowledge of radiology in the form of case studies for self-testing. It is based on the best-sorted German-language collection of radiological examinations of all organ regions. Step by step, radiological knowledge is trained in order to make diagnoses more efficient. The book series ensures optimal preparation for the final medical examinations and is also a valuable tool for practical training. (orig.)

  19. Fire safety study of Dodewaard and Borssele nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    From the nuclear and conventional fire safety audits of both Dutch nuclear power plants performed under supervision of the Nuclear Safety Inspectorate and the Inspectorate for the Fire Services it turns out that the fire safety is sufficient however amenable for improvement. Besides a detailed description of the method of examination, the study 'Fire Safety' contains the results of the audit and 14 respectively 15 recommendations for improvement of the fire safety in Dodewaard and Borssele. The suggested recommendations which are applicable to both power plants are the following: fire fighting training for operators and guards, a complete emergency ventilation system of the control room, increase in the number of detectors and alarms, an increase in the quantity of water available for high-pressure fire fighting, improvement of fire barriers between several redundancies of nuclear safety systems, an investigation and possible improvement of the heat and radiation protection offered by presently used fire fighting suits. For Dodewaard a closed emergency staircase in the reactor building (secondary containment) is deemed necessary for personnel emergency escape routes and continued fire fighting if required

  20. Discovery Mondays - Men of fire: the fire brigade show their mettle

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Flashover and backdraught, these technical terms refer to two of the most dangerous phenomena associated with fires. In order to train in dealing with them, in the course of their fire fighting duties the CERN fire brigade use special simulation equipment. The demonstrations are rather spectacular... Thrills are therefore guaranteed at the next Discovery Monday on 2 February! In the course of the evening, you will see fire-fighters demonstrate climbing techniques including abseiling, a method they would have to use to access underground structures on the CERN site in the event of an accident. The accomplished climbers (the Hazardous Environments Response Team) will provide detailed explanations of the rescue techniques and procedures they use in tunnels and hazardous environments. However, the remit of the CERN fire brigade goes well beyond fire-fighting. It ranges from monitoring confined spaces to dealing with flooding and preventing chemical hazards. A wide range of equipment enables them to fulfil thei...

  1. Organizing for Emergencies - Issues in Wildfire Fighting in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fabac

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Croatia's accession to the European Union implies inevitable changes in the national emergency management system. New requirements for adjustment in accordance with the EU standards and practices also apply to the fire-services organization. Harmonious functioning of a large number of relatively autonomous organizations related to the National Protection and Rescue Directorate necessitates clear decision-making authority and coordination mechanisms as well as a high level of interoperability and core competencies development. This paper gives an overview of the Croatian fire protection organization along with its accompanying legislation, followed by an analysis of identified problems, especially those concerning fighting of wildfire. In our research a survey questionnaire comprised of Likert-scale items was used to assess the attitudes and experiences of trained fire department members. The respondents reported a relatively low evaluation of effectiveness and appropriateness of the following key fire service attributes: organizational structure, legislation and firefighting logistics support. From the obtained results guidelines can be drawn for possible redesign of the emergency management organization, especially those concerning the fire protection service.

  2. Knowledge translation to fitness trainers: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamo Kristi B

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigates approaches for translating evidence-based knowledge for use by fitness trainers. Specific questions were: Where do fitness trainers get their evidence-based information? What types of interventions are effective for translating evidence-based knowledge for use by fitness trainers? What are the barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence-based information by fitness trainers in their practice? Methods We describe a systematic review of studies about knowledge translation interventions targeting fitness trainers. Fitness trainers were defined as individuals who provide exercise program design and supervision services to the public. Nurses, physicians, physiotherapists, school teachers, athletic trainers, and sport team strength coaches were excluded. Results Of 634 citations, two studies were eligible for inclusion: a survey of 325 registered health fitness professionals (66% response rate and a qualitative study of 10 fitness instructors. Both studies identified that fitness trainers obtain information from textbooks, networking with colleagues, scientific journals, seminars, and mass media. Fitness trainers holding higher levels of education are reported to use evidence-based information sources such as scientific journals compared to those with lower education levels, who were reported to use mass media sources. The studies identified did not evaluate interventions to translate evidence-based knowledge for fitness trainers and did not explore factors influencing uptake of evidence in their practice. Conclusion Little is known about how fitness trainers obtain and incorporate new evidence-based knowledge into their practice. Further exploration and specific research is needed to better understand how emerging health-fitness evidence can be translated to maximize its use by fitness trainers providing services to the general public.

  3. The role of the trainer in online courses

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Ana Augusta

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the main challenges faced by teachers and trainers when guiding or "tutoring" online courses. The focus is on their emerging role as e-tutors or e-trainers. The challenges are related with the processes of orientation, guidance and monitoring e-learners within an e-course. European Union DGXXII - Education and Training, Leoardo da VINCI Programme "Trainers Training for Virtual Learning Communities" ( ttVLC)

  4. Central display system of figures in fire alarm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Shaohong; Zhu Zicheng; Zhu Liqun; Ren Yi; Yu Hongmei; Du Chengbao; Xie Guoxue

    1997-01-01

    A new type of 'central display system of figures in fire alarm' includes two parts: (1) software package of drawing picture; (2) real time processing and operate system (POS). Main function of the software package is to draw floor plane figures, fire-fighting facility signs and room numbers; and then all pictures are used in POS. Main functions of POS are to process fire alarm, faults and activation of fire fighting control facility, save and print reports, look over floor plane figures, look over concrete condition of fire fighting facilities, and to show appropriate prompt according to different case. This system realizes many functions, such as, control with mouse, operation with push-button, menu operation interface, flip windows to prompt, and chinese character. It have won acclaim for its amazing interface, its convenience to operate, its reliability and flexibility

  5. Fighting corruption in tactical procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Obanda Wanyama, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Vast amount of public resources are spent on procurement. Effective public procurement yields additional budget space, hence it ought to be conducted with due diligence. However, public procurement most especially tactical procurement in local governments in Uganda is vulnerable to corruption. In this thesis we analyze how tactical procurement can be managed to fight corruption and promote integrity in the decentralized context in local governments in Uganda. Specifically, we identify the mos...

  6. Morfofunctional parameters in judo's fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Sérgio Lopes Campos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the complexity of judo and the ample energy and neuromuscular demands, a whole process of competitive preparation must be directed to different physical capacities allowing the athlete to perform his combat actions with the best suitability possible. Mapping the  behaviour of a judo athlete from observations of behaviour units  in a real fighting situation would be a way of trying to identify the best topography or the best "aptitude" to achieve victory. The present investigation analysed the judo from the interactions of a real competition situation, aiming to verify, between winners and losers, possible differences or correlations between anthropometric parameters, motor performance and functional behaviours in a competitive situation. The results showed that: a the experience is decisive between winning or losing; b leg techniques are the most used between winners and losers, and losers use them more frequently; c there are different strategies between fights; d The energy cost in judo depends on the configuration of the fights. It is believed that such results can help coaches and athletes in guiding and rationalizing the training process in relation to performance determinants in judo.

  7. Fire protection program fiscal year 1995 site support program plan, Hanford Fire Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good, D.E.

    1994-09-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under a mutual aid agreement and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System). The fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, self-contained breathing apparatus maintenance, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This report describes the specific responsibilities and programs that the HFD must support and the estimated cost of this support for FY1995

  8. Fire Protection Program fiscal year 1996, site support program plan Hanford Fire Department. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good, D.E.

    1995-09-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under a mutual aid agreement and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System). The fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, self-contained breathing apparatus maintenance, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This report gives a program overview, technical program baselines, and cost and schedule baseline

  9. 77 FR 58081 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone-Depleting Substances-Fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... 332919 Nozzles, fire fighting, manufacturing. Manufacturing 334290 Fire detection and alarm systems... substitutes for halon 1301 for use in total flooding fire suppression systems in normally unoccupied spaces... regulated Category NAICS Code entities Construction 238210 Alarm system (e.g., fire, burglar), electric...

  10. Effectiveness of box trainers in laparoscopic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhariwal Anender

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale and Objectives: Various devices are used to aid in the education of laparoscopic skills ranging from simple box trainers to sophisticated virtual reality trainers. Virtual reality system is an advanced and effective training method, however it is yet to be adopted in India due to its cost and the advanced technology required for it. Therefore, box trainers are being used to train laparoscopic skills. Hence this study was undertaken to assess the overall effectiveness of the box-training course. Study Procedure: The study was conducted during six-day laparoscopic skills training workshops held during 2006. Twenty five surgeons; age range of 26 to 45 years, of either sex, who had not performed laparoscopic surgery before; attending the workshop were evaluated. Each participant was given a list of tasks to perform before beginning the box-training course on day one and was evaluated quantitatively by rating the successful completion of each test. Evaluation began when the subject placed the first tool into the cannula and ended with task completion. Two evaluation methods used to score the subject, including a global rating scale and a task-specific checklist. After the subject completed all sessions of the workshop, they were asked to perform the same tasks and were evaluated in the same manner. For each task completed by the subjects, the difference in the scores between the second and first runs were calculated and interpreted as an improvement as a percentage of the initial score. Statistical Analysis: Wilcoxon matched-paired signed-ranks test was applied to find out the statistical significance of the results obtained. Results: The mean percentage improvement in scores for both the tasks, using global rating scale, was 44.5% + 6.930 (Mean + SD. For task 1, using the global rating scale mean percentage improvement was 49.4% + 7.948 (Mean + SD. For task 2, mean percentage improvement using global rating scale was 39.6% + 10.4 (Mean

  11. First trainer six practice tests with answers

    CERN Document Server

    May, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Six full practice tests with tips and training for the 2015 revised Cambridge English: First (FCE). First Trainer Second edition offers six practice tests for the revised Cambridge English: First (FCE) exam combined with easy-to-follow guidance and exam tips. The first two tests are fully guided with advice on how to tackle each paper. Extra practice activities, informed by the Cambridge Learner Corpus, a bank of real candidates' exam papers, focus on areas where students typically need the most help. This version contains a full answer key. Audio for the listening and speaking test activities is available online for download. Audio CDs featuring the listening material are also available, separately.

  12. WordPress 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Plumley, George

    2015-01-01

    Create and expand feature-rich sites with no programming experience Ready to build, maintain, and expand your web site with WordPress but have no prior programming experience? WordPress 24-Hour Trainer, 3rd Edition is your book-and-video learning solution that walks you step-by-step through all the important features you will need to know. Lessons range from focused, practical everyday tasks to more advanced, creative features. Learn from an industry professional how to enter content, create pages, manage menus, utilize plug-ins, connect to social media, create membership and e-commerce site

  13. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  14. Fire History

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  15. Breaking Terrorists’ Will To Fight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    guillotine spreads in all of France and brings to justice all the traitors. There is no other means to inspire the...the end, we shall fight in France , we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we...deprivation: “Any ideology—even the very best, even Marxism -Leninism itself—is ineffective unless it is linked with objective realities, meets

  16. Anhydrous Ammonia Training Module. Trainer's Package. Participant's Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudin, Bart; And Others

    This document contains a trainer's and a participant's package for teaching employees on site safe handling procedures for working with anhydrous ammonia, especially on farms. The trainer's package includes the following: a description of the module; a competency; objectives; suggested instructional aids; a training outline (or lesson plan) for…

  17. Educational expectations of GP trainers. A EURACT needs analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldal, D.; Windak, A.; Maagaard, Roar

    2012-01-01

    if these needs vary between trainers who teach general practice in different settings and environments. Needs assessment: Recently EURACT, in collaboration with partners from five EU countries and Turkey, set up a project aimed at the development of a comprehensive 'training the trainers' programme. The project...

  18. Importance of Health Science Education for Personal Fitness Trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Moh H.; Nalbone, David P.; Berger, Dale E.; Coburn, Jared W.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between commonly used indicators of knowledge and actual knowledge in five areas among fitness trainers. Data from the Fitness Instructors Knowledge Assessment indicated that a bachelor's degree in the field of exercise science and possession of one of two specific certifications strongly predicted a trainer's knowledge,…

  19. Characterizations of a quality certified athletic trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Scot; Wolfe, Brent D; Gould, Trenton E; Piland, Scott G

    2011-01-01

    Didactic proficiency does not ensure clinical aptitude. Quality athletic health care requires clinical knowledge and affective traits. To develop a grounded theory explaining the constructs of a quality certified athletic trainer (AT). Delphi study. Interviews in conference rooms or business offices and by telephone. Thirteen ATs (men = 8, women = 5) stratified across the largest employment settings (high school, college, clinical) in the 4 largest districts of the National Athletic Trainers? Association (2, 3, 4, 9). Open-ended interview questions were audio recorded, transcribed, and reviewed before condensing. Two member checks ensured trustworthiness. Open coding reduced text to descriptive adjectives. We grouped adjectives into 5 constructs (care, communication, commitment, integrity, knowledge) and grouped these constructs into 2 higher-order constructs (affective traits, effective traits). According to participants, ATs who demonstrate the ability to care, show commitment and integrity, value professional knowledge, and communicate effectively with others can be identified as quality ATs. These abilities facilitate the creation of positive relationships. These relationships allow the quality AT to interact with patients and other health care professionals on a knowledgeable basis that ultimately improves health care delivery. Our resulting theory supported the examination of characteristics not traditionally assessed in an athletic training education program. If researchers can show that these characteristics develop ATs into quality ATs (eg, those who work better with others, relate meaningfully with patients, and improve the standard of health care), they must be cultivated in the educational setting.

  20. A Sleep Position Trainer for positional sleep apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laub, Rasmus R; Tønnesen, Philip; Jennum, Poul J

    2017-01-01

    We tested the effect of the Sleep Position Trainer, a vibrational device, for positional sleep apnea in an open, randomized controlled trial with 101 patients, where 52 patients were allocated to Sleep Position Trainer and 49 patients to a non-treatment control group for 2 months (Part 1). All...... patients were then followed as a cohort for a period of 6 months with use of the Sleep Position Trainer (Part 2). The participants were assessed with polygraphy at entry, and after 2 and 6 months. The mean apnea-hypopnea index supine was 35 per h (SD, 18) in the Sleep Position Trainer group and 38 per h...... (SD, 15) in the control group at entry. In a per protocol analysis, the mean total apnea-hypopnea index at entry and after 2 months in the Sleep Position Trainer group was 18 per h (SD, 10) and 10 per h (SD, 9; P

  1. Combined fire fighting solution for powertransformers; Kombinierte Brandschutzloesung fuer Leistungstransformatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Henning [Genius Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH, Koenigs Wusterhausen (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Genius Development Company (Koenigs-Wusterhausen, Federal Republic of Germany) developed a comprehensive protection approach for the use of PyroBubbles {sup registered} as an extinguishing agent at transformers. Partly, experiences of an already implemented project a 380 kV-520 MVA transformer could be used. Here, the oil pan, cable penetrations and control cables were protected with PyroBubbles {sup registered}.

  2. From one to zero. Fire fighting; Von eins auf null

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannen, Petra

    2011-07-01

    Electricity and water are considered unhealthy partners. Firemen's associations therefore demand shut-off systems for photovoltaic power plants - in spite of the fact that no damage has occurred so far according to the firemen's accident insurance. Scientists also state that the risk of electric shock caused by d.c. components is lower than assumed.

  3. Ready, Fire, Aim: The College Campus Gun Fight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether guns should be permitted on college and university campuses in the United States reflects the tension between two competing perspectives. America has both a robust gun culture and an equally robust (if less well known) gun-control culture. The gun culture is as American as apple pie: There may be as many as 300 million…

  4. Intelligent agents for training on-board fire fighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den; Harbers, M.; Heuvelink, A.; Doesburg, W. van

    2009-01-01

    Simulation-based training in complex decision making often requires ample personnel for playing various roles (e.g. team mates, adversaries). Using intelligent agents may diminish the need for staff. However, to achieve goal-directed training, events in the simulation as well as the behavior of key

  5. Comparative study for chaotic behaviour in fire fighting robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Judith Morales Tavera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo de supervisión de incendios es un caso de estudio, donde el control caótico podría minimizar las lesiones en humanos, materiales y ambientales. En este artículo se propone un control caótico para un robot móvil, con el fin de hacer una nueva inspección en espacios regulares, desplazándolo a través de trayectorias no determinadas. Una naturaleza caótica en el robot, es adicionada, integrando la cinemática con las ecuaciones no lineales de Arnold y Lorenz, en el mismo sistema.

  6. Rescue and Fire Fighting on RWY 06R/24L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristýna Vaňková

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rescue and firefighting service is an important and essential part at the Václav Havel Airport Prague and it has to follow the requirements stated in Commission regulations (EU, regulations and laws of Czech Republic. Construction of parallel runway 06R/24L influences runway and taxiway system significantly. Consequences of these construction changes are changes of access routes and new places of potential interventions originates. Safety risks of inaccessible areas at the airport and inability to follow response time come with operations of the new runway. These risks are assessed and mitigated if necessary.

  7. Rope rescue in National fire-fighting and rescue system

    OpenAIRE

    SOCHACKI MARIAN

    2008-01-01

    Автор описывает организацию, функционирование и место системы спасения с высоты в Государственной спасательно-гасящей системе.The author describes organization, working and place of rope rescue in National Firefighting and Rescue System (KSRG).

  8. 76 FR 70414 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Proposes To Revise Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... Commercial Cooking Operations. NFPA 99--2012 Health Care Facilities Code 6/22/2012 NFPA 99B--2010 Standard... Explosion Investigations..... 1/4/2012 NFPA 1005--2007 Standard for Professional Qualifications for 1/4/2012 Marine Fire Fighting for Land-Based Fire Fighters. NFPA 1021--2009 Standard for Fire Officer Professional...

  9. 76 FR 22381 - National Fire Codes: Request for Comments on NFPA Technical Committee Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... Stored Electrical P Energy Emergency and Standby Power Systems. NFPA 291 Recommended Practice for Fire P.... NFPA 400 Hazardous Materials Code....... P NFPA 402 Guide for Aircraft Rescue and P Fire-Fighting... Installation, P Maintenance, and Use of Emergency Services Communications Systems. NFPA 1500 Standard on Fire...

  10. 76 FR 22383 - National Fire Codes: Request for Proposals for Revision of Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... Chemical Extinguishing Systems. NFPA 22-2008 Standard for Water 5/23/2011 Tanks for Private Fire Protection... Ensembles for Technical Rescue Incidents. NFPA 1925-2008 Standard on Marine Fire- 5/23/2011 Fighting Vessels... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology National Fire Codes: Request...

  11. Sodium fires and nuclear power station safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, V.N.; Zubin, A.; Drobyshev, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    The danger of sodium aerosol release at a design basis accident (DBA) of a sodium-cooled fast reactor that involves coolant leakage and burning, is being analyzed. It has been shown that radioactive and toxic releases at DBA do not exceed permissible values. Some means of sodium fire fighting are described. (author)

  12. Extinction of metal fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellottee, H.

    1977-01-01

    The main points of a large bibliography on liquid and solid metal fires are set out. The various methods used to fight these fires are presented; covering by powders is specially emphasized. Since this method has promising results, the various possible techniques, extinction by cooling the metal, by blanketing, by formation of a continuous insulating layer (by fusion or pyrolysis of a powder) or by a surface reaction between powder and metal are studied. The conditions of conservation and use of powders are outlined, then the various powders are described: inert powders, powders undergoing a physical transformation (fusion or vitrification of an organic compound, fusion of eutectic inorganic mixtures), multiple effect powders. Precise examples are quoted [fr

  13. Lessons from a Train-the-Trainer Professional Development Program: The Sustainable Trainer Engagement Program (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupla, Christine; Gladney, Alicia; Dalton, Heather; LaConte, Keliann; Truxillo, Jeannette; Shipp, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    The Sustainable Trainer Engagement Program (STEP) is a modified train-the-trainer professional development program being conducted by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI). STEP has provided two cohorts of 6-8th grade science specialists and lead teachers in the Houston region with in-depth Earth and Space Science (ESS) content, activities, and pedagogy over 15 days each, aligned with Texas science standards. This project has two over-arching goals: to improve middle school ESS instruction, and to create and test an innovative model for Train-the-Trainer.This poster will share details regarding STEP’s activities and resources, program achievements, and its main findings to date. STEP is being evaluated by external evaluators at the Research Institute of Texas, part of the Harris County Department of Education. External evaluation shows an increase after one year in STEP participants’ knowledge (cohort 1 showed a 10% increase; cohort 2 showed a 20% increase), confidence in teaching Earth and Space Science effectively (cohort 1 demonstrated a 10% increase; cohort 2 showed a 20% increase), and confidence in preparing other teachers (cohort 1 demonstrated a 12% increase; cohort 2 showed a 20% increase). By September 2015, STEP participants led (or assisted in leading) approximately 40 workshops for about 1800 science teachers in Texas. Surveys of teachers attending professional development conducted by STEP participants show very positive responses, with averages for conference workshop evaluations ranging from 3.6 on a 4 point scale, and other evaluations averaging from 4.1 to 5.0 on a 5 point scale.Main lessons for the team on the train-the-trainer model include: a lack of confidence by leaders in K-12 science education in presenting ESS professional development, difficulties in arranging for school or district content-specific professional development, the minimal duration of most school and district professional development sessions, and uncertainties in

  14. Art therapy in cancer fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Rodrigues D'Alencar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Art therapy is the therapeutic use of artistic activity in the context of the professional relationship with people affected by disease, injury or by seeking personal development. This study aims to report the experience of art therapy activities with a group of patients and their caregivers in a university hospital. This is an experience report, in Fortaleza - CE, during September 2010 to February 2011. In the meetings, participated 49 people, who performed activities, using the methods of art therapy, like painting, cutting, drawing, collage, creative visualization and color therapy. In the assessments, after the groups, the participants demonstrated the effects of art therapy, which described that the intervention allowed speak from the process of facing life to cancer fight. It is concluded that the techniques of art therapy provided self-knowledge, self-esteem and redemption sense of well-being with relaxation, and promote happiness and reduce stress.

  15. Health trainers making a difference to mental health and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Judy; Bagnall, Anne-Marie; Trigwell, Joanne

    2015-05-01

    This short report explores the key findings from a review(1) of information on health trainers in 2013/2014 which had a particular focus on mental health and wellbeing. After summarising the key findings of the review, it focuses on mental health, briefly exploring the links between mental and physical health before discussing what differences engagement with a health trainer made to people's sense of self-efficacy and wellbeing. Health trainers are a non-clinical workforce introduced in 2004,(2) who receive training in competencies to enable them to support people in disadvantaged communities to improve their health.(3) The population groups or settings that health trainers focus on varies from service to service, but all work one-to-one, most spending at least an hour with a client at their first appointment, supporting and enabling them to decide what they want to do. The emphasis is on the client determining their own priorities and how to achieve them. Generally, health trainers see clients for a total of six sessions, where how to achieve goals and progress towards them is discussed. The Data Collection and Reporting System (DCRS) is used by approximately 60% of Health Trainer Services to record monitoring data. Around 90% of Health Trainer Services using DCRS record ethnographic data on health trainers and clients, plus the issues clients worked on and the progress they made. There is also a wide range of other data which can be recorded, including before and after mental health and wellbeing scores. We were given access to aggregate data in order to conduct an analysis. Descriptive statistics were generated to calculate percentage change pre- to post-intervention. A total of 1,377 (= 919 full time equivalents) health trainers were recorded in the DCRS system as working with 97,248 clients in England during 2013/2014. The health trainer model embodies the principle of lay support,(4) and services aim to recruit a high proportion of their staff from similar

  16. Review of the IAEA fire symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.

    1991-01-01

    The IAEA Symposium on Fire Protection and Fire Fighting in Nuclear Installations covered a large scope in the field in order to provide the opportunity for screening all aspects of present technology, research and development, standardization, licensing and fire fighting practices. Although application to any nuclear facility was within its scope, the majority of presentations concerned nuclear power plants. The approach to fire protection is the classical one in all plant designs: reduction of fire loads, appropriate zoning, manual and automatic extinguishment. However, methods of analysis and consequence prediction are changing. Computerized fire modelling is becoming a powerful tool in this area; probabilistic analytical methods are being improved, though they are not yet used widely for fire hazards. Differences in opinion were revealed in the definition of barrier resistance, the prediction of cable insulation behaviour and the optimal design of extinguishing systems. Greater international co-operation, especially in these areas, may be a good way of optimizing results with limited resources. Discussion contributions showed interest in exchange of experience in more specialized topics and encouraged the IAEA to increase its activity in the area of fire protection. (orig.)

  17. Aircraft Carrier Flight and Hangar Deck Fire Protection: History and Current Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Darwin, Robert L; Bowman, Howard L; Hunstad, Mary; Leach, William B; Williams, Frederick W

    2005-01-01

    .... Next, a review of firefighting systems, including the firefighting agents currently in use, as well as the current tactics for fighting fires on the flight deck and the hangar deck, is provided...

  18. Planning for fire control and protection of personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rule, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Because nuclear installations are designed and built to high standards with segregation and fire barriers included, the risk from fires is not high. However, small fires can become large and nuclear sites present additional hazards to fire fighters because of radiation release and from metal fires (magnesium alloys and sodium) which require special techniques of firefighting. All sites have their own fire fighting force which would tackle a fire initially and these should train and work in close cooperation with the Local Authority fire service. The main points raised concern radiation protection for the fire fighters including the issuing of emergency dosemeters and potassium iodate tablets, decontamination of personnel, vehicles and equipment, communications, and the need for standardisation of plans at all installations throughout the country. (U.K.)

  19. Cleared Hot: A Forward Air Control (Airborne) Concepts Trainer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Gregory; Lakey, Charles

    2006-01-01

    With the aim of creating a skill trainer of conceptual knowledge, what is the development process for ensuring the correct set of objectives are determined, matched to appropriate technology, and implemented...

  20. Development Aspects of a Robotised Gait Trainer for Neurological Rehabilitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmidt, H

    2001-01-01

    .... Conventional training methods, e.g. treadmill training, require great physical effort from the therapists to assist the patient After the successful development and application of a mechanised gait trainer, a new research project...

  1. Born to win? Testing the fighting hypothesis in realistic fights: left-handedness in the Ultimate Fighting Championship

    OpenAIRE

    Pollet, Thomas V.; Stulp, Gert; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2013-01-01

    Given the heritability of human left-handedness and its purported associations with fitness-lowering traits, the persistence of the minority of left-handedness in human populations is an evolutionary puzzle. The fighting hypothesis proposes that these negative fitness costs are offset by fitness gains for left-handers when involved in fights with right-handers, as being a minority would generate a surprise effect increasing the chance of winning. The finding that left-handers are overrepresen...

  2. Probabilistic assessment of fire related events in CWPH (Pilot study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, D.; Maity, S.C.; Guptan, Rajee; Mohan, Nalini; Ghadge, S.G.; Bajaj, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    As a part of Fire PSA for KAPS, a pilot study has been taken up identifying CWPH as the important zone vulnerable to fire. As the CWPH houses pumps belonging to all important cooling (APWC, FFW, NAHPPW, NALPW, etc.) of both the units, a single fire leads to failure of multiple safety/safety support system cooling affecting the safety of the plant. The objective of this study is as follows: Familiarising with the various published Fire-PSA study, comparing and finalisation of the computer code amongst various codes available with DAE, identifying and sequencing different activities involved for carrying out Fire PSA, i.e. Zoning and Sub-Zoning of Fire Source Area, Fire vulnerability of System and Component surrounding Fire Source, etc., finalization of report format and documentation. Computer Code FDS is used to carry out Fire Hazard Analysis. FDS is the latest state-of the-art software package extensively used for Fire Hazard Analysis. It develops a 3D scenario for any given fire giving credit to actual physical location of fire load and ventilation. It gives the time dependent of any fire in a specific zone crediting the time required by operator to take necessary preventive action which helps in quantifying the probability of error for any particular operator's for PSA study. To identify the most vulnerable sub-zone in CWPH, a walk down was organized and physical location of each load; their separation, fire barrier, ventilator in the room, arrangement of fire protection/fighting system, localized operator's room were reviewed. Fire in the middle diesel tank with pump is considered as initiating event in the sub-zone of CWPH. The Event Tree for this initiating event for CWPH was developed. Event Tree end states are identified as large fire i.e. fire which is failed to be detected by both means, i.e. early and late and failure in fighting by both means i.e. early and late. (author)

  3. Training the trainers: beyond providing a well-received course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitz, Julia; Edwards, Jill; Mash, Bob; Mowle, Steve

    2016-09-01

    The Royal College of General Practitioners in partnership with the South African Academy of Family Physicians obtained funding to run a series of 'Training the Trainers' courses for trainers of family medicine registrars, with a view to strengthening clinical supervision of postgraduate registrars. The authors wanted to establish whether it was worthwhile for the course to be provided on an ongoing basis after the funded project was completed. Development of a pilot tool for evaluation visits after a faculty development course. The authors developed a pre-visit pack and conducted five site visits to registrar trainers who had been on the course between 12 and 24 months earlier. Before the series of visits and after each visit we debriefed and modified our approach. Optimising the use of the pre-visit pack will require greater orientation of the trainer. Administrative support for the visits will be vital. The visits were experienced very positively. However, in a context in which these visits are not the norm, the trainers need support and encouragement to participate in an activity which made them feel quite vulnerable. The tool enabled course participants to show evidence of their behaviour change, enabled their colleagues to report on the impact on their own teaching practices, and enabled registrars to voice their opinions of their trainer's supervision skills. A post-course formative evaluation visit has the potential to catalyse the impact of the training course. It will be necessary to train the family physicians who conduct these visits.

  4. An Onboard ISS Virtual Reality Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the retirement of the Space Shuttle, many exterior repairs on the International Space Station (ISS) were carried out by shuttle astronauts, trained on the ground and flown to the Station to perform these specific repairs. With the retirement of the shuttle, this is no longer an available option. As such, the need for ISS crew members to review scenarios while on flight, either for tasks they already trained for on the ground or for contingency operations has become a very critical issue. NASA astronauts prepare for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) or Spacewalks through numerous training media, such as: self-study, part task training, underwater training in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), hands-on hardware reviews and training at the Virtual Reality Laboratory (VRLab). In many situations, the time between the last session of a training and an EVA task might be 6 to 8 months. EVA tasks are critical for a mission and as time passes the crew members may lose proficiency on previously trained tasks and their options to refresh or learn a new skill while on flight are limited to reading training materials and watching videos. In addition, there is an increased need for unplanned contingency repairs to fix problems arising as the Station ages. In order to help the ISS crew members maintain EVA proficiency or train for contingency repairs during their mission, the Johnson Space Center's VRLab designed an immersive ISS Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT). The VRT incorporates a unique optical system that makes use of the already successful Dynamic On-board Ubiquitous Graphics (DOUG) software to assist crew members with procedure reviews and contingency EVAs while on board the Station. The need to train and re-train crew members for EVAs and contingency scenarios is crucial and extremely demanding. ISS crew members are now asked to perform EVA tasks for which they have not been trained and potentially have never seen before. The Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT

  5. Marginal conditions for the insurance against fire events in waste incinerators; Randbedingungen fuer die Versicherung gegen Brandereignisse in Abfallverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weschenbach, Harry [VMD-Prinas GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Insurance companies represent not only damage compensation systems, but also a worldwide financial services operating compensation of damages against the insurance premium. The insurance industry has adapted itself to the industrial development. The comprehensive risk management was supplemented increasingly. Especially in the case of damage prevention and fire fighting, the insurance industry falls back on the comprehensive risk management. The fire insurance companies have learned to evaluate fire risks more technically and economically and to impact the design concepts of fire fighting. Under these conditions, in the case of major industrial risks the fire insurance companies are willing to provide an extensive insurance coverage.

