Sample records for fir abies nordmanniana

  1. Cytokinin profiles in the conifer tree Abies nordmanniana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hanne Nina; Veierskov, Bjarke; Hansen-Møller, Jens


    in the crown and root system were sampled destructively in 4- and 6-year-old trees and analyzed for a range of cytokinins by LC-MS/MS. No seasonal patterns were detected in the root samples, and a major portion of cytokinin was in conjugated forms. Dramatic and consistent seasonal changes occurred in the crown......Abstract  Conifer trees are routinely manipulated hormonally to increase flowering, branching, or adjust crown shape for production purposes. This survey of internal cytokinin levels provides a background for such treatments in Abies nordmanniana, a tree of great economic interest. Reference points...

  2. Dreyfusia nordmannianae in Northern and Central Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans Peter; Havill, N.P.; Akbulut, S.


    The silver fir woolly adelgid, Dreyfusia nordmannianae, is the most severe pest occurring on Abies nordmanniana in Central and Northern Europe. The adelgid is particularly damaging to trees in Christmas tree plantations. Dreyfusia nordmannianae is native to the Caucasus region and alien to Europe...... were examined for phylogenetic structure. There was no evidence of differentiation, suggesting that these Dreyfusia species have recently diverged or require taxonomic revision. All existing published and unpublished reports on natural enemies of D. nordmannianae in its place of origin were reviewed...


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    Zafer Cemal Özkan


    Full Text Available Abies nordmanniana (Stev. Spach. subsp. nordmanniana Dogu Karadeniz Bölgesi için olduğu kadar Türkiye için de önemli bir orman ağacıdır. Çalışmanın amacı; Doğu Karadeniz Göknarı ağaçlarının yıllık büyüme ve değişimleri araştırıp, incelemek ve yıllık halkalardan yararlanarak Örümcek Bölgesi Ormanlarında göknar için ortalama yıllık halka eğrisi ve standart kronoloji hazırlamaktır. Aynı zamanda yörenin eteorolojik verileri de kullanılarak geçmiş yılların iklimi hakkında bilgi edinebilmek amacıyla yapılacak olan dendroklimatoloji çalışmalarına esas oluşturacaktır. Araştırma alanı Karadeniz Bölgesinin, Doğu Karadeniz Bölümünde yer almakta, Gümüşhane ili, Kürtün ilçesi sınırları içerisinde kalmaktadır. Toplam 6 ağaçtan 12 kalem alınmıştır ve elde edilen kalemlerdeki yıllık halka genişliklerinin ölçümünde 0.01 mm. duyarlı Zeiss Winkel aleti kullanılmıştır. Yıllık halka eğrilerinin elde edilmesinde ; 1 Yıllık Halkaların Yarı Logaritmik Olarak Gösterilmesi, 2 Yıllık Halkalardan Elde Edilen İndislerin Bir Grafikle Gösterilmesi (Standardizasyon yöntemleri kullanılmıştır. İndis değerlerinin bulunmasında ise It=Wt/Yt eşitliğinden yararlanılmıştır. Çalışma 1729 –2003 yıllarını kapsamaktadır.

  4. Silvical characteristics of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) (United States)

    Arthur C. Hart


    Balsam fir takes its name from the Latin word for balm. Some people know the tree as the Balm-of-Gilead fir. It has also been called the blister fir, because of the bark blisters that yield Canada balsam, a resin that is used for, among other things, mounting microscope slides. The needles of balsam fir have a spicy aroma that Donald Culross Peattie has called "...

  5. Wood anatomical relationships within Abies spp. from the Mediterranean area: a phyletic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, L. G.; Palacios, P. de; Garcia Fernandez, F.; Martin, J. A.


    An analysis was made of the wood anatomy of seven species, one subspecies and two varieties of the genus Abies from the Mediterranean area (A. alba, A. borisii-regis, A. cephalonica, A. cilicica, A. nordmanniana, A. nordmanniana subsp. equi-trojani, A. numidica, A. pinsapo, A. pinsapo var. marocana and A. pinsapo var. tazaotana) in order to find phyletically relevant features to help clarify and complement the evolutionary patterns based on molecular studies. The wood structure within the genus was qualitatively similar, except for specific features characteristic of certain provenances. However, the wood biometry allowed the different taxa to be grouped in accordance with their anatomical similarity. A. alba, A. pinsapo, A. pinsapo var. marocana and A. pinsapo var. tazaotana possess biometric features which distinguish them from the other Mediterranean firs. Furthermore, A. numidica showed biometric features which distinguish it from the eastern firs (A. borisii-regis, A. cephalonica, A. cilicica, A. nordmanniana and A. nordmanniana subsp. equi-trojani) and place it closer to certain Iberian populations of A. pinsapo. The maximum ray height in number of cells, frequency of rays with more than 30 cells and tracheid length can be regarded as specific patterns of the Mediterranean fir phylum. (Author) 72 refs.

  6. Epicuticular wax on stomata of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mili.)


    Tomislav Bačić; Ljiljana Krstin; Jadranka Roša; Željko Popović


    Condition of epistomatal wax on the abaxial surface of the current and previous-year needles of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mill.), both from the polluted Risnjak and "clean" Donja Dobra sites in Gorski Kotar region, both influenced by pollutants coming from Europe, during two years, three times a year, were examined with Scanning Electron Microscope. In the course of time the wax tubules on the epistomatal rims of stomata in polluted, but also in "clean" needles surface, become fuse...

  7. Age-class differences in shoot photosynthesis and water relations of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri), southern Appalachian Mountains, USA (United States)

    Keith Reinhardt; Daniel M. Johnson; William K. Smith


    Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.) is an endemic tree species found only in refugial mountain-top forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Very few studies have investigated the ecophysiology of this species in its natural environment. We measured and compared photosynthetic gas exchange and water relations of understory germinant...



    ÖZKAZANÇ, Nuri Kaan; MADEN, Salih


    This study was carried out to determine fungal diseases of pines and firs observed on the shoots and the stems in the Western Blacksea Region (Karabük, Ulus and Bartın State Forest Enterprises) between the years of 2001–2004. Five different fungi were determined on pines (Pinus sp.) and firs (Abies sp.) by this study. Melampsora pinitorqua and Cronartium flaccidum which cause rust diseases were determined only on pines. Sphaeropsis sapinea and Gremmeniella abietina were determined on pines an...

  9. Epicuticular wax on stomata of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mili.

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    Tomislav Bačić


    Full Text Available Condition of epistomatal wax on the abaxial surface of the current and previous-year needles of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mill., both from the polluted Risnjak and "clean" Donja Dobra sites in Gorski Kotar region, both influenced by pollutants coming from Europe, during two years, three times a year, were examined with Scanning Electron Microscope. In the course of time the wax tubules on the epistomatal rims of stomata in polluted, but also in "clean" needles surface, become fused and agglomerated rapidly to various extents of morphologically different types of amorphous wax crusts, primarily compact and particulate ones. This process begins very early, especially in polluted Risnjak site, and may be interpreted as a possible result of air pollution. However, the recrystalization, or production of new tubules, also appears relatively quickly in mostly cases. Quantitative estimations indicate a very large total amount of amorphous wax crusts in the current-year needles, and a very high percentage of the same wax in previous-year needles. Amorphous wax crusts cover stomatal pores, as well as the rims, disturbing the normal gas exchange. Statistically there is a signicant tendency of increase in wax degradation in the needles of the polluted site in comparison with those of the unpolluted one, but there is an insignificant wax degradation among the needles of damaged trees within each site. These results confirmed most of the research done in our preliminary report.

  10. Regulation of Water Use in the Southernmost European Fir (Abies pinsapo Boiss.: Drought Avoidance Matters

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    Raúl Sánchez-Salguero


    Full Text Available The current scenario of global warming has resulted in considerable uncertainty regarding the capacity of forest trees to adapt to increasing drought. Detailed ecophysiological knowledge would provide a basis to forecast expected species dynamics in response to climate change. Here, we compare the water balance (stomatal conductance, xylem water potential, needle osmotic adjustment of Abies pinsapo, a relict drought-sensitive Mediterranean fir, along an altitudinal gradient. We related these variables to soil water and nutrient availability, air temperature, atmospheric water potential, and vapour pressure deficit during two consecutive years. Our results indicate that A. pinsapo closed stomata rapidly over a very narrow range of soil water availability and atmospheric dryness. This isohydric response during water stress suggests that this relict conifer relied on the plant hormone abscisic acid to maintain closed stomata during sustained drought, instead of needle desiccation to passively drive stomatal closure, needle osmotic adjustment or a plastic response of the xylem to different levels of water availability. Both the soil and foliar nutrient contents suggest that the studied populations are not limited by nutrient deficiencies, and drought was stronger in the warmer low-elevation areas.

  11. Regeneration of Silver fir (Abies Alba Mill. on Clear-cut Areas

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    Petr Vaněk


    Full Text Available The paper evaluates the growth of Silver fir plantations on clear-cut areas in the regime of different sheltering and mixing with the European larch. The experiment was carried out on a permanent research plot where Silver fir was planted on an unsheltered open space, on an open space sheltered by the gradually overgrowing European larch, alternating in rows and mixed within the row with the gradually overgrowing European larch. It was also planted in a SW corner of the clear-cut area sheltered on two sides by a mature spruce stand. Results of measurements demonstrated that the conditions of the unsheltered clear-cut area or only partly sheltered clear-cut area have no principal adverse influence on the growth of Silver fir. However, a considerably higher mortality, more severe frost injury and impaired vitality of plants were observed. The most suitable option for the regeneration of Silver fir on a clear-cut area, i.e. the option in which Silver fir individuals would exhibit good growth, low mortality, low frost injury and high vitality (needle length and colour appeared to be the plantation of Silver fir in mixed rows with the European larch (N-S direction of rows, where the larch starts to overgrow the fir very rapidly, thus providing the necessary shelter. Pure fir groups are then recommended to be planted in marginal stand parts that are sheltered for a greater part of the day by the surrounding stand.

  12. Variability of silver fir (Abies alba Mill. progeny from the Tisovik Reserve expressed in needle traits and chloroplast microsatellite DNA

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    Pawlaczyk Ewa M.


    Full Text Available Progeny from nineteen family lines of silver fir (Abies alba Mill. from the Tisovik Reserve growing in an experimental plot were analyzed based on 4 chloroplast microsatellite DNA loci and 12 morphological and anatomical needle traits. The Tisovik Reserve is located in Białowieża Primeval Forest, 120 km north of the natural range limit of this species, and embraces a small and isolated natural population of silver fir. The aim of this study was to determine genetic variation within and between progeny lines. Analysis of phenotypic variation showed that the traits which differed most among individuals were the needle width and the distance from resin canals to vascular bundle. Those traits, which differed most between the progeny lines, were the number of endodermic cells around the vascular bund and the weight of hypodermic cells. In Tisovik progeny, we detected 107 different haplotypes. In progeny lines, we detected more haplotypes than in maternal trees, and most haplotypes did not exist in maternal trees. This may be the result of pollen influx from other silver fir stands. Progeny from Tisovik showed a higher level of variability in comparison with maternal trees.

  13. Volatile Profile of Croatian Lime Tree (Tilia sp., Fir Honeydew (Abies alba and Sage (Salvia officinalis Honey

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    Olivera Koprivnjak


    Full Text Available Volatile profiles of lime tree (Tilia sp., fir honeydew (Abies alba and sage (Salvia officinalis honey produced in Croatia have been studied by using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Melissopalynological and sensory characterization have been performed in order to check the reliability of botanical origin of the samples. In case of sage honey, sensory characteristics are reported for the first time and are rather uniform including: colour characterized as beige to jade, depending on the consistency; odour characterized as between light and medium intensity, slightly pungent and wooden; taste characterized as low sweetness, expressive acidity and apple caramel, with persistent fruity aftertaste. Characteristic volatile profiles of the analyzed honeys are described. Taking into consideration similarities with lime and fir honey volatile profiles reported in literature, characteristic volatile compounds resulting from qualitative data evaluation are proposed. Sage honey volatile profile has been reported for the first time and it was found quite different compared to the other studied honeys showing the lowest number of peaks among the studied honeys, 34. Several compounds belonging to the sage honey volatile profile have been identified for the first time in honeys. They include tetrahydro-2,2,5,5-tetramethylfuran, 3-hexenyl ester of butanoic acid, 2-methylbenzene, maltol, methyl ester of 3-furanocarboxylic acid and benzeneacetic acid. Based on the obtained results and with the lack of comparative literature data, they are proposed as characteristic volatiles for the volatile pattern of sage honey.

  14. Allozyme variation and possible phylogenetic implications in Abies cephalonica Loudon and some related eastern Mediterranean firs (United States)

    B. Fady; M. T. Conkle


    A total of 22 loci were assayed in several populations of Abies cephalonica, A. borisii regis, A. bornmuelleriana and A. alba using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. Within and between-population diversity were analyzed as well as between-species diversity. Mean expected heterozygosity was...

  15. Fir dwarf mistletoe (FIDL). (United States)

    Gregory M. Filip; Jerome S. Beatty; Robert L. Mathiasen


    Fir dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium abietinum Engelmann ex Munz) is a common and damaging parasite of white fir (Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr.), grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.), and California red fir (A. magnifica A. Murr.) in the western...

  16. Increasing Aridity is Enhancing Silver Fir (Abies Alba Mill). Water Stress in its South-Western Distribution Limit

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    Macias, M. [Department of Geology, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Haellstroeminkatu 2, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Andreu, L.; Bosch, O.; Gutierrez, E. [Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avgda. Diagonal, 645, Barcelona, 08028, Catalonia (Spain); Camarero, J.J. [Unidad de Recursos Forestales, Centro de Investigacion Agroalimentaria, Gobierno de Aragon, Apdo. 727, Zaragoza, 50080, Aragon (Spain)


    Tree populations located at the geographical distribution limit of the species may provide valuable information about the response of tree growth to climate warming across climatic gradients. Dendroclimatic information was extracted from a network of 10 silver-fir (Abies alba) populations in the south-western distribution limit of the species (Pyrenees, NE Iberian Peninsula). Ring-width chronologies were built for five stands sampled in mesic sites from the Main Range in the Pyrenees, and for five forests located in the southern Peripheral Ranges where summer drought is more pronounced. The radial growth of silver-fir in this region is constrained by water stress during the summer previous to growth, as suggested by the negative relationship with previous September temperature and, to a lesser degree, by a positive relationship with previous end of summer precipitation. Climatic data showed a warming trend since the 1970s across the Pyrenees, with more severe summer droughts. The recent warming changed the climate-growth relationships, causing higher growth synchrony among sites, and a higher year-to-year growth variation, especially in the southernmost forests. Moving-interval response functions suggested an increasing water-stress effect on radial growth during the last half of the 20th century. The growth period under water stress has extended from summer up to early autumn. Forests located in the southern Peripheral Ranges experienced a more intense water stress, as seen in a shift of their response to precipitation and temperature. The Main-Range sites mainly showed a response to warming. The intensification of water-stress during the late 20th century might affect the future growth performance of the highly-fragmented A. alba populations in the southwestern distribution limit of the species.

