Signal-adapted FIR Filter Banks Without Perfect-reconstruction Property
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHUIPenglang; ZHANGAihua
2005-01-01
A time-domain approach is proposed to design signal-adapted FIR (Finite impulse response) filter banks without the perfect reconstruction property. For a given Wide sense stationary (WSS) input process and a total bit budget, it is a highly nonlinear and large size optimization problem to design the optimal FIR filter bank that minimizes the sum of the quantization distortion and systematic distortion. Thus, the design algorithm is crucial, in particular, selection of the initial filter bank. Here, the FIR approximation of the optimal IIR biorthogonal filter bank is used as the initial filter bank and an ad hoc three-stage algorithm is developed to solve the optimization problem. The numerical results show: the design achieves large subband coding gains (GSBC) that are close to or exceed the GSBC's of the optimal IIR biorthogonal filter banks.
Design and Efficiency Analysis of one Class of Uniform Linear Phase FIR Filter Banks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. D. Pantić
2013-11-01
Full Text Available One class of uniform linear phase filter banks with different numbers of band-pass channels will be considered in this study, concentrating on 5, 9 and 17-band filter banks and their mutual comparison concerning delay and implementation complexity. Designed banks are based on the FIR filters and frequency response masking technique and are also compared to the banks with direct realization considering complementarity and delay.
A Design of 2L-Channel FIR Paraunitary Filter Banks with Complex Coefficients
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
An algorithm is proposed for the design of 2L-channel FIR paraunitary filter banks with complex coefficients to meet the requirement of processing complex signals. The filter designed with the algorithm has the property of near linear-phase. Thus, there is no more phase distortions introduced to the phase spectrum.
A low-power asynchronous data-path for a FIR filter bank
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Lars Skovby; Sparsø, Jens
1996-01-01
This paper describes a number of design issues relating to the implementation of low-power asynchronous signal processing circuits. Specifically, the paper addresses the design of a dedicated processor structure that implements an audio FIR filter bank which is part of an industrial application. ...... the implications it has on the choice of architecture, handshake-protocol, data-encoding, and circuit design. This includes a tagging scheme that divides the data-path into slices, and an asynchronous ripple carry adder that avoids a completion tree....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rosenbaum Linnéa
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The frequency-response masking (FRM technique was introduced as a means of generating linear-phase FIR filters with narrow transition band and low arithmetic complexity. This paper proposes an approach for synthesizing modulated maximally decimated FIR filter banks (FBs utilizing the FRM technique. A new tailored class of FRM filters is introduced and used for synthesizing nonlinear-phase analysis and synthesis filters. Each of the analysis and synthesis FBs is realized with the aid of only three subfilters, one cosine-modulation block, and one sine-modulation block. The overall FB is a near-perfect reconstruction (NPR FB which in this case means that the distortion function has a linear-phase response but small magnitude errors. Small aliasing errors are also introduced by the FB. However, by allowing these small errors (that can be made arbitrarily small, the arithmetic complexity can be reduced. Compared to conventional cosine-modulated FBs, the proposed ones lower significantly the overall arithmetic complexity at the expense of a slightly increased overall FB delay in applications requiring narrow transition bands. Compared to other proposals that also combine cosine-modulated FBs with the FRM technique, the arithmetic complexity can typically be reduced by in specifications with narrow transition bands. Finally, a general design procedure is given for the proposed FBs and examples are included to illustrate their benefits.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Håkan Johansson
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The frequency-response masking (FRM technique was introduced as a means of generating linear-phase FIR filters with narrow transition band and low arithmetic complexity. This paper proposes an approach for synthesizing modulated maximally decimated FIR filter banks (FBs utilizing the FRM technique. A new tailored class of FRM filters is introduced and used for synthesizing nonlinear-phase analysis and synthesis filters. Each of the analysis and synthesis FBs is realized with the aid of only three subfilters, one cosine-modulation block, and one sine-modulation block. The overall FB is a near-perfect reconstruction (NPR FB which in this case means that the distortion function has a linear-phase response but small magnitude errors. Small aliasing errors are also introduced by the FB. However, by allowing these small errors (that can be made arbitrarily small, the arithmetic complexity can be reduced. Compared to conventional cosine-modulated FBs, the proposed ones lower significantly the overall arithmetic complexity at the expense of a slightly increased overall FB delay in applications requiring narrow transition bands. Compared to other proposals that also combine cosine-modulated FBs with the FRM technique, the arithmetic complexity can typically be reduced by 40% in specifications with narrow transition bands. Finally, a general design procedure is given for the proposed FBs and examples are included to illustrate their benefits.
Frequency domain FIR and IIR adaptive filters
Lynn, D. W.
1990-01-01
A discussion of the LMS adaptive filter relating to its convergence characteristics and the problems associated with disparate eigenvalues is presented. This is used to introduce the concept of proportional convergence. An approach is used to analyze the convergence characteristics of block frequency-domain adaptive filters. This leads to a development showing how the frequency-domain FIR adaptive filter is easily modified to provide proportional convergence. These ideas are extended to a block frequency-domain IIR adaptive filter and the idea of proportional convergence is applied. Experimental results illustrating proportional convergence in both FIR and IIR frequency-domain block adaptive filters is presented.
A New FIR Filter for State Estimation and Its Application
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Pyung-Soo Kim; Myung-Eui Lee
2007-01-01
This paper proposes a new FIR (finite impulse response) filter under a least squares criterion using a forgetting factor. The proposed FIR filter does not require information of the noise covariances as well as the initial state, and has some inherent properties such as time-invariance, unbiasedness and deadbeat. The proposed FIR filter is represented in a batch form and then a recursive form as an alternative form. From discussions about the choice of a forgetting factor and a window length, it is shown that they can be considered as useful parameters to make the estimation performance of the proposed FIR filter as good as possible. It is shown that the proposed FIR filter can outperform the existing FIR filter with incorrect noise covariances via computer simulations. Finally, as a useful application, an image sequence stabilization problem is considered. Through this application, the FIR filtering based approach is shown to be superior to the Kalman filtering based approach.
Generic Feasibility of Perfect Reconstruction with Short FIR Filters in Multi-channel Systems
Sharif, Behzad
2011-01-01
We study the feasibility of short finite impulse response (FIR) synthesis for perfect reconstruction (PR) in generic FIR filter banks. Among all PR synthesis banks, we focus on the one with the minimum filter length. For filter banks with oversampling factors of at least two, we provide prescriptions for the shortest filter length of the synthesis bank that would guarantee PR almost surely. The prescribed length is as short or shorter than the analysis filters and has an approximate inverse relationship with the oversampling factor. Our results are in form of necessary and sufficient statements that hold generically, hence only fail for elaborately-designed nongeneric examples. We provide extensive numerical verification of the theoretical results and demonstrate that the gap between the derived filter length prescriptions and the true minimum is small. The results have potential applications in synthesis FB design problems, where the analysis bank is given, and for analysis of fundamental limitations in blin...
Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, I: Uniqueness Of Lifting Factorizations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brislawn, Christopher M [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
This paper studies two-channel finite impulse response (FIR) perfect reconstruction filter banks. The connection between filter banks and wavelet transforms is well-known and will not be treated here. Figure 1 depicts the polyphase-with-advance representation of a filter bank [6]. A lifting factorization, is a factorization of polyphase matrices into upper and lower triangular lifting matrices. The existence of such decompositions via the Euclidean algorithm was shown for general FIR perfect reconstruction filter banks in [9] and was subsequently refined for linear phase filter banks in [10], [6]. These latter works were motivated by the ISO JPEG 2000 image coding standard [11], [12], [10], which specifies whole-sample symmetric (WS, or FIR type 1 linear phase) filter banks, as in Figure 2(a), in terms of half-sample symmetric (RS, or FIR type 2) lifting filters.
FPGA Implementations of Bireciprocal Lattice Wave Discrete Wavelet Filter Banks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar
2012-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a special type of IIR filter banks; that is the bireciprocal lattice wave digital filter (BLWDF bank, is presented to simulate scaling and wavelet functions of six-level wavelet transform. 1st order all-pass sections are utilized for the realization of such filter banks in wave lattice structures. The resulting structures are a bireciprocal lattice wave discrete wavelet filter banks (BLW-DWFBs. Implementation of these BLW-DWFBs are accomplished on Spartan-3E FPGA kit. Implementation complexity and operating frequency characteristics of such discrete wavelet 5th order filter bank is proved to be comparable to the corresponding characteristics of the lifting scheme implementation of Bio. 5/3 wavelet filter bank. On the other hand, such IIR filter banks possess superior band discriminations and perfect roll-off frequency characteristics when compared to their Bio. 5/3 wavelet FIR counterparts.
Performance Analysis of LMS Adaptive FIR Filter and RLS Adaptive FIR Filter for Noise Cancellation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jyotsna Yadav
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Interest in adaptive filters continues to grow as they begin to find practical real-time applications in areas such as channel equalization, echo cancellation, noise cancellation and many other adaptive signal processing applications. The key to successful adaptive signal processing understands the fundamental properties of adaptive algorithms such as LMS, RLS etc. Adaptive filter is used for the cancellation of the noise component which is overlap with undesired signal in the same frequency range. This paper presents design, implementation and performance comparison of adaptive FIR filter using LMS and RMS algorithms. MATLAB Simulink environment are used for simulations.
Performance Analysis of LMS Adaptive FIR Filter and RLS Adaptive FIR Filter for Noise Cancellation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jyotsna Yadav
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Interest in adaptive filters continues to grow as they begin to find practical real-time applications in areassuch as channel equalization, echo cancellation, noise cancellation and many other adaptive signalprocessing applications. The key to successful adaptive signal processing understands the fundamentalproperties of adaptive algorithms such as LMS, RLS etc. Adaptive filter is used for the cancellation of thenoise component which is overlap with undesired signal in the same frequency range. This paper presentsdesign, implementation and performance comparison of adaptive FIR filter using LMS and RMSalgorithms. MATLAB Simulink environment are used for simulations.
FPGA-Based Efficient Programmable Polyphase FIR Filter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN He; XIONG Cheng-huan; ZHONG Shu-nan; WANG Hua
2005-01-01
The modelling, design and implementation of a high-speed programmable polyphase finite impulse response (FIR) filter with field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology are described. This FIR filter can run automatically according to the programmable configuration word including symmetry/asymmetry, odd/even taps, from 32 taps up to 256 taps. The filter with 12 bit signal and 12 bit coefficient word-length has been realized on a Xilinx VirtexⅡ-v1500 device and operates at the maximum sampling frequency of 160 MHz.
Frequency invariant beamforming via optimal array pattern synthesis and FIR filters design
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAN Shefeng; MA Yuanliang
2005-01-01
An approach to designing time domain broadband frequency invariant beamformer via optimal array pattern synthesis and optimal FIR filters design is proposed. First, the working frequency band is decomposed into a number of narrow band frequency bins. The array weights at each frequency bin are designed via optimal array pattern synthesis methods to insure that the synthesized pattern approximates the desired one within the mainlobe area.Then, a bank of FIR filters corresponding to the input channels are designed to provide the frequency responses that approximate the array weights in the working frequency band for each sensor. Finally, each sensor feeds a FIR filter and the filter outputs are summed to produce the beam output time series. Both array pattern synthesis and FIR filters design problems are formulated as the second-order cone programming (SOCP), which can be easily solved using well-developed interior-point methods. Results of computer simulations and lake-experiment for a twelve-element semicircular array demonstrate satisfactory performance of the proposed approach.
Cost Analysis of Different Digital Fir Filter Design Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amninder Singh,
2014-05-01
Full Text Available FIR digital filters are widely used in the communication world. The implementation cost of filter circuit is counted by the number of multipliers & adders used, that decides the chip area. In this paper, design techniques of low pass FIR filter using the different windows are presented. The simulation is done in MATLAB. It is shown that filter designed using Hamming and Blackman windows are better than rest of the windows used. Out of two, Hamming window is better as its transition width is narrow, 0.019 than Blackman, 0.034. Further the performance analysis of Kaiser Window, Equiripple and Minimum phase filters was obtained, for same 0.04 transition width. There is a disparity in implementation cost & area. The minimum phase filter can be implemented with lesser number of filter coefficients with tolerable pass-band, stop-band ripples specifications.
Design of Low Pass Digital FIR Filter Using Cuckoo Search Algorithm
Taranjit Singh; Harvinder Singh Josan
2014-01-01
This paper presents a novel approach of designing linear phase FIR low pass filter using cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA). FIR filter design is a multi-modal optimization problem. The conventional optimization techniques are not efficient for digital filter design. An iterative method is introduced to find the best solution of FIR filter design problem.Flat passband and high stopband attenuation are the major characteristics required in FIR filter design. To achieve these charact...
High Speed Reconfigurable FIR Filter using Russian Peasant Multiplier with Sklansky Adder
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K. Gunasekaran
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The Reconfigurable FIR filters are commonly used digital filters which find its major applications in digital signal processing and multi-standard wireless communications. The Direct form of FIR filter used in DSP application which consumes more area and power. To overcome this problem Multiplier Control Signal Decision (MCSD window schemes is incorporated into direct form FIR filter in order to dynamically change the filter order. Conventional reconfigurable FIR filter is designed using Russian Peasant Multiplier which consumes more area and delay due to poor performance of adder used in multiplication unit. In this study, modified reconfigurable FIR filter is designed to further reduce the area, power and time. In proposed Reconfigurable FIR filter, a Wallace adder is replaced by carry select adder with sklansky adder in Russian Peasant Multiplication technique. Hence, modified Reconfigurable FIR filter with carry select adder with sklansky adder consumes less area, delay and power than the conventional Reconfigurable FIR architecture with Russian Peasant Multiplication technique.
Analysis of ECG Using Filter Bank Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Thulasi Prasad
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In recent years scientists and engineers are facing several problems in the biomedical field. However Digital Signal Processing is solving many of those problems easily and effectively. The signal processing of ECG is very useful in detecting selected arrhythmia conditions from a patient’s electrocardiograph (ECG signals. In this paper we performed analysis of noisy ECG by filtering of 50 Hz power line interference using an adaptive LMS notch filter. This is very meaningful in the measurement of biomedical events, particularly when the recorded ECG signal is very weak. The basic ECG has the frequency range from 5 Hz to 100 Hz. It becomes difficult for the Specialist to diagnose the diseases if the artifacts are present in the ECG signal. Methods of noise reduction have decisive influence on performance of all electro-cardio-graphic (ECG signal processing systems. After removing 50/60 Hz powerline interference, the ECG is lowpass filtered in a digital FIR filter. We designed a Filter Bank to separate frequency ranges of ECG signal to enhance the occurrences QRS complexes. Later the positions of R-peaks are identified and shown plotted. The result shows the ECG signal before filtering and after filtering with their frequency spectrums which clearly indicates the reduction of the power line interference in the ECG signal and a filtered ECG with identified R-peaks.
Noniterative Design of 2-Channel FIR Orthogonal Filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiménez M Elena Domínguez
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of obtaining an explicit expression of all real FIR paraunitary filters. In this work, we present a general parameterization of 2-channel FIR orthogonal filters. Unlike other approaches which make use of a lattice structure, we show that our technique designs any orthogonal filter directly, with no need of iteration procedures. Moreover, in order to design an -tap 2-channel paraunitary filterbank, it suffices to choose independent parameters, and introduce them in a simple expression which provides the filter coefficients directly. Some examples illustrate how this new approach can be used for designing filters with certain desired properties. Further conditions can be eventually imposed on the parameters so as to design filters for specific applications.
Synthesis of Band Filters and Equalizers Using Microwav FIR Techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deibele, C.; /Fermilab
2000-01-01
It is desired to design a passive bandpass filter with both a linear phase and flat magnitude response within the band and also has steep skirts. Using the properties of both coupled lines and elementary FIR (Finite Impulse Response) signal processing techniques can produce a filter of adequate phase response and magnitude control. The design procedure will first be described and then a sample filter will then be synthesized and results shown.
Critical Path Reduction of Distributed Arithmetic Based FIR Filter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sunita Badave
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Operating speed, which is reciprocal of critical path computation time, is one of the prominent design matrices of finite impulse response (FIR filters. It is largely affected by both, system architecture as well as technique used to design arithmetic modules. A large computation time of multipliers in conventionally designed multipliers, limits the speed of system architecture. Distributed arithmetic is one of the techniques, used to provide multiplier-free multiplication in the implementation of FIR filter. However suffers from a sever limitation of exponential growth of look up table (LUT with order of filter. An improved distributed arithmetic technique is addressed here to design for system architecture of FIR filter. In proposed technique, a single large LUT of conventional DA is replaced by number of smaller indexed LUT pages to restrict exponential growth and to reduce system access time. It also eliminates the use of adders. Selection module selects the desired value from desired page, which leads to reduce computational time of critical path. Trade off between access times of LUT pages and selection module helps to achieve minimum critical path so as to maximize the operating speed. Implementations are targeted to Xilinx ISE, Virtex IV devices. FIR filter with 8 bit data width of input sample results are presented here. It is observed that, proposed design perform significantly faster as compared to the conventional DA and existing DA based designs.
Approximately liner phase IIR digital filter banks
J. D. Ćertić; M. D. Lutovac; L. D. Milić
2013-01-01
In this paper, uniform and nonuniform digital filter banks based on approximately linear phase IIR filters and frequency response masking technique (FRM) are presented. Both filter banks are realized as a connection of an interpolated half-band approximately linear phase IIR filter as a first stage of the FRM design and an appropriate number of masking filters. The masking filters are half-band IIR filters with an approximately linear phase. The resulting IIR filter banks are compared with li...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pandey, Bishwajeet; Das, Bhagwan; Kaur, Amanpreet
2017-01-01
There are many areas of communication and network, which have open scope to use FIR filter. Therefore, energy efficient FIR filter will increase lifetime of network and FIR filter with less delay and latency will increase performance of network. In this work, we are going to design an FIR filter ...
Research on SINS Alignment Algorithm Based on FIR Filters
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIAN Jun-xiang; HU De-wen; WU Yuan-xin; HU Xiao-ping
2007-01-01
An inertial frame based alignment (IFBA) method is presented, especially for the applications on a rocking platform, e.g., marine applications. Defining the initial body frame as the inertial frame, the IFBA method achieves the alignment by virtue of a cascade of low-pass FIR filters, which attenuate the disturbing acceleration and maintain the gravity vector. The aligning time rests with the orders of the FIR filter group, and the method is suitable for large initial misali gnment case. An alignment scheme comprising a coarse phase by the IFBA method an d a fine phase by a Kalman filter is presented. Both vehicle-based and ship-based alignment experiments were carried out. The results show that the proposed scheme converges much faster than the traditional method at no cost of precision and also works well under any large initial misalignment.
Sigma Delta Modulation Based Ternary FIR Filter Mapping on FPGA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tayabuddin Memon
2011-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper single-bit SDM (Sigma Delta Modulation based TFF (Ternary FIR Filter with balanced ternary coefficients (i.e. -1/0/+1 has been mapped on small commercially available FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays. Filter coefficients were obtained using second order sigma delta modulator. The filter structure is based on a hierarchical adder tree that can easily be pipelined for high performance purpose. Filter structure was coded in VHDL (Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language and simulated in Quartus-II software. The filter exhibits low I/O (Input Output and core area usage and high performance-achieving clock speeds close to 200MHz on a low-cost FPGA and over 500MHz on a latest FPGA commercially available device. This single-bit ternary filter is intended to support video and audio processing applications in mobile communication systems.
Design and Implementation of Digital Filter Bank to Reduce Noise and Reconstruct the Input Signals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kawser Ahammed
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The main theme of this paper is to reduce noise from the noisy composite signal and reconstruct the input signals from the composite signal by designing FIR digital filter bank. In this work, three sinusoidal signals of different frequencies and amplitudes are combined to get composite signal and a low frequency noise signal is added with the composite signal to get noisy composite signal. Finally noisy composite signal is filtered by using FIR digital filter bank to reduce noise and reconstruct the input signals.
Design of Low Pass Digital FIR Filter Using Cuckoo Search Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taranjit Singh
2014-08-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach of designing linear phase FIR low pass filter using cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA. FIR filter design is a multi-modal optimization problem. The conventional optimization techniques are not efficient for digital filter design. An iterative method is introduced to find the best solution of FIR filter design problem.Flat passband and high stopband attenuation are the major characteristics required in FIR filter design. To achieve these characteristics, a Cuckoo Search algorithm (CSA is proposed in this paper. CSA have been used here for the design of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR filters. Results are presented in this paper that seems to be promising tool for FIR filter design
A Class of Multi-Channel Cosine Modulated IIR Filter Banks
Vanka, Sundaram; Prabhu, K M M; Aravind, R
2007-01-01
This paper presents a class of multi-channel cosine-modulated filter banks satisfying the perfect reconstruction (PR) property using an IIR prototype filter. By imposing a suitable structure on the polyphase filter coefficients, we show that it is possible to greatly simplify the PR condition, while preserving the causality and stability of the system. We derive closed-form expressions for the synthesis filters and also study the numerical stability of the filter bank using frame theoretic bounds. Further, we show that it is possible to implement this filter bank with much lower number of arithmetic operations when compared to FIR filter banks with comparable performance. The filter bank's modular structure also lends itself to efficient VLSI implementation.
Application of DFT Filter Banks and Cosine Modulated Filter Banks in Filtering
Lin, Yuan-Pei; Vaidyanathan, P. P.
1994-01-01
None given. This is a proposal for a paper to be presented at APCCAS '94 in Taipei, Taiwan. (From outline): This work is organized as follows: Sec. II is devoted to the construction of the new 2m channel under-decimated DFT filter bank. Implementation and complexity of this DFT filter bank are discussed therein. IN a similar manner, the new 2m channel cosine modulated filter bank is discussed in Sec. III. Design examples are given in Sec. IV.
Application of DFT Filter Banks and Cosine Modulated Filter Banks in Filtering
Lin, Yuan-Pei; Vaidyanathan, P. P.
1994-01-01
None given. This is a proposal for a paper to be presented at APCCAS '94 in Taipei, Taiwan. (From outline): This work is organized as follows: Sec. II is devoted to the construction of the new 2m channel under-decimated DFT filter bank. Implementation and complexity of this DFT filter bank are discussed therein. IN a similar manner, the new 2m channel cosine modulated filter bank is discussed in Sec. III. Design examples are given in Sec. IV.
Design of Optimal Quincunx Filter Banks for Image Coding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wu-Sheng Lu
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Two new optimization-based methods are proposed for the design of high-performance quincunx filter banks for the application of image coding. These new techniques are used to build linear-phase finite-length-impulse-response (FIR perfect-reconstruction (PR systems with high coding gain, good frequency selectivity, and certain prescribed vanishing-moment properties. A parametrization of quincunx filter banks based on the lifting framework is employed to structurally impose the PR and linear-phase conditions. Then, the coding gain is maximized subject to a set of constraints on vanishing moments and frequency selectivity. Examples of filter banks designed using the newly proposed methods are presented and shown to be highly effective for image coding. In particular, our new optimal designs are shown to outperform three previously proposed quincunx filter banks in 72% to 95% of our experimental test cases. Moreover, in some limited cases, our optimal designs are even able to outperform the well-known (separable 9/7 filter bank (from the JPEG-2000 standard.
Power Efficient Design of Parallel/Serial FIR Filters in RNS
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petricca, Massimo; Albicocco, Pietro; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo
2012-01-01
It is well known that the Residue Number System (RNS) provides an efficient implementation of parallel FIR filters especially when the filter order and the dynamic range are high. The two main drawbacks of RNS, need of converters and coding overhead, make a serialized implementation of the FIR fi...
Properties of predictor based on relative neighborhood graph localized FIR filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Aasted
1995-01-01
A time signal prediction algorithm based on relative neighborhood graph (RNG) localized FIR filters is defined. The RNG connects two nodes, of input space dimension D, if their lune does not contain any other node. The FIR filters associated with the nodes, are used for local approximation...
MODIFIED MICROPIPLINE ARCHITECTURE FOR SYNTHESIZABLE ASYNCHRONOUS FIR FILTER DESIGN
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Basel Halak
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The use of asynchronous design approaches to construct digital signal processing (DSP systems is a rapidly growing research area driven by a wide range of emerging energy constrained applications such as wireless sensor network, portable medical devices and brain implants. The asynchronous design techniques allow the construction of systems which are samples driven, which means they only dissipate dynamic energy when there processing data and idle otherwise. This inherent advantage of asynchronous design over conventional synchronous circuits allows them to be energy efficient. However the implementation flow of asynchronous systems is still difficult due to its lack of compatibility with industrystandard synchronous design tools and modelling languages. This paper devises a novel asynchronous design for a finite impulse response (FIR filter, an essential building block of DSP systems, which is synthesizable and suitable for implementation using conventional synchronous systems design flow and tools. The proposed design is based on a modified version of the micropipline architecture and it is constructed using four phase bundled data protocol. A hardware prototype of the proposed filter has been developed on an FPGA, and systematically verified. The results prove correct functionality of the novel design and a superior performance compared to a synchronous FIR implementation. The findings of this work will allow a wider adoption of asynchronous circuits by DSP designers to harness their energy and performance benefits.
Active Cancellation of Acoustical Resonances with an FPGA FIR Filter
Ryou, Albert
2016-01-01
We present a novel approach to enhancing the bandwidth of a feedback-controlled mechanical system by digitally canceling acoustical resonances (poles) and anti-resonances (zeros) in the open-loop response via an FPGA FIR filter. By performing a real-time convolution of the feedback error signal with an inverse filter, we can suppress arbitrarily many poles and zeros below 100 kHz, each with a linewidth down to 10 Hz. We demonstrate the efficacy of this technique by canceling the ten largest mechanical resonances and anti-resonances of a high-finesse optical resonator, thereby enhancing the unity gain frequency by more than an order of magnitude. This approach is applicable to a broad array of stabilization problems including optical resonators, external cavity diode lasers, and scanning tunneling microscopes, and points the way to applying modern optimal control techniques to intricate linear acoustical systems.es to intricate linear acoustical systems.
Active cancellation of acoustical resonances with an FPGA FIR filter
Ryou, Albert; Simon, Jonathan
2017-01-01
We present a novel approach to enhancing the bandwidth of a feedback-controlled mechanical system by digitally canceling acoustical resonances (poles) and anti-resonances (zeros) in the open-loop response via an FPGA FIR filter. By performing a real-time convolution of the feedback error signal with an inverse filter, we can suppress arbitrarily many poles and zeros below 100 kHz, each with a linewidth down to 10 Hz. We demonstrate the efficacy of this technique by canceling the ten largest mechanical resonances and anti-resonances of a high-finesse optical resonator, thereby enhancing the unity gain frequency by more than an order of magnitude. This approach is applicable to a broad array of stabilization problems including optical resonators, external cavity diode lasers, and scanning tunneling microscopes and points the way to applying modern optimal control techniques to intricate linear acoustical systems.
Power and Aging Characterization of Digital FIR Filters Architectures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Calimera, Andrea; Liu, Wei; Macii, Enrico;
2012-01-01
With technology scaling, newer metrics have been introduced, in addition to delay, area, and power dissipation, to characterize the behavior of digital systems. While dynamic and static power dissipation still remain the most serious concern at nanometer lengths (65nm and below), process-variatio......With technology scaling, newer metrics have been introduced, in addition to delay, area, and power dissipation, to characterize the behavior of digital systems. While dynamic and static power dissipation still remain the most serious concern at nanometer lengths (65nm and below), process......-variation, temperature and aging induced variations pose new challenges in the fabrication of the next generation of ICs. This work presents a detailed power and aging characterization of digital FIR filters in an industrial 45nm CMOS technology, and a design space exploration of different filter architectures...
Active cancellation of acoustical resonances with an FPGA FIR filter.
Ryou, Albert; Simon, Jonathan
2017-01-01
We present a novel approach to enhancing the bandwidth of a feedback-controlled mechanical system by digitally canceling acoustical resonances (poles) and anti-resonances (zeros) in the open-loop response via an FPGA FIR filter. By performing a real-time convolution of the feedback error signal with an inverse filter, we can suppress arbitrarily many poles and zeros below 100 kHz, each with a linewidth down to 10 Hz. We demonstrate the efficacy of this technique by canceling the ten largest mechanical resonances and anti-resonances of a high-finesse optical resonator, thereby enhancing the unity gain frequency by more than an order of magnitude. This approach is applicable to a broad array of stabilization problems including optical resonators, external cavity diode lasers, and scanning tunneling microscopes and points the way to applying modern optimal control techniques to intricate linear acoustical systems.
Ternary and Multi-Bit FIR Filter Area-Performance Tradeoffs in FPGA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khalil-Ur-Rahman Dayo
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, performance and area of conventional FIR (Finite Impulse Responce filters versus ternary sigma delta modulated FIR filter is compared in FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays using VHDL (Verilog Description Language. Two different approaches were designed and synthesized at same spectral performance by obtaining a TIR (Target Impulse Response. Both filters were synthesized on adaptive LUT (Look Up Table FPGA device in pipelined and non-pipelined modes. It is shown that the Ternary FIR filter occupies approximately the same area as the corresponding multi-bit filter, but for a given specification, the ternary FIR filter has 32% better performance in non-pipelined and 72% in pipelined mode, compared to its equivalent Multi-Bit filter at its optimum 12-bit coefficient quantization. These promising results shows that ternary logic based (i.e. +1,0,-1 filters can be used for huge chip area savings and higher performance.
FIR Filter Implementation Based on the RNS with Diminished-1 Encoded Channel
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Dragana Uros Zivaljevic
2013-03-01
Full Text Available A technique, based on the residue number system (RNS with diminished-1 encoded channel, has being used for implementing a finite impulse response (FIR digital filter. The proposed RNS architecture of the filter consists of three main blocks: forward and reverse converter and arithmetic processor for each channel. Architecture for residue to binary (reverse convertor with diminished-1 encoded channel has been proposed. Besides, for all RNS channels, the systolic design is used for the efficient realization of FIR filter. A numerical example illustrates the principles of diminished-1 residue arithmetic, signal processing, and decoding for FIR filters.
Three different criteria for the design of two-dimensional zero phase FIR digital filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gislason, E.; Johansen, M.; Conradsen, Knut
1993-01-01
An error criterion for the design of FIR filters is proposed. Filters with relatively many free filter coefficients are designed using the Chebyshev, the weighted-least-squares (WLS), and a new partitioned minimax error criterion, and the performance of the filters is compared. A general and fast...
Two-band hybrid FIR-IIR filters for image compression.
Lin, Jianyu; Smith, Mark J T
2011-11-01
Two-band analysis-synthesis filters or wavelet filters are used pervasively for compressing natural images. Both FIR and IIR filters have been studied in this context, the former being the most popular. In this paper, we examine the compression performance of these two-band filters in a dyadic wavelet decomposition and attempt to isolate features that contribute most directly to the performance gain. Then, employing the general exact reconstruction condition, hybrid FIR-IIR analysis-synthesis filters are designed to maximize compression performance for natural images. Experimental results are presented that compare performance with the popular biorthogonal filters in terms of peak SNR, subjective quality, and computational complexity.
Boundary implications for frequency response of interval FIR and IIR filters
Bose, N. K.; Kim, K. D.
1991-01-01
It is shown that vertex implication results in parameter space apply to interval trigonometric polynomials. Subsequently, it is shown that the frequency responses of both interval FIR and IIR filters are bounded by the frequency responses of certain extreme filters. The results apply directly in the evaluation of properties of designed filters, especially because it is more realistic to bound the filter coefficients from above and below instead of determining those with infinite precision because of finite arithmetic effects. Illustrative examples are provided to show how the extreme filters might be easily derived in any specific interval FIR or IIR filter design problem.
Frequency Spectrum Based Low-Area Low-Power Parallel FIR Filter Design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jin-Gyun Chung
2002-09-01
Full Text Available Parallel (or block FIR digital filters can be used either for high-speed or low-power (with reduced supply voltage applications. Traditional parallel filter implementations cause linear increase in the hardware cost with respect to the block size. Recently, an efficient parallel FIR filter implementation technique requiring a less-than linear increase in the hardware cost was proposed. This paper makes two contributions. First, the filter spectrum characteristics are exploited to select the best fast filter structures. Second, a novel block filter quantization algorithm is introduced. Using filter benchmarks, it is shown that the use of the appropriate fast FIR filter structures and the proposed quantization scheme can result in reduction in the number of binary adders up to 20%.
Optimal design study of high order FIR digital filters based on neural network algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王小华; 何怡刚
2004-01-01
An optimal design approach of high order FIR digital filter is developed based on the algorithm of neural networks with cosine basis function . The main idea is to minimize the sum of the square errors between the amplitude response of the desired FIR filter and that of the designed by training the weights of neural networks, then obtains the impulse response of FIR digital filter . The convergence theorem of the neural networks algorithm is presented and proved,and the optimal design method is introduced by designing four kinds of FIR digital filters , i.e., low-pass, high-pass,bandpass , and band-stop FIR digital filter. The results of the amplitude responses show that attenuation in stop-bands is more than 60 dB with no ripple and pulse existing in pass-bands, and cutoff frequency of passband and stop-band is easily controlled precisely . The presented optimal design approach of high order FIR digital filter is significantly effective.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinsoo Jeong
2011-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an acoustic noise cancelling technique using an inverse kepstrum system as an innovations-based whitening application for an adaptive finite impulse response (FIR filter in beamforming structure. The inverse kepstrum method uses an innovations-whitened form from one acoustic path transfer function between a reference microphone sensor and a noise source so that the rear-end reference signal will then be a whitened sequence to a cascaded adaptive FIR filter in the beamforming structure. By using an inverse kepstrum filter as a whitening filter with the use of a delay filter, the cascaded adaptive FIR filter estimates only the numerator of the polynomial part from the ratio of overall combined transfer functions. The test results have shown that the adaptive FIR filter is more effective in beamforming structure than an adaptive noise cancelling (ANC structure in terms of signal distortion in the desired signal and noise reduction in noise with nonminimum phase components. In addition, the inverse kepstrum method shows almost the same convergence level in estimate of noise statistics with the use of a smaller amount of adaptive FIR filter weights than the kepstrum method, hence it could provide better computational simplicity in processing. Furthermore, the rear-end inverse kepstrum method in beamforming structure has shown less signal distortion in the desired signal than the front-end kepstrum method and the front-end inverse kepstrum method in beamforming structure.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Karunakaran
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Recent advances in mobile computing and multimedia applications demand high-performance and low-power VLSI Digital Signal Processing (DSP systems. One of the most widely used operations in DSP is Finite-Impulse Response (FIR filtering. In the existing method FIR filter is designed using array multiplier, which is having higher delay and power dissipation. The proposed method presents a programmable digital Finite Impulse Response (FIR filter for high-performance applications. The architecture is based on a computational sharing multiplier which specifically doing add and shift operation and also targets computation re-use in vector-scalar products. CSHM multiplier can be implemented by Carry Select Adder which is a high speed adder. A Carry-Select Adder (CSA can be implemented by using single ripple carry adder and add-one circuits using the fast all-one finding circuit and low-delay multiplexers to reduce the area and accelerate the speed of CSA. An 8-tap programmable FIR filter was implemented in tanner EDA tool using CMOS 180nm technology based on the proposed CSHM technique. In which the number of transistor, power (mW and clock cycle (ns of the filter using array multiplier are 6000, 3.732 and 9 respectively. The FIR filter using CSHM in which the number of transistor, power (mW and clock cycle (ns are 23500, 2.627 and 4.5 respectively. By adopting the proposed method for the design of FIR filter, the delay is reduced to about 43.2% in comparison with the existing method. The CSHM scheme and circuit-level techniques helped to achieve high-performance FIR filtering operation.
1D and 2D economical FIR filters generated by Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind
Dragoljub Pavlović, Vlastimir; Stanojko Dončov, Nebojša; Gradimir Ćirić, Dejan
2013-11-01
Christoffel-Darboux formula for Chebyshev continual orthogonal polynomials of the first kind is proposed to find a mathematical solution of approximation problem of a one-dimensional (1D) filter function in the z domain. Such an approach allows for the generation of a linear phase selective 1D low-pass digital finite impulse response (FIR) filter function in compact explicit form by using an analytical method. A new difference equation and structure of corresponding linear phase 1D low-pass digital FIR filter are given here. As an example, one extremely economic 1D FIR filter (with four adders and without multipliers) is designed by the proposed technique and its characteristics are presented. Global Christoffel-Darboux formula for orthonormal Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind and for two independent variables for generating linear phase symmetric two-dimensional (2D) FIR digital filter functions in a compact explicit representative form, by using an analytical method, is proposed in this paper. The formula can be most directly applied for mathematically solving the approximation problem of a filter function of even and odd order. Examples of a new class of extremely economic linear phase symmetric selective 2D FIR digital filters obtained by the proposed approximation technique are presented.
Big Bang–Big Crunch Optimization Algorithm for Linear Phase Fir Digital Filter Design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ms. Rashmi Singh Dr. H. K. Verma
2012-02-01
Full Text Available The Big Bang–Big Crunch (BB–BC optimization algorithm is a new optimization method that relies on the Big Bang and Big Crunch theory, one of the theories of the evolution of the universe. In this paper, a Big Bang–Big Crunch algorithm has been used here for the design of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR filters. Here the experimented fitness function based on the mean squared error between the actual and the ideal filter response. This paper presents the plot of magnitude response of FIR filters and error graph. The BB-BC seems to be promising tool for FIR filter design especially in a dynamic environment where filter coefficients have to be adapted and fast convergence is of importance.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Viholainen Ari
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The recently introduced exponentially modulated filter bank (EMFB is a -channel uniform, orthogonal, critically sampled, and frequency-selective complex modulated filter bank that satisfies the perfect reconstruction (PR property if the prototype filter of an -channel PR cosine modulated filter bank (CMFB is used. The purpose of this paper is to present various implementation structures for the EMFBs in a unified framework. The key idea is to use cosine and sine modulated filter banks as building blocks and, therefore, polyphase, lattice, and extended lapped transform (ELT type of implementation solutions are studied. The ELT-based EMFBs are observed to be very competitive with the existing modified discrete Fourier transform filter banks (MDFT-FBs when comparing the number of multiplications/additions and the structural simplicity. In addition, EMFB provides an alternative channel stacking arrangement that could be more natural in certain subband processing applications and data transmission systems.
A tool for automatic generation of RTL-level VHDL description of RNS FIR filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Re, Andrea Del; Nannarelli, Alberto; Re, Marco
2004-01-01
Although digital filters based on the Residue Number System (RNS) show high performance and low power dissipation, RNS filters are not widely used in DSP systems, because of the complexity of the algorithms involved. We present a tool to design RNS FIR filters which hides the RNS algorithms to th...... to the designer, and generates a synthesizable VHDL description of the filter taking into account several design constraints such as: delay, area and energy....
Design of Maximally Flat FIR Filters Based on Explicit Formulas Combined with Optimization
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
A maximally flat FIR filter design method based on explicit formulas combined with simulated annealing and random search was presented. Utilizing the explicit formulas to calculate the initial values, the finite-word-length FIR filter design problem was converted into optimization of the filter coefficients. An optimization method combined with local discrete random search and simulated annealing was proposed, with the result of optimum solution in the sense of Chebyshev approximation. The proposed method can simplify the design process of FIR filter and reduce the calculation burden. The simulation result indicates that the proposed method is superior to the traditional round off method and can reduce the value of the objective function to 41%-74%.
AN ITERATIVE ALGORITHM FOR OPTIMAL DESIGN OF NON-FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE FIR DIGITAL FILTERS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Duan Miyi; Sun Chunlai; Liu Xin; Tian Xinguang
2008-01-01
This paper proposes a novel iterative algorithm for optimal design of non-frequency-se-lective Finite Impulse Response (FIR) digital filters based on the windowing method. Different from the traditional optimization concept of adjusting the window or the filter order in the windowing design of an FIR digital filter,the key idea of the algorithm is minimizing the approximation error by succes-sively modifying the design result through an iterative procedure under the condition of a fixed window length. In the iterative procedure,the known deviation of the designed frequency response in each iteration from the ideal frequency response is used as a reference for the next iteration. Because the approximation error can be specified variably,the algorithm is applicable for the design of FIR digital filters with different technical requirements in the frequency domain. A design example is employed to illustrate the efficiency of the algorithm.
The Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filter: A Filter Bank Implementation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karlsson Rickard
2010-01-01
Full Text Available For computational efficiency, it is important to utilize model structure in particle filtering. One of the most important cases occurs when there exists a linear Gaussian substructure, which can be efficiently handled by Kalman filters. This is the standard formulation of the Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF. This contribution suggests an alternative formulation of this well-known result that facilitates reuse of standard filtering components and which is also suitable for object-oriented programming. Our RBPF formulation can be seen as a Kalman filter bank with stochastic branching and pruning.
Gain scaling for multirate filter banks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brislawn, Christopher M [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
Eliminating two trivial degrees of freedom corresponding to the lowpass DC response and the highpass Nyquist response in a two-channel multirate filter bank seems simple enough. Nonetheless, the ISO/IEC JPEG 2000 image coding standard manages to make this mundane task look totally mysterious. We reveal the true meaning behind JPEG 2000's arcane specifications for filter bank normalization and point out how the seemingly trivial matter of gain scaling leads to highly nontrivial issues concerning uniqueness of lifting factorizations.
Performance analysis of adjustable window based FIR filter for noisy ECG Signal Filtering
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N. Mahawar
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Recording of the electrical activity associated to heart functioning is known as Electrocardiogram (ECG. ECG is a quasi-periodical, rhythmically signal synchronized by the function of the heart, which acts as a generator of bioelectric events. ECG signals are low level signals and sensitive to external contaminations. Electrocardiogram signals are often corrupted by noise which may have electrical or electrophysiological origin. The noise signal tends to alter the signal morphology, thereby hindering the correct diagnosis. In order to remove the unwanted noise, a digital filtering technique based on adjustable windows is proposed in this paper. Finite Impulse Response (FIR low pass is designed using windowing method for the ECG signal. The results obtained from different techniques are compared on the basis of popularly used signal error measures like SNR, PRD, PRD1, and MSE.
On the application of under-decimated filter banks
Lin, Y.-P.; Vaidyanathan, P. P.
1994-01-01
Maximally decimated filter banks have been extensively studied in the past. A filter bank is said to be under-decimated if the number of channels is more than the decimation ratio in the subbands. A maximally decimated filter bank is well known for its application in subband coding. Another application of maximally decimated filter banks is in block filtering. Convolution through block filtering has the advantages that parallelism is increased and data are processed at a lower rate. However, the computational complexity is comparable to that of direct convolution. More recently, another type of filter bank convolver has been developed. In this scheme, the convolution is performed in the subbands. Quantization and bit allocation of subband signals are based on signal variance, as in subband coding. Consequently, for a fixed rate, the result of convolution is more accurate than is direct convolution. This type of filter bank convolver also enjoys the advantages of block filtering, parallelism, and a lower working rate. Nevertheless, like block filtering, there is no computational saving. In this article, under-decimated systems are introduced to solve the problem. The new system is decimated only by half the number of channels. Two types of filter banks can be used in the under-decimated system: the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) filter banks and the cosine modulated filter banks. They are well known for their low complexity. In both cases, the system is approximately alias free, and the overall response is equivalent to a tunable multilevel filter. Properties of the DFT filter banks and the cosine modulated filter banks can be exploited to simultaneously achieve parallelism, computational saving, and a lower working rate. Furthermore, for both systems, the implementation cost of the analysis or synthesis bank is comparable to that of one prototype filter plus some low-complexity modulation matrices. The individual analysis and synthesis filters have complex
Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, II: Linear Phase Filter Banks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brislawn, Christopher M [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
The theory of group lifting structures is applied to linear phase lifting factorizations for the two nontrivial classes of two-channel linear phase perfect reconstruction filter banks, the whole-and half-sample symmetric classes. Group lifting structures defined for the reversible and irreversible classes of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are shown to satisfy the hypotheses of the uniqueness theorem for group lifting structures. It follows that linear phase lifting factorizations of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are therefore independent of the factorization methods used to compute them. These results cover the specification of user-defined whole-sample symmetric filter banks in Part 2 of the ISO JPEG 2000 standard.
Implementation of High Performance Fir Filter Using Low Power Multiplier and Adder
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Sweety Kashyap,
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The ever increasing growth in laptop and portable systems in cellular networks has intensified the research efforts in low power microelectronics. Now a day, there are many portable applications requiring low power and high throughput than ever before. Thus, low power system design has become a significant performance goal. So this paper is face with more constraints: high speed, high throughput, and at the same time, consumes as minimal power as possible. The Finite Impulse Response (FIR Filter is the important component for designing an efficient digital signal processing system. So, in this paper author trying, a FIR filter is constructing, which is efficient not only in terms of power and speed but also in terms of delay. When consider the elementary structure of an FIR filter, it is found that it is a combination of multipliers and delays, which in turn are the combination of adders. . This paper presents an efficient implementation and analysis for performance evaluation of multiplier and adder to minimize the consumption of energy during multiplication and addition methodology to improve the performance by compares different type of Multipliers and adder, respectively. By using, power comparison result of adders and multiplier, choice low power adder and multiplier to implementation of high performance FIR filter.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Uma
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This study describes the design of high speed FIR filter using parallel prefix adders and factorized multiplier. The fundamental component in constructing any high speed FIR filter consists of adders, multipliers and delay elements. To meet the constraint of high speed performance and low power consumption parallel prefix adders are more suitable. This study focus the design of new Parallel Prefix Adder (PPA and new multiplier cell called factorized multiplier with minimal depth algorithm and its functional characteristics is compared with the existing architecture in terms of delay and area. The performance evaluation of the proposed PPA and multiplier are examined for the bit sizes of 8, 16, 32 and 64. The coefficient of the filter is obtained through hamming window using MATLAB program. The proposed FIR filter using new PPA and factorized multiplier has been prototyped on XC3S1600EFG320 in Spartan-3E Platform using Integrated Synthesis Environment (ISE for 90 nm process. Nearly 14% of slice utilization and 34% of speed improvement has been obtained for FIR using new PPA and factorized multiplier.