  6. Aerial wildfire fighting: history, current situation, problems and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bryukhanov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays aviation is among the most effective ways of early detection and suppression of wildfires. At the moment for the aerial wildfire fighting a few dozen models of aircraft are used worldwide, which are regularly modernized and renewed. In this article, authors give information about the history of fighting wildfires from the air, as well as analyze the current state of the issue with the use of aircraft and helicopter airtankers for firefighting, both at international level and in the territory of the Russian Federation. It is revealed that the most popular in the world still are the ground-based firefighting aircraft (regardless of the class of the carrying capacity. Amphibious firefighting aircraft now exist only in light (carrying capacity up to 5 tons and in medium type (capacity up to 15 tons. Among the helicopter aviation, heavy firefighting helicopters are mostly widely spread, as well as medium multipurpose helicopters, which are, apart from suppression, involved into delivery of people and goods to forest fire sites. The article is devoted to the main directions, according to which the development of aircraft tanker equipment abroad and in Russia occurs. The attention is directed to the most promising developments, and specific recommendations on how to increase the effectiveness of the fire aviation usage in Russia are given. Based on the studies carried out, a conclusion is drawn that for different countries there can be promising different types of firefighting aircraft, considering their landing field infrastructure, characteristics of forests and hydro systems, as well as the total area of the forest fund.

  7. Fighting Allergies with Research and Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fighting Allergies with Research and Information Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... Director An interview with Anthony S. Fauci Are seasonal allergies on the rise? If so, why? There has ...

  8. Celebrities Gather to Fight Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Celebrities Gather to Fight Heart Disease Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Kit to offer community education programs on women's heart disease. Organize heart-health screening events and health fairs ...

  9. Bridging EOS remote sensing measurements and fire emissions, smoke dispersion, and air quality DSS in the Eastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Qu; Xianjun Hao; Ruixin Yang; Swarvanu Dasgupta; Sanjeeb Bhoi; Menas Kafatos

    1999-01-01

    Fire eniissions, smoke dispersiotl. ancl air quality are very important for fire fighting and planing of prescribed burning. BlueskyRATNS (BSR) is a comprehenisive and state-of-the-art Decision Support System (DSS) for fire managers and air quality managers to plan fiiels treatments and support state air qiiality smoke regulatory actions, especially related to...

  10. Hegelian Phenomenology of Spirit and Boxing Fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosiewicz Jerzy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the presented text the author points out to anthropological as well as axiological foundations of the boxing fight from the viewpoint of Hegel’s philosophy. In the genial idealist’s views it is possible to perceive the appreciation of the body, which constitutes a necessary basis for the man’s physical activity, for his work oriented towards the self-transformation and the transformation of the external world, as well as for rivalry and the hand-to-hand fight. While focusing our attention on the issue of rivalry and on the situation of the fight - and regarding it from the viewpoint of the master - slave theory (included in the phenomenology of spirit, it is possible to proclaim that even a conventionalised boxing fight - that is, restricted by cultural and sports rules of the game - has features of the fight to the death between two Hegelian forms of selfknowledge striving for self-affirmation and self-realisation. In the boxing fight, similarly as in the above mentioned Hegelian theory, a problem of work and of the development of the human individual (that is, of the subject, self-knowledge, the participant of the fight appears. There appears also a prospect of death as a possible end of merciless rivalry. The fight revalues the human way in an important way, whereas the prospect for death, the awareness of its proximity, the feeling that its close and possible, saturates the life with additional values. It places the boxer, just like every subject fighting in a similar or a different way, on the path towards absolute abstraction - that is, it brings him closer to his self-fulfilment in the Absolute, to the absolute synthesis. The Hegelian viewpoint enables also to appreciate the boxing fight as a manifestation of low culture (being in contrast with high culture, to turn attention to the relations which - according to Hegel - take place between the Absolute and the man, as well as to show which place is occupied by the subject both in

  11. Sources of practice knowledge among Australian fitness trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Jason A; Wiesner, Glen H; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Harvey, Jack T; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2017-12-01

    Few studies have examined the sources of practice knowledge fitness trainers use to inform their training methods and update knowledge. This study aims to describe sources of practice knowledge among Australian fitness trainers. In July 2014, 9100 Australian fitness trainers were invited to complete an online survey. Respondents reported the frequency of use of eight sources of practice knowledge (e.g. fitness magazines, academic texts). In a separate survey, exercise science experts (n = 27) ranked each source as either (1) 'high-quality' or (2) 'low-quality'. Proportions of users of 'high-quality' sources were calculated across demographic (age, sex) and fitness industry-related characteristics (qualification, setting, role). A multivariate logistic regression analysis assessed the odds of being classified as a user of high-quality sources, adjusting for demographic and fitness industry-related factors. Out of 1185 fitness trainers (response rate = 13.0%), aged 17-72 years, 47.6% (95% CI, 44.7-50.4%) were classified as frequent users of high-quality sources of practice knowledge. In the adjusted analysis, compared to trainers aged 17-26 years, those aged ≥61 years (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.05-4.38) and 40-50 years (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.02-2.31) were more likely to be classified as a user of high-quality sources. When compared to trainers working in large centres, those working in outdoor settings (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.23-2.65) and medium centres (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.12-2.29) were more likely to be classified as users of high-quality sources. Our findings suggest that efforts should be made to improve the quality of knowledge acquisition among Australian fitness trainers.

  12. Smouldering Fires in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, G.

    2012-04-01

    Smouldering fires, the slow, low-temperature, flameless burning, represent the most persistent type of combustion phenomena and the longest continuously fires on Earth system. Indeed, smouldering mega-fires of peatlands occur with some frequency during the dry session in, for example, Indonesia, Canada, Russia, UK and USA. Smouldering fires propagate slowly through organic layers of the ground and can reach depth >5 m if large cracks, natural piping or channel systems exist. It threatens to release sequestered carbon deep into the soil. Once ignited, they are particularly difficult to extinguish despite extensive rains, weather changes or fire-fighting attempts, and can persist for long periods of time (months, years) spreading deep and over extensive areas. Recent figures at the global scale estimate that average annual greenhouse gas emissions from smouldering fires are equivalent to 15% of man-made emissions. These fires are difficult or impossible to detect with current remote sensing methods because the chemistry is significantly different, their thermal radiation signature is much smaller, and the plume is much less buoyant. These wildfires burn fossil fuels and thus are a carbon-positive fire phenomena. This creates feedbacks in the climate system because soil moisture deficit and self-heating are enchanted under warmer climate scenarios and lead to more frequent fires. Warmer temperatures at high latitudes are resulting in more frequent Artic fires. Unprecedented permafrost thaw is leaving large soil carbon pools exposed to smouldering fires for the fist time since millennia. Although interactions between flaming fires and the Earth system have been a central focus, smouldering fires are as important but have received very little attention. DBut differences with flaming fires are important. This paper reviews the current knowledge on smouldering fires in the Earth system regarding combustion dynamics, damage to the soil, emissions, remote sensing and

  13. A mechanized gait trainer for restoration of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S; Uhlenbrock, D

    2000-01-01

    The newly developed gait trainer allows wheel-chair-bound subjects the repetitive practice of a gait-like movement without overstressing therapists. The device simulates the phases of gait, supports the subjects according to their abilities, and controls the center of mass (CoM) in the vertical and horizontal directions. The patterns of sagittal lower limb joint kinematics and of muscle activation for a normal subject were similar when using the mechanized trainer and when walking on a treadmill. A non-ambulatory hemiparetic subject required little help from one therapist on the gait trainer, while two therapists were required to support treadmill walking. Gait movements on the trainer were highly symmetrical, impact free, and less spastic. The vertical displacement of the CoM was bi-phasic instead of mono-phasic during each gait cycle on the new device. Two cases of non-ambulatory patients, who regained their walking ability after 4 weeks of daily training on the gait trainer, are reported.

  14. The reactor trainer: state-of-the-art classroom learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stater, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    The Reactor Trainer is a professional, PC based, graphically enhanced, training resource specifically developed and customized for Class Room teaching of and learning about, reactor behavior. This unique, and focused, learning-target sets The Trainer apart from the panorama of the more common PC plant simulator. Its educational scope extends along a logical learning path, starting with important fundamental behavioral concepts of delayed neutrons, neutron multiplying factors, and reactor rate, moving to simple reactor transients in real time, and culminating with more complex operational evolutions. The Trainer empowers the Instructor with a dynamic Class Room demonstrator and the student with a superior hands-on learning tool. The Trainer's versatility encompasses a wide variety of educational needs, including initial operator training, requalification training, Shift Technical Advisor training, and other advanced or specialized training. In addition, The Reactor Trainer enhances prerequisite preparation of operator candidates for full-scale control room training and, in so doing, PC economics relieves full-scale simulator hours. (author)

  15. Laparoscopic virtual reality simulator and box trainer in gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Ali; Sendağ, Fatih; Oztekin, Mehmet K

    2014-05-01

    To investigate whether a virtual reality simulator (LapSim) and traditional box trainer are effective tools for the acquisition of basic laparoscopic skills, and whether the LapSim is superior to the box trainer in surgical education. In a study at Ege University School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey, between September 2008 and March 2013, 40 first- and second-year residents were randomized to train via the LapSim or box trainer for 4 weeks, and 20 senior residents were allocated to a control group. All 3 groups performed laparoscopic bilateral tubal ligation. Video records of each operation were assessed via the general rating scale of the Objective Structured Assessment of Laparoscopic Salpingectomy and by operation time in seconds. Compared with the control group, the LapSim and box trainer groups performed significantly better in total score (Peducation. Training with a virtual reality simulator or box trainer should be considered before actual laparoscopic procedures are carried out. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of a novel high-fidelity epistaxis task trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Grace M; Roth, Kathryn; Rotenberg, Brian; Sommer, Doron D; Sowerby, Leigh; Fung, Kevin

    2016-07-01

    To assess the efficacy of a novel high-fidelity epistaxis simulator in teaching epistaxis management to junior otolaryngology head and neck surgery residents. Prospective cohort study. A novel high-fidelity epistaxis task trainer was developed using a cadaver head, intravenous tubing, and a food coloring-filled saline bag to emulate blood. Learners were instructed on two techniques of nasal packing (formal nasal pack and nasal tampon) for the management of epistaxis using the task trainer. Learners were videotaped attempting to pack the nose of the task trainer pre- and postintervention (verbal instruction, and practice time with task trainer). Five board-certified otolaryngologists (blinded to pre- and postintervention status) evaluated the packing technique using standardized subjective outcome measures. There were 13 junior otolaryngology residents enrolled in the study. This cohort showed a statistically significant increase in global rating scores (P epistaxis simulator has been successful in teaching and the practical application of various skills in epistaxis management. This task trainer appears to confer an educational benefit in technical skills acquisition in novice learners. Further studies are needed to determine long-term skill retention. Simulation is a promising educational adjunct that effectively enhances epistaxis management skills acquisition while maximizing patient safety. NA. Laryngoscope, 126:1501-1503, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. FIGHTING ECONOMIC CRIME IN THE EUROPEAN ARENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Cristian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper tries to put together a modest study on the actions taken at EU level in order to fight economic crime. A series of measures have been implemented at national and European level to create a framework for fighting criminality. The European institutions and the national authorities are improving their cooperation in order to fight the increasing number of economic crimes committed both in the private and public sector, while Member States are approximating their legislation to the provisions of the Community acquis. We have divided these efforts into five categories corresponding to the five main areas of economic crime identified at EU level: fight against fraud, which affects the financial interests of the European Union and mainly comprises fraudulent practices in the use of EU funds and in taxation, fight against piracy and counterfeiting, public and private corruption, money laundering and organised crime. In order to combat the negative influence criminality exerts on the development of the economy and of the overall society, for each of the above mentioned areas legislative, institutional, technical and administrative measures have been adopted. We have presented these measures considering their efficiency in meeting the targets set out and the role played in their implementation by the European and national institutions.

  18. Current Status of Fire Risk Assessment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H. P.

    2002-01-01

    The approach for fire risk assessment to be applied within periodic safety reviews of nuclear power plants in Germany starts with a screening process providing critical fire zones in which a fully developed fire has the potential to both cause an initiating event and impair the function of at least one component or system critical to safety. The second step is to perform a quantitative analysis. For that purpose, a standard event tree has been developed with elements for fire initiation, ventilation of the room, fire detection, fire suppression, and fire propagation. This standard event tree has to be adapted to each critical fire zone or room. In a final step, the fire induced frequency of initiating events, the main contributors and the calculated hazard state frequency for the fire event are determined. In order to perform a quantitative fire risk assessment, a basic data base must be established which should, e.g., include initiating frequencies, reliability data for all fire protection measures, fire barriers, etc. Detailed plant-specific information is needed on ignition sources, detection and extinguishing systems, manual fire fighting, stationary fire suppression systems. As one contributor to fire specific PSA input data, reliability data for the active fire protection measures are required for the application in the fire specific event tree analysis. These data needed to be estimated are unavailabilities per demand or failure rates per hour of plant operation for those components or systems belonging to the active fire protection means. The data on potential failures or unavailabilities per demand of the respective fire protection measures were gained from the plant specific documentation of inspection and maintenance. The assessment whether the detected findings are estimated as failures or only as deficiencies or deteriorations requires a deep insight in the plant specific operating conditions for the fire protection means and needs careful engineering

  19. Ignition and combustion of sodium, fire consequences, extinguishment and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    This document presents the results of work carried out at the IPSN on: sodium inflammation, sodium combustion (pool fires and sprayed jet fires), extinguishment (passive means and extinguishing powder), the physico-chemical behaviour of aerosols and their filtration, the protection means of concretes, intervention during and after a fire, treatment of residues, intervention equipment. The calculation codes developed during these studies are described. The experimental basis which allowed the qualification of these codes and the technological means aimed at prevention and sodium fire fighting, was obtained using programmes carried out in the experimental facilities existing in Cadarache or in collaboration with the German teams of Karlsruhe

  20. Ignition and combustion of sodium, fire consequences, extinguishment and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratoire d' Experimentation de Modelisation des Feux, C.E. Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). E-mail: malet at ipsncad.cea.fr

    1996-07-01

    This document presents the results of work carried out at the IPSN on: sodium inflammation, sodium combustion (pool fires and sprayed jet fires), extinguishment (passive means and extinguishing powder), the physico-chemical behaviour of aerosols and their filtration, the protection means of concretes, intervention during and after a fire, treatment of residues, intervention equipment. The calculation codes developed during these studies are described. The experimental basis which allowed the qualification of these codes and the technological means aimed at prevention and sodium fire fighting, was obtained using programmes carried out in the experimental facilities existing in Cadarache or in collaboration with the German teams of Karlsruhe.

  1. Fire Source Accessibility of Water Mist Fire Suppression Improvement through Flow Method Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jun Ho; Kim, Hyeong Taek; Kim, Yun Jung; Park, Mun Hee [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Recently, nuclear power plants set CO{sub 2} fire suppression system. However it is hard to establish and to maintain and it also has difficulties performing function test. Therefore, it needs to develop a new fire suppression system to replace the existing CO{sub 2} fire suppression systems in nuclear power plant. In fact, already, there exist alternatives - gas fire suppression system or clean fire extinguishing agent, but it is hard to apply because it requires a highly complicated plan. However, water mist fire suppression system which has both water system and gas system uses small amount of water and droplet, so it is excellent at oxygen displacement and more suitable for nuclear power plant because it can avoid second damage caused by fire fighting water. This paper explains about enclosure effect of water mist fire suppression. And it suggests a study direction about water mist fire source approach improvement and enclosure effect improvement, using flow method control of ventilation system. Water mist fire suppression can be influenced by various variable. And flow and direction of ventilation system are important variable. Expectations of the plan for more fire source ventilation system is as in the following. It enhances enclosure effects of water mists, so it improves extinguish performance. Also the same effect as a inert gas injection causes can be achieved. Lastly, it is considered that combustible accessibility of water mists will increase because of descending air currents.

  2. [A mental health awareness anti-stigma program including user-trainers has a significant impact on knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of job centre professionals in Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouet, E; Moineville, M; Favriel, S; Leriche, P; Greacen, T

    2014-04-01

    Developing programs and actions to fight stigma and discrimination against people living with mental disorders is a priority both internationally and in France. Involving mental health service users in these anti-stigma programs has proved to be a key element for effective programs. The present study evaluates the impact of user-trainers in an anti-stigma campaign with job counselors on their knowledge, beliefs, and desire for social distance with regard to mental illness and the mentally ill. Eighty-nine professionals participated in eight mental health awareness days from December 2008 to June 2009. Each training day was built around two pedagogical units: firstly, a psychiatrist providing a theoretical overview of mental illness and care and secondly, user-trainers describing their point of view on mental illness and exchanging with participants. A questionnaire administered at the beginning and at the end of the mental health awareness day assessed the impact of the day on participants' knowledge, beliefs, and desire for social distance. Answers to open questions were evaluated using thematic qualitative analysis. The intervention had statistically significant positive effects on all three training objectives: knowledge, beliefs and desire for social distance. Analysis of qualitative data confirmed participants' need for information and training with regard to providing support to clients with mental health problems; participants frequently attributed their improved self-confidence at the end of the day with regard to providing job coaching for this population group to the presence of user-trainers. A mental health awareness day using mental health service users and psychiatrists as trainers had significant positive effects in terms of reducing stigma with regard to people with mental illness. Further research is needed to understand whether the impact of such awareness approaches can be maintained in everyday professional practice over time. Copyright © 2013

  3. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Management of Sport Concussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broglio, Steven P.; Cantu, Robert C.; Gioia, Gerard A.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Kutcher, Jeffrey; Palm, Michael; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To provide athletic trainers, physicians, and other health care professionals with best-practice guidelines for the management of sport-related concussions. Background: An estimated 3.8 million concussions occur each year in the United States as a result of sport and physical activity. Athletic trainers are commonly the first medical providers available onsite to identify and evaluate these injuries. Recommendations: The recommendations for concussion management provided here are based on the most current research and divided into sections on education and prevention, documentation and legal aspects, evaluation and return to play, and other considerations. PMID:24601910

  4. Fire protection for nuclear power plants. Part 1. Fundamental approaches. Version 6/99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The KTA nuclear safety code sets out the fundamental approaches and principles for the prevention of fires in nuclear power plants, addressing aspects such as initiation, spreading, and effects of a fire: (a) Fire load and ignition sources, (b) structural and plant engineering conditions, (c) ways and means relating to fire call and fire fighting. Relevant technical and organisational measures are defined. Scope and quality of fire prevention measures to be taken, as well the relevant in-service inspection activities are determined according to the protective goals pursued in each case. (orig./CB) [de

  5. Fire protection programme during construction of the Chashma nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mian Umer, M.

    1998-01-01

    A clear view is given of several measures that have been taken with regard to fire prevention, protection and fire fighting during all phases of the construction, installation and commissioning of the Chasma nuclear power plant to protect personnel and equipment so that any delays in plant operation as a result of fire incident can be avoided. These measures include the precautions taken, the provisions made for fire extinguishers and hydrants, and the setting up of a fire brigade. An overview is also given of the fire incidents that have occurred. (author)

  6. Relationship between number and intensity of fighting: evidence from cow fighting tournaments in Valdostana cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sartori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cattle establish firm dominance relationships through ritualised fights. This study aimed at investigating behaviours involved in dominance relationships and effect of factors such as weight, age and repeated fighting experience in fighting dynamics. Subject of the study was the Valdostana breed, whose cows assess dominance relationships in traditional competitions. Tournaments consist in rounds in which cows interact in pairs to assess dominance. Only winners participate in subsequent rounds. An amount of 120 fights involving 145 cows was retained, and winners (51 cows were considered as focal individuals. An ethogram of agonistic interactions was established, including behaviours of different agonistic intensity as physical interactions (pushes, clashes, displays (threats, vocalisations, and non agonistic approaches. A transition diagram of behaviours showed a tendency to express firstly non agonistic approaches and lastly more aggressive clashes. A mixed linear model analysis on traits like competition intensity, duration, and type of behaviours expressed showed a significant effect of age difference on behaviours. However, the most important factor was the number of rounds performed: from the first to subsequent fights agonistic intensity and physical contacts increased, and displays reduced. This may be due either to the fact that more aggressive individuals were likely to be the winners, or that in higher rounds the opponents were more similar regarding fighting ability or aggressiveness and thus more intense fights occurred. The increased aggressiveness after repeated situations of competition suggests suggests that careful attention should be paid to welfare when animals are exposed to situations of high competition, like regrouping.

  7. Fire Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  8. How Good Are Trainers' Personal Methods Compared to Two Structured Training Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Richard T.; And Others

    Training methods naturally employed by trainers were analyzed and compared to systematic structured training procedures. Trainers were observed teaching retarded subjects how to assemble a bicycle brake, roller skate, carburetor, and lawn mower engine. Trainers first taught using their own (personal) method, which was recorded in terms of types of…

  9. Generalized Maintenance Trainer Simulator: Development of Hardware and Software. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Douglas M.; Munro, Allen

    A general purpose maintenance trainer, which has the potential to simulate a wide variety of electronic equipments without hardware changes or new computer programs, has been developed and field tested by the Navy. Based on a previous laboratory model, the Generalized Maintenance Trainer Simulator (GMTS) is a relatively low cost trainer that…

  10. Compound depositions from the BOPEC fires on Bonaire : Measurements and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent D; Bodar CWM; Boshuis ME; de Groot AC; de Zwart D; Hoffer SM; Janssen PJCM; Mooij M; de Groot GM; Peijnenburg WJGM; Verbruggen EMJ; IMG; SEC; LER; mev

    2011-01-01

    Some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some perfluorinated fire fighting foam constituents (especially perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS) were found in deposited soot and in water on Bonaire due to the BOPEC oil depot fires in September 2010. The soot deposition did not result in elevated

  11. Born to win? Testing the fighting hypothesis in realistic fights : left-handedness in the Ultimate Fighting Championship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollet, Thomas V.; Stulp, Gert; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2013-01-01

    Given the heritability of human left-handedness and its purported associations with fitness-lowering traits, the persistence of the minority of left-handedness in human populations is an evolutionary puzzle. The fighting hypothesis proposes that these negative fitness costs are offset by fitness

  12. Born to win? Testing the fighting hypothesis in realistic fights: left-handedness in the Ultimate Fighting Championship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollet, T.V.; Stulp, G.; Groothuis, T.G.G.

    2013-01-01

    Given the heritability of human left-handedness and its purported associations with fitness-lowering traits, the persistence of the minority of left-handedness in human populations is an evolutionary puzzle. The fighting hypothesis proposes that these negative fitness costs are offset by fitness

  13. Adsorber fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, W.

    1987-01-01

    The following conclusions are offered with respect to activated charcoal filter systems in nuclear power plants: (1) The use of activated charcoal in nuclear facilities presents a potential for deep-seated fires. (2) The defense-in-depth approach to nuclear fire safety requires that if an ignition should occur, fires must be detected quickly and subsequently suppressed. (3) Deep-seated fires in charcoal beds are difficult to extinguish. (4) Automatic water sprays can be used to extinguish fires rapidly and reliably when properly introduced into the burning medium. The second part of the conclusions offered are more like challenges: (1) The problem associated with inadvertent actuations of fire protection systems is not a major one, and it can be reduced further by proper design review, installation, testing, and maintenance. Eliminating automatic fire extinguishing systems for the protection of charcoal adsorbers is not justified. (2) Removal of automatic fire protection systems due to fear of inadvertent fire protection system operation is a case of treating the effect rather than the cause. On the other hand, properly maintaining automatic fire protection systems will preserve the risk of fire loss at acceptable levels while at the same time reducing the risk of damage presented by inadvertent operation of fire protection systems

  14. Fighting Fire with Fire: Surgical Options for Patients with Drug-Resistant Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Alina D; Blum, Andrew S; Asaad, Wael F; Roth, Julie; Toms, Steven A; Deck, Gina M

    2018-03-01

    While antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) provide adequate seizure control for most patients with epilepsy, ~30% continue to have seizures despite treatment with two or more AEDs.1 In addition to direct harm from seizures, poor epilepsy control correlates with higher mortality, morbidity, 2, 3 and cost to the healthcare system.4 In the subset of patients with persistent seizures despite medical management, surgical intervention and neuromodulation may be more effective. Primary care physicians and general neurologists should be aware of non-AED treatment options that are standard of care for drug- resistant epilepsy (DRE). [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2018-03.asp].

  15. Fire test of DOT 7A Boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.D.

    1979-05-01

    The primary objective of conducting the full-scale fire tests of the DOT (Department of Transportation) 7A FRP Boxes was to provide information to assist in quantifying the fire hazard of the storage located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), and to learn if changing the storage array will decrease the fire risk. Also, the level of fire fighting and fire protection required to maintain the risk at the RWMC within acceptable DOE guidelines was investigated. Two full-scale fire tests were conducted at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in June 1978, using the DOE 7A FRP Plywood Storage Containers. The fire tests showed that when subjected to a substantial ignition source, the boxes will propagate fire as long as no fire-suppression measures are taken. Fire will breach the boxes and spread the radioactive contaminated waste if it is not extinguished. As the fire progresses, additional boxes will become involved, and eventually the entire storage array will ignite. It is recommended that the use of DOT 7A Boxes be discontinued and replaced with noncombustible storage containers. In the event this is not practicable, guidance recommendations are presented to minimize the large fire loss potential. It is also recommended that an investigation be conducted into the number of boxes that can be destroyed and still maintain a safe environment for employees and the public. This investigation should include how far radioactive contamination will spread, what cleanup will be required, anticipated exposure of the people within the area, and the public impact of such a fire

  16. Discovery Mondays - Men of fire: the fire brigade show their mettle

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Flashover and backdraught, these technical terms refer to two of the most dangerous phenomena associated with fires. In order to train in dealing with them, in the course of their fire fighting duties the CERN fire brigade use special simulation equipment. The demonstrations are rather spectacular... Thrills are therefore guaranteed at the next Discovery Monday on 2 February! In the course of the evening, you will see fire-fighters demonstrate climbing techniques including abseiling, a method they would have to use to access underground structures on the CERN site in the event of an accident. The accomplished climbers (the Hazardous Environments Response Team) will provide detailed explanations of the rescue techniques and procedures they use in tunnels and hazardous environments. CERN firemen simulate the backdraft phenomena for training. The demonstration, which you will have the opportunity to observe, on the next Discovery Monday, is spectacular. However, the remit of the CERN fire brigade goes well b...

  17. Foam for combating mine fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-09-01

    The application of foam in dealing with underground fire is well known due to its smothering action by cutting off air feed to burning fuel as well as acting as coolant. Besides plugging air feed to fire, water could be virtually reached to the fire affected areas much beyond the jet range as underground galleries with low roof restrict jet range of water. This method also enables a closer approach of a fire fighting team by isolating the toxic gases and smoke with a foam plug. The paper describes the development of high expansion foam composition and its application technology in order that foam plug method can be suitably utilized for combating mine fires in India. Three compositions were recommended for generation of high expansion foam: (a) 0.5% sodium/ammonium lauryl sulphate, 0.15 to 0.2% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, 0.1% booster; (b) 0.5% sodium/ammonium lauryl sulfate, 0.12 to 0.15% alkaline solution of gum arabic, 0.1 to 0.2% ferrous gluconate; and (c) 0.35% sodium/ammonium lauryl sulfate, 0.20% booster, 0.2% xylene sulfonate.

  18. US Fire Administration Fire Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Fire Administration collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United...

  19. Developing Objective Criteria for Evaluating Student Athletic Trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadway, Linda

    In devising a form for the evaluation of students preparing to become athletic trainers, it is helpful to have a checklist in which objectives and behavioral responses are organized into categories, such as prevention of injury, first aid, emergency care, treatment, rehabilitation, and taping and wrapping. It is also important to have records and…

  20. Radiology trainer. Surgical ambulance. Revision 2. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, Ole; Barkhausen, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    The radiology trainer for surgical ambulance includes informative X-ray imaging examples for the following issues: zygoma, nasal bone, spinal cord, clavicle, shoulder, upper arms, elbow, forearms, wrist, hand, phalanx, thorax, sternum, pelvis, abdomen, hips, femur, knee, lower leg, ankle, feet.

  1. Intelligent Virtual Agents as Language Trainers Facilitate Multilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela eMacedonia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a new generation of language trainers: intelligent virtual agents (IVAs with human appearance and the capability to teach foreign language vocabulary. We report results from studies that we have conducted with Billie, an IVA employed as a vocabulary trainer, as well as research findings on the acceptance of the agent as a trainer by adults and children. The results show that Billie can train humans as well as a human teacher can and that both adults and children accept the IVA as a trainer. The advantages of IVAs are multiple. First, their teaching methods can be based on neuropsychological research findings concerning memory and learning practice. Second, virtual teachers can provide individualized training. Third, they coach users during training, are always supportive, and motivate learners to train. Fourth, agents will reside in the user’s mobile devices and thus be at the user’s disposal everywhere and anytime. Agents in apps will make foreign language training accessible to anybody at low cost. This will enable people around the world, including physically, financially and geographically disadvantaged persons, to learn a foreign language and help to facilitate multilingualism.

  2. An investigation into the competence of workplace trainers to meet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation into the competence of workplace trainers to meet the special learning needs of under-prepared learners. ... This goal is shared by the business sector who is aware that only a competent employee can make a meaningful contribution to organisational growth. The writer investigated the capacity of South ...

  3. Practice until you can preach anything: The Presentation Trainer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Public speaking skills are relevant for many professions, developing these skills requires practice and feedback. In order to get this feedback we developed the Presentation Trainer, a tool that automatically tracks your voice, posture and movements to give you feedback about your nonverbal

  4. Virtual Close Quarter Battle (CQB) Graphical Decision Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    leave a gap in what would traditionally be thought of as an ideal locomotion device. Research has shown that the introduction of vestibular cues in...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS VIRTUAL CLOSE QUARTER BATTLE (CQB) GRAPHICAL DECISION TRAINER by Jordan Reece...including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson

  5. Blended learning in CME: the perception of GP trainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Pas, E.; Meinema, J. G.; Visser, M. R. M.; van Dijk, N.

    2016-01-01

    Blended learning (the combination of electronic methods with traditional teaching methods) has the potential to combine the best of traditional education with the best of computer-mediated training. We chose to develop such an intervention for GP trainers who were undertaking a Continuing Medical

  6. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Exertional Heat Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casa, Douglas J; DeMartini, Julie K; Bergeron, Michael F; Csillan, Dave; Eichner, E Randy; Lopez, Rebecca M; Ferrara, Michael S; Miller, Kevin C; O'Connor, Francis; Sawka, Michael N; Yeargin, Susan W

    2015-09-01

    To present best-practice recommendations for the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses (EHIs) and to describe the relevant physiology of thermoregulation. Certified athletic trainers recognize and treat athletes with EHIs, often in high-risk environments. Although the proper recognition and successful treatment strategies are well documented, EHIs continue to plague athletes, and exertional heat stroke remains one of the leading causes of sudden death during sport. The recommendations presented in this document provide athletic trainers and allied health providers with an integrated scientific and clinically applicable approach to the prevention, recognition, treatment of, and return-to-activity guidelines for EHIs. These recommendations are given so that proper recognition and treatment can be accomplished in order to maximize the safety and performance of athletes. Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals should use these recommendations to establish onsite emergency action plans for their venues and athletes. The primary goal of athlete safety is addressed through the appropriate prevention strategies, proper recognition tactics, and effective treatment plans for EHIs. Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals must be properly educated and prepared to respond in an expedient manner to alleviate symptoms and minimize the morbidity and mortality associated with these illnesses.

  7. Fighting terrorism in Africa: Benchmarking policy harmonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asongu, Simplice A.; Tchamyou, Vanessa S.; Minkoua N., Jules R.; Asongu, Ndemaze; Tchamyou, Nina P.