  17. Variability of silver fir (Abies alba Mill. cones – variability of cone parameters

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    Aniszewska Monika


    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the shape of closed silver fir cones from the Jawor Forest District (Wroclaw, based purely on measurements of their length and thickness. Using these two parameters, the most accurate estimations were achieved with a fourth-degree polynomial fitting function. We then calculated the cones’ surface area and volume in three different ways: 1 Using the fourth-degree polynomial shape estimation, 2 Introducing indicators of compliance (k1, k2, k3 to calculate the volume and then comparing it to its actual value as measured in a pitcher filled with water, 3 Comparing the surface area of the cones as calculated with the polynomial function to the value obtained from ratios of indicators of compliance (ratios k4 and k5. We found that the calculated surface area and volume were substantially higher than the corresponding measured values. Test values of cone volume and surface area as calculated by our model were 8% and 5% lower, respectively, compared to direct measurements. We also determined the fir cones apparent density to be 0.8 g·cm-3on average. The gathered data on cone surface area, volume and bulk density is a valuable tool for optimizing the thermal peeling process in mill cabinets to acquire high quality seeds.

  18. Climatic correlations in the stable isotope records of silver fir (Abies pindrow) trees from Kashmir, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, R.; Bhattacharya, S.K.; Gopalan, K.


    A high degree of coherence in the annual stable isotopic records along different radial directions of a silver fir tree and between two members of this species from the Kashmir Valley has recently been reported by us. Since such a common pattern of isotopic variability is most likely due to the climatic fluctuations in the site, we have compared the mean δD, δ 13 C and δ 18 O records of these trees with instrumentally measured climatic parameters recorded in a nearby weather station to identify the climatic parameters predominantly influencing the isotopic record. A multiple regression analysis of the two records for the period 1903-1932 yields the following: δD is most sensitive to the amount of growing season precipitation, followed by mean maximum temperature. Tree cellulose shows an amount effect analogous to precipitation samples. The temperature coefficient for δD is in good agreement with earlier estimates based on spatial correlations. δ 13 C is significantly related to humidity and cloud amount. The signs of the regression coefficients are consistent with the recent model of Francey and Farquhar for 13 C/ 12 C fractionation in C 3 plants. δ 18 O of cellulose appears to be controlled significantly by relative humidity. δ 18 O shows less overall correlation with climatic parameters than δD and δ 13 C. δD of carbon bound hydrogen and δ 18 O of tree cellulose are linearly related with a slope of 7.9±0.3, suggesting evaporative enrichment in leaf water. (orig.)

  19. Comparison of the Diversity of Basidiomycetes from Dead Wood of the Manchurian fir (Abies holophylla) as Evaluated by Fruiting Body Collection, Mycelial Isolation, and 454 Sequencing. (United States)

    Jang, Yeongseon; Jang, Seokyoon; Min, Mihee; Hong, Joo-Hyun; Lee, Hanbyul; Lee, Hwanhwi; Lim, Young Woon; Kim, Jae-Jin


    In this study, three different methods (fruiting body collection, mycelial isolation, and 454 sequencing) were implemented to determine the diversity of wood-inhabiting basidiomycetes from dead Manchurian fir (Abies holophylla). The three methods recovered similar species richness (26 species from fruiting bodies, 32 species from mycelia, and 32 species from 454 sequencing), but Fisher's alpha, Shannon-Wiener, Simpson's diversity indices of fungal communities indicated fruiting body collection and mycelial isolation displayed higher diversity compared with 454 sequencing. In total, 75 wood-inhabiting basidiomycetes were detected. The most frequently observed species were Heterobasidion orientale (fruiting body collection), Bjerkandera adusta (mycelial isolation), and Trichaptum fusco-violaceum (454 sequencing). Only two species, Hymenochaete yasudae and Hypochnicium karstenii, were detected by all three methods. This result indicated that Manchurian fir harbors a diverse basidiomycetous fungal community and for complete estimation of fungal diversity, multiple methods should be used. Further studies are required to understand their ecology in the context of forest ecosystems.

  20. Mistletoe lectin is not the only cytotoxic component in fermented preparations of Viscum album from white fir (Abies pectinata

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    Ramos Mac


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preparations of mistletoe (Viscum album are the form of cancer treatment that is most frequently used in the complementary medicine. Previous work has shown that these preparations are able to exert cytotoxic effects on carcinoma cells, the extent of which might be influenced by the host tree species and by the content of mistletoe lectin. Methods Using colorimetric assays, we have now compared the cytotoxic effects of Viscum album preparations (VAPs obtained from mistletoe growing on oak (Quercus robur and Q. petraea, VAP-Qu, apple tree (Malus domestica,, VAP-M, pine (Pinus sylvestris, VAP-P or white fir (Abies pectinata, VAP-A, on the in vitro growth of breast and bladder carcinoma cell lines. While MFM-223, KPL-1, MCF-7 and HCC-1937 were the breast carcinoma cell lines chosen, the panel of tested bladder carcinoma cells comprised the T-24, TCC-SUP, UM-UC-3 and J-82 cell lines. Results Each of the VAPs inhibited cell growth, but the extent of this inhibition differed with the preparation and with the cell line. The concentrations of VAP-Qu, VAP-M and VAP-A which led to a 50 % reduction of cell growth (IC50 varied between 0.6 and 0.03 mg/ml. Higher concentrations of VAP-P were required to obtain a comparable effect. Purified mistletoe lectin I (MLI led to an inhibition of breast carcinoma cell growth at concentrations lower than those of VAPs, but the sensitivity towards purified MLI did not parallel that towards VAPs. Bladder carcinoma cells were in most cases more sensitive to VAPs treatment than breast carcinoma cells. The total mistletoe lectin content was very high in VAP-Qu (54 ng/mg extract, intermediate in VAP-M (25 ng/mg extract, and very low in VAP-P (1.3 ng/mg extract and in VAP-A (1 ng/mg extract. As to be expected from the low content of mistletoe lectin, VAP-P led to relatively weak cytotoxic effects. Most remarkably, however, the lectin-poor VAP-A revealed a cytotoxic effect comparable to, or even stronger

  1. Nuclear Microsatellite Primers for the Endangered Relict Fir, Abies pinsapo (Pinaceae and Cross-Amplification in Related Mediterranean Species

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    Laura Navarro-Sampedro


    Full Text Available Twelve nuclear microsatellite primers (nSSR were developed for the endangered species Abies pinsapo Boiss. to enable the study of gene flow and genetic structure in the remaining distribution areas. Microsatellite primers were developed using next-generation sequencing (454 data from a single Abies pinsapo individual. Primers were applied to thirty individuals from the three extant localities. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to four. Cross-amplification was tested for other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin, and most of the loci showed higher polymorphisms in the Mediterranean species than in A. pinsapo. These microsatellite markers provide tools for conservation genetic studies in Abies pinsapo as well other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin.

  2. A comparison of postburn woodpecker foraging use of white fir (Abies concolor) and Jeffrey Pine (Pinus jeffreyi) (United States)

    Kerry L. Farris; Steve Zack


    We examined the temporal patterns of the structural decay, insect infestation and woodpecker foraging patterns on white-fir and yellow pine following a prescribed burn in Lassen National Park, CA. Our objectives were to: 1) describe how pine and fir differ in their decay patterns and insect activity, and 2) determine how these differences reflect woodpecker foraging...

  3. Cisovka - the relic population of Abies alba and its relationship to man-made silver-fir stands in Białowieża primeval forest

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    Leon Mejnartowicz


    Full Text Available In Białowieża Primeval Forest, in 1823 Stanisław Górski discovered on the Cisovka Hag, a relic population of European silver-fir (Abies alba Mill.. This population is isolated and most away, 120 km to the North-East, from the border of European-silver-fir distribution. Besides the natural population Cisovka, there are also man-made silver fir stands and clumps in the Polish and Belorussian part of Białowieża Primeval Forest. In the Polish part there are four such artificial stands. If the seed-producing silver-fir stands really originated from the Cisovka population, then they are a very valuable part of the declining population and an easy accessible seed source. However, if these populations were introduced to the Białowieża Primeval Forest, then they are a potential source of dangerous genetic pollution of the Cisovka population. The relationship of the genetic structure of the Cisovka population to man-made silver-fir-stands in Białowieża Forest was investigated with the help of 17 loci of 1 1 enzyme systems. Genetic diversity of Cisovka population is characterized by the smallest mean number of alleles per locus (Mal= 1.353, includes all loci studied and per polimorphic locus Malp = 2.00. In Cisovka population there is very low-grade of polimorphic loci (Pp = 11.765 with the mean 37.255 for all studied populations. Expected heterozygosity, He = 0.079 revealed very low-grade of genetic diversity in the population. The observed heterozygosity (Ho = 0.123 was similar to this characterictic in other populations. A dendrogram based on Neis genetic distance coefficient (D among 9 silver-fir populations was constructed. Cisovka in the UPGMA dendrogram is a distinct population separated from other ones by a very great genetic distance (D = 0.06. Also two man-made silver-fir (B I and 132 stands are separated from others. Only populations B3 and B4 are combined into one subgroup linked to the population Tomaszów Lubelski. Basing on the

  4. Evaluation of a New Temporary Immersion Bioreactor System for Micropropagation of Cultivars of Eucalyptus, Birch and Fir

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    Edward Businge


    Full Text Available The use of liquid instead of solid culture medium for the micropropagation of plants offers advantages such as better access to medium components and scalability through possible automation of the processes. The objective of this work was to compare a new temporary immersion bioreactor (TIB to solid medium culture for the micropropagation of a selection of tree species micropropagated for commercial use: Nordmann fir (Abies nordmanniana (Steven Spach, Eucalyptus (E. grandis x E. urophylla, Downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh, and Curly birch (Betula pendula var. carelica. Cultivation of explants in the TIB resulted in a significant increase of multiplication rate and fresh weight of Eucalyptus and B. pendula, but not Betula pubescens. In addition, the fresh weight of embryogenic tissue and the maturation frequency of somatic embryos increased significantly when an embryogenic cell line of A. nordmanniana was cultivated in the TIB compared to solid culture medium. These results demonstrate the potential for scaling up and automating micropropagation by shoot multiplication and somatic embryogenesis in commercial tree species using a temporary immersion bioreactor.

  5. Metabolite changes in conifer buds and needles during forced bud break in Norway spruce (Picea abies and European silver fir (Abies alba

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    Priyanka eDhuli


    Full Text Available Environmental changes such as early spring and warm spells induce bud burst and photosynthetic processes in cold-acclimated coniferous trees and consequently, cellular metabolism in overwintering needles and buds. The purpose of the study was to examine metabolism in conifers under forced deacclimation (artificially induced spring by exposing shoots of Picea abies (boreal species and Abies alba (temperate species to a greenhouse environment (22°C, 16/8 h D/N cycle over a nine week period. Each week, we scored bud opening and collected samples for GC/MS–based metabolite profiling. We detected a total of 169 assigned metabolites and 80 identified metabolites, comprising compounds such as mono- and disaccharides, Krebs cycle acids, amino acids, polyols, phenolics and phosphorylated structures. Untargeted multivariate statistical analysis based on PCA and cluster analysis segregated samples by species, tissue type, and stage of tissue deacclimations. Similar patterns of metabolic regulation in both species were observed in buds (amino acids, Krebs cycle acids and needles (hexoses, pentoses, and Krebs cycle acids. Based on correlation of bud opening score with compound levels, distinct metabolites could be associated with bud and shoot development, including amino acids, sugars and acids with known osmolyte function, and secondary metabolites. This study has shed light on how elevated temperature affects metabolism in buds and needles of conifer species during the deacclimation phase, and contributes to the discussion about how phenological characters in conifers may respond to future global warming.

  6. Survey of Trojan fir seed orchard in Edremit-Gurgendag Region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abies nordmanniana ssp. Equitrojani, with a limited distribution in Northwestern Anatolia (Kazdaglari Mountain ranges), is one of the four Abies taxa naturally grown in Turkey. Regeneration problems are caused when establishing seed orchards for this important conifer. Seed and cone pests are the main problems ...

  7. Population differentiation in tree-ring growth response of white fir (Abies concolor) to climate: Implications for predicting forest responses to climate change

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    Jensen, Deborah Bowne [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Forest succession models and correlative models have predicted 200--650 kilometer shifts in the geographic range of temperate forests and forest species as one response to global climate change. Few studies have investigated whether population differences may effect the response of forest species to climate change. This study examines differences in tree-ring growth, and in the phenotypic plasticity of tree-ring growth in 16-year old white fir, Abies concolor, from ten populations grown in four common gardens in the Sierra Nevada of California. For each population, tree-ring growth was modelled as a function of precipitation and degree-day sums. Tree-ring growth under three scenarios of doubled CO2 climates was estimated.

  8. Growth of silver fir (Abies alba Mill. on originally agricultural land in the region of the White Carpathians

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    Jaroslav Simon


    Full Text Available At the Ploščiny-Triangl locality belonging to the northernmost part of the CHKO Bílé Karpaty (Protected Landscape Area White Carpathians, altitude 739 m, typological unit – Nutrient Rich Fir-Beech Forest, comparative analysis was carried out of selected biometrical quantities of the time series of stands originated on former agricultural land and stands originated by the alternation of forest generations. On the basis of examinations it is possible to formulate following conclusions: - the height increment culmination occurs at stands originated on former agricultural land earlier, viz. at an age of about 20 years;- on the other hand, the culmination of volume increment related to a mean stem occurs later, at current increment at an age of 80 years, at a mean increment at an age of 140 years;- the growth curve of a mean stand height of both variants is analogical up to an age of about 20–25 years, further values of stands established on former agricultural land are lower approaching an asymptote of 30 m;- stands of both variants do not show symptoms of rot or other damage to the reference period of about 150 years.As for the current condition of natural regeneration of silver fir and succession distribution on unused agricultural land it is possible to state that it is considerably reduced on the basis of intensive pressure of particularly red deer.