A Comparative Study on LUT and Accumulator Radix-4 Based Multichannel RNS FIR Filter Architectures
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Britto Pari. J
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a comparative study of two architectures proposed for multichannel reconfigurable FIR filter are performed in terms of complexity and speed. The proposed architectures, viz, dual port memory based LUT multiplier and accumulator based radix-4 multiplier architectures, are designed to reduce the complexity and to improve the speed of operation of multiplier used in multichannel reconfigurable FIR filter. Both the architectures accepts residues of given binary input in which the 3n-bit binary input is converted into three residues using binary to Residue Number System (RNS converter, and then processed in three FIR sub filters constructed in direct form. The reconfigurable structure is achieved by combining Power of Two (PoT FIR sub modules and altering the filter taps based on select signals. The proposed designs can be realized up to 20-taps and has been tested for 4, 8, 16 and 20 taps. The architectures have been realized in Verilog HDL and synthesized using Altera FPGA device Stratix II EP2S15F672C5. The performance comparison of two architectures shows that dual port memory based LUT multiplier architecture significantly reduces the area by 20% and accumulator based Radix-4 multiplier increases the speed by 90% regardless of the number of taps.
Design Techniques for Uniform-DFT, Linear Phase Filter Banks
Sun, Honglin; DeLeon, Phillip
1999-01-01
Uniform-DFT filter banks are an important class of filter banks and their theory is well known. One notable characteristic is their very efficient implementation when using polyphase filters and the FFT. Separately, linear phase filter banks, i.e. filter banks in which the analysis filters have a linear phase are also an important class of filter banks and desired in many applications. Unfortunately, it has been proved that one cannot design critically-sampled, uniform-DFT, linear phase filter banks and achieve perfect reconstruction. In this paper, we present a least-squares solution to this problem and in addition prove that oversampled, uniform-DFT, linear phase filter banks (which are also useful in many applications) can be constructed for perfect reconstruction. Design examples are included illustrate the methods.
Spatially-varying IIR filter banks for image coding
Chung, Wilson C.; Smith, Mark J. T.
1992-01-01
This paper reports on the application of spatially variant infinite impulse response (IIR) filter banks to subband image coding. The new filter bank is based on computationally efficient recursive polyphase decompositions that dynamically change in response to the input signal. In the absence of quantization, reconstruction can be made exact. However, by proper choice of an adaptation scheme, we show that subband image coding based on time varying filter banks can yield improvement over the use of conventional filter banks.
A Low Power Linear Phase Digital FIR Filter for Wearable ECG Devices.
Lian, Yong; Yu, Jianghong
2005-01-01
In this paper we present a low power linear phase digital FIR filter which is a part of an ECG-on-Chip. The ECG-on-Chip can be embedded into clothing to acquire the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal and send a warning message to a mobile phone or PDA if an abnormal ECG is detected. The proposed new filter structure significantly reduces the arithmetic operations for each sample which in turn lowers the power consumption. The filter is developed based on the interpolated finite impulse filter technique and is very attractive for a low cost and low power VLSI implementation.
Viholainen, Ari; Alhava, Juuso; Renfors, Markku
2006-12-01
The recently introduced exponentially modulated filter bank (EMFB) is a[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-channel uniform, orthogonal, critically sampled, and frequency-selective complex modulated filter bank that satisfies the perfect reconstruction (PR) property if the prototype filter of an[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-channel PR cosine modulated filter bank (CMFB) is used. The purpose of this paper is to present various implementation structures for the EMFBs in a unified framework. The key idea is to use cosine and sine modulated filter banks as building blocks and, therefore, polyphase, lattice, and extended lapped transform (ELT) type of implementation solutions are studied. The ELT-based EMFBs are observed to be very competitive with the existing modified discrete Fourier transform filter banks (MDFT-FBs) when comparing the number of multiplications/additions and the structural simplicity. In addition, EMFB provides an alternative channel stacking arrangement that could be more natural in certain subband processing applications and data transmission systems.
Filter Bank Multicarrier for Massive MIMO
Farhang, Arman,; Marchetti, Nicola; Doyle, Linda E.; Farhang-Boroujeny, Behrouz
2014-01-01
This paper introduces filter bank multicarrier (FBMC) as a potential candidate in the application of massive MIMO communication. It also points out the advantages of FBMC over OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) in the application of massive MIMO. The absence of cyclic prefix in FBMC increases the bandwidth efficiency. In addition, FBMC allows carrier aggregation straightforwardly. Self-equalization, a property of FBMC in massive MIMO that is introduced in this paper, has the im...
Non-Causal Fir Filters for the Maximum Return from Capital Markets
Dyka, A
2006-01-01
In this paper we consider a trading strategy, which consists in buying or selling a financial instrument when the smoothing, non-causal FIR (Final Impulse Response) filter output attains a local minimum or maximum, respectively. Upon tis assumption the goal of this paper is to determine the 'best' non-causal smoothing FIR filters, which provide maximum value of the return from the market. The assumed non-causality is obtained by advancing the output signal to compensate for the delay introduced by the a priori known filter. The best result were obtained for the impulse response given by the Pascal triangle and the family of symmetric power triangles, both for the case of trading with, and without the transaction fee. It was found that the transaction fee dramatically reduces a possible net return from the market, and therefore should not be omitted in market analyzes.
Ngo, Nam Quoc; Song, Yufeng; Lin, Bo
2011-02-01
We present the design and analysis of a wideband and tunable optical Hilbert transformer (OHT) using a tunable waveguide-based finite-impulse response (FIR) filter structure by using the digital filter design method and the Remez algorithm. The tunable Nth-order waveguide-based FIR filter, which simply consists of N delay lines, N tunable couplers, N tunable phase shifters and a combiner, can be tuned, by thermally adjusting the tunable couplers and tunable phase shifters, to tune the bandwidth of an OHT using silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, the simulation results have an excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. The tunable OHT can function as a wideband and tunable 90° phase shifter and thus has many potential applications. The two unique features of wideband characteristic (up to ~ 2 THz) and tunable bandwidth (THz tuning range) of the proposed OHT cannot be obtained from the existing OHTs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Sharma
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a linear phase FIR filter is designed through recently proposed nature inspired optimization algorithm known as Cuckoo search (CS. A comparative study of Cuckoo search (CS, particle swarm optimization (PSO and artificial bee colony (ABC nature inspired optimization methods in the field of linear phase FIR filter design is also presented. For this purpose, an improved L1 weighted error function is formulated in frequency domain, and minimized through CS, PSO and ABC respectively. The error or objective function has a controlling parameter wt which controls the amount of ripple in the desired band of frequency. The performance of FIR filter is examined through three key parameters; Maximum Pass Band Ripple (MPR, Maximum Stopband Ripple (MSR and Stopband Attenuation (As. Comparative study and the simulation results reveal that the designed filter with CS gives better performance in terms of Maximum Stopband Ripple (MSR, and Stopband Attenuation (As for low order filter design, and for higher order it also gives better performance in term of Maximum Passband Ripple (MPR. Superiority of the proposed technique is also shown through comparison with other recently proposed methods.
An advanced strategy for wind speed forecasting using expert 2-D FIR filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MOGHADDAM, A. A.
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Renewable energies such as wind and solar have become the most attractive means of electricity generation nowadays. Social and environmental benefits as well as economical issues result in further utilization of such these energy resources. In this regard, wind energy plays an important roll in operation of small-scale power systems like Micro Grid. On the other hand, wind stochastic nature in different time and place horizons, makes accurate forecasting of its behavior an inevitable task for market planners and energy management systems. In this paper an advanced strategy for wind speed estimation has been purposed and its superior performance is compared to that of conventional methods. The model is based on linear predictive filtering and image processing principles using 2-D FIR filters. To show the efficiency of purposed predictive model different FIR filters are designed and tested through similar data. Wind speed data have been collected during the period January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2009 from Casella automatic weather station at Plymouth. It is observed that 2-D FIR filters act more accurately in comparison with 1-D conventional representations; however, their prediction ability varies considerably through different filter sizing.
Research progress in SAW filter banks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE Shi-tang
2005-01-01
SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) filter bank is a single input, single or multi-output device consisting of multi-SAW-filters with input interconnection network or switch circuits, and can be divided into two categories: channelizer (multi-output) and switchable (programmable, single output). The former is mainly used in military channelized receiver for spectrum analysis;the latter has wide application in frequency synthesizer and frequency-hopping radar and communication system receiver as anti-jamming filter, and has been widely used in various military electronic equipments ever since the 1970s.Research abroad was done mainly by Americans, few documents on related work done by Japan and Russia are available. Domestic research started in the 1980s, mainly by No. 26 Research Institute, China Electronics Technology Group Co., Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 23 and No. 25 Research Institute, China Spaceflight Tech. Group Co. This paper first briefly introduces Chinese and foreign research on SAW filter banks;then discusses research progress in device design, the input interconnection network or switch circuit and miniaturization;and ends in a brief perspective of developing trends in future.
Realization of Multistage FIR Filters using Pipelining-Interleaving
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M. Ciric
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Multistage digital filters can be one of the solutions for the realization of filters with a narrow transition zone. If requirements for the width of transition zone are too strict, then they are the only alternative, and the decimation/interpolation must be performed in several steps. Combining decimation/interpolation operations related to the implementation of multi-channel filters in the PI (pipelining/interleaving technique can give an efficient structure of multichannel multistage filter. Using the advantages offered by newer generations of FPGA chips in terms of digital design structure, it is possible to realize such filters with considerable savings of hardware resources and reduce the effect of finite length codeword. This paper proposes such an efficient implementation and presents the results of such a realization with FPGA components.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P.Nirmala
2014-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an optimal design of FIR filter is carried out using a “Dynamic Regional Harmony Search algorithm (DRHS with Opposition and Local Learning”. The Harmony Search (HS is a robust optimization algorithm which mimics the musician’s improvisation method and has been used by many researchers for solving and optimizing various real-world optimization problems and numerical solutions. For optimizing the functionality of the FIR filter, DRHS algorithm which is an enhanced variant of the HS algorithm is adopted to avoid pre-mature convergence and stagnation. BY adopting DRHS algorithm the low pass, high pass, band pass and band stop FIR filters are constructed and their performances are evaluated and compared with the other existing optimization techniques. A comparison of the DRHS with other optimization algorithms for constructing FIR filter clearly shows the DRHS finds the optimal solution and the convergence is clearly guaranteed.
Radar Image Texture Classification based on Gabor Filter Bank
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mbainaibeye Jérôme
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to design and develop a filter bank for the detection and classification of radar image texture with 4.6m resolution obtained by airborne synthetic Aperture Radar. The textures of this kind of images are more correlated and contain forms with random disposition. The design and the developing of the filter bank is based on Gabor filter. We have elaborated a set of filters applied to each set of feature texture allowing its identification and enhancement in comparison with other textures. The filter bank which we have elaborated is represented by a combination of different texture filters. After processing, the selected filter bank is the filter bank which allows the identification of all the textures of an image with a significant identification rate. This developed filter is applied to radar image and the obtained results are compared with those obtained by using filter banks issue from the generalized Gaussian models (GGM. We have shown that Gabor filter developed in this work gives the classification rate greater than the results obtained by Generalized Gaussian model. The main contribution of this work is the generation of the filter banks able to give an optimal filter bank for a given texture and in particular for radar image textures
Sharpening the response of an FIR filter using Fractional Fourier Transform
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Somesh Chaturvedi
2012-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper we have implemented FIR filter with the help of Kaiser Window and Fractional Fourier Transform (FRFT. The window shape parameter is tuned for the transition band by considering linear phase FRFT Finite Impulse Response (FIR filter. Here FRFT of Kaiser Window is taken and convolved with the response function for tuning purposes of the transition band which makes effective transition band. This proposed method includes the change of parameters of Kaiser window by which other windows like Rectangle, Bartlett, Hamming Blackman and Hanning windows are generated by using FRFT. The efficiencies of this method in terms of main lobe and side ripples are better than the above mentioned windows under Fourier transform.
HR approximation of FIR filters via discrete-time hybrid-domain vector fitting
2009-01-01
We present a discrete-time hybrid-domain vector fitting algorithm, called HD-VFz, for the HR approximation of FIR filters with an arbitrary combination of time- and frequency-sampled responses. The core routine involves a two-step pole refinement process based on a linear least-squares solve and an eigenvalue problem. Through hybrid-domain data approximation and digital partial fraction basis with relative stability consideration, HD-VFz exhibits fast computation and remarkable fitting accura...
WSPEC: A Waveguide Filter Bank Spectrometer
Che, George; Underhill, Matthew; Mauskopf, Philip; Groppi, Christopher; Jones, Glenn; Johnson, Bradley; McCarrick, Heather; Flanigan, Daniel; Day, Peter
2015-01-01
We have designed, fabricated, and measured a 5-channel prototype spectrometer pixel operating in the WR10 band to demonstrate a novel moderate-resolution (R=f/{\\Delta}f~100), multi-pixel, broadband, spectrometer concept for mm and submm-wave astronomy. Our design implements a transmission line filter bank using waveguide resonant cavities as a series of narrow-band filters, each coupled to an aluminum kinetic inductance detector (KID). This technology has the potential to perform the next generation of spectroscopic observations needed to drastically improve our understanding of the epoch of reionization (EoR), star formation, and large-scale structure of the universe. We present our design concept, results from measurements on our prototype device, and the latest progress on our efforts to develop a 4-pixel demonstrator instrument operating in the 130-250 GHz band.
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LITA LIDYAWATI
2016-02-01
Full Text Available ABSTRAK Filter didefinisikan sebagai proses atau rangkaian yang melewatkan pita frekuensi tertentu yang diinginkan dan meredam pita frekuensi lainnya. Salah satu metode perancangan filter digital Finite Impulse Response (FIR adalah metode windowing. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan jenis window Hamming dan Blackman. Simulasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan software Matlab dengan memasukan frekuensi passband, frekuensi stopband, ripple passband, dan stopband attenuation. Dengan frekuensi sampling sebesar 15000 Hz, frekuensi passband sebesar 3000 Hz, frekuensi stopband sebesar 5000 Hz. Setelah simulasi dilakukan implementasi filter dengan parameter yang sama menggunakan DSK TMS 320C6713 dengan bantuan software CCS. Simulasi dan implementasi dilakukan pada semua band frekuensi. Hasil pengujian terhadap implementasi filter adalah respon magnitude, frekuensi cut-off, bandwidth, dan faktor kualitas dengan hasil simulasi tidak menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan. Kata kunci: filter digital, windowing, Hamming, Blackman, frekuensi cut-off . ABSTRACT Filter is defined as a process or series that skip certain desired frequency band and other frequency bands drown. One method of designing a digital filter Finite Impulse Response (FIR is a windowing method. This study used the type of window Hamming and Blackman. Simulations performed using Matlab software by inserting a frequency passband, stopband frequency, passband ripple, and stopband attenuation. With a sampling frequency of 15,000 Hz, a frequency of 3000 Hz passband, stopband frequency of 5000 Hz. After the simulation is completed, implementation of the filter with the same parameters using TMS 320C6713 DSK with the help of software CCS. Simulation and implmentasi performed on all frequency bands. The test results of the implementation of the filter is the Magnitude response, the cut-off frequency, bandwidth, and quality factor with simulation results showed no significant difference. Keywords: digital
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Daniel A. Castello
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The present work is aimed at assessing the performance of adaptive Finite Impulse Response (FIR filters on the identification of vibrating structures. Four adaptive algorithms were used: Least Mean Squares (LMS, Normalized Least Mean Squares (NLMS, Transform-Domain Least Mean Squares (TD – LMS and Set-Membership Binormalized Data-Reusing LMS Algorithm (SM – BNDRLMS. The capability of these filters to perform the identification of vibrating structures is shown on real experiments. The first experiment consists of an aluminum cantilever beam containing piezoelectric sensors and actuators and the second one is a steel pinned-pinned beam instrumented with accelerometers and an electromechanical shaker.
Some properties on multivariate filter banks with a matrix factorization
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIAN Qiaofang; XIAO Hongying; CHEN Qiuhui
2005-01-01
A class of multivariate filter banks with a matrix factorization has been developed by Chen et al. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss some further properties of this kind of filter bank, such as the completeness, accuracy of the corresponding scaling functions and the relationships with Daubechies' wavelets and the multi-wavelets provided by Chui and Lian. Moreover, some examples are given to show that this kind of filter bank has a higher accuracy for the scaling functions.
Preconditioning Filter Bank Decomposition Using Structured Normalized Tight Frames
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Martin Ehler
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We turn a given filter bank into a filtering scheme that provides perfect reconstruction, synthesis is the adjoint of the analysis part (so-called unitary filter banks, all filters have equal norm, and the essential features of the original filter bank are preserved. Unitary filter banks providing perfect reconstruction are induced by tight generalized frames, which enable signal decomposition using a set of linear operators. If, in addition, frame elements have equal norm, then the signal energy is spread through the various filter bank channels in some uniform fashion, which is often more suitable for further signal processing. We start with a given generalized frame whose elements allow for fast matrix vector multiplication, as, for instance, convolution operators, and compute a normalized tight frame, for which signal analysis and synthesis still preserve those fast algorithmic schemes.
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SZOPOS, E.
2012-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an iterative method for designing FIR filters that implement arbitrary magnitude characteristics, defined by the user through a set of frequency-magnitude points (frequency samples. The proposed method is based on the non-uniform frequency sampling algorithm. For each iteration a new set of frequency samples is generated, by processing the set used in the previous run; this implies changing the samples location around the previous frequency values and adjusting their magnitude through interpolation. If necessary, additional samples can be introduced, as well. After each iteration the magnitude characteristic of the resulting filter is determined by using the non-uniform DFT and compared with the required one; if the errors are larger than the acceptable levels (set by the user a new iteration is run; the length of the resulting filter and the values of its coefficients are also taken into consideration when deciding a re-run. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method a tool for designing FIR filters that match human audiograms was implemented in LabVIEW. It was shown that the resulting filters have smaller coefficients than the standard one, and can also have lower order, while the errors remain relatively small.
Round-Off Noise of Multiplicative FIR Filters Implemented on an FPGA Platform
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Jean-Jacques Vandenbussche
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the effects of round-off noise on Multiplicative Finite Impulse Response (MFIR filters used to approximate the behavior of pole filters. General expressions to calculate the signal to round-off noise ratio of a cascade structure of Finite Impulse Response (FIR filters are obtained and applied on the special case of MFIR filters. The analysis is based on fixed-point implementations, which are most common in digital signal processing algorithms implemented in Field-Programmable Gate-Array (FPGA technology. Three well known scaling methods, i.e., L2 bound; infinity bound and absolute bound scaling are considered and compared. The paper shows that the ordering of the MFIR stages, in combination with the scaling methods, have an important impact on the round-off noise. An optimal ordering of the stages for a chosen scaling method can improve the round-off noise performance by 20 dB.
Application of uniform DFT filter bank in radar jamming system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dai Le; Gao Meiguo
2006-01-01
The principle of Uniform DFT filter bank is presented. Exploiting poly-phase structure, radar jamming system samples the intercepted wideband radar signals through analysis filter bank by different channels and linearly modulates the intercepted radar signal according to the theory of signal and system, then synthesizes the jamming signal through the synthesis filter bank. The method merely requires lower sample frequency, reduces the computational complexity and the data quantity to be processed. The un-ideal filter's influence to the result of signals processing is analyzed by simulating the match filter in radar jamming system.
Channel Equalization in Filter Bank Based Multicarrier Modulation for Wireless Communications
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Markku Renfors
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Channel equalization in filter bank based multicarrier (FBMC modulation is addressed. We utilize an efficient oversampled filter bank concept with 2x-oversampled subcarrier signals that can be equalized independently of each other. Due to Nyquist pulse shaping, consecutive symbol waveforms overlap in time, which calls for special means for equalization. Two alternative linear low-complexity subcarrier equalizer structures are developed together with straightforward channel estimation-based methods to calculate the equalizer coefficients using pointwise equalization within each subband (in a frequency-sampled manner. A novel structure, consisting of a linear-phase FIR amplitude equalizer and an allpass filter as phase equalizer, is found to provide enhanced robustness to timing estimation errors. This allows the receiver to be operated without time synchronization before the filter bank. The coded error-rate performance of FBMC with the studied equalization scheme is compared to a cyclic prefix OFDM reference in wireless mobile channel conditions, taking into account issues like spectral regrowth with practical nonlinear transmitters and sensitivity to frequency offsets. It is further emphasized that FBMC provides flexible means for high-quality frequency selective filtering in the receiver to suppress strong interfering spectral components within or close to the used frequency band.
Channel Equalization in Filter Bank Based Multicarrier Modulation for Wireless Communications
Ihalainen, Tero; Hidalgo Stitz, Tobias; Rinne, Mika; Renfors, Markku
2006-12-01
Channel equalization in filter bank based multicarrier (FBMC) modulation is addressed. We utilize an efficient oversampled filter bank concept with 2x-oversampled subcarrier signals that can be equalized independently of each other. Due to Nyquist pulse shaping, consecutive symbol waveforms overlap in time, which calls for special means for equalization. Two alternative linear low-complexity subcarrier equalizer structures are developed together with straightforward channel estimation-based methods to calculate the equalizer coefficients using pointwise equalization within each subband (in a frequency-sampled manner). A novel structure, consisting of a linear-phase FIR amplitude equalizer and an allpass filter as phase equalizer, is found to provide enhanced robustness to timing estimation errors. This allows the receiver to be operated without time synchronization before the filter bank. The coded error-rate performance of FBMC with the studied equalization scheme is compared to a cyclic prefix OFDM reference in wireless mobile channel conditions, taking into account issues like spectral regrowth with practical nonlinear transmitters and sensitivity to frequency offsets. It is further emphasized that FBMC provides flexible means for high-quality frequency selective filtering in the receiver to suppress strong interfering spectral components within or close to the used frequency band.
Design of efficient circularly symmetric two-dimensional variable digital FIR filters.
Bindima, Thayyil; Elias, Elizabeth
2016-05-01
Circularly symmetric two-dimensional (2D) finite impulse response (FIR) filters find extensive use in image and medical applications, especially for isotropic filtering. Moreover, the design and implementation of 2D digital filters with variable fractional delay and variable magnitude responses without redesigning the filter has become a crucial topic of interest due to its significance in low-cost applications. Recently the design using fixed word length coefficients has gained importance due to the replacement of multipliers by shifters and adders, which reduces the hardware complexity. Among the various approaches to 2D design, transforming a one-dimensional (1D) filter to 2D by transformation, is reported to be an efficient technique. In this paper, 1D variable digital filters (VDFs) with tunable cut-off frequencies are designed using Farrow structure based interpolation approach, and the sub-filter coefficients in the Farrow structure are made multiplier-less using canonic signed digit (CSD) representation. The resulting performance degradation in the filters is overcome by using artificial bee colony (ABC) optimization. Finally, the optimized 1D VDFs are mapped to 2D using generalized McClellan transformation resulting in low complexity, circularly symmetric 2D VDFs with real-time tunability.
Multirate Filter Bank Representations of RS and BCH Codes
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Marc Moonen
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the use of multirate filter banks in the context of error-correction coding. An in-depth study of these filter banks is presented, motivated by earlier results and applications based on the filter bank representation of Reed-Solomon (RS codes, such as Soft-In Soft-Out RS-decoding or RS-OFDM. The specific structure of the filter banks (critical subsampling is an important aspect in these applications. The goal of the paper is twofold. First, the filter bank representation of RS codes is now explained based on polynomial descriptions. This approach allows us to gain new insight in the correspondence between RS codes and filter banks. More specifically, it allows us to show that the inherent periodically time-varying character of a critically subsampled filter bank matches remarkably well with the cyclic properties of RS codes. Secondly, an extension of these techniques toward the more general class of BCH codes is presented. It is demonstrated that a BCH code can be decomposed into a sum of critically subsampled filter banks.
Multirate Filter Bank Representations of RS and BCH Codes
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Van Meerbergen Geert
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract This paper addresses the use of multirate filter banks in the context of error-correction coding. An in-depth study of these filter banks is presented, motivated by earlier results and applications based on the filter bank representation of Reed-Solomon (RS codes, such as Soft-In Soft-Out RS-decoding or RS-OFDM. The specific structure of the filter banks (critical subsampling is an important aspect in these applications. The goal of the paper is twofold. First, the filter bank representation of RS codes is now explained based on polynomial descriptions. This approach allows us to gain new insight in the correspondence between RS codes and filter banks. More specifically, it allows us to show that the inherent periodically time-varying character of a critically subsampled filter bank matches remarkably well with the cyclic properties of RS codes. Secondly, an extension of these techniques toward the more general class of BCH codes is presented. It is demonstrated that a BCH code can be decomposed into a sum of critically subsampled filter banks.
Multidimensional filter banks and wavelets research developments and applications
Levy, Bernard
1997-01-01
Multidimensional Filter Banks and Wavelets: Reserach Developments and Applications brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this important area. Multidimensional Filter Banks and Wavelets: Research Developments and Applications serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most important research issues in the field.
Design of FIR Filters with Discrete Coefficients using Ant Colony Optimization
Tsutsumi, Shuntaro; Suyama, Kenji
In this paper, we propose a new design method for linear phase FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filters with discrete coefficients. In a hardware implementation, filter coefficients must be represented as discrete values. The design problem of digital filters with discrete coefficients is formulated as the integer programming problem. Then, an enormous amount of computational time is required to solve the problem in a strict solver. Recently, ACO (Ant Colony Optimization) which is one heuristic approach, is used widely for solving combinational problem like the traveling salesman problem. In our method, we formulate the design problem as the 0-1 integer programming problem and solve it by using the ACO. Several design examples are shown to present effectiveness of the proposed method.
Neural Network Algorithm for Designing FIR Filters Utilizing Frequency-Response Masking Technique
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiao-Hua Wang; Yi-Gang He; Tian-Zan Li
2009-01-01
This paper presents a new joint optimization method for the design of sharp linear-phase finite-impulse response (FIR) digital filters which are synthesized by using basic and multistage frequency-response-masking (FRM) techniques. The method is based on a batch back-propagation neural network algorithm with a variable learning rate mode. We propose the following two-step optimization technique in order to reduce the complexity. At the first step, an initial FRM filter is designed by alternately optimizing the subfilters. At the second step, this solution is then used as a start-up solution to further optimization. The further optimization problem is highly nonlinear with respect to the coefficients of all the subfilters. Therefore, it is decomposed into several linear neural network optimization problems. Some examples from the literature are given, and the results show that the proposed algorithm can design better FRM filters than several existing methods.
Modeling the hemodynamic response in fMRI using smooth FIR filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Goutte, Cyril; Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai
2000-01-01
-parametric approach based on finite impulse response (FIR) filters. In order to cope with the increase in the number of degrees of freedom, the authors introduce a Gaussian process prior on the filter parameters. They show how to carry on the analysis by incorporating prior knowledge on the filters, optimizing hyper......Modeling the hemodynamic response in functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) experiments is an important aspect of the analysis of functional neuroimages. This has been done in the past using parametric response function, from a limited family. In this contribution, the authors adopt a semi......-parameters using the evidence framework, or sampling using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach. The authors present a comparison of their model with standard hemodynamic response kernels on simulated data, and perform a full analysis of data acquired during an experiment involving visual stimulation....
Multidimensional Systolic Arrays of LMS AlgorithmAdaptive (FIR Digital Filters
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Bakir A. R. Al-Hashemy
2009-01-01
Full Text Available A multidimensional systolic arrays realization of LMS algorithm by a method of mapping regular algorithm onto processor array, are designed. They are based on appropriately selected 1-D systolic array filter that depends on the inner product sum systolic implementation. Various arrays may be derived that exhibit a regular arrangement of the cells (processors and local interconnection pattern, which are important for VLSI implementation. It reduces latency time and increases the throughput rate in comparison to classical 1-D systolic arrays. The 3-D multilayered array consists of 2-D layers, which are connected with each other only by edges. Such arrays for LMS-based adaptive (FIR filter may be opposed the fundamental requirements of fast convergence rate in most adaptive filter applications.
Estimation of Upper Bound for Order of Filters used in Perfect Reconstruction Filter Banks
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B. R. Nagendra
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Filter banks are widely used in variety of applications such as signal compression, multi-channel transmission, conditioning of power supply, coding and decoding of signals, etc. Perfect reconstruction filter banks are used in the applications where it is essential to reconstruct the original signal with minimum errors. Compression of satellite vibration test data is one such application where perfect reconstruction filter banks can be used to design wavelets. These wavelets are used in transform coding stage of compression algorithm. It is required to have higher order for filters used in perfect reconstruction filter banks, to ensure better filter characteristics. The study carried out in this work, estimates the upper bound for order that can be assigned to filters used in perfect reconstruction filter banks
1-D Systolic Arrays Design of LMS Adaptive (FIR Digital Filtering
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Ali H. Mahdi
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper extends the 1-D systolic array approach with a method of systematic linear design of systolic algorithms. Past methods for mapping the Least-Mean-Square (LMS Adaptive Finite-Impulse-Response (FIR filter onto parallel and pipelined architectures either introduce delays in the coefficients updates or have excessive hardware requirements. In this article, we describe an efficient 1-D systolic array for the LMS adaptive FIR filter that produces the same output and error signals as produced by the standard LMS adaptive filter architecture with single assignment form of processor functions.The proposed systolic architectures that are designed operate on a block-by-block basis and makes use of the flexibility in the design, which takes the inner product step (convolution sum of the tap weight vector and the tap input vector in the design consideration. It enables us to extract more than one algorithm for the same problem. The input and output data flow sequentially and continuously into and out of the systolic arrays at the system clock rates, during each clock period, processing element of the same type operates in parallel. The most computationally demanding among them performs only two consecutive multiplications and two additions/subtractions per clock period, thereby allowing a very high throughput and very fast block signal processing to be achieved at the expense of a delay of L samples between the input and output and 100% utilization, L being the block size.
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Khanagha Ali
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Blind identification of MIMO FIR systems has widely received attentions in various fields of wireless data communications. Here, we use Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO as the update mechanism of the well-known inverse filtering approach and we show its good performance compared to original method. Specially, the proposed method is shown to be more robust against lower SNR scenarios or in cases with smaller lengths of available data records. Also, a modified version of PSO is presented which further improves the robustness and preciseness of PSO algorithm. However the most important promise of the modified version is its drastically faster convergence compared to standard implementation of PSO.
Lnear Phase FIR Filter on Measuring 3—D Surface
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANGYunshan; YANGFujun; 等
1997-01-01
An optical technology for 3-D surface measurement is se up.The technology,based on a deformed projected grating pattern which carries the 3-D information of the measured object,can automatically and accurately obtain the phase map of a measured object by using a linear-phase FIR filter.In contrast to the 2-D fast Fourier transform technique,it's more than fast.Only one image pattern is sufficient for measuring .The phase map can be processed without assigning fringe orders and making distinction between a depression and an elevation.Theoretical analysis and experimental result are presented.
Design of hardware efficient FIR filter: A review of the state-of-the-art approaches
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Abhijit Chandra
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Digital signal processing (DSP is one of the most powerful technologies which will shape the science, engineering and technology of the twenty-first century. Since 1970, revolutionary changes took place in the broad area of DSP which has made it an essential tool in many engineering applications. Digital filter is considered to be one of the most important components of almost every DSP sub-systems and therefore a number of extensive works had been carried out by researchers on the design of such filter. In order to meet the stringent requirements of filter specification, order of the designed filter is generally assumed to be very large and this leads to high power and area consumption during their implementation. As a matter of fact, design of hardware efficient digital filter has drawn enormous attention which needs to be addressed by various useful means. One popular approach has been to encode the tap coefficients of such filter in the form of sum of signed powers-of-two and thus the operation of multiplication is substituted by simple addition and shifting. This paper presents a detailed review of the basic design approaches applicable for the synthesis of hardware efficient finite duration impulse response (FIR filter. Both the traditional and heuristic search algorithms have been incorporated and properly arranged in this review.
Design of perfect reconstruction rational sampling filter banks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The design of rational sampling filter banks based on a recombination structure can be formulated as a problem with two objective functions to be optimized. A new hybrid optimization method for designing perfectreconstruction rational sampling filter banks is presented, which can be used to solve a class of problems with two objective functions. This method is of good convergence and mezzo calculation cost. Satisfactory results free of aliasing in analysis and synthesis filters can be obtained by the proposed method.
Gao, Hao
2015-01-01
This work is to develop a general framework, namely filtered iterative reconstruction (FIR) method, to incorporate analytical reconstruction (AR) method into iterative reconstruction (IR) method, for enhanced CT image quality. Specifically, FIR is formulated as a combination of filtered data fidelity and sparsity regularization, and then solved by proximal forward-backward splitting (PFBS) algorithm. As a result, the image reconstruction decouples data fidelity and image regularization with a two-step iterative scheme, during which an AR-projection step updates the filtered data fidelity term, while a denoising solver updates the sparsity regularization term. During the AR-projection step, the image is projected to the data domain to form the data residual, and then reconstructed by certain AR to a residual image which is in turn weighted together with previous image iterate to form next image iterate. Since the eigenvalues of AR-projection operator are close to the unity, PFBS based FIR has a fast convergenc...
Yin, SS; Chan, SC; Tsui, KM; Xie, XM
2008-01-01
This paper studies the theory and design of a class of perfect reconstruction (PR) uniform causal-stable infinite-impulse response (IIR) cosine modulated filter banks (CMFBs). The design approach is also applicable to the design of PR recombination nonuniform (RN) IIR CMFBs. The polyphase components of the prototype filters of these IIR CMFBs are assumed to have the same denominator so as to simplify the PR condition. In designing the proposed IIR CMFB, a PR FIR CMFB with similar specificatio...
PROCESSING ECG SIGNAL WITH KAISER WINDOW- BASED FIR DIGITAL FILTERS BY
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Mbachu C.B
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Heart attacks mostly occur in people who suffer from heart or heart-relate diseases if these diseases are not detected early enough and treated. There is therefore the need for a reliable means of detecting these diseases to save the patients from these attacks which are increasing in proportion all over the world. Electrocardiography (ECG, which is the electrical activity of the heart, generates a signal referred to as ECG signal or simply ECG and the shape of this signal tells much about the condition of the heart of a patient. Naturally the ECG signal gets distorted by different artifacts which must be removed otherwise it will convey an incorrect information regarding the patients heart condition. The work in this paper is the design of FIR digital filters with Kaiser Window to remove the interferences or the artifacts. Three filters are considered: low pass, high pass and notch filters. Each filter is used to filter the raw noisy ECG signal after which the three filters are used in cascade. Results are observed and recorded in each case, using FDA tool.
A VHDL Implementation of Direct, Pipelined and Distributed Arithmetic FIR Filters
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Sucharitha. L
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Digital filters are typically used to modify or alter the attributes of a signal in the time or frequency domain. In this project, various FIR filter structures will be studied and implemented in VHDL. Basic arithmetic blocks to carry out DSP on FPGAs will be discussed. The very popular LUT based approach for arithmetic circuit implementation will be presented. The conventional PDSP MAC and Distributed arithmetic MAC units will be implemented and their performance will be compared. Usage of Pipelining in multipliers for improving the speed will also be discussed. The ModelSim XE simulator will be used to simulate the design at various stages. Xilinx synthesis tool (XST will be used to synthesize the design for spartan3E family FPGA (XC3S500E. Xilinx Placement {&} Routing tools will be used for backend, design optimization and I/O routing
Optimized FPGA Implementation of Multi-Rate FIR Filters Through Thread Decomposition
Kobayashi, Kayla N.; He, Yutao; Zheng, Jason X.
2011-01-01
Multi-rate finite impulse response (MRFIR) filters are among the essential signal-processing components in spaceborne instruments where finite impulse response filters are often used to minimize nonlinear group delay and finite precision effects. Cascaded (multistage) designs of MRFIR filters are further used for large rate change ratio in order to lower the required throughput, while simultaneously achieving comparable or better performance than single-stage designs. Traditional representation and implementation of MRFIR employ polyphase decomposition of the original filter structure, whose main purpose is to compute only the needed output at the lowest possible sampling rate. In this innovation, an alternative representation and implementation technique called TD-MRFIR (Thread Decomposition MRFIR) is presented. The basic idea is to decompose MRFIR into output computational threads, in contrast to a structural decomposition of the original filter as done in the polyphase decomposition. A naive implementation of a decimation filter consisting of a full FIR followed by a downsampling stage is very inefficient, as most of the computations performed by the FIR state are discarded through downsampling. In fact, only 1/M of the total computations are useful (M being the decimation factor). Polyphase decomposition provides an alternative view of decimation filters, where the downsampling occurs before the FIR stage, and the outputs are viewed as the sum of M sub-filters with length of N/M taps. Although this approach leads to more efficient filter designs, in general the implementation is not straightforward if the numbers of multipliers need to be minimized. In TD-MRFIR, each thread represents an instance of the finite convolution required to produce a single output of the MRFIR. The filter is thus viewed as a finite collection of concurrent threads. Each of the threads completes when a convolution result (filter output value) is computed, and activated when the first
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Apoorva Aggarwal
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an optimal design of linear phase digital finite impulse response (FIR highpass (HP filter using the L1-norm based real-coded genetic algorithm (RCGA is investigated. A novel fitness function based on L1 norm is adopted to enhance the design accuracy. Optimized filter coefficients are obtained by defining the filter objective function in L1 sense using RCGA. Simulation analysis unveils that the performance of the RCGA adopting this fitness function is better in terms of signal attenuation ability of the filter, flatter passband and the convergence rate. Observations are made on the percentage improvement of this algorithm over the gradient-based L1 optimization approach on various factors by a large amount. It is concluded that RCGA leads to the best solution under specified parameters for the FIR filter design on account of slight unnoticeable higher transition width.
Radar Image Texture Classification based on Gabor Filter Bank
Mbainaibeye Jérôme; Olfa Marrakchi Charfi
2014-01-01
The aim of this paper is to design and develop a filter bank for the detection and classification of radar image texture with 4.6m resolution obtained by airborne synthetic Aperture Radar. The textures of this kind of images are more correlated and contain forms with random disposition. The design and the developing of the filter bank is based on Gabor filter. We have elaborated a set of filters applied to each set of feature texture allowing its identification and enhancement in comparison w...
Paraunitary Oversampled Filter Bank Design for Channel Coding
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Cooper Tom
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Oversampled filter banks (OSFBs have been considered for channel coding, since their redundancy can be utilised to permit the detection and correction of channel errors. In this paper, we propose an OSFB-based channel coder for a correlated additive Gaussian noise channel, of which the noise covariance matrix is assumed to be known. Based on a suitable factorisation of this matrix, we develop a design for the decoder's synthesis filter bank in order to minimise the noise power in the decoded signal, subject to admitting perfect reconstruction through paraunitarity of the filter bank. We demonstrate that this approach can lead to a significant reduction of the noise interference by exploiting both the correlation of the channel and the redundancy of the filter banks. Simulation results providing some insight into these mechanisms are provided.
A Review of Polyphase Filter Banks and Their Application
2006-09-01
publication. APPROVED: /s/ GERALD C. NETHERCOTT Chief, Multi-Sensor Exploitation Branch FOR THE DIRECTOR...4] N.J. Fliege, Multirate Digital Signal Processing, Chichester, U.K.: Wiley, 1994. [5] T. Karp and N.J. Fliege, “Modified DFT Filter Banks with...6] T. Karp and N. J. Fliege, “Computational efficiency realization of MDFT filter banks,” in Proc. EURASIP European Signal Processing Conf
Low-Cost Design of an FIR Filter by Using a Coefficient Mapping Method
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Ming-Chih Chen
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This work presents a novel coefficient mapping method to reduce the area cost of the finite impulse response (FIR filter design, especially for optimizing its coefficients. Being capable of reducing the area cost and improving the filter performance, the proposed mapping method consists of four steps: quantization of coefficients, import of parameters, constitution of prime coefficients with parameters, and constitution of residual coefficients with prime coefficients. Effectiveness of the proposed coefficient mapping method is verified by selecting the 48-tap filter of IS-95 code division multiple access (CDMA standard as the benchmark. Experimental results indicate that the proposed design with canonical signed digit (CSD coefficients can operate at 86 MHz with an area of 241,813 um2, leading to a throughput rate of 1,382 Mbps. Its ratio of throughput/area is 5,715 Kbps/um2, yielding a higher performance than that of previous designs. In summary, the proposed design reduces 5.7% of the total filter area, shortens 25.7% of the critical path delay, and improves 14.8% of the throughput/area by a value over that of the best design reported before.
Optimized multichannel decomposition for texture segmentation using Gabor filter bank
Nezamoddini-Kachouie, Nezamoddin; Alirezaie, Javad
2004-05-01
Texture segmentation and analysis is an important aspect of pattern recognition and digital image processing. Previous approaches to texture analysis and segmentation perform multi-channel filtering by applying a set of filters to the image. In this paper we describe a texture segmentation algorithm based on multi-channel filtering that is optimized using diagonal high frequency residual. Gabor band pass filters with different radial spatial frequencies and different orientations have optimum resolution in time and frequency domain. The image is decomposed by a set of Gabor filters into a number of filtered images; each one contains variation of intensity on a sub-band frequency and orientation. The features extracted by Gabor filters have been applied for image segmentation and analysis. There are some important considerations about filter parameters and filter bank coverage in frequency domain. This filter bank does not completely cover the corners of the frequency domain along the diagonals. In our method we optimize the spatial implementation for the Gabor filter bank considering the diagonal high frequency residual. Segmentation is accomplished by a feedforward backpropagation multi-layer perceptron that is trained by optimized extracted features. After MLP is trained the input image is segmented and each pixel is assigned to the proper class.
Subband image coding using filter banks with non-uniform passband distribution
Lu, Xiqun; Chen, Li; Chan, KwokPing
1997-01-01
In this paper, subband filter banks with non-uniform passband distribution in frequency domain are studied. Several design examples are presented and compared with conventional uniform bandwidth filter banks. Image coding results show that filter banks with non-uniform bandwidth outperform filter banks with uniform bandwidth, especially in low bit rate coding.
Design of Two—Channel Linear—Phase Filter Banks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANGZijing; JLAOLicheng; YANGYun
2003-01-01
An efficient iterative Lagrange multiplier approcach is developed in this paper to design two-channel perfect reconstruction linear-phase fllter banks.This approach has high design efflciency and can be used to design both equal-length and unequal-length filter banks.A design example is presented and compared with other methods.It can be shown that two-channel perfect reconstruction linear-phase filter banks with higher stopband attenuation can be obtained using the nwe method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Kulla
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The main image information content, from the human visual system viewing point, is focused into whole colorimetric and spatial informations. Because every image is result of some previous processes, the goal for all standard image processing methods is improvement colorimetric and spatial image parameters in relation maximum information content by the complicated and expensive systems for digital image processing in (quasireal time [1] based on the flash signal (multiprocessors. Some single-purpose applications do not need the robust and flash systems for DIP and be enough for their use single digital filters with suitable hardware implementation. In the contribution discussed problem is therefore focused on the short description of FIR digital tilters and their hardware implementation in FPGAs-Xilinx for usage in the image processing in real time include obtained experimental results.
Filter and Filter Bank Design for Image Texture Recognition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Randen, Trygve
1997-12-31
The relevance of this thesis to energy and environment lies in its application to remote sensing such as for instance sea floor mapping and seismic pattern recognition. The focus is on the design of two-dimensional filters for feature extraction, segmentation, and classification of digital images with textural content. The features are extracted by filtering with a linear filter and estimating the local energy in the filter response. The thesis gives a review covering broadly most previous approaches to texture feature extraction and continues with proposals of some new techniques. 143 refs., 59 figs., 7 tabs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Díaz-Carmona
2005-01-01
Full Text Available En este artículo se describe el diseño en el dominio de la frecuencia de filtros digitales FIR de retraso fraccionario (Fractional Delay Filter, FDF con características de ancho de banda amplio y una resolución fina de retraso. El método de diseño en frecuencia utilizado está basado en optimización con mínimos cuadrados en la aproximación de series de Taylor de la señal de entrada. La propuesta consiste en reducir la complejidad de la optimización en frecuencia al momento de diseñar el FDF. Lo anterior se logra con la combinación de una estructura multirazón (multirate y una estructura Farrow modificada. El filtro resultante presenta como ventajas un número reducido de operaciones por muestra de salida y una reducción notable en la carga computacional de diseño.A frequency domain design method for fractional delay FIR filters (Fractional Delay Filter, FDF with wide bandwidth and fine delay resolution is described. The frequency domain method is based on a least square Taylor series approximation of the input signal. The proposed design method consists of reducing the complexity of the frequency optimization workload in the design of the FDF. This is obtained by the combination of a multirate structure and a modified Farrow structure. The resulting filter has a reduced number of arithmetic operations per output sample and yields a significant reduction in the design computational workload.