    2018-02-01

    This study assesses the feasibility of policy harmonization in the fight against terrorism in 53 African countries with data for the period 1980-2012. Four terrorism variables are used, namely: domestic, transnational, unclear and total terrorism dynamics. The empirical evidence is based on absolute beta catch-up and sigma convergence estimation techniques. There is substantial absence of catch-up. The lowest rate of convergence in terrorism is in landlocked countries for regressions pertaining to unclear terrorism (3.43% per annum for 174.9 years) while the highest rate of convergence is in upper-middle-income countries in domestic terrorism regressions (15.33% per annum for 39.13 years). After comparing results from the two estimation techniques, it is apparent that in the contemporary era, countries with low levels of terrorism are not catching-up their counterparts with high levels of terrorism. As a policy implication, whereas some common policies may be feasibly adopted for the fight against terrorism, the findings based on the last periodic phase (2004-2012) are indicative that country-specific policies would better pay-off in the fight against terrorism than blanket common policies. Some suggestions of measures in fighting transnational terrorism have been discussed in the light of an anticipated surge in cross-national terrorism incidences in the coming years.

  8. Fighting poverty and exclusion through social investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    The fight against poverty and social exclusion is at the heart of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. With more than 120 million people in the EU at risk of poverty or social exclusion, EU leaders have pledged to bring at least 20 million people out of poverty an...

  9. Extinguisher powder for liquid metal fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzenhauer, P; Ochs, G [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Reaktorentwicklung

    1978-11-01

    The extinguisher introduced here based on graphite exhibited considerably improved extinguishing properties compared to other extinguishing powders. It has no aggressive properties, is, as for as could be tested in the short time available, non-hygroscopic and thus very easy to remove after extinguishing and cooling of the fire. The amount of extinguisher necessary is only a fraction of the amounts needed of other common powders. Storage is no problem and nerely a small storage amount is required. This extinguisher is excellently suitable for fighting sodium surface fires.

  10. Extinguisher powder for liquid metal fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzenhauer, P.; Ochs, G.

    1978-01-01

    The extinguisher introduced here based on graphite exhibited considerably improved extinguishing properties compared to other extinguishing powders. It has no aggressive properties, is, as for as could be tested in the short time available, non-hygroscopic and thus very easy to remove after extinguishing and cooling of the fire. The amount of extinguisher necessary is only a fraction of the amounts needed of other common powders. Storage is no problem and nerely a small storage amount is required. This extinguisher is excellently suitable for fighting sodium surface fires. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Forest fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, M.

    1991-01-01

    This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire on plants and animals. In addition, the book examines firefighting methods and equipment, including new minimum impact techniques and compressed air foam; prescribed burning; and steps that can be taken to protect individuals and human structures. A history of forest fire policies in the U.S. and a discussion of solutions to fire problems around the world completes the coverage. With one percent of the earth's surface burning every year in the last decade, this is a penetrating book on a subject of undeniable importance

  12. Fire, humans and landscape. Is there a connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valese, Eva; Ascoli, Davide; Conedera, Marco; Held, Alex

    2013-04-01

    Fire evolved on the earth under the direct influence of climate and the accumulation of burnable biomass at various times and spatial scales. As a result, fire regimes depend not only on climatic and biological factors, but also greatly reflect the cultural background of how people do manage ecosystems and fire. A new awareness among scientists and managers has been rising about the ecological role of fire and the necessity to understand its past natural and cultural dynamics in different ecosystems, in order to preserve present ecosystem functionality and minimize management costs and negative impacts. As a consequence we assisted in the last decades to a general shift from the fire control to the fire management approach, where fire prevention, fire danger rating, fire ecology, fire pre-suppression and suppression strategies are fully integrated in the landscape management. Nowadays, a large number of authors recognize that a total suppression strategy, as the one adopted during last decades, leads to a fire paradox: the more we fight for putting out all fires, the more extreme events occur and cause long term damages. The aim of this review is to provide a state of art about the connection between fire, humans and landscape, along time and space. Negative and positive impacts on ecosystem services and values are put in evidence, as well as their incidence on human aptitude to fire use as to fire suppression. In order to capture a consistent fragment of fire history, palaeofires and related palynological studies are considered. They enable a valuable, even if partial, look at the millenary fire regime. Actual strategies and future directions are described in order to show what are the alternatives for living with fire, since removing completely this disturbance from earth is not a option, nor feasible neither advisable. Examples from the world, in particular from the Alps and the Mediterranean basin, are shown for better illustrating the signature of

  13. Date Fighting and Sexual Risk Behaviours among Adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study seeks to examine the prevalence of date fighting and its role in sexual risk behaviours among 1079 boys and 1211 girls in 22 public secondary schools in Ibadan Nigeria. About 60% (1367) reported to have ever experienced at least a form of date fighting. Risk factors for date fighting in boys include, non use of ...

  14. Forest fires in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Haines; William A. Main; Eugene F. McNamara

    1978-01-01

    Describes factors that contribute to forest fires in Pennsylvania. Includes an analysis of basic statistics; distribution of fires during normal, drought, and wet years; fire cause, fire activity by day-of-week; multiple-fire day; and fire climatology.

  15. Impacts of prescribed fire on soil loss and soil quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakesby, Richard A.; Martins Bento, Celia; Ferreira, Carla S.S.; Ferreira, António J.D.; Stoof, C.R.; Urbanek, Emilia; Walsh, Rory P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Prescribed (controlled) fire has recently been adopted as an important wildfire-fighting strategy in the Mediterranean. Relatively little research, however, has assessed its impacts on soil erosion and soil quality. This paper investigates hillslope-scale losses of soil, organic matter and

  16. Discrimination against Obese Exercise Clients: An Experimental Study of Personal Trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Fabio; Bopes, Jonathan; Bendixen, Seth; Speed, Tyler; George, Megan; Mack, Mick

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare exercise recommendations, attitudes, and behaviors of personal trainers toward clients of different weight statuses. Fifty-two personal trainers participated in the study. The data collection was organized into two phases. In phase one, trainers read a profile and watched the video displaying an interview of either an obese or an average-weight client. Profiles and video interviews were identical except for weight status. Then, trainers provided exercise recommendations and rated their attitude toward the client. In phase two, trainers personally met an obese or an average-weight mock client. Measures were duration and number of advices provided by the trainer to a question posed by the client and sitting distance between trainer and client. There were no significant differences in exercise intensity ( p = .94), duration of first session ( p = .65), and total exercise duration of first week ( p = .76) prescribed to the obese and average-weight clients. The attitude of the personal trainers toward the obese client were not significantly different from the attitude of personal trainers toward the average-weight client ( p = .58). The number of advices provided ( p = .49), the duration of the answer ( p = .55), and the distance personal trainers sat from the obese client ( p = .68) were not significantly different from the behaviors displayed toward the average-weight client. Personal trainers did not discriminate against obese clients in professional settings.

  17. Fire Risk Analysis and Optimization of Fire Prevention Management for Green Building Design and High Rise Buildings: Hong Kong Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau Albert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many iconic high rise buildings in Hong Kong, for example, International Commercial Centre, International Financial Centre, etc. Fire safety issue in high rise buildings has been raised by local fire professionals in terms of occupant evacuation, means of fire-fighting by fire fighters, sprinkler systems to automatically put off fires in buildings, etc. Fire risk becomes an important issue in building fire safety because it relates to life safety of building occupants where they live and work in high rise buildings in Hong Kong. The aim of this research is to identify the fire risk for different types of high rise buildings in Hong Kong and to optimise the fire prevention management for those high rise buildings with higher level of fire risk and to validate the model and also to carry out the study of the conflict between the current fire safety building code and the current trend of green building design. Survey via the 7-point scale questionnaire was conducted through 50 participants and their responses were received and analysed via the statistical tool SPSS software computer program. A number of statistical methods of testing for significantly difference in samples were adopted to carry out the analysis of the data received. When the statistical analysis was completed, the results of the data analysis were validated by two Fire Safety Experts in this area of specialisation and also by quantitative fire risk analysis.

  18. A virtual trainer concept for robot-assisted human motor learning in rowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumgartner L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Keeping the attention level and observing multiple physiological and biomechanical variables at the same time at high precision is very challenging for human trainers. Concurrent augmented feedback, which is suggested to enhance motor learning in complex motor tasks, can also hardly be provided by a human trainer. Thus, in this paper, a concept for a virtual trainer is presented that may overcome the limits of a human trainer. The intended virtual trainer will be implemented in a CAVE providing auditory, visual and haptic cues. As a first application, the virtual trainer will be used in a realistic scenario for sweep rowing. To provide individual feedback to each rower, the virtual trainer quantifies errors and provides concurrent auditory, visual, and haptic feedback. The concurrent feedback will be adapted according to the actual performance, individual maximal rowing velocity, and the athlete’s individual perception.

  19. 77 FR 44685 - ConocoPhillips Company, Trainer Refinery, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Shrack, Young...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ..., Trainer Refinery, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Shrack, Young, and Associates, Inc., and Project Control Associates, Trainer, PA; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration On April 30, 2012, the... applicable to workers and former workers of ConocoPhillips Company, Trainer Refinery, Trainer, Pennsylvania...

  20. Workshop on explosions, BLEVEs, fires, etc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this workshop will be to provide a bridge between engineering practices, modeling, and measurement of fires and explosions, and use this information in a practical manner to improve the fire safety of the process facility. New techniques and information are available on the means to prevent, predict and mitigate fires and explosions. A review of BLEVEs and methods for preventing and protecting against the effects of BLEVES in large petrochemical facilities. Observations and the use of models that have been successful in predicting the effects of vapor explosions for the prevention of collapse of structures and mitigation of the effects of vapor explosions in process facilities are presented. Recent work involving the measurement of radiation from large jet fires at the Kuwaiti oil fields and fire tests of crude oil spills on the sea is discussed. Fire radiation measurement can be used to predict effects on structures, facilities, and the complexity of fire fighting operations required for control of spill and pool fires. Practical applications of techniques for prevention and control of explosions within building, resulting from failures of autoclaves or release of flammable gas to the atmosphere of the building are discussed.

  1. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire...

  2. Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Lisa M. Holsinger; Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2016-01-01

    Several aspects of wildland fire are moderated by site- and landscape-level vegetation changes caused by previous fire, thereby creating a dynamic where one fire exerts a regulatory control on subsequent fire. For example, wildland fire has been shown to regulate the size and severity of subsequent fire. However, wildland fire has the potential to influence...

  3. Smouldering Subsurface Fires in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Guillermo

    2010-05-01

    Smouldering fires, the slow, low-temperature, flameless form of combustion, are an important phenomena in the Earth system. These fires propagate slowly through organic layers of the forest ground and are responsible for 50% or more of the total biomass consumed during wildfires. Only after the 2002 study of the 1997 extreme haze event in South-East Asia, the scientific community recognised the environmental and economic threats posed by subsurface fires. This was caused by the spread of vast biomass fires in Indonesia, burning below the surface for months during the El Niño climate event. It has been calculated that these fires released between 0.81 and 2.57 Gton of carbon gases (13-40% of global emissions). Large smouldering fires are rare events at the local scale but occur regularly at a global scale. Once ignited, they are particularly difficult to extinguish despite extensive rains or fire-fighting attempts and can persist for long periods of time (months, years) spreading over very extensive areas of forest and deep into the soil. Indeed, these are the oldest continuously burning fires on Earth. Earth scientists are interested in smouldering fires because they destroy large amounts of biomass and cause greater damage to the soil ecosystem than flaming fires do. Moreover, these fires cannot be detected with current satellite remote sensing technologies causing inconsistencies between emission inventories and model predictions. Organic soils sustain smouldering fire (hummus, duff, peat and coal) which total carbon pool exceeds that of the world's forests or the atmosphere. This have important implications for climate change. Warmer temperatures at high latitudes are resulting in unprecedented permafrost thaw that is leaving large soil carbon pools exposed to fires. Because the CO2 flux from peat fires has been measured to be about 3000 times larger that the natural degradation flux, permafrost thaw is a risk for greater carbon release by fire and subsequently

  4. Fire and earthquake counter measures in radiation handling facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    'Fire countermeasures in radiation handling facilities' published in 1961 is still widely utilized as a valuable guideline for those handling radiation through the revision in 1972. However, science and technology rapidly advanced, and the relevant laws were revised after the publication, and many points which do not conform to the present state have become to be found. Therefore, it was decided to rewrite this book, and the new book has been completed. The title was changed to 'Fire and earthquake countermeasures in radiation handling facilities', and the countermeasures to earthquakes were added. Moreover, consideration was given so that the book is sufficiently useful also for those concerned with fire fighting, not only for those handling radiation. In this book, the way of thinking about the countermeasures against fires and earthquakes, the countermeasures in normal state and when a fire or an earthquake occurred, the countermeasures when the warning declaration has been announced, and the data on fires, earthquakes, the risk of radioisotopes, fire fighting equipment, the earthquake counter measures for equipment, protectors and radiation measuring instruments, first aid, the example of emergency system in radiation handling facilities, the activities of fire fighters, the example of accidents and so on are described. (Kako, I.)

  5. A Forest Fire Sensor Web Concept with UAVSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Y.; Chien, S.; Clark, D.; Doubleday, J.; Muellerschoen, R.; Zheng, Y.

    2008-12-01

    We developed a forest fire sensor web concept with a UAVSAR-based smart sensor and onboard automated response capability that will allow us to monitor fire progression based on coarse initial information provided by an external source. This autonomous disturbance detection and monitoring system combines the unique capabilities of imaging radar with high throughput onboard processing technology and onboard automated response capability based on specific science algorithms. In this forest fire sensor web scenario, a fire is initially located by MODIS/RapidFire or a ground-based fire observer. This information is transmitted to the UAVSAR onboard automated response system (CASPER). CASPER generates a flight plan to cover the alerted fire area and executes the flight plan. The onboard processor generates the fuel load map from raw radar data, used with wind and elevation information, predicts the likely fire progression. CASPER then autonomously alters the flight plan to track the fire progression, providing this information to the fire fighting team on the ground. We can also relay the precise fire location to other remote sensing assets with autonomous response capability such as Earth Observation-1 (EO-1)'s hyper-spectral imager to acquire the fire data.

  6. Altruity: Key to the Fight Against Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Kourilsky

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of altruity and illustrates its philosophical and practical importance in the fight against poverty. Altruity –a highly specific form of rational altruism– is the duty that comes with freedom. The individual duty of altruity is the necessary counterpart of the right to individual freedoms. It is, by its very nature, distinct from (though complementary to generosity, and devoid of any expectation of reciprocity (while not excluding it. The idea of altruity is the cornerstone of a theory of individual responsibility, and of a theory of justice, which provide a conceptual framework for the struggle against poverty. And because it is only meaningful if implemented with a pre-defined method, it also provides a framework for action, as the FACTS Initiative has shown. Altruity thus emerges as one of the keys to the fight against poverty.

  7. DynCorp Tricities Services, Inc. Hanford fire department FY 1998 annual work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the U.S. Department of Energy operated Hanford site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under mutual aid and state mobilization agreements and fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System) and various commercial entities operating on site through Requests for Service from DOE-RL. This fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, respiratory protection services, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This plan provides a program overview, program baselines, and schedule baseline

  8. How to pick a good fight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joni, Saj-nicole A; Beyer, Damon

    2009-12-01

    Peace and harmony are overrated. Though conflict-free teamwork is often held up as the be-all and end-all of organizational life, it actually can be the worst thing to ever happen to a company. Look at Lehman Brothers. When Dick Fuld took over, he transformed a notoriously contentious workplace into one of Wall Street's most harmonious firms. But his efforts backfired--directors and managers became too agreeable, afraid to rock the boat by pointing out that the firm was heading into a crisis. Research shows that the single greatest predictor of poor company performance is complacency, which is why every organization needs a healthy dose of dissent. Not all kinds of conflict are productive, of course -companies need to find the right balance of alignment and competition and make sure that people's energies are pointed in a positive direction. In this article, two seasoned business advisers lay down ground rules for the right kinds of fights. First, the stakes must be worthwhile: The issue should involve a noble purpose or create noticeable--preferably game-changing--value. Next, good fights focus on the future; they're never about placing blame for the past. And it's critical for leaders to keep fights sportsmanlike, allow informal give-and-take in the trenches, and help soften the blow for the losing parties.

  9. EU’s Role in Fighting Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Maftei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available International terrorism, a phenomenon with constant development, is today acertainty and has dramatically marked the beginning of this century and millennium. Thisproblem has reached a global dimension and it represents a concern to the entire internationalcommunity. Over the time, numerous international and regional regulations have been framed, inorder to prevent and combat terrorism. The European Union condemns terrorist acts andrecognizes the central role of the United Nations, in fighting against terrorism and promotingsecurity, as well as the contribution of the new NATO in what concerns the defense and securitypromotion. Europe has to act more firmly in order to consolidate the defense against terrorismand the European Union’s borders. At the same time, the European Union considers that only aconcerted and firm action from all the states and the major actors on the international scenewould lead to the identification of the solutions which can contribute to the efficient fight againstterrorism and, by these means, provide for the international peace and security. The proportion ofthe danger terrorism represents has turned the fight against this phenomenon in an internationalcommunity’s desideratum.

  10. [Tools for laparoscopic skill development - available trainers and simulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksa, László; Haidegger, Tamás; Galambos, Péter; Kiss, Rita

    2017-10-01

    The laparoscopic minimally invasive surgical technique is widely employed on a global scale. However, the efficient and ethical teaching of this technique requires equipment for surgical simulation. These educational devices are present on the market in the form of box trainers and virtual reality simulators, or some combination of those. In this article, we present a systematic overview of commercially available surgical simulators describing the most important features of each product. Our overview elaborates on box trainers and virtual reality simulators, and also touches on surgical robotics simulators, together with operating room workflow simulators, for the sake of completeness. Apart from presenting educational tools, we evaluated the literature of laparoscopic surgical education and simulation, to provide a complete picture of the unfolding trends in this field. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(40): 1570-1576.

  11. Design and implementation of robust controllers for a gait trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F C; Yu, C H; Chou, T Y

    2009-08-01

    This paper applies robust algorithms to control an active gait trainer for children with walking disabilities. Compared with traditional rehabilitation procedures, in which two or three trainers are required to assist the patient, a motor-driven mechanism was constructed to improve the efficiency of the procedures. First, a six-bar mechanism was designed and constructed to mimic the trajectory of children's ankles in walking. Second, system identification techniques were applied to obtain system transfer functions at different operating points by experiments. Third, robust control algorithms were used to design Hinfinity robust controllers for the system. Finally, the designed controllers were implemented to verify experimentally the system performance. From the results, the proposed robust control strategies are shown to be effective.

  12. Blended learning in CME: the perception of GP trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Pas, E; Meinema, J G; Visser, M R M; van Dijk, N

    2016-05-01

    Blended learning (the combination of electronic methods with traditional teaching methods) has the potential to combine the best of traditional education with the best of computer-mediated training. We chose to develop such an intervention for GP trainers who were undertaking a Continuing Medical Education (CME) course in evidence-based medicine (EBM). This study reports on our experience and investigated the factors influencing the perception on usefulness and logistics of blended learning for learners in CME. In total, 170 GP trainers participated in the intervention. We used questionnaires, observations during the four face-to-face meetings and evaluations in the e-course over one year. Additionally we organised focus groups to gain insight in some of the outcomes of the questionnaires and interpretations of the observations. The GP trainers found the design and the educational method (e-course in combination with meetings) attractive, instructive and complementary. Factors influencing their learning were (1) educational design, (2) educational method, (3) topic of the intervention, (4) time (planning), (5) time (intervention), (6) learning style, (7) technical issues, (8) preconditions and (9) level of difficulty. A close link between daily practice and the educational intervention was considered an important precondition for the success of the intervention in this group of learners. GP trainers were positive about blended learning: they found e-learning a useful way to gain knowledge and the meetings a pleasant way of transferring the knowledge into practice. Although some preconditions should be taken into consideration during its development and implementation, they would participate in similarly designed learning in the future.

  13. A mechanized gait trainer for restoring gait in nonambulatory subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S; Uhlenbrock, D; Werner, C; Bardeleben, A

    2000-09-01

    To construct an advanced mechanized gait trainer to enable patients the repetitive practice of a gaitlike movement without overstraining therapists. DEVICE: Prototype gait trainer that simulates the phases of gait (by generating a ratio of 40% to 60% between swing and stance phases), supports the subjects according to their ability (lifts the foot during swing phase), and controls the center of mass in the vertical and horizontal directions. Two nonambulatory, hemiparetic patients who regained their walking ability after 4 weeks of daily training on the gait trainer, a 55-year-old woman and a 62-year-old man, both of whom had a first-time ischemic stroke. Four weeks of training, five times a week, each session 20 minutes long. Functional ambulation category (FAC, levels 0-5) to assess gait ability and ground level walking velocity. Rivermead motor assessment score (RMAS, 0-13) to assess gross motor function. Patient 1: At the end of treatment, she was able to walk independently on level ground with use of a walking stick. Her walking velocity had improved from .29m/sec to .59m/sec. Her RMAS score increased from 4 to 10, meaning she could walk at least 40 meters outside, pick up objects from floor, and climb stairs independently. Patient 2: At end of 4-week training, he could walk independently on even surfaces (FAC level 4), using an ankle-foot orthosis and a walking stick. His walking velocity improved from .14m/sec to .63m/sec. His RMAS increased from 3 to 10. The gait trainer enabled severely affected patients the repetitive practice of a gaitlike movement. Future studies may elucidate its value in gait rehabilitation of nonambulatory subjects.

  14. The Organizational Climate in Collegiate Athletics: An Athletic Trainer's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M

    2018-01-01

      An organizational climate is largely based on an employee's perceptions of the working conditions in which he or she engages regularly. A multifaceted concept, the organizational climate is often formed by perceptions of employee welfare, rewards, and support. Achieving work-life balance is also a part of the climate.   To learn collegiate athletic trainers' perceptions of organizational climate and specifically how it may pertain to their work-life balance.   Phenomenologic study.   Collegiate practice setting.   Thirty athletic trainers working in the collegiate athletics setting took part in 1-on-1 phone interviews. The participants were 30.5 (interquartile range [IQR] = 7.75) years old and had been certified for 7 (IQR = 5) years and at their current position for 4 (IQR = 3) years.   Participants completed a phone interview that followed a semistructured framework. All transcribed interviews were analyzed using a phenomenologic approach. Researcher triangulation, expert review, and data saturation were used to establish credibility.   Athletic trainers working in the collegiate athletics setting who had positive perceptions of their work-life balance described their organizational climate as family friendly. Our participants' supervisors allowed for autonomy related to work scheduling, which provided opportunities for work-life balance. These athletic trainers believed that they worked in a climate that was collegial, which was helpful for work-life balance. In addition, the importance of placing family first was part of the climate.   The perceptions of our participants revealed a climate of family friendliness, supervisor support, and collegiality among staff members, which facilitated the positive climate for work-life balance. The mindset embraced the importance of family and recognized that work did not always have to supersede personal priorities.

  15. Athletic Trainers' Attitudes and Perceptions of Environmental Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potteiger, Kelly; Pitney, William A; Cappaert, Thomas A; Wolfe, Angela

    2017-12-01

      Environmental sustainability efforts are becoming a critical concern in health care. However, little is known regarding how athletic trainers feel about the environment or what can be done to reduce the environmental impact of the practice of athletic training.   To examine athletic trainers' attitudes toward and perceptions of factors related to environmental sustainability.   Sequential, mixed methods using a survey, focus groups, and personal interviews.   Field study.   Four hundred forty-two individuals completed the survey. Sixteen participated in the qualitative portion.   Quantitative results from the Athletic Training Environmental Impact Survey included data from a 5-point Likert scale (1 = lowest rating and 5 = highest rating). Descriptive statistics and 1-way analyses of variance were used to describe perceptions and determine differences in mean opinion, National Athletic Trainers' Association district, and use of green techniques. Qualitative data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively.   The mean score for opinion of the environment was 3.30 ± 0.52. A difference was found between opinion and National Athletic Trainers' Association district ( F 9, 429 = 2.43, P = .01). A Bonferroni post hoc analysis identified this difference ( P = .03) between members of District 2 (Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania) and District 9 (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee). An inductive analysis resulted in 3 emergent themes: (1) barriers to using green techniques, (2) motivators for using green techniques, and (3) solutions to overcoming the barriers. The information gleaned from participants in the qualitative portion of the study can be useful for clinicians wishing to implement basic conservation efforts in their practice settings and may guide future sustainability projects.   Overall, participants reported a positive opinion of environmental sustainability topics related to athletic

  16. On fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifier...

  17. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  18. Characterization of wood polymer composite and design of root trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitra, K. N.; Abhilash, R. M.; Chauhan, Shakti Singh; Venkatesh, G. S.; Shivkumar, N. D.

    2018-04-01

    Biopolymers have received much attention of researchers due to concerns over disposal of plastics, greenhouse gas emission and environmental problems associated with it. Polylactic Acid (PLA) is one of the thermoplastic biopolymer made from lactic acid by using agricultural resources. PLA has received significant interest due to its competitive properties when compared to commodity plastics such as Polyethylene, Polypropylene and Polystyrene. PLA has interesting properties such as high stiffness, UV stability, clear and glossy finish. However, application of PLA is restricted due to its brittle nature. Engineering and thermal properties of PLA can be improved by reinforcing fibres and fillers. Lignocelluloses or natural fibres such as Jute, Hemp, Bamboo, Sisal and Wood fibres can be used as reinforcement. By using natural fibres, a very bio-compostable composite can be produced. In the present study, short fibres from Melia Dubia wood were extracted and used as reinforcement to PLA Bio-Polymer matrix. Characterization of developed composite was obtained using tensile and flexural tests. Tensile test simulation of composite was performed using Altair Hypermesh, a Finite Element (FE) preprocessor and LS-Dyna an explicit FE solver. MAT_01, an elastic material model in LS-Dyna was used to model the behaviour. Further, the design of Root Trainer using developed composite has been explored. A Root Trainer is an aid to the cultivation of seedlings in nurseries. Root Trainer made by using developed composite has advantage of biodegradability and eco-friendly nature.

  19. Intelligent virtual agents as language trainers facilitate multilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedonia, Manuela; Groher, Iris; Roithmayr, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    intelligent virtual agents (IVAs) with human appearance and the capability to teach foreign language vocabulary. We report results from studies that we have conducted with Billie, an IVA employed as a vocabulary trainer, as well as research findings on the acceptance of the agent as a trainer by adults and children. The results show that Billie can train humans as well as a human teacher can and that both adults and children accept the IVA as a trainer. The advantages of IVAs are multiple. First, their teaching methods can be based on neuropsychological research findings concerning memory and learning practice. Second, virtual teachers can provide individualized training. Third, they coach users during training, are always supportive, and motivate learners to train. Fourth, agents will reside in the user's mobile devices and thus be at the user's disposal everywhere and anytime. Agents in apps will make foreign language training accessible to anybody at low cost. This will enable people around the world, including physically, financially, and geographically disadvantaged persons, to learn a foreign language and help to facilitate multilingualism.

  20. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must...

  1. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  2. Investigations concerning fire-induced accidents in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamuth, P.; Lernout, L.A.; Bonneval, F.; Cottaz, M.

    1996-01-01

    In the context of fire protection in technical buildings of French nuclear facilities, three principles have been adopted: prevention, detection and fire-fighting. Their implementation makes it possible on the one hand to limit the fire ignition and the fire growth, and on the other hand to prevent fire extent which would lead to unavailability of several safety related equipment. Although progress has been made in this direction, the fire risks have still not been eliminated. It is therefore essential to evaluate the fire effects and to assess their consequences. To this end, three main R and D programs have been conducted into fires. Part I sets out the fire PSA methodology used for a 900 MWe PWR. Part II gives an outline of two fire and ventilation computer codes useful for the fire PSA. Finally, part III gives an outline of the tests already performed and those currently under way in the two laboratories of the Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN) in order to qualify the codes and provide useful information for the safety assessment. (author)

  3. Training for Future Esp Trainers: Evaluating the Training of Trainers (TOT Program in Labuan Bajo, Manggarai Barat, Flores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Rifai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available By cooperating with Yayasan Komodo Kita and Mandiri Bank, English department of Binus University was chiefly in charge of a 15 day Training Of Trainers (TOT program for 24 participants prepared for teaching English in Labuan Bajo, Flores. The training was aimed to prepare already fluent- in – English- teachers, tour guides, and university graduates with the right tools and method in teaching English. To assess the program, a set of evaluation questionnaire was given to the participants to know their responses on the training material, the trainers, and the program by using Likert’s scale type questions. An observational record was also used as a tool to measure participants’ achievement. The questionnaire reveals that the participants respond positively to the program and the material and favor the approaches made by the trainers during the training. However, the training shows various results in participants’ performance. It is assumed that the non teaching background of the majority of participants and the level of English as two key factors influencing their performance.  

  4. Variations in area-level disadvantage of Australian registered fitness trainers usual training locations

    OpenAIRE

    Bennie, Jason A.; Thornton, Lukar E.; van Uffelen, Jannique G. Z.; Banting, Lauren K.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Leisure-time physical activity and strength training participation levels are low and socioeconomically distributed. Fitness trainers (e.g. gym/group instructors) may have a role in increasing these participation levels. However, it is not known whether the training location and characteristics of Australian fitness trainers vary between areas that differ in socioeconomic status. Methods In 2014, a sample of 1,189 Australian trainers completed an online survey with questions about ...

  5. A Fire Safety Certification System for Board and Care Operators and Staff. SBIR Phase II: Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Bonnie L.

    This report describes Phase II of a project which developed a system for delivering fire safety training to board and care providers who serve adults with developmental disabilities. Phase II focused on developing and pilot testing a "train the trainers" workshop for instructors and field testing the provider's workshop. Evaluation of…

  6. A Fire Safety Certification System for Board and Care Operators and Staff. SBIR Phase I: Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Bonnie L.

    This report describes the development and pilot testing of a fire safety certification system for board and care operators and staff who serve clients with developmental disabilities. During Phase 1, training materials were developed, including a trainer's manual, a participant's coursebook a videotape, an audiotape, and a pre-/post test which was…

  7. Overestimating Resource Value and Its Effects on Fighting Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Dugatkin, Lee Alan; Dugatkin, Aaron David

    2011-01-01

    Much work in behavioral ecology has shown that animals fight over resources such as food, and that they make strategic decisions about when to engage in such fights. Here, we examine the evolution of one, heretofore unexamined, component of that strategic decision about whether to fight for a resource. We present the results of a computer simulation that examined the evolution of over- or underestimating the value of a resource (food) as a function of an individual's current hunger level. In ...

  8. Book Review of Fight Club Written by Chuck Palahniuk

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho, Adityo Widhi

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this writing is to review Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk. The writer will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this novel . The writer decided to choose Fight Club as final project because it is his favorite novel. Fight Club is a very interesting novel although it is hard to understand and disturbing because by showing the consumerism behaviour in this novel, Chuck Palahniuk tries to convey the message that the consumerism behaviour of society nowadays has become worse ...

  9. A novel method for creating custom shaped ballistic gelatin trainers using plaster molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Michael; Katz, Anne; McNamara, Shannon O; Leifer, Jessica H; Bambrick-Santoyo, Gabriela; Saul, Turandot; Rose, Keith M

    2018-03-01

    Simulation based procedural training is an effective and frequently used method for teaching vascular access techniques which often require commercial trainers. These can be prohibitively expensive, which allows for homemade trainers made of gelatin to be a more cost-effective and attractive option. Previously described trainers are often rectangular with a flat surface that is dissimilar to human anatomy. We describe a novel method to create a more anatomically realistic trainer using ballistic gelatin, household items, and supplies commonly found in an emergency department such as the plaster wrap typically used to make splints.