  9. Species effect on the water use efficiency of a mixed forest of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Belgium Ardennes. (United States)

    Soubie, Rémy; Heinesch, Bernard; Aubinet, Marc; Vincke, Caroline


    Induced by climate change, intensity and frequency of droughts should be more important for the next century. How does water availability affect the physiology of woody plants at the species and stand scale? Carbon and water vapour fluxes measurements of a mixed forest (deciduous and coniferous) were performed for over ten years by the eddy covariance method in Belgian Ardennes (Aubinet et al, 2001) as a part of the CarboEurope project. Whereas carbon fluxes have been analyzed in detailed and good estimations of the Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) and Gross Primary Production (GPP) were obtained, a thorough analysis of water vapour fluxes remains to be done. Improving analysis of water vapour fluxes and monitoring species transpiration will contribute to the estimation of the water use efficiency, WUE, at both the species and stand scale. The WUE well characterizes the vegetation productivity and ecosystem response to environmental factors. It also allows evaluating the sensitivity of temperate woody species to drought. The species concerned are beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). Since summer 2009 we monitor and analyze each species water use by measuring sap flow with the thermal dissipation method (Granier, 1987). Results at the species level will then be upscaled and compared to stand water vapour fluxes measurements obtained by the eddy covariance methodology. Transpiration of each species will be analyzed in relation with their own phenological and ecophysiological attributes, ecosystem soil and atmospheric conditions, to clarify among others their behaviour in case of water deficit. Data are actually analysed, the presented results will concern the 2009, and a part of 2010 growing season.

  10. Changes in the contents of nitrogen fractions with loosing vital capacity of the Siberian fir Abies sibirica Ledeb. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Prokushkin


    Full Text Available Siberian fir seeds often lose their germinating capacity during storage. This results from, among other factors, changing contents of nitrogen compounds in the seeds, especially those of protein fractions. This paper focuses on analyzing changes of these compounds in nonviable seeds of the species depending on ecological and conditions and stand location, as well as on tree growth class (Kraft growth classes I and IV. The contents of the total and protein nitrogen in the nonviable seeds of the trees of growth classes I and IV appeared to vary widely and to depend on stand location and seed location in the tree crown. The maximum contents were in the seeds located in the upper part of the crown. The seeds from the middle and lower crown parts contained much less total and protein nitrogen. The hard-to-solve protein fraction dominated over other protein fraction in the seeds from the upper part of the crowns of the trees of growth classes I and IV. However, this fraction, like prolamines, changed uniformly throughout the crowns, whereas seed glutelin content varied insignificantly among the crown parts. Albumins and globulins showed a uniform crown top-to-bottom decrease. A comparison of viable seed with unviable seeds for contents of the nitrogen forms revealed a marked decrease in the total and protein nitrogen in the latter, especially for the trees of growth class IV. The seeds that lost their germinating capacity exhibited increasingly hard-to-solve protein fraction and drastically decreasing albumins and globulins wherever the seeds were in the crown. Their glutelin and prolamine contents changed inconsiderably.The changes of the quantitative ratio between the protein fractions found by the study cause, along with other physiological and biochemical factors, the loss of viability of Siberian fir seeds during storage.

  11. Identifying Subalpine Fir (Abies lasiocarpa Attacked by the Balsam Woolly Adelgid (Adelges piceae Using Spectral Measurements of the Foliage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Cook


    Full Text Available Balsam woolly adelgid is an invasive pest of firs in the United States. Aerial surveys are conducted for detection of adelgid infestations but other remotely sensed data may also be useful. Our objective was to determine if high spectral resolution, branch-level data can be used to distinguish infested from noninfested trees. Stepwise discriminant analysis yielded a three-variable model (the red-green index and two narrow-bands (one at 670 nm and the other at 1912 nm that classified infested versus non-infested trees with 94% accuracy compared with the 83% accuracy obtained with a single-variable model. The response of trees in narrow spectral bands was integrated across wavebands to simulate measurements from the multispectral SPOT5-HRVIR sensor. Stepwise discriminant analysis again yielded a three-variable model (simple ratio, the SPOT5-HRVIR band in the SWIR region and NDVI with similar accuracy (93% at discriminating infested from non-infested trees compared with the 83% accuracy obtained with a single-variable model.

  12. Differential susceptibility of white fir provenances to the fir engraver and its fungal symbiont in northern California (United States)

    G.T. Ferrell; W.J. Otrosina


    The fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis LeC., attacks white fir, Abies concolor (Gord. and Glend.) Lindl., and other true firs, Abies spp., in western North America. The biology, attack behavior, and ecology of this bark beetle were recently summarized by Berryman and Ferrell (1988). During the summer flight season, the attacking beetles bore into the cambial zone of...

  13. Decay of subalpine fir in Colorado (United States)

    Thomas E. Hinds; Frank G. Hawksworth; Ross W. Davidson


    Spruce-fir is one of the major forest types in the central Rocky Mountains. Engelmann spruce, Picea engelmanni Parry, is usually the predominant species with subalpine fir, Abies lasiocarpa (Hook. ) Nutt., making up one-fourth or less of the total volume. Lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud., is frequently present at the lower elevations of the spruce-fir...

  14. Rapid warming forces contrasting growth trends of subalpine fir ( Abies fabri ) at higher- and lower-elevations in the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenzhi; Jia, Min; Wang, Genxu; Zhu, Wanze; McDowell, Nate G.


    Tree radial growth is expected to increase at higher elevations under climate warming, while lower elevation tree growth is expected to decline. However, numerous studies have found tree radial growth responds consistently to climate along elevational gradients. Here, we sampled five plots across the subalpine Abies fabri forest belt on Gongga Mountain in the eastern Tibetan Plateau to determine tree radial growth trends and responses to climate. Three commonly used detrending methods all consistently showed that tree radial growth at high elevation (> 3100 m) increased, while tree growth declined at the lower elevations (2700 m–2900 m) over the last three decades. Increasing late-growing season temperature positively (p < 0.05) correlated to tree radial growth at higher elevations, but the sign of this relationship reversed to become negative at lower elevations. Moving-window correlation analyses indicated the difference between high and low elevations response to temperature variation increased strongly with warming. Placing our result into the global context, 62% of 39 published studies found that trees along elevation gradients respond divergently to warming, and that these are located in warmer and wetter regions of the Earth. Notably, 28% of studies found non-significant responses to temperature at both high and low elevations. Our findings in the subalpine mountain forest in the eastern Tibetan Plateau were consistent with the majority of published datasets, and imply increasing temperature benefit for tree populations at higher elevation, while warming dampens growth at lower elevations.

  15. Resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi in the Genus Abies (United States)

    John Frampton; Fikret Isik; Mike Benson; Jaroslav Kobliha; Jan Stjskal


    A major limiting factor for the culture of true firs as Christmas trees is their susceptibility to Oomycete species belonging to the genus Phytophthora. In North Carolina alone, the Fraser fir (Abies fraseri [Pursh] Poir.) Christmas tree industry loses 6 to 7 million dollars annually to root rot primarily caused by ...

  16. Evolutionary history and population genetics of fraser fir and intermediate fir, southern Appalachian endemic conifers imperiled by an exotic pest and climate change (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; John Frampton; Sedley Josserand; C. Dana. Nelson


    Two Abies (true fir) taxa are endemic to high elevations of the Appalachian Mountains, where both are restricted to small populations and are imperiled by the same exotic insect. Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) exists in a handful of island-like populations on mountain ridges in the southern Appalachians of North Carolina, Tennessee and...

  17. Incidence of butt rot in a tree species experiment in northern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronnberg, J; Vollbrecht, G.; Thomsen, Iben Margrete


    The susceptibility to infections by Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. was examined in a 28-year-old tree species experiment in northern Jutland, Denmark. Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), Caucasian fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach), grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl) Lindl.), noble fir (Abies...... trees infected, respectively. Silver fir and Caucasian fir were almost free from infections. Maximum extension of H. annosum rot columns were in Japanese larch (18 dm). Heterobasidion annosum was found to be the most important decay causing fungus. Mating tests assigned all isolated strains of H...

  18. Symptoms associated with inoculation of stems on living Douglas-fir and Grand Fir Trees with Phytophthora ramorum (United States)

    Gary Chastagner; Kathy Riley; Katie Coats; Marianne Elliott; Annie DeBauw; Norm Dart


    To obtain a better understanding of the potential risk of infection and colonization of living Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and grand fir (Abies grandis) stems, the stems on over 150 trees of each species were inoculated at a Christmas tree farm near Los Gatos, California. This study had the following objectives: 1)...

  19. Abies religiosa habitat prediction in climatic change scenarios and implications for monarch butterfly conservation in Mexico (United States)

    Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Pierre Duval; Roberto A. Lindig-Cisneros


    Abies religiosa (HBK) Schl. & Cham. (oyamel fir) is distributed in conifer-dominated mountain forests at high altitudes along the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. This fir is the preferred host for overwintering monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) migratory populations which habitually congregate within a few stands now located inside a Monarch Butterfly Biosphere...

  20. Phoretic mites of three bark beetles (Pityokteines spp.) on silver fir (United States)

    Milan Pernek; Boris Hrasovec; Dinka Matosevic; Ivan Pilas; Thomas Kirisits; John C. Moser


    The species composition and abundance of phoretic mites of the bark beetles Pityokteines curvidens P. spinidens, and P. vorontzowi on Silver fir (Abies alba) were investigated in 2003 at two locations (Trakoscan and Litoric) in Croatia. Stem sections and...

  1. Amenability of European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) to preservative treatment by the full-cell process in longitudinal, tangential, radial and triplex flow pathways on the base of wood drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usta, Ilker [Wood Products Industrial Engineering, Hacettepe University, 06532-Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)


    This paper discusses the effects of wood drying upon treatability (as determined by preservative uptake and gain-in-weight retention) of European silver fir on the two moisture content (MC) levels which were designed to be above and below the fibre saturation point (FSP). The treatability behaviour was investigated for individual flow pathways: longitudinal (L, along the stem), tangential (T, along the growth rings) and radial (R, along the rays), and also for the triplex (t, cumulative of all three directions: all faces left open). As the FSP was observed 32.7%, MC of the experimental samples-for each flow path-nominated to around 50% and 9% by recommended kiln drying schedule using a conventional kiln. The samples were then treated with a 2.5% concentration of commercial Tanalith C of CCA (chromium/copper/arsenic) via a mild schedule of full-cell impregnation process using a model pressure treatment plant. Treatability of European silver fir was noticed in different behaviour in either flow paths before and after drying. According to the experimental results, MC regulate the preservative uptake (as the percentage of void volume filled with preservative, VVF%) along the grain (L) and VVF% was improved by kiln drying process effectively, however, it was seemed to be contradictory across the grain (in both T and R). In the cumulative form (t), treatability-in either above or below the FSP-was appeared to be slightly greater than that for L due to support of the longitudinal flow. Therefore, it could be suggested that wood material which is subjected to be used in constructional purposes has to be initially dried to below the FSP, and - for efficient preservative treatment - it has to be treated with all faces unsealed (free from any pre-coating and/or painting). This shall be more ideal which in turn influences the quality of treated wood allowing better performance in its service life. (author)

  2. Understanding the Physiology of Postharvest Needle Abscission in Balsam Fir


    Lada, Rajasekaran R.; MacDonald, Mason T.


    Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) trees are commonly used as a specialty horticultural species for Christmas trees and associated greenery in eastern Canada and United States. Postharvest needle abscission has always been a problem, but is becoming an even bigger challenge in recent years presumably due to increased autumn temperatures and earlier harvesting practices. An increased understanding of postharvest abscission physiology in balsam fir may benefit the Christmas tree industry while simulta...

  3. Population dynamics of dwarf mistletoe on young true firs in the central Sierra Nevada, California (United States)

    Robert E Scharpf; J. R. Jr. Parmeter


    Young red firs (Abies magnifica A. Murr.) and white firs (A. concolor [Gord. & Glend.] Lindl. ex Hildebr.) on the Stanislaus National Forest, California, were inoculated with seeds of dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium abietinum) for 5 successive years. Only 3 to 4 percent of about 7000 seeds placed on branches...

  4. Dwarf Mistletoe on Red Fir . . . infection and control in understory stands (United States)

    Robert F. Scharpf


    Height and age of understory red fir (Abies magnifica A. Murr.) were related to dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobiilm campylopodum f. abietinum) infection from the surrounding overstory red fir on four National Forests in California. Percentage of trees infected and intensity of infection increased significantly as height of understory...

  5. Dwarf mistletoe in red and white firs in California–23 to 28 years after inoculation (United States)

    John R. Parmeter Jr.; Robert F. Scharpf


    Spread and buildup of dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobium abietinum, was studied on inoculated white fir, Abies concolor, and red fir, A. magnifica, in northern California for 23 to 28 years. At the end of these studies (1986), and in the absence of overstory infection, 13 of 23 trees had dwarf mistletoe populations...

  6. Regeneration of Abies cephalonica Loudon after a Large Fire in Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Raftoyannis


    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Abies cephalonica Loudon (Greek fir is a dominant tree species of the mountainous Greece that forms productive forests. Wildfires in fir forests were not considered a major threat but in recent decades, fir ecosystems in Greece have experienced large crown fires with subsequent ecological and economical losses. Materials and Methods: This study was designed to aid our understanding of Greek fir recovery after fire. In Central Greece, 12 years after a large fire, fir regeneration and site factors were studied in 143 sampling plots located in 10 transects. Results: Fir regeneration density decreased abruptly with distance from the remnant stands and followed the negative exponential curve with decreasing regeneration abundance from the border of the unburned zone. Abiotic factors such as elevation, aspect, slope steepness and ground cover type could not significantly explain any variability in fir regeneration density. Conclusions: Our results showed that distance from a seed source was the most important variable in explaining fir regeneration. Moreover, the density of fir regeneration seemed adequate to provide stocking for a future fir forest.

  7. Some observations on age relationships in spruce-fir regeneration (United States)

    Barton M. Blum


    Measurement of the ages of seedlings of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L) Mill.), red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) 15 years after the first harvest of a two-cut shelterwood operation revealed that very few potential crop-tree seedlings in the sample occurred as advance...

  8. Animal damage to young spruce and fir in Maine (United States)

    Barton M. Blum


    The loss of terminal buds on small balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) and spruce (Picea spp.) trees because of nipping by mammals or birds has increased on the Penobscot Experimental Forest in recent years. The cut stem is smooth and slightly angled; there is no sign of tearing. Unnipped trees grew about 13 percent more than...

  9. Provenance variability in nursery growth of subalpine fir (United States)

    Charlie Cartwright; Cheng Ying


    Subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa [Hook] Nutt.) is a wide-ranging, high-elevation species in the interior of British Columbia. It is commonly harvested for lumber, but replanting of it is limited. Some reticence is based upon wood quality and rate of growth, but there are also seed and nursery culturing difficulties. This study investigated seedling growth traits of 111...