Fir Filter Design Using The Signed-Digit Number System and Carry Save Adders – A Comparison
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hesham Altwaijry
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This work looks at optimizing finite impulse response (FIR filters from an arithmetic perspective. Since the main two arithmetic operations in the convolution equations are addition and multiplication, they are the targets of the optimization. Therefore, considering carry-propagate-free addition techniques should enhance the addition operation of the filter. The signed-digit number system is utilized to speedup addition in the filter. An alternative carry propagate free fast adder, carry-save adder, is also used here to compare its performance to the signed-digit adder. For multiplication, Booth encoding is used to reduce the number of partial products. The two filters are modeled in VHDL, synthesized and place-and-routed. The filters are deployed on a development board to filter digital images. The resultant hardware is analyzed for speed and logic utilization
Maximum SINR Synchronization Strategies in Multiuser Filter Bank Schemes
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Pecile Francesco
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We consider synchronization in a multiuser filter bank uplink system with single-user detection. Perfect user synchronization is not the optimal choice as the intuition would suggest. To maximize performance the synchronization parameters have to be chosen to maximize the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR at each equalizer subchannel output. However, the resulting filter bank receiver structure becomes complex. Therefore, we consider two simplified synchronization metrics that are based on the maximization of the average SINR of a given user or the aggregate SINR of all users. Furthermore, a relaxation of the aggregate SINR metric allows implementing an efficient multiuser analysis filter bank. This receiver deploys two fractionally spaced analysis stages. Each analysis stage is efficiently implemented via a polyphase filter bank, followed by an extended discrete Fourier transform that allows the user frequency offsets to be partly compensated. Then, sub-channel maximum SINR equalization is used. We discuss the application of the proposed solution to Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA and multiuser Filtered Multitone (FMT systems.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S C PRASANNA; S P JOY VASANTHA RANI
2016-10-01
This brief presents an efficient binary common subexpression elimination (BCSE)-based approach for designing reconfigurable interpolation root-raised cosine (RRC) finite-impulse-response (FIR) filter, whose coefficients change during runtime for multistandard wireless communication system called software-defined radio (SDR). Reconfiguration can be done conveniently by storing the coded coefficients in the lookup tables (LUTs), and loading the required coefficient set over the interpolation filter. In the proposed method based on 4-bit BCSE algorithm, first the number of binary common subexpressions (BCSs) formed in the coefficients is reduced. Hence, multiplexers, shifters, and adders in the multiplier structure are reduced, which results in theimprovement of operating frequency. The number of addition operations is further reduced using programmable adders and an efficient polyphase interpolation structure is implemented to reduce the hardware cost. The proposed design has 49.5% less area-delay product and 28.6% improved frequency of operation when comparedto a 2-bit BCSE-based technique reported earlier when implemented on Xilinx field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device XC2VP4FF672-6. Similarly, the proposed design supports 93.14 MHz operating frequency, which is 59.2% and 74.2% greater when compared to 2-bit BCSE- and 3-bit BCSE-based approach when implemented on XC2V3000FF1152-4. The proposed structure also shows improved performance in terms of speed and area when compared to distributed arithmetic (DA)-based and multiply-accumulate (MAC)-based approaches.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diaz, Daniel Suescun
2007-07-01
This work presents two new methods for the solution of the inverse point kinetics equation. The first method is based on the integration by parts of the integral of the inverse point kinetics equation, which results in a power series in terms of the nuclear power in time dependence. Applying some conditions to the nuclear power, the reactivity is represented as first and second derivatives of this nuclear power. This new calculation method for reactivity has special characteristics, amongst which the possibility of using different sampling periods, and the possibility of restarting the calculation, after its interruption associated it with a possible equipment malfunction, allowing the calculation of reactivity in a non-continuous way. Apart from this reactivity can be obtained with or without dependency on the nuclear power memory. The second method is based on the Laplace transform of the point kinetics equations, resulting in an expression equivalent to the inverse kinetics equation as a function of the power history. The reactivity can be written in terms of the summation of convolution with response to impulse, characteristic of a linear system. For its digital form the Z-transform is used, which is the discrete version of the Laplace transform. In this method it can be pointed out that the linear part is equivalent to a filter named Finite Impulse Response (Fir). The Fir filter will always be, stable and non-varying in time, and, apart from this, it can be implemented in the non-recursive way. This type of implementation does not require feedback, allowing the calculation of reactivity in a continuous way. The proposed methods were validated using signals with random noise and showing the relationship between the reactivity difference and the degree of the random noise. (author)
An Applied Method for Designing Maximally Decimating Non-uniform Filter Banks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
Assembling individual line phase filters to form a multi-channel filter bank allows the synthesis filter to be similar to corresponding analysis filters, and the design calculation can be simple. The appropriate relations between synthesis filters and analysis filters eliminate most aliasing resulting from decimation in non-uniform maximally decimating filter banks, and LS algorithm and Remez algorithm are used to optimize the composite character. This design method can achieve approximate Perfect-Reconstruction. An example is given in which the general parameter filters with approximate line phase are used as units of a filter bank.
Optimized Paraunitary Filter Banks for Time-Frequency Channel Diagonalization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ju Ziyang
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We adopt the concept of channel diagonalization to time-frequency signal expansions obtained by DFT filter banks. As a generalization of the frequency domain channel representation used by conventional orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing receivers, the time-frequency domain channel diagonalization can be applied to time-variant channels and aperiodic signals. An inherent error in the case of doubly dispersive channels can be limited by choosing adequate windows underlying the filter banks. We derive a formula for the mean-squared sample error in the case of wide-sense stationary uncorrelated scattering (WSSUS channels, which serves as objective function in the window optimization. Furthermore, an enhanced scheme for the parameterization of tight Gabor frames enables us to constrain the window in order to define paraunitary filter banks. We show that the design of windows optimized for WSSUS channels with known statistical properties can be formulated as a convex optimization problem. The performance of the resulting windows is investigated under different channel conditions, for different oversampling factors, and compared against the performance of alternative windows. Finally, a generic matched filter receiver incorporating the proposed channel diagonalization is discussed which may be essential for future reconfigurable radio systems.
Optimized Paraunitary Filter Banks for Time-Frequency Channel Diagonalization
Ju, Ziyang; Hunziker, Thomas; Dahlhaus, Dirk
2010-12-01
We adopt the concept of channel diagonalization to time-frequency signal expansions obtained by DFT filter banks. As a generalization of the frequency domain channel representation used by conventional orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing receivers, the time-frequency domain channel diagonalization can be applied to time-variant channels and aperiodic signals. An inherent error in the case of doubly dispersive channels can be limited by choosing adequate windows underlying the filter banks. We derive a formula for the mean-squared sample error in the case of wide-sense stationary uncorrelated scattering (WSSUS) channels, which serves as objective function in the window optimization. Furthermore, an enhanced scheme for the parameterization of tight Gabor frames enables us to constrain the window in order to define paraunitary filter banks. We show that the design of windows optimized for WSSUS channels with known statistical properties can be formulated as a convex optimization problem. The performance of the resulting windows is investigated under different channel conditions, for different oversampling factors, and compared against the performance of alternative windows. Finally, a generic matched filter receiver incorporating the proposed channel diagonalization is discussed which may be essential for future reconfigurable radio systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abhijit Chandra
2012-10-01
Full Text Available In recent times, system designers are becoming very much apprehensive in reducing the structural complexity of digital systems with which they deal in practice. However, the uncontrolled minimization of any digital hardware always leads to significant deterioration of system performance making it incompatible for use in any practical system. As proper trade-off is inevitably essential between achievable performance and required hardware, researchers have sought a number of artificially intelligent optimization techniques to solve it out. Since such a technique generally involves variety of constructional alternatives, appropriate use of correct option demands justified attention. Numerous evolutionary computation techniques, being a branch of biologically inspired optimization process, are being increasingly used for a number of signal processing applications of late. This paper throws enough light to select the most suitable mutation strategy of Differential Evolution (DE algorithm for efficient design of multiplier-less low-pass finite duration impulse response (FIR filter. Computationally efficient mutation scheme has been identified by observing convergence behavior and error histogram plot for different alternatives. Performance of the designed filter has been compared in terms of its magnitude response and the requirement of various hardware blocks for four different lengths of the filter. Consequently the name of the most favorable mutation rule has been suggested upon analyzing all the factors. Finally the supremacy of our proposed design has been established by comparing its performance with that of other state-of-the-art multiplier-less low-pass FIR filters.
优化FIR数字滤波器的FPGA实现%Implementation of Optimal FIR Filter Based on FPGA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邹兴宇; 程树英
2011-01-01
The traditional FIR digital filter was modified with the concept of increasing the speed and reducing the area. Taking into account of the characteristics of FPGA, the Booth Radix-2 algorithm multiplier and the fast adder were designed in the combination with CSA adder and a tree structure, and then the adder and multiplier were used successfully in the design of FIR digital filter.The coefficients of the filter were generated by Matlab. Simulation and synthesis results show that Booth algorithm multiplier and adder tree based on CSA algorithm not only meet the performance requirements of FIR digital filter but also optimize the area on the circuit and especially the speed, and the optimization is more evident when there are a large amount of data.%基于提高速度和减少面积的理念,对传统的FIR数字滤波器进行改良.考虑到FPGA的实现特点,研究并设计了采用Radix-2的Booth算法乘法器以及结合了CSA加法器和树型结构的快速加法器,并成功应用于FIR数字滤波器的设计中.滤波器的系数由Matlab设计产生.仿真和综合结果表明,Booth算法乘法嚣和CSA算法加法器树,在满足FIR数字滤波器的性能要求的同时,在电路实现面积上、尤其是速度上有明显的优化;并且当数据量越多时,优化也越明显.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Wang
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Hybrid filter bank (HFB analog-to-digital systems permit wideband, high frequency conversion. This paper presents mixed norm optimal design of digital synthesis filters of a HFB. The mixed norm is a convex combination of the 2-norm and the Chebyshev norm with a weighting parameter. Robust HFB design method based on worst-case ellipsoidal uncertainty in analog filters errors is also proposed. Both the problems can be solved using semidefinite programming. The proposed mixed norm method allows designers to select the best suitable filters among a family of synthesis filters for specific applications, and the robust design method is more insensitive to analog filters errors than the nominal minimax design
基于FPGA的FIR滤波器设计方法研究%FIR Filter Design based on FPGA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张亮; 刘宇红
2016-01-01
Combined with the characteristics of FPGA internal resources, a modified algorithm for design of high-order and high-speed FIR filter is proposed. Firstly, the basic structure, corresponding response speed and resource consumption of the FIR filter are analyzed, then based on easy realization of the distributed algorithm by FPGA internal look-up table and pipeline operation by internal registers, a parallel distributed algorithm added with pipeline operations is proposed, thus to realize the high-order and high-speed FIR filter based on FPGA, and additionally, the FPGA internal resource consumption with introduction of pipeline operations also evaluated. Finally via Isim simulation the response speed is analyzed, and via MATLAB simulation, the feasibility of the proposed algorithm verified.%结合FPGA内部资源特点，提出一种高速高阶FIR滤波器设计的改进算法。首先，分析了FIR滤波器的基本结构模型，对应的响应速率，以及占用资源情况等。其次，利用 FPGA内部查找表易于实现分布式算法的特点和寄存器易于实现流水操作的特点，提出了一种在FPGA中实现高速高阶FIR滤波器的加流水操作的并行分布式算法，并且评估引入流水操作后FPGA内部的资源消耗。最后，通过ISim仿真分析响应速率，通过MATLAB仿真验证算法的可行性。
2009-06-24
J. Liang, T. D. Tran, and R. L. De Queiroz , “DCT-based gen- eral structure for linear phase paraunitary filter banks,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1572–1580, 2003. ©2007 EURASIP 1331
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Murugeswari
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In Digital Signal Processing, Finite Impulse Response (FIR filter is mostly used for communications and radar applications. The Performance of FIR filter depends on Multiplier and adder circuits used in filter. To reduce the dynamic power consumption and chip size, different multiplier and adder combinations are used in order to improve the overall performance of FIR filter. The Low Power Modified Square Root Carry Select Adder (M-SQRT CSLA is presented in this study by introducing half adders instead of full adders. The proposed M-SQRT CSLA has been designed to reduce dynamic power consumption. Hence the modified SQRT CSLA is applied into Wallace multiplier for addition process after the partial product generation stage. MAC unit of the Digital FIR filter is designed by using modified Wallace multipliers and M-SQRT CSLA. Further the Group 2, Group 3; Group 4 and Group5 structures of SQRT CSLA were constructed using half adders only. Comparison between proposed SQRT CSLA and Modified Carry Save Adder (MCSA has been done with reference to the Area, Power and Delay. It is proved that the proposed SQRT CSLA consumes less area and power than all other methods. Simulation is performed by Modelsim6.3c and Synthesis process is done by Xilinx 10.1. The simulation result shows that digital filter with proposed SQRT CSLA occupies less area and consumes low power.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed G. Egila
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a proposed design for analyzing electrocardiography (ECG signals. This methodology employs highpass least-square linear phase Finite Impulse Response (FIR filtering technique to filter out the baseline wander noise embedded in the input ECG signal to the system. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT was utilized as a feature extraction methodology to extract the reduced feature set from the input ECG signal. The design uses back propagation neural network classifier to classify the input ECG signal. The system is implemented on Xilinx 3AN-XC3S700AN Field Programming Gate Array (FPGA board. A system simulation has been done. The design is compared with some other designs achieving total accuracy of 97.8%, and achieving reduction in utilizing resources on FPGA implementation.
Implementation of a Two-Channel Maximally Decimated Filter Bank using Switched Capacitor Circuits
Nahlik, J.; Hospodka, J.; P. Sovka; B. Psenicka
2013-01-01
The aim of this paper is to describe the implementation of a two-channel filter bank (FB) using the switched capacitor (SC) technique considering real properties of operational amplifiers (OpAmps). The design procedure is presented and key recommendations for the implementation are given. The implementation procedure describes the design of two-channel filter bank using an IIR Cauer filter, conversion of IIR into the SC filters and the final implementation of the SC filters. The whole design ...
CMB Science: Opportunities for a Cryogenic Filter-Bank Spectrometer
Tartari, A.; Battistelli, E. S.; Piat, M.; Prêle, D.
2016-08-01
Cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectral science is experiencing a renewed interest after the impressive result of COBE-FIRAS in the early Nineties. In 2011, the PIXIE proposal contributed to reopen the prospect of measuring deviations from a perfect 2.725 K planckian spectrum. Both COBE-FIRAS and PIXIE are differential Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSes) capable to operate in the null condition across ˜ 2 frequency decades (in the case of PIXIE, the frequency span is 30 GHz-6 THz). We discuss a complementary strategy to observe CMB spectral distortions at frequencies lower than 250 GHz, down to the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the spectrum. The throughput advantage that makes the FTS capable of achieving exquisite sensitivity via multimode operation becomes limited at lower frequencies. We demonstrate that an array of 100 cryogenic planar filter-bank spectrometers coupled to single mode antennas, on a purely statistical ground, can perform better than an FTS between tens of GHz and 200 GHz (a relevant frequency window for cosmology) in the hypothesis that (1) both instruments have the same frequency resolution and (2) both instruments are operated at the photon noise limit (with the FTS frequency band extending from ˜ tens of GHz up to 1 THz). We discuss possible limitations of these hypotheses, and the constraints that have to be fulfilled (mainly in terms of efficiency) in order to operate a cryogenic filter-bank spectrometer close to its ultimate sensitivity limit.
Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Fraenkel, E. D.; van den Berg, Ad M.
2013-01-01
We present the FPGA/NIOS implementation of an adaptive finite impulse response (FIR) filter based on linear prediction to suppress radio frequency interference (RFI). This technique will be used for experiments that observe coherent radio emission from extensive air showers induced by
Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Fraenkel, E. D.; van den Berg, Ad M.
2013-01-01
We present the FPGA/NIOS implementation of an adaptive finite impulse response (FIR) filter based on linear prediction to suppress radio frequency interference (RFI). This technique will be used for experiments that observe coherent radio emission from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high-ene
全并行FIR滤波器的FPGA实现与优化%The implementation and optimization of fully parallel FIR filter based on FPGA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王英喆; 王振宇; 严伟; 时广轶
2015-01-01
FIR digital filter has many implementations, and the needs of real-time modern digital communication require high data throughput and processing speed. The paper introduces the FPGA implementation of high-speed and fully parallel FIR, then takes 8-input and 15-tap FIR filter for example, getting fully parallel FIR structure based on the direct FIR .The fully parallel FIR structure is designed with Verilog hardware description language, and the result of simulation and test is consistent with MATLAB. On that basis, we raise two measures for improvement, then synthesis, placement and routing, and compare the occupied resource. The result is that the distributed FIR is the best choice of hardware implementation.%FIR数字滤波器的实现方法很多,而现代数字通信对实时性的需求决定其需要很高的数据吞吐率和处理速度.文章探求高速全并行FIR的FPGA实现方法,并以8输入15阶FIR滤波器为示例,在直接型FIR的基础上改进得到全并行FIR结构,采用Verilog硬件描述语言完成设计,仿真结果与MATLAB软件测试结果一致. 在此基础上,提出两种改进措施,并进行综合、布局布线,对比所占资源,结果分布式FIR为硬件实现的最佳选择.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Szadkowski, Zbigniew [University of Lodz, Department of Physics and Applied Informatics, 90-236 Lodz, (Poland)
2015-07-01
We present the new approach to a filtering of radio frequency interferences (RFI) in the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) which study the electromagnetic part of the Extensive Air Showers. The radio stations can observe radio signals caused by coherent emissions due to geomagnetic radiation and charge excess processes. AERA observes frequency band from 30 to 80 MHz. This range is highly contaminated by human-made RFI. In order to improve the signal to noise ratio RFI filters are used in AERA to suppress this contamination. The first kind of filter used by AERA was the Median one, based on the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique. The second one, which is currently in use, is the infinite impulse response (IIR) notch filter. The proposed new filter is a finite impulse response (FIR) filter based on a linear prediction (LP). A periodic contamination hidden in a registered signal (digitized in the ADC) can be extracted and next subtracted to make signal cleaner. The FIR filter requires a calculation of n=32, 64 or even 128 coefficients (dependent on a required speed or accuracy) by solving of n linear equations with coefficients built from the covariance Toeplitz matrix. This matrix can be solved by the Levinson recursion, which is much faster than the Gauss procedure. The filter has been already tested in the real AERA radio stations on Argentinean pampas with a very successful results. The linear equations were solved either in the virtual soft-core NIOSR processor (implemented in the FPGA chip as a net of logic elements) or in the external Voipac PXA270M ARM processor. The NIOS processor is relatively slow (50 MHz internal clock), calculations performed in an external processor consume a significant amount of time for data exchange between the FPGA and the processor. Test showed a very good efficiency of the RFI suppression for stationary (long-term) contaminations. However, we observed a short-time contaminations, which could not be suppressed either by the
Optimized Multichannel Filter Bank with Flat Frequency Response for Texture Segmentation
Kachouie, Nezamoddin N.; Alirezaie, Javad
2005-12-01
Previous approaches to texture analysis and segmentation use multichannel filtering by applying a set of filters in the frequency domain or a set of masks in the spatial domain. This paper presents two new texture segmentation algorithms based on multichannel filtering in conjunction with neural networks for feature extraction and segmentation. The features extracted by Gabor filters have been applied for image segmentation and analysis. Suitable choices of filter parameters and filter bank coverage in the frequency domain to optimize the filters are discussed. Here we introduce two methods to optimize Gabor filter bank. First, a Gabor filter bank with a flat response is implemented and the optimal feature dimension is extracted by competitive networks. Second, a subset of Gabor filter bank is selected to compose the best discriminative filters, so that each filter in this small set can discriminate a pair of textures in a given image. In both approaches, multilayer perceptrons are employed to segment the extracted features. The comparisons of segmentation results generated using the proposed methods and previous research using Gabor, discrete cosine transform (DCT), and Laws filters are presented. Finally, the segmentation results generated by applying the optimized filter banks to textured images are presented and discussed.
Optimized Multichannel Filter Bank with Flat Frequency Response for Texture Segmentation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kachouie Nezamoddin N
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Previous approaches to texture analysis and segmentation use multichannel filtering by applying a set of filters in the frequency domain or a set of masks in the spatial domain. This paper presents two new texture segmentation algorithms based on multichannel filtering in conjunction with neural networks for feature extraction and segmentation. The features extracted by Gabor filters have been applied for image segmentation and analysis. Suitable choices of filter parameters and filter bank coverage in the frequency domain to optimize the filters are discussed. Here we introduce two methods to optimize Gabor filter bank. First, a Gabor filter bank with a flat response is implemented and the optimal feature dimension is extracted by competitive networks. Second, a subset of Gabor filter bank is selected to compose the best discriminative filters, so that each filter in this small set can discriminate a pair of textures in a given image. In both approaches, multilayer perceptrons are employed to segment the extracted features. The comparisons of segmentation results generated using the proposed methods and previous research using Gabor, discrete cosine transform (DCT, and Laws filters are presented. Finally, the segmentation results generated by applying the optimized filter banks to textured images are presented and discussed.
Implementational Aspects of the Contourlet Filter Bank and Application in Image Coding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Truong T. Nguyen
2009-02-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzed the implementational aspects of the contourlet filter bank (or the pyramidal directional filter bank (PDFB, and considered its application in image coding. First, details of the binary tree-structured directional filter bank (DFB are presented, including a modification to minimize the phase delay factor and necessary steps for handling rectangular images. The PDFB is viewed as an overcomplete filter bank, and the directional filters are expressed in terms of polyphase components of the pyramidal filter bank and the conventional DFB. The aliasing effect of the conventional DFB and the Laplacian pyramid to the directional filters is then considered, and the conditions for reducing this effect are presented. The new filters obtained by redesigning the PDFBs satisfying these requirements have much better frequency responses. A hybrid multiscale filter bank consisting of the PDFB at higher scales and the traditional maximally decimated wavelet filter bank at lower scales is constructed to provide a sparse image representation. A novel embedded image coding system based on the image decomposition and a morphological dilation algorithm is then presented. The coding algorithm efficiently clusters the significant coefficients using progressive morphological operations. Context models for arithmetic coding are designed to exploit the intraband dependency and the correlation existing among the neighboring directional subbands. Experimental results show that the proposed coding algorithm outperforms the current state-of-the-art wavelet-based coders, such as JPEG2000, for images with directional features.
Second-Order Cone Formulations of Mixed-Norm Error Constraints for FIR Filter Optimization
2010-06-25
length N an approximate rule of thumb for the minimum grid spacing is 1/(20N). If E is a real-valued function, representing a linear- phase filter , then...well as the general Lp solution. The filter has 35 real coefficients with no symmetry and a reduced passband delay (relative to a linear phase filter ) of
A filter bank for rotationally invariant image recognition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S Rodtook
2005-12-01
Full Text Available We present new rotation moment invariants based on multiresolution filter bank techniques. The multiresolution pyramid motivates our simple but efficient feature selection procedure based on the fuzzy C-mean clustering methodology combined with the Mahalanobis distance measure. The proposed procedure verifies an impact of random noise as well as an interesting, less known impact of noise due to spatial transformations. The recognition accuracy of the proposed technique has been tested with the Zernike moments, the Fourier-Mellin moments as well as with wavelet based schemes. The numerical experiments, with more than 30 000 images, demonstrate a tangible accuracy increase of about 3% for low level noise, 8% for the average level noise and 15% for high level noise.
MSK modulated filter bank multicarrier system with mitigated subcarrier interference
Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun
2017-01-01
This paper proposes a novel minimum shift keying (MSK) modulated filter bank multi-carrier (FBMC) system. It can improve the signal performance by suppressing the interference among subcarriers. The spectral efficiency can be improved due to the absence of cyclic prefix in the system. In the experiment, a 15.67 Gb/s MSK-FBMC signal is transmitted over 80 km single mode fiber successfully. The performance of FBMC based multicarrier system outperforms that of fast Fourier transforms (FFT) based multicarrier system by 0.9 dB. Compared with QPSK mapping, 1 dB optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) improvement is obtained with MSK mapping under a normalized residual frequency offset of 0.2.
Lattice Structure for Paraunitary Linear-phase Filter Banks with Accuracy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hong Ying XIAO
2006-01-01
Multivariate filter banks with a polyphase matrix built by matrix factorization (lattice structure) were proposed to obtain orthonormal wavelet basis. On the basis of that, we propose a general method of constructing filter banks which ensure second and third accuracy of its corresponding scaling function. In the last part, examples with second and third accuracy are given.
Are the Wavelet Transforms the Best Filter Banks for Image Compression?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tor A. Ramstad
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Maximum regular wavelet filter banks have received much attention in the literature, and it is a general conception that they enjoy some type of optimality for image coding purposes. To investigate this claim, this article focuses on one particular biorthogonal wavelet filter bank, namely, the 2-channel 9/7. As a comparison, we generate all possible 9/7 filter banks with perfect reconstruction and linear phase while having a different number of zeros at z=Ã¢ÂˆÂ’1 for both analysis and synthesis lowpass filters. The best performance is obtained when the filter bank has 2/2 zeros at z=Ã¢ÂˆÂ’1 for the analysis and synthesis lowpass filters, respectively. The competing wavelet 9/7 filter bank, which has 4/4 zeros at z=Ã¢ÂˆÂ’1, is thus judged inferior both in terms of objective error measurements and informal visual inspections. It is further shown that the 9/7 wavelet filter bank can be obtained using gain-optimized 9/7 filter bank.
Are the Wavelet Transforms the Best Filter Banks for Image Compression?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramstad TorA
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Maximum regular wavelet filter banks have received much attention in the literature, and it is a general conception that they enjoy some type of optimality for image coding purposes. To investigate this claim, this article focuses on one particular biorthogonal wavelet filter bank, namely, the 2-channel 9/7. As a comparison, we generate all possible 9/7 filter banks with perfect reconstruction and linear phase while having a different number of zeros at for both analysis and synthesis lowpass filters. The best performance is obtained when the filter bank has 2/2 zeros at for the analysis and synthesis lowpass filters, respectively. The competing wavelet 9/7 filter bank, which has 4/4 zeros at , is thus judged inferior both in terms of objective error measurements and informal visual inspections. It is further shown that the 9/7 wavelet filter bank can be obtained using gain-optimized 9/7 filter bank.
Filter-Bank-Based Narrowband Interference Detection and Suppression in Spread Spectrum Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tobias Hidalgo Stitz
2004-07-01
Full Text Available A filter-bank-based narrowband interference detection and suppression method is developed and its performance is studied in a spread spectrum system. The use of an efficient, complex, critically decimated perfect reconstruction filter bank with a highly selective subband filter prototype, in combination with a newly developed excision algorithm, offers a solution with efficient implementation and performance close to the theoretical limit derived as a function of the filter bank stopband attenuation. Also methods to cope with the transient effects in case of frequency hopping interference are developed and the resulting performance shows only minor degradation in comparison to the stationary case.
A Low Power/Area Digital FIR Filter Design Based on PRF Framework
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
A novel DSP to ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) architecture desig n methodology is presented in this paper for reducing power/area consumption. Traditional methods always focus on optimizing hardware structure or algorithm sep arately. The authors propose a new method called PRF (ParallelingReducing-Fol-ding) framework to combine hardware optimization with algorithm simplification. In the first step,paralleling, unfolding technology is applied to divide one data path into several channels and expose the redundancy of the algorithm. In the second step, reducing,decoupling theory is used to reduce computational complexity.In the last step, folding, timemultiplexing method is used to merge similar components. As an exoteric methodology framework, many optimization methods can be integrated into the PRF framework.To optimize a 3N taps FIR (Fincte Impact Response)and obtain a content result,PRF methodology framework is applied.
Analysis of Beaulieu Pulse Shaping Family Based FIR Filter for WCDMA
Kang, A S
2010-01-01
The analysis and simulation of transmit and receive pulse shaping filter is an important aspect of digital wireless communication since it has a direct effect on error probabilities. Pulse shaping for wireless communication over time as well as frequency selective channels is the need of hour for 3G and 4G systems. The pulse shaping filter is a useful means to shape the signal spectrum and avoid interferences. Basically digital filters are used to modify the characteristics of signal in time and frequency domain and have been recognized as primary digital signal processing operations.
Deep Filter Banks for Texture Recognition, Description, and Segmentation.
Cimpoi, Mircea; Maji, Subhransu; Kokkinos, Iasonas; Vedaldi, Andrea
Visual textures have played a key role in image understanding because they convey important semantics of images, and because texture representations that pool local image descriptors in an orderless manner have had a tremendous impact in diverse applications. In this paper we make several contributions to texture understanding. First, instead of focusing on texture instance and material category recognition, we propose a human-interpretable vocabulary of texture attributes to describe common texture patterns, complemented by a new describable texture dataset for benchmarking. Second, we look at the problem of recognizing materials and texture attributes in realistic imaging conditions, including when textures appear in clutter, developing corresponding benchmarks on top of the recently proposed OpenSurfaces dataset. Third, we revisit classic texture represenations, including bag-of-visual-words and the Fisher vectors, in the context of deep learning and show that these have excellent efficiency and generalization properties if the convolutional layers of a deep model are used as filter banks. We obtain in this manner state-of-the-art performance in numerous datasets well beyond textures, an efficient method to apply deep features to image regions, as well as benefit in transferring features from one domain to another.
Parallel digital modem using multirate digital filter banks
Sadr, Ramin; Vaidyanathan, P. P.; Raphaeli, Dan; Hinedi, Sami
1994-01-01
A new class of architectures for an all-digital modem is presented in this report. This architecture, referred to as the parallel receiver (PRX), is based on employing multirate digital filter banks (DFB's) to demodulate, track, and detect the received symbol stream. The resulting architecture is derived, and specifications are outlined for designing the DFB for the PRX. The key feature of this approach is a lower processing rate then either the Nyquist rate or the symbol rate, without any degradation in the symbol error rate. Due to the freedom in choosing the processing rate, the designer is able to arbitrarily select and use digital components, independent of the speed of the integrated circuit technology. PRX architecture is particularly suited for high data rate applications, and due to the modular structure of the parallel signal path, expansion to even higher data rates is accommodated with each. Applications of the PRX would include gigabit satellite channels, multiple spacecraft, optical links, interactive cable-TV, telemedicine, code division multiple access (CDMA) communications, and others.
Link performance model for filter bank based multicarrier systems
Petrov, Dmitry; Oborina, Alexandra; Giupponi, Lorenza; Stitz, Tobias Hidalgo
2014-12-01
This paper presents a complete link level abstraction model for link quality estimation on the system level of filter bank multicarrier (FBMC)-based networks. The application of mean mutual information per coded bit (MMIB) approach is validated for the FBMC systems. The considered quality measure of the resource element for the FBMC transmission is the received signal-to-noise-plus-distortion ratio (SNDR). Simulation results of the proposed link abstraction model show that the proposed approach is capable of estimating the block error rate (BLER) accurately, even when the signal is propagated through the channels with deep and frequent fades, as it is the case for the 3GPP Hilly Terrain (3GPP-HT) and Enhanced Typical Urban (ETU) models. The FBMC-related results of link level simulations are compared with cyclic prefix orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CP-OFDM) analogs. Simulation results are also validated through the comparison to reference publicly available results. Finally, the steps of link level abstraction algorithm for FBMC are formulated and its application for system level simulation of a professional mobile radio (PMR) network is discussed.
Implementation of a Two-Channel Maximally Decimated Filter Bank using Switched Capacitor Circuits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Nahlik
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the implementation of a two-channel filter bank (FB using the switched capacitor (SC technique considering real properties of operational amplifiers (OpAmps. The design procedure is presented and key recommendations for the implementation are given. The implementation procedure describes the design of two-channel filter bank using an IIR Cauer filter, conversion of IIR into the SC filters and the final implementation of the SC filters. The whole design and an SC circuit implementation is performed by a PraCAn package in Maple. To verify the whole filter bank, resulting real property circuit structures are completely simulated by WinSpice and ELDO simulators. The results confirm that perfect reconstruction conditions can be almost accepted for the filter bank implemented by the SC circuits. The phase response of the SC filter bank is not strictly linear due to the IIR filters. However, the final ripple of a magnitude frequency response in the passband is almost constant, app. 0.5 dB for a real circuit analysis.
Methods and apparatuses using filter banks for multi-carrier spread-spectrum signals
Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Kutsche, Carl A
2014-05-20
A transmitter includes a synthesis filter bank to spread a data symbol to a plurality of frequencies by encoding the data symbol on each frequency, apply a common pulse-shaping filter, and apply gains to the frequencies such that a power level of each frequency is less than a noise level of other communication signals within the spectrum. Each frequency is modulated onto a different evenly spaced subcarrier. A demodulator in a receiver converts a radio frequency input to a spread-spectrum signal in a baseband. A matched filter filters the spread-spectrum signal with a common filter having characteristics matched to the synthesis filter bank in the transmitter by filtering each frequency to generate a sequence of narrow pulses. A carrier recovery unit generates control signals responsive to the sequence of narrow pulses suitable for generating a phase-locked loop between the demodulator, the matched filter, and the carrier recovery unit.
Methods and apparatuses using filter banks for multi-carrier spread spectrum signals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Kutsche, Carl A.
2016-06-14
A transmitter includes a synthesis filter bank to spread a data symbol to a plurality of frequencies by encoding the data symbol on each frequency, apply a common pulse-shaping filter, and apply gains to the frequencies such that a power level of each frequency is less than a noise level of other communication signals within the spectrum. Each frequency is modulated onto a different evenly spaced subcarrier. A demodulator in a receiver converts a radio frequency input to a spread-spectrum signal in a baseband. A matched filter filters the spread-spectrum signal with a common filter having characteristics matched to the synthesis filter bank in the transmitter by filtering each frequency to generate a sequence of narrow pulses. A carrier recovery unit generates control signals responsive to the sequence of narrow pulses suitable for generating a phase-locked loop between the demodulator, the matched filter, and the carrier recovery unit.
Methods and apparatuses using filter banks for multi-carrier spread-spectrum signals
Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Kutsche, Carl A
2014-10-14
A transmitter includes a synthesis filter bank to spread a data symbol to a plurality of frequencies by encoding the data symbol on each frequency, apply a common pulse-shaping filter, and apply gains to the frequencies such that a power level of each frequency is less than a noise level of other communication signals within the spectrum. Each frequency is modulated onto a different evenly spaced subcarrier. A demodulator in a receiver converts a radio frequency input to a spread-spectrum signal in a baseband. A matched filter filters the spread-spectrum signal with a common filter having characteristics matched to the synthesis filter bank in the transmitter by filtering each frequency to generate a sequence of narrow pulses. A carrier recovery unit generates control signals responsive to the sequence of narrow pulses suitable for generating a phase-locked loop between the demodulator, the matched filter, and the carrier recovery unit.
Methods and apparatuses using filter banks for multi-carrier spread spectrum signals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Kutsche, Carl A
2017-01-31
A transmitter includes a synthesis filter bank to spread a data symbol to a plurality of frequencies by encoding the data symbol on each frequency, apply a common pulse-shaping filter, and apply gains to the frequencies such that a power level of each frequency is less than a noise level of other communication signals within the spectrum. Each frequency is modulated onto a different evenly spaced subcarrier. A demodulator in a receiver converts a radio frequency input to a spread-spectrum signal in a baseband. A matched filter filters the spread-spectrum signal with a common filter having characteristics matched to the synthesis filter bank in the transmitter by filtering each frequency to generate a sequence of narrow pulses. A carrier recovery unit generates control signals responsive to the sequence of narrow pulses suitable for generating a phase-locked loop between the demodulator, the matched filter, and the carrier recovery unit.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Havashki, Asghar
2009-10-15
Power consumption in CMOS VLSI circuits has in recent years become a major design constraint. This is in particular important for wireless networks, due to the limited life time of the batteries that wireless nodes are operating on. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is one example of a technique which in recent years has become widely applied in wireless communication systems. However, the performance of OFDM and other spectrally efficient schemes depends, to a large extend, on advanced digital signal processing (DSP) and on the use of efficient and possibly adaptive resource allocation and transmission techniques. These in turn require that accurate estimates of the channel are available in the receiver and transmitter. However, accurate channel estimation of a time and frequency dispersive wireless fading channel calls for complex estimators, which might lead to significant power dissipation in such devices. Therefore, characterizing and analyzing power consumed by such devices under different channel conditions, and optimizing for power is important to reduce the overall power consumption of the system. In this thesis a certain chosen class of estimators, i.e., a linear FIR estimator, is considered, which is based on finite impulse response (FIR) filters. The work in this thesis considers the power related challenges in such estimators. The power consumed by such estimators depends, in part, on the complexity of the estimator, i.e., the length of the FIR filter. The filter length is one of the factors affecting the estimation accuracy. An analysis of the relation between the performance of such estimators and the required complexity for these devices under different channel conditions, i.e., in the presence of noise, is performed in this thesis. In this study we show that a small increase in this noise can lead to a considerable increase in the required estimator complexity if a given Normalized Mean Square Error (NMSE) performance for the
Design and Optimization of FIR Filtering Algorithm Based on CUDA Platform%基于CUDA平台的FIR滤波算法的设计与优化
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郭海凤; 李莉
2014-01-01
针对目前基于普通DSP的FIR算法速度低、扩展性差的缺点,提出并实现基于CUDA平台实现的FIR滤波算法。由于在CUDA中程序可以直接操作数据而无需借助于图形系统的API,使开发者能够在GPU 强大计算能力的基础上建立起一种效率更高的密集数据计算解决方案。该算法将CUDA用于FIR滤波器输入输出关系计算,采用矩阵乘法的并行运算技术,在GPU上建立并行滤波模型,并对算法进行了优化。实验结果表明,在Tesla C1060平台上,和传统的基于DSP的FIR滤波算法计算速度相比,基于CUDA平台计算FIR滤波算法时,其加速比可接近30,解决了传统基于DSP计算FIR滤波算法速度较慢、扩展性差的问题。%It is well known that FIR algorithm based on normal DSP has low computing speed and extensive capabilities. In order to over-come these,present a new FIR filter algorithm based on CUDA platform. Since in CUDA program can directly manipulate data without graphics API of the system,enables developers on the basis of the powerful GPU computing power to set up a efficient dense data compu-ting solutions. The algorithm adopts CUDA for FIR filter calculation of input and output relationship,using the parallel computing tech-nology of matrix multiplication,on the GPU the parallel filtering model is established,and the algorithm is optimized. Experiment on Tes-la C1060 shows that,compared with traditional FIR filter algorithm's speed based on DSP,it can accelerate its computation speed up to 30 times,solving conventional FIR filter's defect based on DSP of low speed and bad extending capabilities.
Iris image recognition wavelet filter-banks based iris feature extraction schemes
Rahulkar, Amol D
2014-01-01
This book provides the new results in wavelet filter banks based feature extraction, and the classifier in the field of iris image recognition. It provides the broad treatment on the design of separable, non-separable wavelets filter banks, and the classifier. The design techniques presented in the book are applied on iris image analysis for person authentication. This book also brings together the three strands of research (wavelets, iris image analysis, and classifier). It compares the performance of the presented techniques with state-of-the-art available schemes. This book contains the compilation of basic material on the design of wavelets that avoids reading many different books. Therefore, it provide an easier path for the new-comers, researchers to master the contents. In addition, the designed filter banks and classifier can also be effectively used than existing filter-banks in many signal processing applications like pattern classification, data-compression, watermarking, denoising etc. that will...
Digital Filters for Low Frequency Equalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tyril, Marni; Abildgaard, J.; Rubak, Per
2001-01-01
Digital filters with high resolution in the low-frequency range are studied. Specifically, for a given computational power, traditional IIR filters are compared with warped FIR filters, warped IIR filters, and modified warped FIR filters termed warped individual z FIR filters (WizFIR). The results...... indicate that IIR filters are the most effective in a number of situations....
Design and implementation of FIR filter based on STM32F103x
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ZHENG Zhendong
2013-08-01
Full Text Available STM32F1 series processors are based on ST's new generation of ARM cortex-M3 processor core to meet the industrial control，medical，consumer and other areas of application requirements． At the same time，ST companies also launched a set of DSP function library for the STM32F10x series，enabling common digital signal processing． In this paper，a set of FIRfilter design and implementation is proposed for the STM32F10x series． Experiments show that the integer filter coefficients can replace the float coefficients in FIRfilter design． When the sampling rate is 256 samples per second，the FIRfilter is of the order of 128 and takes only 1．5ms to finish filtering 256 samples，fully meeting the design requirements for industrial control systems．
Houts, R. C.; Vaughn, G. L.
1974-01-01
Three algorithms are developed for designing finite impulse response digital filters to be used for pulse shaping and channel equalization. The first is the Minimax algorithm which uses linear programming to design a frequency-sampling filter with a pulse shape that approximates the specification in a minimax sense. Design examples are included which accurately approximate a specified impulse response with a maximum error of 0.03 using only six resonators. The second algorithm is an extension of the Minimax algorithm to design preset equalizers for channels with known impulse responses. Both transversal and frequency-sampling equalizer structures are designed to produce a minimax approximation of a specified channel output waveform. Examples of these designs are compared as to the accuracy of the approximation, the resultant intersymbol interference (ISI), and the required transmitted energy. While the transversal designs are slightly more accurate, the frequency-sampling designs using six resonators have smaller ISI and energy values.
Non-orthogonal optical multicarrier access based on filter bank and SCMA.
Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun
2015-10-19
This paper proposes a novel non-orthogonal optical multicarrier access system based on filter bank and sparse code multiple access (SCMA). It offers released frequency offset and better spectral efficiency for multicarrier access. An experiment of 73.68 Gb/s filter bank-based multicarrier (FBMC) SCMA system with 60 km single mode fiber link is performed to demonstrate the feasibility. The comparison between fast Fourier transform (FFT) based multicarrier and the proposed scheme is also investigated in the experiment.
On the construction of invertible filter banks on the 2-sphere.
Yeo, Boon Thye Thomas; Ou, Wanmei; Golland, Polina
2008-03-01
The theories of signal sampling, filter banks, wavelets, and "overcomplete wavelets" are well established for the Euclidean spaces and are widely used in the processing and analysis of images. While recent advances have extended some filtering methods to spherical images, many key challenges remain. In this paper, we develop theoretical conditions for the invertibility of filter banks under continuous spherical convolution. Furthermore, we present an analogue of the Papoulis generalized sampling theorem on the 2-Sphere. We use the theoretical results to establish a general framework for the design of invertible filter banks on the sphere and demonstrate the approach with examples of self-invertible spherical wavelets and steerable pyramids. We conclude by examining the use of a self-invertible spherical steerable pyramid in a denoising experiment and discussing the computational complexity of the filtering framework.
Polyphase Structure Based Eigen Design of Two-Channel Quadrature Mirror Filter Bank
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. K. Agrawal
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a method for the design of two-channel quadrature mirror filter (QMF banks with linear phase in frequency domain. Low-pass prototype filter of the QMF bank is implemented using polyphase decomposition. Prototype filter coefficients are optimized to minimize an objective function using eigenvalue-eigenvector approach without matrix inversion. The objective function is formulated as a weighted sum of four terms, pass-band error and stop-band residual energy of low-pass analysis filter, the square error of the overall transfer function at the quadrature frequency and amplitude distortion of the filter bank. The simulation results clearly show that the proposed method requires less computational efforts in comparison to the other state-of-art existing design methods.
Method for signal decomposition and denoising based on nonuniform cosine-modulated filter banks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xuemei Xie; Li Li; Guangming Shi; Bin Peng
2008-01-01
In this paper,a novel method for signal decomposition and denoising is proposed based on a nonuniform filter bank (NUFB),which is derived from a uniform filter bank.With this method,the signal is firstly decomposed into M subbands using a uniform filter bank.Then according to their energy distribution,the corresponding consecutive filters are merged to compose the nonuniform filters.With the resulting NUFB,the signal can be readily matched and flexibly decomposed according to its power spectrum distribution.As another advantage,this method can be used to detect and remove the narrow-band noise from the corrupted signal.To verify the proposed method,a simulation of extracting the main information of an audio signal and removing its glitch is given.
Lifted linear phase filter banks and the polyphase-with-advance representation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brislawn, C. M. (Christopher M.); Wohlberg, B. E. (Brendt E.)
2004-01-01
A matrix theory is developed for the noncausal polyphase-with-advance representation that underlies the theory of lifted perfect reconstruction filter banks and wavelet transforms as developed by Sweldens and Daubechies. This theory provides the fundamental lifting methodology employed in the ISO/IEC JPEG-2000 still image coding standard, which the authors helped to develop. Lifting structures for polyphase-with-advance filter banks are depicted in Figure 1. In the analysis bank of Figure 1(a), the first lifting step updates x{sub 0} with a filtered version of x{sub 1} and the second step updates x{sub 1} with a filtered version of x{sub 0}; gain factors 1/K and K normalize the lowpass- and highpass-filtered output subbands. Each of these steps is inverted by the corresponding operations in the synthesis bank shown in Figure 1(b). Lifting steps correspond to upper- or lower-triangular matrices, S{sub i}(z), in a cascade-form decomposition of the polyphase analysis matrix, H{sub a}(z). Lifting structures can also be implemented reversibly (i.e., losslessly in fixed-precision arithmetic) by rounding the lifting updates to integer values. Our treatment of the polyphase-with-advance representation develops an extensive matrix algebra framework that goes far beyond the results of. Specifically, we focus on analyzing and implementing linear phase two-channel filter banks via linear phase lifting cascade schemes. Whole-sample symmetric (WS) and half-sample symmetric (HS) linear phase filter banks are characterized completely in terms of the polyphase-with-advance representation. The theory benefits significantly from a number of new group-theoretic structures arising in the polyphase-with-advance matrix algebra from the lifting factorization of linear phase filter banks.
A Novel 9/7 Wavelet Filter banks For Texture Image Coding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Songjun Zhang
2012-09-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel 9/7 wavelet filter bank for texture image coding applications based on lifting a 5/3 filter to a 7/5 filter, and then to a 9/7 filter. Moreover, a one-dimensional optimization problem for the above 9/7 filter family is carried out according to the perfect reconstruction (PR condition of wavelet transforms and wavelet properties. Finally, the optimal control parameter of the 9/7 filter family for image coding applications is determined by statistical analysis of compressibility tests applied on all the images in the Brodatz standard texture image database. Thus, a new 9/7 filter with only rational coefficients is determined. Compared to the design method of Cohen, Daubechies, and Feauveau, the design approach proposed in this paper is simpler and easier to implement. The experimental results show that the overall coding performances of the new 9/7 filter are superior to those of the CDF 9/7 filter banks in the JPEG2000 standard, with a maximum increase of 0.185315 dB at compression ratio 32:1. Therefore, this new 9/7 filter bank can be applied in image coding for texture images as the transform coding kernel.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Kuldeep
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Fractional calculus has recently been identified as a very important mathematical tool in the field of signal processing. Digital filters designed by fractional derivatives give more accurate frequency response in the prescribed frequency region. Digital filters are most important part of multi-rate filter bank systems. In this paper, an improved method based on fractional derivative constraints is presented for the design of two-channel quadrature mirror filter (QMF bank. The design problem is formulated as minimization of L2 error of filter bank transfer function in passband, stopband interval and at quadrature frequency, and then Lagrange multiplier method with fractional derivative constraints is applied to solve it. The proposed method is then successfully applied for the design of two-channel QMF bank with higher order filter taps. Performance of the QMF bank design is then examined through study of various parameters such as passband error, stopband error, transition band error, peak reconstruction error (PRE, stopband attenuation (As. It is found that, the good design can be obtained with the change of number and value of fractional derivative constraint coefficients.