  10. The simulation of surface fire spread based on Rothermel model in windthrow area of Changbai Mountain (Jilin, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hang; Jin, Hui; Zhao, Ying; Fan, Yuguang; Qin, Liwu; Chen, Qinghong; Huang, Liya; Jia, Xiang; Liu, Lijie; Dai, Yuhong; Xiao, Ying

    2018-03-01

    The forest-fire not only brings great loss to natural resources, but also destructs the ecosystem and reduces the soil fertility, causing some natural disasters as soil erosion and debris flow. However, due to the lack of the prognosis for forest fire spreading trend in forest fire fighting, it is difficult to formulate rational and effective fire-fighting scheme. In the event of forest fire, achieving accurate judgment to the fire behavior would greatly improve the fire-fighting efficiency, and reduce heavy losses caused by fire. Researches on forest fire spread simulation can effectively reduce the loss of disasters. The present study focused on the simulation of "29 May 2012" wildfire in windthrow area of Changbai Mountain. Basic data were retrieved from the "29 May 2012" wildfire and field survey. A self-development forest fire behavior simulated program based on Rothermel Model was used in the simulation. Kappa coefficient and Sørensen index were employed to evaluate the simulation accuracy. The results showed that: The perimeter of simulated burned area was 4.66 km, the area was 56.47 hm2 and the overlapped burned area was 33.68 hm2, and the estimated rate of fire spread was 0.259 m/s. Between the simulated fire and actual fire, the Kappa coefficient was 0.7398 and the Sørensen co-efficient was 0.7419. This proved the application of Rothermel model to conduct fire behavior simulation in windthrow meadow was feasible. It can achieve the goal of forecasting for the spread behavior in windthrow area of Changbai Mountain. Thus, our self-development program based on the Rothermel model can provide a effective forecast of fire spread, which will facilitate the fire suppression work.

  11. [Stevia in the fight against dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M S; Blanksma, N G

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a natural, non-caloric sweetener of plant origin. The sweetening power of stevia is several hundred times larger than that of table sugar (sucrose). On the basis of available research, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that stevia is safe for human consumption. Since then, stevia has been approved as a sweetener for the European market. As a substitute for sucrose, stevia can contribute to a reduced caloric intake and can play a role in the prevention and/or treatment of metabolic disorders. In addition, stevia is non-cariogenic and is, moreover, affordable. Promoting the consumption of stevia can therefore be a preventive means of fighting dental caries.

  12. The fight against Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper strikes the balance of the fight against organic volatile compounds emissions in France and in Europe. The first part describes the influence of VOC on production of Ozone in troposphere and gives numerical data on permissive emission values in atmosphere. The second part describes french and european policy and regulations. The third part gives the principle methods and devices for COV measurement in the atmosphere. In the last part, effluents treatment is given: thermal incineration, catalytic incineration, adsorption on active carbon, biologic purification, condensation and separative processes on membrane

  13. Fire safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Hostikka, S.; Mangs, J.; Huhtanen, R.; Palmen, H.; Salminen, A.; Turtola, A.

    1998-01-01

    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  14. Windscale fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxier, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    A graphite fire in the Windscale No. 1 reactor occurred during the period October 8-12, 1957. The Windscale reactors were located on a coastal plain in northwest England and were used to produce plutonium. A great wealth of information was gathered on the causes, handling, decontamination, and environmental effects of reactor accidents. Topics of discussion include: the cause of the fire; handling of the incident; radiation doses to the population; and radiation effects on the population

  15. Fire protection of nuclear power plant cable ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandrac, J.; Lukac, L.

    1987-01-01

    Fire protection of cable ducts in the Bohunice and Dukovany V-2 nuclear power plants is of a fourtier type. The first level consists in preventive measures incorporated in the power plant design and layout. The second level consists in early detection and a quick repressive action provided by an electric fire alarm system and a stationary spray system, respectively. Fire partitions and glands represent the third level while special spray, paint and lining materials represent the fourth level of the protection. Briefly discussed are the results of an analysis of the stationary spray system and the effects reducing the efficiency of a fire-fighting action using this system. The analysis showed the need of putting off cable duct fires using mobile facilities in case the stationary spray system cannot cope any longer. (Z.M.). 3 figs., 2 refs

  16. General multiplex centralized fire-alarm display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Liqun; Chen Jinming

    2002-01-01

    The fire-alarm display system is developed, which can connect with each type of fire controllers produced in the factory and SIGMASYS controllers. It can display whole alarm information. The display system software gathers communication, database and multimedia, has functions of inspecting fire, showing alarm, storing data, searching information and so on. The drawing software lets the user expediently add, delete, move and modify fire detection or fire fighting facilities on the building floor maps. The graphic transform software lets the display use the vectorgraph produced by popular plotting software such as Auto CAD. The system software provides the administration function, such as log book of changing shift and managing workers etc.. The software executed on Windows 98 platform. The user interface is friendly and reliable in operation

  17. Rapid weight gain in professional boxing and correlation with fight decisions: analysis from 71 title fights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Gianlorenzo; Weinstein, Richard N; Wallace, Paul Wesley; Palmieri, Vincenzo; Bianco, Massimiliano

    2016-11-01

    Boxing is a sport where athletes compete in several weight categories. Professional boxers typically dehydrate to cut their weight for the weigh-in (24 h before the contest) and then rehydrate before the fight. The International Boxing Federation (IBF) mandates a second weigh-in 12 h before the fight. Our objectives were: 1) To quantify the weight gain (WG) from the 1st to the 2nd weigh-in; 2) to investigate whether rapid WG affects boxing performance (win/loss rate) and 3) whether weight discrepancy (WD) 15 between boxers exposes them to increased health risks (rate of fights ended before time limit). From official weigh-in reports of 71 IBF fights (142 fighters) the following data were gathered/calculated for each boxer: age, weight division, 1st weight, 2nd weight, WG between weigh-ins (kg and %), WD between opponents, and fight decision. Between the weigh-ins, the average WG was 2.52 ± 1.37 kg (range -0.3/6.4 kg) and 3.8 ± 2.2% of the initial body weight (range -0.4/9.3%) and the average WD 1.94 ± 1.50 kg (maximum 7.10 kg). Both WG and WD did not affect match outcomes. We observed tendencies for higher loss rate among boxers gaining more weight, and for higher victory rate in boxers with larger WD, however without reaching significance. A significant negative correlation was found between the 1st weight and the WG, both in absolute (r = -0.278, p = 0.001) and relative value (r = -0.497, p boxing performance were not found, single cases with an alarming high WG and WD were noted.

  18. Fire monitoring from space: from research to operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, Nicola; Filizzola, Carolina; Corrado, Rosita; Coviello, Irina; lacava, Teodosio; Marchese, Francesco; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Paciello, Rossana; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2013-04-01

    Each summer fires rage through European forests, burning hundreds of thousands of hectares per year, as a result of the many (up to 60000) forest fires that usually occur annually in Europe. Fires can threaten public health and safety, destroy property and cause economic damages. Despite of their medium extension (the average burnt area is less than 6 ha), much smaller if compared with other regions like the USA and Canada, the number of simultaneous active fires in Europe can be very high, fomented by weather conditions that, especially in summer times and for countries of South Europe, are particularly favourable to a rapid and dramatic development of flames. Fires still are not only a social problem, but also an environmental emergency, producing a continuous impoverishment of forests and possibly indirectly triggering other natural hazards (e.g. making slopes, without the trees action, more prone to landslides). Additionally, there is a general concern about the loss of biodiversity and the contribution to land degradation that fires may cause. Earth Observation satellite systems have been largely tested for fire detection and monitoring from space. Their spectral capability, synoptic view and revisit times can offer an added value in the operational use not only in real time, during fires fighting activities, but also in near-real or delay time during the phases of risk management and mitigation. However, the practice of an actual operational use of satellite products by end-users is still not usual at European level. This work is based on the experience carried out jointly by CNR-IMAA and the National Civil Protection Department (DPC), in the framework of a five-year agreement in which the operational use of an Earth observation satellite system for fires spotting and monitoring is tested. Satellite-based products, developed not only for detecting fires but also for continuously monitoring their evolution in time domain, have been provided to Civil Protection

  19. Resurgence in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Stephanie P; Cançado, Carlos R X; Lattal, Kennon A

    2014-03-01

    Resurgence of previously reinforced responding was investigated in male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Swimming through a ring produced 15-s mirror presentations according to, with different fish, either a fixed-ratio 1 or a variable-interval 60-s schedule of reinforcement. When responding was stable, a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule was substituted for the mirror-presentation schedule. Following this, mirror presentations were discontinued (extinction). During this latter phase, there were transient increases in the ring-swim response relative to the frequency of such responding during the differential-reinforcement-of-other behavior schedule. Resurgence was similar for the fish exposed previously to the fixed-ratio or to the variable-interval schedule. These results extend to Siamese fighting fish a well-established behavioral phenomenon previously not observed in this species or with this response topography, and only rarely reported following the removal of a non-consumable reinforcer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. MIST VR. A laparoscopic surgery procedures trainer and evaluator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, C; McCloy, R; Middlebrook, A; Chater, P; Wilson, M; Stone, R

    1997-01-01

    The key bimanual instrument tasks involved in laparoscopic surgery have been abstracted for use in a virtual reality surgical skills evaluator and trainer. The trainer uses two laparoscopic instruments mounted on a frame with position sensors which provide instrument movement data that is translated into interactive real time graphics on a PC (P133, 16 Mb RAM, graphics acceleration card). An accurately scaled operating volume of 10 cm3 is represented by a 3D cube on the computer screen. "Camera" position and size of target objects can be varied for different skill levels. Targets appear randomly within the operating volume according to the skill task and can be grasped and manipulated with the instruments. Accuracy and errors during the tasks and time to completion are logged. Mist VR has tutorial, training, examination, analysis and configuration modes. Six tasks have been selected and include combinations of instrument approach, target acquisition, target manipulation and placement, transfer between instruments, target contact with optional diathermy, and controlled instrument withdrawal/replacement. Tasks can be configured for varying degrees of difficulty and the configurations saved to a library for reuse. Specific task configurations can be assigned to individual students. In the examination mode the supervisor can select the tasks, repetitions and order and save to a specific file for that trainee. Progress can be assessed and there is the option for playback of the training session or examination. Data analyses permit overall, including task, and right or left hand performances to be quantified. Mist VR represents a significant advance over the subjective assessment of training performances with existing "plastic box" basic trainers.

  1. Organizational commitment among intercollegiate head athletic trainers: examining our work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterstein, A P

    1998-01-01

    To 1) examine the commitment of head athletic trainers to their intercollegiate work environments, 2) develop a model that better reflects the head athletic trainer's daily work setting, and 3) use new techniques to describe the various ways head athletic trainers demonstrate commitment to their organizations. Organizational commitment (OC) surveys were sent to 461 head athletic trainers identified for the sample. A response rate of 71.5% (330/461) was obtained from the mail survey. A proportional random sample of head athletic trainers was taken from a population identified in the National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics (NACDA) directory of intercollegiate athletics as Division I, II, and III institutions. Returned OC surveys were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics for all demographic and OC variables. Exploratory cluster analysis was performed to examine naturally clustering groups. Exploratory cluster analysis revealed five naturally clustering groups that represent the head athletic trainers' patterns of commitment across the specific organizational targets. Paired t tests indicated that the continuance commitment scores were significantly lower than the affective and normative scores across the sample. Analysis of variance tests indicated significant differences for specific commitment dimensions based on gender and NCAA division demographics. Beyond that, the five-cluster solution revealed no particular demographic characteristics that predisposed individuals to specific clusters. THE FINDINGS REINFORCE A CENTRAL THEME IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETIC TRAINING: that student-athletes and student athletic trainers are the primary focus of the head athletic trainers' commitment. Positive attachment and obligation directed toward student-athletes and student athletic trainers link the five clusters. Commitment patterns in areas other than student-athletes and student athletic trainers define the cluster membership or head athletic

  2. General fire protection guidelines for egyptian nuclear facilities. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhad, S; Hussien, A Z; Hammad, F H [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the regulatory requirements of that will provide and ensure fire protection of egyptian nuclear facilities. Those facilities that use, handle and store low and/or medium radioactive substances are included. Two or more classes of occupancy are considered to occur in the same building or structure. Fir protection measures and systems were reviewed for three of the egyptian Nuclear facilities. These are egypt first nuclear reactor (ETRR-1) building and systems, hot laboratories buildings and facilities, and the building including the AECL type Is-6500 industrial cobalt-60 gamma irradiator {sup E}gypt`s mega gamma I{sup .} The study includes the outlines of the various aspects of fire protection with a view to define the relevant highlights and scope of egyptian guideline for nuclear installations. The study considers fire protection aspects including the following items: 1- Site selection. 2- General facility design. 3- Fire alarm, detection and suppression systems. (4- Protection for specific areas/control room, cable spreading room, computer room) 5- Fire emergency response planning. 6- Fire water supply. 7- Emergency lighting and communication. 8- Rescue and escape routes. 9- Explosion protection. 10-Manual fire fighting. 11- Security consideration in the interest of fire protection. 12- quality assurance programme. Therefore, first of all the design stage, then during the construction stage, and later during the operation stage, measures must be taken to forestall the risks associated with the outbreak of fire and to ensure that consequences of fire accidents remain limited.

  3. General fire protection guidelines for egyptian nuclear facilities. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhad, S.; Hussien, A.Z.; Hammad, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the regulatory requirements of that will provide and ensure fire protection of egyptian nuclear facilities. Those facilities that use, handle and store low and/or medium radioactive substances are included. Two or more classes of occupancy are considered to occur in the same building or structure. Fir protection measures and systems were reviewed for three of the egyptian Nuclear facilities. These are egypt first nuclear reactor (ETRR-1) building and systems, hot laboratories buildings and facilities, and the building including the AECL type Is-6500 industrial cobalt-60 gamma irradiator E gypt's mega gamma I . The study includes the outlines of the various aspects of fire protection with a view to define the relevant highlights and scope of egyptian guideline for nuclear installations. The study considers fire protection aspects including the following items: 1- Site selection. 2- General facility design. 3- Fire alarm, detection and suppression systems. 4- Protection for specific areas/control room, cable spreading room, computer room) 5- Fire emergency response planning. 6- Fire water supply. 7- Emergency lighting and communication. 8- Rescue and escape routes. 9- Explosion protection. 10-Manual fire fighting. 11- Security consideration in the interest of fire protection. 12- quality assurance programme. Therefore, first of all the design stage, then during the construction stage, and later during the operation stage, measures must be taken to forestall the risks associated with the outbreak of fire and to ensure that consequences of fire accidents remain limited

  4. Probabilistic approach relative to fire scenarios study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, Jean-Luc

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop a calculation method of the occurring probability of the fire scenarios (detection, setting of the intervention, extinction) taking into account the size and the impact of the fire on the surroundings. This new method is called 'hybrid simulation'. It includes in a unique modelling the processing of continuous and discrete phenomenon. Moreover, to correctly represent fire scenarios, it is necessary not to take only into account the 'continuous' growing of the fire itself but of also 'discrete' events like detection, fire fighting and extinction, human behaviour and related faults. For that purpose we couple a code modelling the physical aspects of the fire to Petri nets which is able to model these 'discrete' events, this coupling consists of driving the 'continuous' model by the occurring of the 'discrete' events. This new technique which can be used to cover 'discrete' and 'continuous' events in a single calculation represents a solution to dynamic reliability calculation problems, for which there is a continuously increasing demand for analysing reliability, availability of production and maintainability of complex industrial systems. (author) [fr

  5. Enhancing Fire Control Decision Making with the Patriot Cognitive Skills Trainer: Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    11 areas evaluated. The remaining five of 11 areas evaluated showed improvement, but were not statistically significant. v Utilization and...divided into introductory or crawl training (one module); intermediate or walk training (one module); and advanced or run training in three mission... Introductory Training Task and Purpose 1 (6%) 0 (0%) 6 (35%) 7 (41%) 3 (18%) Graphic Organizer/Mental Model 1 (6%) 1 (6%) 6 (35%) 6

  6. Training Hospital Managers as to Fire Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Khalili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire is one of the most dangerous phenomena in the world which yields main damages, healthy and economical, and is thus a major threat to hospitals. Since, most of the residents in hospitals are the individuals who cannot rescue themselves in such situations, fire in hospitals is more hazardous than any other public place; hence, it can endanger several sophisticated medical equipment. Therefore, security against fire plays a very vital role in hospitals and has to be taken into account by authorities. Among the personnel, hospital manager and the security guard supervisor are much more responsible. One of their responsibilities includes planning fire security scheme in hospitals to reduce the death rate caused by fire so that there is less threat to the building of hospital admits content. Due to the significance of this issue in hospitals, it seems necessary for the personnel to be aware of security measures against fire. Therefore, a study was carried out in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences teaching hospitals on all managers, their awareness about this issue was measured through a questionnaire. The results indicated that of a total of 60, the obtained average was (37.63+7.36 in the medium level. Also, most of the managers believed that proper and updated training by skillful trainers regarding hospital security measures and its application can be truly effective on their productivity. Thus, it is concluded that practical training the mentioned target group (hospital personnel especially clerks and the managers about the security plans can be effective in the control of fire and security measures, resulting in reduction of accidents and human and economic loss in the future.

  7. Study on aging management of fire protection system in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Huasong; Du Yu; Li Jianwen; Shi Haining; Tu Fengsheng

    2010-01-01

    Fire prevention, fire fighting and fire automatic alarms are three aspects which be included in fire protection system in nuclear power plants. The fire protection system can protect personnel, equipment etc in the fire, so their performance will have a direct influence on the safe operation in nuclear power plants. The disabled accidents caused by aging have happened continuously with the extension of time in the fire protection system, which is the major security risk during the running time in nuclear power plants. In view of the importance of fire protection system and the severity of aging problems, the aging are highly valued by the plant operators and related organizations. Though the feedback of operating experience in nuclear power plant, the impact of the fire-fighting equipment aging on system performance and reliability be assessed, the aging sensitive equipment be selected to carry out the aging analysis and to guide the management and maintenance to guarantee the healthy operation in life time of fire protection system in nuclear power plant. (authors)

  8. Fatigue risk management by volunteer fire-fighters: Use of informal strategies to augment formal policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Drew; Mayger, Katherine; Thomas, Matthew J W; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2015-11-01

    An increasing number and intensity of catastrophic fire events in Australia has led to increasing demands on a mainly volunteer fire-fighting workforce. Despite the increasing likelihood of fatigue in the emergency services environment, there is not yet a systematic, unified approach to fatigue management in fire agencies across Australia. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to identify informal strategies used in volunteer fire-fighting and examine how these strategies are transmitted across the workforce. Thirty experienced Australian volunteer fire-fighters were interviewed in August 2010. The study identified informal fatigue-management behaviours at the individual, team and brigade level that have evolved in fire-fighting environments and are regularly implemented. However, their purpose was not explicitly recognized as such. This apparent paradox - that fatigue proofing behaviours exist but that they are not openly understood as such - may well resolve a potential conflict between a culture of indefatigability in the emergency services sector and the frequent need to operate safely while fatigued. However, formal controls require fire-fighters and their organisations to acknowledge and accept their vulnerability. This suggests two important areas in which to improve formal fatigue risk management in the emergency services sector: (1) identifying and formalising tacit or informal fatigue coping strategies as legitimate elements of the fatigue risk management system; and (2) developing culturally appropriate techniques for systematically communicating fatigue levels to self and others. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethical Issues of ICT Use by Teacher Trainers: Use of E-Books in Academic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilickaya, Ferit; Krajka, Jaroslaw

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to address the issue of ethics in ICT use by university teacher trainers, the current study aimed to investigate academics' downloading and sharing e-books as well as the reasons that led them to be involved in this piracy. The participants included 140 teacher trainers working at faculties of education in Turkey, and a questionnaire…

  10. Supporting teachers and trainers for successful reforms and quality of VET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Katrine; Gottlieb, Susanne; Andersen, Ole Dibbern

    This article presents how teachers and trainers in the Danish vocational education and training (VET) system are prepared for their work as professionals in an educational system undergoing rapid changes.......This article presents how teachers and trainers in the Danish vocational education and training (VET) system are prepared for their work as professionals in an educational system undergoing rapid changes....

  11. Elbows higher! Performing, observing and correcting exercises by a Virtual Trainer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttkay, Z.M.; van Welbergen, H.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of our Reactive Virtual Trainer (RVT) project, we are developing an Intelligent Virtual Agent (IVA) capable to act similarly to a real trainer. Besides presenting the physical exercises to be performed, she keeps an eye on the user. She provides feedback whenever appropriate, to

  12. Concussion Assessment in California Community College Football: Athletic Trainers' Strides toward a Safer Return to Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Nancy Resendes

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed method study was to compare current practices of athletic trainers in the management of concussion in football at California Community Colleges (CCC) with the concussion management guidelines set forth by the National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA). The study also set out to gain understanding of why some athletic…

  13. Realism of procedural task trainers in a pediatric emergency medicine procedures course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefrin, Allan; Khazei, Afshin; Cheng, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) physicians have minimal experience in life saving procedures and have turned to task trainers to learn these skills. Realism of these models is an important consideration that has received little study. PEM physicians and trainees participated in a day long procedural training course that utilized commercially available and homemade task trainers to teach pericardiocentesis, chest tube insertion, cricothyroidotomy and central line insertion. Participants rated the realism of the task trainers as part of a post-course survey. The homemade task trainers received variable realism ratings, with 91% of participants rating the pork rib chest tube model as realistic, 82% rating the gelatin pericardiocentesis mold as realistic and 36% rating the ventilator tubing cricothyroidotomy model as realistic. Commercial trainers also received variable ratings, with 45% rating the chest drain and pericardiocentesis simulator as realistic, 74% rating the crichotracheotomy trainer as realistic and 80% rating the central line insertion trainer as realistic. Task training models utilized in our course received variable realism ratings. When deciding what type of task trainer to use future courses should carefully consider the desired aspect of realism, and how it aligns with the procedural skill, balanced with cost considerations.

  14. OCULUS fire: a command and control system for fire management with crowd sourcing and social media interconnectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.; Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Astyakopoulos, Alkiviadis; Dimitros, Kostantinos; Margonis, Christos; Thanos, Giorgos Konstantinos; Skroumpelou, Katerina

    2016-05-01

    AF3 (Advanced Forest Fire Fighting2) is a European FP7 research project that intends to improve the efficiency of current fire-fighting operations and the protection of human lives, the environment and property by developing innovative technologies to ensure the integration between existing and new systems. To reach this objective, the AF3 project focuses on innovative active and passive countermeasures, early detection and monitoring, integrated crisis management and advanced public information channels. OCULUS Fire is the innovative control and command system developed within AF3 as a monitoring, GIS and Knowledge Extraction System and Visualization Tool. OCULUS Fire includes (a) an interface for real-time updating and reconstructing of maps to enable rerouting based on estimated hazards and risks, (b) processing of GIS dynamic re-construction and mission re-routing, based on the fusion of airborne, satellite, ground and ancillary geolocation data, (c) visualization components for the C2 monitoring system, displaying and managing information arriving from a variety of sources and (d) mission and situational awareness module for OCULUS Fire ground monitoring system being part of an Integrated Crisis Management Information System for ground and ancillary sensors. OCULUS Fire will also process and visualise information from public information channels, social media and also mobile applications by helpful citizens and volunteers. Social networking, community building and crowdsourcing features will enable a higher reliability and less false alarm rates when using such data in the context of safety and security applications.

  15. Structural adaptations to diverse fighting styles in sexually selected weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Erin L; Tobalske, Bret W; Emlen, Douglas J

    2014-10-07

    The shapes of sexually selected weapons differ widely among species, but the drivers of this diversity remain poorly understood. Existing explanations suggest weapon shapes reflect structural adaptations to different fighting styles, yet explicit tests of this hypothesis are lacking. We constructed finite element models of the horns of different rhinoceros beetle species to test whether functional specializations for increased performance under species-specific fighting styles could have contributed to the diversification of weapon form. We find that horns are both stronger and stiffer in response to species-typical fighting loads and that they perform more poorly under atypical fighting loads, which suggests weapons are structurally adapted to meet the functional demands of fighting. Our research establishes a critical link between weapon form and function, revealing one way male-male competition can drive the diversification of animal weapons.

  16. Forest fires and lightning activity during the outstanding 2003 and 2005 fire seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana; Ramos, Alexandre; Trigo, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    Wildfires in southern Europe cause frequent extensive economical and ecological losses and, even human casualties. Comparatively to other Mediterranean countries, Portugal is the country with more burnt area and fires per unit area in the last decade, mainly during the summer season (Pereira et al., 2011). According to the fire records available, between 1980 and 2009, wildfires have affected over 3 million hectares in Portugal (JRC, 2011), which corresponds to approximately a third of the Portuguese Continental territory. The main factors that influence fire ignition and propagation are: (1) the presence of fuel (i.e. vegetation); (2) climate and weather; (3) socioeconomic conditions that affect land use/land cover patterns, fire-prevention and fire-fighting capacity and (4) topography. Specifically, weather (e.g. wind, temperature, precipitation, humidity, and lightning occurrence) plays an important role in fire behavior, affecting both ignition and spread of wildfires. Some countries have a relatively large fraction of fires caused by lightning, e.g. northwestern USA, Canada, Russia (). In contrast, Portugal has only a small percentage of fire records caused by lightning. Although significant doubts remain for the majority of fires in the catalog since they were cataloged without a likely cause. The recent years of 2003 and 2005 were particularly outstanding for fire activity in Portugal, registering, respectively, total burned areas of 425 726 ha and 338 262 ha. However, while the 2003 was triggered by an exceptional heatwave that struck the entire western Europe, the 2005 fire season registered was coincident with one of the most severe droughts of the 20th century. In this work we have used mainly two different databases: 1) the Portuguese Rural Fire Database (PRFD) which is representative of rural fires that have occurred in Continental Portugal, 2001-2011, with the original data provided by the Autoridade Florestal Nacional (AFN, 2011); 2) lightning

  17. Ocena preferowanych predyspozycji trenera personalnego = Rating preferred predisposition personal trainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Stefaniak

    2016-09-01

    Abstract                 Services provided by personal trainers in Poland are becoming more popular. The legal situation of this professional group in Poland is unregulated, which creates many doubts about the competence and suitability personal trainer.                 The essence of the work presented in the study is to determine the changes in terms of perception of competence coach, taking place in recent years. The research was conducted in 2009 and repeated in 2015 in fitness clubs coming in Lower Silesia.                 The study involved 240 respondents, including 72 women and 168 men.                 Research results indicate that over the years, the number of people regularly using the services of a coach nearly doubled. The significant number of people for whom the profession of coaching combined with better and better assessment of the social and his authority continues to grow. 67.5% of respondents think that the coach should be well built and have mixed personality traits.

  18. A PC based multi-CPU severe accident simulation trainer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, M.W.; Bienarz, P.P.; Sartmadjiev, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    MELSIM Severe Accident Simulation Trainer is a personal computer based system being developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency and Risk Management Associates, Inc. for the purpose of training the operators of nuclear power stations. It also serves for evaluating accident management strategies as well as assessing complex interfaces between emergency operating procedures and accident management guidelines. The system is being developed for the Soviet designed WWER-440/Model 213 reactor and it is plant specific. The Bohunice V2 power station in the Slovak Republic has been selected for trial operation of the system. The trainer utilizes several CPUs working simultaneously on different areas of simulation. Detailed plant operation displays are provided on colour monitor mimic screens which show changing plant conditions in approximate real-time. Up to 28 000 curves can be plotted on a separate monitor as the MELSIM program proceeds. These plots proceed concurrently with the program, and time specific segments can be recalled for review. A benchmarking (limited in scope) against well validated thermal-hydraulic codes and selected plant accident data (WWER-440/213 Rovno NPP, Ukraine) has been initiated. Preliminary results are presented and discussed. (author)

  19. The modern state and problems of training of fitness trainers in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilenko M.N.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analytical revue of system of professional fitness trainers' training in the USA is presented in the article. Analysis of 40 literature's sources is performed. The mechanisms of obtaining the profession "fitness trainers" ("personal trainers" in the USA are concretized. Investigated, that certification of competence is a necessary condition for a fitness trainers working, but the higher education (on the level of Bachelor's or Master's curriculum isn't needed. Found, that organizations and education institutes are engaged in the certification of fitness specialists. They quickly react to the emergence of new popular fitness technologies, operatively develop educational programs and offer them to the education market. There is a tendency to the emergence of specialized curriculum of Bachelor and Master in higher education. The benefits of the national American education system of future fitness trainers are singled.

  20. The influence of the Re-Link Trainer on gait symmetry in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Sarah; Wiedemann, Lukas; Stinear, Cathy; Stinear, James; McDaid, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Walking function post-stroke is characterized by asymmetries in gait cycle parameters and joint kinematics. The Re-Link Trainer is designed to provide kinematic constraint to the paretic lower limb, to guide a physiologically normal and symmetrical gait pattern. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the immediate influence of the Re-Link Trainer on measures of gait symmetry in healthy adults. Participants demonstrated a significantly lower cadence and a 62% reduction in walking speed in the Re-Link Trainer compared to normal walking. The step length ratio had a significant increase from 1.0 during normal walking to 2.5 when walking in the Re-Link Trainer. The results from this pilot study suggest in its current iteration the Re-Link Trainer imposes an asymmetrical constraint on lower limb kinematics.

  1. Fight against fuel poverty. Levers, stakes and expectations of the fight against fuel poverty in housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payen, Luc; Pamart, Isabelle; Lacroix, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    'Is in fuel poverty a person who feels in his particular housing difficulties have the necessary energy supply to the satisfaction of basic needs due to the inadequacy of resources or its habitat conditions'. The rising cost of energy commodities in the late 2000's, added to the poor thermal quality an important part of French homes, has led to the emergence of fuel poverty in the public debate. Legislative recognition of these situations with the law 'Grenelle II' (from which is extracted the definition above) marked a decisive step in the fight against this complex problem. Affecting nearly 5 million households in France, fuel poverty is a major challenge for societies wishing to successfully achieve their energy transition. In this new publication, ENEA reports on the main levers of the fight against fuel poverty, the obstacles encountered and the needs for new solutions

  2. Zika virus: Can India win the fight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus of public health importance transmitted by Aedes mosquito which also transmits dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever. The disease has been spreading at an alarming rate in Africa, Pacific Islands, and the Americas. Given the expansion of environments where mosquitoes can live and breed, facilitated by urbanization and globalization, there is potential for major urban epidemics of Zika virus disease to occur globally. World Health Organization (WHO has declared Zika virus disease to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC. Our failed attempts to control dengue epidemics in the past call for concern and we need to be to prepared to fight Zika virus before it arrives at our doors.

  3. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  4. Fire Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fire Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Fire Safety What's in ... event of a fire emergency in your home. Fire Prevention Of course, the best way to practice ...

  5. Fire Research Enclosure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities .DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400 cu...