  10. Effects of soil calcium and aluminum on the physiology of balsam fir and red spruce saplings in northern New England (United States)

    Richard L. Boyce; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Joshua M. Halman; Paula F. Murakami


    We examined the influence of calcium (Ca) and aluminum (Al) nutrition on the foliar physiology of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] in northern New England, USA. At the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (NH, USA), spruce and fir saplings were sampled from control, Al-, and Ca-supplemented...

  11. Understanding the physiology of postharvest needle abscission in balsam fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason Thane Macdonald


    Full Text Available Balsam fir (Abies balsamea trees are commonly used as a specialty horticultural species for Christmas trees and associated greenery in eastern Canada and United States. Postharvest needle abscission has always been a problem, but is becoming an even bigger challenge in recent years presumably due to increased autumn temperatures and earlier harvesting practices. An increased understanding of postharvest abscission physiology in balsam fir may benefit the Christmas tree industry while simultaneously advancing our knowledge in senescence and abscission of conifers in general. Our paper describes the dynamics of needle abscission in balsam fir while identifying key factors that modify abscission patterns. Concepts such as genotypic abscission resistance, nutrition, environmental factors, and postharvest changes in water conductance and hormone evolution are discussed as they relate to our understanding of the balsam fir abscission physiology. Our paper ultimately proposes a pathway for needle abscission via ethylene and also suggests other potential alternative pathways based on our current understanding.

  12. Grand Fir Nutrient Management in the Inland Northwestern USA

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    Dennis R. Parent


    Full Text Available Grand fir (Abies grandis (Douglas ex D. Don Lindley is widely distributed in the moist forests of the Inland Northwest. It has high potential productivity, its growth being nearly equal to western white pine, the most productive species in the region. There are large standing volumes of grand fir in the region. Nutritionally, the species has higher foliage cation concentrations than associated conifers, especially potassium (K and calcium (Ca. In contrast, it has lower nitrogen (N foliage concentrations, which creates favorable nutrient balance on N-limited sites. Despite concentration differences, grand fir stores proportionally more nutrients per tree than associated species because of greater crown biomass. Although few fertilization trials have examined grand fir specifically, its response is inferred from its occurrence in many monitored mixed conifer stands. Fertilization trials including grand fir either as a major or minor component show that it has a strong diameter and height growth response ranging from 15% to 50% depending in part on site moisture availability and soil geology. Grand fir tends to have a longer response duration than other inland conifers. When executed concurrently with thinning, fertilization often increases the total response. Late rotation application of N provides solid investment returns in carefully selected stands. Although there are still challenges with the post-fertilization effects on tree mortality, grand fir will continue to be an important species with good economic values and beneficial responses to fertilization and nutrient management.

  13. Fir Engraver (FIDL) (United States)

    George T. Ferrell


    The fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis LeConte, belongs to the family of insects called bark beetles, which live between the bark and wood of host trees. A wide-ranging, native beetle, the fir engraver attacks most species of fir in the Western United States. Epidemics can cause severe tree mortality. From 1977 to 1978, for example, the fir engraver killed an estimated 1...

  14. Effectiveness of the lactococcal abortive infection systems AbiA, AbiE, AbiF and AbiG against P335 type phages. (United States)

    Tangney, Mark; Fitzgerald, Gerald F


    Four lactococcal abortive infection mechanisms were introduced into strains which were sensitive hosts for P335 type phages and plaque assay experiments performed to assess their effect on five lactococcal bacteriophages from this family. Results indicate that AbiA inhibits all five P335 phages tested, while AbiG affects phiP335 itself and phiQ30 but not the other P335 species phages. AbiA was shown to retard phage Q30 DNA replication as previously reported for other phages. It was also demonstrated that AbiG, previously shown to act at a point after DNA replication in the cases of c2 type and 936 type phages, acts at the level of, or prior to phage Q30 DNA replication. AbiE and AbiF had no effect on the P335 type phages examined.

  15. Mortality and growth of dwarf mistletoe-infected red and white fir and the efficacy of thinning for reducing associated losses (United States)

    H. K. Mehl; S. R. Mori; S. J. Frankel; D. M. Rizzo


    In managed forests dominated by true fir (Abies) species, stands are often restocked using understory trees retained during timber harvest, making the effects of dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium spp.) infestation on small true fir a concern. This study examined the response of small red (A. magnifica) and...

  16. Early survival and height growth of Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine seedlings and variations in site factors following treatment of logging residues. (United States)

    W. Lopushlnsky; D. Zabowskl; T.D. Anderson


    Logging residues were broadcast burned, piled and burned, removed, or left in place after clearcutting in a high-elevation subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) forest in north-central Washington. Survival, height growth and foliar nutrient content of planted Douglas-fir...

  17. Bark beetle Polygraphus proximus: a new aggressive far eastern invader on Abies species in Siberia and European Russia (United States)

    Yuri Baranchikov; Evgeniy Akulov; Sergey. Astapenko


    Polygraphus proximus Brandford (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) is a common feeder on Far Eastern firs: Abies nephrolepis, A. hollophyll, and A. sachalinensis. Its native range occupies northeastern China, Korea, Japan, Kurile and Sakhalin Islands, and the southern part of the Russian Far East (Primorskiy and...

  18. Growth Response of Silver Fir and Bosnian Pine from Kosovo


    Elvin Toromani; Faruk Bojaxhi


    Background and Purpose: This paper explore the growth-climate relationships in total ring width chronologies of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and Bosnian pine (Pinus heldreichii Christ). The objective of this study is to quantify the climate influence on radial growth of both species. The relationships between climate and ring widths were analyzed using extreme growing years (called pointer years), simple correlations and response functions analysis (bootstrapped coefficients). The objectives...

  19. de Abies religiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Álvarez-Moctezuma


    Full Text Available Los bosques de Abies religiosa en el Ajusco (México están en declinación. Se requiere reestablecer poblaciones a partir de algunos árboles supervivientes en laderas afectadas. Los objetivos fueron evaluar las condiciones in vitro que permitan el establecimiento aséptico de semillas y seleccionar el inóculo más adecuado para la producción de plántulas en A. religiosa. Para la germinación in vitro se probaron desinfectantes (H2O2, C2H5OH, NaOCl. Se evaluaron inóculos (semilla completa, embriones aislados completos o mitades -corte transversal-, y cotiledones y primeras hojas verdaderas de plántulas germinadas in vitro para su establecimiento in vitro. El mejor tratamiento para desinfectar la semilla de A. religiosa es sumergirla en H2O2 (3 % v/v y agitar 24 h. Los mejores inóculos para la propagación in vitro fueron la semilla completa y primeras hojas primarias.

  20. Northern flying squirrel mycophagy and truffle production in fir forests in northeastern California (United States)

    J.R. Waters; K.S. McKelvey; C.J. Zabel; D.L. Luoma


    In this paper we summarize the results of four studies in which we either examined the feeding habits of the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus), a mycophagous (consuming fungi) small mammal, or compared the abundance of truffles (sporocarps of hypogeous mycorrhizal fungi) among different types of fir (Abies) forest....

  1. Stem volume losses in grand firs topkilled by western spruce budworm in Idaho (United States)

    George T. Ferrell; Robert F. Scharpf


    Mature grand firs (Abies grandis [Dougl. ex D. Don] Lindl.) were sampled in two stands, one cutover and one virgin, in the Little Salmon River drainage in west-central Idaho, to estimate stem volume losses associated with topkilling. Damage to the stands resulted from three outbreaks of western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis...

  2. Fir Decline and Mortality in the Southern Siberian Mountains (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Petrov, Ilya A.; Dvinskaya, Mariya, L.; Fedotova, Elena V.; Ranson, Kenneth J.


    Increased dieback and mortality of dark needle conifer (DNC) stands (composed of fir (Abies sibirica),Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) and spruce (Picea obovata))were documented in Russia during recent decades. Here we analyzed spatial and temporal patterns of fir decline and mortality in the southern Siberian Mountains based on satellite, in situ and dendrochronological data. The studied stands are located within the boundary between DNC taiga to the north and forest-steppe to the south. Fir decline and mortality were observed to originate where topographic features contributed to maximal water-stress risk, i.e., steep (1825),convex, south-facing slopes with a shallow well-drained root zone. Fir regeneration survived droughts and increased stem radial growth, while upper canopy trees died. Tree ring width(TRW) growth negatively correlated with vapor pressure deficit (VPD), drought index and occurrence of late frosts, and positively with soil water content. Previous year growth conditions (i.e., drought index, VPD, soil water anomalies)have a high impact on current TRW (r 0.600.74). Fir mortality was induced by increased water stress and severe droughts (as a primary factor) in synergy with bark-beetles and fungi attacks (as secondary factors). Dendrochronology data indicated that fir mortality is a periodic process. In a future climate with increased aridity and drought frequency, fir (and Siberian pine) may disappear from portions of its current range (primarily within the boundary with the forest steppe)and is likely to be replaced by drought-tolerant species such as Pinus sylvestris and Larix sibirica.

  3. A severity rating system for evaluating stand-level balsam woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) damage in two Abies species in western North America (United States)

    Kathryn H. Hrinkevich; Robert A. Progar; David C. Shaw


    Severity rating systems are fundamental to understanding the impacts of disturbance agents in forest stands. The balsam woolly adelgid (BWA), Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an invasive forest pest in North America that infests and causes mortality in true fir, Abies spp. There is currently no single...

  4. Microbial Activity in Forest Soil Under Beech, Spruce, Douglas Fir and Fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnal-Jafari Timea


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the microbial activity in forest soil from different sites under deciduous and coniferous trees in Serbia. One site on Stara planina was under beech trees (Fagus sp. while another under mixture of spruce (Picea sp. and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga sp.. The site on Kopaonik was under mixture of beech (Fagus sp. and spruce (Picea sp. trees. The site on Tara was dominantly under fir (Abies sp., beech (Fagus sp. and spruce (Picea sp.. The total number of bacteria, the number of actinobacteria, fungi and microorganisms involved in N and C cycles were determined using standard method of agar plates. The activities of dehydrogenase and ß-glucosidase enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric methods. The microbial activity was affected by tree species and sampling time. The highest dehydrogenase activity, total number of bacteria, number of actinobacteria, aminoheterotrophs, amylolytic and cellulolytic microorganisms were determined in soil under beech trees. The highest total number of fungi and number of pectinolytic microorganisms were determined in soil under spruce and Douglas fir trees. The correlation analyses proved the existence of statistically significant interdependency among investigated parameters.

  5. Significantly higher Carabid beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) catch in conventionally than in organically managed Christmas tree plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Søren; Lund, Malthe; Rønn, Regin


    Carabid beetles play an important role as consumers of pest organisms in forestry and agriculture. Application of pesticides may negatively affect abundance and activity of carabid beetles, thus reducing their potential beneficial effect. We investigated how abundance and diversity of pitfall...... trapped carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) varied between conventionally and organically managed Caucasian Fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.)) plantations, in northern Zealand, Denmark. We recorded significantly higher numbers of carabid beetle specimens and species at conventionally than at organically...

  6. Impacts of cloud immersion on microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations of fraser fir in a temperate mountain cloud forest (United States)

    Keith Reinhardt; William K. Smith


    The red spruce-Fraser fir ecosystem (Picea rubens Sarg.-Abies fraseri [Pursh] Poir.) of the southern Appalachian mountains is a temperate zone cloud forest immersed in clouds for 30 to 40 percent of a typical summer day, and experiencing immersion on about 65 percent of all days annually. We compared the microclimate,...

  7. Ecophysiology of seedling establishment in contrasting spruce-fir forests of southern Appalachian and Rocky Mountain ecotones, USA (United States)

    William K. Smith; Keith N.C. Reinhardt; Daniel M. Johnson


    Fraser fir (Abies fraseri [Pursh] Poiret) and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) occur as codominant trees in six relic, mountain-top populations that make up the high-elevation forests of the Southern Appalachian Mountains (SA). These two relic species of the former boreal forest have experienced a significant decline over the past...

  8. Bioecology of the conifer swift moth, Korscheltellus gracilis, a root feeder associated with spruce-fir decline (United States)

    William E. Wallner; David L. Wagner; Bruce L. Parker; Donald L. Tobi


    During the past two decades, the decline of red spruce, Picea rubens Sargent, and balsam fir, Abies balsamea (L), at high elevations (900-1200 m) in eastern North America has evoked concern about the effects of anthropogenic deposition upon terrestrial ecosystems. In many high-elevation forests across New England, as many as 50...

  9. Improvement of grafting procedures for the ornamental species: II. Abies concolor [(Gord. & Glend. Lindl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Blada


    Full Text Available The achieved results concerning the grafting silver-firAbies concolor [(Gord. & Glend. Lindl] scions on white-fir (Abies alba Mill. rootstocks are reporting in this article. The double-side-veneer grafting method and the plastic tape and the ecological CeraltinŽ wax were applied in four experimental variants. The side-veneer-grafting method and the classic materials, such as raffia and the hot wax were used at the two controls involved in this experiment. The grafting success expressed in percents, were transformed in arcsin square root of percent values, and a two-way analysis of variance was performed. Highly significant (p < 0.001 statistical differences were found between grafting variants, including controls. The Duncan Multiple Range Test showed that the four experimental grafting variants were highly significantly (p < 0.01 be-tter than the two controls. The grafting success of the best experimental variant has surpassed the two controls by 129 and 153%, respectively. Consequently, the double-side-veneer grafting method, the new developed plastic tape and the ecological CeraltinŽ wax have contributed to this grafting success owing to which they are recommended to be used for grafting silver-fir ornamental trees.

  10. ROOT and x32-ABI

    CERN Document Server

    Rauschmayr, N


    x32-ABI is an application binary interface, which has been introduced in Linux kernel 3.4. This interface is based on the x86-64 instruction set but uses 32-bit as size for pointers and C-datatype long instead of 64-bit. Thus software can profit from lower memory footprint but also form faster system calls. Several Root-benchmarks have been evaluated in this context and results regarding memory consumption and CPU-time are shown.