Digital Filters for Low Frequency Equalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tyril, Marni; Abildgaard, J.; Rubak, Per
2001-01-01
Digital filters with high resolution in the low-frequency range are studied. Specifically, for a given computational power, traditional IIR filters are compared with warped FIR filters, warped IIR filters, and modified warped FIR filters termed warped individual z FIR filters (WizFIR). The results...
Polyphase Filter Banks for Embedded Sample Rate Changes in Digital Radio Front-Ends
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Awan, Mehmood-Ur-Rehman; Le Moullec, Yannick; Koch, Peter
2011-01-01
This paper presents efficient processing engines for software-defined radio (SDR) front-ends. These engines, based on a polyphase channelizer, perform arbitrary sample-rate changes, frequency selection, and bandwidth control. This paper presents an M-path polyphase filter bank based on a modified N......-path polyphase filter. Such a system allows resampling by arbitrary ratios while performing baseband aliasing from center frequencies at Nyquist zones that are not multiples of the output sample rate. This resampling technique is based on sliding cyclic data load interacting with cyclic-shifted coefficients....... A non-maximally-decimated polyphase filter bank (where the number of data loads is not equal to the number of M subfilters) processes M subfilters in a time period that is less than or greater than the M data loads. A polyphase filter bank with five different resampling modes is used as a case study...
Cosine Modulated and Offset QAM Filter Bank Multicarrier Techniques: A Continuous-Time Prospect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farhang-Boroujeny Behrouz
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Prior to the discovery of the celebrated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM, multicarrier techniques that use analog filter banks were introduced in the 1960s. Moreover, advancements in the design of perfect reconstruction filter banks have led to a number developments in the design of prototype digital filters and polyphase structures for efficient implementations of the filter bank multicarrier (FBMC systems. The main thrust of this paper is to present a tutorial review of the classical works on FBMC systems and show that some of the more recent developments are, in fact, reinventions of multicarrier techniques that have been developed prior of the era of OFDM. We also review the recent novel developments in the design of FBMC systems that are tuned to cope with fast fading wireless channels.
Cosine Modulated and Offset QAM Filter Bank Multicarrier Techniques: A Continuous-Time Prospect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Prior to the discovery of the celebrated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM, multicarrier techniques that use analog filter banks were introduced in the 1960s. Moreover, advancements in the design of perfect reconstruction filter banks have led to a number developments in the design of prototype digital filters and polyphase structures for efficient implementations of the filter bank multicarrier (FBMC systems. The main thrust of this paper is to present a tutorial review of the classical works on FBMC systems and show that some of the more recent developments are, in fact, reinventions of multicarrier techniques that have been developed prior of the era of OFDM. We also review the recent novel developments in the design of FBMC systems that are tuned to cope with fast fading wireless channels.
Cosine Modulated and Offset QAM Filter Bank Multicarrier Techniques: A Continuous-Time Prospect
Farhang-Boroujeny, Behrouz; (George) Yuen, ChungHim
2010-12-01
Prior to the discovery of the celebrated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), multicarrier techniques that use analog filter banks were introduced in the 1960s. Moreover, advancements in the design of perfect reconstruction filter banks have led to a number developments in the design of prototype digital filters and polyphase structures for efficient implementations of the filter bank multicarrier (FBMC) systems. The main thrust of this paper is to present a tutorial review of the classical works on FBMC systems and show that some of the more recent developments are, in fact, reinventions of multicarrier techniques that have been developed prior of the era of OFDM. We also review the recent novel developments in the design of FBMC systems that are tuned to cope with fast fading wireless channels.
Dlugosz, Rafal
2005-06-01
Parasitic capacities pose a serious problem in switched capacitor finite impulse response (SC FIR) filters realized as VLSI systems in CMOS submicron technologies. The influence of these parasitic elements is especially visible in the stopband of the filter frequency response. To design mixed digital-analog SC FIR filters is a difficult task. Filters of this class have to be designed using full-custom method. SC FIR filters of high orders N are very complex systems with thousands of transistors, capacitors, which, in turn, make the basis for many active elements, switches, delay elements, memories and other circuitry. One of the most important stages during the design process is post-layout HSPICE verification. However, the simulation of separated blocks does not suffice to have enough knowledge of the operation of the whole system. Optimization requires netlist simulations of the entire system, with presence of typically between 5000-30000 of parasitic capacities, where only about hundred of them are critical ones. Analysis which aims at finding these elements, in practice, is not possible because of the complexity of the entire system. The heuristic method of searching for relevant parasitic elements presented in this paper is based on the assumption that all parasitic elements create a set. The main task is to divide this set into subareas. In order to do this particular groups of nets in the layout must be labeled using unique names. Then particular groups of parasitic elements are filtered out from the netlist. Each filtering stage generates two netlists with separate areas of parasitic elements. After the analysis of the simulation results has been done there remains to make the decision concerning subsequent filtering operations. The iteration method is very quick, convenient, efficient and does not require deep knowledge of the simulated system. Many stages of this method can be easy implemented with CAD tools. In realized projects, after no more than 15
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ferri, Francesco; Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Frigaard, Peter
2012-01-01
Short-term wave forecasting plays a crucial role for the control of a wave energy converter (WEC), in order to increase the energy harvest from the waves, as well as to increase its life time. In the paper it is shown how the surface elevation of the waves and the force acting on the WEC can...... be predicted using FIR filter. The predictors have been validated in laboratory with unidirectional regular and irregular waves. Here a single point absorber, (1:20) scale of the Wavestar device, is used. The results show that it is possible to predict wave and forces acting on the device using a properly...
Wavelet Kernels on a DSP: A Comparison between Lifting and Filter Banks for Image Coding
Gnavi, Stefano; Penna, Barbara; Grangetto, Marco; Magli, Enrico; Olmo, Gabriella
2002-12-01
We develop wavelet engines on a digital signal processors (DSP) platform, the target application being image and intraframe video compression by means of the forthcoming JPEG2000 and Motion-JPEG2000 standards. We describe two implementations, based on the lifting scheme and the filter bank scheme, respectively, and we present experimental results on code profiling. In particular, we address the following problems: (1) evaluating the execution speed of a wavelet engine on a modern DSP; (2) comparing the actual execution speed of the lifting scheme and the filter bank scheme with the theoretical results; (3) using the on-board direct memory access (DMA) to possibly optimize the execution speed. The results allow to assess the performance of a modern DSP in the image coding task, as well as to compare the lifting and filter bank performance in a realistic application scenario. Finally, guidelines for optimizing the code efficiency are provided by investigating the possible use of the on-board DMA.
Steganalysis of content-adaptive JPEG steganography based on Gauss partial derivative filter bank
Zhang, Yi; Liu, Fenlin; Yang, Chunfang; Luo, Xiangyang; Song, Xiaofeng; Lu, Jicang
2017-01-01
A steganalysis feature extraction method based on Gauss partial derivative filter bank is proposed in this paper to improve the detection performance for content-adaptive JPEG steganography. Considering that the embedding changes of content-adaptive steganographic schemes are performed in the texture and edge regions, the proposed method generates filtered images comprising rich texture and edge information using Gauss partial derivative filter bank, and histograms of absolute values of filtered subimages are extracted as steganalysis features. Gauss partial derivative filter bank can represent texture and edge information in multiple orientations with less computation load than conventional methods and prevent redundancy in different filtered images. These two properties are beneficial in the extraction of low-complexity sensitive features. The results of experiments conducted on three selected modern JPEG steganographic schemes-uniform embedding distortion, JPEG universal wavelet relative distortion, and side-informed UNIWARD-indicate that the proposed feature set is superior to the prior art feature sets-discrete cosine transform residual, phase aware rich model, and Gabor filter residual.
一种模/数混合型FIR噪声滤波器设计%Design of Analog and Digital Mixed FIR Noise Filter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
易鸿
2011-01-01
In combination with the method of analog circuit, a hybrid FIR noise filtering technology is proposed to solve the problem of noise amplification existing in the existing digital FIR noise filtering technology. This method converts the dig-ital control phase error in phase-locked loop to simulation domain charge by the aid of a charge pump. One or several clock cy-cle delay of the modulator output is realized through a registers chain. Some taps are choosen to control the corresponding fre-quency dividers or phase selectors respectively to quantify the generated instantaneous phase error through phase discrimina-tors in every branch and synthetize the analog domain error charge in a multi-input charge pump. The noise amplification prob-lem of the existing digital FIR filtering technology is solved by providing a constant DC gain. The novel filter has the following characteristics: the work of time domain can be dispersed; the analog mismatch isn't sensitive) it is helpful for linearity im-provement, so the cost of additional hardware is lower.%针对现有数字FIR噪声滤除技术的噪声放大问题,结合模拟电路的方法,提出一种新的混合型FIR噪声滤波技术.该方法采用电荷泵将锁相环中数字控制的相位误差转换为模拟域电荷,调制器的输出经过一个寄存器链实现一个或数个时钟周期的延时,从中选出若干抽头分别去控制对应的分频器或相位选择器,从而量化所产生的经过各支路鉴相器的瞬时相位误差,在一个多输入电荷泵中合成为模拟域误差电荷,通过提供恒定单位直流增益,解决现有数字FIR噪声滤除技术的噪声放大问题.这种新型的滤波器具有如下特点:离散时间域工作,模拟失配不敏感,有助于提高线性度,额外硬件开销小.
An Efficient Filter Banks Based Multicarrier System in Cognitive Radio Networks (invited paper
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Zhang
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In cognitive radio techniques, OFDM is usually regarded as the physical layer candidate. However, the weaknesses of the OFDM technique, i.e., using plain FFT for spectral analysis , decreased bandwidth efficiency due to CP (cyclic prefix, high out-of-band emission, have been pointed out and the introduction of filter banks based multicarrier (FBMC system has been advocated by a number of authors. In this paper, we propose an efficient FBMC system for cognitive radio network. At the transmitter, we propose a decimation transform decomposition method to eliminate the unnecessary zero operations. At the receiver, we utilize the analysis filter banks to sense the spectrum bands. In order to conquer the shortages of the traditional filter banks, we propose a multistage analysis filter banks, which can reduce the computational complexity while improve the detection precision when used to sense the spectrum bands. And with an adaptive threshold scheme in the power estimator, the threshold can be kept very close to the noise power, which can increase the detection probability especially in the condition of low SNR.
An Orthogonal Least Squares Based Approach to FIR Designs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiao-Feng Wu; Zi-Qiang Lang; Stephen A Billings
2005-01-01
This paper is concerned with the application of forward Orthogonal Least Squares (OLS) algorithm to the design of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters. The focus of this study is a new FIR filter design procedure and to compare this with traditional methods known as the fir2() routine provided by MATLAB.
Design and Implementation of FIR Filter Based on FPGA%基于FPGA的FIR数字滤波器的设计与实现
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蒋小燕; 孙晓薇; 胡恒阳; 钱显毅
2011-01-01
文章介绍了有限脉冲响应（FIR）数字滤波器的结构特点和基本原理，提出了一种基于FPGA的高效实现方案。该方案用Matlab工具确定滤波器的系数，然后用VHDL语言实现了16阶常系数FIR滤波器，并用MAX＋plusII软件对滤波器进行了逻辑仿真，结果满足滤波器性能指标设计要求。%Based on the introduction of the structural characteristics and the basic principles of finite im- pulse response （FIR） digital filter, this paper gives an efficient proposal of implementation of FPGA-based case. Such a proposal uses MATLAB tools in the case to determine filter coefficients, and VHDL language to get a 16-order constant coefficient FIR filters. And then it takes use of MAX ＋ plus II to simulate filters, whose results meet the performance design requirements.
Linear Phase Perfect Reconstruction Filters and Wavelets with Even Symmetry
Monzon, Lucas
2011-01-01
Perfect reconstruction filter banks can be used to generate a variety of wavelet bases. Using IIR linear phase filters one can obtain symmetry properties for the wavelet and scaling functions. In this paper we describe all possible IIR linear phase filters generating symmetric wavelets with any prescribed number of vanishing moments. In analogy with the well known FIR case, we construct and study a new family of wavelets obtained by considering maximal number of vanishing moments for each fixed order of the IIR filter. Explicit expressions for the coefficients of numerator, denominator, zeroes, and poles are presented. This new parameterization allows one to design linear phase quadrature mirror filters with many other properties of interest such as filters that have any preassigned set of zeroes in the stopband or that satisfy an almost interpolating property. Using Beylkin's approach, it is indicated how to implement these IIR filters not as recursive filters but as FIR filters.
Lin, Jiachuan; Xi, Lixia; Li, Jianrui; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Xia; Niazi, Shahab Ahmad
2014-04-07
In this paper, an improved multi-carrier generation scheme based on single-side-band recirculating frequency shifter with optical finite impulse response (FIR) filter for amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise suppression is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The carrier-to-noise-ratio (CNR) instead of tone-to-noise-ratio (TNR) is introduced to more reasonably and exactly evaluate the signal-to-noise-ratio of a multi-carrier source with non-flat noise floor. We have experimentally attain the worst case CNR of 22.5dB and 19.1dB for generated 50 and 69 flat low noise carriers, which has shown significant improvement than the previous cited works based on recirculating frequency shifter.
Design of FIR Digital Filter Based OR AHDL%基于AHDL的FIR数字滤波器的设计
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周琛晖; 田立坤; 曾希君
2009-01-01
本文使用查找表作为滤波器的硬件实现算法,采用AHDL和模块化的设计方法,对整个数字滤波器进行多层次功能模块的划分,完成了各个层次模块的设计,并将所有模块进行组合,设计了全局并行有限长脉冲响应(FIR)数字滤波器.
Filter banks and the "Intensity Analysis" of EMG
Borg, Frank
2010-01-01
Vinzenz von Tscharner (2000) has presented an interesting mathematical method for analyzing EMG-data called "intensity analysis" (EMG = electromyography). Basically the method is a sort of bandpassing of the signal. The central idea of the method is to describe the "power" (or "intensity") of a non-stationary EMG signal as a function both of time and of frequency. The connection with wavelet theory is that the filter is constructed by rescaling a given mother wavelet using a special array of scales (center frequencies) with non-constant relative bandwidth. Some aspects of the method may seem a bit ad hoc and we have therefore undertaken a closer mathematical investigation, showing the connection with the conventional wavelet analysis and giving a somewhat simplified formulation of the method using Morlet wavelets. It is pointed out that the "intensity analysis" method is related to the concept of an equalizer. In order to illustrate the method we apply it to nonstationary EMG-signals of a dynamic leg-extensio...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Sakthivel
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The design of low complexity sharp transition width Modified Discrete Fourier Transform (MDFT filter bank with perfect reconstruction (PR is proposed in this work. The current trends in technology require high data rates and speedy processing along with reduced power consumption, implementation complexity and chip area. Filters with sharp transition width are required for various applications in wireless communication. Frequency response masking (FRM technique is used to reduce the implementation complexity of sharp MDFT filter banks with PR. Further, to reduce the implementation complexity, the continuous coefficients of the filters in the MDFT filter banks are represented in discrete space using canonic signed digit (CSD. The multipliers in the filters are replaced by shifters and adders. The number of non-zero bits is reduced in the conversion process to minimize the number of adders and shifters required for the filter implementation. Hence the performances of the MDFT filter bank with PR may degrade. In this work, the performances of the MDFT filter banks with PR are improved using a hybrid Harmony-Gravitational search algorithm.
Channel Estimation for Filter Bank Multicarrier Systems in Low SNR Environments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Driggs, Jonathan; Sibbett, Taylor; Moradiy, Hussein; Farhang-Boroujeny, Behrouz
2017-05-01
Channel estimation techniques are crucial for reliable communications. This paper is concerned with channel estimation in a filter bank multicarrier spread spectrum (FBMCSS) system. We explore two channel estimator options: (i) a method that makes use of a periodic preamble and mimics the channel estimation techniques that are widely used in OFDM-based systems; and (ii) a method that stays within the traditional realm of filter bank signal processing. For the case where the channel noise is white, both methods are analyzed in detail and their performance is compared against their respective Cramer-Rao Lower Bounds (CRLB). Advantages and disadvantages of the two methods under different channel conditions are given to provide insight to the reader as to when one will outperform the other.
Packet Format Design and Decision Directed Tracking Methods for Filter Bank Multicarrier Systems
Amini, Peiman; Farhang-Boroujeny, Behrouz
2010-12-01
Packetized data transmission is commonly used in wireless communication systems. Each packet starts with a preamble which is used to synchronize the receiver with carrier frequency of the incoming signal, to find a good timing phase, and to identify the channel impulse response or to adjust a set of channel equalizer parameters. In this paper, following the same philosophy, we develop a packet format for multicarrier systems that operate based on filter banks, filter bank multicarrier (FBMC) systems. The related algorithms for carrier frequency and timing recovery as well as channel identification/equalizer adjustment and methods for carrier and timing tracking loops are proposed. The proposed ideas are evaluated and their satisfactory performance are presented through computer simulations.
Packet Format Design and Decision Directed Tracking Methods for Filter Bank Multicarrier Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amini Peiman
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Packetized data transmission is commonly used in wireless communication systems. Each packet starts with a preamble which is used to synchronize the receiver with carrier frequency of the incoming signal, to find a good timing phase, and to identify the channel impulse response or to adjust a set of channel equalizer parameters. In this paper, following the same philosophy, we develop a packet format for multicarrier systems that operate based on filter banks, filter bank multicarrier (FBMC systems. The related algorithms for carrier frequency and timing recovery as well as channel identification/equalizer adjustment and methods for carrier and timing tracking loops are proposed. The proposed ideas are evaluated and their satisfactory performance are presented through computer simulations.
Pilot-Based Synchronization and Equalization in Filter Bank Multicarrier Communications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stitz TobiasHidalgo
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed analysis of synchronization methods based on scattered pilots for filter bank based multicarrier (FBMC communications, taking into account the interplay of the synchronization, channel estimation, and equalization methods. We show that by applying pilots designed specifically for filter banks, the carrier frequency offset (CFO, fractional time delay (FTD, and channel response can be accurately estimated. Further, a novel joint FTD and channel estimation scheme, based on iterative interference cancelation, permits extending the FTD estimation range well beyond the limit imposed by the pilot separation. The channel parameter estimation and compensation are successfully performed totally in the frequency domain, in a subchannel-wise fashion, which is appealing in spectrally agile and cognitive radio scenarios. The performance evaluation is done in a hypothetical WiMAX scenario in which an FBMC system would substitute OFDM maintaining as much physical layer compatibility as possible.
Pilot-Based Synchronization and Equalization in Filter Bank Multicarrier Communications
Stitz, TobiasHidalgo; Ihalainen, Tero; Viholainen, Ari; Renfors, Markku
2010-12-01
This paper presents a detailed analysis of synchronization methods based on scattered pilots for filter bank based multicarrier (FBMC) communications, taking into account the interplay of the synchronization, channel estimation, and equalization methods. We show that by applying pilots designed specifically for filter banks, the carrier frequency offset (CFO), fractional time delay (FTD), and channel response can be accurately estimated. Further, a novel joint FTD and channel estimation scheme, based on iterative interference cancelation, permits extending the FTD estimation range well beyond the limit imposed by the pilot separation. The channel parameter estimation and compensation are successfully performed totally in the frequency domain, in a subchannel-wise fashion, which is appealing in spectrally agile and cognitive radio scenarios. The performance evaluation is done in a hypothetical WiMAX scenario in which an FBMC system would substitute OFDM maintaining as much physical layer compatibility as possible.
Polyphase Filter Banks for Embedded Sample Rate Changes in Digital Radio Front-Ends
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Awan, Mehmood-Ur-Rehman; Le Moullec, Yannick; Koch, Peter
2011-01-01
This paper presents efficient processing engines for software-defined radio (SDR) front-ends. These engines, based on a polyphase channelizer, perform arbitrary sample-rate changes, frequency selection, and bandwidth control. This paper presents an M-path polyphase filter bank based on a modified N...... in an SDR front-end based on a polyphase channelizer. They can also be used for translation to and from arbitrary center frequencies that are unrelated to the output sample rates....
Wavelet Kernels on a DSP: A Comparison between Lifting and Filter Banks for Image Coding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gnavi Stefano
2002-01-01
Full Text Available We develop wavelet engines on a digital signal processors (DSP platform, the target application being image and intraframe video compression by means of the forthcoming JPEG2000 and Motion-JPEG2000 standards. We describe two implementations, based on the lifting scheme and the filter bank scheme, respectively, and we present experimental results on code profiling. In particular, we address the following problems: (1 evaluating the execution speed of a wavelet engine on a modern DSP; (2 comparing the actual execution speed of the lifting scheme and the filter bank scheme with the theoretical results; (3 using the on-board direct memory access (DMA to possibly optimize the execution speed. The results allow to assess the performance of a modern DSP in the image coding task, as well as to compare the lifting and filter bank performance in a realistic application scenario. Finally, guidelines for optimizing the code efficiency are provided by investigating the possible use of the on-board DMA.
A blind watermarking scheme using new nontensor product wavelet filter banks.
You, Xinge; Du, Liang; Cheung, Yiu-Ming; Chen, Qiuhui
2010-12-01
As an effective method for copyright protection of digital products against illegal usage, watermarking in wavelet domain has recently received considerable attention due to the desirable multiresolution property of wavelet transform. In general, images can be represented with different resolutions by the wavelet decomposition, analogous to the human visual system (HVS). Usually, human eyes are insensitive to image singularities revealed by different high frequency subbands of wavelet decomposed images. Hence, adding watermarks into these singularities will improve the imperceptibility that is a desired property of a watermarking scheme. That is, the capability for revealing singularities of images plays a key role in designing wavelet-based watermarking algorithms. Unfortunately, the existing wavelets have a limited ability in revealing singularities in different directions. This motivates us to construct new wavelet filter banks that can reveal singularities in all directions. In this paper, we utilize special symmetric matrices to construct the new nontensor product wavelet filter banks, which can capture the singularities in all directions. Empirical studies will show their advantages of revealing singularities in comparison with the existing wavelets. Based upon these new wavelet filter banks, we, therefore, propose a modified significant difference watermarking algorithm. Experimental results show its promising results.
Design of 64 order FIR filter based on FPGA-IP Core%基于FPGA-IP Core的64阶FIR滤波器的设计
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵颖; 刘祖深
2013-01-01
In the contemporary when witnesses a rapid improvement of electronic information technology,the development of traditional analog model based on specific integrated chip has gradually unable to keep up with the advanced steps of the radio communication technology. Broadband and digitization currently become the mainstream of electronic technology. The design take full advantage of the powerful role of FPGA and the superiority of linear phase of Finite Impulse Response , accomplish the logical design of high-speed digital FIR filter under the environment of ISE software through Ver-ilog HDL which is a kind of hardware description language. The simulation results show that the consequences in line with theoretical expectations, which verify that the optimized filter possess advanced method as well as fast work speed, what's more,it greatly saves hardware resources. For these reason its overall performance is more preferential than the FIR filter in traditional way.%在电子信息技术迅猛发展的当代,基于专用集成芯片的传统模拟开发模式已渐渐不能跟上无线电通信技术的前进脚步,宽带化和数字化成为时下电子技术的主流[1].本设计充分利用FPGA的强大功能及有限冲击波响应线性相位的优势,在ISE软件环境下,通过Verilog HDL这款硬件描述语言来进行高速FIR数字滤波器的逻辑设计.仿真结果表明结果符合理论期望值,验证了此种优化的滤波器方法先进、工作速度快,更能大大地节省硬件资源,所以总体性能优于传统方式的FIR滤波器.
Real-Time Diagnosis of Faults Using a Bank of Kalman Filters
Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.
2006-01-01
A new robust method of automated real-time diagnosis of faults in an aircraft engine or a similar complex system involves the use of a bank of Kalman filters. In order to be highly reliable, a diagnostic system must be designed to account for the numerous failure conditions that an aircraft engine may encounter in operation. The method achieves this objective though the utilization of multiple Kalman filters, each of which is uniquely designed based on a specific failure hypothesis. A fault-detection-and-isolation (FDI) system, developed based on this method, is able to isolate faults in sensors and actuators while detecting component faults (abrupt degradation in engine component performance). By affording a capability for real-time identification of minor faults before they grow into major ones, the method promises to enhance safety and reduce operating costs. The robustness of this method is further enhanced by incorporating information regarding the aging condition of an engine. In general, real-time fault diagnostic methods use the nominal performance of a "healthy" new engine as a reference condition in the diagnostic process. Such an approach does not account for gradual changes in performance associated with aging of an otherwise healthy engine. By incorporating information on gradual, aging-related changes, the new method makes it possible to retain at least some of the sensitivity and accuracy needed to detect incipient faults while preventing false alarms that could result from erroneous interpretation of symptoms of aging as symptoms of failures. The figure schematically depicts an FDI system according to the new method. The FDI system is integrated with an engine, from which it accepts two sets of input signals: sensor readings and actuator commands. Two main parts of the FDI system are a bank of Kalman filters and a subsystem that implements FDI decision rules. Each Kalman filter is designed to detect a specific sensor or actuator fault. When a sensor
Design and implementation of FIR filters in photovoltaic grid inverter%光伏并网逆变器中FIR滤波器的设计与实现
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈科; 范兴明; 黎珏强; 韦颖龙; 刘旭东
2012-01-01
为减少对电网的污染,在进行光伏并网逆变器设计时,要产生与电网同频、同相的交流电,并使并网逆变器的功率因数接近于1,这就要求滤除电网中的谐波信号.针对数字化并网逆变器,研究基于Matlab仿真软件与数字信号处理器TMS320F2812实现FIR数字滤波器的设计思路,并对仿真结果进行分析,提出了针对电网信号特点的滤波器设计方法,对光伏并网逆变器的设计有一定参考价值.%In order to reduce the pollution in power network, in the design of photovoltaic (pv) grid inverter, want to produce alternating current which has the same grid frequency and phase with power grid, and make grid inverter power factor close to 1, the harmonic signal in grid filter is required. In digital grid inverter, research based on Mat-lab simulation software and digital signal processor TMS320F2812 to realize the design idea of FIR digital filters, and the simulation results on the necessary analysis. According to the characteristics of the proposed power grid signal filter design method of photovoltaic (pv) grid inverter design has certain reference value.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mauricio Holguín-Londoño
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Vibration and acoustic analysis actively support the nondestructive and noninvasive fault diagnostics of rotating machines at early stages. Nonetheless, the acoustic signal is less used because of its vulnerability to external interferences, hindering an efficient and robust analysis for condition monitoring (CM. This paper presents a novel methodology to characterize different failure signatures from rotating machines using either acoustic or vibration signals. Firstly, the signal is decomposed into several narrow-band spectral components applying different filter bank methods such as empirical mode decomposition, wavelet packet transform, and Fourier-based filtering. Secondly, a feature set is built using a proposed similarity measure termed cumulative spectral density index and used to estimate the mutual statistical dependence between each bandwidth-limited component and the raw signal. Finally, a classification scheme is carried out to distinguish the different types of faults. The methodology is tested in two laboratory experiments, including turbine blade degradation and rolling element bearing faults. The robustness of our approach is validated contaminating the signal with several levels of additive white Gaussian noise, obtaining high-performance outcomes that make the usage of vibration, acoustic, and vibroacoustic measurements in different applications comparable. As a result, the proposed fault detection based on filter bank similarity features is a promising methodology to implement in CM of rotating machinery, even using measurements with low signal-to-noise ratio.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Awan, Mehmood-Ur-Rehman; Le Moullec, Yannick; Koch, Peter;
2012-01-01
, and power optimization for field programmable gate array (FPGA) based architectures in an M -path polyphase filter bank with modified N -path polyphase filter. Such systems allow resampling by arbitrary ratios while simultaneously performing baseband aliasing from center frequencies at Nyquist zones...... that are not multiples of the output sample rate. A non-maximally decimated polyphase filter bank, where the number of data loads is not equal to the number of M subfilters, processes M subfilters in a time period that is either less than or greater than the M data-load’s time period. We present a load...... of the down-sampled data. In RA, M subfilters processes are efficiently scheduled within N data-load time while simultaneously loading N subfilters. This requires reduced clock rates compared with LPA, and potentially less power is consumed. A polyphase filter bank that uses different resampling factors...
A NEW DESIGN METHOD OF CDMA SPREADING CODES BASED ON MULTI-RATE UNITARY FILTER BANK
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bi Jianxin; Wang Yingmin; Yi Kechu
2001-01-01
It is well-known that the multi-valued CDMA spreading codes can be designed by means of a pair of mirror multi-rate filter banks based on some optimizing criterion. This paper indicates that there exists a theoretical bound in the performance of its circulating correlation property, which is given by an explicit expression. Based on this analysis, a criterion of maximizing entropy is proposed to design such codes. Computer simulation result suggests that the resulted codes outperform the conventional binary balanced Gold codes for an asynchronous CDMA system.
A Modulated Hybrid Filter Bank for Wide-Band Analog-to-Digital Converters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chunyan Yuan
2014-04-01
Full Text Available It is difficult to use a single analog-to-digital conversion (ADC to satisfy the requirements for conversion of an ultra-wideband signal. A parallel architecture for high bandwidth ADC, named cosine modulated hybrid filter bank, is presented to address this problem. First, the proposed architecture shifts the input signal spectrum by means of mixers. The modulated signal is channelized into smaller frequency subband signals using identical lowpass analog filters. Then the subband signals are digitized through identical narrowband ADCs, respectively. Finally, the digitized signals are up-sampled, then filtered and combined to reconstruct the digital representation of the original wide-band input signal. The digital filters are designed to use the eigenfilter method based on total least squares error criterion. Since the sample-and-hold circuits needed are only identical narrowband baseband circuits, the simplicity of the system makes the design easier and cheaper. Several design examples are used to illustrate the performance of the proposed system.
Ellmauthaler, Andreas; Pagliari, Carla L; da Silva, Eduardo A B
2013-03-01
Multiscale transforms are among the most popular techniques in the field of pixel-level image fusion. However, the fusion performance of these methods often deteriorates for images derived from different sensor modalities. In this paper, we demonstrate that for such images, results can be improved using a novel undecimated wavelet transform (UWT)-based fusion scheme, which splits the image decomposition process into two successive filtering operations using spectral factorization of the analysis filters. The actual fusion takes place after convolution with the first filter pair. Its significantly smaller support size leads to the minimization of the unwanted spreading of coefficient values around overlapping image singularities. This usually complicates the feature selection process and may lead to the introduction of reconstruction errors in the fused image. Moreover, we will show that the nonsubsampled nature of the UWT allows the design of nonorthogonal filter banks, which are more robust to artifacts introduced during fusion, additionally improving the obtained results. The combination of these techniques leads to a fusion framework, which provides clear advantages over traditional multiscale fusion approaches, independent of the underlying fusion rule, and reduces unwanted side effects such as ringing artifacts in the fused reconstruction.
On-chip filter bank spectroscopy at 600-700 GHz using NbTiN superconducting resonators
Endo, A; Yates, S J C; Baselmans, J J A; Thoen, D J; Javadzadeh, S M H; van der Werf, P P; Baryshev, A M; Klapwijk, T M
2013-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate the principle of an on-chip submillimeter wave filter bank spectrometer, using superconducting microresonators as narrow band-separation filters. The filters are made of NbTiN/SiNx/NbTiN microstrip line resonators, which have a resonance frequency in the range of 614-685 GHz---two orders of magnitude higher in frequency than what is currently studied for use in circuit quantum electrodynamics and photodetectors. The frequency resolution of the filters decreases from 350 to 140 with increasing frequency, most likely limited by dissipation of the resonators.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T.S. Udhaya Suriya
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The MAC architecture is used in real time digital s ignal processing and multimedia information processing which requires high throughput. A novel method to estimate the transition activity at the nodes of a multiplier accumulator architecture based on modified booth algorithm implementing finite impulse response filter is prop osed in this paper. The input signals are described by a stationary Gaussian process and the transition activity per bit of a signal word is modeled according to the dual bit type (DBT model. This estimation is based on the mathematical formulation by multiplexing mechanism on the breakpoints of the DBT model.
Filter Bank Multicarrier Modulation: A Waveform Candidate for 5G and Beyond
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Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Recent discussions on viable technologies for 5G emphasize on the need for waveforms with better spectral containment per subcarrier than the celebrated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM. Filter bank multicarrier (FBMC is an alternative technology that can serve this need. Subcarrier waveforms are built based on a prototype filter that is designed with this emphasis in mind. This paper presents a broad review of the research work done in the wireless laboratory of the University of Utah in the past 15 years. It also relates this research to the works done by other researchers. The theoretical basis based on which FBMC waveforms are constructed is discussed. Also, various methods of designing effective prototype filters are presented. For completeness, polyphase structures that are used for computationally efficient implementation of FBMC systems are introduced and their complexity is contrasted with that of OFDM. The problems of channel equalization as well as synchronization and tracking methods in FBMC systems are given a special consideration and a few outstanding research problems are identified. Moreover, this paper brings up a number of appealing features of FBMC waveforms that make them an ideal choice in the emerging areas of multiuser and massive MIMO networks.
Fast multiscale directional filter bank-based speckle mitigation in gallstone ultrasound images.
Leavline, Epiphany Jebamalar; Sutha, Shunmugam; Singh, Danasingh Asir Antony Gnana
2014-02-01
Speckle noise is a multiplicative type of noise commonly seen in medical and remote sensing images. It gives a granular appearance that degrades the quality of the recorded images. These speckle noise components need to be mitigated before the image is used for further processing and analysis. This paper presents a novel approach for removing granular speckle noise in gray scale images. We used an efficient multiscale image representation scheme named fast multiscale directional filter bank (FMDFB) along with simple threshold methods such as Vishushrink for image processing. It is a perfect reconstruction framework that can be used for a wide range of image processing applications because of its directionality and reduced computational complexity. The FMDFB-based speckle mitigation is appealing over other traditional multiscale approaches such as wavelets and Contourlets. Our experimental results show that the despeckling performance of the proposed method outperforms the wavelet and Contourlet-based despeckling methods.
Ke-zhong, Han
The rise of frame theory in applied mathematics is due to the flexibility and redundancy of frames. In the work, the notion of bivariate affine pseudoframes is introduced and the no-tion of a bivariate generalized multiresolution analysis (GMRA) is introduced. A novel approach for designing one GMRA of Paley Wiener subspaces of L2(R2) is proposed. The sufficient condition for the existence of a sort of affine pseudoframes with fi-filter banks is obtained by virtue of a generalized multiresolution analysis. The pyramid decomposition scheme is established based on such a generalized multiresolution analysis. An approach for designing a sort of affine biariate dual frames in two-dimensional space is presented.
Application of multirate digital filter banks to wideband all-digital phase-locked loops design
Sadr, Ramin; Shah, Biren; Hinedi, Sami
1993-01-01
A new class of architecture for all-digital phase-locked loops (DPLL's) is presented in this article. These architectures, referred to as parallel DPLL (PDPLL), employ multirate digital filter banks (DFB's) to track signals with a lower processing rate than the Nyquist rate, without reducing the input (Nyquist) bandwidth. The PDPLL basically trades complexity for hardware-processing speed by introducing parallel processing in the receiver. It is demonstrated here that the DPLL performance is identical to that of a PDPLL for both steady-state and transient behavior. A test signal with a time-varying Doppler characteristic is used to compare the performance of both the DPLL and the PDPLL.
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Naser Jawas
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Citra radiograf panoramik gigi dapat digunakan untuk mendeteksi penyakit osteoporosis. Sistem deteksi osteoporosis secara digital digunakan untuk meningkatkan ketelitian dan mempermudah pengukuran. Proses enhancement citra digital radiograf panoramik gigi diperlukan untuk membantu memperbaiki atau memperjelas bagian-bagian yang penting di citra tersebut seperti bagian cortical. Bagian cortical yang memanjang secara horizontal sering memiliki bagian dengan iluminasi tidak merata di bagian tengah dengan arah vertikal yang menyulitkan proses pengukuran. Pemerataan iluminasi dengan metode filterisasi homomorfik cenderung mengalami over-enhancement. Oleh karena itu, Pada penelitian ini diusulkan metode enhancement citra radiograf panoramik gigi dengan menggunakan pemecahan citra ke dalam citra arah horizontal dan citra arah vertikal. Pemecahan citra ke dalam citra arah dilakukan dengan menggunakan Decimation-Free Directional Filter Bank. Pemerataan iluminasi dilakukan di masing-masing citra arah. Hasilnya menunjukkan proses filterisasi homomorfik yang dilakukan di citra arah ini efektif membantu menghindari over-enhancement.
Filter-bank based efficient transmission of reduced-guard-interval OFDM.
Tolmachev, Alex; Nazarathy, Moshe
2011-12-12
We propose a new way to structure the digital signal processing for reduced guard-interval (RGI) OFDM optical receivers. The idea is to digitally parallelize the processing over multiple parallel virtual sub-channels, occupying disjoint spectral sub-bands. This concept is well known in the optical or analog sub-carrier domains, but it turns out that it can also be performed efficiently in the digital domain. Here we apply critically sampled uniform analysis and synthesis DFT filter bank signal processing techniques in order to realize a novel hardware efficient variant of RGI OFDM, referred to as Multi-Sub-Band OFDM (MSB-OFDM), reducing by 10% receiver computational complexity, relative to a single-polarization version of the CD pre-equalizer. In addition to being more computationally efficient than a conventional RGI OFDM system, the signal flow architecture of our scheme is amenable to being more readily realized over multiple FPGAs, for experimental demonstrations or flexible prototyping.
Filter Bank Multicarrier (FBMC) for long-reach intensity modulated optical access networks
Saljoghei, Arsalan; Gutiérrez, Fernando A.; Perry, Philip; Barry, Liam P.
2017-04-01
Filter Bank Multi Carrier (FBMC) is a modulation scheme which has recently attracted significant interest in both wireless and optical communications. The interest in optical communications arises due to FBMC's capability to operate without a Cyclic Prefix (CP) and its high resilience to synchronisation errors. However, the operation of FBMC in optical access networks has not been extensively studied either in downstream or upstream. In this work we use experimental work to investigate the operation of FBMC in intensity modulated Passive Optical Networks (PONs) employing direct detection in conjunction with both direct and external modulation schemes. The data rates and propagation lengths employed here vary from 8.4 to 14.8 Gb/s and 0-75 km. The results suggest that by using FBMC it is possible to accomplish CP-Less transmission up to 75 km of SSMF in passive links using cost effective intensity modulation and detection schemes.
Spatial resolution enhancement residual coding using hybrid wavelets and directional filter banks
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ankit Ashokrao Bhurane; Prateek Chaplot; Dushyanth Nutulapati; Vikram M Gadre
2015-10-01
Traditional video coding uses classical predictive coding techniques, where a signal is initially approximated by taking advantage of the various redundancies present. Most of the video coding standards, including the latest HEVC, use the well-accepted procedure of applying transform coding on self-contained (intra) and inter-predicted frame residuals. Nevertheless, it has been shown in the literature that, a normal video frames possess distinct characteristics compared to a residual frame. In this paper, we have made use of hybrid wavelet transforms and directional filter banks (HWD) to encode resolution enhancement residuals in the context of scalable video coding. The results are presented for the use of HWD in the framework of the Dirac video codec. The experiments are carried out on a variety of test frames. Our experiments on residue coding using HWD show better performance compared to the conventional DWT, when tested on the same platform of the well-known SPIHT algorithm.
SISTEM VERIFIKASI SIDIK JARI DENGAN METODE PENCOCOKAN BERBASIS BANK GABOR FILTER
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A.A. K. Oka Sudana
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Many cases of fraud are exposed where someone, claiming to be someone else attempts to accesssomething. This situation challenges us to create a system that is both reliable and trustworthy to verify someoneâ€™sidentity. A biometric system represent an automatic recognition system based on the physiological characteristicsand/or behaviors of the human being. One of these biometric system is fingerprint recognition. Fingerprint verification system is a system to verify a human fingerprint according to the identity which has been claimed. Thusfingerprint image input is compared with the reference fingerprint image which has been kept in a database,according to the given identity. On this research, the Gabor Filter Bank-based Fingerprint Matching Method is used to extract the image features.On application, one of sample image will be matched with one of the database reference image. First, before matching, the sample image features need to be calculate using the aforementioned method. The resulting matchingprocess will find a reference image which has the shortest Euclidean distance with the sample image. This matchingprocess will only succeed if the sample image and the reference image are from the same person. Images used inthis research are fingerprint images with dimension 191 x 191 pixels. This research is looking for the successful rateand the burst time on the verification process. Result of the system testing show that Gabor Filter Bank Method canprovide high enough success level i.e. 95%. The items influence success level are subject to quality of fingerprint image and accuracy to find a reference point/core point, Similarity between query image and reference image is determined by projection distance both of images, and also threshold value is used to decide whether this image isvalid or not.
Liang, Lili; Liu, Han
2013-12-01
Dual-tree transforms have recently received much attention for the properties of shift-invariance and directional-selectivity. However, their designs generally encounter fractional-delay constraints, and become more complicated for providing linear-phase (LP) individual filters and flexible directional-selectivity, two important properties in image processing. In this paper, we propose an alternative shift-invariant and directional-selective transform-the dual-tree cosine-modulated filter bank (DTCMFB). In the proposed DTCMFB, its primal and dual filter banks are derived by cosine-modulating one LP prototype filter, and thus its design involves no fractional-delay constraints. Meanwhile, the derived modulation technique guarantees each individual filter to be LP and the LP condition is satisfied without any constraint on the prototype filter. By separable operations, the DTCMFB is extended to two-dimensions. The resulting 2D DTCMFB can provide much more flexible directional-selectivity. Finally, several simulations are given to verify the proposed DTCMFB, and the experiments on nonlinear approximation and image denoising are presented to demonstrate its potential in image processing.
Kuldeep, B; Singh, V K; Kumar, A; Singh, G K
2015-01-01
In this article, a novel approach for 2-channel linear phase quadrature mirror filter (QMF) bank design based on a hybrid of gradient based optimization and optimization of fractional derivative constraints is introduced. For the purpose of this work, recently proposed nature inspired optimization techniques such as cuckoo search (CS), modified cuckoo search (MCS) and wind driven optimization (WDO) are explored for the design of QMF bank. 2-Channel QMF is also designed with particle swarm optimization (PSO) and artificial bee colony (ABC) nature inspired optimization techniques. The design problem is formulated in frequency domain as sum of L2 norm of error in passband, stopband and transition band at quadrature frequency. The contribution of this work is the novel hybrid combination of gradient based optimization (Lagrange multiplier method) and nature inspired optimization (CS, MCS, WDO, PSO and ABC) and its usage for optimizing the design problem. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated by passband error (ϕp), stopband error (ϕs), transition band error (ϕt), peak reconstruction error (PRE), stopband attenuation (As) and computational time. The design examples illustrate the ingenuity of the proposed method. Results are also compared with the other existing algorithms, and it was found that the proposed method gives best result in terms of peak reconstruction error and transition band error while it is comparable in terms of passband and stopband error. Results show that the proposed method is successful for both lower and higher order 2-channel QMF bank design. A comparative study of various nature inspired optimization techniques is also presented, and the study singles out CS as a best QMF optimization technique. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Analysis of Filter-Bank-Based Methods for Fast Serial Acquisition of BOC-Modulated Signals
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Elena Simona Lohan
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Binary-offset-carrier (BOC signals, selected for Galileo and modernized GPS systems, pose significant challenges for the code acquisition, due to the ambiguities (deep fades which are present in the envelope of the correlation function (CF. This is different from the BPSK-modulated CDMA signals, where the main correlation lobe spans over 2-chip interval, without any ambiguities or deep fades. To deal with the ambiguities due to BOC modulation, one solution is to use lower steps of scanning the code phases (i.e., lower than the traditional step of 0.5 chips used for BPSK-modulated CDMA signals. Lowering the time-bin steps entails an increase in the number of timing hypotheses, and, thus, in the acquisition times. An alternative solution is to transform the ambiguous CF into an Ã¢Â€ÂœunambiguousÃ¢Â€Â CF, via adequate filtering of the signal. A generalized class of frequency-based unambiguous acquisition methods is proposed here, namely the filter-bank-based (FBB approaches. The detailed theoretical analysis of FBB methods is given for serial-search single-dwell acquisition in single path static channels and a comparison is made with other ambiguous and unambiguous BOC acquisition methods existing in the literature.
Analysis of Filter-Bank-Based Methods for Fast Serial Acquisition of BOC-Modulated Signals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lohan ElenaSimona
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Binary-offset-carrier (BOC signals, selected for Galileo and modernized GPS systems, pose significant challenges for the code acquisition, due to the ambiguities (deep fades which are present in the envelope of the correlation function (CF. This is different from the BPSK-modulated CDMA signals, where the main correlation lobe spans over 2-chip interval, without any ambiguities or deep fades. To deal with the ambiguities due to BOC modulation, one solution is to use lower steps of scanning the code phases (i.e., lower than the traditional step of 0.5 chips used for BPSK-modulated CDMA signals. Lowering the time-bin steps entails an increase in the number of timing hypotheses, and, thus, in the acquisition times. An alternative solution is to transform the ambiguous CF into an "unambiguous" CF, via adequate filtering of the signal. A generalized class of frequency-based unambiguous acquisition methods is proposed here, namely the filter-bank-based (FBB approaches. The detailed theoretical analysis of FBB methods is given for serial-search single-dwell acquisition in single path static channels and a comparison is made with other ambiguous and unambiguous BOC acquisition methods existing in the literature.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
金英连; 王斌锐; 徐崟
2013-01-01
稳像是提高基于视觉的移动机器人作业精度的关键.论文建立了完整的稳像算法流程,包含图像运动学模型、KLT特征提取、SAD特征匹配和滤波算法；设计了运动参数的Kalman和FIR滤波算法；并利用MATLAB实现了运动参数的Kalman和FIR滤波器；仿真验证和对比分析了Kalman和FIR滤波器对运动参数的去抖效果.结果表明,机器人视觉稳像中,Kalman滤波效果优于FIR滤波.用VC++和OpenCV编程实现了基于Kalman滤波的机器人视觉稳像软件,在双机器人移动平台上开展了实验,稳像计算时间小于视频采样时间,系统满足机器人对接作业实时性和精度要求.%Image stabilization is the key for accurate docking operations of robots with vision. The whole algorithm of image stabilization is established, including images kinematics model, KLT feature pixels detecting, SAD feature pixels matching and filters. Kalman and FIR filters are designed for smoothing images motion parameters and built in MATLAB. Simulation of filter of motion un-intended parameters is implemented to indicate removing jitter effect. Kalman filter is compared with FIR filter. Comparison curves and tables are given , which demonstrate that Kalman filter is better than FIR in robot vision image stabilization process. Based on VC++ and OpenCV, image stabilization software is programmed, and experiments are completed on double moving robots docking operation platform. The algorithm running time is less than the sampling period, and the precision and real-time demands are contented.
Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Timmermans, C
2014-01-01
The FPGA/NIOS FIR filter based on linear prediction (LP) to suppress radio frequency interference (RFI) has been installed in several radio stations in the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) experiment. AERA observes coherent radio emission from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays to make a detailed study of the development of the electromagnetic part of air showers. Radio signals provide complementary information to that obtained from Auger surface detectors, which are predominantly sensitive to the particle content of an air shower at the surface. The radio signals from air showers are caused by the coherent emission due to geomagnetic and charge-excess processes. These emissions can be observed in the frequency band between 10 - 100 MHz. However, this frequency range is significantly contaminated by narrow-band RFI and other human-made distortions. A FIR filter implemented in the FPGA logic segment of the front-end electronics of a radio sensor significantly improves the signal...
Online Speech/Music Segmentation Based on the Variance Mean of Filter Bank Energy
Kos, Marko; Grašič, Matej; Kačič, Zdravko
2009-12-01
This paper presents a novel feature for online speech/music segmentation based on the variance mean of filter bank energy (VMFBE). The idea that encouraged the feature's construction is energy variation in a narrow frequency sub-band. The energy varies more rapidly, and to a greater extent for speech than for music. Therefore, an energy variance in such a sub-band is greater for speech than for music. The radio broadcast database and the BNSI broadcast news database were used for feature discrimination and segmentation ability evaluation. The calculation procedure of the VMFBE feature has 4 out of 6 steps in common with the MFCC feature calculation procedure. Therefore, it is a very convenient speech/music discriminator for use in real-time automatic speech recognition systems based on MFCC features, because valuable processing time can be saved, and computation load is only slightly increased. Analysis of the feature's speech/music discriminative ability shows an average error rate below 10% for radio broadcast material and it outperforms other features used for comparison, by more than 8%. The proposed feature as a stand-alone speech/music discriminator in a segmentation system achieves an overall accuracy of over 94% on radio broadcast material.
Joint Source-Channel Coding by Means of an Oversampled Filter Bank Code
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marinkovic Slavica
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Quantized frame expansions based on block transforms and oversampled filter banks (OFBs have been considered recently as joint source-channel codes (JSCCs for erasure and error-resilient signal transmission over noisy channels. In this paper, we consider a coding chain involving an OFB-based signal decomposition followed by scalar quantization and a variable-length code (VLC or a fixed-length code (FLC. This paper first examines the problem of channel error localization and correction in quantized OFB signal expansions. The error localization problem is treated as an -ary hypothesis testing problem. The likelihood values are derived from the joint pdf of the syndrome vectors under various hypotheses of impulse noise positions, and in a number of consecutive windows of the received samples. The error amplitudes are then estimated by solving the syndrome equations in the least-square sense. The message signal is reconstructed from the corrected received signal by a pseudoinverse receiver. We then improve the error localization procedure by introducing a per-symbol reliability information in the hypothesis testing procedure of the OFB syndrome decoder. The per-symbol reliability information is produced by the soft-input soft-output (SISO VLC/FLC decoders. This leads to the design of an iterative algorithm for joint decoding of an FLC and an OFB code. The performance of the algorithms developed is evaluated in a wavelet-based image coding system.
Online Speech/Music Segmentation Based on the Variance Mean of Filter Bank Energy
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Zdravko Kačič
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel feature for online speech/music segmentation based on the variance mean of filter bank energy (VMFBE. The idea that encouraged the feature's construction is energy variation in a narrow frequency sub-band. The energy varies more rapidly, and to a greater extent for speech than for music. Therefore, an energy variance in such a sub-band is greater for speech than for music. The radio broadcast database and the BNSI broadcast news database were used for feature discrimination and segmentation ability evaluation. The calculation procedure of the VMFBE feature has 4 out of 6 steps in common with the MFCC feature calculation procedure. Therefore, it is a very convenient speech/music discriminator for use in real-time automatic speech recognition systems based on MFCC features, because valuable processing time can be saved, and computation load is only slightly increased. Analysis of the feature's speech/music discriminative ability shows an average error rate below 10% for radio broadcast material and it outperforms other features used for comparison, by more than 8%. The proposed feature as a stand-alone speech/music discriminator in a segmentation system achieves an overall accuracy of over 94% on radio broadcast material.
Spectral estimation for long-term evolution transceivers using low-complex filter banks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas Schlechter
2014-06-01
Full Text Available For mobile user equipments (UEs, a careful power management is essential. Despite this fact, quite an amount of energy is wasted in today's UEs’ analogue (AFEs and digital frontends (DFEs. These are engineered for extracting the wanted signal from a spectral environment defined in the corresponding communication standards with their extremely tough requirements. These requirements define a worst-case scenario still ensuring reliable communication. In a typical receiving process the actual requirements can be considered as less critical. Knowledge about the actual environmental spectral conditions allows to reconfigure both frontends to the actual needs and to save energy. In this paper, the authors present a highly efficient generic spectrum sensing approach, which allows to collect information about the actual spectral environment of an UE. This information can be used to reconfigure both the AFE and DFE, thus endowing them with increased intelligence. A low-complex multiplier free filter bank extended by an efficient power calculation unit will be introduced. They also present simulation results, which illustrate the performance of the spectrum sensing approach and a complexity comparison with different well-known implementations is given. Furthermore, estimates on the chip area and power consumption based on a 65 nm CMOS technology database are provided, considering the Smarti4G chip as a reference.
Novel FIR Inversion with Only FIRS
Chalmers, G
2005-01-01
The inversion of an FIR data sampling is usually stated to be possible with the use of a potentially unstable IIR, and in particular circumstances. It is possible to accomplish the same inversion with the doubling of an FIR sampling and with only FIRs for the sampling and the inversion. This note presents the configuration, which appently is not in the literature, for perfect signal reconstruction.
Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.
2005-01-01
In-flight sensor fault detection and isolation (FDI) is critical to maintaining reliable engine operation during flight. The aircraft engine control system, which computes control commands on the basis of sensor measurements, operates the propulsion systems at the demanded conditions. Any undetected sensor faults, therefore, may cause the control system to drive the engine into an undesirable operating condition. It is critical to detect and isolate failed sensors as soon as possible so that such scenarios can be avoided. A challenging issue in developing reliable sensor FDI systems is to make them robust to changes in engine operating characteristics due to degradation with usage and other faults that can occur during flight. A sensor FDI system that cannot appropriately account for such scenarios may result in false alarms, missed detections, or misclassifications when such faults do occur. To address this issue, an enhanced bank of Kalman filters was developed, and its performance and robustness were demonstrated in a simulation environment. The bank of filters is composed of m + 1 Kalman filters, where m is the number of sensors being used by the control system and, thus, in need of monitoring. Each Kalman filter is designed on the basis of a unique fault hypothesis so that it will be able to maintain its performance if a particular fault scenario, hypothesized by that particular filter, takes place.
HEAPA Filter Bank In-Place Leak Test for ACUs of Advanced Fuel Science Building in 2010
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ji, Chul Goo; Bae, Sang Oh [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2010-12-15
Air cleaning units installed in the Advanced Fuel Science Building were performed visual inspection, airflow capacity test, and HEAPA filter bank in-place leak test in accordance with ASME N-510-1989. All the above inspections was acceptable. Visual inspection was satisfied to AUC-556 and AUC-557. Airflow capacity was 96%(30,240 m{sup 3}/h) of design airflow capacity(31,500 m{sup 3}/h) for AUC-556 and was 97%(22,800 m{sup 3}/h) of design airflow capacity(22,800 m{sup 3}/h) for AUC-557, and was maintained within {+-}10% of the specified value. Penetration of HEAPA filter bank in-place leak test was 0.009% for AUC-556 and was 0.013% for AUC-557 and these values were maintained less than the acceptance criteria(0.05%)
1987-12-01
FIR filter can be described in the following. [Ref. 2] 1. FIR filters with exact linear phase can be easily designed. Linear phase filters are important...response for the four cases of linear phase filter , i.e., even or odd symmetry with an even or odd number of terms, can be written in the form: H (eJ ) = e...Ansari, The Design and Application of Optimal FIR Fractional Phase Filters , IEEE on Acoutics, Speech and Signal Processing, Vol. 2, 1987, pp.896-899. 77 14
Major Depression Detection from EEG Signals Using Kernel Eigen-Filter-Bank Common Spatial Patterns
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Shih-Cheng Liao
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD has become a leading contributor to the global burden of disease; however, there are currently no reliable biological markers or physiological measurements for efficiently and effectively dissecting the heterogeneity of MDD. Here we propose a novel method based on scalp electroencephalography (EEG signals and a robust spectral-spatial EEG feature extractor called kernel eigen-filter-bank common spatial pattern (KEFB-CSP. The KEFB-CSP first filters the multi-channel raw EEG signals into a set of frequency sub-bands covering the range from theta to gamma bands, then spatially transforms the EEG signals of each sub-band from the original sensor space to a new space where the new signals (i.e., CSPs are optimal for the classification between MDD and healthy controls, and finally applies the kernel principal component analysis (kernel PCA to transform the vector containing the CSPs from all frequency sub-bands to a lower-dimensional feature vector called KEFB-CSP. Twelve patients with MDD and twelve healthy controls participated in this study, and from each participant we collected 54 resting-state EEGs of 6 s length (5 min and 24 s in total. Our results show that the proposed KEFB-CSP outperforms other EEG features including the powers of EEG frequency bands, and fractal dimension, which had been widely applied in previous EEG-based depression detection studies. The results also reveal that the 8 electrodes from the temporal areas gave higher accuracies than other scalp areas. The KEFB-CSP was able to achieve an average EEG classification accuracy of 81.23% in single-trial analysis when only the 8-electrode EEGs of the temporal area and a support vector machine (SVM classifier were used. We also designed a voting-based leave-one-participant-out procedure to test the participant-independent individual classification accuracy. The voting-based results show that the mean classification accuracy of about 80% can be
Gutiérrez, Esteban; López-Salcedo, José A.; Seco-Granados, Gonzalo
2014-12-01
Multi-carrier (MC) signaling is currently in the forefront of a myriad of systems, either wired or wireless, due to its high spectral efficiency, simple equalization, and robustness in front of multipath and narrowband interference sources. Despite its widespread deployment, the design of efficient architectures for MC systems becomes a challenging task when adopting filter bank multi-carrier (FBMC) modulation due to the inclusion of band-limited shaping pulses into the signal model. The reason to employ these pulses is the numerous improvements they offer in terms of performance, such as providing higher spectral confinement and no frequency overlap between adjacent subcarriers. These attributes lead to a reduced out-of-band power emission and a higher effective throughput. The latter is indeed possible by removing the need of cyclic prefix, which is in charge of preserving orthogonality among subcarriers in conventional MC systems. Nevertheless, the potential benefits of FBMC modulations are often obscured when it comes to an implementation point of view. In order to circumvent this limitation, the present paper provides a unified framework to describe all FBMC signals in which both signal design and implementation criteria are explicitly combined. In addition to this, we introduce the concept of flexible FBMC signals that, unlike their traditional MC counterparts, do not impose restrictions on the signal parameters (i.e., symbol rate, carrier spacing, or sampling frequency). Moreover, our framework also proposes a methodology that overcomes the implementation issues that characterize FBMC systems and allows us to derive simple, efficient, and time-invariant transmitter and receiver architectures.
Filter Bank Common Spatial Pattern algorithm on BCI Competition IV Datasets 2a and 2b
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Kai Keng eAng
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The Common Spatial Pattern (CSP algorithm is an effective and popular method for classifying 2-class motor imagery electroencephalogram (EEG data, but its effectiveness depends on the subject-specific frequency band. This paper presents the Filter Bank Common Spatial Pattern (FBCSP algorithm to optimize the subject-specific frequency band for CSP on Datasets 2a and 2b of the Brain-Computer Interface (BCI Competition IV. Dataset 2a comprised 4 classes of 22 channels EEG data from 9 subjects, and Dataset 2b comprised 2 classes of 3 bipolar channels EEG data from 9 subjects. Multi-class extensions to FBCSP are also presented to handle the 4-class EEG data in Dataset 2a, namely, Divide-and-Conquer (DC, Pair-Wise (PW, and One-Versus-Rest (OVR approaches. Two feature selection algorithms are also presented to select discriminative CSP features on Dataset 2b, namely, the Mutual Information-based Best Individual Feature (MIBIF algorithm, and the Mutual Information-based Rough Set Reduction (MIRSR algorithm. The single-trial classification accuracies were presented using 10x10-fold cross-validations on the training data and session-to-session transfer on the evaluation data from both datasets. Disclosure of the test data labels after the BCI Competition IV showed that the FBCSP algorithm performed relatively the best among the other submitted algorithms and yielded a mean kappa value of 0.569 and 0.600 across all subjects in Datasets 2a and 2b respectively.
Filter Bank Common Spatial Pattern Algorithm on BCI Competition IV Datasets 2a and 2b.
Ang, Kai Keng; Chin, Zheng Yang; Wang, Chuanchu; Guan, Cuntai; Zhang, Haihong
2012-01-01
The Common Spatial Pattern (CSP) algorithm is an effective and popular method for classifying 2-class motor imagery electroencephalogram (EEG) data, but its effectiveness depends on the subject-specific frequency band. This paper presents the Filter Bank Common Spatial Pattern (FBCSP) algorithm to optimize the subject-specific frequency band for CSP on Datasets 2a and 2b of the Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) Competition IV. Dataset 2a comprised 4 classes of 22 channels EEG data from 9 subjects, and Dataset 2b comprised 2 classes of 3 bipolar channels EEG data from 9 subjects. Multi-class extensions to FBCSP are also presented to handle the 4-class EEG data in Dataset 2a, namely, Divide-and-Conquer (DC), Pair-Wise (PW), and One-Versus-Rest (OVR) approaches. Two feature selection algorithms are also presented to select discriminative CSP features on Dataset 2b, namely, the Mutual Information-based Best Individual Feature (MIBIF) algorithm, and the Mutual Information-based Rough Set Reduction (MIRSR) algorithm. The single-trial classification accuracies were presented using 10 × 10-fold cross-validations on the training data and session-to-session transfer on the evaluation data from both datasets. Disclosure of the test data labels after the BCI Competition IV showed that the FBCSP algorithm performed relatively the best among the other submitted algorithms and yielded a mean kappa value of 0.569 and 0.600 across all subjects in Datasets 2a and 2b respectively.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena Grigoryeva
2017-01-01
The thaw period was a kind of bank from which our country set sail towards unexplored horizons. The series on the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers is continued by the article by Felix Novikov (144-151, who writes about the history of the design of this wonderful building, today’s monument of architecture of Soviet modernism.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2012-01-01
In this paper, we describe resourceefficient hardware architectures for softwaredefined radio （SDR） frontends. These architectures are made efficient by using a polyphase channelizer that performs arbitrary sample rate changes, frequency selection, and bandwidth control. We discuss area, time, and power optimization for field programmable gate array （FPGA） based architectures in an Mpath polyphase filter bank with modified Npath polyphase filter. Such systems allow resampling by arbitrary ratios while simultaneously performing baseband aliasing from center frequencies at Nyquist zones that are not multiples of the output sample rate. A nonmaximally decimated polyphase filter bank, where the number of data loads is not equal to the number of M subfilters, processes M subfilters in a time period that is either less than or greater than the Mdataload ＇ s time period. We present a loadprocess architecture （LPA） and a runtime architecture （RA） （based on serial polyphase structure） which have different scheduling. In LPA, Nsubfilters are loaded, and then M subfilters are processed at a clock rate that is a multiple of the input data rate. This is necessary to meet the output time constraint of the down-sampled data. In RA, Msubfilters processes are efficiently scheduled within Ndataload time while simultaneously loading N subfilters. This requires reduced clock rates compared with LPA, and potentially less power is consumed. A polyphase filter bank that uses different resampling factors for maximally decimated, underdecimated, overdecimated, and combined upand downsampled scenarios is used as a case study, and an analysis of area, time, and power for their FPGA architectures is given. For resourceoptimized SDR frontends, RA is superior for reducing operating clock rates and dynamic power consumption. RA is also superior for reducing area resources, except when indices are prestored in LUTs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王玮; 王钊; 杜冰馨
2016-01-01
模拟／数字混合滤波器组（ HFB）系统可以用于实现超宽带模拟信号的高速高精度采样。针对许多应用场合仅需用HFB系统重构特定频带范围内信号的问题，提出通过最小化系统Chebyshev范数设计有限长脉冲响应数字综合滤波器的优化方法。该方法将HFB误差系统转化为一个等价的有限维多输入多输出线性时不变数字系统；在期望重构的频率范围内，利用广义KYP引理，给出数字系统在Chebyshev范数性能指标下基于线性矩阵不等式描述的凸优化问题。该算法可以重构期望的频率范围内的信号。仿真实验表明，新方法设计的HFB重构信号误差小于传统算法设计系统的重构信号误差。%Hybrid filter bank (HFB) analog-to-digital systems permit wideband,high frequency analog-to-digital conversion.To reconstruct the signal of interest in reduced frequency band using HFB,Chebyshev norm performance measure is presented to design finite impulse response (FIR) digital synthesis filters of HFB.The FIR filters are designed to minimize performance measure of a hybrid error system.This hybrid and multirate problem is cast as a norm optimization problem involving only linear time-invariant,discrete-time system.Using the generalized Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov (KYP) lemma,the problem is reduced to an optimization problem with a linear matrix inequality.Numerical experiments show the proposed approach yields better performance compared to existing techniques.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leach, R.R.; Schultz, C.; Dowla, F.
1997-07-15
Development of a worldwide network to monitor seismic activity requires deployment of seismic sensors in areas which have not been well studied or may have from available recordings. Development and testing of detection and discrimination algorithms requires a robust representative set of calibrated seismic events for a given region. Utilizing events with poor signal-to-noise (SNR) can add significant numbers to usable data sets, but these events must first be adequately filtered. Source and path effects can make this a difficult task as filtering demands are highly varied as a function of distance, event magnitude, bearing, depth etc. For a given region, conventional methods of filter selection can be quite subjective and may require intensive analysis of many events. In addition, filter parameters are often overly generalized or contain complicated switching. We have developed a method to provide an optimized filter for any regional or teleseismically recorded event. Recorded seismic signals contain arrival energy which is localized in frequency and time. Localized temporal signals whose frequency content is different from the frequency content of the pre-arrival record are identified using rms power measurements. The method is based on the decomposition of a time series into a set of time series signals or scales. Each scale represents a time-frequency band with a constant Q. SNR is calculated for a pre-event noise window and for a window estimated to contain the arrival. Scales with high SNR are used to indicate the band pass limits for the optimized filter.The results offer a significant improvement in SNR particularly for low SNR events. Our method provides a straightforward, optimized filter which can be immediately applied to unknown regions as knowledge of the geophysical characteristics is not required. The filtered signals can be used to map the seismic frequency response of a region and may provide improvements in travel-time picking, bearing estimation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李磊明; 张鹰; 周小彦
2015-01-01
AC injection method is an approach which is commonly used in internal resistance online detection of battery. Extracting useful signal from the noise environment is the key technology to realize the method. This paper proposes a solution which is used to extract useful signal by FIR digital filter ,and introduces the design and simulation of filter in MATLAB and the realization of digital filter with the use of TMS 320F2812.%交流注入法是蓄电池内阻在线检测中常用的一种方法，有效抑制噪声提取有用信号是实现该方法的关键技术。提出了一种以FIR数字滤波器实现有用信号提取的方案，并介绍了以MATLAB进行滤波器设计、仿真和以TMS320F2812型DSP实现数字滤波的方法。
2013-01-01
relationships to determine the residual life of these filters. The ANCDF design included a MDB air-ventilation system, which consisted of nine carbon... ghost peaks between successive injections that were caused by chemical entrapment in this tubing. The connection between the end of the collection tube... residual adsorption capacity. In this study, carbon samples were examined from MDB Filter Banks 1 and 2 and the PFS Filter, along with a control
Design and emulation of FIR filter about adjustable edged frequency on ARM%基于ARM的上下频率可调FIR滤波器设计与仿真
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
沙俊杰; 张伟成
2012-01-01
In the process of detecting the EEG signals, one part of the important work is filtering. Based on the characteristics of the ARM and software simulation, this paper puts forward a design method about using comprehensively MATLAB and EVC software to realize FIR filter about the adjustable frequency in the ARM. Firstly, the filter parameters which meet the performance requirements are designed by MATLAB software. Then filter algorithm using C++ programming language is worked in the ARM. Finally,the simulation is realized in the EVC. The simulation results show that the various performance of the filter are well, which has a good reference meaning to the actual system design and meets the signal preprocessing requirements of EEG acquisition system.%在脑电信号的检测处理过程中,信号滤波是重要工作之一.结合ARM及软件仿真的特点,提出一种综合使用MATLAB和EVC软件在ARM上实现上下频率可调FIR滤波器的设计方法.先用MATLAB软件设计出满足性能要求的滤波器参数,然后在ARM中进行滤波算法的C++语言编程,再在EVC软件中进行仿真实验.实验结果表明,该滤波器各项性能良好,对实际系统设计具有较好参考意义,能够满足脑电信号采集系统信号预处理的要求.
Wijayaratna, Sewwandi; Madanayake, Arjuna; Beall, Brandon D.; Bruton, Len T.
2014-05-01
Real-time digital implementation of three-dimensional (3-D) infinite impulse response (IIR) beam filters are discussed. The 3-D IIR filter building blocks have filter coefficients, which are defined using algebraic closed-form expressions that are functions of desired beam personalities, such as the look-direction of the aperture, the bandwidth and sampling frequency of interest, inter antenna spacing, and 3dB beam size. Real-time steering of such 3-D beam filters are obtained by proposed calculation of filter coefficients. Application specific computing units for rapidly calculating the 3-D IIR filter coefficients at nanosecond speed potentially allows fast real-time tracking of low radar cross section (RCS) objects at close range. Proposed design consists of 3-D IIR beam filter with 4 4 antenna grid and the filter coefficient generation block in separate FPGAs. The hardware is designed and co-simulated using a Xilinx Virtex-6 XC6VLX240T FPGA. The 3-D filter operates over 90 MHz and filter coefficient computing structure can operate at up to 145 MHz.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Awan, Mehmood-Ur-Rehman; Le Moullec, Yannick; Koch, Peter
2012-01-01
, and power optimization for field programmable gate array (FPGA) based architectures in an M -path polyphase filter bank with modified N -path polyphase filter. Such systems allow resampling by arbitrary ratios while simultaneously performing baseband aliasing from center frequencies at Nyquist zones...... for maximally decimated, under-decimated, over-decimated, and combined up- and down-sampled scenarios is used as a case study, and an analysis of area, time, and power for their FPGA architectures is given. For resource-optimized SDR front-ends, RA is superior for reducing operating clock rates and dynamic......In this paper, we describe resource-efficient hardware architectures for software-defined radio (SDR) front-ends. These architectures are made efficient by using a polyphase channelizer that performs arbitrary sample rate changes, frequency selection, and bandwidth control. We discuss area, time...
FIR Digital Filter for Gene Prediction Application%一种用于基因预测的FIR数字滤波器
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马宝山; 朱义胜
2007-01-01
数字信号处理技术已经用于DNA(DeoxyriboNucleic Acid)序列中的基因分析与识别.本文利用数字滤波器对基因序列进行分析和预测,根据基因序列周期3bp(base pair),设计了一种具有窄带选通特性的FIR(Finite Impulse Response)数字滤波器,对基因序列进行滤波,与IIR(Infinite Impulse Response)数字滤波器计算的结果对比,获得了较好的仿真结果.
Offline Performance of the Filter Bank EEW Algorithm in the 2014 M6.0 South Napa Earthquake
Meier, M. A.; Heaton, T. H.; Clinton, J. F.
2014-12-01
Medium size events like the M6.0 South Napa earthquake are very challenging for EEW: the damage such events produce can be severe, but it is generally confined to relatively small zones around the epicenter and the shaking duration is short. This leaves a very short window for timely EEW alerts. Algorithms that wait for several stations to trigger before sending out EEW alerts are typically not fast enough for these kind of events because their blind zone (the zone where strong ground motions start before the warnings arrive) typically covers all or most of the area that experiences strong ground motions. At the same time, single station algorithms are often too unreliable to provide useful alerts. The filter bank EEW algorithm is a new algorithm that is designed to provide maximally accurate and precise earthquake parameter estimates with minimum data input, with the goal of producing reliable EEW alerts when only a very small number of stations have been reached by the p-wave. It combines the strengths of single station and network based algorithms in that it starts parameter estimates as soon as 0.5 seconds of data are available from the first station, but then perpetually incorporates additional data from the same or from any number of other stations. The algorithm analyzes the time dependent frequency content of real time waveforms with a filter bank. It then uses an extensive training data set to find earthquake records from the past that have had similar frequency content at a given time since the p-wave onset. The source parameters of the most similar events are used to parameterize a likelihood function for the source parameters of the ongoing event, which can then be maximized to find the most likely parameter estimates. Our preliminary results show that the filter bank EEW algorithm correctly estimated the magnitude of the South Napa earthquake to be ~M6 with only 1 second worth of data at the nearest station to the epicenter. This estimate is then
Suzuki, Taizo; Ikehara, Masaaki; Nguyen, Truong Q
2012-07-01
Generalized block-lifting factorization of M-channel (M > 2) biorthogonal filter banks (BOFBs) for lossy-to-lossless image coding is presented in this paper. Since the proposed block-lifting structure is more general than the conventional lifting factorizations and does NOT require many restrictions such as paraunitary, number of channels, and McMillan degree in each building block unlike the conventional lifting factorizations, its coding gain is higher than that of the previous methods. Several proposed BOFBs are designed and applied to image coding. Comparing the results with conventional lossy-to-lossless image coding structures, including the 5/3- and 9/7-tap discrete wavelet transforms in JPEG 2000 and a 4 × 8 hierarchical lapped biorthogonal transform in JPEG XR, the proposed BOFBs achieve better result in both objective measure and perceptual visual quality for the images with a lot of high-frequency components.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
龚轲; 张东彦; 黄明
2011-01-01
In the realm of software radio,the module often used is digital filter.Digital filters are made by digital multipliers,adders and delay units composed of an algorithm or device.Digital filter function is the discrete signal input digital signal processing operations in order to achieve the purpose of changing the signal spectrum.This article uses the Matlab System Generator under the sine wave signal generation, and adding Gaussian white noise,the signal is filtered through a variety of digital filters,then download System Generator to generate the FPGA,the signal output through the DA,the last observed in the output waveform on the oscilloscope.%数字滤波器的功能是对输入离散的数字信号进行运算处理，以达到改变信号频谱的目的。System Generator是基于定点的仿真系统。的本设计内容全部基于System Generator。首先由DDS（Direct Digital Synthesizer数字信号发生器）生成正弦波信号，之后加入高斯白噪声，将信号通过两种结构的数字滤波器进行滤波，随后将程序下载至FPGA中，通过DA将信号输出，最后在比较两种滤波器的在硬件平台上的实际性能以及消耗资源情况。
Systolic implementation of a bidimensional lattice filter bank for multiresolution image coding
Desneux, P.; Legat, Jean-Didier; Macq, Benoit M. M.; Mertes, J. Y.
1993-10-01
In this paper, we present systolic architecture based on the lattice structure of filters. The main characteristic of this architecture is the systolism: computations are pipelined in many identical locally interconnected processing elements (PEs). These PEs are simple and can reach high frequency clock while working at any time of the process. So, the speed of the circuit can be increased. The implementation of the filters, through VLSI techniques, is facilitated by the repetitive nature of the elements. In section 2, we describe the multiresolution scheme and the lattice structures. If the lattice structure appears as an efficient remedy for the finite length of the multipliers, special attention has to be kept on the computation noise which appears when the datapath is limited to some finite width. The goal of the so-related study consists in keeping this computation noise below the quantization noise (coming from the quantizers) at a reasonable cost. In section 3, we present the basic processing element and its use among the different stages of the filter. Section 4 deals with the finite representation of the data throughout the datapath.
Fabric Defect Detection Algorithm Based on Log-Gabor Filter Bank%基于Log-Gabor滤波器组的织物疵点检测算法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
崔月平; 韩润萍
2011-01-01
In this paper, a scheme using Log-Gabor filter bank for fabric defect detection was proposed. First, a method of constructing Log-Gabor filter bank was presented. Then, fabric defect image was processed using this filter bank, and filtered images were obtained. These images were fused in order to reconstruct the defect binary image that segmented the defect from the texture background. Experiment results had confirmed the effectiveness of this scheme.%利用Log-Gabor滤波器组实现了对织物图像的疵点检测首先给出了构建L.g-Gabor滤波器组的方法,然后利用滤波器组对织物图像进行滤波处理,并对滤波后的图像进行分割和融合,最后将疵点从织物图像的背景纹理中分割出来实验结果证明该方法能够有效地检测出织物疵点.
Filter bank multicarrier technique simulation performance analysis%滤波器组多载波技术仿真性能分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙欣丽; 王萍
2016-01-01
Filter bank based multicarrier technique is one of pivotal techniques of 5G. Compare to traditional modulation,Filter bank based multicarrier technique has some advantages including performing without CP and lower sidelobe.This technique is still developing.There are twoclasses of modulated filter banks,FBMC filter the signal at the level of frame on the basis of IFFT.So the important thing is reasonable design of processing fame signal by filter banks.%基于滤波器组的多载波调制技术是第5代移动通信系统(5 G)研究的关键技术之一。与传统的调制技术相比滤波器组多载波技术具有不需要插入循环前缀、较低旁瓣等优点，其技术发展尚处于探索阶段。使用滤波器组多载波技术调制方式实现信号调制主要有两种方式，其中之一的 FBMC是在 IFFT的基础上使用原型滤波器在帧结构水平上对信号进行滤波，因此重点是设计出滤波器组对帧信号的合理处理方式。
Quantifying image distortion based on Gabor filter bank and multiple regression analysis
Ortiz-Jaramillo, B.; Garcia-Alvarez, J. C.; Führ, H.; Castellanos-Dominguez, G.; Philips, W.
2012-01-01
Image quality assessment is indispensable for image-based applications. The approaches towards image quality assessment fall into two main categories: subjective and objective methods. Subjective assessment has been widely used. However, careful subjective assessments are experimentally difficult and lengthy, and the results obtained may vary depending on the test conditions. On the other hand, objective image quality assessment would not only alleviate the difficulties described above but would also help to expand the application field. Therefore, several works have been developed for quantifying the distortion presented on a image achieving goodness of fit between subjective and objective scores up to 92%. Nevertheless, current methodologies are designed assuming that the nature of the distortion is known. Generally, this is a limiting assumption for practical applications, since in a majority of cases the distortions in the image are unknown. Therefore, we believe that the current methods of image quality assessment should be adapted in order to identify and quantify the distortion of images at the same time. That combination can improve processes such as enhancement, restoration, compression, transmission, among others. We present an approach based on the power of the experimental design and the joint localization of the Gabor filters for studying the influence of the spatial/frequencies on image quality assessment. Therefore, we achieve a correct identification and quantification of the distortion affecting images. This method provides accurate scores and differentiability between distortions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
关海鸥; 杜松怀; 李春兰; 苏娟; 梁英; 武子超; 邵利敏
2013-01-01
针对农村低压电网剩余电流保护与动作技术中，如何检测总泄漏电流中人体触电支路电流的难题，该文利用严格线性相位与任意幅度特性的FIR(finite impulse response)数字滤波技术和具有自适应性与最佳逼近特性的RBF(radial basis function)神经网络有机结合，提出一种基于FIR数字滤波的RBF神经网络作为触电电流信号的检测方法.首先，采用FIR数字滤波器选定合适的窗函数和滤波阶数，对触电试验获得的总泄漏电流及触电电流进行滤波预处理；然后，将预处理后的信号波形作为样本集，选定适合的RBF函数，建立从总泄漏电流中提取触电电流波形的3层RBF神经网络模型.仿真试验结果表明：该方法速度快且稳定，检测值与实际值的平均相对误差为3.76%，具有良好的适应性和实用性，对于研制新一代剩余电流保护动作装置具有重要意义.%Residual current protection device (RCD) has been widely used in low-voltage, rural power grids because it plays a very important role in avoiding physical shock, equipment damage, and electrical fires, etc, caused by leakage. At present, a setting value of leakage current can often be used as a key action for RCD. However, the electric shock current signal of the human body cannot be detected, and when unexpected current values close to or more than the setting value emerge, this will lead to the malfunction of RCD. In order to overcome the shortcomings above, we present a new recognition method for electric shock signal using digital filter technology and radial basis neural network. The method has three main stages. First, total leakage current and electric short current has been pre-processed using the finite impulse response digital filtering, which was designed by choosing suitable window functions and filter order. Second, the pre-processed signals are trained to create a three-level radial basis neural network
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
冯磊华; 桂卫华; 杨锋
2012-01-01
针对火电厂双进双出钢球磨煤机制粉出力较难直接测量的问题,拟建立其最小二乘支持向量机(LS-SVM)模型实现软测量.由于LS-SVM算法缺乏“稀疏性”,采用经Remez算法优化后的FIR数字滤波器与LS-SVM相结合,形成一种新的软测量建模方法-FIR-LSS-VM.仿真结果表明,经Remez优化后的FIR滤波效果更好.将该软测量方法应用于火电厂双进双出钢球磨煤机直吹式制粉系统,通过现场实验对比可知,改进的软测量模型学习速度较快且误差较小,更加适用于在线学习.%According to the problem that mill output of direct fired system with duplex inlet and outlet ball pulverizer in power plant is difficult to by direct measured, this paper proposes a soft sensor method based on the least squares support vector machines ( LS-SVM ) methods. Because of the lack of sparseness, LS-SVM is combined with optimized FIR by Remez algorithm to form a new soft sensor modeling method FIR-LSSVM. Simulation results show that the optimization effect is better. Lastly-FIR-LSSVM is used to establish the soft sensor model of mill output of direct fired system with duplex inlet and outlet ball pulverizer in power plant. The field tests show that the learning speed of FIR-LSSVM is faster and the error is smaller which indicates that FIR-LSSVM is better suitable for online learning.
An optimal noise reduction linear phase filter banks based on FPGA%一种最优去噪线性相位滤波器组的FPGA实现
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张辉
2011-01-01
To desip an oversampled linear phase perfect reconstruction filter banks with lattice structure is an efficient implementation. Once the analysis filter banks are ensured, the structure of synthesis filter banks is determined, but there is still lots of synthesis filter banks for the parameters are flexible, in which choose a synthesis filter banks for optimal noise reduction. This paper implements the design in FPGA with DSP Builder, and simulate the design on function with Modelsim.%格型结构是一种可以快速高效设计过采样线性相位完全重建滤波器组的方法.一旦分析滤波器组设定后,对应的综合滤波器结构也就确定,但综合滤波器组参数却有很大的灵活性,从中可以找出具有最优去噪效果的综合滤波器组,构成一个完整的滤波器组.对于求解出的具有最优去噪效果的过采样线性相位完全重构滤波器组,文中用DSP Builder在FPGA上予以实现,并用modelsim进行功能仿真.
实时的 Gammatone听感知滤波器组的 FPGA实现%Real-time Implementation of Auditory Gammatone Filter Bank with FPGA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
贾瑞; 李冬梅
2015-01-01
Gammatone Filter Bank (GTFB) is perfectly suitable for speech processing systems like digital hearing aids ,speech enhancement and speech recognition system .However ,the high computational complexity and non‐real‐time characteristic in the hardware synthesis restrict its practical application .In this paper ,an efficient core computation unit structure is proposed .Besides ,a low complexity synthesis algorithm is proposed and the real‐time characteristic is achieved by compensating the filter delay .The measurement results verified show that a 128‐band high‐efficient real‐time reconfigurable Gammatone Filter Bank is realized in FPGA .The design has only 20 ms delay and improve the dual‐microphone CASA speech enhancement system performance .%Gammatone听感知滤波器组能大幅度的提高数字助听器、语音增强和语音识别等语音处理系统的性能，但因其庞大复杂的计算量以及不可实时的综合方式限制了其实际应用。设计了一种高效的运算单元结构和复用架构，提出了一种通过延时补偿的方法简化其综合的方式，并在FPGA上实现了128通道的便于综合的可实时处理语音信号的Gammatone滤波器组。通过测试验证，该设计延时为20 ms ，满足实时性要求，能很好地重构语音信号，并提高语音增强系统的性能。
基于Gabor滤波器族的地震图像增强算法%Seismic image enhancement algorithm based on Gabor filter bank
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘天时; 杨雪; 李湘眷
2015-01-01
为在增强地震剖面图像时获取纹线的构造及层序信息，提出一种基于地震剖面图像纹线方向的地震图像增强算法。根据地震剖面纹线的方向性，设计一个Gabor滤波器族，用其对低频分量图进行滤波去噪。利用小波变换与Gabor滤波器族各自的优点，实现地震剖面图像纹线的增强，提高整体运算效率。仿真结果表明，该算法对地震剖面图像处理后，均方误差与峰值信噪比均有明显的改善。%To obtain the structure and sequence information of stripe lines accurately while enhancing the seismic profile image ,a seismic image enhancement algorithm was proposed based on the directions of stripe lines on seismic profile image .Based on the directionality of stripe lines on seismic profile image ,a Gabor filter bank was designed ,by which low frequency component figure was filtered and denoised .With the advantages of wavelet transform and Gabor filter bank ,the enhancement of stripe lines on seismic profile was realized ,which improved overall operational efficiency .The simulation results show that the mean square er‐ror and peak signal to noise ratio are improved obviously after the seismic profile image being processed using this algorithm .
Degrading Precision Arithmetics for Low-power FIR Implementation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Albicocco, Pietro; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Nannarelli, Alberto
2011-01-01
In this paper a review of different techniques used to implement highly optimized DSP systems is presented. The case of study is the implementation of parallel FIR filters aimed to applications characterized by high speed and high selectivity in frequency where at the same time low power dissipat......In this paper a review of different techniques used to implement highly optimized DSP systems is presented. The case of study is the implementation of parallel FIR filters aimed to applications characterized by high speed and high selectivity in frequency where at the same time low power...... on selective bit freezing, DPA-II, based on VDD voltage scaling, and DPA-III, based on power gating. Some theoreticaVsimuiative analysis of the introduced arithmetic errors and some implementation results are shown. A discussion on the suitability of these methodologies on standard cell technologies and FPGAs...
Suzuki, Taizo; Ikehara, Masaaki
2014-06-01
We present an effective image boundary processing for M-channel (M ∈ IN, M ≥ 2) lifting-based linear-phase filter banks that are applied to unified lossy and lossless image compression (coding), i.e., lossy-to-lossless image coding. The reversible symmetric extension we propose is achieved by manipulating building blocks on the image boundary and reawakening the symmetry of each building block that has been lost due to rounding error on each lifting step. In addition, complexity is reduced by extending nonexpansive convolution, called reversible symmetric nonexpansive convolution, because the number of input signals does not even temporarily increase. Our method not only achieves reversible boundary processing, but also is comparable with irreversible symmetric extension in lossy image coding and outperformed periodic extension in lossy-to-lossless image coding.
Suzuki, Taizo; Kudo, Hiroyuki
2015-12-01
We propose a 2D non-separable block-lifting structure (2D-NSBL) that is easily formulated from the 1D separable block-lifting structure (1D-SBL) and 2D non-separable lifting structure (2D-NSL). The 2D-NSBL can be regarded as an extension of the 2D-NSL, because a two-channel 2D-NSBL is completely equivalent to a 2D-NSL. We apply the 2D-NSBL to M-channel ( M=2(n), n ∈ N) perfect reconstruction filter banks (PRFBs). The 2D-NSBL-based PRFBs outperform 1D-SBL-based PRFBs at lossy-to-lossless coding, whose image quality is scalable from lossless data to high compressed lossy data, because their rounding errors are reduced by merging many rounding operations.
Design on AC Filter Sub-bank Maintenance Function in UHVDC System%特高压直流输电交流滤波器小组检修功能的设计
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
罗磊; 盛琰; 黄金海; 周玉勇; 崔佳佳
2016-01-01
The development of AC filter protection system in ultra⁃high voltage direct current ( UHVDC ) is described in this paper based on the characteristics of UHVDC transmission AC filter and actual requirement of project field. For the AC filter sub⁃bank hard⁃ware features of optical current transformer, by applying the Xuji self⁃developed software platform, AC filter sub⁃bank maintenance function is designed. When the AC filter bank of centralized configuration, sub⁃bank of optical current transformer fault, the realization method of the maintenance function are expounded. AC filter sub⁃bank maintenance function is very necessary for large load operation of UHVDC system, it enhances the reliability of the system.%介绍了特高压直流输电工程交流滤波器保护系统的发展，结合溪浙工程特高压直流输电交流滤波器的特点及工程现场实际运行需求，针对交流滤波器小组光电流互感器的硬件特性，通过许继自主开发的软件平台，设计交流滤波器小组检修功能。阐述交流滤波器大组集中化配置中小组光电流互感器故障时，检修功能的实现方法。交流滤波器小组检修功能，对于大负荷运行的特高压直流系统十分必要，可增强系统的可靠性。
Q value analysis of microwave photonic filters
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lina ZHOU; Xinliang ZHANG; Enming XU
2009-01-01
This paper first presents the fundamental principles of the microwave photonic filters.As an example to explain how to implement a microwave photonic filter, a specific finite impulse response (FIR) filter is illustrated.Next, the Q value of the microwave photonic filters is analyzed theoretically, and methods around how to gain high Q value are discussed.Then,divided into FIR filter, first-order infinite impulse response (IIR) filter, and multi-order IIR filter, several novel microwave photonic filters with high Q value are listed and compared.The technical difficulties to get high Q value in first-order IIR filter and multi-order IIR filter are analyzed concretely.Finally, in order to gain higher Q value, a multi-order IIR microwave photonic filter that easily extends its order is presented and discussed.
Zhou, Yongjin; Zheng, Yong-Ping
2011-04-01
In this study, to complement our previously proposed method for estimating muscle fiber orientation, the Gabor filter bank (GF) technique was applied to sonograms of the biceps and forearm muscles to longitudinally enhance the coherently oriented and hyperechoic perimysiums regions. The method involved three steps: orientation field estimation, frequency map computation and Gabor filtering. The method was evaluated using a simulated image distorted with multiplicative speckle noises where the "muscles" were arranged in a bipennate fashion with an "aponeurosis" located in the middle. After enhancement using the GF approach, most of the original hyperechoic bands in the simulated image could be recovered. The proposed method was also tested using a group of biceps and forearm muscle sonograms collected from healthy adult subjects. Compared with the sonograms without enhancement, the enhanced images led to the detection of more linear patterns including muscle fascicles and smaller angle differences compared with the mean of manual results from two operators, therefore, were better prepared for the automatic estimation of muscle fiber orientation. The proposed method has the potential of assisting in the visualization of strongly oriented patterns in skeletal muscle sonograms as well as in the semi-automatic estimation of muscle fiber orientations.
粒子群优化算法在FIR数字滤波器设计中的应用%Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for FIR Digital Filters Design
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李辉; 张安; 赵敏; 徐琦
2005-01-01
本文针对有限脉冲响应(FIR)数字滤波器的设计实质上是一个多参数优化问题,提出了一种用粒子群优化算法(PSO)设计FIR数字滤波器的方法.首先将滤波器的设计问题转化为滤波器参数的优化问题,然后利用粒子群优化算法对整个参数空间进行高效并行搜索以获得参数的最优化.FIR数字低通、带通滤波器设计实例证明了该方法的有效性和优越性.
Leader growth in Nordman fir christmas trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Claus Jerram; Pedersen, Lars Bo
Leader Griowth in Nordman fir Christmas trees: Growth visualization and effects of fertilization, irrigation and drought......Leader Griowth in Nordman fir Christmas trees: Growth visualization and effects of fertilization, irrigation and drought...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Md. S. Amin
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: Finite Impulse Response (FIR filters are widely used in various DSP applications. The design of digital FIR filters is a very basic problem in digital signal processing. A FIR filter with multiple operation capability is certainly very useful for any real-time filtering applications. This article presents a multipurpose FIR filter design modeled by the hardware description language VHDL for real-time filtering application. Approach: The VHDL has its concept of concurrency to cope with the parallelism of digital hardware. The novel feature is the capability of the design to accomplish up to 127variable filter order and an arbitrary filter frequency response. The coefficients are calculated by Hamming windowing technique. Basing on selection embedded in the design, the model is able to execute highpass, lowpass, bandstop and bandpass filtering operations. It is set at 8-bit signed data processing. To filter the input data in time domain, Linear Constant Coefficient Difference Equation (LCCDE is used by the filter. Results: The design outputs are validated through simulation and compilation. The output results are also compared with the MATLAB implemented calculated output results to test the correctness that proves the effectiveness of the design. Conclusion: With the capability of filtering signal in real time mode utilizing arbitrary filter shape, the multipurpose filter proves to be versatile.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Re
2002-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an extensive comparison among alternative algorithms for the implementation of a digital demultiplexer has been carried out. The computational complexity, the performances and the accuracy with respect to the quantization effects (quantization noise and coefficient quantization have been evaluated for the different algorithms. The selected digital architecture has been designed to be compliant with the Eutelsat specifications for the Skyplex Digital Video Broadcast (DVB television system (Re, M., Cardarilli, G.C., Del Re, A. and Lojacono R. (2000 “FPGA Implementation of a Demux based on a multirate filter bank”. International Symposium on Circuits and Systems 2000, 5 (May, 353–356. At present, a more expensive and complex analog structure, based on six Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW filters, is used. The new digital architecture has been mapped on six Altera Flex 10K-100 devices. The final test bed, that includes a complete interface to the demodulator, has been implemented on a four-layers PCB.