  6. An empirical test of Lanchester's square law: mortality during battles of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowes, Nicola J.R; Adams, Eldridge S

    2005-01-01

    Lanchester's models of attrition describe casualty rates during battles between groups as functions of the numbers of individuals and their fighting abilities. Originally developed to describe human warfare, Lanchester's square law has been hypothesized to apply broadly to social animals as well, with important consequences for their aggressive behaviour and social structure. According to the square law, the fighting ability of a group is proportional to the square of the number of individuals, but rises only linearly with fighting ability of individuals within the group. By analyzing mortality rates of fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) fighting in different numerical ratios, we provide the first quantitative test of Lanchester's model for a non-human animal. Casualty rates of fire ants were not consistent with the square law; instead, group fighting ability was an approximately linear function of group size. This implies that the relative numbers of casualties incurred by two fighting groups are not strongly affected by relative group sizes and that battles do not disproportionately favour group size over individual prowess. PMID:16096093

  7. Using Space Technologies for a timely detection of forest fires: the experience of end-users in 3 Italian Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filizzola, Carolina; Belloni, Antonella; Benigno, Giuseppe; Biancardi, Alberto; Corrado, Rosita; Coviello, Irina; De Costanzo, Giovanni; Genzano, Nicola; Lacava, Teodosio; Lisi, Mariano; Marchese, Francesco; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Merzagora, Cinzio; Paciello, Rossana; Pergola, Nicola; Sannazzaro, Filomena; Serio, Salvatore; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2013-04-01

    Every year, hundreds of thousands of hectares of European forests are destroyed by fires. Due to the particular topography, landscape and demographic distribution in Europe (very different from typical scenarios of China, USA, Canada and Australia), rapidity in fire sighting is still the determining factor in limiting damages to people and goods. Moreover, the possibility of early fire detection means also potentially to reduce the size of the event to be faced, the necessary fire fighting resources and, therefore, even the reaction times. In such a context, integration of satellite technologies (mainly high temporal resolution data) and traditional surveillance systems within the fire fighting procedures seems to positively impact on the effectiveness of active fire fighting as demonstrated by recent experiences over Italian territory jointly performed by University of Basilicata, IMAA-CNR and Local Authorities. Real time implementation was performed since 2007, during fire seasons, over several Italian regions with different fire regimes and features, in order to assess the actual potential of different satellite-based fire detection products to support regional and local authorities in efficiently fighting fires and better mitigating their negative effects. Real-time campaigns were carried out in strict collaboration with end-users within the framework of specific projects (i.e. the AVVISA, AVVISTA and AVVISA-Basilicata projects) funded by Civil Protection offices of Regione Lombardia, Provincia Regionale di Palermo and Regione Basilicata in charge of fire risk management and mitigation. A tailored training program was dedicated to the personnel of Regional Civil Protection offices in order to ensure the full understanding and the better integration of satellite based products and tools within the existing fire fighting protocols. In this work, outcomes of these practices are shown and discussed, especially highlighting the impact that a real time satellite

  8. To breathe or fight? Siamese fighting fish differ when facing a real opponent or mirror image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Gareth; Beattie, Emma; Elwood, Robert W

    2016-08-01

    Displays are a feature of animal contest behaviour and have been interpreted as a means of gathering information on opponent fighting ability, as well as signalling aggressive motivation. In fish, contest displays often include frontal and lateral elements, which in the latter involves contestants showing their flanks to an opponent. Previous work in a range of fish species has demonstrated population-level lateralization of these displays, preferentially showing one side to their opponent. Mirrors are commonly used in place of a real opponent to study aggression in fish, yet they may disrupt the normal pattern of display behaviour. Here, using Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, we compare the aggressive behaviour of males to a mirror image and real opponent behind a transparent barrier. As this species is a facultative air-breather, we also quantify surface breathing, providing insights into underlying fight motivation. Consistent with previous work, we found evidence of population-level lateralization, with a bias to present the left side and use the left eye when facing a real opponent. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in the aggressive displays to a mirror and real opponent, with positive correlations between the behaviour in the two scenarios. However, there were important differences in surface breathing, which was more frequent and of longer duration in the mirror treatment. The reasons for these differences are discussed in relation to the repertoire of contest behaviour and motivation when facing a real opponent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Aircraft Instrument, Fire Protection, Warning, Communication, Navigation and Cabin Atmosphere Control System (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame): 9067.04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with manipulative skills and theoretical knowledge concerning aircraft instrument systems like major flight and engine instruments; fire protection and fire fighting systems; warning systems and navigation systems; aircraft cabin control systems, such as…

  10. EDV supported dynamic fire protection concept adaptation during dismantling of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mummert, Maxi; Traichel, Anke; Dilger, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Fire protection concepts are supposed to be a decision guide for the definition of measures and priorities in fire fighting and fire prevention. In case of reactor dismantling a fire protection concept for the actual status is required. Following the fuel removal from the reactor the protection goals are reduced to the safe confinement of radioactive materials and the restriction of radiation exposure. A dynamic fire protection concept was developed to allow the compliance with the required protection measures with respect to the protection targets. The implementation of the dynamic fire protection concept simplifies the planning of the dismantling steps and to adjust the fire protection measured in the frame of changes in the plant.

  11. Fire Models and Design Fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Annemarie

    The aim of this project is to perform an experimental study on the influence of the thermal feedback on the burning behavior of well ventilated pre-flashover fires. For the purpose an experimental method has been developed. Here the same identical objects are tested under free burn conditions...... carried out by Carleton University and NRC-IRC performed on seven different types of fire loads representing commercial premises, comprise the tests used for the study. The results show that for some of the room test the heat release rate increased due to thermal feedback compared to free burn for a pre......-flashover fire. Two phenomena were observed, that relate well to theory was found. In an incipient phase the heat release rate rose with the temperature of the smoke layer/enclosure boundaries. This increase was also found to depend on the flammability properties of the burning object. The results also...

  12. L-026: EPR-First Responders: Action Guides Extinguishing Fire Brigades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This conference will cover how and when to apply the Fire Brigades. Instructions and guidelines within the IAEA-EPR-First Responders to be used to guide the fire fighting brigade in a radiological emergency response to radioactive material in a manner that will minimize risks while performing the task. It will take into consideration the use of several types of monitoring equipment such as oxygen level meters, sight explosive, chemical meters and radiation detectors

  13. German data for risk based fire safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewekamp, M.; Berg, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Different types of data are necessary to perform risk based fire safety assessments and, in particular, to quantify the fire event tree considering the plant specific conditions. Data on fire barriers, fire detection and extinguishing, including also data on secondary effects of a fire, have to be used for quantifying the potential hazard and damage states. The existing German database on fires in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is very small. Therefore, in general generic data, mainly from US databases, are used for risk based safety assessments. Due to several differences in the plant design and conditions generic data can only be used as conservative assumptions. World-wide existing generic data on personnel failures in case of fire fighting have only to be adapted to the plant specific conditions inside the NPP to be investigated. In contrary, unavailabilities of fire barrier elements may differ strongly depending on different standards, testing requirements, etc. In addition, the operational behaviour of active fire protection equipment may vary depending on type and manufacturer. The necessity for more detailed and for additional plant specific data was the main reason for generating updated German data on the operational behaviour of active fire protection equipment/features in NPPs to support risk based fire safety analyses being recommended to be carried out as an additional tool to deterministic fire hazard analyses in the frame of safety reviews. The results of these investigations revealed a broader and more realistic database for technical reliability of active fire protection means, but improvements as well as collection of further data are still necessary. (author)

  14. FIGHT ZONE WITH POINTS OF THE SHOTOKAN KARATE FEMALE COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Kautzner Marques Junior

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the fight zone with point during the female kumite of competition. This study used a quantitative research for identify the fight zone with point (ippon or waza-ari or not during the female kumite of competition. Were selected on the Internet several championship of kumite of the JKA and of the ITKF. The study detected a high probability of point in the zone 7 and in the zone 2. The study determined that the most points at the corner occurred when the karateka practiced the attack in fight zone. Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA verified significant difference between the fight zone with points, H (10 = 29,49, p = 0,001. The Mann Whitney U test detected significant difference between the zone 5 with waza-ari versus all the zone. The greatest number of points in the fight zone was in agreement with the size of the fight zone. The central zone or zone 5 has 6x6 m, during the female kumite occurred more points, total of 68 waza-aris and 5 ippons. The study on the fight zone with points of the female kumite permits that the karateka has knowledge about the combat zones and guides the karateka before, during and after the female kumite. However, more studies should be done to confirm these findings.

  15. Fire safety in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kench, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    This is the first of a three-part report on the fire hazards in nuclear power stations and some of the precautions necessary. This part lists the United Kingdom reactors, outlines how they work, the fuels used, the use of moderators and coolants and the control systems. Although the risk of fire is no higher than in fossil-fuel stations the consequences can be more serious. The radioactive materials used mean that there is biological shielding round the core, limitations on waste emissions allowed and limited access to some zones. Reliable shut-down systems are needed. Care in the use of water to fight fires must be exercised -it can act as a moderator and cause an otherwise safe core to go critical. The Wigner effect in graphite moderated reactors is explained. Fires in graphite can be extinguished by carbon dioxide. Argon, chlorine and sodium silicate can also be effective. In sodium cooled reactors fires can be allowed to burn themselves out, or TEC and argon could be used to extinguish the flame. (UK)

  16. Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: A Continued Effort in Applying Geophysics to Solve a Local Problem and to Mitigate a Global Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, M. W.; Halisch, M.; Tanner, D. C.; Cai, Z. Y.; Zeng, Q.; Wang, C.

    2012-04-01

    Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. In Xinjiang since more than 50 years a rigorous strategy for fire fighting on local and regional scale is persued. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (FFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. Through the FFB, China is struggling to overcome this, but the activities could be much enhanced by the continuation of the already successful conjoint operations. The last ten years have seen two successful cooperative projects between China and Germany on the field of coal-fire fighting, namely the German Technical Cooperation Project on Coal Fire in Xinjiang and the Sino-German Coal Fire Research Initiative funded by the corresponding ministeries of both countries. A persistent task in the fire fighting is the identification and supervision of areas with higher risks for the ignition of coal fires, the exploration of already ignited fire zones to extinguish the fires and the monitoring of extinguished fires to detect as early as possible process that may foster re-ignition. This can be achieved by modeling both the structures and the processes that are involved. This has also been a promising part of the past cooperation projects, yet to be transformed into a standard application of fire fighting procedures. In this contribution we describe the plans for a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and

  17. A study of operation of station fire brigade with comparison for Japan and the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Kuniyasu

    2011-01-01

    With the occurrence of a fire at Kashiwazaki Kariwa No. 3 unit on a site transformer when Niigata Chuetsu Offshore Earthquake occurred in 2007, the movement of establishing station fire brigade broke out all over Japan. Fire brigade of U.S. power stations is an organization structured with the standards of clear requirements. Some of station fire event reports include examples of activation of station fire brigade. Preparing station fire brigade with good expertise is quite meaningful on the viewpoint of ruling out significant threats of fire against nuclear safety, such as Browns Ferry station fire occurred in 1975. The purpose of this study is to extract useful knowledge through making research on examples of operations of station fire brigade of both Japan and the U.S. As for fire occurrence, relatively frequent fires are seen at Japanese stations with miscellaneous components or some material for works. In the U.S., on the other hand, we can identify relatively frequent fires occurred with important equipment. This might make fire brigades of the U.S. well-prepared for fire fighting by establishing fire-coping strategies for every location in the station. Also, in some stations, fire brigade is continuously trained to enhance its firefighting and rescuing abilities. With the aspect of training of brigades, they are often assembled with devoted staff, which enable them acquiring frequent training and educations to improve their skills further. Fire fighting and rescuing are inevitably dangerous task. This is why frequent training is essential in order to prevent injuries and to keep up their motivation. Unfortunately, the circumstance for brigades in Japan is not helpful enough in experiencing special training needed for them. We have to figure out some way to get over such disadvantages. (author)

  18. Fire Behavior in Pelalawan Peatland, Riau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAMBANG HERO SAHARJO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During dry season it is easily recognized that smoke will emerge at certain place both in Sumatra and Kalimantan that is in peatland. The worst situation occurred when fire burnt buried log in the logged over area where the fire fighter did not have any experience and knowledge on how to work with fire in peatland. Finally it had been found that one of the reasons why firefighter failed to fight fire in peatland is because they do not have any knowledge and experience on it. In order to know the fire behavior characteristics in different level of peat decomposition for fire management and sustainable management of the land for the community, research done in Pelalawan area, Riau Province, Indonesia, during dry season 2001. Three level of peat decomposition named Sapric, Hemic, and Fibric used. To conduct the research, two 400 m2 of plot each was established in every level of the peat decomposition. Burning done three weeks following slashing, cutting and drying at different time using circle method. During burning, flame length, rate of the spread of fire, flame temperature and following burning fuel left and the depth of peat destruction were measured. Results of research shown that in sapric site where sapric 2 has fuel load 9 ton ha-1 less than sapric 1, fire behavior was significantly different while peat destructed was deepest in sapric 2 with 31.87 cm. In hemic site where hemic 2 has fuel load 12.3 ton ha-1 more than hemic 1, fire behavior was significantly different and peat destructed deeper than hemic 1 that was 12.6 cm. In fibric site where fibric 1 has fuel load 3.5 ton ha-1 more than fibric 1, fire behavior was significantly different that has no burnt peat found. This results found that the different fuel characteristics (potency, moisture, bed depth, and type at the same level of peat decomposition will have significantly different fire behavior as it happened also on the depth of peat destruction except fibric. The same condition

  19. Sports Nutrition Knowledge, Perceptions, Resources, and Advice Given by Certified CrossFit Trainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Cassie; Ruth, Kyle; Friesen, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Background: CrossFit is a large, growing force in the fitness community. Currently, Level 1 and 2 CrossFit certification classes do not include nutrition education. The purpose of this study was to identify sports nutrition knowledge, perceptions, resources, and advice given by Certified CrossFit Trainers. Methods: An online questionnaire that measured these four constructs was placed on a private Facebook community, open only to certified CrossFit trainers, for 10 days. Results: Complete surveys were obtained from 289 CrossFit trainers. The mean Sport Nutrition Knowledge (SNK) score was 11.1 ± 2.1, equivalent to 65.3% ± 12.4% correct. The trainers perceived nutrition to be extremely important to athletic performance (9.4 ± 0.9 on a 10 point scale). Overall, the trainers graded their SNK higher than that of their CrossFit peers. The internet and CrossFit peers were the most frequently reported sources for nutrition information; Registered Dietitians were the least reported source. The Paleo and Zone diets were the most common dietary regimens recommended by CrossFit trainers. Results indicated a positive correlation between a CrossFit trainer’s self-reported hours of nutrition education and their SNK score (r = 0.17; p CrossFit trainers, developed with input from Board Certified Specialists in Sports Dietetics, are recommended.

  20. Sports Nutrition Knowledge, Perceptions, Resources, and Advice Given by Certified CrossFit Trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassie Maxwell

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: CrossFit is a large, growing force in the fitness community. Currently, Level 1 and 2 CrossFit certification classes do not include nutrition education. The purpose of this study was to identify sports nutrition knowledge, perceptions, resources, and advice given by Certified CrossFit Trainers. Methods: An online questionnaire that measured these four constructs was placed on a private Facebook community, open only to certified CrossFit trainers, for 10 days. Results: Complete surveys were obtained from 289 CrossFit trainers. The mean Sport Nutrition Knowledge (SNK score was 11.1 ± 2.1, equivalent to 65.3% ± 12.4% correct. The trainers perceived nutrition to be extremely important to athletic performance (9.4 ± 0.9 on a 10 point scale. Overall, the trainers graded their SNK higher than that of their CrossFit peers. The internet and CrossFit peers were the most frequently reported sources for nutrition information; Registered Dietitians were the least reported source. The Paleo and Zone diets were the most common dietary regimens recommended by CrossFit trainers. Results indicated a positive correlation between a CrossFit trainer’s self-reported hours of nutrition education and their SNK score (r = 0.17; p < 0.01. Conclusion: Nutrition education modules for Level 1 and 2 CrossFit trainers, developed with input from Board Certified Specialists in Sports Dietetics, are recommended.

  1. Addressing inequalities in health--what is the contribution of health trainers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Judy; Woodward, Jenny; South, Jane

    2013-07-01

    The role that members of the public (non-professional lay people) can play in improving health is being increasingly recognised in research and policy. This paper explores what contribution lay people employed as health trainers are making to addressing health inequalities in England. Data from eight local evaluations of health trainer services were synthesised using a data-extraction framework to find out about client populations, any lifestyle changes made, health trainers' background and community engagement activities. These data were compared with national data to assess how findings relating to addressing inequalities compared with the national picture. Local data largely matched national data and showed that health trainers are reaching people living with disadvantage and enabling them to make lifestyle changes. The data suggest that they do this by engaging with communities and taking a person-centred approach. Being non-clinical peers is also important. However, no evidence was found that health trainers were impacting on health inequalities at a population level. Health trainers are contributing to addressing health inequalities but the services evaluated were small and had been operating for a limited time, so to expect reductions in inequalities at a population level within districts would be unrealistic. The findings of this synthesis present a challenge to primary care and public health to employ health trainers in order to engage marginalised communities as one element of plans to address health inequalities.

  2. Acquisition of fundamental laparoscopic skills: is a box really as good as a virtual reality trainer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitish-Sharma, P; Knowles, J; Patel, B

    2011-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery requires working in a three-dimensional environment with a two-dimensional view. Skills such as depth perception, hand to eye co-ordination and bimanual manipulation are crucial to its efficacy. To compare the efficiency of training in laparoscopic skills on a VR simulator with a traditional box trainer. Twenty medical students were recruited. An initial training session on the relevant anatomy and steps of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy was given. Baseline skills were recorded using a pre-training laparoscopic cholecystectomy on the VR trainer. Parameters measured were: (1) total time taken (mins); (2) number of movements right and left instrument; (3) path length (cms) of right and left instrument was recorded. Ten students trained on a VR simulator, and ten on a box trainer, for three hours each. The box trainer group exercises were based on the Royal College of Surgeons core laparoscopic skills course, and the VR trainer exercises were based on the Simbionix LapMentor basic skills tasks. Following this both groups were reassessed by a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on the VR trainer. Both groups showed improvement in all measured parameters. A student T-test at 95% confidence interval showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups pre and post training. Both the VR and box trainer are effective in the acquisition of laparoscopic skills. Copyright © 2011 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. POLITENESS STRATEGIES EMPLOYED BY THE TRAINERS IN ROOM DIVISION DEPARTMENT BAPEPAR NUSA DUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Vina Widiadnya Putri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to analyze and discuss the politeness strategies employed by the trainers in room division department when they practice on the job training in the hotel. Politeness strategy was needed when the trainers serve the guest. This research was done by observation and interview with the trainer and the guest about their conversation. The analysis of politeness strategies that employed by the trainer focused on two discussions; (1 the kinds of politeness strategies used by trainer in room division department, and (2 the implications of politeness strategies used by trainer in room division department. This research used the theory from Brown & Levinson (1987 in his book entitled Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usages. The theory is supported by other theories that are considered relevant to the topic of discussion in this research. Based on the analysis, it was found that there were two kinds of politeness stratgies that employed by the trainer in room division department Bapepar Nusa Dua, they were positive face and negative face. Beside that, there are three implications by using politness strategies such as: respect behaviour, togheterness, and cooperative interaction.

  4. Injury surveillance in community sport: Can we obtain valid data from sports trainers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekegren, C L; Gabbe, B J; Finch, C F

    2015-06-01

    A lack of available injury data on community sports participants has hampered the development of informed preventive strategies for the broad-base of sports participation. In community sports settings, sports trainers or first-aiders are well-placed to carry out injury surveillance, but few studies have evaluated their ability to do so. The aim of this study was to investigate the reporting rate and completeness of sports trainers' injury records and agreement between sports trainers' and players' reports of injury in community Australian football. Throughout the football season, one sports trainer from each of four clubs recorded players' injuries. To validate these data, we collected self-reported injury data from players via short message service (SMS). In total, 210 discrete injuries were recorded for 139 players, 21% by sports trainers only, 59% by players via SMS only, and 21% by both. Completeness of injury records ranged from 95% to 100%. Agreement between sports trainers and players ranged from K = 0.32 (95% confidence interval: 0.27, 0.37) for date of return to football to K = 1.00 for activity when injured. Injury data collected by sports trainers may be of adequate quality for providing an understanding of the profile of injuries. However, data are likely to underestimate injury rates and should be interpreted with caution. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Robert D.; Elliot, Diane L.; Goldberg, Linn; Kanayama, Gen; Leone, James E.; Pavlovich, Mike; Pope, Harrison G.

    2012-01-01

    This NATA position statement was developed by the NATA Research & Education Foundation. Objective This manuscript summarizes the best available scholarly evidence related to anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) as a reference for health care professionals, including athletic trainers, educators, and interested others. Background Health care professionals associated with sports or exercise should understand and be prepared to educate others about AAS. These synthetic, testosterone-based derivatives are widely abused by athletes and nonathletes to gain athletic performance advantages, develop their physiques, and improve their body image. Although AAS can be ergogenic, their abuse may lead to numerous negative health effects. Recommendations Abusers of AAS often rely on questionable information sources. Sports medicine professionals can therefore serve an important role by providing accurate, reliable information. The recommendations provide health care professionals with a current and accurate synopsis of the AAS-related research. PMID:23068595

  6. Training of trainers for community primary health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernada, G P

    1983-01-01

    Training community-based health care workers in "developing" countries is essential to improving the quality of life in both rural and urban areas. Two major obstacles to such training are the tremendous social distance gap between these community workers and their more highly-educated and upper-class trainers (often medical officers) and the didactic, formal educational system. Bridging this gap demands a participant-centered, field-oriented approach which actively involves the trainee in the design, implementation and evaluation of the training program. A description of a philosophic learning approach based on self-initiated change, educational objectives related to planning, organizing, conducting and evaluating training, and specific learning methodologies utilizing participatory learning, non-formal educational techniques, field experience, continuing feedback and learner participation are reviewed. Included are: role playing, story telling, case studies, self-learning and simulation exercises, visuals, and Portapak videotape.

  7. Training of Trainers (ToT) Program in Team Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febrianti, Werry; Wiryanto, Leo Hari

    2018-01-01

    The first year students in Sumatera Institute of Technology (ITERA) follow the first year program (TPB). They will learn about mathematics, physics, chemistry, and all of the basic subjects that they need for learning in ITERA. They will study in the big classrooms with different background department of their friends. This situation makes the lectures become more challenging in teaching their lessons. Besides the classrooms, the experience of the lecturers is still need to be improved because the lecturers are young and less of experience in teaching so that they need guidance from their senior lecturer. Because of that situation, Training of Trainers (ToT) program in team teaching is one of the solution that can increase the young lecturers’s ability so that they can teach well in the massal conditions of the classrooms. ToT program in team teaching indicated the better result than regular teaching.

  8. Interesting spontaneous combustion fire at Haus Aden colliery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Both, W; Weinheimer, O

    1976-02-05

    Spontaneous combustion ahead of the face occurred in an over-worked and under-worked seam. When the first cavity containing hot ash was found, an attempt to extinguish the fire with water was abandoned because of the quantity of steam produced, but the fire was extinguished by covering it with paste containing magnesium chloride and hydroxide and calcium chloride. Mining operations continued while the coal surrounding the hot region was cooled with water. The steps taken to detect and deal with other fires in advance of the face are described. These included pre-infusion with calcium chloride solution via boreholes and treatment of the hot cavities encountered with magnesium chloride paste. This method of fire-fighting was more successful than the use of water alone.

  9. Extinguishing smouldering fires in silos. BRANDFORSK project 745-961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisaari, M.; Baroudi, D.; Latva, R. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1998-11-01

    Combustible, porous materials may self-ignite during their storage time in silos as a result of internal heating. The self-ignition process may be slow, and it results in smouldering fires that are extremely difficult to extinguish. Suitable means to fight the smouldering fire were studied both theoretically and experimentally. General heat and mass transfer equations for porous media subject to fires and suppression were written. The equations together with dimensional analysis revealed critical parameters, like the grain size and moisture content, affecting the combustion and suppression process, but they also revealed the complexity of the problem. Experimental results of over 50 tests with varying combustibles and suppression agents were used as the basis for proposed qualitative guidelines on how to fight a smouldering silo fire. Among the potential gaseous agents, CO{sub 2} was found to be the most efficient one. Low expansion foam was also found to be a potential candidate, but its applicability requires further confirmation. Quantifying the guidelines requires a whole new study on the detection of a smouldering fire. The same detection system should be capable of monitoring the suppression process and - most importantly - verifying the extinguishment. (orig.) 46 refs.

  10. Methods for Prediction of Temperature Distribution in Flashover Caused by Backdraft Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurately predicting temperature distribution in flashover fire is a key issue for evacuation and fire-fighting. Now many good flashover fire experiments have be conducted, but most of these experiments are proceeded in enclosure with fixed openings; researches on fire development and temperature distribution in flashover caused by backdraft fire did not receive enough attention. In order to study flashover phenomenon caused by backdraft fire, a full-scale fire experiment was conducted in one abandoned office building. Process of fire development and temperature distribution in room and corridor were separately recorded during the experiment. The experiment shows that fire development in enclosure is closely affected by the room ventilation. Unlike existing temperature curves which have only one temperature peak, temperature in flashover caused by backdraft may have more than one peak value and that there is a linear relationship between maximum peak temperature and distance away from fire compartment. Based on BFD curve and experimental data, mathematical models are proposed to predict temperature curve in flashover fire caused by backdraft at last. These conclusions and experiment data obtained in this paper could provide valuable reference to fire simulation, hazard assessment, and fire protection design.

  11. Clinical Implications of Changing Parameters on an Elliptical Trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Yonatan; Nyska, Meir; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Shanker, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    Specific weightbearing instructions continue to be a part of routine orthopaedic clinical practice on an injured or postoperative extremity. Researchers and clinicians have struggled to define the best weightbearing strategies to maximize clinical outcomes. To investigate the average percentage body weight (APBW) values, weightbearing distribution percentages (WBDP), and cadence values on the entire foot, hindfoot, and forefoot during changing resistance and incline on an elliptical trainer, as well as to suggest clinical implications. Descriptive laboratory study. An original research study was performed consisting of 30 asymptomatic subjects (mean age, 29.54 ± 12.64 years; range, 21-69 years). The protocol included 3 consecutive tests of changing resistance and incline within a speed range of 70 to 95 steps/min. The SmartStep weightbearing gait analysis system was utilized to measure the values. The APBW values for the entire foot ranged between 70% and 81%, the hindfoot values were between 27% and 57%, and the forefoot values between 42% and 70%. With regard to WBDP, the forefoot remained planted on the pedal (stance phase) 2 to 3 times more as compared with the hindfoot raise in the swing phase. The study findings highlight the fact that elliptical training significantly reduces weightbearing in the hindfoot, forefoot, and entire foot even at higher levels of resistance and incline. Weightbearing on the hindfoot consistently displayed the lowest weightbearing values. Orthopaedic surgeons, now equipped with accurate weightbearing data, may recommend using the elliptical trainer as a weightbearing exercise early on following certain bony or soft tissue pathologies and lower limb surgical procedures.

  12. A robotic wheelchair trainer: design overview and a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Experiencing independent mobility is important for children with a severe movement disability, but learning to drive a powered wheelchair can be labor intensive, requiring hand-over-hand assistance from a skilled therapist. Methods To improve accessibility to training, we developed a robotic wheelchair trainer that steers itself along a course marked by a line on the floor using computer vision, haptically guiding the driver's hand in appropriate steering motions using a force feedback joystick, as the driver tries to catch a mobile robot in a game of "robot tag". This paper provides a detailed design description of the computer vision and control system. In addition, we present data from a pilot study in which we used the chair to teach children without motor impairment aged 4-9 (n = 22) to drive the wheelchair in a single training session, in order to verify that the wheelchair could enable learning by the non-impaired motor system, and to establish normative values of learning rates. Results and Discussion Training with haptic guidance from the robotic wheelchair trainer improved the steering ability of children without motor impairment significantly more than training without guidance. We also report the results of a case study with one 8-year-old child with a severe motor impairment due to cerebral palsy, who replicated the single-session training protocol that the non-disabled children participated in. This child also improved steering ability after training with guidance from the joystick by an amount even greater than the children without motor impairment. Conclusions The system not only provided a safe, fun context for automating driver's training, but also enhanced motor learning by the non-impaired motor system, presumably by demonstrating through intuitive movement and force of the joystick itself exemplary control to follow the course. The case study indicates that a child with a motor system impaired by CP can also gain a short-term benefit

  13. Robotics On-Board Trainer (ROBoT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve; Alexander, Greg

    2013-01-01

    ROBoT is an on-orbit version of the ground-based Dynamics Skills Trainer (DST) that astronauts use for training on a frequent basis. This software consists of two primary software groups. The first series of components is responsible for displaying the graphical scenes. The remaining components are responsible for simulating the Mobile Servicing System (MSS), the Japanese Experiment Module Remote Manipulator System (JEMRMS), and the H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) Free Flyer Robotics Operations. The MSS simulation software includes: Robotic Workstation (RWS) simulation, a simulation of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), a simulation of the ISS Command and Control System (CCS), and a portion of the Portable Computer System (PCS) software necessary for MSS operations. These components all run under the CentOS4.5 Linux operating system. The JEMRMS simulation software includes real-time, HIL, dynamics, manipulator multi-body dynamics, and a moving object contact model with Tricks discrete time scheduling. The JEMRMS DST will be used as a functional proficiency and skills trainer for flight crews. The HTV Free Flyer Robotics Operations simulation software adds a functional simulation of HTV vehicle controllers, sensors, and data to the MSS simulation software. These components are intended to support HTV ISS visiting vehicle analysis and training. The scene generation software will use DOUG (Dynamic On-orbit Ubiquitous Graphics) to render the graphical scenes. DOUG runs on a laptop running the CentOS4.5 Linux operating system. DOUG is an Open GL-based 3D computer graphics rendering package. It uses pre-built three-dimensional models of on-orbit ISS and space shuttle systems elements, and provides realtime views of various station and shuttle configurations.

  14. The Determination of Physical Activity Levels of Trainers in Kastamonu, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Günay

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with the aim of determining the PA levels of the trainers working in Kastamonu in terms of gender and marital status variables. This study was applied to trainers from 15 different branches in the competitions organized by Kastamonu Directorate of Youth and Sports and Kastamonu Directorate of National Education. A total of 51 trainers participated in the study voluntarily; 19 of them were female; their mean age was 26.53±9.08 years, their mean height was 167.37±5.37 m and their mean weight was 60.37±7.30 kg. 32 of the trainers were male; their mean age was 35.41±8.10, their mean height was 179.69±6.25 m and their mean weight was 83.94±12.11 kg. Since the PA levels of the trainers working in the city center of Kastamonu were studied, the number of subjects was 51. In this study, in order to determine the physical activity level of the trainers, Physical Activity Evaluation Survey (PAAQ has been used. SPSS 15.0 was used to analyze the data in the dual comparisons, the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U Test has been applied. According to gender, there was no significant difference in met/week values of all indexes (p>0.05; also according to marital status, there was significant difference in met/week value of work index (p0.05, U=230,500 and sport indexes (p>0.05, U=282,000, PA levels of female trainers were found higher in home index. On the other hand, it was also determined that according to marital status, PA levels of single trainers were higher than married trainers in work index.

  15. 76 FR 17327 - 100th Anniversary of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... responsibility to provide a safe environment for all American workers. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President... since the Triangle factory fire, we are still fighting to provide adequate working conditions for all... collective bargaining as a tool to give workers a seat at the tables of power. Working Americans are the...

  16. US Research on Wildland Fires??…with a Focus on EPA’s Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States spends more than $1 billion every year to fight wildfires. According to National Interagency Fire Center data, of the 10 years with the largest acreage burned, nine have occurred since 2000 (as of 2012). This period coincides with many of the warmest years on re...

  17. Rubber acid damage in fire hoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaysen, A C; Bunker, H J; Adams, M E

    1945-03-17

    Hose failure observed in rubber-lined fire hoses may be due to sulfuric acid formed from sulfur present in hoses when they are not properly dried. Microorganisms were observed in numerous samples of hose liquid and as a result of the experiments which were carried it was concluded that: the production of rubber acid in hose is due to the activity of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of the Thiobacterium thiooxidans group. Such acid will invariably be formed when the hoses are stored with the linings wet, when the responsible bacteria are present and when the free sulfur content of the hoses exceeds 0.1 precent. The alternative of preventing the introduction of the causal bacteria does not appear practical since the water used in fire-fighting in the London district is taken from static supplies.