  11. Imago feeding preference of the black fir sawyer Monochamus urussovi Fisch. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grodnitsky Dmitry


    Full Text Available Mass outbreaks of the black fir sawyer M. urussovi regularly occur in forest stands dominated by Siberian fir Abies sibirica; outbreaks have been observed only on fir and exclusively in Siberia, although the beetle is also found in the vast territory including Finland, Poland, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, China, Russian Far East and Japan. A closely related common species M. sutor has never produced outbreaks; its larvae have been registered only in Scots pine. Feeding preferences of the two species were compared under experimental conditions; total numbers of tested specimens were 132 (M. urussovi and 40 (M. sutor. M. sutor beetles were caught in nature, M. urussovi pupas and young adults were collected from fir trunks; pupas were reared to beetles. Each beetle was placed into a covered plastic enclosure for 24 hours and offered cut shoots of fir, spruce, Siberian pine, Scots pine, larch, birch and willow; all cuts were of the same length and diameter, needles and leaves had been previously removed. Beetles of the two species showed different feeding preference. M. sutor imagoes completely ignored fir shoots, definitely preferring Scots pine. M. urussovi feeding behavior was different: beetles did consume bark, bast and cambium of fir. However, they were mainly fed on Scots pine shoots. Feeding preference given to Scots pine by beetles grown in fir trunks can be explained by the hypothesis that this species originated on pine. Mass outbreaks of M. urussovi in Siberian fir-dominated forest ecosystems occur, because these plant communities are historically young (evidently much less than 10 000 years and yet unbalanced, transitional sort of ecosystems, so fir did not have enough evolutionary time to get adapted to injure by the sawyer and Ophiostoma fungi carried by beetles.

  12. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth (United States)

    Boyd E. Wickman; Richard R. Mason; Galen C. Trostle


    The Douglas-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough) is an important defoliator of true firs and Douglas-fir in Western North America. Severe tussock moth outbreaks have occurred in British Columbia, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, Nevada, California, Arizona, and New Mexico, but the area subject to attack is more extensive

  13. From America to Eurasia: a multigenomes history of the genus Abies. (United States)

    Semerikova, Svetlana A; Khrunyk, Yuliya Y; Lascoux, Martin; Semerikov, Vladimir L


    The origin of conifer genera, the main components of mountain temperate and boreal forests, was deemed to arise in the Mesozoic, although paleontological records and molecular data point to a recent diversification, presumably related to Neogene cooling. The geographical area(s) where the modern lines of conifers emerged remains uncertain, as is the sequence of events leading to their present distribution. To gain further insights into the biogeography of firs (Abies), we conducted phylogenetic analyses of chloroplast, mitochondrial and nuclear markers. The species tree, generated from ten single-copy nuclear genes, yielded probably the best phylogenetic hypothesis available for Abies. The tree obtained from five regions of chloroplast DNA largely corresponded to the nuclear species tree. Ancestral area reconstructions based on fossil calibrated chloroplast DNA and nuclear DNA trees pointed to repeated intercontinental migrations. The mitochondrial DNA haplotype tree, however, disagreed with nuclear and chloroplast DNA trees. It consisted of two clusters: one included mainly American haplotypes, while the other was composed of only Eurasian haplotypes. Presumably, this conflict is due to inter-continental migrations and introgressive hybridization, accompanied by the capture of the mitotypes from aboriginal species by the invading firs. Given that several species inhabiting Northeastern Asia carry American mitotypes and mutations typical for the American cluster, whereas no Asian mitotypes were detected within the American species, we hypothesize that Abies migrated from America to Eurasia, but not in the opposite direction. The direction and age of intercontinental migrations in firs are congruent with other conifers, such as spruces and pines of subsection Strobus, suggesting that these events had the same cause. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Altitudinal variation in growth, bud break and susceptibility to balsam twig aphid damage of balsam fir from 6 Vermont seed sources (United States)

    Ronald C. Wilkinson; Paul G. Schaberg


    Differences in 10-year heights, 4-year growth from 1987 through 1990, relative timing of budbreak and damage by the balsam twig aphid (Mindarus abietinus Koch.) among balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) from 6 Vermont seed sources originating from different elevations were examined. Height differences among seed sources were...

  15. Ecologie et croissance de Abies alba Mill. en peuplements purs et mélangés dans le Massif Vosgien (Nord-est de la France)


    Pinto , Paulina


    The objective of this work was to determine the ecological niche and growth of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in the Vosges Mountains (north-east France), in relation to environmental conditions and inter-specific competition. The data set used to study the ecological niche consisted in 325 phytoecological relevés extracted from the EcoPlant database. To study the growth of silver fir, 143 plots were carried out in this work using a stratified sampling design according to stand composition, el...

  16. Contrasting effects of environmental change on the radial growth of co-occurring beech and fir trees across Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bošela, M.; Lukac, M.; Castagneri, D.; Sedmák, R.; Biber, P.; Carrer, M.; Konopka, B.; Nola, P.; Nagel, T.; Popa, I.; Roibu, C. C.; Svoboda, M.; Trotsiuk, V.; Büntgen, Ulf


    Roč. 615, feb (2018), s. 1460-1469 ISSN 0048-9697 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : fagus-sylvatica l. * abies-alba * silver fir * climate - change * site productivity * summer drought * norway spruce * bark beetle * range core * forests * Dendroecology * Climate change * Growth sensitivity * Mixed forests * Plant- climate interactions * Tree rings Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  17. Contrasting effects of environmental change on the radial growth of co-occurring beech and fir trees across Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosela, M.; Lukac, M.; Castagneri, D.; Sedmák, R.; Biber, P.; Carrer, M.; Konopka, B.; Nola, P.; Nagel, T.; Popa, I.; Roibu, C. C.; Svoboda, M.; Trotsiuk, V.; Büntgen, Ulf


    Roč. 615 (2018), s. 1460-1469 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : fagus-sylvatica l. * abies-alba * silver fir * climate - change * site productivity * summer drought * norway spruce * bark beetle * range core * forests * Dendroecology * Climate change * Growth sensitivity * Mixed forests * Plant- climate interactions * Tree rings Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  18. Possible causes of the recent rapid increase in the radial increment of silver fir in the Western Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bošeľa, Michal; Petráš, Rudolf; Sitková, Zuzana; Priwitzer, Tibor; Pajtík, Jozef; Hlavatá, Helena; Sedmák, Róbert; Tobin, Brian


    Silver fir is one of the most productive and ecologically valuable native European tree species, however, it has been experiencing decline which has periodically occurred over its natural range. This paper aims to investigate the recent climate–growth relationships of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and its temporal change along the course of its life. Long-term tree-ring databases, as well as records on climate, atmospheric SO 2 , NO 3 and acid concentrations from four different regions in the Western Carpathians were used. The results provide clear evidence of significant increase of silver fir's radial increment over the entire Western Carpathian area since 1970–1980. The results indicated that the most probable factors behind the rapid recovery of tree radial increment were reductions in emissions of NO 3 and SO 2 , alongside a significant increase in mean June, July and April temperatures. Highlights: • Silver fir radial growth was mostly related to mean month late winter temperatures. • Silver fir growth also responded to summer, especially July temperatures. • Strength of the climate–growth response has gradually increased since 1960–1980. • SO 2 , NO 3 , and recent climate change as major factor of the rapid radial growth recovery. -- Reductions of SO 2 and NO 3 emission along with climate change are the major causes of the recent recovery of Silver fir radial growth

  19. Increased genetic divergence between two closely related fir species in areas of range overlap (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Abbott, Richard J; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Liu, Jianquan


    Because of introgressive hybridization, closely related species can be more similar to each other in areas of range overlap (parapatry or sympatry) than in areas where they are geographically isolated from each other (allopatry). Here, we report the reverse situation based on nuclear genetic divergence between two fir species, Abies chensiensis and Abies fargesii, in China, at sites where they are parapatric relative to where they are allopatric. We examined genetic divergence across 126 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers in a set of 172 individuals sampled from both allopatric and parapatric populations of the two species. Our analyses demonstrated that AFLP divergence was much greater between the species when comparisons were made between parapatric populations than between allopatric populations. We suggest that selection in parapatry may have largely contributed to this increased divergence. PMID:24772279

  20. Climate-growth relationships of Abies spectabilis in a central Himalayan treeline ecotone (United States)

    Schwab, Niels; Kaczka, Ryszard J.; Schickhoff, Udo


    Climate warming is expected to induce treelines to advance to higher elevations. Empirical studies in diverse mountain ranges, however, give evidence of both advancing alpine treelines as well as rather insignificant responses. The large spectrum of responses is not fully understood. In the framework of investigating the sensitivity and response of a near-natural treeline ecotone in Rolwaling Himal, Nepal, to climate warming we present results from dendroclimatological analyses of Abies spectabilis (Himalayan Fir) increment cores. Tree ring width was measured and cross-dated. After standardization, the chronology was correlated with temperature and precipitation variables. Preliminary results point to positive correlations with autumn temperature and precipitation. We will present improved climate-growth relationships. The resulting climate - tree growth relationships may be used as an indication of future growth patterns and treeline dynamics under climate change conditions.

  1. Leaching of cell wall components caused by acid deposition on fir needles and trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigihara, Ado [Department of Material and Life Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kanagawa University, 3-27-1, Rokkakubashi, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan)], E-mail:; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi [Department of Material and Life Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kanagawa University, 3-27-1, Rokkakubashi, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan); Sakurai, Naoki [Faculty of Integrated Arts and Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, 739-8521 (Japan); Igawa, Manabu [Department of Material and Life Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kanagawa University, 3-27-1, Rokkakubashi, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan)


    Virgin fir forests have been declining since the 1960s at Mt. Oyama, which is located at the eastern edge of the Tanzawa Mountains and adjacent to the Kanto plain in Japan. An acid fog frequently occurs in the mountains. We collected throughfall and stemflow under fir trees and rainfall every week during January-December 2004 at Mt. Oyama to clarify the influence of acid fog on the decline of fir (Abies firma) needles. In relation to throughfall and stemflow, D-mannose, D-galactose, and D-glucose are the major neutral sugar components; only D-glucose is a major component of rainfall. The correlation coefficient between the total neutral sugars and uronic acid (as D-galacturonic acid), which is a key component of the cross-linking between pectic polysaccharides, was high except for rainfall. The leached amount of calcium ion, neutral sugars, uronic acid, and boron is related to the nitrate ion concentration in throughfall. Results of a laboratory exposure experiment using artificial fog water simulating the average composition of fog water observed at Mt. Oyama (simulated acid fog: SAF) on the fir seedling needles also shows a large leaching of these components from the cell walls of fir needles. The leaching amount increased concomitantly with decreasing pH of the SAF solution. We also observed that a dimeric rhamnogalacturonan II-borate complex (dRG-II-B) that exists in the cell wall as pectic polysaccharide was converted to monomeric RG-II (mRG-II) by the leaching of calcium ion and boron. Results not only of field observations but also those of laboratory experiments indicate a large effect of acid depositions on fir needles.

  2. The conserved splicing factor SUA controls alternative splicing of the developmental regulator ABI3 in Arabidopsis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugliani, M.; Brambilla, V.; Clerkx, E.J.M.; Koornneef, M.; Soppe, W.J.J.


    ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) is a major regulator of seed maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana. We detected two ABI3 transcripts, ABI3- and ABI3-ß, which encode full-length and truncated proteins, respectively. Alternative splicing of ABI3 is developmentally regulated, and the ABI3-ß transcript

  3. Foliar responses of understorey Abies lasiocarpa to different degrees of release cutting of Betula papyrifera and conifer mixed species stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.R.; Letchford, T. [Ministry of Forests, Prince George, BC (Canada). Red Rock Research Station; Comeau, P.G. [BC Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC (Canada); Coopersmith, D. [BC Ministry of Forests, Prince George, BC (Canada)


    Foliar responses of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) to thinning were studied in a 35-yr-old mixed stand of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and conifers. The stand regenerated naturally after a wildfire with a canopy dominated by paper birch (average height 9.8 m) and an understorey dominated by subalpine fir (average height 1.6 m). The stand was thinned to four densities of birch: 0, 600 and 1200 stems ha{sup -1} and control (Unthinned at 2300-6400 stems ha{sup -1}) in the autumn of 1995. The understorey conifers, mainly subalpine fir, were thinned to 1200 stems ha{sup -1}. The study used a completely randomized split-plot design. Three sample trees were systematically selected from each treatment replicate and each tree stratum (upper, intermediate and lower understorey). One-year-old and older age class needles were collected from one south-facing branch within the fifth whorl from the tree top. Thinning of paper birch significantly (p<0.001) increased leaf area and dry weight per 100 needles for intermediate and short trees except in the 0 birch treatment. Understorey subalpine fir trees in 600 stems ha{sup -1} birch (T3) had the largest leaf area and leaf dry weight per 100 1-yr-old needles. Specific leaf area (SLA) decreased from unthinned (T1) to 0 birch (T4). Lower understorey trees had the largest SLA. One-year-old needles had significantly higher N, P and K concentrations in all the thinning treatments. These responses are consistent with the shade tolerance of subalpine fir. The results suggest that when managing a paper birch-conifers mixed wood forest it may be of benefit to understorey conifers to leave a birch canopy as a nursing crop.

  4. Modelling initial mortality of Abies religiosa in a crown fire in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temiño-Villota, S.; Rodríguez-Trejo, D.A.; Molina Terrén, D.M.; Ryan, K.


    Aim of the study: The objectives of this work were to determine which morphological and fire severity variables may help explain the mortality of adult Abies religiosa (Kunth) Schltdl. & Cham., to model the probability of this species after being affected by crown fire, and to obtain more elements to classify the sacred fir in terms of fire resistance. This type of studies are relevant to estimate the impact of crown fires on the climax forests that forms this species. Area of study: The burned forest was located in the southern Mexico City, borough. Material and methods: Morphological variables and fire severity indicators were collected for 335 Abies religiosa trees burned by a mixed severity fire. Logistic regression was used to analyze data and develop models that best explained tree mortality. Main results: Survival was 26.9%. The models for height (p≤0.0001), diameter at breast height (p=0.0082), crown length (p≤0.0001) and crown base height (p≤0.0001) were significant, with a negative relationship between each one of these variables and probability of mortality. The significant severity variables were lethal scorch height (p≤0.0001) and crown kill (p≤ 0.0001), which have a direct relationship with probability of mortality. Highlights: This species is moderately fire-resistant. Crown kill ≥ 70% markedly increases mortality. Silvicultural activities such as pruning, thinning and fuel management can reduce the risk of crown fires. (Author)

  5. Modelling initial mortality of Abies religiosa in a crown fire in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé Temiño-Villota


    Full Text Available Aim of study: The objectives of this work were to determine which morphological and fire severity variables may help explain the mortality of adult Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. & Cham., to model the probability of this species after being affected by crown fire, and to obtain more elements to classify the sacred fir in terms of fire resistance. This type of studies are relevant to estimate the impact of crown fires on the climax forests that forms this species.Area of study: The burned forest was located in the southern Mexico City, borough.Material and methods: Morphological variables and fire severity indicators were collected for 335 Abies religiosa trees burned by a mixed severity fire. Logistic regression was used to analyze data and develop models that best explained tree mortality.Main results: Survival was 26.9%. The models for height (p≤0.0001, diameter at breast height (p=0.0082, crown length (p≤0.0001 and crown base height (p≤0.0001 were significant, with a negative relationship between each one of these variables and probability of mortality. The significant severity variables were lethal scorch height (p≤0.0001 and crown kill (p≤ 0.0001, which have a direct relationship with probability of mortality.Highlights: This species is moderately fire-resistant. Crown kill ≥ 70% markedly increases mortality. Silvicultural activities such as pruning, thinning and fuel management can reduce the risk of crown fires.