Design of Full-Band and Low-Pass FIR Differentiators: A Comparative Study
Mekhnache, C.; Ferdi, Y.; Taleb-Ahmed, A.
2008-06-01
Digital differentiators are useful in many fields of sciences and engineering. They can be designed using two approaches, namely, FIR filters design and FIR filters design. This paper is concerned by the first one in which great interest in the design of digital differentiators has encouraged the development of various design methods. The widely used methods for FIR differentiators are those based on criteria L1, L2, L∞ and that based on Taylor series. A comparison between these methods is carried out in terms of approximation accuracy and computational complexity. Numeric examples are presented to illustrate the performance of each method. It was found that the design results obtained by least squares method for fullband and low-pass differentiators are better than the other ones.
Statistically-Efficient Filtering in Impulsive Environments: Weighted Myriad Filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gonzalez Juan G
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Linear filtering theory has been largely motivated by the characteristics of Gaussian signals. In the same manner, the proposed Myriad Filtering methods are motivated by the need for a flexible filter class with high statistical efficiency in non-Gaussian impulsive environments that can appear in practice. Myriad filters have a solid theoretical basis, are inherently more powerful than median filters, and are very general, subsuming traditional linear FIR filters. The foundation of the proposed filtering algorithms lies in the definition of the myriad as a tunable estimator of location derived from the theory of robust statistics. We prove several fundamental properties of this estimator and show its optimality in practical impulsive models such as the -stable and generalized- . We then extend the myriad estimation framework to allow the use of weights. In the same way as linear FIR filters become a powerful generalization of the mean filter, filters based on running myriads reach all of their potential when a weighting scheme is utilized. We derive the "normal" equations for the optimal myriad filter, and introduce a suboptimal methodology for filter tuning and design. The strong potential of myriad filtering and estimation in impulsive environments is illustrated with several examples.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王海燕; 邓洪高; 刘庆华
2012-01-01
For wide band active noise control (ANC) system, as a result of the non-ideal characteristic and downsam-pling of the analysis filter banks, the aliasing problem between subband signals in the subband adaptive filter structure is introduced. An interpolated finite impulse response filter (IFIR) is employed to indirectly design the cosine-modulated filter banks prototype filter with high-stopband attenuation to achieve stopband energy minimization, in order to directly eliminate the aliasing problem between subband signals. It has low computational complexity. And compensation the error path delay avoids the delay of cosine-modulated filter banks. Simulation results show that this algorithm has good performance in the broadband gauss white noise and broadband color signal, especially for broadband color signal.%针对宽带有源噪声控制(ANC)系统,在采用子带自适应滤波结构时,由分析滤波器组的非理想特性及下采样原因引起的子带信号混叠问题,采用内插脉冲响应技术问接设计了一种高阻带衰减的低通原型滤波器,使得阻带能量最小化来直接消除子带信号间的混叠问题,具有较低的计算复杂度.同时,通过采用补偿误差通道延迟的方法来消除由分析滤波器组产生的延迟.仿真实验结果表明,该算法在宽带高斯白噪声和宽带有色信号下都具有较好的收敛性能,尤其对宽带有色信号.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duval, L.
2000-11-01
Wavelet and wavelet packet transforms are the most commonly used algorithms for seismic data compression. Wavelet coefficients are generally quantized and encoded by classical entropy coding techniques. We first propose in this work a compression algorithm based on the wavelet transform. The wavelet transform is used together with a zero-tree type coding, with first use in seismic applications. Classical wavelet transforms nevertheless yield a quite rigid approach, since it is often desirable to adapt the transform stage to the properties of each type of signal. We thus propose a second algorithm using, instead of wavelets, a set of so called 'extended transforms'. These transforms, originating from the filter bank theory, are parameterized. Classical examples are Malvar's Lapped Orthogonal Transforms (LOT) or de Queiroz et al. Generalized Lapped Orthogonal Transforms (GenLOT). We propose several optimization criteria to build 'extended transforms' which are adapted the properties of seismic signals. We further show that these transforms can be used with the same zero-tree type coding technique as used with wavelets. Both proposed algorithms provide exact compression rate choice, block-wise compression (in the case of extended transforms) and partial decompression for quality control or visualization. Performances are tested on a set of actual seismic data. They are evaluated for several quality measures. We also compare them to other seismic compression algorithms. (author)
Application of filter bank on signal processing of coherent wind lidar%滤波器组在相干激光测风雷达信号处理中的应用
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
曹文勇; 马明; 赵彬; 何幸锴; 侯天晋; 周鼎富; 邓华荣
2013-01-01
首先简要介绍了相干激光测风雷达和数字滤波器组的工作原理，然后重点分析了余弦调制滤波器组。余弦调制滤波器组具有实现简单、占用资源少等特点。信号通过滤波器组后可分解成若干个窄带子信号，目标的多普勒频率将落入其中一个子带信号中，针对这一子信号进行处理可获得较高的信噪比。利用Matlab设计出了8通道余弦调制滤波器组，然后对回波信号进行处理，从仿真结果和实测信号处理结果可以看出：该方法可以判断并抽取出多普勒频率所在的子带信号。% The principle of coherent wind lidar and digital filter banks were introduced briefly at first, and then the theory of cosine modulated filter banks was analyzed. Cosine modulated filter banks have excellent characteristics such as simple realization and less resources occupying. Signal can be decomposed into several narrow sub-band by using cosine modulated filter banks. The Doppler frequency of the target will fall into one of sub-band and the higher SNR can be obtained by processing each sub-band. Based on this method, a 8-channel cosine modulated filter banks were designed with Matlab, which was used in coherent wind lidar signal processing simulations. The results of the simulation and measured signal prove the correctness of the method.
Dual Butterfly Match Filter VLSI Design
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Zhenyu; HAN Yueqiu
2001-01-01
Match filter is widely used in realtime signal processing, especially in Radar Signal Processing. This paper provides a novel ASIC design,which not only saves resource, but also improves thethroughput of the system. This ASIC is specially designed for Radar Pulse Compression. Certainly it canalso be used in other circumstances, such as FIR filter.
Design of Microwave Band Pass Filters for the Debuncher Stochastic Cooling System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deibele, C.; /Fermilab
2001-01-01
The FIR filters designed for the debuncher stochastic cooling system needed improvement. Its bandwidth was too wide, its magnitude was not flat, its phase ripple was too great, and it was difficult to control the characteristics of the filter. A simple microwave technique was employed to have a short time delay, simple robust layout, and small board size. A significant savings was seen over the FIR technique and these filters were installed in the Antiproton Source Debuncher while the FIR filters were removed from the debuncher stochastic cooling entirely.
Sensitivity of a Hybrid Filters Banks ADC to Jitter%一种混合滤波器组 ADC 对时序误差的敏感度研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡雅洁
2016-01-01
Under the background that Hybrid filters bank ADC is widely used in the field of communication today. A hybrid filter bank model based on the bandpass charge sampling filter was proposed. The modeling of this model was achieved in two methods and the sensitivity of the model to the jitters was studied. The consistency of this two methods shows the low sensitivity to jitters and verifies the reliability of this model.%在混合滤波器组 ADC 系统广泛用于通信领域的背景下，提出一种基于带通电荷取样滤波器的混合滤波器组模型。采用两种方法对模型进行建模，分析模型对采样时序误差的敏感度。通过两种方法得出的一致结果表明：该模型对时序误差敏感度低，验证了其可靠性。
Maria Klimikova
2010-01-01
Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.
Maria Klimikova
2010-01-01
Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.
Research on Channel Estimation of Filter Bank UMTS System%滤波器组UMTS系统的信道估计研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
何信旺; 芮赟; 王宗杰; 宋荣方
2015-01-01
3G UMTS system,compared with 4G LTE system,has the main disadvantage of the presence in the bandwidth and data rates, but better than the latter in the voice services and system coverage. In order to maintain the continued competitiveness of the evolution of UMTS systems,3GPP-LTE International Standardization Organization recently launches the S-UMTS research projects for 2G spectrum scattered over the age of migration. In the spectrum polymerization conditions,the wireless communication system using multiple access technology must be flexible to allocate resources to support non-contiguous occupied spectrum,and also maintain a good anti-jamming capability. The use of filtered multitone ( FMT) modulation to achieve polymeric transmission for narrow band UMTS signal becomes one of candidates in 3GPP. In the proposed CDMA-FMT system,the channel estimation scheme in the traditional WCDMA system can’ t be applied directly. Therefore,according to the transmission characteristics of the UMTS system and FMT system,propose a channel es-timation of narrow band CDMA multicarrier system based on the transmission of filter bank. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show it has a low computational complexity of the program and a good channel estimation performance.%3G的UMTS系统相比4G LTE系统,主要在系统带宽和数据速率上存在劣势,而在语音业务和系统覆盖上优于后者。为了保持UMTS演进系统的持续竞争力,3GPP-LTE国际标准化组织针对2G时代迁移过来的零散频谱,近期启动了S-UMTS的研究项目。在频谱聚合条件下,无线通信系统采用的多址技术必须能灵活支持非连续占用的频谱资源分配,同时保持较好的抗干扰能力。而采用滤波多音调制技术(FMT)实现窄带UMTS信号的聚合传输成为3GPP中的候选方案之一。在所提出CDMA-FMT系统中,传统WCDMA系统中的信道估计方案无法直接适用。因此,文中根据UMTS系统和FMT系统各自的传输
A digital filter optimization method for low power digital wireless communication system
Tarumi, Kousuke; Tsujimoto, Taizo; Yasuura, Hiroto
2003-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a design method for a low power digital baseband processing circuit. In particular, we focus on a digital FIR(Finite Impulse Response) filter that is a part of the digital baseband processing. Because the digital filter contains large power consuming components, such as adders and multipliers. We propose a design method to reduce power consumption of the digital FIR filter circuit by optimizing bitwidth of inputs of the mutipliers and the adders. We found that the ...
Clutter filter design for ultrasound color flow imaging.
Bjaerum, Steinar; Torp, Hans; Kristoffersen, Kjell
2002-02-01
For ultrasound color flow images with high quality, it is important to suppress the clutter signals originating from stationary and slowly moving tissue sufficiently. Without sufficient clutter rejection, low velocity blood flow cannot be measured, and estimates of higher velocities will have a large bias. The small number of samples available (8 to 16) makes clutter filtering in color flow imaging a challenging problem. In this paper, we review and analyze three classes of filters: finite impulse response (FIR), infinite impulse response (IIR), and regression filters. The quality of the filters was assessed based on the frequency response, as well as on the bias and variance of a mean blood velocity estimator using an autocorrelation technique. For FIR filters, the frequency response was improved by allowing a non-linear phase response. By estimating the mean blood flow velocity from two vectors filtered in the forward and backward direction, respectively, the standard deviation was significantly lower with a minimum phase filter than with a linear phase filter. For IIR filters applied to short signals, the transient part of the output signal is important. We analyzed zero, step, and projection initialization, and found that projection initialization gave the best filters. For regression filters, polynomial basis functions provide effective clutter suppression. The best filters from each of the three classes gave comparable bias and variance of the mean blood velocity estimates. However, polynomial regression filters and projection-initialized IIR filters had a slightly better frequency response than could be obtained with FIR filters.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
肖遥; 张晋寅; 黎建平; 楚金伟; 杨晓峰
2015-01-01
着重介绍H接线方式下高压滤波电容器组不平衡保护的定值的整定原则.提出滤波器组的失谐度,完好电容器单元的过电压水平及其允许值是滤波电容器组不平衡保护整定的基本原则.对H型电容器组的元件失效或者短路故障分别结合失谐度和过电压进行数理分析.结合内熔丝型电容器单元和无熔丝型电容器单元的不同故障性质,给出了电容器组不平衡保护的整定值计算分析方法和最终的整定计算公式.形成H型电容器组不平衡电流保护计算的理论基础.%The paper mainly introduces the principles to calculate the settings of unbalanced current protection for H-configured capacitor banks. The basic principles of the permitted detuning of the filter banks and the withstand voltages on remaining perfect capacitor units after some units' failures are proposed. Mathematical analysis of elements failures or short circuit of H capacitor banks is made together with detuning and overvoltage respectively. Combining with different fault property of both the internal fused and fuseless capacitors, the setting calculation analysis method of capacitor bank unbalanced protection and final formulations of setting calculation are given. The paper constitutes the basis for the unbalanced protection of H-configured capacitor banks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adam Szafarczyk
2008-07-01
Full Text Available The retail banking plays more and more important role in polish banking sector. There are several targets of this article. First of all is retail banking identification, both in Euroland and Poland. The next one trends, especially household deposits and credits and last retail banking in particular banks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Felician ALECU
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Internet Banking (known also as online banking allows performing transactions and payments over the internet through a bank's secure website. This can be very useful, especially for banking outside bank hours (which tend to be very short and banking from anywhere where internet access is available. In most cases a web browser such as Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox is utilized and any normal internet connection is suitable. No special software or hardware is usually needed.
The impacting filter bank design for MCP-EBPSK multicarrier demodulation%用于多路MCP-EBPSK信号解调的冲击滤波器组设计
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈志敏; 吴乐南; 陈贤卿
2012-01-01
修正的随机极性连续相位扩展的二元相移键控调制(MCP-EBPSK)通过随机化调制指数的符号,并加入功率谱调节系数,进一步降低了连续相位扩展的二元相移键控(CP-EBPSK)调制信号功率谱中的线谱分量,使得功率谱占用带宽更窄,信息传输更加的高效高速.多载波作为高频谱利用率的复用调制方式,与MCP-EBPSK结合势必会带来更高的系统性能,因此本文对用于解调单路MCP-EBPSK信号的冲击滤波器进行初步改进,通过添加陷波零点来抑制旁路干扰,设计出带陷波的冲击滤波器组.引入量子粒子群优化算法对加入陷波的冲击滤波器组进行优化得到滤波器组系数,仿真显示即使时频混叠的子载波间不满足正交关系,利用各冲击滤波器中心频率处极陡峭的陷波选频特性依然可以实现各子载波的正确解调.因此,设计的冲击滤波器组可以用于子载波无保护间隔的多路MCP-EBPSK信号解调.%The modified pseudo-random extended binary phase shift keying with continous phase ( MCP-EBPSK) could effectively reduce the spectral line compared with the continuous phase extended BPSK( CP-EBPSK) , which could narrow the power spectrum by adding the modified coefficients and randomizing the sign of the modulation index of CP-EBPSK, finally realized the efficient and high data rate transmission. Multiplexing as a high spectral efficiency technique, combined with the MCP-EBPSK would certainly bring better performance. In this paper we improved the impacting filter and designed the filter bank by adding zeros to the impacting filters at the notch frequencies to depress the inter-channel interference (ICI). Use the QPSO (Quantum-behaved Particle Swarm Optimization) algorithm to obtain the filter bank's parameters, the simulation shown that though the subcarriers were time-frequency aliasing and nonorthogonal, the impacting filter bank could separate the composite signal and demodulated properly
Energy-Aware Scheduling of FIR Filter Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koch, Peter; Wognsen, Erik Ramsgaard
2015-01-01
power and timing estimations for addition and multiplication (including idling power consumption) when executed on an Altera Cyclone IV FPGA, we model all the structures in UPPAAL and employ model checking to find energy-optimal solutions in linearly priced timed automata. In conclusion we state...
Recursive inversion of externally defined linear systems by FIR filters
Bach, Ralph E., Jr.; Baram, Yoram
1989-01-01
The approximate inversion of an internally unknown linear system, given by its impulse response sequence, by an inverse system having a finite impulse response, is considered. The recursive least-squares procedure is shown to have an exact initialization, based on the triangular Toeplitz structure of the matrix involved. The proposed approach also suggests solutions to the problem of system identification and compensation.
Low Power and Low Leakage Implementation of RNS FIR Filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Re, Andrea Del; Nannarelli, Alberto
2005-01-01
The CMOS technology scaling is leading to the integration of ever more complex systems on silicon. On the other hand, the shrinking of the devices and the reduction of the supply voltage have significantly increased the static power dissipation, that in power budgets of nanometer technologies, ca...
An Amplitude Spectral Capon Estimator with a Variable Filter Length
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Smaragdis, Paris; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll;
2012-01-01
The filter bank methods have been a popular non-parametric way of computing the complex amplitude spectrum. So far, the length of the filters in these filter banks has been set to some constant value independently of the data. In this paper, we take the first step towards considering the filter...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José F. Negrón
2014-12-01
Full Text Available An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir tussock moth defoliation resulted in significant Douglas-fir mortality in the heavily defoliated stands, leading to a change in dominance to ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Lawson. Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsuqae Hopkins, populations increased following the defoliation event but caused less mortality, and did not differ between heavily and lightly defoliated stands. Douglas-fir tussock moth-related mortality was greatest in trees less than 15 cm dbh (diameter at 1.4 m above the ground that grew in suppressed and intermediate canopy positions. Douglas-fir beetle-related mortality was greatest in trees larger than 15 cm dbh that grew in the dominant and co-dominant crown positions. Although both insects utilize Douglas-fir as its primary host, stand response to infestation is different. The extensive outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth followed by Douglas-fir beetle activity may be associated with a legacy of increased host type growing in overstocked conditions as a result of fire exclusion.
Time-Varying FIR Equalization for MIMO Transmission over Doubly Selective Channels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marc Moonen
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We propose time-varying FIR equalization techniques for spatial multiplexing-based multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO transmission over doubly selective channels. The doubly selective channel is approximated using the basis expansion model (BEM, and equalized by means of time-varying FIR filters designed according to the BEM. By doing so, the time-varying deconvolution problem is converted into a two-dimensional time-invariant deconvolution problem in the time-invariant coefficients of the channel BEM and the time-invariant coefficients of the equalizer BEM. The timevarying FIR equalizers are derived based on either the matched filtering criterion, or the linear minimum mean-square error (MMSE or the zero-forcing (ZF criteria. In addition to the linear equalizers, the decision feedback equalizer (DFE is proposed. The DFE can be designed according to two different scenarios. In the first scenario, the DFE is based on feeding back previously estimated symbols from one particular antenna at a time. Whereas, in the second scenario, the previously estimated symbols from all transmit antennas are fed back together. The performance of the proposed equalizers in the context of MIMO transmission is analyzed in terms of numerical simulations.
Filtering apparatus and method for mixing, extraction and/or separation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2013-01-01
The present invention relates to a filtering apparatus and method for mixing a compound of solid and fluid phases, separating the phases and/or extracting fluid from the compound. One embodiment of the invention discloses a filtering apparatus comprising a first filter section accommodating a fir...... in a beer brewing procedure....
The influence of the group delay of digital filters on acoustic decay measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sobreira-Seoane, Manuel A.; Cabo, David Pérez; Jacobsen, Finn
2012-01-01
to their phase response. In this investigation the two components are separated and the phase error analyzed in terms of the group delay of the filters. Linear phase FIR filters and minimum phase IIR filters fulfilling the class 1 requirements of the IEC 61260 standard have been designed, and their errors...
Management of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Slovenia
Bončina, Andrej; Ficko, Andrej; Klopčič, Matija; Matijašič, Dragan; Poljanec, Aleš
2009-01-01
In the paper, we analysed the structure and developmental characteristics of forest stands with silver fir in Slovenia, the management and cut in four forest site strata, where silver fir occurs. We used databases from the Slovenia Forest Service. In growing stock (GS) of silver fir, large (dbh=30-49cm) and very large (d=50 cm and more) diameter trees account for 84.9 % at the national level. The highest share of very large diameter silver fir trees (45 %) is in Dinaric silver fir forests and...
Azin, Meysam; Chiel, Hillel J; Mohseni, Pedram
2007-01-01
Finite impulse response (FIR) and infinite impulse response (IIR) temporal filtering techniques are investigated to assess the feasibility of very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) implementation of a subtraction-based stimulus artifact rejection (SAR) algorithm in implantable, closed-loop neuroprostheses. The two approaches are compared in terms of their system architectures, overall performances, and the associated computational costs. Pre-recorded neural data from an Aplysia californica are used to demonstrate the functionality of the proposed implementations. Digital building blocks for an FIR-based system are also simulated in a 0.18-microm CMOS technology, showing a total power consumption of IIR-based system can further reduce the required power consumption and die area.
Tall oil precursors of Douglas fir
Daniel O. Foster; Duane F. Zinkel; Anthony H. Conner
1980-01-01
The sapwood and heartwood extractives of Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] and the tall oil in the kraft black liquor were characterized. On pulping, isomerization and conversion of conjugated resin acids to dehydroabietic acid was observed. Recovery of both fatty and resin acids from pulping was lower than predicted from the extractive composition....
Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fisk, William; Spears, Mike; Sullivan, Douglas; Mendell, Mark
2009-09-01
This study evaluated the ozone removal performance of moderate-cost particle filters containing activated carbon when installed in a commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Filters containing 300 g of activated carbon per 0.09 m2 of filter face area were installed in two 'experimental' filter banks within an office building located in Sacramento, CA. The ozone removal performance of the filters was assessed through periodic measurements of ozone concentrations in the air upstream and downstream of the filters. Ozone concentrations were also measured upstream and downstream of a 'reference' filter bank containing filters without any activated carbon. The filter banks with prefilters containing activated carbon were removing 60percent to 70percent of the ozone 67 and 81 days after filter installation. In contrast, there was negligible ozone removal by the reference filter bank without activated carbon.
Banking Bank Charge Debates Continue
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG PEI
2006-01-01
@@ The saying, "There's no such thing as a free lunch" is one that can be applied to the charges increasingly being imposed on savers by Chinese banks.Ranging from managementfees for small deposit accounts to charges for withdrawals of large amounts of cash, from ATM cross-bank withdrawal charges to annual fees for bank payment cards, charges by banks are becoming a unstoppable trend. But it is not a trend the general public is so keen to accept.
Is shadow banking really banking?
Bryan J. Noeth; Rajdeep Sengupta
2011-01-01
To those who don't know, the term "shadow banking" probably has a negative connotation. This primer draws parallels between what has been termed the shadow banking sector and the traditional banking sector—showing that they are similar in many ways.
Bank regulation and banking stability
Boot, A.; Thakor, A.V.
2014-01-01
This note discusses some issues in bank closure policy from a financial stability standpoint and how these issues have evolved since we first raised the question of how a reputation-driven divergence of interests between bank regulators and taxpayers may distort bank closure policy in our 1993 paper
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
高翠翠; 林明; 钱春雷
2015-01-01
针对超宽带雷达频带分割滤波器不理想、导致子带脉冲压缩和直接脉冲压缩结果相差较大的问题，本文提出了基于正交镜像滤波器组的子带脉冲压缩方法。首先设计了近似完全重建的正交镜像滤波器组，定义目标函数为通带误差、阻带能量和失真转移函数平方误差的加权和，通过无约束的变尺度方法将其最小化，然后用设计的正交镜像滤波器作为频带分割滤波器，实现子带脉冲压缩。仿真结果表明，本文设计的正交镜像滤波器组，相比现有的设计，具有更小的峰值重建误差、通带和阻带误差。提出的子带脉冲压缩方法，与传统方法相比，主副瓣比和主瓣宽度等脉压性能也明显提高。%For the problem that ultra-wideband (UWB)radar channel dropping filter isn′t ideal, which causes big error between subband pulse compression and direct pulse compression, a new method of subband pulse compression of UWB radar is presented. In the new method, nearly perfect-reconstruction two-channel quadrature mirror filter banks is designed at first. The objective function is formulated as a weighted sum of pass-band error and stop-band residual energy of low-pass prototype filter , and the square error of the distortion transfer function, which is minimized by unconstrained indirect update optimization method. The QMF replaces channel dropping filter. Compared with traditional subband pulse pressure method, simulation results show that the mainlobe to sidelobe and mainlobe width in proposed method are improved obviously.
Filters involving derivatives with application to reconstruction from scanned halftone images
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren; Jensen, Kim S.
1995-01-01
This paper presents a method for designing finite impulse response (FIR) filters for samples of a 2-D signal, e.g., an image, and its gradient. The filters, which are called blended filters, are decomposable in three filters, each separable in 1-D filters on subsets of the data set. Optimality...... filters are developed and applied to the problem of gray value image reconstruction from bilevel (scanned) clustered-dot halftone images, which is an application useful in the graphic arts. Reconstruction results are given, showing that reconstruction with higher resolution than the halftone grid...... in the minimum mean square error sense (MMSE) of blended filtering is shown for signals with separable autocorrelation function. Relations between correlation functions for signals and their gradients are derived. Blended filters may be composed from FIR Wiener filters using these relations. Simple blended...
Mathew, Jimson; Mahesh, R.; Vinod, A. P.; Lai, Edmund M.-K.
Finite impulse response (FIR) filtering is the most computationally intensive operation in the channelizer of a wireless communication receiver. Higher order FIR channel filters are needed in the channelizer to meet the stringent adjacent channel attenuation specifications of wireless communications standards. The computational cost of FIR filters is dominated by the complexity of the coefficient multipliers. Even though many methods for reducing the complexity of filter multipliers have been proposed in literature, these works focused on lower order filters. This paper presents a coefficient-partitioning-based binary subexpression elimination method for realizing low power FIR filters. We show that the FIR filters implemented using proposed method consume less power and achieve speed improvement compared to existing filter implementations. Design examples of the channel filters employed in the Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System (D-AMPS) and Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) receivers show that the proposed method achieved 23% average reductions of full adder and power consumption and 23.3% reduction of delay over the best existing method. Synthesis results show that the proposed method offers average area reduction of 8% and power reduction of 22% over the best known method in literature.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2009-01-01
There is no doubt that China’s banking system is a calm port in the global financial storm. Moreover, a great regulatory firewall and an easing monetary environment have enabled Chinese banks to increase lending and help shrug off the economic downturn. Yi Xianrong, a researcher at the Institute of Finance and Banking under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, discussed this topic in a recent article in the Shanghai Securities Journal. Edited excerpts follow:
A hybrid RNS adaptive filter for channel equalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bernocchi, Gian Luca; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Re, Andrea Del
2006-01-01
In this work a hybrid Residue Number System (RNS) implementation of an adaptive FIR filter is presented. The used adaptation algorithm is the Least Mean Squares (LMS). The filter has been designed to meet the constraints of specific class of applications. In fact, it is suitable for applications...... requiring a large number of taps where a serial updating of the filter coefficients is feasible (channel equalization or echo cancellation). In the literature, it has been shown that the RNS implementation of FIR filters grants earnings in area ad power consumption due to the introduced arithmetic...... simplifications. Vice versa, the RNS implementation of the adaptation algorithm needs scaling circuits that are complex and expensive in RNS arithmetic. For this reason, a serial binary implementation of the adaptation algorithm is chosen. The advantages in terms of area and speed of the RNS adaptive filter...
Remote sensing of balsam fir forest vigor
Luther, Joan E.; Carroll, Allen L.
1997-12-01
The potential of remote sensing to monitor indices of forest health was tested by examining the spectral separability of plots with different balsam fir, Abies balsamea (L.) Mill, vigor. Four levels of vigor were achieved with controlled experimental manipulations of forest stands. In order of increasing vigor, the treatments were root pruning, control, thinning and thinning in combination with fertilization. Spectral reflectance of branchlets from each plot were measured under laboratory conditions using a field portable spectroradiometer with a spectral range from 350 - 2500 nm. Branchlets were discriminated using combinations of factor and discriminant analyses techniques with classification accuracies of 91% and 83% for early and late season analyses, respectively. Relationships between spectral reflectance measurements at canopy levels, stand vigor, and foliage quality for an insect herbivore will be analyzed further in support of future large scale monitoring of balsam fir vulnerability to insect disturbance.
Development of adaptive IIR filtered-e LMS algorithm for active noise control
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Xu; MENG Guang; TENG Pengxiao; CHEN Duanshi
2003-01-01
Compared to finite impulse response (FIR) filters, infinite impulse response (IIR)filters can match the system better with much fewer coefficients, and hence the computationload is saved and the performance improves. Therefore, it is attractive to use IIR filters insteadof FIR filters in active noise control (ANC). However, filtered-U LMS (FULMS) algorithm, theIIR filter-based algorithm commonly used so far cannot ensure global convergence. A new IIRfilter based adaptive algorithm, which can ensure global convergence with computation loadonly slightly increasing, is proposed in this paper. The new algorithm is called as filtered-eLMS algorithm since the error signal of which need to be filtered. Simulation results show thatthe FELMS algorithm presents better performance than the FULMS algorithm.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Robert M. Pasternack; Zhen Qian; Jing-Yi Zheng; Dimitris N. Metaxas; Nada N. Boustany
2009-01-01
.... The method consists of applying an optical Fourier filter bank consisting of Gabor-like filters of varying periods and extracting the optimum filter period that maximizes the filtered object signal...
Fast Adaptive Blind MMSE Equalizer for Multichannel FIR Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abed-Meraim Karim
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a new blind minimum mean square error (MMSE equalization algorithm of noisy multichannel finite impulse response (FIR systems, that relies only on second-order statistics. The proposed algorithm offers two important advantages: a low computational complexity and a relative robustness against channel order overestimation errors. Exploiting the fact that the columns of the equalizer matrix filter belong both to the signal subspace and to the kernel of truncated data covariance matrix, the proposed algorithm achieves blindly a direct estimation of the zero-delay MMSE equalizer parameters. We develop a two-step procedure to further improve the performance gain and control the equalization delay. An efficient fast adaptive implementation of our equalizer, based on the projection approximation and the shift invariance property of temporal data covariance matrix, is proposed for reducing the computational complexity from to , where is the number of emitted signals, the data vector length, and the dimension of the signal subspace. We then derive a statistical performance analysis to compare the equalization performance with that of the optimal MMSE equalizer. Finally, simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed blind equalization algorithm.
Wavelet filtering of chaotic data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Grzesiak
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Satisfactory method of removing noise from experimental chaotic data is still an open problem. Normally it is necessary to assume certain properties of the noise and dynamics, which one wants to extract, from time series. The wavelet based method of denoising of time series originating from low-dimensional dynamical systems and polluted by the Gaussian white noise is considered. Its efficiency is investigated by comparing the correlation dimension of clean and noisy data generated for some well-known dynamical systems. The wavelet method is contrasted with the singular value decomposition (SVD and finite impulse response (FIR filter methods.
Wavelet filtering of chaotic data
Grzesiak, M.
Satisfactory method of removing noise from experimental chaotic data is still an open problem. Normally it is necessary to assume certain properties of the noise and dynamics, which one wants to extract, from time series. The wavelet based method of denoising of time series originating from low-dimensional dynamical systems and polluted by the Gaussian white noise is considered. Its efficiency is investigated by comparing the correlation dimension of clean and noisy data generated for some well-known dynamical systems. The wavelet method is contrasted with the singular value decomposition (SVD) and finite impulse response (FIR) filter methods.
Hybrid Optical Comb Filter with Multi-Port Fiber Coupler for DWDM Optical Network
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
Optical comb filters based on multi-port fused fiber couplers are proposed and numerically analyzed, 3-arm MZI composed by 1×7 fiber splitter and 3×3 fiber coupler, and 2-stage cascaded FIR type MZI interleave filter.
Glentis, George-Othon; Slump, Cornelis H.; Hermann, Otto E.
2000-01-01
In this paper a novel algorithm is presented for the efficient two-dimensional (2-D), mean squared error (MSE), FIR filtering and system identification. Filter masks of general boundaries are allowed. Efficient order updating recursions are developed by exploiting the spatial shift invariance
Balsam Fir Wooly Adlegid Survey on CVNWR 2009
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On July 17, 2009 Amber Myers and I conducted a survey to check the status of Balsam Fir Wooly Adelgid on one hundred Balsam Fir Trees off of Freeland Trail. We...
Empirical mode decomposition using variable filtering with time scale calibrating
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
A novel and efficient method for decomposing a signal into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a trend is proposed. Unlike the original empirical mode decomposition (EMD), which uses spline fits to extract variations from the signal by separating the local mean from the fluctuations in the decomposing process, this new method being proposed takes advantage of the theory of variable finite impulse response (FIR) filtering where filter coefficients and breakpoint frequencies can be adjusted to track any peak-to-peak time scale changes. The IMFs are results of a multiple variable frequency response FIR filtering when signals pass through the filters. Numerical examples validate that in contrast with the original EMD, the proposed method can fine-tune the frequency resolution and suppress the aliasing effectively.
Digital filters in radio detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory
Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Głas, Dariusz
2016-09-01
Ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) are the most energetic observable particles in Universe. The main challenge in detecting such energetic particles is very small flux. Most experiments focus on detecting Extensive Air Showers (EAS), initiated by primary UHECR particle in interaction with particles of the atmosphere. One of the observation method is detecting the radio emission from the EAS. This emission was theoretically suggested in 1960's, but technological development allow successful detection only in the last several years. This detection technique is used by Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA). Most of the emission can be observed in frequency band 30 - 80 MHz, however this range is contaminated by radio frequency interferences (RFI). These contaminations must be reduced to decrease false trigger rate. Currently, there are two kind of digital filters used in AERA. One of them is median filter, based on Fast Fourier Transform. Second one is the notch filter, which is a composition of four infinite impulse response filters. Those filters have properly work in AERA radio detectors for many years. Dynamic progress in electronics allows to use more sophisticated algorithms of RFI reduction. Planned modernization of the AERA radio detectors' electronic allows to use finte impulse response (FIR) filters, which can fast adapt to environment conditions. These filters are: Least Mean Squares (LMS) filter and filter based on linear prediction (LP). Tests of new kind of filters are promising and show that FIR filters can be used in next generation radio detectors in AERA experiment.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐华楠; 刘哲; 刘灿
2012-01-01
This paper proposed a method of denoising the remote sensing image based on àtrous-nonsubsampled contourlet transform.The method uses the àtrous wavelet—an undecimated discrete wavelet transform algorithm to decompose the image into two parts possessing approximate part and detail parts,which are the same size as the original image.Then the nonsubsampled directional filter bank is employed to decompose the detail parts into directional subbands.The different kinds of noises of the remote sensing image can be decomposed into the wavelet coefficients in different scale and directions,with which the best method can be chosen based on the characteristics of the different noises.It is more scientific and more effective than just using one method for all kinds of noises in the past.It is proved that the method proposed in the paper is more useful in removing the noise of the image,reserving richer fine textures and edge information than other traditional filtering methods.%结合àtrous小波变换和非下采样轮廓波变换的优点,提出一种基于àtrous-非下采样轮廓波变换的遥感图像去噪方法.该方法用非抽取离散小波变换的àtrous算法对图像进行多尺度分解,然后用非下采样的多方向滤波器组对得到的细节分量进行多方向分解.对含有多种噪声的遥感图像,àtrous-非下采样轮廓波变换将图像中不同种类的噪声分解到不同的小波系数分量中,使得可以根据噪声特性选择最合适的去噪方法,比用一种方法去除所有类型的噪声更科学且去噪效果更好.
Molecular clouds photoevaporation and FIR line emission
Vallini, L.; Ferrara, A.; Pallottini, A.; Gallerani, S.
2017-01-01
With the aim of improving predictions on far infrared (FIR) line emission from Giant Molecular Clouds (GMC), we study the effects of photoevaporation (PE) produced by external far-ultraviolet (FUV) and ionizing (extreme-ultraviolet, EUV) radiation on GMC structure. We consider three different GMCs with mass in the range M_GMC = 10^{3-6} {M_{⊙}}. Our model includes: (i) an observationally-based inhomogeneous GMC density field, and (ii) its time evolution during the PE process. In the fiducial case (MGMC ≈ 105M⊙), the photoevaporation time (tpe) increases from 1 Myr to 30 Myr for gas metallicity Z=0.05-1 Z_{⊙}, respectively. Next, we compute the time-dependent luminosity of key FIR lines tracing the neutral and ionized gas layers of the GMCs, ([C II] at 158 {μ m}, [O III] at 88 μ m) as a function of G0, and Z until complete photoevaporation at tpe. We find that the specific [C II] luminosity is almost independent on the GMC model within the survival time of the cloud. Stronger FUV fluxes produce higher [C II] and [O III] luminosities, however lasting for progressively shorter times. At Z = Z⊙ the [C II] emission is maximized (L_CII≈ 10^4 {L_{⊙}} for the fiducial model) for tpopulations.
Molecular clouds photoevaporation and FIR line emission
Vallini, L; Pallottini, A; Gallerani, S
2016-01-01
With the aim of improving predictions on the far infrared (FIR) line emission from Giant Molecular Clouds (GMC), we have studied the effects of photoevaporation (PE) produced by external far-ultraviolet (FUV) and ionizing (extreme-ultraviolet, EUV) radiation on the GMC structure. Our model includes: (i) an observationally-based inhomogeneous GMC density field, and (ii) its time evolution during the PE process. We find that the photoevaporation timescale, $t_{pe}$, of a typical GMC ($M_{\\rm GMC}=9 \\times 10^{4}\\,\\rm{M_{\\odot}}$) is in the range $1-30$ Myr, for gas metallicity $Z=0.05-1\\,\\rm Z_{\\odot}$, respectively. At fixed metallicity, $t_{pe}$ decreases for higher FUV fluxes, $G_0$, due to the larger temperature of the photodissociation region (PDR). The presence of EUV radiation is important at $Z<0.2\\,\\rm{Z_{\\odot}}$, when the size of the HII layer becomes comparable to the cloud radius. We then compute the time-dependent luminosity (for which we give fitting formulae) of several key FIR lines ([CII], ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lucía Castro Burgos
2009-12-01
efficient algorithms that allow to tackle generally the LD. To achieve this, a bank of filters including Kalman Filters (KF and Particle Filter (PF is proposed and evaluated. Thus a conceptual contribution to the formulation of the LD problem is proposed in a modular way so that future studies of other techniques can solve the problem. In addition, efficient and reliable algorithms are developed, based on a state estimator capable of responding to industrial standards such as the delivery, from input and output measures available, of a reliable estimate of the state of the process and that is independent of the linear or non-linear dynamics and easy to handle and configure. The computer simulation and the experimental results show the effectiveness of combining KF with PF for the simple case of two sequential leaks in a pipe, presenting advantages such as rapid convergence and reducing the estimation error which are important factors in LD in water pipeline.
Effect of Continuous Plantation of Chinese Fir on Soil Fertility
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DINGYING－XIANG; CHENJIN－LIN
1995-01-01
The changes in soil fertility under continuous plantation of Chinese fir were studied by comparing soil samples from different forest stands:the first and second plantations of Chinese fir,evergreen broad-leaved forests,and clear-cut and burnt Chinese fir land located at Xihou Village,Nanping of Fujian Province.The soils were humic red soil originated from weathered coarse granite of the Presinian system.Soil pH,CEC,base saturation ,exchangeable Ca2+,exchangeable Mg2+ and A1-P declined after continuous plantation of Chinese fir.The same trends were also found in the soils under broad-leaved stands and slash burnt lands.The explantation was that not merely the biological nature of the Chinese fir itself but the natural leaching of nutrients,soil erosion and nutrient losses due to clear cutting and slash burning of the preceduing plantation caused the soil deterioration .Only some of main soil nutrients decreased after continuous plantation of Chinese fir,depending on specific silvicultural system,which was different from the conclusions in some other reports which showed that all main nutrients,such as OM,total N,available P and available K decreased,Some neccessary step to make up for the lost base,to apply P fertilizer and to avoid buring on clear cut lands could be taken to prevent soil degradation and yield decline in the system of continuous plantation of Chinese fir.
Application of adaptive inverse filtering approach in weigh-in-motion of vehicles
Yu, Jinsong; Wu, Jie; Wan, Jiuqing; Li, Xingshan
2006-11-01
In this paper an adaptive inverse filter is employed which suppress noise within the bandwidth of the desired signal with the particular aim to improve the accuracy of WIM systems. Within the framework of the FIR filter, the inverse system of WIM system is constructed by using LMS adaptive algorithm as an innovative filter. Moreover, an additional filter, a noise filter, is adopted as well, in order to best improvement the measurement accuracy. The final results processed by cascaded filter combination show a significant improvement in estimation of static weight of moving vehicles.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LINSi-zu; CAOGuang-qiu; DULing; WANGAi-ping
2003-01-01
Allelochemicals of Chinese-fir root was extracted by technology of supercritical CO2 extraction under orthogonal experiment design, and it was used to analyze allelopathic activity of Chinese-fir through bioassay of seed germination, The results showed that as to the available rate of allelochemicals, the pressure and temperature of extraction were the most im-portant factors, The allelochemicals of Chinese-fir root extracted by pure CO2 and ethanol mixed with CO2 have different al-lelopathic activities to seed germination, and the allelochemicals extracted by ethanol mixed with CO2 had stronger inhibitory effects on seed Qermination than that extracted by pure CO2.
Bank development; bank development efficiency; bank management; bank.
Самородов, Б. В.
2014-01-01
In the paper the theoretical research of determination of the essence of “management of bank financial development” is realized. The analysis is performed on the basis of substantial considering and comparing the philosophy and economical definitions of the components of its definition.
... to Be Smart About Social Media Cord-Blood Banking KidsHealth > For Parents > Cord-Blood Banking Print A ... for you and your family. About Cord-Blood Banking Cord-blood banking basically means collecting and storing ...
NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR
Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...
NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR
Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...
Balsam fir trees could disappear from W Va
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article discussing the balsam fir tree could disappear from the forests of West Virginia within the next decade, unless humans intervene to help. The West...
Researches on Nutrition in Cultivation of Chinese Fir
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
A series ofresearches on the nutrition problems in the cultivation of Chinese fir seedlings and plantations, which are mainly focus on the problems of serious land degradation in Chinese fir plantations in contradiction with the rapid development of the plantations in China, were summarized. Twelve years was taken and more than 30 pieces of research papers were published for the researches, which refers to the problems of growth effect, physiological effect, vegetation variation, biomass accumulation, n...
12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...
FIR 型 HILBERT 数字滤波器的设计%Design of FIR HILBERT Digital Filter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈啸晴
2012-01-01
从Hilbert算法能够更精确地测量无功功率出发,设计了两种Hilbert数字滤波器,仿真结果表明FIR型Hilbert数字滤波器比IIR型Hilbert数字滤波器更适合设计高精度无功功率测量.
Breakthrough of cyanobacteria in bank filtration.
Pazouki, Pirooz; Prévost, Michèle; McQuaid, Natasha; Barbeau, Benoit; de Boutray, Marie-Laure; Zamyadi, Arash; Dorner, Sarah
2016-10-01
The removal of cyanobacteria cells in well water following bank filtration was investigated from a source water consisting of two artificial lakes (A and B). Phycocyanin probes used to monitor cyanobacteria in the source and in filtered well water showed an increase of fluorescence values demonstrating a progressive seasonal growth of cyanobacteria in the source water that were correlated with cyanobacterial biovolumes from taxonomic counts (r = 0.59, p cyanobacteria. Of cyanobacteria that passed through bank filtration, smaller cells were significantly more frequent in well water samples (p cyanobacteria to wells. Winter samples demonstrated that cyanobacteria accumulate within bank filters, leading to continued passage of cells beyond the bloom season. Although no concentrations of total microcystin-LR were above detection limits in filtered well water, there is concern that cyanobacterial cells that reach the wells have the potential to contain intracellular toxins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.
2017-08-01
The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.
Facial landmark detection in real-time with correlation filtering
Contreras, Viridiana; Díaz-Ramírez, Víctor H.
2016-09-01
An algorithm for facial landmark detection based on template matched filtering is presented. The algorithm is able to detect and estimate the position of a set of prespecified landmarks by employing a bank of linear filters. Each filter in the bank is trained to detect a single landmark that is located in a small region of the input face image. The filter bank is implemented in parallel on a graphics processing unit to perform facial landmark detection in real-time. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed algorithm are presented and discussed in terms of detection rate, accuracy of landmark location estimation, and real-time efficiency.
Oana Mihaela Vãsioiu
2008-01-01
The economic, financial and monetary changes had serious consequences not only on the level of providing the finance necessary for the development process but also on the level of providing the finance required for importing the basic food needs and rendering necessary production inputs. All these problems show the importance of “Banks” generally and “Investment Banks” particularly in the emerging and underdeveloped countries. Banks as financial institution or intermediary mobilize either nat...
A note on general parallel QMF banks
Vaidyanathan, P.P.
1987-01-01
Two issues concerning alias-free, parallel, quadrature mirror filter (QMF) banks are addressed in this correspondence. First, a property concerning alias-free analysis/synthesis systems is established; second, a scheme is proposed, by which a synthesis bank can be modified in order to take care of aliasing errors caused by linear channel-distortion in a simple manner. Applications of the stated results are outlined.
Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students
Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala
2009-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…
Fir Decline and Mortality in the Southern Siberian Mountains
Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Petrov, Ilya A.; Dvinskaya, Mariya, L.; Fedotova, Elena V.; Ranson, Kenneth J.
2016-01-01
Increased dieback and mortality of dark needle conifer (DNC) stands (composed of fir (Abies sibirica),Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) and spruce (Picea obovata))were documented in Russia during recent decades. Here we analyzed spatial and temporal patterns of fir decline and mortality in the southern Siberian Mountains based on satellite, in situ and dendrochronological data. The studied stands are located within the boundary between DNC taiga to the north and forest-steppe to the south. Fir decline and mortality were observed to originate where topographic features contributed to maximal water-stress risk, i.e., steep (1825),convex, south-facing slopes with a shallow well-drained root zone. Fir regeneration survived droughts and increased stem radial growth, while upper canopy trees died. Tree ring width(TRW) growth negatively correlated with vapor pressure deficit (VPD), drought index and occurrence of late frosts, and positively with soil water content. Previous year growth conditions (i.e., drought index, VPD, soil water anomalies)have a high impact on current TRW (r 0.600.74). Fir mortality was induced by increased water stress and severe droughts (as a primary factor) in synergy with bark-beetles and fungi attacks (as secondary factors). Dendrochronology data indicated that fir mortality is a periodic process. In a future climate with increased aridity and drought frequency, fir (and Siberian pine) may disappear from portions of its current range (primarily within the boundary with the forest steppe)and is likely to be replaced by drought-tolerant species such as Pinus sylvestris and Larix sibirica.