  18. [Effective communication strategies to frame the trainer-trainee dialogue in the clinical setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachoud, D; Félix, S; Monti, M

    2015-11-04

    Communication between trainer and trainee plays a central role in teaching and learning in the clinical environment. There are various strategies to frame the dialogue between trainee and trainer. These strategies allow trainers to be more effective in their supervision, which is important in our busy clinical environment. Communication strategies are well adapted to both in- and out-patient settings, to both under- and postgraduate contexts. This article presents three strategies that we think are particularly useful. They are meant to give feedback, to ask questions and to present a case.

  19. ASTP crewmen in Apollo Command Module Trainer during training session at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The three members of the American ASTP prime crew are photographed inside the Apollo Command Module (CM) trainer in a water tank in bldg 260 during water egress training at JSC. They are, left to right, Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander; Vance D. Brand, command module pilot; and Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot (23430); Slayton attaches his life preserver as he egresses an Apollo Command Module trainer in a water tank in bldg 260 during water egresss training at JSC. Astronauts Brand (on left) and Stafford have already egressed the trainer and are seated in a three-man life raft.

  20. TrainerPlan : Tu plan de entrenamientos en tu móvil

    OpenAIRE

    López de Aberasturi Ortiz de Pinedo, Aitor

    2017-01-01

    TrainerPlan es una aplicación móvil desarrollada para terminales Android que permitirá la generación y consulta de planes de entrenamiento que podrán ser compartidos por diferentes usuarios. TrainerPlan és una aplicació mòbil desenvolupada per a terminals Android que permetrà la generació i consulta de plans d'entrenament que podran ser compartits per diferents usuaris. TrainerPlan is a mobile application developed for Android terminals that will allow the generation and consultation of...

  1. Fire Behavior (FB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fire Behavior (FB) method is used to describe the behavior of the fire and the ambient weather and fuel conditions that influence the fire behavior. Fire behavior methods are not plot based and are collected by fire event and time-date. In general, the fire behavior data are used to interpret the fire effects documented in the plot-level sampling. Unlike the other...

  2. Fire Symfonier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Svend Hvidtfelt

    2009-01-01

    sidste fire symfonier. Den er måske snarere at opfatte som et præludium til disse. At påstå, at symfonierne fra Holmboes side er planlagt til at være beslægtede, ville være at gå for vidt. Alene de 26 år, der skiller den 10. fra den 13., gør påstanden - i bedste fald - dubiøs. Når deres udformning...... udkrystallisering som i de sidste små 30 år af hans virke har afkastet disse fire variationer over en grundlæggende central holmboesk fornemmelse for form, melodi, klang og rytme. Denne oplevelse har fået mig til at udforske symfonierne, for at finde til bunds i dette holmboeske fællestræk, som jeg mener her står...

  3. Asia: fighting HIV / AIDS makes business sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-15

    Three Asian companies are investing in HIV/AIDS education and prevention schemes because they are starting to feel the effects of the HIV/AIDS pandemic on their workforces. A total of 17 companies from the region signed a document in the Fifth International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific committing to the fight against AIDS. The group said that effective workplace programs can prevent an increase in absenteeism, health care costs and labor turnover, a decrease in productivity, loss of experienced personnel and the need for increased resources to hire and retrain replacements. American International Assurance in Thailand accredits companies with effective HIV/AIDS campaigns in the workplace and gives them a 5-10% discount on premiums on group life insurance policies. At Freeport Mining in Indonesia, an HIV/AIDS campaign markedly improved condom usage rates and decreased incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among workers. Meanwhile, India's Tata Tea Limited expanded its health services to include surveys, training, education, and counseling on HIV/AIDS and STDs.

  4. Genome editing technologies to fight infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Marta; Palù, Giorgio; Barzon, Luisa

    2017-11-01

    Genome editing by programmable nucleases represents a promising tool that could be exploited to develop new therapeutic strategies to fight infectious diseases. These nucleases, such as zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) and homing endonucleases, are molecular scissors that can be targeted at predetermined loci in order to modify the genome sequence of an organism. Areas covered: By perturbing genomic DNA at predetermined loci, programmable nucleases can be used as antiviral and antimicrobial treatment. This approach includes targeting of essential viral genes or viral sequences able, once mutated, to inhibit viral replication; repurposing of CRISPR-Cas9 system for lethal self-targeting of bacteria; targeting antibiotic-resistance and virulence genes in bacteria, fungi, and parasites; engineering arthropod vectors to prevent vector-borne infections. Expert commentary: While progress has been done in demonstrating the feasibility of using genome editing as antimicrobial strategy, there are still many hurdles to overcome, such as the risk of off-target mutations, the raising of escape mutants, and the inefficiency of delivery methods, before translating results from preclinical studies into clinical applications.

  5. Metabolomics in the fight against malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L Salinas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics uses high-resolution mass spectrometry to provide a chemical fingerprint of thousands of metabolites present in cells, tissues or body fluids. Such metabolic phenotyping has been successfully used to study various biologic processes and disease states. High-resolution metabolomics can shed new light on the intricacies of host-parasite interactions in each stage of the Plasmodium life cycle and the downstream ramifications on the host’s metabolism, pathogenesis and disease. Such data can become integrated with other large datasets generated using top-down systems biology approaches and be utilised by computational biologists to develop and enhance models of malaria pathogenesis relevant for identifying new drug targets or intervention strategies. Here, we focus on the promise of metabolomics to complement systems biology approaches in the quest for novel interventions in the fight against malaria. We introduce the Malaria Host-Pathogen Interaction Center (MaHPIC, a new systems biology research coalition. A primary goal of the MaHPIC is to generate systems biology datasets relating to human and non-human primate (NHP malaria parasites and their hosts making these openly available from an online relational database. Metabolomic data from NHP infections and clinical malaria infections from around the world will comprise a unique global resource.

  6. Social Security and Fighting Poverty in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Khemili

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the role of social security in fighting poverty in Metlaoui, Tunisia, using survey data collected between July 2012 and January 2014, covering 200 poor households. We used questionnaire data, which gave a thorough analysis of the reactions, behavior, and strategies adopted by poor households as a result of various forms of risk. Social security has an effect on a number of different areas, including health, education, housing, and income. Our methodology explored both complete and partial risk-sharing, to investigate the impact of social security schemes on the strategies adopted by households to cope with economic shocks. The estimation results of different models showed that social security could help social security-covered households choose less costly strategies to cope with risks. However, the role of social security remains insufficient, given that covered households had less confidence in its services and they adopted strategies of self-insurance or income smoothing. Overall, the results showed that social security plays an important role in Metlaoui, but it remains insufficient, especially for households that are not covered by social security and are suffering from heavy health expenditures.

  7. Your help is appreciated to fight Spam

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Mail Service

    2004-01-01

    Spam problem constantly increases its severity: currently about 90% of e-mails received daily by CERN Mail servers are unsolicited messages - called ‘Spam' - and spammers are doing their best to bypass anti-spam filters. In these conditions, users' feedback is priceless. It allows the CERN Mail Service to improve Spam fighting performance, and of course reduce the number of received unsolicited mails. Outlook users should note the existence of ‘anti-Spam buttons': ‘Check Spam classification of an e-mail', ‘Update personal whitelist' and ‘Report Spam'. The ‘Report Spam' button is very important: it removes the selected Spam from your Inbox, and sends a copy to the CERN Mail Service. Those reports are used to build new filters nearly in real time; a new Spam might be blocked in less than 15 minutes! Therefore, every Outlook user is warmly encouraged to get rid of the Spam messages received in the Inbox folder by using the ‘Report Spam' button and not b...

  8. Microcredit -- an emerging tool for fighting poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A summit focusing on microcredit (small business, microenterprise, loans) as a means of fighting poverty was held February 3-4 in Washington; it was co-chaired by First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton and by Queen Sofia of Spain. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) has long supported microenterprise and microfinance. The summit set a goal of reaching 100 million poor families over the next nine years. USAID Administrator Brian Atwood spoke concerning the need to involve the private sector in microfinance; previously loans had been financed outside of the mainstream financial system via nongovernmental organizations and credit unions funded mainly by governments and donors. USAID launched a Microenterprise Initiative in 1994 that has supported 150 programs in 45 countries, and that is expected to reach approximately 4 million families. Atwood said the microenterprise strategies were currently in use in nearly every country USAID supports in Latin America and Asia, and most countries in Africa; future efforts would concentrate on countries in Africa, in eastern Europe and in central Asia. Mrs. Clinton called microenterprise "an invaluable tool in alleviating poverty, promoting self-sufficiency, and stimulating the economy." Treasury Secretary Robert Rubin stated that the policy helped people help themselves by giving them the tools they needed to join the economic mainstream. Microcredit focuses on businesses with five or fewer workers; loans range from less than $100 to $10,000. More than half of the businesses are owned and operated by women.

  9. Therapeutic strategies to fight HIV-1 latency: progress and challenges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Manoto, Sello L

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available —1112, 2017 Therapeutic strategies to fight HIV-1 latency: progress and challenges Sello Lebohang Manoto, Lebogang Thobakgale, Rudzani Malabi, Charles Maphanga, Saturnin Ombinda-Lemboumba, Patience Mthunzi-Kufa Abstract: The life...

  10. One Team, One Fight, One Future, Total Army Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...; and, most important, our vision for maintaining a trained and ready force. As the ideas in One Team, One Fight, One Future unfold, you will find the key themes of Total Army integration emerging again and again...

  11. Deploying ICT with Entrepreneurship Culture can Fight Cyber-Crime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deploying ICT with Entrepreneurship Culture can Fight Cyber-Crime Menace ... Again he innovates, introducing new products & technologies by the ... Keywords: Cyber-crimes, entrepreneurs, compupreneur, firewalls, computer forensics, ICT, ...

  12. Challenges to fire protection measures at Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narama, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    New regulatory standards for fire protection at nuclear power plants have been established by the Nuclear Regulation Authority. This paper introduces the measures taken by the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station for the following four items, which were especially big changes. (1) To install a combination of sensors of different types or instruments with equivalent functions so as to be able to emit unique signals to inform a fire in the early stage. (2) To conduct 'UL vertical burn test' as the demonstration test for self-extinguishing performance as the condition for flame-retardant cable. (3) To install automatic fire-extinguishers or fixed fire-extinguishing devices of manual type at the spots where fire-fighting is difficult due to the filling of smoke in a fire or the effect of radiation. (4) To separate the system for purpose of ensuring safety function to attain the high-temperature shutdown and cold-temperature shutdown of a reactor whatever fire may happen at the nuclear facilities. The examples of the installation of fire-extinguishers as the measures for the above Item (3) are as follows; (A) as for the devices containing oil, a foam-extinguishing agent is released against each target device from the nozzle, and (B) for large vertical pump motors indoors and relatively small pump motors, IA type automatic foam extinguishing systems are installed. (A.O.)

  13. Fire and blast safety manual for fuel element manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensinger, U.; Koehler, B.; Mester, W.; Riotte, H.G.; Sehrbrock, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    The manual aims to enable people involved in the planning, operation, supervision, licensing or appraisal of fuel element factories to make a quick and accurate assessment of blast safety. In Part A, technical plant principles are shown, and a summary lists the flammable materials and ignition sources to be found in fuel element factories, together with theoretical details of what happens during a fire or a blast. Part B comprises a list of possible fires and explosions in fuel element factories and ways of preventing them. Typical fire and explosion scenarios are analysed more closely on the basis of experiments. Part B also contains a list and an assessment of actual fires and explosions which have occurred in fuel element factories. Part C contains safety measures to protect against fire and explosion, in-built fire safety, fire safety in plant design, explosion protection and measures to protect people from radiation and other hazards when fighting fires. A distinction is drawn between UO 2 , MOX and HTR fuel elements. (orig./DG) [de

  14. Full-scale horizontal cable-tray tests: Fire-propagation characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    At the Fermi National Accelerator Center (Fermilab), as at any high-energy physics laboratory, the experimental program depends on complex arrays of equipment that require years to assemble and place in service. These equipment arrays are typically located in enclosed tunnels or experimental halls and could be destroyed by rapidly propagating, uncontrolled fire. Cable trays, both vertical and horizontal, are an integral and ubiquitous component of these installations. Concurrently, throughout industry and within the professional fire-fighting community, there has been concern over the flammability and fire propagation characteristics of electrical cables in open cable trays. While some information was available concerning fire propagation in vertical cable trays, little was known about fires in horizontal cable trays. In view of the potential for loss of equipment and facilities, not to mention the programmatic impact of a fire, Fermilab initiated a program of full-scale, horizontal cable-tray fire tests to determine the flammability and rate of horizontal fire propagation in cable-tray configurations and cable mixed typical of those existing in underground tunnel enclosures and support buildings as Fermilab. This series of tests addressed the effects of ventilation rates and cable-tray fill, fire-fighting techniques, and the effectiveness and value of automatic sprinklers, smoke detection, and cable-coating fire barriers in detecting, controlling, or extinguishing a cable-tray fire. Detailed descriptions of each fire test, including sketches of cable-tray configuration and contents, instrumentation, ventilation rates, Fermilab Fire Department personnel observations, photographs, and graphs of thermocouple readings are available in a report of these tests prepared by the Fermilab Safety Section

  15. Performance of a Protected Wireless Sensor Network in a Fire. Analysis of Fire Spread and Data Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine-Santoni, Thierry; Santucci, Jean-François; de Gentili, Emmanuelle; Silvani, Xavier; Morandini, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) as a reliable solution for capturing the kinematics of a fire front spreading over a fuel bed. To provide reliable information in fire studies and support fire fighting strategies, a Wireless Sensor Network must be able to perform three sequential actions: 1) sensing thermal data in the open as the gas temperature; 2) detecting a fire i.e., the spatial position of a flame; 3) tracking the fire spread during its spatial and temporal evolution. One of the great challenges in performing fire front tracking with a WSN is to avoid the destruction of motes by the fire. This paper therefore shows the performance of Wireless Sensor Network when the motes are protected with a thermal insulation dedicated to track a fire spreading across vegetative fuels on a field scale. The resulting experimental WSN is then used in series of wildfire experiments performed in the open in vegetation areas ranging in size from 50 to 1,000 m2. PMID:22454563

  16. Formative Evaluation of the Tactical Patrol Craft Trainer: A Computer-Based Training Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobs, Dean

    1997-01-01

    ...) during the implementation stage. The TPCT is an interactive multi-media computer based trainer designed to deliver a full fidelity and analog video training scenario to Prospective Commanding Officers (PCOs...

  17. Astronaut Anna Fisher practices control of the RMS in a trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Anna Lee Fisher, mission specialist for 51-A, practices control of the remote manipulator system (RMS) at a special trainer at JSC. Dr. Fisher is pictured in the manipulator development facility (MDF) of JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory.

  18. Design of Human-Machine Interface and altering of pelvic obliquity with RGR Trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrusinski, Maciej; Unluhisarcikli, Ozer; Mavroidis, Constantinos; Cajigas, Iahn; Bonato, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The Robotic Gait Rehabilitation (RGR) Trainer targets secondary gait deviations in stroke survivors undergoing rehabilitation. Using an impedance control strategy and a linear electromagnetic actuator, the device generates a force field to control pelvic obliquity through a Human-Machine Interface (i.e. a lower body exoskeleton). Herein we describe the design of the RGR Trainer Human-Machine Interface (HMI) and we demonstrate the system's ability to alter the pattern of movement of the pelvis during gait in a healthy subject. Results are shown for experiments during which we induced hip-hiking - in healthy subjects. Our findings indicate that the RGR Trainer has the ability of affecting pelvic obliquity during gait. Furthermore, we provide preliminary evidence of short-term retention of the modified pelvic obliquity pattern induced by the RGR Trainer. © 2011 IEEE

  19. Design of Human – Machine Interface and Altering of Pelvic Obliquity with RGR Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrusinski, Maciej; Unluhisarcikli, Ozer; Mavroidis, Constantinos; Cajigas, Iahn; Bonato, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The Robotic Gait Rehabilitation (RGR) Trainer targets secondary gait deviations in stroke survivors undergoing rehabilitation. Using an impedance control strategy and a linear electromagnetic actuator, the device generates a force field to control pelvic obliquity through a Human-Machine Interface (i.e. a lower body exoskeleton). Herein we describe the design of the RGR Trainer Human-Machine Interface (HMI) and we demonstrate the system’s ability to alter the pattern of movement of the pelvis during gait in a healthy subject. Results are shown for experiments during which we induced hip-hiking – in healthy subjects. Our findings indicate that the RGR Trainer has the ability of affecting pelvic obliquity during gait. Furthermore, we provide preliminary evidence of short-term retention of the modified pelvic obliquity pattern induced by the RGR Trainer. PMID:22275693

  20. An electromechanical gait trainer for restoration of gait in hemiparetic stroke patients: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S; Werner, C; Uhlenbrock, D; von Frankenberg, S; Bardeleben, A; Brandl-Hesse, B

    2001-01-01

    Modern concepts of gait rehabilitation after stroke favor a task-specific repetitive approach. In practice, the required physical effort of the therapists limits the realization of this approach. Therefore, a mechanized gait trainer enabling nonambulatory patients to have the repetitive practice of a gait-like movement without overstraining therapists was constructed. This preliminary study investigated whether an additional 4-week daily therapy on the gait trainer could improve gait ability in 14 chronic wheelchair-bound hemiparetic subjects. The 4 weeks of physiotherapy and gait-trainer therapy resulted in a relevant improvement of gait ability in all subjects. Velocity, cadence, and stride length improved significantly (p gait trainer seems feasible as an adjunctive tool in gait rehabilitation after stroke; further studies are needed.

  1. FlexiTrainer: A Visual Authoring Framework for Case-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramachandran, Sowmya; Remolina, Emilio; Fu, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    .... This paper describes FlexiTrainer, an authoring framework that enables the rapid creation of pedagogically rich and performance-oriented learning environments with custom content and tutoring strategies...

  2. The Commanders' Integrated Training Tool for the Close Combat Tactical Trainer 3: Final Prototype Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flynn, Michael

    2001-01-01

    ...) for the Close Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT), a system of armored vehicle manned-module simulators and workstations that allows units to train collective armor and infantry tasks at the platoon through battalion task force level...

  3. New perspectives in fire management in South American savannas: The importance of intercultural governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Jayalaxshmi; Schmidt, Isabel Belloni; Eloy, Ludivine; Bilbao, Bibiana

    2018-05-11

    Wildfires continue to cause damage to property, livelihoods and environments around the world. Acknowledging that dealing with wildfires has to go beyond fire-fighting, governments in countries with fire-prone ecosystems have begun to recognize the multiple perspectives of landscape burning and the need to engage with local communities and their practices. In this perspective, we outline the experiences of Brazil and Venezuela, two countries where fire management has been highly contested, but where there have been recent advances in fire management approaches. Success of these new initiatives have been measured by the reduction in wildfire extent through prescribed burning, and the opening of a dialogue on fire management between government agencies and local communities. Yet, it is clear that further developments in community participation need to take place in order to avoid the appropriation of local knowledge systems by institutions, and to better reflect more equitable fire governance.

  4. Sports Nutrition Knowledge, Perceptions, Resources, and Advice Given by Certified CrossFit Trainers

    OpenAIRE

    Cassie Maxwell; Kyle Ruth; Carol Friesen

    2017-01-01

    Background: CrossFit is a large, growing force in the fitness community. Currently, Level 1 and 2 CrossFit certification classes do not include nutrition education. The purpose of this study was to identify sports nutrition knowledge, perceptions, resources, and advice given by Certified CrossFit Trainers. Methods: An online questionnaire that measured these four constructs was placed on a private Facebook community, open only to certified CrossFit trainers, for 10 days. Results: Complete sur...

  5. Design of Human – Machine Interface and Altering of Pelvic Obliquity with RGR Trainer

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrusinski, Maciej; Unluhisarcikli, Ozer; Mavroidis, Constantinos; Cajigas, Iahn; Bonato, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The Robotic Gait Rehabilitation (RGR) Trainer targets secondary gait deviations in stroke survivors undergoing rehabilitation. Using an impedance control strategy and a linear electromagnetic actuator, the device generates a force field to control pelvic obliquity through a Human-Machine Interface (i.e. a lower body exoskeleton). Herein we describe the design of the RGR Trainer Human-Machine Interface (HMI) and we demonstrate the system’s ability to alter the pattern of movement of the pelvis...

  6. Safe and competent opioid prescribing education: Increasing dissemination with a train-the-trainer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisblatt, Lara; Hayes, Sean M; Lazure, Patrice; Hardesty, Ilana; White, Julie L; Alford, Daniel P

    2017-01-01

    Due to the high prevalence of prescription opioid misuse, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandated a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) requiring manufacturers of extended-release/long-acting (ER/LA) opioids to fund continuing education based on an FDA curricular Blueprint. This paper describes the Safe and Competent Opioid Prescribing Education (SCOPE of Pain) train-the-trainer program and its impact on (1) disseminating the SCOPE of Pain curriculum and (2) knowledge, confidence, attitudes, and performance of the participants of trainer-led compared with expert-led meetings. SCOPE of Pain is a 3-hour ER/LA opioid REMS education. In addition to expert-led live statewide meetings, a 2-hour train-the-trainer (TTT) workshop was developed to increase dissemination nationally. The trainers were expected to conduct SCOPE of Pain meetings at their institutions. Participants of both the trainer-led and expert-led SCOPE of Pain programs were surveyed immediately post and 2 months post meetings to assess improvements in knowledge, confidence, attitudes, and self-reported safe opioid prescribing practices. During 9 months (May 2013 to February 2014), 89 trainers were trained during 9 TTT workshops in 9 states. Over 24 months (May 2013 to April 2015), 33% of the trainers conducted at least 1 SCOPE of Pain training, with a total of 79 meetings that educated 1419 participants. The average number of meetings of those who conducted at least 1 meeting was 2.8 (range: 1-19). The participants of the trainer-led programs were significantly more likely to be practicing in rural settings than those who participated in the expert-led meetings (39% vs. 26%, P strategy to increase guideline-based safe opioid prescribing knowledge, confidence, attitudes, and self-reported practices.

  7. General Practitioner trainers prescribe fewer antibiotics in primary care: Evidence from France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillers, Louise; Sicsic, Jonathan; Delbarre, Angelique; Le Bel, Josselin; Ferrat, Emilie; Saint Lary, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotic prescription is a central public health issue. Overall, 90% of antibiotic prescriptions are delivered to patients in ambulatory care, and a substantial proportion of these prescriptions could be avoided. General Practitioner (GP) trainers are similar to other GPs in terms of sociodemographic and medical activities, but they may have different prescription patterns. Our aim was to compare the antibiotic prescribing rates between GP trainers and non-trainers. This observational cross-sectional study was conducted on administrative data claims from the French National Health Insurance. The antibiotic prescribing rate was calculated. The main independent variable was the training status of the GPs. Prescribing rates were adjusted for the various GPs' characteristics (gender, age, location of the practice, number of visits per GP and the case-mix) in a multiple linear regression analysis. Between June 2014 and July 2015 the prescribing patterns of 860 GPs were analysed, among which 102 were GP trainers (12%). Over the year 363,580 patients were prescribed an antibiotic out of 3,499,248 visits for 1,299,308 patients seen over the year thus representing around 27.5% of patients. In the multivariate analyses, being a trainer resulted in a significant difference of 6.62 percentage points (IC 95%: [-8.55; -4.69]; prole of GP trainers in antibiotic prescriptions. By prescribing fewer antibiotics and influencing the next generations of GPs, the human and economic burden of antibiotics could be reduced.

  8. Increasing the realism of a laparoscopic box trainer: a simple, inexpensive method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Louise; Kassab, Eva; Arora, Sonal; Kneebone, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Simulation-based training in medical education is increasing. Realism is an integral element of creating an engaging, effective training environment. Although physical trainers offer a low-cost alternative to expensive virtual reality (VR) simulators, many lack in realism. The aim of this research was to enhance the realism of a laparoscopic box trainer by using a simple, inexpensive method. Digital images of the abdominal cavity were captured from a VR simulator. The images were printed onto a laminated card that lined the bottom and sides of the box-trainer cavity. The standard black neoprene material that encloses the abdominal cavity was replaced with a skin-colored silicon model. The realism of the modified box trainer was assessed by surgeons, using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Results suggest that the modified box trainer was more realistic than a standard box trainer alone. Incorporating this technique in the training of laparoscopic skills is an inexpensive means of emulating surgical reality that may enhance the engagement of the learner in simulation.

  9. Knowledge about sports-related concussion: is the message getting through to coaches and trainers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peta E; Newton, Joshua D; Makdissi, Michael; Sullivan, S John; Davis, Gavin; McCrory, Paul; Donaldson, Alex; Ewing, Michael T; Finch, Caroline F

    2014-01-01

    The need for accurate diagnosis and appropriate return-to-play decisions following a concussion in sports has prompted the dissemination of guidelines to assist managing this condition. This study aimed to assess whether key messages within these guidelines are reflected in the knowledge of coaches and sports trainers involved in community sport. An online knowledge survey was widely promoted across Australia in May-August 2012 targeting community Australian Football (AF) and Rugby League (RL) coaches and sports trainers. 260 AF coaches, 161 AF sports trainers, 267 RL coaches and 228 RL sports trainers completed the survey. Knowledge scores were constructed from Likert scales and compared across football codes and respondent groups. General concussion knowledge did not differ across codes but sports trainers had higher levels than did coaches. There were no significant differences in either concussion symptoms or concussion management knowledge across codes or team roles. Over 90% of respondents correctly identified five of the eight key signs or symptoms of concussion. Fewer than 50% recognised the increased risk of another concussion following an initial concussion. Most incorrectly believed or were uncertain that scans typically show damage to the brain after a concussion occurs. Fewer than 25% recognised, and >40% were uncertain that younger players typically take longer to recover from concussion than adults. The key messages from published concussion management guidelines have not reached community sports coaches and sports trainers. This needs to be redressed to maximise the safety of all of those involved in community sport.

  10. Brain-actuated gait trainer with visual and proprioceptive feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Chen, Weihai; Lee, Kyuhwa; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Bouri, Mohamed; Pei, Zhongcai; Millán, José del R.

    2017-10-01

    Objective. Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have been proposed in closed-loop applications for neuromodulation and neurorehabilitation. This study describes the impact of different feedback modalities on the performance of an EEG-based BMI that decodes motor imagery (MI) of leg flexion and extension. Approach. We executed experiments in a lower-limb gait trainer (the legoPress) where nine able-bodied subjects participated in three consecutive sessions based on a crossover design. A random forest classifier was trained from the offline session and tested online with visual and proprioceptive feedback, respectively. Post-hoc classification was conducted to assess the impact of feedback modalities and learning effect (an improvement over time) on the simulated trial-based performance. Finally, we performed feature analysis to investigate the discriminant power and brain pattern modulations across the subjects. Main results. (i) For real-time classification, the average accuracy was 62.33 +/- 4.95 % and 63.89 +/- 6.41 % for the two online sessions. The results were significantly higher than chance level, demonstrating the feasibility to distinguish between MI of leg extension and flexion. (ii) For post-hoc classification, the performance with proprioceptive feedback (69.45 +/- 9.95 %) was significantly better than with visual feedback (62.89 +/- 9.20 %), while there was no significant learning effect. (iii) We reported individual discriminate features and brain patterns associated to each feedback modality, which exhibited differences between the two modalities although no general conclusion can be drawn. Significance. The study reported a closed-loop brain-controlled gait trainer, as a proof of concept for neurorehabilitation devices. We reported the feasibility of decoding lower-limb movement in an intuitive and natural way. As far as we know, this is the first online study discussing the role of feedback modalities in lower-limb MI decoding. Our results suggest that

  11. Research field of fire technology in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loikkanen, P.; Holm, C.

    1987-02-01

    The goal of the study is to give an overview of the whole diversified research field of fire technology and its problems. For this reason the research subjects have been grouped so that the responsibilities of different authorities, the legislation and specifications, various fields of technology, areas of industry, and groups of products could all be found as clearly as possible. The field has been divided into nine sub-areas. They are: general grounds, fire physics and chemistry, structural fire prevention, textiles and furnishings, devices for heating and other use, detection, fire fighting and rescue, quality control, and special problems. The sub-areas have been divided into 34 main subjects and these, excluding those of special problems, further into as many as 117 subject groups. Characteristics and problems of the sub-areas and the main subjects have been described. The subject groups have been characterized by key words and concepts which outline the projects. No concrete research projects and programs have, however, been directly suggested because their extent and contents depend essentially on financing and other available resources.

  12. Fire Ant Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  13. Fire safety at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over the smoke alarm as needed. Using a fire extinguisher can put out a small fire to keep it from getting out of control. Tips for use include: Keep fire extinguishers in handy locations, at least one on ...

  14. Crown Fire Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  15. National Fire Protection Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... closed NFPA Journal® NFPA Journal® Update (newsletter) Fire Technology ... die from American home fires, and another 13,000 are injured each year. This is the story of fire that the statistics won't show ...

  16. Effects of fire on fish populations: Landscape perspectives on persistance of native fishes and nonnative fish invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J.B.; Young, M.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Rieman, B.

    2003-01-01

    Our limited understanding of the short and long-term effects of fire on fish contributes to considerable uncertainty in assessments of the risks and benefits of fire management alternatives. A primary concern among the many potential effects of fire is the effects of fire and fire management on persistence of native fish populations. Limited evidence suggests vulnerability of fish to fire is contingent upon the quality of affected habitats, the amount and distribution of habitat (habitat fragmentation), and habitat specificity of the species in question. Species with narrow habitat requirements in highly degraded and fragmented systems are likely to be most vulnerable to fire and fire-related disturbance. In addition to effects of fire on native fish, there are growing concerns about the effects of fire on nonnative fish invasions. The role of fire in facilitating invasions by nonnative fishes is unknown, but experience with other species suggests some forms of disturbance associated with fire may facilitate invasion. Management efforts to promote persistence of fishes in fire-prone landscapes can take the form of four basic alternatives: (1) pre-fire management; (2) post-fire management; (3) managing fire itself (e.g. fire fighting); and (4) monitoring and adaptive management. Among these alternatives, pre-fire management is likely to be most effective. Effective pre-fire management activities will address factors that may render fish populations more vulnerable to the effects of fire (e.g. habitat degradation, fragmentation, and nonnative species). Post-fire management is also potentially important, but suffers from being a reactive approach that may not address threats in time to avert them. Managing fire itself can be important in some contexts, but negative consequences for fish populations are possible (e.g. toxicity of fire fighting chemicals to fish). Monitoring and adaptive management can provide important new information for evaluating alternatives, but

  17. Driving electromechanically assisted Gait Trainer for people with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosa, Marco; Morone, Giovanni; Bragoni, Maura; De Angelis, Domenico; Venturiero, Vincenzo; Coiro, Paola; Pratesi, Luca; Paolucci, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Electromechanically assisted gait training is a promising task-oriented approach for gait restoration, especially for people with subacute stroke. However, few guidelines are available for selecting the parameter values of the electromechanical Gait Trainer (GT) (Reha-Stim; Berlin, Germany) and none is tailored to a patient's motor capacity. We assessed 342 GT sessions performed by 20 people with stroke who were stratified by Functional Ambulatory Category. In the first GT session of all patients, the body-weight support (BWS) required was higher than that reported in the literature. In further sessions, we noted a slow reduction of BWS and a fast increment of walking speed for the most-affected patients. Inverse trends were observed for the less-affected patients. In all the patients, the heart rate increment was about 20 beats per minute, even for sessions in which the number of strides performed was up to 500. In addition, the effective BWS measured during GT sessions was different from that initially selected by the physiotherapist. This difference depended mainly on the position of the GT platforms during selection. Finally, harness acceleration in the anteroposterior direction proved to be higher in patients with stroke than in nondisabled subjects. Our findings are an initial step toward scientifically selecting parameters in electromechanically assisted gait training.