  6. Fertilizing Douglas-fir forests. (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Roger D. Right


    This report supplements a slide-tape presentation of the same title. Part I of the report describes the current practice of nitrogen fertilization of Douglas-fir forests in western Washington and Oregon and the effects of this fertilization on tree growth and water quality. Part II discusses factors that affect costs and revenues from investments in forest...

  7. Growth Response of Silver Fir and Bosnian Pine from Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvin Toromani


    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: This paper explore the growth-climate relationships in total ring width chronologies of silver fir (Abies alba Mill. and Bosnian pine (Pinus heldreichii Christ. The objective of this study is to quantify the climate influence on radial growth of both species. The relationships between climate and ring widths were analyzed using extreme growing years (called pointer years, simple correlations and response functions analysis (bootstrapped coefficients. The objectives of this study were: (1 to define the pattern of climatic response of each species, (2 to highlight the influence of local ecological conditions on tree's growth, and (3 to compare the response of silver fir and Bosnian pine to climate. Responses of total ring width to climate were estimated by establishing the mean relationship between growth and climate through simple correlations analysis and bootstrapped response functions. The response to climatic variability was also assessed by analyzing pointer years which correspond to abrupt changes in growth pattern and revealing the tree-growth response to extreme climatic events. For the period 1908-2008 the mean sensitivity (MS of total ring width chronology for Bosnian pine (0.209 was higher than silver fir (0.169 suggesting that Bosnian pine is more sensitive to climate (pointer years were more frequent in ring width chronology of Bosnian pine than in silver fir ring width chronology. The high values of first-order autocorrelations for Bosnian pine (0.674 indicated a strong dependence of current growth on the previous year’s growth. Pointer years analysis underlined the high sensitivity to spring temperatures and precipitation for both species. Radial growth for both species depends strongly on spring climate variables (temperatures and precipitation which play a significant role particularly for earlywood production. Material and Methods: We selected 12 silver fir trees and 15 Bosnian pine trees and took two 5

  8. Weather, logging, and tree growth associated with fir engraver attack scars in white fir (United States)

    George T. Ferrell


    The boles of 32 recently killed, and 41 living, white fir were examined for embedded fir engraver (Scolytus ventralis) attack scars. Of 287 scars found in annual rings for the years 1934-69, only 2 to 3 percent represented reproductively successful attacks. Trends in scar abundance were directly correlated with trends in white fir killed by ...

  9. Distinct genecological patterns in seedlings of Norway spruce and silver fir from a mountainous landscape. (United States)

    Frank, Aline; Sperisen, Christoph; Howe, Glenn Thomas; Brang, Peter; Walthert, Lorenz; St Clair, John Bradley; Heiri, Caroline


    Understanding the genecology of forest trees is critical for gene conservation, for predicting the effects of climate change and climate change adaptation, and for successful reforestation. Although common genecological patterns have emerged, species-specific details are also important. Which species are most vulnerable to climate change? Which are the most important adaptive traits and environmental drivers of natural selection? Even though species have been classified as adaptive specialists vs. adaptive generalists, large-scale studies comparing different species in the same experiment are rare. We studied the genecology of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver fir (Abies alba), two co-occurring but ecologically distinct European conifers in Central Europe. For each species, we collected seed from more than 90 populations across Switzerland, established a seedling common-garden test, and developed genecological models that associate population variation in seedling growth and phenology to climate, soil properties, and site water balance. Population differentiation and associations between seedling traits and environmental variables were much stronger for Norway spruce than for silver fir, and stronger for seedling height growth than for bud phenology. In Norway spruce, height growth and second flushing were strongly associated with temperature and elevation, with seedlings from the lowlands being taller and more prone to second flush than seedlings from the Alps. In silver fir, height growth was more weakly associated with temperature and elevation, but also associated with water availability. Soil characteristics explained little population variation in both species. We conclude that Norway spruce has become an adaptive specialist because trade-offs between rapid juvenile growth and frost avoidance have subjected it to strong diversifying natural selection based on temperature. In contrast, because silver fir has a more conservative growth habit, it has

  10. Spatial correlations between browsing on balsam fir by white-tailed deer and the nutritional value of neighboring winter forage. (United States)

    Champagne, Emilie; Moore, Ben D; Côté, Steeve D; Tremblay, Jean-Pierre


    Associational effects, that is, the influence of neighboring plants on herbivory suffered by a plant, are an outcome of forage selection. Although forage selection is a hierarchical process, few studies have investigated associational effects at multiple spatial scales. Because the nutritional quality of plants can be spatially structured, it might differently influence associational effects across multiple scales. Our objective was to determine the radius of influence of neighbor density and nutritional quality on balsam fir ( Abies balsamea ) herbivory by white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) in winter. We quantified browsing rates on fir and the density and quality of neighboring trees in a series of 10-year-old cutovers on Anticosti Island (Canada). We used cross-correlations to investigate relationships between browsing rates and the density and nutritional quality of neighboring trees at distances up to 1,000 m. Balsam fir and white spruce ( Picea glauca ) fiber content and dry matter in vitro true digestibility were correlated with fir browsing rate at the finest extra-patch scale (across distance of up to 50 m) and between cutover areas (300-400 m). These correlations suggest associational effects, that is, low nutritional quality of neighbors reduces the likelihood of fir herbivory (associational defense). Our results may indicate associational effects mediated by intraspecific variation in plant quality and suggest that these effects could occur at scales from tens to hundreds of meters. Understanding associational effects could inform strategies for restoration or conservation; for example, planting of fir among existing natural regeneration could be concentrated in areas of low nutritional quality.

  11. Two-dimensional FIR compaction filter design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijayakumar, N.; Prabhu, K.M.M.


    The design of signal-adapted multirate filter banks has been an area of research interest. The authors present the design of a 2-D finite impulse response (FIR) compaction filter followed by a 2-D FIR filter bank that packs the maximum energy of the input process into a few subbands. The energy

  12. Graft union formation in Douglas-fir. (United States)

    D.L. Copes


    Greenhouse-grown Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) graft unions were examined between 2 and 84 days after grafting. Room temperature was maintained at 60-70 F throughout the growing season. In most respects grafts of Douglas-fir followed development patterns previously reported for spruce and pine grafts, but specific differences...

  13. FIR-laser scattering for JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itagaki, Tokiyoshi; Matoba, Tohru; Funahashi, Akimasa; Suzuki, Yasuo


    An ion Thomson scattering method with far infrared (FIR) laser has been studied for measuring the ion temperature in large tokamak JT-60 to be completed in 1981. Ion Thomson scattering has the advantage of measuring spatial variation of the ion temperature. The ion Thomson scattering in medium tokamak (PLT) and future large tokamak (JET) requires a FIR laser of several megawatts. Research and development of FIR high power pulse lasers with power up to 0.6 MW have proceeded in ion Thomson scattering for future high-temperature tokamaks. The FIR laser power will reach to the desired several megawatts in a few years, so JAERI plans to measure the ion temperature in JT-60 by ion Thomson scattering. A noise source of the ion Thomson scattering with 496 μm-CH 3 F laser is synchrotron radiation of which the power is similar to NEP of the Schottky-barrier diode. However, the synchrotron radiation power is one order smaller than that when a FIR laser is 385 μm-D 2 O laser. The FIR laser power corresponding to a signal to noise ratio of 1 is about 4 MW for CH 3 F laser, and 0.4 MW for D 2 O laser if NEP of the heterodyne mixer is one order less. A FIR laser scattering system for JT-60 should be realized with improvement of FIR laser power, NEP of heterodyne mixer and reduction of synchrotron radiation. (auth.)

  14. Ecological requirements of Abies alba in the French Alps derived from dendro-ecological analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolland, C.; Michalet, R.; Desplanque, C.; Petetin, A.; Aime, S. [Univ. Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France). Centre de Biologie Alpine


    We used dendro-ecological techniques to investigate fundamental relationships between climate and growth of Abies alba (silver fir) in eastern France. Seven Abies forests in the Trieves region of the French Alps were chosen to represent a wide range of ecological conditions based on the results of previous forest vegetation surveys. In each forest, four trees were sampled in each of five different stands with two cores per tree. These 280 cores were studied using two separate dendro-ecological methods: the pointer years method (based on extreme growth events), and correlation functions between tree ring-widths and monthly climatic data. Data from 11 meteorological stations were combined to provide a regional analysis of precipitation and minimum and maximum temperatures. The two dendro-ecological methods appear to be complementary, as the first technique emphasizes common and low intensity linear correlations between ring-widths and climatic variations, and the second method emphasizes extreme and unusual climatic events such as exceptionally cold or dry years. Across all sites, drought in the previous year was consistently correlated with a low growth rate; however, other climatic variables varied substantially among sites. For example, drought in the current year reduced growth more in the low elevation sites than in the high elevation sites and severe winter frost reduced growth the most in the high altitude sites and the driest site. Moreover, certain growth responses are better correlated with the age of the stands, the canopy closure and the floristic composition of the community than the abiotic factors, emphasizing the value of dendro-ecological sampling based on phytosociological units 63 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  15. Seasonal dynamics of structure and functional activity of ectomycorrhizal roots of the Siberian fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Sizonenko


    Full Text Available The aim of our work was to study seasonal dynamics of the Siberian fir Abies sibirica Ledeb. ectomycorrhizal morpho-anatomical structure, respiration rate and fluorescence. The study was carried out in the bilberry-sphagnum spruce forest in the middle taiga of the Komi Republic, Russia. The morpho-anatomical structure and fluorescence parameters were studied by light and luminescence microscopy. Thin root respiration was studied in intact fine roots in the field using an infrared gas analyzer. 12 subtypes of fungal mantels were revealed in ectomycorrhizal fir roots; their amount and composition demonstrated seasonal dynamic changes. At the beginning vegetation stage, the diversity and proportion of pseudoparenchymatous and double covers were maximal. Plant component of ectomycorrhizae that includes cortical parenchyma and stele had high activity of fluorescence during the entire vegetation period. The dynamics of staining of fungal component (fungal mantel and Hartig net was more contrasting. The highest fluorescence intensity of cortical parenchyma was found in ectomycorrhizae with maximal fungal mantel thickness. High proportion of tannin cells in cortical parenchyma was related with low intensity of fungal mantel and Hartig net fluorescence. During vegetation season, maximal amount of intensively strained ectomycorrhizal elements occurred in July and unstrained – in June and August. Relation between fine roots respiration and an increase of brightly strained ectomycorrhizal structural elements in fir roots was not statistically significant. Root CO2-emission was lower in May and September in comparison with summer months. For respiration rate of fir fine roots we found its strong positive correlation with the litter temperature.

  16. Selected beetle assemblages captured in pitfall traps baited with deer dung or meat in balsam fir and sugar maple forests of central Quebec. (United States)

    Brousseau, Pierre-Marc; Cloutier, Conrad; Hébert, Christian


    Vertebrate dung and carrion are rich and strongly attractive resources for numerous beetles that are often closely linked to them. The presence and abundance of beetles exploiting such resources are influenced by various ecological factors including climate and forest cover vegetation. We studied selected assemblages of coprophilous and necrophagous beetles in Quebec along a 115-km north-south transect in three balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Miller) forest sites and in a fourth forest site dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall), close to the southern fir site. Beetle abundance was estimated using a sampling design comprising replicated pitfall traps baited with red deer meat or dung in each site. A total of 8,511 beetles were caught and identified to family level, 95.7% of which belonged to families with known coprophilous or necrophagous behavior. Meat-baited pitfall traps caught nearly 15 times as many beetles as dung-baited traps. All Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Scarabaeidae, and Silphidae were identified to species to examine specific diversity variation among sites. For the beetles caught in the meat-baited traps (majority of captures), decreases in abundance and species richness were observed from south to north along the fir forest transect, with evidence of decreasing specific diversity as measured by the Shannon index of diversity. Strong differences in species assemblages were also observed between the southern maple and fir forest sites. The Silphidae and Histeridae were more abundant in the maple forest, whereas the Hydrophilidae and Ptilidae were more abundant in the fir forest.

  17. Experiences from Auditory Brainstem Implantation (ABIs) in four paediatric patients. (United States)

    Lundin, Karin; Stillesjö, Fredrik; Nyberg, Gunnar; Rask-Andersen, Helge


    Indications for auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) have been widened from patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) to paediatric patients with congenital cochlear malformations, cochlear nerve hypoplasia/aplasia, or cochlear ossification after meningitis. We present four ABI surgeries performed in children at Uppsala University Hospital in Sweden since 2009. Three children were implanted with implants from Cochlear Ltd. (Lane Cove, Australia) and one child with an implant from MedEl GMBH (Innsbruck, Austria). A boy with Goldenhar syndrome was implanted with a Cochlear Nucleus ABI24M at age 2 years (patient 1). Another boy with CHARGE syndrome was implanted with a Cochlear Nucleus ABI541 at age 2.5 years (patient 2). Another boy with post-ossification meningitis was implanted with a Cochlear Nucleus ABI24M at age 4 years (patient 3). A girl with cochlear aplasia was implanted with a MedEl Synchrony ABI at age 3 years (patient 4). In patients 1, 2, and 3, the trans-labyrinthine approach was used, and in patient 4 the retro-sigmoid approach was used. Three of the four children benefited from their ABIs and use it full time. Two of the full time users had categories of auditory performance (CAP) score of 4 at their last follow up visit (6 and 2.5 years postoperative) which means they can discriminate consistently any combination of two of Ling's sounds. One child has not been fully evaluated yet, but is a full time user and had CAP 2 (responds to speech sounds) after 3 months of ABI use. No severe side or unpleasant stimulation effects have been observed so far. There was one case of immediate electrode migration and one case of implant device failure after 6.5 years. ABI should be considered as an option in the rehabilitation of children with similar diagnoses.