Fast 2-D Complex Gabor Filter with Kernel Decomposition
Um, Suhyuk; Kim, Jaeyoon; Min, Dongbo
2017-01-01
2-D complex Gabor filtering has found numerous applications in the fields of computer vision and image processing. Especially, in some applications, it is often needed to compute 2-D complex Gabor filter bank consisting of the 2-D complex Gabor filtering outputs at multiple orientations and frequencies. Although several approaches for fast 2-D complex Gabor filtering have been proposed, they primarily focus on reducing the runtime of performing the 2-D complex Gabor filtering once at specific...
Periodic Noise Suppression from ECG Signal using Novel Adaptive Filtering Techniques
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yogesh Sharma
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Electrocardiogram signal most commonly known recognized and used biomedical signal for medical examination of heart. The ECG signal is very sensitive in nature, and even if small noise mixed with original signal, the various characteristics of the signal changes, Data corrupted with noise must either filtered or discarded, filtering is important issue for design consideration of real time heart monitoring systems. Various filters used for removing the noise from ECG signals, most commonly used filters are Notch Filters, FIR filters, IIR filters, Wiener filter, Adaptive filters etc. Performance analysis shows that the best result is obtained by using Adaptive filter to remove various noises from ECG signal and get significant SNR andMSE results. In this paper a novel adaptive approach by using LMS algorithm and delay has shown whichcan be used for pre-processing of ECG signal and give appreciable result.
FIR line emission from high redshift galaxies
Vallini, Livia; Ferrara, Andrea; Baek, Sunghye
2013-01-01
By combining high resolution, radiative transfer cosmological simulations of z~6 galaxies with a sub-grid multi-phase model of their interstellar medium we derive the expected intensity of several far infrared (FIR) emission lines ([C II] 158 micron, [O I] 63 micron, and [N II] 122 micron) for different values of the gas metallicity, Z. For Z = Z_sun the [C II] spectrum is very complex due to the presence of several emitting clumps of individual size < 3 kpc; the peak is displaced from the galaxy center by ~100 km/s. While the [O I] spectrum is also similarly displaced, the [N II] line comes predominantly from the central ionized regions of the galaxy. When integrated over ~500 km/s, the [C II] line flux is 185 mJy km/s; 95% of such flux originates from the cold (T~250 K) H I phase, and only 5% from the warm (T~5000 K) neutral medium. The [O I] and [N II] fluxes are ~6 and ~90 times lower than the [C II] one, respectively. By comparing our results with observations of Himiko, the most extended and luminous...
A phase-equalized digital multirate filter for 50 Hz signal processing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vainio, O. [Tampere University of Technology, Signal Processing Laboratory, Tampere (Finland)
1997-12-31
A new multistage digital filter is proposed for 50 Hz line frequency signal processing in zero-crossing detectors and synchronous power systems. The purpose of the filter is to extract the fundamental sinusoidal signal from noise and impulsive disturbances so that the output is accurately in phase with the primary input signal. This is accomplished with a cascade of a median filter, a linear-phase FIR filter, and a phase corrector. A 10 kHz output timing resolution is achieved by up-sampling with a customized interpolation filter. (orig.) 15 refs.
Vehicle Sideslip Angle Estimation Based on Hybrid Kalman Filter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Vehicle sideslip angle is essential for active safety control systems. This paper presents a new hybrid Kalman filter to estimate vehicle sideslip angle based on the 3-DoF nonlinear vehicle dynamic model combined with Magic Formula tire model. The hybrid Kalman filter is realized by combining square-root cubature Kalman filter (SCKF, which has quick convergence and numerical stability, with square-root cubature based receding horizon Kalman FIR filter (SCRHKF, which has robustness against model uncertainty and temporary noise. Moreover, SCKF and SCRHKF work in parallel, and the estimation outputs of two filters are merged by interacting multiple model (IMM approach. Experimental results show the accuracy and robustness of the hybrid Kalman filter.
Banking system trust, bank trust, and bank loyalty
van Esterik-Plasmeijer, P.; van Raaij, W.F.
2017-01-01
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test a model of banking system trust as an antecedent of bank trust and bank loyalty. Six determinants of trust and loyalty are included: competence, stability, integrity, customer orientation, transparency, and value congruence. The study provides insights
A small animal model study of perlite and fir bark dust on guinea pig lungs.
McMichael, R F; DiPalma, J R; Blumenstein, R; Amenta, P S; Freedman, A P; Barbieri, E J
1983-05-01
Fir bark (Abies) and perlite (noncrystalline silicate) dusts have been reported to cause pulmonary disease in humans. Guinea pigs were exposed to either fir bark or perlite dust in a special chamber. Severe pathologic changes occurred in the lungs, consisting of lymphoid aggregated and a perivascular inflammatory response. Both dusts caused similar changes although one was vegetable (fir bark) and the other mineral (perlite). Fir bark and perlite dust appeared to be more than just nuisance dusts.
Low power adder based auditory filter architecture.
Rahiman, P F Khaleelur; Jayanthi, V S
2014-01-01
Cochlea devices are powered up with the help of batteries and they should possess long working life to avoid replacing of devices at regular interval of years. Hence the devices with low power consumptions are required. In cochlea devices there are numerous filters, each responsible for frequency variant signals, which helps in identifying speech signals of different audible range. In this paper, multiplierless lookup table (LUT) based auditory filter is implemented. Power aware adder architectures are utilized to add the output samples of the LUT, available at every clock cycle. The design is developed and modeled using Verilog HDL, simulated using Mentor Graphics Model-Sim Simulator, and synthesized using Synopsys Design Compiler tool. The design was mapped to TSMC 65 nm technological node. The standard ASIC design methodology has been adapted to carry out the power analysis. The proposed FIR filter architecture has reduced the leakage power by 15% and increased its performance by 2.76%.
Design of two-dimensional digital filters using neural networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Xiaohua; He Yigang
2005-01-01
A new approach for the design of two-dimensional (2-D) linear phase FIR digital filters based on a new neural networks algorithm (NNA) is provided. A compact expression for the transfer function of a 2-D linear phase FIR filter is derived based on its frequency response characteristic, and the NNA, based on minimizing the square-error in the frequency-domain, is established according to the compact expression. To illustrate the stability of the NNA, the convergence theorem is presented and proved. Design examples are also given, and the results show that the ripple is considerably small in passband and stopband, and the NNA-based method is of powerful stability and requires quite little amount of computations.
Filter selection using genetic algorithms
Patel, Devesh
1996-03-01
Convolution operators act as matched filters for certain types of variations found in images and have been extensively used in the analysis of images. However, filtering through a bank of N filters generates N filtered images, consequently increasing the amount of data considerably. Moreover, not all these filters have the same discriminatory capabilities for the individual images, thus making the task of any classifier difficult. In this paper, we use genetic algorithms to select a subset of relevant filters. Genetic algorithms represent a class of adaptive search techniques where the processes are similar to natural selection of biological evolution. The steady state model (GENITOR) has been used in this paper. The reduction of filters improves the performance of the classifier (which in this paper is the multi-layer perceptron neural network) and furthermore reduces the computational requirement. In this study we use the Laws filters which were proposed for the analysis of texture images. Our aim is to recognize the different textures on the images using the reduced filter set.
Investigation of Carbohydrate Compositions for Poplar Ⅰ-214 and Chinese Fir
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Luohua; QIN Tefu; MAGARA Kengo
2006-01-01
The carbohydrate compositions of poplar Ⅰ-214 and Chinese fir were investigated by the methods of hydrolysis and HPLC.The result showed that the contents of glucose,xylose and arabinose in poplar Ⅰ-214 are higher than those in Chinese fir,while contents of rhamnose and mannose in poplar Ⅰ-214 are lower than those in Chinese fir.
Sarah E. Stehn; Christopher R. Webster; Janice M. Glime; Michael A. Jenkins
2010-01-01
Ground-layer plant communities in spruce-fir forests of the southern Appalachians have likely undergone significant change since the widespread death of canopy Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) caused by the exotic balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae). Bryophytes comprise an important part of the ground-layer flora in the spruce-fir...
Anderson, Brian D O
2005-01-01
This graduate-level text augments and extends beyond undergraduate studies of signal processing, particularly in regard to communication systems and digital filtering theory. Vital for students in the fields of control and communications, its contents are also relevant to students in such diverse areas as statistics, economics, bioengineering, and operations research.Topics include filtering, linear systems, and estimation; the discrete-time Kalman filter; time-invariant filters; properties of Kalman filters; computational aspects; and smoothing of discrete-time signals. Additional subjects e
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maja Drobnjaković
2013-06-01
Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.
Using LMS Adaptive Filter in Direct Wave Cancellation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐元军; 陶然; 王越; 单涛
2003-01-01
The way to use the least-mean-square (LMS) arithmetic to cancel the direct wave for a passive radar system is introduced. The model of the direct wave is deduced. By using the LMS adaptive FIR filter, the software solution for FM passive radar system is developed instead of the hardware consumption of the existent experiment system of passive radar. Further more some simulative results are given. The simulative results indicate that using LMS arithmetic to cancel the direct wave is effective.
Mercan, Metin
2006-01-01
Georgia's banking system restructure began in 1991 when Soviet Union collopsed.This paper tries to compare and constract the performance of banks and banking system between 1999 and 2004 with banks in other transition countries. Although Georgia banking system showed a long processing in banking sector, it is still lags behind other transition countries Central and Eastern Europe. Neverthless.An efficient financial institution and performance will not come without further economic development...
Banking governance: New Approaches
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Victor Mihăiţă Duţă
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Banks are companies like any other. However, banks are distinguished by certain intrinsic characteristics of companies that have a different impact on the motivation of stakeholders. Among these features, we mention:partnership and shareholders governance agreements; banks are heavily regulated companies; banking assets is the main source of haze banking and information asymmetry; between the bank and depositors there is a problem of moral hazard.
ROMANIAN BANKS LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
BATRANCEA MARIA
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Most transactions or financial commitments have implications for a bank liquidity. Transactions are particularly vulnerable to liquidity problems at a specific institution. Therefore, one can deduce the importance of the correct calculation and liquidity indicator, not only for the bank concerned, but especially for NBR uses that bank risk management tool. That is why the authors took into consideration a sample of banks in Romania to show to what extent the banking crisis has influenced the development banks.
Electronic Banking And Bank Performance In Nigeria
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2013-03-01
Mar 1, 2013 ... However, the revolution in the banking industry in Nigeria started .... with the banks overall strategic and business plans, and adequate expertise should be employed to operate and ..... 2010 from http://www.bis./pub/bcbs/pdf.
Internet Banking System Prototype
Alnaqeib, Rami; Jalab, Hamid A; Zaidan, M A; Hmood, Ali K
2010-01-01
Internet Banking System refers to systems that enable bank customers to access accounts and general information on bank products and services through a personal computer or other intelligent device. Internet banking products and services can include detailed account information for corporate customers as well as account summery and transfer money. Ultimately, the products and services obtained through Internet Banking may mirror products and services offered through other bank delivery channels. In this paper, Internet Banking System Prototype has been proposed in order to illustrate the services which is provided by the Bank online services.
E-BANKING- MODERN BANKING SERVICES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MIRANDA PETRONELLA VLAD
2009-05-01
Full Text Available E-banking is the first of those banking services that really economize time, because it allows to the user to accomplish from behind the computer many operations in the bank account, represents the computational solution that allows to the holder to have
The ISS Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR): a Summary of Capabilities
Gati, F.; Hill, M. E.
2002-01-01
The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) is a modular, multi-user scientific research facility that will fly in the U.S. laboratory module, Destiny, of the International Space Station (ISS). The FIR will be one of the two racks that will make up the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) - the other being the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR). The ISS will provide the FCF with the necessary resources, such as power and cooling. While the ISS crew will be available for experiment operations, their time will be limited. The FCF is, therefore, being designed for autonomous operations and remote control operations. Control of the FCF will be primarily through the Telescience Support Center (TSC) at the Glenn Research Center. The FCF is being designed to accommodate a wide range of combustion and fluids physics experiments within the ISS resources and constraints. The primary mission of the FIR, however, is to accommodate experiments from four major fluids physics disciplines: Complex Fluids; Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer; Interfacial Phenomena; and Dynamics and Stability. The design of the FIR is flexible enough to accommodate experiments from other science disciplines such as Biotechnology. The FIR flexibility is a result of the large volume dedicated for experimental hardware, easily re-configurable diagnostics that allow for unique experiment configurations, and it's customizable software. The FIR will utilize six major subsystems to accommodate this broad scope of fluids physics experiments. The major subsystems are: structural, environmental, electrical, gaseous, command and data management, and imagers and illumination. Within the rack, the FIR's structural subsystem provides an optics bench type mechanical interface for the precise mounting of experimental hardware; including optical components. The back of the bench is populated with FIR avionics packages and light sources. The interior of the rack is isolated from the cabin through two rack doors that are hinged near
2005-08-01
Low-Pass FIR Digital Filters,” Proceedings of the American Control Conference , Arlington, VA June 25-27, 2001, pp. 1581-1586 14Economou, D... of the American Control Conference , Anchorage, AK, May 8-10, 2002, pp. 2273-2278. 18Chen, C., Linear System Theory and Design, Oxford University...Mavroidis, C., and Antoniadis, I., “Comparison of Filter Types Used for Command Preconditioning in Vibration Suppression Applications,” Proceedings
ADAPTIVE FILTER FOR SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION USING QUANTIZATION SCHEMES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nitesh Mudgal
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The Least Mean Square (LMS Algorithm finds its application in System identification due to its simplicity.Reduction of the complexity of Adaptive Finite Impulse Response(FIR filter had received attention in the area of adative filter. This paper proposes methods of system identification using adaptive filter which are based on a Quantised version of the LMS, namely the Clipped Least Mean Square (CLMS and Modified Clipped Least Mean Square( QX-LMS algorithms. In both Algorithms coefficients of the adaptive filter are adjusted automatically by an adaptive algorithm based on the input signals. This property makes the adaptive filter has an important application in system identification.the Quantized version of Least Mean Square Algorithm increases covergence property as compared to normal Least Mean Square Algorithm.
Filter-and-Forward Transparent Relay Design for OFDM Systems
Kim, Donggun; Sung, Youngchul
2012-01-01
In this paper, the filter-and-forward (FF) relay design for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission systems is considered to improve the system performance over simple amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying. Unlike conventional OFDM relays performing OFDM demodulation and remodulating, to reduce processing complexity, the proposed FF relay directly filters the incoming signal with a finite impulse response (FIR) and forwards the filtered signal to the destination. Two design criteria are considered to optimize the relay filter for given source power allocation. One is to minimize the relay transmit power subject to per-subcarrier signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) constraints and the other is to maximize the worst subcarrier channel SNR subject to the total relay transmit power constraint. It is shown that the two problems reduce to semi-definite programming (SDP) problems. Furthermore, the problem of joint source power allocation and relay filter design is considered for the second criterion, and ...
Provenance variability in nursery growth of subalpine fir
Charlie Cartwright; Cheng Ying
2011-01-01
Subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa [Hook] Nutt.) is a wide-ranging, high-elevation species in the interior of British Columbia. It is commonly harvested for lumber, but replanting of it is limited. Some reticence is based upon wood quality and rate of growth, but there are also seed and nursery culturing difficulties. This study investigated seedling growth traits of 111...
Animal damage to young spruce and fir in Maine
Barton M. Blum
1977-01-01
The loss of terminal buds on small balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) and spruce (Picea spp.) trees because of nipping by mammals or birds has increased on the Penobscot Experimental Forest in recent years. The cut stem is smooth and slightly angled; there is no sign of tearing. Unnipped trees grew about 13 percent more than...
The New England Spruce-Fir Seed Orchard Program
Carter B. Gibbs; James B. Carlaw
1973-01-01
I once heard it said that if you want to know how something was organized, ask a man who had nothing to do with it. I suspect this may be one of the reasons I was asked to collaborate on this report of the development of the New England Spruce-Fir Seed Orchard Program.
On mycorrhiza development of spruces and firs in damaged stands
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ritter, T.; Weber, G.; Kottke, I.; Oberwinkler, F.
1989-02-01
The authors studied the very fine roots of sick spruces and firs and established the following: 1. a surprising stability of mycorrhiza development, 2. differences in the dynamism of development and 3. modifications in the composition of the accompanying microfungi. The results suggest connections in the chain of causes of forest disease which have received little attention so far.
The FIR/submm window on galaxy formation
Guiderdoni, B; Devriendt, J E G; Hivon, E; Puget, J L
1999-01-01
Our view on the deep universe has been so far biased towards optically bright galaxies. Now, the measurement of the Cosmic Infrared Background in FIRAS and DIRBE residuals, and the observations of FIR/submm sources by the ISOPHOT and SCUBA instruments begin unveiling the ``optically dark side'' of galaxy formation. Though the origin of dust heating is still unsolved, it appears very likely that a large fraction of the FIR/submm emission is due to heavily-extinguished star formation. Consequently, the level of the CIRB implies that about 2/3 of galaxy/star formation in the universe is hidden by dust shrouds. In this review, we introduce a new modeling of galaxy formation and evolution that provides us with specific predictions in FIR/submm wavebands. These predictions are compared with the current status of the observations. Finally, the capabilities of current and forthcoming instruments for all-sky and deep surveys of FIR/submm sources are briefly described.
Nitrogen Availability in Fresh and Aged Douglas Fir Bark
The objective of this study was to determine if there are growth differences in geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey 'Maverick Red') produced in either fresh or aged Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] bark (DFB). A second objective was to document nitrogen immobilization and deco...
The biology of arboreal rodents in Douglas-fir forests.
Andrew B. Carey
1991-01-01
Arboreal rodents in Douglas-fir forests west of the Cascade crest in Oregon and Washington include (listed in decreasing order of dependence on trees) red tree vole (Phenacomys longicaucfus), northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus), Douglas' squirrel (Tamiasciurus douglasii), dusky-footed woodrat...
Biology of bats in Douglas-fir forests.
Robin E. Christy; Stephen D. West
1993-01-01
Twelve species of bats occur in Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest, of which nine are known to roost in tree cavities, bark crevices, or foliage, and several are closely associated with old-growth forests. Thus bat populations may be detrimentally affected by forest management practices involving the removal of large, old trees and snags. We review the life...
CSR REPORTING IN BANKS - THE ROMANIAN EVIDENCE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georgiana-Loredana FRECEA
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The dynamics of the financial markets and the significant interrelationships with broader concepts as globalization or sustainable development, have led in recent years to the development of a multidimensional approach of CSR. The credibility of the financial system is based on the financial institutions image given by representative stakeholders. They filter in an objective way the ethical responsibilities of the banks and the legal ones and give them the legitimacy to operate on the market. In order to obtain a realistic framework of CSR in Romanian banks, the article will focus on the transparency of CSR information. The confidence crisis manifested in the banking institutions can best be overcome through an authentic reporting system, which is able to fulfill a set of requirements, from credibility to completeness. This paper highlights the main characteristics of the CSR reports provided by the Romanian banking institutions, based on the stakeholder theory and using international reporting frameworks as Global Reporting Initiative.
Improved Design Techniques for Switched-Capacitor Ladder Filters.
Hsu, Teng-Hsien
novel FIR switched-capacitor building blocks are introduced. Cascade and direct FIR switched-capacitor filters can then be obtained. The computer program SCAR is used to confirm the designs of novel switched-capacitor circuits, and analyze the element-sensitivities and the finite-opamp-gain effects.
Low-power adaptive filter based on RNS components
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bernocchi, Gian Luca; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Del Re, Andrea
2007-01-01
on the least mean squares (LMS) algorithm, is allowed. Previous work showed that the use of the residue number system (RNS) for the variable FIR filter grants advantages both in area and power consumption. On the other hand, the use of a binary serial implementation of the adaptation algorithm eliminates...... the need for complex scaling circuits in RNS. The advantages in terms of area and speed of the presented filter, with respect to its two's complement counterpart, are evaluated for implementations in standard cells....
Design of Absorbing Wave Maker based on Digital Filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Morten; Frigaard, Peter
An absorbing wave maker operated by means of on-line signals from digital FIR filters is presented. Surface elevations are measured in two positions in front of the wave maker. The reflected wave train is seperated by the sum of the incident and reflected wave trains by means of digital filtering...... and subsequent superposition of the measured surface elevations. The motion of the wave paddle required to absorb reflected waves is determined and added to the original wave paddle control signal. Irregular wave tests involving test structures with different degrees of reflection show that excellent absorption...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
肖遥; 夏谷林; 张楠
2014-01-01
提出了高压滤波电容器组不平衡电流保护的整定原则，从两方面通过数学逻辑分析了H型和∏型接线高压电容器组及其不平衡电流保护的优缺点：其一是部分电容器单元失效后滤波器所允许的失谐度，其二是余下完好电容器单元所承受的端电压。文中给出了不同电容器单元短路方式下的不平衡保护定值计算公式和整定值，得出了∏型接线优于H型接线的结论。为改进∏型接线电容器组的差电流检测精度，给出了差值电流检测电路的改进方案。%The paper proposed principles for calculating the settings of unbalanced current protection of high voltage filter capacitor banks, and analyzed the merits and demerits of“H-type” and “∏-type” connections of capacitor banks from perspective of mathematic logic in two ways. Of which one involved the permitted detuning of the filters after failure of some units, the other involved the withstand voltages on remaining perfect capacitor units. The formulations were deducted to calculate the settings of unbalanced current protection in cases when short circuit of some capacitor units occurred. It is concluded that ∏-type connection is better than the H-type connection. To improve the accuracy for detecting differential currents of ∏-type connection, a new unbalanced current transformer and its application are suggested.
Global Systems for Mobile Position Tracking Using Kalman and Lainiotis Filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicholas Assimakis
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We present two time invariant models for Global Systems for Mobile (GSM position tracking, which describe the movement in x-axis and y-axis simultaneously or separately. We present the time invariant filters as well as the steady state filters: the classical Kalman filter and Lainiotis Filter and the Join Kalman Lainiotis Filter, which consists of the parallel usage of the two classical filters. Various implementations are proposed and compared with respect to their behavior and to their computational burden: all time invariant and steady state filters have the same behavior using both proposed models but have different computational burden. Finally, we propose a Finite Impulse Response (FIR implementation of the Steady State Kalman, and Lainiotis filters, which does not require previous estimations but requires a well-defined set of previous measurements.
2012-01-01
The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...
Heyliger, Wilton E.; Don P. Holdren
1991-01-01
There are many studies of bank performance and bank failure in the literature. Most of these studies used banking ratios as variables in their models without giving consideration to their appropriateness, nor was much consideration given to the stability of those ratios through time and across asset size. Many studies also failed to recognize that bank structure may differ by asset size. This study evaluates a large number of banking variables in order to identify stable ratios. These ratios ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2011-01-01
Chinese banks expands its "going out" strategy but faces challenges in establishing a presence in foreign markets The world’s biggest lender by market value, the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), and the Hong Kong-based Bank of East Asia signed an agreement in which ICBC would pay $140.23 million to buy an 80-percent inter- est in Bank of East Asia USA, the Hong Kong bank said on January 23.
Central bank Financial Independence
J.Ramon Martinez-Resano
2004-01-01
Central bank independence is a multifaceted institutional design. The financial component has been seldom analysed. This paper intends to set a comprehensive conceptual background for central bank financial independence. Quite often central banks are modelled as robot like maximizers of some goal. This perspective neglects the fact that central bank functions are inevitably deployed on its balance sheet and have effects on its income statement. A financially independent central bank exhibits ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
余璐
2014-01-01
<正>Germany is the prototypical economy country.Banks in Germany’s economic life plays a very important role.Germany has a large number of Banks and very dense network of bank branches.Deutsche Bank is by far the biggest German bank and Commerzbank is the second biggest.But with all the economic turmoil in the world these days,such rankings can change within
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas
2005-01-01
The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas
2005-01-01
The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....
Shaath, Nadim A
2010-04-01
The chemistry, photostability and mechanism of action of ultraviolet filters are reviewed. The worldwide regulatory status of the 55 approved ultraviolet filters and their optical properties are documented. The photostabilty of butyl methoxydibenzoyl methane (avobenzone) is considered and methods to stabilize it in cosmetic formulations are presented.
Frequency Weighting Filter Design for Automotive Ride Comfort Evaluation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DU Feng
2016-01-01
Few study gives guidance to design weighting filters according to the frequency weighting factors, and the additional evaluation method of automotive ride comfort is not made good use of in some countries. Based on the regularities of the weighting factors, a method is proposed and the vertical and horizontal weighting filters are developed. The whole frequency range is divided several times into two parts with respective regularity. For each division, a parallel filter constituted by a low-and a high-pass filter with the same cutoff frequency and the quality factor is utilized to achieve section factors. The cascading of these parallel filters obtains entire factors. These filters own a high order. But, low order filters are preferred in some applications. The bilinear transformation method and the least P-norm optimal infinite impulse response(IIR) filter design method are employed to develop low order filters to approximate the weightings in the standard. In addition, with the window method, the linear phase finite impulse response(FIR) filter is designed to keep the signal from distorting and to obtain the staircase weighting. For the same case, the traditional method produces 0.330 7 m•s–2 weighted root mean square(r.m.s.) acceleration and the filtering method gives 0.311 9 m•s–2 r.m.s. The fourth order filter for approximation of vertical weighting obtains 0.313 9 m•s–2 r.m.s. Crest factors of the acceleration signal weighted by the weighting filter and the fourth order filter are 3.002 7 and 3.011 1, respectively. This paper proposes several methods to design frequency weighting filters for automotive ride comfort evaluation, and these developed weighting filters are effective.
Frequency weighting filter design for automotive ride comfort evaluation
Du, Feng
2016-07-01
Few study gives guidance to design weighting filters according to the frequency weighting factors, and the additional evaluation method of automotive ride comfort is not made good use of in some countries. Based on the regularities of the weighting factors, a method is proposed and the vertical and horizontal weighting filters are developed. The whole frequency range is divided several times into two parts with respective regularity. For each division, a parallel filter constituted by a low- and a high-pass filter with the same cutoff frequency and the quality factor is utilized to achieve section factors. The cascading of these parallel filters obtains entire factors. These filters own a high order. But, low order filters are preferred in some applications. The bilinear transformation method and the least P-norm optimal infinite impulse response(IIR) filter design method are employed to develop low order filters to approximate the weightings in the standard. In addition, with the window method, the linear phase finite impulse response(FIR) filter is designed to keep the signal from distorting and to obtain the staircase weighting. For the same case, the traditional method produces 0.330 7 m • s-2 weighted root mean square(r.m.s.) acceleration and the filtering method gives 0.311 9 m • s-2 r.m.s. The fourth order filter for approximation of vertical weighting obtains 0.313 9 m • s-2 r.m.s. Crest factors of the acceleration signal weighted by the weighting filter and the fourth order filter are 3.002 7 and 3.011 1, respectively. This paper proposes several methods to design frequency weighting filters for automotive ride comfort evaluation, and these developed weighting filters are effective.
Prediction control of active power filters
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王莉娜; 罗安
2003-01-01
A prediction method to obtain harmonic reference for active power filter is presented. It is a new use ofthe adaptive predictive filter based on FIR. The delay inherent in digital controller is successfully compensated by u-sing the proposed method, and the computing load is not very large compared with the conventional method. Moreo-ver, no additional hardware is needed. Its DSP-based realization is also presented, which is characterized by time-va-riant rate sampling, quasi synchronous sampling, and synchronous operation among the line frequency, PWM gener-ating and sampling in A/D unit. Synchronous operation releases the limitation on PWM modulation ratio and guar-antees that the electrical noises resulting from the switching operation of IGBTs do not interfere with the sampledcurrent. The simulation and experimental results verify the satisfactory performance of the proposed method.
"Shadow Banking: Policy Challenges for Central Banks"
Moe, Thorvald Grung
2014-01-01
Central banks responded with exceptional liquidity support during the financial crisis to prevent a systemic meltdown. They broadened their tool kit and extended liquidity support to nonbanks and key financial markets. Many want central banks to embrace this expanded role as "market maker of last resort" going forward. This would provide a liquidity backstop for systemically important markets and the shadow banking system that is deeply integrated with these markets. But how much liquidity su...
Kevin M. Potter; John Frampton; Sedley Josserand; C. Dana. Nelson
2010-01-01
Two Abies (true fir) taxa are endemic to high elevations of the Appalachian Mountains, where both are restricted to small populations and are imperiled by the same exotic insect. Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) exists in a handful of island-like populations on mountain ridges in the southern Appalachians of North Carolina, Tennessee and...
Pengelolaan Likuiditas Bank Syariah
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nurul Ichsan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Islamic Banking Liquidity Management. This article is about management of liquidity which discuss about the position of cash money in the company and its ability to fulfill the obligation (pay the debt on time. Management of liquidity is one of the essential function which is done by banking institution and inside its efficient management, is needed instrument and finance market which is taking not only short term but also long term, and not only conventional banking but also syariat. Through that natural necessity (placement and fulfillment of short term need, for Islamic banking in Indonesia has been availabled some instruments such as (IMA certificate of Mudhorobah Investment between bank, (PUAS market banking regulations between syariat bank, (SWBI Bank of Indonesia Wadiah certificate, (FPJPS provision about short term cost facility for Islamic banks DOI:10.15408/aiq.v6i1.1371
Bank Syariah Sebagai Alternatif
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adang Sudjana
2003-03-01
Full Text Available The principle of not allowing interest practices (riba has saved the Syariah Bank and their customers from the effects of monetary crisis. In view of Islamic Principles, interest is forbidden. Therefore, all transactions of syariah banking are based on sale-purchase pattern. Besides, all good banking aspects as applied in conventional banking such as, 5 Cs (capital, collateral, capacity, character, and condition are also applied properly in the line of ukhrawi aspects in managing fund of syariah banking. The practice of “mark-up” in project funded by syariah bank seems to be very difficult.
Method and system for training dynamic nonlinear adaptive filters which have embedded memory
Rabinowitz, Matthew (Inventor)
2002-01-01
Described herein is a method and system for training nonlinear adaptive filters (or neural networks) which have embedded memory. Such memory can arise in a multi-layer finite impulse response (FIR) architecture, or an infinite impulse response (IIR) architecture. We focus on filter architectures with separate linear dynamic components and static nonlinear components. Such filters can be structured so as to restrict their degrees of computational freedom based on a priori knowledge about the dynamic operation to be emulated. The method is detailed for an FIR architecture which consists of linear FIR filters together with nonlinear generalized single layer subnets. For the IIR case, we extend the methodology to a general nonlinear architecture which uses feedback. For these dynamic architectures, we describe how one can apply optimization techniques which make updates closer to the Newton direction than those of a steepest descent method, such as backpropagation. We detail a novel adaptive modified Gauss-Newton optimization technique, which uses an adaptive learning rate to determine both the magnitude and direction of update steps. For a wide range of adaptive filtering applications, the new training algorithm converges faster and to a smaller value of cost than both steepest-descent methods such as backpropagation-through-time, and standard quasi-Newton methods. We apply the algorithm to modeling the inverse of a nonlinear dynamic tracking system 5, as well as a nonlinear amplifier 6.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
履之
1995-01-01
A typical food-processing plant produces about 500,000 gallons of waste water daily. Laden with organic compounds, this water usually is evaporated or discharged into sewers.A better solution is to filter the water through
Cyclotron Resonance Gain for FIR and THz Radiation in Graphene
Cole, Nightvid
2016-01-01
A cyclotron resonance maser source using low-effective-mass conduction electrons in graphene, if successful, would allow for generation of Far Infrared (FIR) and Terahertz (THz) radiation without requiring magnetic fields running into the tens of Tesla. In order to investigate this possibility, we consider a device in which electrons are effectively injected via pumping from the valence band to the conduction band using an infrared (IR) laser source, subsequently gyrate in a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the plane of the graphene, and give rise to gain for a FIR/THz wave crossing the plane of the graphene. A set of integral expressions is derived by assuming that the non-radiative energy loss processes of the electrons can be adequately represented by a damping force proportional and antiparallel to their momentum. Minimal gain may occur at very short electron damping times of hundreds of femtoseconds.
Boudjelaba, Kamal
2012-01-01
Journée des Jeunes Chercheurs du laboratoire Prisme, 2 Juillet 2012; -This paper presents an objective and comparative study of evolutionary algorithms applied to the design of two-dimensional (2-D) FIR filters. The design of 2-D FIR filters can be formulated as a non-linear optimization problem. We explore several stochastic methodologies capable of handling large spaces. We finally propose a new genetic algorithm in which some concepts are introduced to optimize the trade-off between divers...
Banking Postal Savings Bank in Sight
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG PEI
2006-01-01
@@ Nine years of controversy regarding a national postal savings bank is expected to finally conclude this year. In April, the China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC)announced the establishment of a new department, one of the main functions of which will be to supervise postal savings.
Kewenangan Bank Indonesia Dalam Likuiditas Bank Umum
Silvana R
2008-01-01
Perbankan merupakan pokok dari sistem keuangan setiap negara, karena perbankan merupakan salah satu motor penggerak pembangunan seluruh bangsa. Krisis perbankan berdampak pada turunnya kepercayaan masyarakat terhadap industri perbankan. Berbagai masalah di sektor perbankan yang tidak terdeteksi secara dini akan mengakibatkan runtuhnya kepercayaan masyarakat terhadap industri perbankan, Skripsi mi mengemukakan bagaimana penilaian kesehatan bank umum yang dilakukan oleh Bank Indonesia, bagai...
FIR colours and SEDs of nearby galaxies observed with Herschel
Boselli, A.; Bock, J.; Bradford, M; Fadda, D.; Levenson, L.; Lu, N.; Schulz, B.; Wright, G.
2010-01-01
We present infrared colours (in the 25−500 μm spectral range) and UV to radio continuum spectral energy distributions of a sample of 51 nearby galaxies observed with SPIRE on Herschel. The observed sample includes all morphological classes, from quiescent ellipticals to active starbursts. Active galaxies have warmer colour temperatures than normal spirals. In ellipticals hosting a radio galaxy, the far-infrared (FIR) emission is dominated by the synchrotron nuclear emission. The colour temper...
FIR colours and SEDs of nearby galaxies observed with Herschel
Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Buat, V.; Cortese, L.; Auld, R.; Baes, Maarten; Bendo, GJ; S. Bianchi; Bock, J.; Bomans, DJ; Bradford, M; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Chanial, P.; Charlot, S.; Clemens, M.
2010-01-01
We present infrared colours (in the 25-500 mu m spectral range) and UV to radio continuum spectral energy distributions of a sample of 51 nearby galaxies observed with SPIRE on Herschel. The observed sample includes all morphological classes, from quiescent ellipticals to active starbursts. Active galaxies have warmer colour temperatures than normal spirals. In ellipticals hosting a radio galaxy, the far-infrared (FIR) emission is dominated by the synchrotron nuclear emission. The colour temp...
Research on Change of Rhizosphere Soil Properties of Chinese fir Plantation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
This article emphatically reviews the difference of soil biological activities, biochemical activities and soil chemical properties between the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil of first rotation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb) Hook) plantation. It also reviews their dynamic patterns during Chinese fir plantation development. The results show that the contents of organic and inorganic nutrients in the rhizosphere soil of young, half-mature and near-mature Chinese fir of first-rotation ...
Action of Douglas Fir Tussock Moth Larvae and Their Microflora on Dietary Terpenes
Andrews, R E; Spence, K. D.
1980-01-01
A single type of bacterium, tentatively identified as a member of the genus Bacillus, was isolated from 2 of 20 midguts of Douglas fir tussock moth larvae being fed a diet of fir needles. No bacteria could be isolated from most midguts. Although spherically shaped bodies were present in the food bolus, these bodies, if microorganisms, could not be distinguished from spherical bodies associated with the plant tissue. The Douglas fir tussock moth dietary terpenes were altered during their passa...
O. Emre Ergungor; James B. Thomson
2005-01-01
Systemic banking crises can have devastating effects on the economies of developing or industrialized countries. This Policy Discussion Paper reviews the factors that weaken banking systems and make them more susceptible to crises.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2007-01-01
Honoring its WTO commitments, China has begun to allow local incorporation by foreign banks, endowing them with the same status as their Chinese counterparts in an attempt to encourage diversified development in the Chinese banking sector On March 18, Wi
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — GenBank is the NIH genetic sequence database, an annotated collection of all publicly available DNA sequences. GenBank is designed to provide and encourage access...
Bank Resolution in the European Banking Union
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg
2015-01-01
mechanism deployable at the discretion of the resolution authority must be available to supply liquidity to a reorganizing bank. On these conditions, a viable and realistic Banking Union would be within reach--and the resolution of global financial institutions would be greatly facilitated, not least......The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States' disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure...
Bank Resolution in the European Banking Union
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Wolf-Georg
at the discretion of the resolution authority must be available to supply liquidity to a reorganizing bank. On these conditions, a viable and realistic Banking Union would be within reach — and the resolution of global financial institutions would be greatly facilitated, not least in a transatlantic perspective.......The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States’ disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure...
Finessing filter scarcity problem in face recognition via multi-fold filter convolution
Low, Cheng-Yaw; Teoh, Andrew Beng-Jin
2017-06-01
The deep convolutional neural networks for face recognition, from DeepFace to the recent FaceNet, demand a sufficiently large volume of filters for feature extraction, in addition to being deep. The shallow filter-bank approaches, e.g., principal component analysis network (PCANet), binarized statistical image features (BSIF), and other analogous variants, endure the filter scarcity problem that not all PCA and ICA filters available are discriminative to abstract noise-free features. This paper extends our previous work on multi-fold filter convolution (ℳ-FFC), where the pre-learned PCA and ICA filter sets are exponentially diversified by ℳ folds to instantiate PCA, ICA, and PCA-ICA offspring. The experimental results unveil that the 2-FFC operation solves the filter scarcity state. The 2-FFC descriptors are also evidenced to be superior to that of PCANet, BSIF, and other face descriptors, in terms of rank-1 identification rate (%).
[Selection of biomass estimation models for Chinese fir plantation].
Li, Yan; Zhang, Jian-guo; Duan, Ai-guo; Xiang, Cong-wei
2010-12-01
A total of 11 kinds of biomass models were adopted to estimate the biomass of single tree and its organs in young (7-year-old), middle-age (16-year-old), mature (28-year-old), and mixed-age Chinese fir plantations. There were totally 308 biomass models fitted. Among the 11 kinds of biomass models, power function models fitted best, followed by exponential models, and then polynomial models. Twenty-one optimal biomass models for individual organ and single tree were chosen, including 18 models for individual organ and 3 models for single tree. There were 7 optimal biomass models for the single tree in the mixed-age plantation, containing 6 for individual organ and 1 for single tree, and all in the form of power function. The optimal biomass models for the single tree in different age plantations had poor generality, but the ones for that in mixed-age plantation had a certain generality with high accuracy, which could be used for estimating the biomass of single tree in different age plantations. The optimal biomass models for single Chinese fir tree in Shaowu of Fujin Province were used to predict the single tree biomass in mature (28-year-old) Chinese fir plantation in Jiangxi Province, and it was found that the models based on a large sample of forest biomass had a relatively high accuracy, being able to be applied in large area, whereas the regional models with small sample were limited to small area.
Impact of Continuous Chinese Fir Monoculture on Soil
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Yu-Sheng; LIU Chun-Jiang; W. KUTSCH; CHEN Guang-Shui; YU Xin-Tuo
2004-01-01
Soil properties were investigated in sites where three succeeding generations of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lambert) Hooker) in Nanping, Fujian, China, were cultivated in order to show the impact of a repeated monoculture on site productivity. Compared with the first generation (FG) stand the soil structure deteriorated in the second generation (SG) and the third generation (TG) stands. For instance,the destruction rate of the peds increased by 55%-115% in the SG and the TG stands compared to the FG stand. Soil nutrient storage and nutrient availability also decreased in the SG and the TG stands. For surface soils of 0-20 cm, the organic matter content, total N and P, and available N and P decreased by 3%-20% relative to those in the FG stand. For many soil parameters, the differences between the FG stand and the SG and the TG stands were statistically significant (LSD test, P ＜ 0.05). Furthermore, with each succeeding generation of Chinese fir, the total number of soil microbes declined, the soil enzyme activity weakened, and the soil biological activity decreased. In order to maintain sustainable site productivity, new silvicultural practices need to be developed for management of Chinese fir plantations.
Herschel observations of FIR emission lines in brightest cluster galaxies
Edge, A C; Mittal, R; Allen, S W; Baum, S A; Boehringer, H; Bregman, J N; Bremer, M N; Combes, F; Crawford, C S; Donahue, M; Egami, E; Fabian, A C; Hamer, S L; Hatch, N A; Jaffe, W; Johnstone, R M; McNamara, B R; O'Dea, C P; Popesso, P; Quillen, A C; Salome, P; Sarazin, C L; Voit, G M; Wilman, R J; Wise, M W
2010-01-01
The question of how much gas cools in the cores of clusters of galaxies has been the focus of many, multiwavelength studies in the past 30 years. In this letter we present the first detections of the strongest atomic cooling lines, [C II], [O I] and [N I] in two strong cooling flow clusters, A1068 and A2597, using Herschel PACS. These spectra indicate that the substantial mass of cold molecular gas (>10^9 Mo) known to be present in these systems is being irradiated by intense UV radiation, most probably from young stars. The line widths of these FIR lines indicate that they share dynamics similar but not identical to other ionised and molecular gas traced by optical, near-infrared and CO lines. The relative brightness of the FIR lines compared to CO and FIR luminosity is consistent with other star-forming galaxies indicating that the properties of the molecular gas clouds in cluster cores and the stars they form are not unusual. These results provide additional evidence for a reservoir of cold gas that is fed...
Four optimal design approaches of high-order finite-impulse response filters based on neural network
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Xiao-hua; HE Yi-gang; LIU Mei-rong
2007-01-01
Four optimal approaches of high-order finite-impulse response(FIR)digital filters were developed for designing four types filters using neural network algorithms. The solutions were presented as parallel algorithms to approximate the desired frequency response specification.Therefore, these methods avoid matrix inversion, and make a fast calculation of the filter's coeffcients possible.The convergence theorems of these proposed algorithms were presented and proved to illustrate them stable, and the implementation of these methods was described together with some design guidelines.The simulation results show that the ripples of the designed FIR filters are significantly little in the pass.band and stop-band, and the proposed algorithms are of fast convergence.
Ambros, Lukáš
2012-01-01
The goal of my thesis "Audit of a bank" is to identify and describe the area of external and internal audit in banking and to focus on specifics of bank audit in comparison to external audit of commercial enterprise. The first part is focused on audit of financial statements. In the second part are described the specifics of banking segment. Third part describes internal audit and cooperation between external and internal audit. In the last part there are described methods applied during the ...
Time banking som ledelsesteknologi
Steensberg, Maja; Nielsen, Nadia Holm; Thomsen, Søren Tolshave
2014-01-01
This project examines how the English time banks Timber Wharf, Echo and Fair Shares affect their members and local environments. Based on Nikolas Rose’s theory on governmentality it is discussed, whether the time banks, understood as political actors, are challenging or reproducing neo-liberal governance. It is concluded that the way the time banks facilitates the concept of timebanking differs greatly. These different conducts are shaping the way in which the time banks are used by their mem...
Ambros, Lukáš
2012-01-01
The goal of my thesis "Audit of a bank" is to identify and describe the area of external and internal audit in banking and to focus on specifics of bank audit in comparison to external audit of commercial enterprise. The first part is focused on audit of financial statements. In the second part are described the specifics of banking segment. Third part describes internal audit and cooperation between external and internal audit. In the last part there are described methods applied during the ...
Mosk, T.C.
2014-01-01
This dissertation studies how banks collect and process information. The first chapter studies how the organizational structure of banks affects the processing of information. The second chapter studies how banks use private information collected over the lending relationship in credit negotiations. The last chapter is joint work with Hans Degryse, Jose Liberti and Steven Ongena and studies how banks use ‘soft information’ to monitor small firms. This dissertation uses hand collected internal...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Jun
2015-01-01
Loosened banking regulations may spur an increase of foreign banks in China Foreign banks will soon have a much easier time setting up outlets in China.According to regulations recently amended by the State Council,as of January 1,foreign
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2004-01-01
My name is Jane Carson and I'm the manager of savings bank in Portland,Oregon,My bank is open every day from8:30 in the moming until 4:00 in the aftermoon.On Fridays the bank remains oper until 6:30 in the evening.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
Regulators issue policies to guide China’s banks as massive loans compromise the banking sector’s ability to contain future risks R egulatory departments are strengthening their supervision over financial institutions to prevent an incomprehensible financial scenario from unfolding: the failure of the Chinese banking
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2007-01-01
The opening up of China’s banking sector took another giant step forward on March 20 when the first four foreign banks gained approval to incorporate locally. After going through commercial registration formalities, the banks will be able to con- duc
Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.
2016-01-01
We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability
Mosk, T.C.
2014-01-01
This dissertation studies how banks collect and process information. The first chapter studies how the organizational structure of banks affects the processing of information. The second chapter studies how banks use private information collected over the lending relationship in credit negotiations.
Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.