  18. FIRE CHARACTERISTICS FOR ADVANCED MODELLING OF FIRES

    OpenAIRE

    Otto Dvořák

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the material and fire properties of solid flammable/combustible materials /substances /products, which are used as inputs for the computer numerical fire models. At the same time it gives the test standards for their determination.

  19. Application of Paste Backfill in Underground Coal Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masniyom, M.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Coal fires are known from different coalfields worldwide. China, India, USA, Australia, Indonesia and South Africa are the main countries affected by coal fires. The fires is thermally intensive and cause numerous sinkholes, large-scale subsidence, air pollution, global warming, loss of mining productivity and increasing safety risk. The Wuda Inner Mongolia coalfield has been selected as a possible test area for paste backfill. The traditional methods, executed by fire fighting teams, by covering the coalfire areas with soil, blasting burning coal outcrops and injecting water in the subsurface fire pockets are continuously improved and extended. Initiatives to introduce modern techniques, such as backfill placement at fracture and borehole, to cool down the burning coal and cut off the air supply. This study is to investigate backfill materials and techniques suited for underground coal fires. Laboratory tests were carried out on physical, chemical and mechanical properties of different backfill materials and mixtures thereof. Special attention was paid to materials generated as by-products and other cheaply available materials e.g. fly ash from power plants. There is a good chance that one of the different material mixtures investigated can be used as a technically and economically viable backfill for underground coal fires.

  20. A multimodal 3D framework for fire characteristics estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulouse, T.; Rossi, L.; Akhloufi, M. A.; Pieri, A.; Maldague, X.

    2018-02-01

    In the last decade we have witnessed an increasing interest in using computer vision and image processing in forest fire research. Image processing techniques have been successfully used in different fire analysis areas such as early detection, monitoring, modeling and fire front characteristics estimation. While the majority of the work deals with the use of 2D visible spectrum images, recent work has introduced the use of 3D vision in this field. This work proposes a new multimodal vision framework permitting the extraction of the three-dimensional geometrical characteristics of fires captured by multiple 3D vision systems. The 3D system is a multispectral stereo system operating in both the visible and near-infrared (NIR) spectral bands. The framework supports the use of multiple stereo pairs positioned so as to capture complementary views of the fire front during its propagation. Multimodal registration is conducted using the captured views in order to build a complete 3D model of the fire front. The registration process is achieved using multisensory fusion based on visual data (2D and NIR images), GPS positions and IMU inertial data. Experiments were conducted outdoors in order to show the performance of the proposed framework. The obtained results are promising and show the potential of using the proposed framework in operational scenarios for wildland fire research and as a decision management system in fighting.

  1. Epidemiology of Muay Thai fight-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Coben, Jeffrey H; Fabio, Anthony; Songer, Thomas; Brooks, Maria

    2016-12-01

    Muay Thai is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques. Currently, little is known about the injuries and risk factors for injuries among Muay Thai fighters. Gaining more insight into the nature and frequency of injury in this sport provides part of the overall sports injury picture, within the larger burden of injury as a public health issue. Generating this information is a critical first step toward the broader goal of improving the health and safety of Muay Thai fighters engaged in competition. This study is based upon a survey of 195 Muay Thai fighters. Participants were asked to complete a retrospective web survey on fight-related injuries. Regression analyses were conducted to determine whether injuries during sanctioned fights were related to factors such as fight experience, use of protective equipment, and injury history. Participants were aged 18 to 47 years old (median 26), predominantly male (85.9%), and white (72.3%). Respondents were professional (n = 96, 49.2%) and amateur (n = 99, 50.8%). Fighters reported a mean fight experience of 15.8 fights. Of the 195 respondents, 108 (55.4%) reported sustaining an injury during the most recent fight. The primary body region injured was the extremities (58%) versus the head, with a lower amount of self-reported concussions (5.4%). Nearly 2/3 (66.7%) of all injured fighters reported that the injury did not interfere with the bout outcome. Nearly 25% reported they missed no training time as a result of the injury. Injuries were related to professional fighter status (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.4-4.5), fight experience (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.5-4.9), weight class (OR = 0.923 heavy versus light, 95% CI = .86-.99), age (OR = 0.90 > 26 versus ≤26, 95% CI = .85-.95), use of protective equipment (OR = .46, 95% CI = .26-.82) and previous injury (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = .98-3.3). Lighter, younger, and more experienced

  2. Fire and fire ecology: Concepts and principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Cochrane; Kevin C. Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Fire has been central to terrestrial life ever since early anaerobic microorganisms poisoned the atmosphere with oxygen and multicellular plant life moved onto land. The combination of fuels, oxygen, and heat gave birth to fire on Earth. Fire is not just another evolutionary challenge that life needed to overcome, it is, in fact, a core ecological process across much...

  3. The law on sport in the light of the opinion of the fitness instructors and personal trainers

    OpenAIRE

    Patrycja, Proskura; Kazimierz, Witkowski

    2017-01-01

    The popularity of the work as a fitness instructor and personal trainer in our country continues to grow. Right about this flu in Poland is not regulated, which creates a lot of concerns about the quality of their qualifications.The existing law on sport of 25 June 2010 requirements for trainers and instructors, excluded the requirement of graduate and cut off the procedure of applying for consent to the competent Minister of physical culture to carry out specialized trainer courses and ins...

  4. The law on sport in the light of the opinion of the fitness instructors and personal trainers

    OpenAIRE

    Patrycja, Proskura; Kazimierz, Witkowski

    2017-01-01

    The popularity of the work as a fitness instructor and personal trainer in our country continues to grow. Right about this flu in Poland is not regulated, which creates a lot of concerns about the quality of their qualifications. The existing law on sport of 25 June 2010 requirements for trainers and instructors, excluded the requirement of graduate and cut off the procedure of applying for consent to the competent Minister of physical culture to carry out specialized trainer courses and in...

  5. The study of remote sensing dynamic monitoring for coalfield fire area in Shuixigou, Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Jun; Tashpolat-Tiyip

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic monitoring of fire area is particularly important in the controlling of underground coalfield fire. This paper took the Xinjiang Shuixigou coalfield fire area as an example, through the normalized processing of the multi-temporal thermal infrared images a generalized single-channel algorithm was used to retrieval the surface temperature. Combined with the method of single band optimal density split Sec-segmentation followed by dividing the fire area into the background region, serious combust region and more serious combust region. Thermal anomaly information in the coalfield fire area and analyse the spatial and temporal dynamics change of underground coalfield were calculated as follows:(1)fire area increased 2.03 times between 1990 and 2011, the annual average degree of dynamic changes was 1.28 in the first ten years and increased to 4.57 in the last ten years;(2)the gravity of the little serious area of the coalfield fire integrally moved north to northwest from 1990 to 2001, then northeast from 2001 to 2011;(3)there were three original independent child fire area A, B and C, but A and B merged between 1990 to 2001, C also trended close A and B until 2011. Remote sensing technology provides a feasible method for the dynamic monitoring of coalfield fire area and provides theory basis and scientific guidance for the prevention of coalfield fire disaster and implementation of coalfield fires fighting engineering

  6. Report on full-scale horizontal cable tray fire tests, FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riches, W.M.

    1988-09-01

    In recent years, there has been much discussion throughout industry and various governmental and fire protection agencies relative to the flammability and fire propagation characteristics of electrical cables in open cable trays. It has been acknowledged that under actual fire conditions, in the presence of other combustibles, electrical cable insulation can contribute to combustible fire loading and toxicity of smoke generation. Considerable research has been conducted on vertical cable tray fire propagation, mostly under small scale laboratory conditions. In July 1987, the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory initiated a program of full scale, horizontal cable tray fire tests, in the absence of other building combustible loading, to determine the flammability and rate of horizontal fire propagation in cable tray configurations and cable mixes typical of those existing in underground tunnel enclosures and support buildings at the Laboratory. The series of tests addressed the effects of ventilation rates and cable tray fill, fire fighting techniques, and effectiveness and value of automatic sprinklers, smoke detection and cable coating fire barriers in detecting, controlling or extinguishing a cable tray fire. This report includes a description of the series of fire tests completed in June 1988, as well as conclusions reached from the test results

  7. Characterization of a mine fire using atmospheric monitoring system sensor data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, L; Thomas, R A; Zhou, L

    2017-06-01

    Atmospheric monitoring systems (AMS) have been widely used in underground coal mines in the United States for the detection of fire in the belt entry and the monitoring of other ventilation-related parameters such as airflow velocity and methane concentration in specific mine locations. In addition to an AMS being able to detect a mine fire, the AMS data have the potential to provide fire characteristic information such as fire growth - in terms of heat release rate - and exact fire location. Such information is critical in making decisions regarding fire-fighting strategies, underground personnel evacuation and optimal escape routes. In this study, a methodology was developed to calculate the fire heat release rate using AMS sensor data for carbon monoxide concentration, carbon dioxide concentration and airflow velocity based on the theory of heat and species transfer in ventilation airflow. Full-scale mine fire experiments were then conducted in the Pittsburgh Mining Research Division's Safety Research Coal Mine using an AMS with different fire sources. Sensor data collected from the experiments were used to calculate the heat release rates of the fires using this methodology. The calculated heat release rate was compared with the value determined from the mass loss rate of the combustible material using a digital load cell. The experimental results show that the heat release rate of a mine fire can be calculated using AMS sensor data with reasonable accuracy.

  8. Development of a novel iPad-based laparoscopic trainer and comparison with a standard laparoscopic trainer for basic laparoscopic skills testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Renai; Del Junco, Michael; Kaplan, Adam; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Bucur, Philip; Hofmann, Martin; Alipanah, Reza; McDougall, Elspeth M; Landman, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    We developed the iTrainer (iT) as a portable laparoscopic trainer, which incorporates the iPad tablet. We then compared the iT with a standard pelvic trainer (SPT) to assess surgical skills as well as its image quality, resolution, brightness, comfort, and overall performance. We designed and constructed the iT to be compatible with the Apple iPad 3 and standard laparoscopic instruments. Participants were assigned to perform the thread-the-loops task on both trainers and were prospectively randomized to start on either the iT or the SPT. Each participant was allowed a 2-minute warm-up before the 2-minute testing period. We scored participants using the product of skill quality (0-4 scale) and quantity of loops threaded (0-10 scale). Participants then rated each trainer on image quality, resolution, brightness, comfort, and overall performance on a 5-point Likert scale. A total of 45 subjects including 10 undergraduates, 10 medical students, 10 general surgery and urology residents, and 15 experts (fellows and attending surgeons) participated in this study. There was no significant difference between thread-the-loops task scores completed on the iT when compared with the SPT for all groups tested (p > 0.05) with the exception of the medical student group, who performed better on the SPT (p < 0.05). On evaluation of each trainer, participants rated the iT as having superior image quality and resolution when compared with the SPT (p < 0.05) but rated the SPT higher in overall performance (p < 0.05). Brightness and comfort were rated similarly for both trainers. We have demonstrated face validity and criterion validity for the thread-the-loops task on the iT. The iT rated superior in image quality and resolution but inferior in overall performance compared with the SPT. The iT provides trainees a unique advantage over SPT as an additional resource to laparoscopic training as it is inexpensive, portable, and can be readily available for training. Copyright © 2014

  9. Trainer variability during step training after spinal cord injury: Implications for robotic gait-training device design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, Jose A; Budovitch, Amy; Harkema, Susan J; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2011-01-01

    Robotic devices are being developed to automate repetitive aspects of walking retraining after neurological injuries, in part because they might improve the consistency and quality of training. However, it is unclear how inconsistent manual training actually is or whether stepping quality depends strongly on the trainers' manual skill. The objective of this study was to quantify trainer variability of manual skill during step training using body-weight support on a treadmill and assess factors of trainer skill. We attached a sensorized orthosis to one leg of each patient with spinal cord injury and measured the shank kinematics and forces exerted by different trainers during six training sessions. An expert trainer rated the trainers' skill level based on videotape recordings. Between-trainer force variability was substantial, about two times greater than within-trainer variability. Trainer skill rating correlated strongly with two gait features: better knee extension during stance and fewer episodes of toe dragging. Better knee extension correlated directly with larger knee horizontal assistance force, but better toe clearance did not correlate with larger ankle push-up force; rather, it correlated with better knee and hip extension. These results are useful to inform robotic gait-training design.

  10. Genetic relatedness among wild, domestic and Brazilian fighting roosters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FP Rodrigues

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Except for the meat- and egg-type strains used in commercial poultry farms in Brazil, there are no scientific reports about the origin of birds from the genus Gallus that have been introduced in this country with domestication or fighting purposes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the position of the Brazilian Game Bird in the phylogenetic tree of the genus Gallus by nucleotide sequence analysis of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region. The results indicate that fighting roosters comprise two different clusters within the species Gallus gallus domesticus. One of the clusters is related to the wild ancestors, while the other one is more related to the birds raised by the poultry industry. In conclusion, Brazilian fighting roosters have originated from the red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus and belong to the subspecies Gallus gallus domesticus.

  11. Inclusion of people with disabilities through fights and martial arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Carvalho da Silva Mocarzel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed at investigating how the fights / martial arts were adapted for inclusion of people with disabilities in the social sphere as well as for rehabilitation and sports-competition. The analysis was initially made at the global level and later specific attention was paid to the Brazilian reality, through a narrative review of literature. The following fights / martial arts were considered: fencing, judo, karate, kung fu, boxing, taekwondo and capoeira. It was concluded that the fights / martial arts can contribute to combating social exclusion, contributing to the promotion of health, beauty and leisure and new talents in parasports can be discovered too. Further studies on the subject are needed.

  12. Adolescent Physical Fighting in Ghana, Their Demographic and Social Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O. Acquah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical fighting is an important behavioral concern of public health importance among adolescents worldwide. The present study examines the patterns and correlates of physical fighting among a school-based population in a low-income country setting. Data on 6235 adolescents aged 11–16 years were derived from the Republic of Ghana contributions to the Global School-based Health Survey. Three thresholds of participation in a physical fight during a 12-month recall period were compared against several independent sociodemographic variables. Bivariate analyses were used to screen for statistically significant associations and multinomial logistic regression was used to examine significant relationships while adjusting for covariates. Within the recall period, 32% of adolescents had reported being involved in two or more physical fights. Those involved in a physical fight during three or more days during the recall period were more likely to have been bullied (relative risk ratios (RRR = 1.86; 99% confidence intervals (CI: 1.38–2.52, have had a troubled experience with alcohol (RRR = 2.202; CI = 1.55–2.64, and miss days of school (RRR = 2.02; CI = 1.39–2.92. When adjusted only for age and sex, having understanding parents was protective (RRR = 0.64; CI = 0.53–0.78 as was having a positive school environment (RRR = 0.73; CI = 0.55–0.97. Our findings suggest that school-based programming which simultaneously targets multiple risk behaviors and conflict resolution may be helpful in interventions to reduce rates of physical fighting.

  13. Engagement Skills Trainer: The Commander’s Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    CBRN Chemical Biological Radiological and Nuclear CGSOC Command and General Staff Officers Course DMG Digital Master Gunner EST Engagement Skills...commanders always emphasized SHARP ( Sexual Harassment and Response Program) training, the battery commander may vividly recall those events but not the range...soldiers in the EST generally do worse at weapons safety and orientation .26 Indicators from research show that EST results predict live fire results. The

  14. Fires, ecological effects of

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Bond; Robert Keane

    2017-01-01

    Fire is both a natural and anthropogenic disturbance influencing the distribution, structure, and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems around the world. Many plants and animals depend on fire for their continued existence. Others species, such as rainforest plants species, are extremely intolerant of burning and need protection from fire. The properties of a fire...

  15. FIGHT ZONE WITH POINTS OF THE SHOTOKAN KARATE FEMALE COMPETITION

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Kautzner Marques Junior

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the fight zone with point during the female kumite of competition. This study used a quantitative research for identify the fight zone with point (ippon or waza-ari) or not during the female kumite of competition. Were selected on the Internet several championship of kumite of the JKA and of the ITKF. The study detected a high probability of point in the zone 7 and in the zone 2. The study determined that the most points at the corner occurred when ...

  16. The Professional Socialization of the Graduate Assistant Athletic Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.; Clines, Stephanie; Pitney, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The graduate assistant athletic trainer (AT) position often serves as one's first experience working independently as an AT and is also an important aspect of the professional socialization process. The socialization experiences of graduate assistant ATs have yet to be fully explored. Objective: To understand the socialization process for graduate assistant ATs during their graduate experience. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: We conducted phone interviews with all participants. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 25 graduate assistant ATs (20 women, 5 men) studying in 1 of 3 academic tracks: (1) accredited postprofessional athletic training program (n = 8), (2) postprofessional athletic training program (n = 11), or (3) a nonathletic training degree program (n = 6). The average age was 25 ± 5 years, and the median age was 24 years. Participants were certified by the Board of Certification for an average of 2 ± 0.4 years. Data Collection and Analysis: We analyzed the data using a general inductive approach. Peer review, field notes, and intercoder reliability established trustworthiness. Data saturation guided participant recruitment. Results: The ability to gain clinical independence as a practitioner was an important socialization process. Having the chance to develop a relationship with a mentor, who provided support, guidance, and more of a hierarchical relationship, was an important socializing agent for the graduate assistant AT. Participants used the orientation session as a means to understand the expectations and role of the graduate-assistant position. Academic coursework was a way to achieve better inductance into the role via the opportunity to apply classroom skills during their clinical practice. Conclusions: Socializing the graduate assistant blends formal and informal processes. Transition to practice is a critical aspect of the profession; thus, supporting autonomous practice with directed mentoring can promote professional

  17. The professional socialization of the graduate assistant athletic trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M; Clines, Stephanie; Pitney, William A

    2015-05-01

    The graduate assistant athletic trainer (AT) position often serves as one's first experience working independently as an AT and is also an important aspect of the professional socialization process. The socialization experiences of graduate assistant ATs have yet to be fully explored. To understand the socialization process for graduate assistant ATs during their graduate experience. Qualitative study. We conducted phone interviews with all participants. A total of 25 graduate assistant ATs (20 women, 5 men) studying in 1 of 3 academic tracks: (1) accredited postprofessional athletic training program (n = 8), (2) postprofessional athletic training program (n = 11), or (3) a nonathletic training degree program (n = 6). The average age was 25 ± 5 years, and the median age was 24 years. Participants were certified by the Board of Certification for an average of 2 ± 0.4 years. We analyzed the data using a general inductive approach. Peer review, field notes, and intercoder reliability established trustworthiness. Data saturation guided participant recruitment. The ability to gain clinical independence as a practitioner was an important socialization process. Having the chance to develop a relationship with a mentor, who provided support, guidance, and more of a hierarchical relationship, was an important socializing agent for the graduate assistant AT. Participants used the orientation session as a means to understand the expectations and role of the graduate-assistant position. Academic coursework was a way to achieve better inductance into the role via the opportunity to apply classroom skills during their clinical practice. Socializing the graduate assistant blends formal and informal processes. Transition to practice is a critical aspect of the profession; thus, supporting autonomous practice with directed mentoring can promote professional maturity.

  18. Athletic Trainer Services in US Private Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Alicia; Pryor, Riana R; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Stearns, Rebecca L; Casa, Douglas J

    2016-09-01

    Availability of athletic trainer (AT) services in US secondary schools has recently been reported to be as high as 70%, but this only describes the public sector. The extent of AT coverage in private secondary school settings has yet to be investigated and may differ from the public secondary school setting for several reasons, including differences in funding sources. To determine the level of AT services in US private secondary schools and identify the reasons why some schools did not employ ATs. Concurrent mixed-methods study. Private secondary schools in the United States. Of 5414 private secondary schools, 2044 (38%) responded to the survey. School administrators responded to the survey via telephone or e-mail. This instrument was previously used in a study examining AT services among public secondary schools. Descriptive statistics provided national data. Open-ended questions were evaluated through content analysis. Of the 2044 schools that responded, 58% (1176/2044) offered AT services, including 28% (574/2040) full time, 25% (501/2042) part time, 4% (78/1918) per diem, and 20% (409/2042) from a hospital or clinic. A total of 84% (281 285/336 165) of athletes had access to AT services. Larger private secondary schools were more likely to have AT services available. Barriers to providing AT services in the private sector were budgetary constraints, school size and sports, and lack of awareness of the role of an AT. More than half of the surveyed private secondary schools in the United States had AT services available; however, only 28% had a full-time AT. This demonstrates the need for increased medical coverage to provide athletes in this setting the appropriate level of care. Budgetary concerns, size of the school and sport offerings, and lack of awareness of the role of the AT continued to be barriers in the secondary school setting.

  19. Athletes' Perception of Athletic Trainer Empathy: How Important Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Shannon; Larson, Mary

    2018-01-01

    Health care practitioners face increasing expectations to provide patient-centered care. Communication skills, specifically empathy, are critical in the provision of patient-centered care. Past work correlates empathy with improved patient satisfaction, compliance, and treatment outcomes. In particular, a predictive relationship exists between clients' ratings of their clinician's empathy and treatment outcomes. There is a dearth of studies examining empathy using qualitative methodology and factors of empathy in athletic training. To gain an understanding of athletes' perceptions of empathy in the patient-clinician relationship. Qualitative interviews were completed using grounded-theory techniques. A quiet office. A typical, purposeful sample of 15 college-age Division I student-athletes (8 female, 7 male; 19.3 ± 1.2 y) from a variety of sports (football, wrestling, volleyball, baseball, etc) participated. Researchers utilized an interview protocol designed to understand the factors of empathy related to athletic training. The interview protocol established a concept of empathy to help facilitate discussion of ideas. Data were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes and patterns using grounded-theory techniques. Trustworthiness of the data was ensured using an external auditor, member checks, and methods triangulation. Five themes described empathy: advocacy, communication, approachability, access, and competence. Advocacy was described as the athletic trainer (AT) representing the patient. Communication was the ability to listen reflectively; approachability emerged as the comfort and personal connection the patient felt with the AT. Access and technical competence were bridges required for the development of empathy. Providing patient-centered care facilitated by developing good patient-clinician relationships is critical in enabling the best treatment outcomes. ATs portray empathy through advocacy, communication, and approachability. Empathy

  20. Science You Can Use Bulletin: Fire on the mountain: What motivates homeowners to reduce their wildfire risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue Miller; Patty Champ; Hannah Brenkert-Smith

    2013-01-01

    New home building in the wildland-urban interface (WUI) continues unabated, despite the high financial and human costs of fighting fires in these areas. The goal of this research is to understand, through surveys and expert assessments, the attitudes and perceptions of WUI homeowners as they relate to taking action to reduce wildfire risk on their property. It also...

  1. Adaptive hybrid brain-computer interaction: ask a trainer for assistance!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Putz, Gernot R; Steyrl, David; Faller, Josef

    2014-01-01

    In applying mental imagery brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) to end users, training is a key part for novice users to get control. In general learning situations, it is an established concept that a trainer assists a trainee to improve his/her aptitude in certain skills. In this work, we want to evaluate whether we can apply this concept in the context of event-related desynchronization (ERD) based, adaptive, hybrid BCIs. Hence, in a first session we merged the features of a high aptitude BCI user, a trainer, and a novice user, the trainee, in a closed-loop BCI feedback task and automatically adapted the classifier over time. In a second session the trainees operated the system unassisted. Twelve healthy participants ran through this protocol. Along with the trainer, the trainees achieved a very high overall peak accuracy of 95.3 %. In the second session, where users operated the BCI unassisted, they still achieved a high overall peak accuracy of 83.6%. Ten of twelve first time BCI users successfully achieved significantly better than chance accuracy. Concluding, we can say that this trainer-trainee approach is very promising. Future research should investigate, whether this approach is superior to conventional training approaches. This trainer-trainee concept could have potential for future application of BCIs to end users.

  2. [Development of a gait trainer with regulated servo-drive for rehabilitation of locomotor disabled patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, D; Sarkodie-Gyan, T; Reiter, F; Konrad, M; Hesse, S

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a new gait trainer for the rehabilitation of non-ambulatory patients. For the simulation of the gait phase, we used a commercially available fitness trainer (Fast Track) with two foot plates moving in an alternating fashion and connected to a servo-controlled propulsion system providing the necessary support for the movement depending on the patient's impairment level. To compensate deficient equilibrium reflexes, the patient was suspended in a harness capable of supporting some of his/her weight. Video analysis of gait and the kinesiological EMG were used to assess the pattern of movement and the corresponding muscle activity, which were then evaluated in healthy subjects, spinal cord injured and stroke patients and compared with walking on the flat or on a treadmill. Walking on the gait trainer was characterised by a symmetrical, sinusoidal movement of lower amplitude than in normal gait. The EMG showed a low activity of the tibialis anterior muscle, while the antigravity muscles were clearly activated by the gait trainer during the stance phase. In summary, the new gait trainer generates a symmetrical gait-like movement, promoting weight acceptance in the stance phase, which is important for the restoration of walking ability.

  3. Fire risk analysis, fire simulation, fire spreading and impact of smoke and heat on instrumentation electronics - State-of-the-Art Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewekamp, M.; Bertrand, R.; Bonneval, F.; Hamblen, D.; Siu, N.; Aulamo, H.; Martila, J.; Sandberg, J.; Virolainen, R.

    2000-01-01

    OECD countries. The contents of each chapter are based on the writers' knowledge on his or her national practices and on the results of the questionnaire. The emphasis in the descriptions of the national practices also reflects the information supplied by the responding countries. Fire PSA is also used in other OECD countries, but the scope of this report is limited to those countries which responded to the questionnaire. The contents of this report are as follows: Fire PSA methodology overview - Based on a review of fire risk studies performed in the contributing countries, the report addresses different methodology and applications issues. Methodology issues, treated in Chapter 2, include the treatment of physical barriers, fire detection and suppression systems and fire fighting. They also include the treatment of operator actions and dependencies (both direct and indirect) between a fire and the plant's safety systems, definition of initiating events, and screening methods. Key assumptions and the effect of plant operational state (i.e., full power vs. low power operation) are dealt with in the report as well. Fire simulation models and codes applied or available - Chapter 3 of the report identifies which fire simulation codes have been used in actual PSAs. The models and scenarios used in different codes are described. To build confidence on fire simulation models, validation against experimental results in different types of fires is necessary. Fire experiments and the pre- and post experiment calculation used for code validation as well as ongoing fire simulation code development projects are discussed. Examples of fire scenarios and typical modeling assumptions are treated and numerous references are given in Chapter 3. References for experimental case studies and related simulation models and codes used for analyzing the production and spreading of smoke are also provided. The impact of smoke and heat - The immediate consequences of fires are caused by heat

  4. Building 431 fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Ford, H.W.; Magee, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    An extensive discussion of considerations for fire protection in the LLL mirror fusion test facility (MFTF) is presented. Because of the large volume and high bays of the building, sufficient data on fire detection is unavailable. Results of fire detection tests using controlled fire sources in the building are presented. Extensive data concerning the behavior of the building atmosphere are included. Candidate fire detection instrumentation and extinguishing systems for use in the building are briefly reviewed

  5. Fire-Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  6. Fighting Tomorrows Fire Today: Leveraging Intelligence for Scenario-Based Exercise Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    of Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzenand and the theory of reasoned action.55 The theory states that “behavior is rational and is dependent on the...that may only be conscious of the current practices. The Allegory of Plato’s Cave illustrates this well:112 Plato imagines a cave, in which several...never seen the real objects before, the prisoners believe that the shadows of objects were “real.” Plato suggests that the prisoners would begin a

  7. Fighting fire with education: what is the best way to reach out to homeowners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. McCaffrey

    2004-01-01

    Better understanding is needed of what makes educational efforts most effective in increasing public support for wildfire management and mitigation efforts. Results of a mail survey of homeowners in Incline Village, Nevada, indicate that personalized contact is key in the educational process and that which type of contact - government or personal - is more influential...

  8. Maximal oxygen consumption, respiratory volume and some related factors in fire-fighting personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touraj Khazraee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Firefighters for difficult activities and rescue of damaged people must be in appropriate physical ability. Maximal oxygen capacity is an indicator for diagnosis of physical ability of workers. This study aimed to assess the cardiorespiratory system and its related factors in firefighters. Methods: This study was conducted on 110 firefighters from various stations. An self-administered questionnaire (respiratory disorders questionnaire, Tuxworth-Shahnavaz step test, and pulmonary function test was used to collection of required data. Average of humidity and temperature was 52% and 17°C, respectively. Background average noise levels were between 55 and 65 dB. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 19. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 32 ± 6.2 years. The means of forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1, and FEV1/FVC were 92% ±9.4%, 87% ±9.2%, and 80% ±6.1%, respectively. The participants' mean VO2-max was 2.79 ± 0.29 L/min or 37.34 ± 4.27 ml/kg body weight per minute. The results revealed that weight has a direct association with vital capacity (VC, FVC, and peak expiratory flow. In addition, height was directly associated with VC, FVC, and VO2-max (P < 0.05. However, there was an inverse and significant association between height and FEV1/FVC (r = −0.23,P< 0.05. Height, weight, body mass index, and waist circumference were directly associated with VO2-max. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that the amount of maximum oxygen consumption is close with the proposed range of this parameter among firefighters in other studies. Furthermore, the results of the study revealed that individuals had normal amounts of lung volume index. This issue can be attributed to the appropriate usage of respiratory masks.

  9. An Emergency-Adaptive Routing Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks for Building Fire Hazard Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilin Zheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire hazard monitoring and evacuation for building environments is a novel application area for the deployment of wireless sensor networks. In this context, adaptive routing is essential in order to ensure safe and timely data delivery in building evacuation and fire fighting resource applications. Existing routing mechanisms for wireless sensor networks are not well suited for building fires, especially as they do not consider critical and dynamic network scenarios. In this paper, an emergency-adaptive, real-time and robust routing protocol is presented for emergency situations such as building fire hazard applications. The protocol adapts to handle dynamic emergency scenarios and works well with the routing hole problem. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that our protocol provides a real-time routing mechanism that is well suited for dynamic emergency scenarios in building fires when compared with other related work.

  10. 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaus, Z.C.

    1995-01-01

    This is the decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan for the closure activities at the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility at Hanford Reservation. This document supports the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Closure Plan, DOE-RL-90-25. The 105-DR LSFF, which operated from about 1972 to 1986, was a research laboratory that occupied the former ventilation supply room on the southwest side of the 105-DR Reactor facility in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site. The LSFF was established to investigate fire fighting and safety associated with alkali metal fires in the liquid metal fast breeder reactor facilities. The decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan identifies the decontamination procedures, sampling locations, any special handling requirements, quality control samples, required chemical analysis, and data validation needed to meet the requirements of the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Closure Plan in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  11. Heat shields for aircraft - A new concept to save lives in crash fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, C. B.; Parker, J. A.; Fish, R. H.; Henshaw, J.; Newland, J. H.; Tempesta, F. L.

    1971-01-01

    A passenger compartment surrounded by a fire-retardant shell, to protect the occupants long enough for the fire to burn out or for fire-fighting equipment to reach the aircraft and extinguish it, is proposed as a new concept for saving lives in crash fires. This concept is made possible by the recent development of two new fire-retardant materials: a very lightweight foam plastic, called polyisocyanurate foam, and an intumescent paint. Exposed to heat, the intumescent paint expands to many times its original thickness and insulates the surface underneath it. Demonstration tests are illustrated, described and discussed. However, some problems, such as preventing fuselage rupture and protecting windows, must be solved before such a system can be used.