  18. Bifunctional cis-Abienol Synthase from Abies balsamea Discovered by Transcriptome Sequencing and Its Implications for Diterpenoid Fragrance Production* (United States)

    Zerbe, Philipp; Chiang, Angela; Yuen, Macaire; Hamberger, Björn; Hamberger, Britta; Draper, Jason A.; Britton, Robert; Bohlmann, Jörg


    The labdanoid diterpene alcohol cis-abienol is a major component of the aromatic oleoresin of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and serves as a valuable bioproduct material for the fragrance industry. Using high-throughput 454 transcriptome sequencing and metabolite profiling of balsam fir bark tissue, we identified candidate diterpene synthase sequences for full-length cDNA cloning and functional characterization. We discovered a bifunctional class I/II cis-abienol synthase (AbCAS), along with the paralogous levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase and isopimaradiene synthase, all of which are members of the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily. The AbCAS-catalyzed formation of cis-abienol proceeds via cyclization and hydroxylation at carbon C-8 of a postulated carbocation intermediate in the class II active site, followed by cleavage of the diphosphate group and termination of the reaction sequence without further cyclization in the class I active site. This reaction mechanism is distinct from that of synthases of the isopimaradiene- or levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase type, which employ deprotonation reactions in the class II active site and secondary cyclizations in the class I active site, leading to tricyclic diterpenes. Comparative homology modeling suggested the active site residues Asp-348, Leu-617, Phe-696, and Gly-723 as potentially important for the specificity of AbCAS. As a class I/II bifunctional enzyme, AbCAS is a promising target for metabolic engineering of cis-abienol production. PMID:22337889

  19. On the Vectorization of FIR Filterbanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbedo Jayme Garcia Arnal


    Full Text Available This paper presents a vectorization technique to implement FIR filterbanks. The word vectorization, in the context of this work, refers to a strategy in which all iterative operations are replaced by equivalent vector and matrix operations. This approach allows that the increasing parallelism of the most recent computer processors and systems be properly explored. The vectorization techniques are applied to two kinds of FIR filterbanks (conventional and recursi ve, and are presented in such a way that they can be easily extended to any kind of FIR filterbanks. The vectorization approach is compared to other kinds of implementation that do not explore the parallelism, and also to a previous FIR filter vectorization approach. The tests were performed in Matlab and , in order to explore different aspects of the proposed technique.

  20. On the Vectorization of FIR Filterbanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Lopes


    Full Text Available This paper presents a vectorization technique to implement FIR filterbanks. The word vectorization, in the context of this work, refers to a strategy in which all iterative operations are replaced by equivalent vector and matrix operations. This approach allows that the increasing parallelism of the most recent computer processors and systems be properly explored. The vectorization techniques are applied to two kinds of FIR filterbanks (conventional and recursi ve, and are presented in such a way that they can be easily extended to any kind of FIR filterbanks. The vectorization approach is compared to other kinds of implementation that do not explore the parallelism, and also to a previous FIR filter vectorization approach. The tests were performed in Matlab and C, in order to explore different aspects of the proposed technique.

  1. ABI3 ectopic expression reduces in vitro and in vivo cell growth properties while inducing senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggins Gregory J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mounting evidence has indicated that ABI3 (ABI family member 3 function as a tumor suppressor gene, although the molecular mechanism by which ABI3 acts remains largely unknown. Methods The present study investigated ABI3 expression in a large panel of benign and malignant thyroid tumors and explored a correlation between the expression of ABI3 and its potential partner ABI3-binding protein (ABI3BP. We next explored the biological effects of ABI3 ectopic expression in thyroid and colon carcinoma cell lines, in which its expression was reduced or absent. Results We not only observed that ABI3 expression is reduced or lost in most carcinomas but also that there is a positive correlation between ABI3 and ABI3BP expression. Ectopic expression of ABI3 was sufficient to lead to a lower transforming activity, reduced tumor in vitro growth properties, suppressed in vitro anchorage-independent growth and in vivo tumor formation while, cellular senescence increased. These responses were accompanied by the up-regulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 WAF1 and reduced ERK phosphorylation and E2F1 expression. Conclusions Our result links ABI3 to the pathogenesis and progression of some cancers and suggests that ABI3 or its pathway might have interest as therapeutic target. These results also suggest that the pathways through which ABI3 works should be further characterized.

  2. Douglas-fir tussock moth- and Douglas-fir beetle-caused mortality in a ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Ann M. Lynch; Willis C. Schaupp; Vladimir Bocharnikov


    An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir...

  3. Effect of Hydropriming and Biopriming on Seed Germination and Growth of Two Mexican Fir Tree Species in Danger of Extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Zulueta-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Abies spp. in general have been shown to need a period of cold stratification to break dormancy and germinate, but this can be very time consuming. In this study, hydropriming by itself and in combination with biopriming was carried out on Abies hickelii and Abies religiosa seeds. For biopriming, three species of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria ( Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. putida and Bacillus subtilis were tested. The purpose was to determine if germination and growth could be improved for these two endangered species. Our results demonstrated that treating A. hickelii and A. religiosa with both hydropriming and biopriming with certain strains of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR could improve germination rates up to 91% for A. hickelii and up to 68% for A. religiosa. Importantly, these treatments showed no significant negative impact on the growth of A. religiosa and actually improved growth in A. hickelii. The application of both hydropriming and biopriming offer possibly an alternative methodology to improve germination, survival and preservation of these fir tree species of Mexico that are at risk of extinction.

  4. A method for reconstructing the development of the sapwood area of balsam fir. (United States)

    Coyea, M R; Margolis, H A; Gagnon, R R


    Leaf area is commonly estimated as a function of sapwood area. However, because sapwood changes to heartwood over time, it has not previously been possible to reconstruct either the sapwood area or the leaf area of older trees into the past. In this study, we report a method for reconstructing the development of the sapwood area of dominant and codominant balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.). The technique is based on establishing a species-specific relationship between the number of annual growth rings in the sapwood area and tree age. Because the number of annual growth rings in the sapwood of balsam fir at a given age was found to be independent of site quality and stand density, the number of rings in sapwood (NRS) can be predicted from the age of a tree thus: NRS = 14.818 (1 - e(-0.031 age)), unweighted R(2) = 0.80, and NRS = 2.490 (1 - e(-0.038 age)), unweighted R(2) = 0.64, for measurements at breast height and at the base of the live crown, respectively. These nonlinear asymptotic regression models based only on age, were not improved by adding other tree variables such as diameter at breast height, diameter at the base of the live crown, total tree height or percent live crown.

  5. Plantas asociadas a los bosques de Abies guatemalensis (Pinaceae del occidente de Guatemala Plants associated to Abies guatemalensis (Pinaceae forests in Western Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Martínez Arévalo


    Full Text Available Hay una carencia de información detallada sobre la composición y estructura de las comunidades montanas guatemaltecas. El objetivo del estudio fue contribuir al conocimiento de la flora de bosques de abeto (Abies guatemalensis, para esto se hizo el levantamiento florístico en bosques de abeto del occidente de Guatemala. Se encontraron 119 especies, 92 géneros, 50 familias en cuatro divisiones. Las familias más numerosas fueron: Asteraceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Apiaceae y Solanaceae y los géneros más abundantes Salvia, Alchemilla y Bidens. Las especies se ubicaron en cuatro estratos, 33 en el herbáceo inferior, 49 en el herbáceo superior, 30 en arbustos y siete en árboles. Se hace énfasis en la contribución del estudio al conocimiento de la flora de bosques de A. guatemalensis y la necesidad de otros similares en los demás bosques de esta especie, que sirva para fomentar su conocimiento y conservación. Se consideraron seis grupos de distribución geográfica, el principal es del centro de México a Centroamérica con 67% de especies. Se realiza una comparación fitogeográfica y de composición florística, con otras áreas de Abies de Guatemala y México. Se propone que a pesar de haber familias y géneros comunes, que proporcionan la estructura general entre los bosques de abeto, se deben considerar las particularidades florísticas de cada área, en el manejo y conservación influidas por suelo, latitud y microclima.The fragments of Abies guatemalensis forests in Western Guatemala are the reservoirs of plant species that have been poorly documented, missing the opportunity to expand the knowledge of the local flora and its use in conservation planning. To assess this, a floristic study was done in areas between 2 950-3 360masl in Western Guatemala between 2010-2011. Ten locations were sampled: in each a 500m² plot was surveyed, and plants were classified in four strata by plant height (0.05-30m. A total of 119 species

  6. Height-Diameter Models for Mixed-Species Forests Consisting of Spruce, Fir, and Beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petráš Rudolf


    Full Text Available Height-diameter models define the general relationship between the tree height and diameter at each growth stage of the forest stand. This paper presents generalized height-diameter models for mixed-species forest stands consisting of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst., Silver fir (Abies alba L., and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from Slovakia. The models were derived using two growth functions from the exponential family: the two-parameter Michailoff and three-parameter Korf functions. Generalized height-diameter functions must normally be constrained to pass through the mean stand diameter and height, and then the final growth model has only one or two parameters to be estimated. These “free” parameters are then expressed over the quadratic mean diameter, height and stand age and the final mathematical form of the model is obtained. The study material included 50 long-term experimental plots located in the Western Carpathians. The plots were established 40-50 years ago and have been repeatedly measured at 5 to 10-year intervals. The dataset includes 7,950 height measurements of spruce, 21,661 of fir and 5,794 of beech. As many as 9 regression models were derived for each species. Although the “goodness of fit” of all models showed that they were generally well suited for the data, the best results were obtained for silver fir. The coefficient of determination ranged from 0.946 to 0.948, RMSE (m was in the interval 1.94-1.97 and the bias (m was -0.031 to 0.063. Although slightly imprecise parameter estimation was established for spruce, the estimations of the regression parameters obtained for beech were quite less precise. The coefficient of determination for beech was 0.854-0.860, RMSE (m 2.67-2.72, and the bias (m ranged from -0.144 to -0.056. The majority of models using Korf’s formula produced slightly better estimations than Michailoff’s, and it proved immaterial which estimated parameter was fixed and which parameters

  7. Douglas-fir growth and yield: research 1909-1960. (United States)

    R.O. Curtis; D.D. Marshall


    Systematic research on growth and yield of Douglas-fir began in 1909. This line of early research evolved over time and culminated in publication of USDA Bulletin 201, The Yield of Douglas-fir in the Pacific Northwest. B201 had an enormous influence on development of Douglas-fir forestry and was arguably the most influential single research publication ever produced in...

  8. A forest simulation approach using weighted Voronoi diagrams. An application to Mediterranean fir Abies pinsapo Boiss stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abellanas, B.; Abellanas, M.; Pommerening, A.; Lodares, D.; Cuadros, S.


    Aim of the study. a) To present a new version of the forest simulator Vorest, an individual-based spatially explicit model that uses weighted Voronoi diagrams to simulate the natural dynamics of forest stands with closed canopies. b) To apply the model to the current dynamics of a Grazalema pinsapo stand to identify the nature of its competition regime and the stagnation risks it is currently facing. Area of study: Sierra del Pinar de Grazalema (S Spain) Material and methods: Two large plots representative of Grazalema pinsapo stands were used to fit and validate the model (plus 6 accesory plots to increase the availability of mortality data). Two inventories were carried out in 1998 and 2007 producing tree size and location data. We developed a forest simulator based on three submodels: growth, competition and mortality. The model was fitted, evaluated and validated for Grazalema plots. The simulation outputs were used to infer the expected evolution of structural diversity of forest stands. Main results: Vorest has proved to be a good tool for simulating dynamics of natural closed stands. The application to Grazalema pinsapo stands has allowed assessing the nature of the main processes that are driving its development pathway. We have found that the prevailing size-asymmetric competition dominates the self-thinning process in small-sized trees. At the same time, there is an active tree-size differentiation process. Research highlights: Vorest has proved to be a good tool for simulating natural stands with closed canopies. The Grazalema pinsapo stand under consideration is currently undergoing a natural process of differentiation, avoiding long-term stagnation. (Author)

  9. The Importance Therapeutic of Products Extracted from the Fir Tree of Numidia (Abies numidica) and Research for an Antibacterial Activity


    YASMİNA, Tlili AitKaki; BENNADJA, Salima; ABDELGHANİ, Djahoudi


    Yasmina TLILI AIT KAKI, Salima BENNADJA, Djahoudi ABDELGHANI Laboratoire de botanique médicale, Département de pharmacie, Faculté de médecine, Université Badji Mokhtar Annaba, 23000 Algérie *Corresponding Author:

  10. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth- and Douglas-Fir Beetle-Caused Mortality in a Ponderosa Pine/Douglas-Fir Forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Negrón


    Full Text Available An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir tussock moth defoliation resulted in significant Douglas-fir mortality in the heavily defoliated stands, leading to a change in dominance to ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Lawson. Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsuqae Hopkins, populations increased following the defoliation event but caused less mortality, and did not differ between heavily and lightly defoliated stands. Douglas-fir tussock moth-related mortality was greatest in trees less than 15 cm dbh (diameter at 1.4 m above the ground that grew in suppressed and intermediate canopy positions. Douglas-fir beetle-related mortality was greatest in trees larger than 15 cm dbh that grew in the dominant and co-dominant crown positions. Although both insects utilize Douglas-fir as its primary host, stand response to infestation is different. The extensive outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth followed by Douglas-fir beetle activity may be associated with a legacy of increased host type growing in overstocked conditions as a result of fire exclusion.

  11. Climate Risk Modelling of Balsam Woolly Adelgid Damage Severity in Subalpine Fir Stands of Western North America. (United States)

    Hrinkevich, Kathryn H; Progar, Robert A; Shaw, David C


    The balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg) (Homoptera: Adelgidae)) (BWA) is a nonnative, invasive insect that threatens Abies species throughout North America. It is well established in the Pacific Northwest, but continues to move eastward through Idaho and into Montana and potentially threatens subalpine fir to the south in the central and southern Rocky Mountains. We developed a climatic risk model and map that predicts BWA impacts to subalpine fir using a two-step process. Using 30-year monthly climate normals from sites with quantitatively derived BWA damage severity index values, we built a regression model that significantly explained insect damage. The sites were grouped into two distinct damage categories (high damage and mortality versus little or no mortality and low damage) and the model estimates for each group were used to designate distinct value ranges for four climatic risk categories: minimal, low, moderate, and high. We then calculated model estimates for each cell of a 4-kilometer resolution climate raster and mapped the risk categories over the entire range of subalpine fir in the western United States. The spatial variation of risk classes indicates a gradient of climatic susceptibility generally decreasing from the Olympic Peninsula in Washington and the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington moving eastward, with the exception of some high risk areas in northern Idaho and western Montana. There is also a pattern of decreasing climatic susceptibility from north to south in the Rocky Mountains. Our study provides an initial step for modeling the relationship between climate and BWA damage severity across the range of subalpine fir. We showed that September minimum temperature and a metric calculated as the maximum May temperature divided by total May precipitation were the best climatic predictors of BWA severity. Although winter cold temperatures and summer heat have been shown to influence BWA impacts in other locations, these

  12. How wind affects growth in treeline Picea abies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašpar, J.; Hošek, Jiří; Treml, V.