2016-01-01
We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability
Frequency-shift low-pass filtering and least mean square adaptive filtering for ultrasound imaging
Wang, Shanshan; Li, Chunyu; Ding, Mingyue; Yuchi, Ming
2016-04-01
Ultrasound image quality enhancement is a problem of considerable interest in medical imaging modality and an ongoing challenge to date. This paper investigates a method based on frequency-shift low-pass filtering (FSLF) and least mean square adaptive filtering (LMSAF) for ultrasound image quality enhancement. FSLF is used for processing the ultrasound signal in the frequency domain, while LMSAPF in the time domain. Firstly, FSLF shifts the center frequency of the focused signal to zero. Then the real and imaginary part of the complex data are filtered respectively by finite impulse response (FIR) low-pass filter. Thus the information around the center frequency are retained while the undesired ones, especially background noises are filtered. Secondly, LMSAF multiplies the signals with an automatically adjusted weight vector to further eliminate the noises and artifacts. Through the combination of the two filters, the ultrasound image is expected to have less noises and artifacts and higher resolution, and contrast. The proposed method was verified with the RF data of the CIRS phantom 055A captured by SonixTouch DAQ system. Experimental results show that the background noises and artifacts can be efficiently restrained, the wire object has a higher resolution and the contrast ratio (CR) can be enhanced for about 12dB to 15dB at different image depth comparing to delay-and-sum (DAS).
A test setup for the characterization of far-infrared filters under cryogenic conditions
Birkmann, Stephan M.; Grözinger, Ulrich; Stegmaier, Jutta; Krause, Oliver; Pitz, Eckhard; Lemke, Dietrich
2006-06-01
The characterization and calibration of far-infrared (FIR) detectors is a delicate task that requires good knowledge of the incident flux and its spectral composition. In many test setups the FIR flux to the detectors is provided by means of an external or internal black body and a set of cold attenuation, band pass, and blocking filters. For scientific instruments (e.g. PACS aboard ESA's Herschel satellite) band pass and blocking filters are used to achieve the desired spectral throughput either as order sorting filters in spectrometers or for selecting a wavelength range in imaging cameras. In all cases a detailed knowledge of the spectral transmittance of the used filters is mandatory for an accurate calibration of the system. We have build a test platform that allows to measure the transmission of cold (T ~ 4K) filters in the far-infrared. The setup uses a dual grating monochromator with excellent spectral purity and a resolution up to 800, which is operated under a dry nitrogen atmosphere to eliminate water vapor absorption bands. An Si-bolometer is used as detector and is read out by a cryogenic low noise trans-impedance amplifier circuit with common mode rejection and a warm electronics using a lock-in amplifier and a 22 bit analog-to-digital converter. A cryogenic filter slider in the setup allows for differential measurements between filters and the use of cold order sorting filters. We present initial results for FIR cut-on and attenuation filters, demonstrating that our setup is suited to measure transmissions as low as 10 -4 over the covered wavelength range.
Equalization of Loudspeaker and Room Responses Using Kautz Filters: Direct Least Squares Design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tuomas Paatero
2007-01-01
Full Text Available DSP-based correction of loudspeaker and room responses is becoming an important part of improving sound reproduction. Such response equalization (EQ is based on using a digital filter in cascade with the reproduction channel to counteract the response errors introduced by loudspeakers and room acoustics. Several FIR and IIR filter design techniques have been proposed for equalization purposes. In this paper we investigate Kautz filters, an interesting class of IIR filters, from the point of view of direct least squares EQ design. Kautz filters can be seen as generalizations of FIR filters and their frequency-warped counterparts. They provide a flexible means to obtain desired frequency resolution behavior, which allows low filter orders even for complex corrections. Kautz filters have also the desirable property to avoid inverting dips in transfer function to sharp and long-ringing resonances in the equalizer. Furthermore, the direct least squares design is applicable to nonminimum-phase EQ design and allows using a desired target response. The proposed method is demonstrated by case examples with measured and synthetic loudspeaker and room responses.
Growth Response of Silver Fir and Bosnian Pine from Kosovo
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elvin Toromani
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Background and Purpose: This paper explore the growth-climate relationships in total ring width chronologies of silver fir (Abies alba Mill. and Bosnian pine (Pinus heldreichii Christ. The objective of this study is to quantify the climate influence on radial growth of both species. The relationships between climate and ring widths were analyzed using extreme growing years (called pointer years, simple correlations and response functions analysis (bootstrapped coefficients. The objectives of this study were: (1 to define the pattern of climatic response of each species, (2 to highlight the influence of local ecological conditions on tree's growth, and (3 to compare the response of silver fir and Bosnian pine to climate. Responses of total ring width to climate were estimated by establishing the mean relationship between growth and climate through simple correlations analysis and bootstrapped response functions. The response to climatic variability was also assessed by analyzing pointer years which correspond to abrupt changes in growth pattern and revealing the tree-growth response to extreme climatic events. For the period 1908-2008 the mean sensitivity (MS of total ring width chronology for Bosnian pine (0.209 was higher than silver fir (0.169 suggesting that Bosnian pine is more sensitive to climate (pointer years were more frequent in ring width chronology of Bosnian pine than in silver fir ring width chronology. The high values of first-order autocorrelations for Bosnian pine (0.674 indicated a strong dependence of current growth on the previous year’s growth. Pointer years analysis underlined the high sensitivity to spring temperatures and precipitation for both species. Radial growth for both species depends strongly on spring climate variables (temperatures and precipitation which play a significant role particularly for earlywood production. Material and Methods: We selected 12 silver fir trees and 15 Bosnian pine trees and took two 5
z-transform DFT filters and FFT's
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bruun, G.
1978-01-01
of DFT filter banks which utilize a minimum of complex coefficients. These implementations lead to new forms of FFT's, among which is acos/sinFFT for a real signal which only employs real coefficients. The new FFT algorithms use only half as many real multiplications as does the classical FFT....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jana Ilieva
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increased global awareness of Islamic finance. This topic is mainly opened with respect to the great financial crisis that mostly hit the banking system and the financial markets and caused many bank bankruptcies and state interventions. This paper analyzes the basic principles of Islamic banking. The absolute prohibition of receiving and giving interest (Riba and profit-and-loss sharing (PLS paradigms are elaborated in detail; they are primarily based on mudarabah (profit-sharing and musyarakah (joint venture concepts which nowadays are becoming an accepted way of doing business in several Western multinational banks. An overall comparison of the advantages of Islamic vs. conventional banking is also given. Islamic finance technology solutions have matured and they will face various challenges in the following decades, due to conventional banks offering, increasingly, Islamic products. The need for a more comprehensive environment and regulatory framework is emphasized, so that Islamic banking development can be ensured.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Hyung Kwon; Chun, Young Bum; Park, Dae Gyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Chu, Yong Sun; Kim, Eun Ka
1997-12-01
The development of high efficiency filter was started to protect human beings from the contamination of radioactive particles, toxic gases and bacillus, and its gradual performance increment led to the fabrication of Ultra Low Penetration Air Filter (ULPA) today. The application field of ULPA has been spread not only to the air conditioning of nuclear power facilities, semiconductor industries, life science, optics, medical care and general facilities but also to the core of ultra-precision facilities. Periodic performance test on the filters is essential to extend its life-time through effective maintenance. Especially, the bank test on HEPA filter of nuclear facilities handling radioactive materials is required for environmental safety. Nowadays, the bank test technology has been reached to the utilization of a minimized portable detecting instruments and the evaluation techniques can provide high confidence in the area of particle distribution and leakage test efficiency. (author). 16 refs., 13 tabs., 14 figs.
Bank Resolution in the European Banking Union
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg
2015-01-01
The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States' disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure....... The FDIC's experience teaches us three important lessons: First, systemically important financial institutions need to have in their liability structure sufficient unsecured (or otherwise subordinated) term debt so that in the event of bank failure, the conversion of debt into equity will be sufficient...
Energy-Aware Scheduling of FIR Filter Structures using a Timed Automata Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wognsen, Erik Ramsgaard; Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand
2016-01-01
structures where we initially derive data flow graphs and precedence graphs using the Synchronous Data Flow (SDF) notation. Based on actual measurements on the Altera Cyclone IV FPGA, we derive power and timing estimates for addition and multiplication, including idling power consumption. We next model...
A Method for Reducing Memory Effect in RF Amplifier with FIR Filter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MohammadReza Soltani
2009-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper we study various techniques of power RF amplifier linearization and analyze the most effective circuits of predistortion digital circuits. We propose a method for adapting this circuit and compare the advantages and disadvantages of this circuit with conventional predistortion circuit. The main problem with predisrortion circuit is the memory effect. We propose a new circuit to overcome the above problem based on digital signal processing techniques. Finally we compare results of our simulation with previous results. Our simulation shows an 8dB reductional in power ratio of adjacent channel.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karl Friston
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.
Shelton, G. B. (Inventor)
1977-01-01
A notch filter for the selective attenuation of a narrow band of frequencies out of a larger band was developed. A helical resonator is connected to an input circuit and an output circuit through discrete and equal capacitors, and a resistor is connected between the input and the output circuits.
Central bank capital, financial strength, and the Bank of Japan
Thomas F. Cargill
2006-01-01
This Economic Letter addresses central bank capital and financial strength in the context of Bank of Japan policy (Cargill 2005). Specifically, it reviews general considerations about central bank capital and financial strength, discusses recent Bank of Japan policy in the context of capital structure, evaluates the Bank of Japan's concern in the context of the broader issue of central bank independence, and draws some lessons from recent Bank of Japan policy.
Directional Filters for Cartoon + Texture Image Decomposition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antoni Buades
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We present in this article a detailed analysis and implementation of the cartoon+texture decomposition algorithm proposed in [A. Buades, J.L. Lisani, 'Directional filters for color cartoon + texture image and video decomposition', Journal of Mathematical Imaging and Vision, 2015]. This method follows the approach proposed by [A. Buades, T. Le, J-M. Morel, L. Vese, 'Cartoon+Texture Image Decomposition', IPOL 2011], based on low/high-pass filtering, but replaces the isotropic filters by a bank of low-pass directional filters. The cartoon image is obtained by filtering in the direction that leads to the largest local total variation rate reduction. This permits to improve the performance of the decomposition near image discontinuities, where an halo effect was produced by the previous method.
Population buildup and vertical spread of dwarf mistletoe on young red and white firs in California
Robert F. Scharpf; John R. Parmeter Jr.
1976-01-01
Rate of population buildup of dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobium abietinum Engelm. ex Munz., was slow in most small red firs and white firs 12 to 15 years after inoculation with the parasite. Where population buildup did occur, it remained clustered in the lower portions of tree crowns near inoculation sites. Maximum distance of vertical spread was 16...
Douglas fir is the dominant commercial tree grown in the United States. In this study Douglas fir residue was converted to single cell oils using oleaginous yeasts. Monosaccharides were extracted from the woody biomass by pretreating with sulfite and dilute sulfuric acid (SPORL process) and hydrol...
Warren D. Devine; Timothy B. Harrington
2009-01-01
We evaluated effects of belowground competition on morphology of naturally established coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) saplings in 60- to 80-year-old thinned Douglas-fir stands in southwestern Washington. We separately quantified belowground competition from overstory and understory sources...
An audio FIR-DAC in a BCD process for high power Class-D amplifiers
Doorn, T.S.; Tuijl, van E.; Schinkel, D.; Annema, A.J.; Berkhout, M.; Nauta, B.
2005-01-01
A 322 coefficient semi-digital FIR-DAC using a 1-bit PWM input signal was designed and implemented in a high voltage, audio power bipolar CMOS DMOS (BCD) process. This facilitates digital input signals for an analog class-D amplifier in BCD. The FIR-DAC performance depends on the ISI-resistant natur
An audio FIR-DAC in a BCD process for high power Class-D amplifiers
Doorn, T.S.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Schinkel, Daniel; Annema, Anne J.; Berkhout, M.; Berkhout, M.; Nauta, Bram
A 322 coefficient semi-digital FIR-DAC using a 1-bit PWM input signal was designed and implemented in a high voltage, audio power bipolar CMOS DMOS (BCD) process. This facilitates digital input signals for an analog class-D amplifier in BCD. The FIR-DAC performance depends on the ISI-resistant
Banking System in Kyrgyz Republic
Sagbansu, Lutfu
2006-01-01
This paper examines the overall banking system and the basic banking system development factors such as internet banking and deposit insurance in the world and particularly in Kyrgyzstan. The analyses show that progress in banking reform, introduction of deposit insurance and internet banking concepts are essential for avoiding harmful problems, development stable and solvent banking system. These developments include the more effective regulation of the entry and exit of banks, removal of ob...
Characterisation of pulsed Carbon fiber illuminators for FIR instrument calibration
Henrot-Versillé, S; Couchot, F
2007-01-01
We manufactured pulsed illuminators emitting in the far infrared for the Planck-HFI bolometric instrument ground calibrations. Specific measurements have been conducted on these light sources, based on Carbon fibers, to understand and predict their properties. We present a modelisation of the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity and the calorific capacitance of the fibers. A comparison between simulations and bolometer data is given, that shows the coherence of our model. Their small time constants, their stability and their emission spectrum pointing in the submm range make these illuminators a very usefull tool for calibrating FIR instruments.
Banks, regions and development
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pietro Alessandrini
2003-03-01
Full Text Available From the 1980s onwards the banking sectors in all the industrialised countries have been experiencing intense restructuring, aggregation and consolidation, radically changing their ownership structures and geography. Whatever the reasons behind such restructuring processes, the globalisation of the credit markets, the consolidation of banking structures, the removal of barriers to the free location of banks and their penetration of peripheral markets pose two main questions. Will integration of the banking systems lead to a narrowing or a widening of the development gap between regions? What relations will there be between financial centres and the periphery, and how will financial labour be divided between national (international banks and local (regional banks? The aim of this paper is to address such questions in the light of recent developments in the theoretical and empirical literature on financial integration.
Ireland, Lynette; McKelvie, Helen
2003-01-01
The legal structure for the regulation of tissue banking has existed for many years. In Australia, the donation of human tissue is regulated by legislation in each of the eight States and Territories. These substantially uniform Acts were passed in the late 1970's and early 1980's, based on model legislation and underpinned by the concept of consensual giving. However, it was not until the early 1990's that tissue banking came under the notice of regulatory authorities. Since then the Australian Government has moved quickly to oversee the tissue banking sector in Australia. Banked human tissue has been deemed to be a therapeutic good under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, and tissue banks are required to be licensed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and are audited for compliance with the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice- Human Blood and Tissues. In addition, tissue banks must comply with a myriad of other standards, guidelines and recommendations.
Analysis of the growth characteristics of a 450-year-old silver fir tree
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pantić Damjan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The growth characteristics of silver fir are of high importance for selection forest management, and for the current aims laid out in Serbia’s forest management focused on increasing the share of silver firs in Serbia’s growing stock. With the objective of increasing the understanding of the growth characteristics of silver fir, the growth of two silver fir trees felled during forest site production research on Mt. Goč, located in Central Serbia, have been analyzed. Both trees showed significant differences in their growth dynamics over long periods as results of micro-site and micro-stand effects (primarily ambient light regime. The common growth characteristic of the two trees, a 450-year-old tree as the main study object (labeled Tree A and a 270-year-old Tree B is a long stagnation stage. For Tree A the latent phase, with small interruptions, lasted 410 years; one phase lasted 330 years in continuity, which is the longest period of silver fir stagnation recorded in Europe. Tree B showed a long-lasting stagnation stage that lasted 170 years. The long stagnation stage of Tree A, characterized by an average diameter increment of 1.4 mm/year (average growth ring width of 0.7 mm and an average height increment of 0.08 m/year, shows the extraordinary silver fir capacity for physiological survival in complete shade. This study adds to the existing knowledge of the shade tolerance of the silver fir. Therefore, the silver fir belongs to the group of extremely shade-tolerant tree species. This characteristic makes silver fir an irreplaceable tree species in the selection forest structure. It offers a wide range of silvicultural flexibility in the management of these forests, and is applicable to silver fir selection Serbia’s forests. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. EVBR 37008: Sustainable management of total forest potentials in the Republic of Serbia
COMMERCIAL BANK LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT
KOREKOV A.V.
2015-01-01
Bank liquidity management and optimal resource allocation of commercial bank Nostro accounts balances receive much less attention from the scientists compared to the questions on capital structure, funding, credit risk analysis and stress testing. Optimal liquidity management is a way to lower bank costs and risks, which are going to increase over time, especially when money markets are dry of free funds. There are two sides of the issue to be analyzed. The optimal resource allocation and cor...
1982-01-01
Barnett Banks of Florida, Inc. operates 150 banking offices in 80 Florida cities. Banking offices have computerized systems for processing deposits or withdrawals in checking/savings accounts, and for handling commercial and installment loan transactions. In developing a network engineering design for the terminals used in record processing, an affiliate, Barnett Computing Company, used COSMIC's STATCOM program. This program provided a reliable network design tool and avoided the cost of developing new software.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abhijit Chandra
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Reduction of computational complexity of digital hardware has drawn the special attention of researchers in recent past. Proper emphasis is needed in this regard towards the settlement of computationally efficient as well as functionally competent design of digital systems. In this communication, we have made one novel attempt for designing multiplier-free Finite duration Impulse Response (FIR digital filter using one robust evolutionary optimization technique, called Differential Evolution (DE. The search has been directed through two sequentially opposite paths which include quantization and optimization as fundamental operations. Besides performing a detailed comparative analysis between these two proposed approaches; the performance evaluation of the designed filter with other existing discrete coefficient FIR models has also been carried out. Finally, the optimum search method for realizing the required set of specifications has been suggested.
Do wavelet filters provide more accurate estimates of reverberation times at low frequencies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sobreira Seoane, Manuel A.; Pérez Cabo, David; Agerkvist, Finn T.
2016-01-01
the continuous wavelet transform (CTW) has been implemented using a Morlet mother function. Although in general, the wavelet filter bank performs better than the usual filters, the influence of decaying modes outside the filter bandwidth on the measurements has been detected, leading to a biased estimation...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg
2015-01-01
Bank resolution is a key pillar of the European Banking Union. This column argues that the current structure of large EU banks is not conducive to an effective and unbiased resolution procedure. The authors would require systemically important banks to reorganise into a ‘holding company’ structure......, where the parent company holds unsecured term debt sufficient to cover losses at its operating financial subsidiaries. This would facilitate a ‘single point of entry’ resolution procedure, minimising the risk of creditor runs and destructive ring-fencing by national regulators....
Essays on banking and regulation
Todorov, R.I.
2013-01-01
This thesis consists of three chapters that explore issues related to bank capital, multinational bank supervision, and bank lending in a developing country. The first chapter explores the impact of peer banks on bank capital adjustments. The second chapter evaluates the extent to which distortions
Factors Determining Mergers of Banks in Malaysia's Banking Sector Reform
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Rubi Ahmad; Mohamed Ariff; Michael Skully
2007-01-01
What was termed government-guided merger was a unique banking sector reform implemented in 2002 by the central bank of Malaysia guiding a larger number of depository institutions to form 10 large banks...
Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spera, D.A. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center); Esgar, J.B. (Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Cleveland, OH (USA)); Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.D. (Gougeon Bros., Bay City, MI (USA))
1990-05-01
This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue and strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 in. by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications. 9 refs.
POLARIZATION OF FIR EMISSION FROM T-TAURI DISKS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Cho
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Recent observations of 850 gm sub-mm polarization from T-Tauri disks open up the possibility of studying the magnetic eld structure within protostellar disks. The degree of polarization is around 3% and the direction of polarization is perpendicular to the disk. Since thermal emission from dust grains dominates the spectral energy distribution at sub-mm/far-infrared (FIR wavelengths, dust grains are thought to be the cause of the polarization. We discuss grain alignment by radiation and we explore the efficiency of dust alignment in T-Tauri disks. The calculations show that dust grains located far away from the central proto-star are more efficiently aligned. In the presence of a regular magnetic eld, the aligned grains produce polarized emission in sub-mm/FIR wavelengths. The direction of polarization is perpendicular to the local magnetic eld direction. When we use a recent T-Tauri disk model and take a Mathis-Rumpl-Nordsieck-type distribution with maximum grain size of 500{1000 -m, the degree of polarization is around 2{3% level at wavelengths larger than - 100 gm. Our work indicates that multifrequency infrared polarimetric studies of protostellar disks can provide good insights into the details of their magnetic structure. We also provide predictions for polarize emission for disks viewed at di erent wavelengths and viewing angles.
Upgrade Plans for the C-Mod FIR Polarimeter
Watterson, R.; Garnier, D.; Irby, J.; Brower, D. L.; Xu, P.; Bergerson, W. F.; Ding, W. X.; Guttenfelder, W.; Marmar, E. S.
2014-10-01
The 3-chord FIR polarimeter presently deployed on C-Mod is capable of responding to both fast changes in the plasma equilibrium and high frequency fluctuations. It operates under ITER-like plasma conditions and magnetic fields, and uses an optical layout similar to that proposed for ITER. The details of this system and some results from the C-Mod 2012 campaign will be presented, along with the design of the upgrade that is now being implemented. The new system will provide horizontal chords near the mid-plane and low loss etalon windows to improve both the signal level and our ability to study magnetic fluctuations. The laser table has been relocated from the C-Mod cell to a shielded and climate controlled location, and improvements have been made to its acoustic isolation. New collimation optics, and a beam-line needed to convey the FIR beams into the tokamak port have been designed. Improvements to the detector electronics will also be discussed, as will initial testing of the laser system and reference detectors during C-Mod operation. Supported by USDoE Award DE-FC02-99ER54512.
Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material
Spera, David A.; Esgar, Jack B.; Gougeon, Meade; Zuteck, Michael D.
1990-01-01
This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft. long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications.
CRYSTAL FILTERS, *HIGH FREQUENCY, *RADIOFREQUENCY FILTERS, AMPLIFIERS, ELECTRIC POTENTIAL, FREQUENCY, IMPEDANCE MATCHING , INSTRUMENTATION, RADIOFREQUENCY, RADIOFREQUENCY AMPLIFIERS, TEST EQUIPMENT, TEST METHODS
Islamic banks and profitability: an empirical analysis of Indonesian banking
Jordan, Sarah
2013-01-01
This paper provides an empirical analysis of the factors that determine the profitability of Indonesian banks between the years 2006-2012. In particular, it investigates whether there are any significant differences in terms of profitability between Islamic banks and commercial banks. The results, obtained by applying the system-GMM estimator to the panel of 54 banks, indicate that the high bank profitability during these years were determined mainly by the size of the banks, the market share...
Removing bank subsidies leads inexorably to full reserve banking
Musgrave, Ralph S.
2013-01-01
The recent banking crisis laid bare a long standing and inherent defect in fractional reserve banking: the fact that fractional reserve is unlikely to work for long without taxpayer backing. Changing bank regulations in such a way that banks are never a burden on taxpayers leads inexorably to full reserve banking. Full reserve involves splitting the banking industry into two halves. A safe half where depositors earn no interest, but they do have instant access to their money, and a second...
Removing bank subsidies leads inexorably to full reserve banking
Musgrave, Ralph S.
2013-01-01
The recent banking crisis laid bare a long standing and inherent defect in fractional reserve banking: the fact that fractional reserve is unlikely to work for long without taxpayer backing. Changing bank regulations in such a way that banks are never a burden on taxpayers leads inexorably to full reserve banking. Full reserve involves splitting the banking industry into two halves. A safe half where depositors earn no interest, but they do have instant access to their money, and a second...
Bank Lending and Relationship Banking: Evidence from Chilean Firms
Andrea Repetto; Sergio Rodríguez; Rodrigo O. Valdés
2002-01-01
In this paper we empirically study bank-client relationships using a sample of manufacturing Chilean firms. We examine whether concentration and the duration of bank-firm relationships affect the terms of bank financing, evaluating both the volume of bank lending and bank loan costs. Our results indicate that lower concentration, measured by the number of banks a firm borrows from, is associated with lower costs of loans and with a large and positive non-lincar effect on borrowing. The length...
Dual Banking Systems and Interest Rate Risk for Islamic Banks
Bacha, Obiyathulla I.
2004-01-01
In introducing Islamic banking in Malaysia, the basic strategy was to replicate the products/ services offered by conventional banks. The successful implementation of such a strategy has meant that Malaysia today has a truly dual banking system. Islamic banks in Malaysia not only have product similarity with conventional banks but share the same overall economic environment and a common customer base. The ability of non Muslim customers/depositors to switch between the two banking syste...
Methods of Payment to Banks: e-Banking. Comparative Study on Three Banks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miranda Petronella VLAD
2012-11-01
Full Text Available E-banking website, majority offers the banks. At first it was electronic-banking, Internet-banking followed, followed by mobile-banking service. These services offer the same facilities, Customer Bank just that varies the channel used for communication with the Bank. The services offered by banks through E-banking, approves: compilation of orders; scheduled payments; orders for payment of wages; internal transfers; pay rates on internal or external; currency exchanges; view balances of accounts at any time; information about foreign exchange rates; view and print account statements; the definition of beneficiaries of direct payments by the client.
2013-02-22
... Employment and Training Administration PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank West Chester, IL; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application... Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of PNC Bank, National Association, Retail...
Bank profitability: Insights from the rural banking industry in Ghana
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Adusei
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the profitability of 112 rural banks (special unit banks created to promote rural financial intermediation in Ghana. The results generally show that bank size, funding risk, diversification, liquidity risk, and bank stability are significant predictors of rural bank profitability. Whereas an improvement in the funding risk of a rural bank in a particular period portends a drop in its profitability in the future, an improvement in the size, diversification, liquidity risk, and stability of a rural bank signifies an improvement in the future profitability of the bank.
van der Kwaak, C.G.F.
2017-01-01
This thesis studies the macroeconomic effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy in an environment where commercial banks are undercapitalized after a financial crisis and have large holdings of (risky) government bonds on their balance sheets. An undercapitalized banking system cannot perfectly el
Star, G.J. Van der; Maas, A.
2016-01-01
DZ Bank faces some significant challenges for the near future. One of them is the way payments are being made. This case is about Stefan, the Strategic Management Consultant of DZ Bank. He struggles with innovations and new technologies, such as Bitcoins. What does this mean for the future of the ba
Optimal central bank transparency
van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.
2008-01-01
Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt
Optimal central bank transparency
van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.
2010-01-01
Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G.A Peresadko
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the specifics of banking innovations, the global trends of innovative strategies in the banking sector was described, analyzed the necessary methodology for their implementation, proposed plan of innovative activities and its possible application in Ukraine.
Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.
2013-01-01
We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term, scalable arm’s length finance which we call trading. Relationship banking is not scalable, has high franchise value, is long-term oriented and low risk. Trading is transaction-based: scalable, with lower margins (capital constrain
Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.
2013-01-01
We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term, scalable arm’s length finance which we call trading. Relationship banking is not scalable, has high franchise value, is long-term oriented and low risk. Trading is transaction-based: scalable, with lower margins (capital
Bai, Y.
2015-01-01
This dissertation consists of three essays on empirical banking. They study how do information and political activeness affect banks’ lending behavior, as well as the effect of lending relationship with banks on firms’ stock performance during interbank liquidity crunch. The first essay looks at a t
dr. A. Maas; G.J. Van der Star
2016-01-01
DZ Bank faces some significant challenges for the near future. One of them is the way payments are being made. This case is about Stefan, the Strategic Management Consultant of DZ Bank. He struggles with innovations and new technologies, such as Bitcoins. What does this mean for the future of the
Hamming, Richard W
1997-01-01
Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANGPEI
2005-01-01
The rather straightforward restructuring of the Bank of Beijing became more arresting in January after Deutsche Bank was reported to be competing with its Dutch rival ING to purchase a stake in the local city commercial bank.
RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF THE STAR FORMATION ACTIVITIES IN THE NGC 2024 FIR 4 REGION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: minho@kasi.re.kr [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-07-15
Star formation activities in the NGC 2024 FIR 4 region were studied by imaging centimeter continuum sources and water maser sources using several archival data sets from the Very Large Array. The continuum source VLA 9 is elongated in the northwest–southeast direction, consistent with the FIR 4 bipolar outflow axis, and has a flat spectrum in the 6.2–3.6 cm interval. The three water maser spots associated with FIR 4 are also distributed along the outflow axis. One of the spots is located close to VLA 9, and another one is close to an X-ray source. Examinations of the positions of compact objects in this region suggest that the FIR 4 cloud core contains a single low-mass protostar. VLA 9 is the best indicator of the protostellar position. VLA 9 may be a radio thermal jet driven by this protostar, and it is unlikely that FIR 4 contains a high-mass young stellar object (YSO). A methanol 6.7 GHz maser source is located close to VLA 9, at a distance of about 100 AU. The FIR 4 protostar must be responsible for the methanol maser action, which suggests that methanol class II masers are not necessarily excited by high-mass YSOs. Also discussed are properties of other centimeter continuum sources in the field of view and the water masers associated with FIR 6n. Some of the continuum sources are radio thermal jets, and some are magnetically active young stars.
Competition in investment banking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katrina Ellis
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We construct a comprehensive measure of overall investment banking competitiveness for follow-on offerings that aggregates the various dimensions of competition such as fees, pricing accuracy, analyst recommendations, distributional abilities, market making prowess, debt offering capabilities, and overall reputation. The measure allows us to incorporate trade-offs that investment banks may use in competing for new or established clients. We find that firms who switch to similar-quality underwriters enjoy more intense competition among investment banks which manifests in lower fees and more optimistic recommendations. Investment banks do compete vigorously for some clients, with the level of competition related to the likelihood of gaining or losing clients. Finally, investment banks not performing up to market norms are more likely to be dropped in the follow-on offering. In contrast, firms who seek a higher reputation underwriter face relatively non-competitive markets.
Modeling acoustic attenuation of soft tissue with a minimum-phase filter.
Kuc, R
1984-01-01
Soft biological tissue has been observed to exhibit an acoustic attenuation log-magnitude characteristic which increases as an approximately linear function of frequency. This paper describes the implementation of a finite-impulse-response (FIR) digital filter model for simulating this behavior on a digital computer. To insure that the filter is causal, the minimum-phase constraint is imposed. For minimum-phase filters, the log-magnitude and phase characteristics form a Hilbert Transform pair. The discrete-time Hilbert Transform of the linear log-magnitude characteristic was evaluated to determine the phase of the filter. The inverse Fourier Transform of the resulting real and imaginary components of the frequency transform produces the finite-duration unit-sample response of the digital filter model. Experimental results using plexiglas material, which has a linear-with-frequency loss characteristic, indicate that the minimum-phase model is more accurate than the linear-phase model, resulting in a rms error between predicted and observed time waveforms that is 3 times smaller. The effects of varying the sampling period and the size of the FIR filter are discussed. A FORTRAN program to calculate the minimum-phase unit-sample response from the slope of the log-magnitude characteristic is included in the Appendix.
Latifoğlu, Fatma
2013-09-01
In this study a novel approach based on 2D FIR filters is presented for denoising digital images. In this approach the filter coefficients of 2D FIR filters were optimized using the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm. To obtain the best filter design, the filter coefficients were tested with different numbers (3×3, 5×5, 7×7, 11×11) and connection types (cascade and parallel) during optimization. First, the speckle noise with variances of 1, 0.6, 0.8 and 0.2 respectively was added to the synthetic test image. Later, these noisy images were denoised with both the proposed approach and other well-known filter types such as Gaussian, mean and average filters. For image quality determination metrics such as mean square error (MSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were used. Even in the case of noise having maximum variance (the most noisy), the proposed approach performed better than other filtering methods did on the noisy test images. In addition to test images, speckle noise with a variance of 1 was added to a fetal ultrasound image, and this noisy image was denoised with very high PSNR and SNR values. The performance of the proposed approach was also tested on several clinical ultrasound images such as those obtained from ovarian, abdomen and liver tissues. The results of this study showed that the 2D FIR filters designed based on ABC optimization can eliminate speckle noise quite well on noise added test images and intrinsically noisy ultrasound images. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ultrasound speckle reduction using modified Gabor filters.
Dantas, Ricardo G; Costa, Eduardo T
2007-03-01
B-mode ultrasound images are characterized by speckle artifact, which may make the interpretation of images difficult. One widely used method for ultrasound speckle reduction is the split spectrum processing (SSP), but the use of one-dimensional (1-D), narrow-band filters makes the resultant image experience a significant resolution loss. In order to overcome this critical drawback, we propose a novel method for speckle reduction in ultrasound medical imaging, which uses a bank of wideband 2-D directive filters, based on modified Gabor functions. Each filter is applied to the 2-D radio-frequency (RF) data, resulting in a B-mode image filtered in a given direction. The compounding of the filters outputs give rise to a final image in which speckle is reduced and the structure is enhanced. We have denoted this method as directive filtering (DF). Because the proposed filters have effectively the same bandwidth as the original image, it is possible to avoid the resolution loss caused by the use of narrow-band filters, as with SSP. The tests were carried out with both simulated and real clinical data. Using the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to quantify the amount of speckle of the ultrasound images, we have achieved an average SNR enhancement of 2.26 times with simulated data and 1.18 times with real clinical data.
Programmable SC biquad using one single capacitor bank
Torralba Silgado, Antonio Jesús; Pérez Vega-Leal, Alfredo; García Franquelo, Leopoldo
2001-01-01
This paper presents a new technique for programming SC circuits using a single time-multiplexed capacitor bank, achieving a significant reduction in capacitance area. Simulation results of a programmable biquad low pass filter show the validity of the proposed method.
Decline of sacred fir (Abies religiosa) in a forest park south of Mexico City.
Alvarado R, D; De Bauer, L I; Galindo A, J
1993-01-01
Decline of sacred fir (Abies religiosa) trees in the high elevation forest park, Desierto de los Leones, located south of Mexico City, is described. Trees located in the windward zone (exposed to air masses from Mexico City) were the most severely affected, especially trees at the distal ends of ravines. Examination of tree growth rings indicated decreases in ring widths for the past 30 years. Polluted air from Mexico City may be an important causal factor in fir decline. Drought, due to excessive removal of soil water, insects, mites and pathogens, and poor forest management are possible contributing and interactive factors in fir decline.
Ion Flux in Roots of Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) under Aluminum Stress
2016-01-01
Chinese fir is a tall, fast-growing species that is unique to southern China. In Chinese fir plantations, successive plantings have led to a decline in soil fertility, and aluminum toxicity is thought to be one of the main reasons for this decline. In this study, Non-invasive Micro-test Technology was used to study the effect of aluminum stress on the absorption of 4 different ions in the roots of the Chinese fir clone FS01. The results are as follows: with increased aluminum concentration an...
Low-power implementation of polyphase filters in Quadratic Residue Number System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Re, Andrea Del; Nannarelli, Alberto
2004-01-01
The aim of this work is the reduction of the power dissipated in digital filters, while maintaining the timing unchanged. A polyphase filter bank in the Quadratic Residue Number System (QRNS) has been implemented and then compared, in terms of performance, area, and power dissipation to the imple......The aim of this work is the reduction of the power dissipated in digital filters, while maintaining the timing unchanged. A polyphase filter bank in the Quadratic Residue Number System (QRNS) has been implemented and then compared, in terms of performance, area, and power dissipation...... to the implementation of a polyphase filter bank in the traditional two's complement system (TCS). The resulting implementations, designed to have the same clock rates, show that the QRNS filter is smaller and consumes less power than the TCS one....
Waeibrorheem Waemustafa; Suriani Sukri
2015-01-01
The study analyzes macroeconomic and bank specific determinants of credit risk in Islamic and Conventional Banks. Multivariate Regression analysis is applied on the sample of 15 conventional banks and 13 Islamic Banks in Malaysia over the period between 2000 and 2010. The finding shows that the banks specific determinants of credit risk are uniquely influenced the credit risk formation of Islamic and Conventional banks. The study found that risky sector financing; regulatory capital (REGCAP) ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张书刚; 郭迎清; 陆军
2012-01-01
Based on a bank of hybrid Kalman filters which are hybrids of a nonlinear on-board engine model (NOBEM) and piecewise linear Kalman fillers, a civil aircraft engine sensor fault diagnostics system which utilizes dual -channel sensor measurements is developed. Principles and algorithms of sensor fault detection, isolation and accommodation are given. By this system applied to some typical civil turbo-fan engine sensor faults, simulation results show that the diagnostic effectiveness of the system is maintained to avoid false alarms as the health of the engine degrades over time through a simple process: by feeding the health degradation values into the NUBEM and not changing the parameters of the linear Kalman filters. The update process, which can be completed automatically online to save time and effort, is feasible in the real application environment.%基于机载非线性模型与分段线性卡尔曼滤波器混合组成的混合卡尔曼滤波器组,结合双通道传感器的特点,建立了民用航空发动机传感器故障诊断系统;给出故障诊断原理及算法的同时,将该系统应用于民用涡扇发动机传感器常见典型故障进行了仿真；仿真结果表明,诊断系统可以在发动机发生健康蜕化后,通过只简单更新机载模型的蜕化因子,而保持线性卡尔曼滤波器的参数不变,便能准确地检测和隔离各类传感器故障而不发生误报；该更新过程可以在线自动完成,省时省力,易于工程实现.
Benson, Dennis A.; Cavanaugh, Mark; Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.
2017-01-01
GenBank® (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for 370 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or the NCBI Submission Portal. GenBank staff assign accession numbers upon data receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Nucleotide database, which links to related information such as taxonomy, genomes, protein sequences and structures, and biomedical journal literature in PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. Recent updates include changes to policies regarding sequence identifiers, an improved 16S submission wizard, targeted loci studies, the ability to submit methylation and BioNano mapping files, and a database of anti-microbial resistance genes. PMID:27899564
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hamdu Kedir Mohammed
2015-06-01
Full Text Available A well-functioning financial institution will sustain a countries economic development and play a great role in reduction of poverty. One of the major participants in the financial institution is the banking industry. However, the mal-functioning of the banking system can be extremely costly to the real economy. As Bank is one of the participants and major key player in the financial institutions, it needs a continuous assessment by its supervisory and management. Mere ratio analyses are commonly used Performance measurement among the banking industry in Ethiopia. Nonetheless, these financial ratios are more of traditional as well as partial measurements. As such this study conducted using CAMEL framework set by bank for international settlement. The study takes secondary data which are gathered from audited annual reports of all banks. The result shows CAMEL framework is the best fit measurement for Ethiopian Banks and it give a comprehensive result which is very helpful for the governor to set a well determined policy and procedure.
ALIMULA, YULIANA
2014-01-01
2014 Perbandingan Penghasilan Tabungan Mudharabah Nasabah Bank Syariah (Studi Kasus pada Bank Syariah Mandiri, Bank Negara Indonesia Syariah, dan Bank Muamalat Indonesia di Makassar) Profit Sharing Comparison of Mudharabah Saving of Islamic Banking (A Case Study at Bank Syariah Mandiri, Bank Negara Indonesia Syariah, and Bank Muamalat Indonesia in Makassar) Yuliana Alimula Alimuddin Muhammad Ashari Penelitian ini bertujuan un...
Determining Gabor-filter parameters for texture segmentation
Dunn, Dennis F.; Higgins, William E.; Wakeley, Joseph
1992-11-01
The ability to segment a textured image into separate regions (texture segmentation) continues to be a challenging problem in computer vision. Many texture-segmentation schemes are based on a filter-bank model, where the filters (henceforth referred to as Gabor Filters) are derived from Gabor elementary functions. The goal of these methods is to transform texture differences into detectable filter-output discontinuities at texture boundaries. Then, one can segment the image into differently textured regions. Distinct discontinuities occur, however, only if the parameters defining the Gabor filters are suitably chosen. Some previous analysis has shown how to design appropriate filters for discriminating simple textures. Designing filters for more general textures, though, has largely been done ad hoc. We have devised a new, more effective, more rigorously based method for determining Gabor-filter parameters. The method is based on an exhaustive, but efficient, search of Gabor-filter parameter space and on a detection-theory formulation of a Gabor filter''s output. We provide qualitative arguments and experimental results indicating that our new method is more effective than other methods in producing suitable filter parameters. We demonstrate that our model also gives good filter designs for a variety of texture types.
FIR colours and SEDs of nearby galaxies observed with Herschel
Boselli, A; Buat, V; Cortese, L; Auld, R; Baes, M; Bendo, G J; Bianchi, S; Bock, J; Bomans, D J; Bradford, M; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Chanial, P; Charlot, S; Clemens, M; Clements, D; Corbelli, E; Cooray, A; Cormier, D; Dariush, A; Davies, J; De Looze, I; Alighieri, S di Serego; Dwek, E; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Fadda, D; Fritz, J; Galametz, M; Galliano, F; Garcia-Appadoo, D A; Gavazzi, G; Gear, W; Giovanardi, C; Glenn, J; Gomez, H; Griffin, M; Grossi, M; Hony, S; Hughes, T M; Hunt, L; Isaak, K; Jones, A; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S C; O'Halloran, B; Okumura, K; Oliver, S; Page, M; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Parkin, T; Perez-Fournon, I; Pierini, D; Pohlen, M; Rangwala, N; Rigby, E; Roussel, H; Rykala, A; Sabatini, S; Sacchi, N; Sauvage, M; Schulz, B; Schirm, M; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L; Stevens, J; Sundar, S; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Vaccari, M; Verstappen, J; Vigroux, L; Vlahakis, C; Wilson, C; Wozniak, H; Wright, G; Xilouris, E M; Zeilinger, W; Zibetti, S
2010-01-01
We present infrared colours (in the 25-500 mic spectral range) and UV to radio continuum spectral energy distributions of a sample of 51 nearby galaxies observed with SPIRE on Herschel. The observed sample includes all morphological classes, from quiescent ellipticals to active starbursts. Active galaxies have warmer colour temperatures than normal spirals. In ellipticals hosting a radio galaxy, the far-infrared (FIR) emission is dominated bynthe synchrotron nuclear emission. The colour temperature of the cold dust is higher in quiescent E-S0a than in star-forming systems probably because of the different nature of their dust heating sources (evolved stellar populations, X-ray, fast electrons) and dust grain properties. In contrast to the colour temperature of the warm dust, the f350/f500 index sensitive to the cold dust decreases with star formation and increases with metallicity, suggesting an overabundance of cold dust or an emissivity parameter beta<2 in low metallicity, active systems.
Intratree Variability of Cleavage Resistance of Chinese Fir from Plantation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Ming; REN Haiqing; LUO Xiuqin; YIN Yafang
2006-01-01
This paper studied the variation of cleavage resistance of Chinese fir wood from plantation.Six trees of 36 years old were investigated,and the cleavage resistance properties for 672 samples made of the trees were tested.The samples were cut from the sapwood and heartwood at different directions (south and north) and heights (1.3,3.3,5.3 and 7.3 m) of the trees.The result showed that:tangential cleavage resistance was higher than radial one, and cleavage resistance of sapwood was higher than that of heartwood,but there was no significant difference in cleavage resistances between sections of the north and the south of the trees.There was a little variation in cleavage resistance between the radial and tangential from butt to top log,which shows alittle decrease with the height from 1.3 to 5.3 m,but a rise in the top of the trees.
Study on Volatile Organic Components from Chinese Fir Wood
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Luohua; QIN Tefu; OHIRA Tatsuro
2006-01-01
The volatile organic compounds(VOCs) are emitted by a wide array of products, which include a variety of chemicals, some of them may have short- and long-term adverse health effects. Several analytical instrument including gas chromatograph, high preferment liquid chromatograph, mass spectrometry and solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique were used in this study. The results showed the aldehyde and ketone components of Chinese fir wood were little composed of formaldehyde, syn-acetaldehyde, anti-acetadehyde and acrolein, VOCs obtained by Tenax GR absorber consisted of the major component cedrene (42.92%) and another 28 components, and the major components of the VOCs from the sample by using solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique were cedrene and cedrol.
Bank selection and customers’ perception of banks in Malaysia
Norhazlin Ismail; Zarehan Selamat; Ong Hway Boon
2004-01-01
The process customers go through in choosing a bank has been studied for several decades using different approaches. Understanding the needs and analyzing how the customers select their banks are crucial steps towards the improvement of customer satisfaction. In this study, an attempt is made to identify the determinants of bank selection and customers’ perception of banks in Malaysia.
Metamorphosis of Banking Products - A Perception of Bank Employees
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Harshita B
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Banking products are undergoing major changes due to extensive use of it and changing demands of the customers in current scenario. This study basically focuses on the changes came into banking industry and its impact on customers base and bank profits. Data is collected from 50 employees of both private and public sector banks with the help of questionnaire. Hence we can conclude that all banks are providing almost similar products and services to satisfy their customers fully. The continous metamorphsis of banking products not only results in improvement of customer base but also has positive impact on the profits of the bank. Private sector banks are earning more profits as a result of metamorphosis of traditional banking products in comparison to public sector bank.
Sensitivity of Czech Commercial Banks to a Run on Banks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Klepková Vodová Pavla
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to thoroughly evaluate the sensitivity of Czech commercial banks to a run on banks. Our sample includes a significant part of the Czech banking sector in the period 2006-2013. We use three liquidity ratios that we stress via a stress scenario simulating a run on banks accompanied by a 20% withdrawal rate of deposits.We measure the impact of the scenario by the relative changes of these ratios. The results show that, in spite of a decrease in liquidity, most Czech banks would be able to finance such a scenario. The financial crisis influenced bank sensitivity to a run, but with a significant time lag. The severity of the impact of the bank run increases with the size of the bank; large banks are the most vulnerable. The resilience of banks is also determined by their strategy for liquidity risk management.
FIR Detectors/Cameras Based on GaN and Si Field-Effect Devices Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SETI proposes to develop GaN and Si based multicolor FIR/THz cameras with detector elements and readout, signal processing electronics integrated on a single chip....
Balsam Woolly Adelgid Survey on Balsam Fir Stand in Central Tract 2002
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On August 14, 2002, Emily Grafton and Dawn Washington surveyed the balsam fir stand in the central tract, off of Delta 13 trail, near the Little Blackwater and Glade...
A mitigation bank is an aquatic resource area that has been restored, established, enhanced, or preserved for the purpose of providing compensation for unavoidable impacts to aquatic resources permitted under Section 404
Assessing efficiency in banking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Knežević Snežana
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The paper is an attempt to assess the productivity and efficiency on the basis of the information found in financial statements and operating evidence, as well as implementation of the DEA method. The definition of both input and output in banking is absolutely clear, however, an adequate analysis of efficiency in banking requires that the right combinations of input and output be selected Every company has its own principles to implement in its operations. One of the most important is surely the efficiency principle. Relevant academic literature offers various combinations of input and output in testing bank efficiency. The developing countries will find it highly important to monitor bank efficiency and compare it to the countries in the region.