  12. The fight against tobacco in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, J L

    1994-02-01

    The battle to reduce the tobacco epidemic is not being won; the epidemic is merely being transferred from rich to poor countries. Tobacco-related mortality will rise from the present annual global toll of 3 million to over 10 million by the year 2025. Currently, most of these deaths are in developed countries but 7 out of the 10 million deaths will occur in developing countries by 2025. Developing countries cannot afford this increase, either in terms of human health or in economic costs, such as medical and health care costs, costs of lost productivity, costs of fires or costs of the misuse of land used to grow tobacco. As many of the tobacco-related illnesses, such as lung cancer or emphysema, are incurable even with expensive technology, the key to tobacco control lies in prevention. The essential elements of a national tobacco control policy are the same for all countries throughout the world--the only differences lie in fine tuning to a country's current situation. While indigenous production and consumption of tobacco remain a problem, of particular concern is the penetration of developing countries by the transnational tobacco companies, with aggressive promotional campaigns and the use of political and commercial pressures to open up markets and to promote foreign cigarettes. This includes specific targeting of women, few of whom currently smoke in developing countries. Also, tobacco advertising revenue prevents the media from reporting on the hazards of tobacco, a particularly serious problem in developing countries where awareness of the harmfulness of tobacco is low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Real-time photorealistic stereoscopic rendering of fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Benjamin M.; McAllister, David F.

    2007-02-01

    We propose a method for real-time photorealistic stereo rendering of the natural phenomenon of fire. Applications include the use of virtual reality in fire fighting, military training, and entertainment. Rendering fire in real-time presents a challenge because of the transparency and non-static fluid-like behavior of fire. It is well known that, in general, methods that are effective for monoscopic rendering are not necessarily easily extended to stereo rendering because monoscopic methods often do not provide the depth information necessary to produce the parallax required for binocular disparity in stereoscopic rendering. We investigate the existing techniques used for monoscopic rendering of fire and discuss their suitability for extension to real-time stereo rendering. Methods include the use of precomputed textures, dynamic generation of textures, and rendering models resulting from the approximation of solutions of fluid dynamics equations through the use of ray-tracing algorithms. We have found that in order to attain real-time frame rates, our method based on billboarding is effective. Slicing is used to simulate depth. Texture mapping or 2D images are mapped onto polygons and alpha blending is used to treat transparency. We can use video recordings or prerendered high-quality images of fire as textures to attain photorealistic stereo.

  14. Feasibility and acceptability of workers' health surveillance for fire fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plat, Marie-Christine J; Frings-Dresen, Monique Hw; Sluiter, Judith K

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a new workers' health surveillance (WHS) for fire fighters in a Dutch pilot-implementation project. In three fire departments, between November 2007 and February 2009, feasibility was tested with respect to i) worker intent to change health and behavior; ii) the quality of instructions for testing teams; iii) the planned procedure in the field; and iv) future WHS organisation. Acceptability involved i) satisfaction with WHS and ii) verification of the job-specificity of the content of two physical tests of WHS. Fire fighters were surveyed after completing WHS, three testing teams were interviewed, and the content of the two tests was studied by experts. nearly all of the 275 fire fighters intended to improve their health when recommended by the occupational physician. The testing teams found the instructions to be clear, and they were mostly positive about the organisation of WHS. Acceptability: the fire fighters rated WHS at eight points (out of a maximum of ten). The experts also reached a consensus about the optimal job-specific content of the future functional physical tests. Overall, it is feasible and acceptable to implement WHS in a definitive form in the Dutch fire-fighting sector.

  15. Strategies for Fighting Pandemic Flu in Developing Countries

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Countries throughout the world are preparing for the next influenza pandemic. Developing countries face special challenges because they don't have antiviral drugs or vaccines that more developed countries have. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Dan Jernigan discusses new and innovative approaches that may help developing countries fight pandemic flu when it emerges.

  16. Fighting Spam on the Sender Side: A Lightweight Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Wouter Willem; Moreira Moura, Giovane; Pras, Aiko; Aagesen, Finn Arve; Knapskog, Svein Johan

    2010-01-01

    Spam comprises approximately 90 to 95 percent of all e-mail traffic on the Internet nowadays, and it is a problem far from being solved. The losses caused by spam are estimated to reach up to \\$87 billion yearly. When fighting spam, most of the proposals focus on the receiver-side and are usually

  17. Domestic Terrorism: Fighting the Local Threat with Local Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In the game of fighting against a terrorism plot, waiting for an indication of a crime may be too late, the argument ran. Law enforcement needed more...such has a beauty salon selling chemicals or an Internet café with computers that have a browsing history of radical websites, those establishments

  18. Fighting poverty in developing countries: Should the focus be on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-23

    Feb 23, 2011 ... A first implication of these findings for the fight against poverty follows from the fact ... strategy should include policies aimed at ensuring women's income is ... but also by promoting their rights, whether by legalizing divorce or ...

  19. Overestimating resource value and its effects on fighting decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Alan Dugatkin

    Full Text Available Much work in behavioral ecology has shown that animals fight over resources such as food, and that they make strategic decisions about when to engage in such fights. Here, we examine the evolution of one, heretofore unexamined, component of that strategic decision about whether to fight for a resource. We present the results of a computer simulation that examined the evolution of over- or underestimating the value of a resource (food as a function of an individual's current hunger level. In our model, animals fought for food when they perceived their current food level to be below the mean for the environment. We considered seven strategies for estimating food value: 1 always underestimate food value, 2 always overestimate food value, 3 never over- or underestimate food value, 4 overestimate food value when hungry, 5 underestimate food value when hungry, 6 overestimate food value when relatively satiated, and 7 underestimate food value when relatively satiated. We first competed all seven strategies against each other when they began at approximately equal frequencies. In such a competition, two strategies--"always overestimate food value," and "overestimate food value when hungry"--were very successful. We next competed each of these strategies against the default strategy of "never over- or underestimate," when the default strategy was set at 99% of the population. Again, the strategies of "always overestimate food value" and "overestimate food value when hungry" fared well. Our results suggest that overestimating food value when deciding whether to fight should be favored by natural selection.

  20. Money Laundering and International Efforts to Fight It

    OpenAIRE

    David Scott

    1996-01-01

    According to one estimate, US$300 billion to US$500 billion in proceeds from serious crime is laundered each year. Left unchecked, money laundering could criminalize the financial system and undermine development efforts in emerging markets. The author reviews efforts by international bodies to fight it.

  1. Fighting Downtown: A Training Necessity for the Heavy Brigade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Concept Technology Demonstration, and the Army Transformation Urban Franchise exploration of future operations.”57 CAMTF has identified three...fighting in a downtown area with tall buildings and underground sewers and or subways , but it must also apply to the outlying urban sprawl that is now

  2. Open data for accountability in the fight against corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, Joris; Darusalam, Darusalam; Janssen, Marijn; Baldoni, Matteo; Baroglio, Cristina; Micalizio, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    There has been a lot of research on the use of open data in the fight against corruption. Although there are some promising examples, it appears that a systematic approach is lacking. What are the design principles for an architecture to open up data and thereby reduce corruption? In this paper we

  3. Open data for accountability in the fight against corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, Joris; Darusalam, D.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.

    2018-01-01

    There has been a lot of research on the use of open data in the fight against corruption. Although there are some promising examples, it appears that a systematic approach is lacking. What are the design principles for an architecture to open up data and thereby reduce corruption? In this paper

  4. The fight against terrorism. The lists and the gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tappeiner, I.U.

    2005-01-01

    Although not a new issue, the fight against terrorism did not rise to the top of the agenda of the European Union (EU) and its Member States until after September 11. Interesting in this context is the phenomenon of blacklisting. Persons, organizations and ‘entities’ were put on several

  5. Em companhia do personal trainer: significados atribuídos pelos alunos ao atendimento personalizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Leite da Silva

    2016-11-01

    Este estudo objetivou compreender os significados do atendimento do personal trainer para o respectivo aluno deste profissional. É uma pesquisa de cunho qualitativo que se sustenta na literatura especializada sobre as temáticas personal trainer e treinamento personalizado. O estudo se valeu da análise de conteúdo como método e da entrevista semiestruturada como ferramenta metodológica. Foram entrevistados sete alunos de treinadores personalizados de uma academia de ginástica da cidade de Cachoeirinha/RS, Brasil. Após a análise das entrevistas, foi possível compreender que o atendimento do personal trainer para os alunos entrevistados significa resultados rápidos, confiança e motivação.

  6. Can we continue to ignore gender differences in performance on simulation trainers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorson, Chad M; Kelly, Jason P; Forse, R Armour; Turaga, Kiran K

    2011-05-01

    There are differences between the genders in their innate performances on simulation trainers, which may impair accurate assessment of psychomotor skills. The performance of fourth-year students with no exposure to the Minimally Invasive Surgical Trainer compared based on gender, and other psychomotor skills. Our study included 16 male and 16 female students. After adjusting for choice of medical specialty (Pvideo game use (P=.6), and experience in the operating room (P=.4), female sex was an independent factor for worse performance (P=.04) in multivariate models. Women took more time than men (P<.01) and made more errors (29 versus 25 on 3 reps, P<.01). Among medical students with no previous exposure to laparoscopic trainers, female students perform worse than male students after adjusting for confounding factors. This difference must be recognized by training programs while using simulators for training and evaluation.

  7. Application of the Haines Index in the fire warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, Lovro; Marija, Mokoric; Tomislav, Kozaric

    2016-04-01

    Croatia, as all Mediterranean countries, is strongly affected by large wildfires, particularly in the coastal region. In the last two decades the number and intensity of fires has been significantly increased, which is unanimously associated with climate change, e.g. global warming. More extreme fires are observed, and the fire-fighting season has been expanded to June and September. The meteorological support for fire protection and planning is therefore even more important. At the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia a comprehensive monitoring and warning system has been established. It includes standard components, such as short term forecast of Fire Weather Index (FWI), but long range forecast as well. However, due to more frequent hot and dry seasons, FWI index often does not provide additional information of extremely high fire danger, since it regularly takes the highest values for long periods. Therefore the additional tools have been investigated. One of widely used meteorological products is the Haines index (HI). It provides information of potential fire growth, taking into account only the vertical instability of the atmosphere, and not the state of the fuel. Several analyses and studies carried out at the Service confirmed the correlation of high HI values with large and extreme fires. The Haines index forecast has been used at the Service for several years, employing European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) global prediction model, as well as the limited-area Aladin model. The verification results show that these forecast are reliable, when compared to radiosonde measurements. All these results provided the introduction of the additional fire warnings, that are issued by the Service's Forecast Department.

  8. FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System - A program for fire danger rating analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Larry S. Bradshaw

    1997-01-01

    A computer program, FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System, provides methods for evaluating the performance of fire danger rating indexes. The relationship between fire danger indexes and historical fire occurrence and size is examined through logistic regression and percentiles. Historical seasonal trends of fire danger and fire occurrence can be...

  9. Performance assessment of fire-sat monitoring system based on satellite time series for fire danger estimation : the experience of the pre-operative application in the Basilicata Region (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanorte, Antonio; Desantis, Fortunato; Aromando, Angelo; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the results we obtained in the context of the FIRE-SAT project during the 2012 operative application of the satellite based tools for fire monitoring. FIRE_SAT project has been funded by the Civil Protection of the Basilicata Region in order to set up a low cost methodology for fire danger monitoring and fire effect estimation based on satellite Earth Observation techniques. To this aim, NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), ASTER, Landsat TM data were used. Novel data processing techniques have been developed by researchers of the ARGON Laboratory of the CNR-IMAA for the operative monitoring of fire. In this paper we only focus on the danger estimation model which has been fruitfully used since 2008 to 2012 as an reliable operative tool to support and optimize fire fighting strategies from the alert to the management of resources including fire attacks. The daily updating of fire danger is carried out using satellite MODIS images selected for their spectral capability and availability free of charge from NASA web site. This makes these data sets very suitable for an effective systematic (daily) and sustainable low-cost monitoring of large areas. The preoperative use of the integrated model, pointed out that the system properly monitor spatial and temporal variations of fire susceptibility and provide useful information of both fire severity and post fire regeneration capability.

  10. Communicating Leave No Trace ethics and practices: Efficacy of two-day trainer courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, M.L.; Marion, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Heavy recreational visitation within protected natural areas has resulted in many ecological impacts. Many of these impacts may be avoided or minimized through adoption of low-impact hiking and camping practices. Although ?No Trace? messages have been promoted in public lands since the 1970s, few studies have documented the reception and effectiveness of these messages. The U.S. Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics develops and promotes two-day Trainer courses that teach Leave No Trace (LNT) skills and ethics to outdoor professionals, groups, and interested individuals. This study examined the change in knowledge, ethics, and behavior of LNT Trainer course participants. The respondents were a convenience sample of participants in Trainer courses offered from April through August 2003. Trainer course instructors administered pre-course and post-course questionnaires to their participants, and we contacted participants individually with a followup questionnaire 4 months after completion of their course. Scores for each of the sections increased immediately following the course, and decreased slightly over the 4 months following the course. Overall, more than half of the knowledge and behavior items, and half of the ethics items, showed significant improvement from pre-course measures to the follow-up. Age, reported LNT experience, and backpacking experience affected the participants? pre-course knowledge and behavior scores. Younger, less experienced respondents also showed a greater improvement in behavior following the course. Trainer course participants also shared their LNT skills and ethics with others both formally and informally. In summary, the LNT Trainer course was successful in increasing participants? knowledge, ethics, and behavior, which they then shared with others. Since many low impact skills taught in the LNT curriculum are supported by scientific research, LNT educational programs have the potential to effectively minimize the environmental

  11. Clinical anxiety among final year dental students: The trainers and students perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Obarisiagbon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dental clinical setting, which is a significant learning environment for undergraduate dental students, may induce anxiety, which may adversely affect the clinical performance. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the factors provoking clinical anxiety in dental students from the trainers and students perspectives. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 6 th (final year dental students of University of Benin and their clinical trainers between January and March 2012 using the 38-item modified Moss and McManus clinical anxiety questionnaire. Results: Of the 67 participants, 32 (47.8% were 6 th year dental students while 35 (52.2% were clinical trainers. According to the students, the top clinical anxiety provoking situations were inability to meet requirements before exams, inability to pass the final exams, dealing with psychiatric patients, coping with uncooperative children, getting infected by patients, fracturing a tooth during extraction, extracting the wrong tooth, discovering calculus by the supervisor after scaling, accidental pulp exposure, inadvertently hurting patients and using the high speed hand piece. There existed concordance on the top two clinical anxiety provoking situations reported by the students and their clinical trainers. However, measuring blood pressure, taking pulse, presenting in the clinic, handling a syncopal attack, and accidental pulp exposure were statistically significant contrasting clinical anxiety provoking situations from dental students and trainers perspectives. Conclusion: Data from this study revealed that clinical trainers share largely the same perspectives with the dental students on the clinical anxiety provoking situations with slight variations. Fostering a supportive learning environment conducive to dental student learning by strengthen efforts to minimize clinical anxiety is a necessity.

  12. Identifying context-specific competencies required by community Australian Football sports trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Alex; Finch, Caroline F

    2012-08-01

    First-aid is a recommended injury prevention and risk management strategy in community sport; however, little is known about the sport-specific competencies required by first-aid providers. To achieve expert consensus on the competencies required by community Australian Football (community-AF) sports trainers. A three-round online Delphi process. Community-AF. 16 Australian sports first-aid and community-AF experts. Rating of competencies as either 'essential', 'expected', 'ideal' or 'not required'. Results After Round 3, 47 of the 77 (61%) competencies were endorsed as 'essential' or 'expected' for a sports trainer to effectively perform the activities required to the standards expected at a community-AF club by ≥75% of experts. These competencies covered: the role of the sports trainer; the responsibilities of the sports trainer; emergency management; injury and illness assessment and immediate management; taping; and injury prevention and risk management. Four competencies (5%) were endorsed as 'ideal' or 'not required' by ≥85% of experts and were excluded from further consideration. The 26 competencies where consensus was not reached were retained as second-tier, optional competencies. Sports trainers are important members of on-field first-aid teams, providing support to both injured players and other sports medicine professionals. The competencies identified in this study provide the basis of a proposed two-tiered community-AF-specific sports trainer education structure that can be implemented by the peak sports body. This includes six mandatory modules, relating to the 'required' competencies, and a further six optional modules covering competencies on which consensus was not reached.

  13. Examining the Experiences of Athletic Trainers as they transition into their First Full-Time Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Mazerolle

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Transition to clinical practice is an important topic in athletic training, as it can be a period of time that presents challenges for the athletic trainer. Most of the research pertaining to transition to practice focuses on the skills and knowledge necessary for clinical practice, yet we know that stress can manifest from not only being an independent practitioner but also from learning how to balance one’s roles. We wanted to understand the perspective of today’s novice athletic trainers and how they feel in their first full-time position, specifically relating to their professional development and establishment or maintenance of work-life balance (WLB. Using a qualitative paradigm, we phone interviewed athletic trainers who were categorized as career starters by the National Athletic Trainers’ Association. Using a purposive recruitment strategy we were able to recruit 20 (12 female, 8 male athletic trainers meeting this classification. General inductive analyses were used to code the data from our interviews, and we satisfied credibility though saturation of the data, peer review, and researcher triangulations during the coding process. Our findings suggest that while confidence in clinical skills is apparent, some of the more administrative aspects of clinical practice present challenges. We found that various employment settings offered various expectations or challenges that had the potential to impact WLB. A blend of professional and organizational processes helped transition the athletic trainer, and although both were helpful each also could be bolstered to improve transitioning for the newly credentialed athletic trainer. Employers of early career starters should be aware of the stress related to transition to practice, and the time it can take to acclimate.

  14. Assessment of the Clinical Trainer as a Role Model: A Role Model Apperception Tool (RoMAT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochemsen-van der Leeuw, H. G. A. Ria; van Dijk, Nynke; Wieringa-de Waard, Margreet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Positive role modeling by clinical trainers is important for helping trainees learn professional and competent behavior. The authors developed and validated an instrument to assess clinical trainers as role models: the Role Model Apperception Tool (RoMAT). Method On the basis of a 2011

  15. Two-Way Communication between Scientists and the Public: A View from Science Communication Trainers in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shupei; Oshita, Tsuyoshi; AbiGhannam, Niveen; Dudo, Anthony; Besley, John C.; Koh, Hyeseung E.

    2017-01-01

    The current study explores the degree to which two-way communication is applied in science communication contexts in North America, based on the experiences of science communication trainers. Interviews with 24 science communication trainers suggest that scientists rarely focus on applying two-way communication tactics, such as listening to their…

  16. Fuel type characterization and potential fire behavior estimation in Sardinia and Corsica islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciu, V.; Pellizzaro, G.; Santoni, P.; Arca, B.; Ventura, A.; Salis, M.; Barboni, T.; Leroy, V.; Cancellieri, D.; Leoni, E.; Ferrat, L.; Perez, Y.; Duce, P.; Spano, D.

    2012-04-01

    Wildland fires represent a serious threat to forests and wooded areas of the Mediterranean Basin. As recorded by the European Commission (2009), during the last decade Southern Countries have experienced an annual average of about 50,000 forest fires and about 470,000 burned hectares. The factor that can be directly manipulated in order to minimize fire intensity and reduce other fire impacts, such as three mortality, smoke emission, and soil erosion, is wildland fuel. Fuel characteristics, such as vegetation cover, type, humidity status, and biomass and necromass loading are critical variables in affecting wildland fire occurrence, contributing to the spread, intensity, and severity of fires. Therefore, the availability of accurate fuel data at different spatial and temporal scales is needed for fire management applications, including fire behavior and danger prediction, fire fighting, fire effects simulation, and ecosystem simulation modeling. In this context, the main aims of our work are to describe the vegetation parameters involved in combustion processes and develop fire behavior fuel maps. The overall work plan is based firstly on the identification and description of the different fuel types mainly affected by fire occurrence in Sardinia (Italy) and Corsica (France) Islands, and secondly on the clusterization of the selected fuel types in relation to their potential fire behavior. In the first part of the work, the available time series of fire event perimeters and the land use map data were analyzed with the purpose of identifying the main land use types affected by fires. Thus, field sampling sites were randomly identified on the selected vegetation types and several fuel variables were collected (live and dead fuel load partitioned following Deeming et al., (1977), depth of fuel layer, plant cover, surface area-to-volume ratio, heat content). In the second part of the work, the potential fire behavior for every experimental site was simulated using

  17. Global vegetation-fire pattern under different land use and climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonicke, K.; Poulter, B.; Heyder, U.; Gumpenberger, M.; Cramer, W.

    2008-12-01

    Fire is a process of global significance in the Earth System influencing vegetation dynamics, biogeochemical cycling and biophysical feedbacks. Naturally ignited wildfires have long history in the Earth System. Humans have been using fire to shape the landscape for their purposes for many millenia, sometimes influencing the status of the vegetation remarkably as for example in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Processes and drivers describing fire danger, ignitions, fire spread and effects are relatively well-known for many fire-prone ecosystems. Modeling these has a long tradition in fire-affected regions to predict fire risk and behavior for fire-fighting purposes. On the other hand, the global vegetation community realized the importance of disturbances to be recognized in their global vegetation models with fire being globally most important and so-far best studied. First attempts to simulate fire globally considered a minimal set of drivers, whereas recent developments attempt to consider each fire process separately. The process-based fire model SPITFIRE (SPread and InTensity of FIRE) simulates these processes embedded in the LPJ DGVM. Uncertainties still arise from missing measurements for some parameters in less-studied fire regimes, or from broad PFT classifications which subsume different fire-ecological adaptations and tolerances. Some earth observation data sets as well as fire emission models help to evaluate seasonality and spatial distribution of simulated fire ignitions, area burnt and fire emissions within SPITFIRE. Deforestation fires are a major source of carbon released to the atmosphere in the tropics; in the Amazon basin it is the second-largest contributor to Brazils GHG emissions. How ongoing deforestation affects fire regimes, forest stability and biogeochemical cycling in the Amazon basin under present climate conditions will be presented. Relative importance of fire vs. climate and land use change is analyzed. Emissions resulting from

  18. Neuromuscular Responses to Simulated Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Fights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa da Silva Bruno Victor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the neuromuscular performance responses following successive Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ fights. Twenty-three BJJ athletes (age: 26.3 ± 6.3 years; body mass: 79.4 ± 9.7 kg; body height: 1.80 ± 0.1 m undertook 3 simulated BJJ fights (10 min duration each separated by 15 min of rest. Neuromuscular performance was measured by the bench press throw (BPT and vertical counter movement jump (VCMJ tests, assessed before the 1st fight (Pre and after the last one (Post. Blood lactate (LA was measured at Pre, 1 min Post, and 15 min Post fights. Paired t-tests were employed in order to compare the BPT and VCMJ results. One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests were utilized to compare LA responses. The results revealed a significant (p < 0.05 increase in VCMJ performance (40.8 ± 5.5 cm Pre vs. 42.0 ± 5.8 cm Post, but no significant changes in the BPT (814 ± 167 W Pre vs. 835 ± 213 W Post were observed. LA concentration increased significantly (p < 0.05 at Post, both in the 1st min and the 15th min of recovery. We concluded that successive simulated BJJ fights demanded considerable anaerobic contribution of ATP supply, reinforcing the high-intensity intermittent nature of the sport. Nevertheless, no negative impact on acute neuromuscular performance (power was observed.

  19. Examining the Experiences of Athletic Trainers as they transition into their First Full-Time Position

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie M. Mazerolle; McLain Whitney; Christy Eason

    2017-01-01

    Transition to clinical practice is an important topic in athletic training, as it can be a period of time that presents challenges for the athletic trainer. Most of the research pertaining to transition to practice focuses on the skills and knowledge necessary for clinical practice, yet we know that stress can manifest from not only being an independent practitioner but also from learning how to balance one’s roles. We wanted to understand the perspective of today’s novice athletic trainers a...

  20. Fighting Human Trafficking in the European Union: A master’s thesis on the ability of EU law to fight trafficking in women for sexual exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Stine Piilgaard Porner

    2011-01-01

    Human trafficking is considered to be modern day slavery. The EU continuously seeks to strengthen its fight against this crime, latest with the Directive on Prevention, Combat and Protection adopted in April 2011. But to what extent is the EU able to fight human trafficking through law? Human trafficking is a complex problem which can be assessed from different perspectives. The EU primarily addresses the fight against human trafficking through criminal law, and this thesis investigates the e...

  1. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Brown; Jane Kapler Smith

    2000-01-01

    VOLUME 2: This state-of-knowledge review about the effects of fire on flora and fuels can assist land managers with ecosystem and fire management planning and in their efforts to inform others about the ecological role of fire. Chapter topics include fire regime classification, autecological effects of fire, fire regime characteristics and postfire plant community...

  2. A review of fire interactions and mass fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Finney; Sara S. McAllister

    2011-01-01

    The character of a wildland fire can change dramatically in the presence of another nearby fire. Understanding and predicting the changes in behavior due to fire-fire interactions cannot only be life-saving to those on the ground, but also be used to better control a prescribed fire to meet objectives. In discontinuous fuel types, such interactions may elicit fire...

  3. Fires and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Fires and Food Safety Fire! Few words can strike such terror. Residential ...

  4. Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rorty, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober......Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober...

  5. Tunnel fire dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

  6. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  7. Seerley Road Fire Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    A barn caught fire at on Seerley Road, Indianapolis. Five storage drums believed to contain metallic potassium were involved in the fire. EPA will perform additional sampling as part of removal operations and safe offsite transportation.

  8. Buildings exposed to fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 24 lectures presented to the colloquium cover the following subject fields: (1) Behaviour of structural components exposed to fire; (2) Behaviour of building materials exposed to fire; (3) Thermal processes; (4) Safety related, theoretical studies. (PW) [de

  9. Interagency Wildland Fire Cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    Wildlife Fire Assistance includes training personnel, forms partnerships for prescribed burns, state and regional data for fire management plans, develops agreements for DoD civilians to be reimbursed...

  10. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  11. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  12. The OECD FIRE database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angner, A.; Berg, H.P.; Roewekamp, M.; Werner, W.; Gauvain, J.

    2007-01-01

    Realistic modelling of fire scenarios is still difficult due to the scarcity of reliable data needed for deterministic and probabilistic fire safety analysis. Therefore, it has been recognized as highly important to establish a fire event database on an international level. In consequence, several member countries of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD have decided in 2000 to establish the International Fire Data Exchange Project (OECD FIRE) to encourage multilateral co-operation in the collection and analysis of data related to fire events at nuclear power plants. This paper presents the OECD FIRE project objectives, work scope and current status of the OECD FIRE database after 3 years of operation as well as first preliminary statistical insights gained from the collected data. (orig.)

  13. FIRE CHARACTERISTICS FOR ADVANCED MODELLING OF FIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Dvořák

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the material and fire properties of solid flammable/combustible materials /substances /products, which are used as inputs for the computer numerical fire models. At the same time it gives the test standards for their determination.

  14. Loft fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, E.R.; Jensen, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Quantified criteria that was developed and applied to provide in-depth fire protection for the Loss of Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility are presented. The presentation describes the evolution process that elevated the facility's fire protection from minimal to that required for a highly protected risk or improved risk. Explored are some infrequently used fire protection measures that are poorly understood outside the fire protection profession

  15. Hanford fire department FY 1999 annual work plan WBS 6.5.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GOOD, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing a full range of services at the lowest possible cost to customers. These services include fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, the general public, or interest of the U. S. Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under mutual aid and state mobilization agreements and fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System) and various commercial entities operating on site through Requests for Service from DOE-RL. The fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, respiratory protection services, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education

  16. Evaluation of Fire Hazard and Safety Management of Heritage Buildings in Georgetown, Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othuman Mydin M.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a subject that is always neglected and ignored as far as heritage buildings are concerned. Unlike newly-built buildings, which are required under UBBL to undergo certain fire protection system tests, people are less likely to carry out such tests and detailed assessments for heritage buildings. Thus, this research is significant as it is aimed at accomplishing several objectives including studying the current fire emergency plan, besides identifying and assessing the possible fire hazards in heritage buildings in Penang. Several case studies were carried out at a few premises such as the Khoo Kongsi, Cheah Kongsi, Hock Teik Chen Shin Temple and the Teochew Temple with the aid of the Fire Rescue Department Malaysia (FRDM. The results obtained from this study will be discussed according to several aspects focusing on general health and safety management at the site, the fire-fighting system, fire exit routes and signage at the temples, fire hazards, and fire detection and alarm.

  17. Hanford fire department FY 99 annual work plan WBS 6.5.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GOOD, D.E.

    1999-02-24

    The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing a full range of services at the lowest possible cost to customers. These services include fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, the general public, or interest of the U. S. Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under mutual aid and state mobilization agreements and fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System) and various commercial entities operating on site through Requests for Service from DOE-RL. The fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, respiratory protection services, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education.

  18. Perceived aggressiveness predicts fighting performance in mixed-martial-arts fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebicky, Vít; Havlícek, Jan; Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; Kleisner, Karel

    2013-09-01

    Accurate assessment of competitive ability is a critical component of contest behavior in animals, and it could be just as important in human competition, particularly in human ancestral populations. Here, we tested the role that facial perception plays in this assessment by investigating the association between both perceived aggressiveness and perceived fighting ability in fighters' faces and their actual fighting success. Perceived aggressiveness was positively associated with the proportion of fights won, after we controlled for the effect of weight, which also independently predicted perceived aggression. In contrast, perception of fighting ability was confounded by weight, and an association between perceived fighting ability and actual fighting success was restricted to heavyweight fighters. Shape regressions revealed that aggressive-looking faces are generally wider and have a broader chin, more prominent eyebrows, and a larger nose than less aggressive-looking faces. Our results indicate that perception of aggressiveness and fighting ability might cue different aspects of success in male-male physical confrontation.

  19. Possibility of increasing the fire-suppression efficiency of the foam in automatic extinguishing installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachanov, I. V.; Veremenyuk, V. V.; Karpenchuk, I. V.; Pavlyukov, S. Yu.

    2013-05-01

    The mechanics of movement of a liquid in the diffuser of the injector of an automatic extinguishing installation with preaeration of the fire-fighting substance was theoretically investigated. An integral solution of the equation for movement of the preaerated fire-fighting gas-liquid mixture in the indicated diffuser has been obtained. A mathematical model of two-phase liquid flow in this diffuser, which allows one to calculate the distribution of the average pressure in the diffuser along its length and to determine the loss in this pressure, has been developed. This model can be used for designing the output region of a hydraulic system with a hydrodynamic drag providing the operation of its injector in a definite regime.

  20. Pengembangan alat tempo trainer untuk membantu efisiensi gerakan lengan gaya bebas cabang olahraga renang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahtiyar Heru Susanto

    2017-09-01

    This research aimed to develop the tools of Tempo Trainer to help efficiency of arm freestyle movement on the branch of swimming. Small-scale trials were conducted on four coaches and 10 athletes in the swimming association Tirta Alvita and Yuso. Large-scale trial was conducted on 10 coaches and 25 athletes in the swimming association Tirta Alvita, Yuso, Dolphin, Caesar, and Arowana. The instrument used to collect data was a questionnaire based on the analysis PIECES (Performance, Information, Economic, Control, Efficiency, Services. The assessment result of experts, coaches, and athletes toward Tempo Trainer tool shows that the assessment categoryis good, valid and reliable. Based of the resultsthat Tempo Trainer tool developed can count the number of cycles of freestyle movement, a sound that can be heard by coaches and athletes, can be used for more than one athlete, as well as it is more affordable. The coaches assessment shows valid results with every indicator PIECES obtain value rxy > r table = 0.632, with reliable results rxy = 0.908. The assessment of Tempo Trainer draft tool by athletes is good and valid with the result of the rxy > r table = 0.750.