    Roč. 127, č. 2 (2017), s. 1-12 ISSN 1664-2201 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : height increment * picea abies * radial growth * thigmomorphogenesis * tree rings Subject RIV: GK - Forestry OBOR OECD: Forestry Impact factor: 2.281, year: 2016

  13. Stand-structural effects on Heterobasidion abietinum-related mortality following drought events in Abies pinsapo. (United States)

    Linares, Juan Carlos; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Bowker, Matthew A; Ochoa, Victoria; Carreira, José Antonio


    Climate change may affect tree-pathogen interactions. This possibility has important implications for drought-prone forests, where stand dynamics and disease pathogenicity are especially sensitive to climatic stress. In addition, stand structural attributes including density-dependent tree-to-tree competition may modulate the stands' resistance to drought events and pathogen outbreaks. To assess the effects of stand structure on root-rot-related mortality after severe droughts, we focused on Heterobasidion abietinum mortality in relict Spanish stands of Abies pinsapo, a drought-sensitive fir. We compared stand attributes and tree spatial patterns in three plots with H. abietinum root-rot disease and three plots without root-rot. Point-pattern analyses were used to investigate the scale and extent of mortality patterns and to test hypotheses related to the spread of the disease. Dendrochronology was used to date the year of death and to assess the association between droughts and growth decline. We applied a structural equation modelling approach to test if tree mortality occurs more rapidly than predicted by a simple distance model when trees are subjected to high tree-to-tree competition and following drought events. Contrary to expectations of drought mortality, the effect of precipitation on the year of death was strong and negative, indicating that a period of high precipitation induced an earlier tree death. Competition intensity, related to the size and density of neighbour trees, also induced an earlier tree death. The effect of distance to the disease focus was negligible except in combination with intensive competition. Our results indicate that infected trees have decreased ability to withstand drought stress, and demonstrate that tree-to-tree competition and fungal infection act as predisposing factors of forest decline and mortality.

  14. Landscape-scale effects of fire severity on mixed-conifer and red fir forest structure in Yosemite National Park (United States)

    Kane, Van R.; Lutz, James A.; Roberts, Susan L.; Smith, Douglas F.; McGaughey, Robert J.; Povak, Nicholas A.; Brooks, Matthew L.


    While fire shapes the structure of forests and acts as a keystone process, the details of how fire modifies forest structure have been difficult to evaluate because of the complexity of interactions between fires and forests. We studied this relationship across 69.2 km2 of Yosemite National Park, USA, that was subject to 32 fires ⩾40 ha between 1984 and 2010. Forests types included ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), white fir-sugar pine (Abies concolor/Pinus lambertiana), and red fir (Abies magnifica). We estimated and stratified burned area by fire severity using the Landsat-derived Relativized differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR). Airborne LiDAR data, acquired in July 2010, measured the vertical and horizontal structure of canopy material and landscape patterning of canopy patches and gaps. Increasing fire severity changed structure at the scale of fire severity patches, the arrangement of canopy patches and gaps within fire severity patches, and vertically within tree clumps. Each forest type showed an individual trajectory of structural change with increasing fire severity. As a result, the relationship between estimates of fire severity such as RdNBR and actual changes appears to vary among forest types. We found three arrangements of canopy patches and gaps associated with different fire severities: canopy-gap arrangements in which gaps were enclosed in otherwise continuous canopy (typically unburned and low fire severities); patch-gap arrangements in which tree clumps and gaps alternated and neither dominated (typically moderate fire severity); and open-patch arrangements in which trees were scattered across open areas (typically high fire severity). Compared to stands outside fire perimeters, increasing fire severity generally resulted first in loss of canopy cover in lower height strata and increased number and size of gaps, then in loss of canopy cover in higher height strata, and eventually the transition to open areas with few or no trees. However

  15. The role of auxins in somatic embryogenesis of Abies alba

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondráková, Zuzana; Eliášová, Kateřina; Fischerová, Lucie; Vágner, Martin


    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2011), s. 587-596 ISSN 1895-104X R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Auxin inhibitor * Fir * Phytohormone Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2011

  16. Inheritance of graft compatibility in Douglas fir. (United States)

    D.L. Copes


    Graft compatibility of genetically related and unrelated rootstock-scion combinations was compared. Scion clones were 75% compatible when grafted on half-related rootstocks but only 56% compatible when grafted on unrelated rootstocks. Most variance associated with graft incompatibility in Douglas-fir appears to be caused by multiple genes.

  17. True fir spacing trials: 10-year results. (United States)

    Robert O. Curtis


    Eighteen precommercial thinning trials were established in true fir-hemlock stands in the Olympic Mountains and the west side of the Cascade Range during the period 1987 through 1994. This paper updates a previous report, with results for the first 10 years after establishment. Results are given for (1) all trees, (2) the largest 80 per acre of any species, and (3)...

  18. Architectural analysis of Douglas-fir forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, L.C.


    The architecture of natural and semi-natural Douglas-fir forest ecosystems in western Washington and western Oregon was analyzed by various case-studies, to yield vital information needed for the design of new silvicultural systems with a high level of biodiversity, intended for low-input

  19. FIR laser-development program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielwicz, E.J.; Hodges, D.T.


    The important features for a source intended for use as a local oscillator in a low noise receiver have been tested on a developmental model of a cw FIR laser package. High output power (45 mW), good long term amplitude stability (+- 3%), high spectral purity and excellent frequency stability have all been demonstrated in the laboratory environment

  20. The Arabidopsis CROWDED NUCLEI genes regulate seed germination by modulating degradation of ABI5 protein. (United States)

    Zhao, Wenming; Guan, Chunmei; Feng, Jian; Liang, Yan; Zhan, Ni; Zuo, Jianru; Ren, Bo


    In Arabidopsis, the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a vital role in inhibiting seed germination and in post-germination seedling establishment. In the ABA signaling pathway, ABI5, a basic Leu zipper transcription factor, has important functions in the regulation of seed germination. ABI5 protein localizes in nuclear bodies, along with AFP, COP1, and SIZ1, and was degraded through the 26S proteasome pathway. However, the mechanisms of ABI5 nuclear body formation and ABI5 protein degradation remain obscure. In this study, we found that the Arabidopsis CROWDED NUCLEI (CRWN) proteins, predicted nuclear matrix proteins essential for maintenance of nuclear morphology, also participate in ABA-controlled seed germination by regulating the degradation of ABI5 protein. During seed germination, the crwn mutants are hypersensitive to ABA and have higher levels of ABI5 protein compared to wild type. Genetic analysis suggested that CRWNs act upstream of ABI5. The observation that CRWN3 colocalizes with ABI5 in nuclear bodies indicates that CRWNs might participate in ABI5 protein degradation in nuclear bodies. Moreover, we revealed that the extreme C-terminal of CRWN3 protein is necessary for its function in the response to ABA in germination. Our results suggested important roles of CRWNs in ABI5 nuclear body organization and ABI5 protein degradation during seed germination. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. [Contribution of soil fauna to litter decomposition of Abies faxoniana and Rhododendron lapponicum across an alpine timberline ecotone in Western Sichuan, China. (United States)

    Wang, Li Feng; He, Run Lian; Yang, Lin; Chen, Ya Mei; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jian


    Soil fauna is an important biological factor in regulation litter decomposition. In order to quantify the contributions of soil fauna to the mass losses of litter of two dominant species fir (Abies faxoniana) and rhododendron (Rhododendron lapponicum) in the alpine timberline ecotone (coniferous forest-timberline-alpine meadow) of western Sichuan, China, a field litterbag experiment was conducted from May 2013 to November 2014. Samples of air-dried leaf litter were placed in nylon litterbags of two different mesh sizes, i.e. 3.00 mm (with the soil animals) and 0.04 mm (excluded the soil animals). The results showed that the decomposition rate of A. faxoniana (k: 0.209-0.243) was higher than that of R. lapponicum (k: 0.173-0.189) across the timberline ecotone. Soil fauna had significant contributions to litter decomposition of two species, the contributions of soil fauna to mass loss showed a decreasing trend with increasing altitude. From the coniferous forest to the alpine meadow, the mass losses caused by soil fauna for the fir litter accounted for 15.2%, 13.2% and 9.8%, respectively and that for the rhododendron litter accounted for 20.1%, 17.5% and 12.4%, respectively. Meanwhile, the daily average contributions caused by soil fauna for the fir and rhododendron litter decomposition accounted for 0.17%, 0.13%, 0.12% and 0.26%, 0.25%, 0.23%, respectively. Relatively, soil fauna had more influence on alpine rhododendron decomposition. Two-way ANOVA showed that species, altitude and their interaction had significant impact on the litter mass loss and decomposition rate caused by soil fauna. The daily average contribution caused by soil fauna for the fir and rhododendron litter decomposition accounted for 0.25% and 0.44% in the first growing season, then 0.10% and 0.19% in the second growing season, both were higher than that of snow-covered season (0.07% and 0.12%). Regression analysis showed that the environmental factors (daily average temperature, freezing and

  2. Adaptive Evolution and Demographic History of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies)


    Källman, Thomas


    One of the major challenges in evolutionary biology is to determine the genetic basis of adaptive variation. In Norway spruce (Picea abies) the timing of bud set shows a very strong latitudinal cline despite a very low genetic differentiation between populations. The timing of bud set in Norway spruce is under strong genetic control and triggered by changes in photoperiod, but no genes controlling this response have so far been described. In this thesis we used a combination of functional stu...

  3. Individual taper models for natural cedar and Taurus fir mixed stands of Bucak Region, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Özçelik


    Full Text Available In this study, we assessed the performance of different types of taper equations for predicting tree diameters at specific heights and total stem volumes for mixed stands of Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich. and Taurus fir (Abies cilicica Carr.. We used data from mixed stands containing a total of 131 cedar and 124 Taurus fir trees. We evaluated six commonly used and well-known forestry taper functions developed by a variety of researchers (Biging (1984, Zakrzewski (1999, Muhairwe (1999, Fang et al. (2000, Kozak (2004, and Sharma and Zhang (2004. To address problems related to autocorrelation and multicollinearity in the hierarchical data associated with the construction of taper models, we used appropriate statistical procedures for the model fitting. We compared model performances based on the analysis of three goodness-of-fit statistics and found the compatible segmented model of Fang et al. (2000 to be superior in describing the stem profile and stem volume of both tree species in mixed stands. The equation used by Zakrzewski (1999 exhibited the poorest fitting results of the three taper equations. In general, we found segmented taper equations to provide more accurate predictions than variable-form models for both tree species. Results from the non-linear extra sum of squares method indicate that stem tapers differ among tree species in mixed stands. Therefore, a different taper function should be used for each tree species in mixed stands in the Bucak district. Using individual-specific taper equations yields more robust estimations and, therefore, will enhance the prediction accuracy of diameters at different heights and volumes in mixed stands.

  4. Soil chemistry and nutrition of North American spruce-fir stands: Evidence of recent change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joslin, J.D.; Kelly, J.M.; Van Miegroet, H.


    One set of hypotheses offered to explain the decline of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) in eastern North America focuses on the effect of acidic deposition on soil chemistry changes that may affect nutrient availability and root function. Long-term soils data suggests that soil acidification has occurred in some spruce stands over the past 50 yr, with plant uptake and cation leaching both contributing to the loss of cations. Studies of tree ring chemistry also have indicated changes in Ca/Al and Mg/Al ratios in red spruce wood, suggesting increases in the ionic strength of soil solution. Irrigation studies using strong acid inputs have demonstrated accelerated displacement of base cations from upper horizons. Spruce-fir (Abies spp.) nutrient budgets indicate that current net Ca and Mg leaching loss rates are of the same order of magnitude as losses to whole tree harvest removals, spread out over a 50-yr rotation. For most cations, red spruce foliar nutrient levels decline with elevation, but it is difficult to assess the contribution of the elevational gradient in atmospheric deposition to this pattern. Compared to northeastern sites, spruce-fir soil solutions in the southern Appalachians have higher nitrate levels and higher Al concentrations, which at times approach the Al toxicity threshold for red spruce seedlings and frequently are at levels known to interfere with cation uptake. There is little evidence that either nutrient deficiencies or Al toxicity are primary causes of red spruce decline in the Northeast, though both may play a role in the Southeast

  5. FIR interferometer and scattering measurements of ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C.H.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Fockedey, Y.; Vander Sluis, K.L.; Bennett, C.A.


    A 15-channel far-infrared (FIR) interferometer system has been constructed to measure the electron densities on the ATF plasmas. The system consists of a pair of cw 214-μm difluoromethane (CH 2 F 2 ) lasers, optically pumped by separate CO 2 lasers. The large number of channels is achieved by the use of reflective beam expansion optics to create a beam of 2 cm /times/ 45 cm. After passing through the plasma discharge, the elongated beam produced by the cylindrical mirrors is dissected by an array of 15 off-axis paraboloid reflectors, each of which illuminates a single Schottky-diode detector. The use of the beam expanding optics system reduces the number of optical elements required for the interferometer to approximately 2-3 per channel. The FIR laser beams are transported from the laser room to the experimental area by 25 mm i.d. dielectric waveguides purged with dry nitrogen. The system can also be operated at a wavelength of 119-μm by changing the gas in FIR laser cavities to methanol for high density experiments. Details of the system are described. A study is underway to determine the optimum design of a FIR scattering system for the ATF. This scattering system will be used to investigate density fluctuations with scale lengths from 0.1 cm to the plasma radius. The laser for this scattering system may be operated at wavelengths of 447, 307, 214, 184, and 119 μm with power levels of 100 to 500 mW. A summary of the study is presented. 6 refs., 1 fig

  6. ABI3 mediates dehydration stress recovery response in Arabidopsis thaliana by regulating expression of downstream genes. (United States)

    Bedi, Sonia; Sengupta, Sourabh; Ray, Anagh; Nag Chaudhuri, Ronita


    ABI3, originally discovered as a seed-specific transcription factor is now implicated to act beyond seed physiology, especially during abiotic stress. In non-seed plants, ABI3 is known to act in desiccation stress signaling. Here we show that ABI3 plays a role in dehydration stress response in Arabidopsis. ABI3 gene was upregulated during dehydration stress and its expression was maintained during subsequent stress recovery phases. Comparative gene expression studies in response to dehydration stress and stress recovery were done with genes which had potential ABI3 binding sites in their upstream regulatory regions. Such studies showed that several genes including known seed-specific factors like CRUCIFERIN1, CRUCIFERIN3 and LEA-group of genes like LEA76, LEA6, DEHYDRIN LEA and LEA-LIKE got upregulated in an ABI3-dependent manner, especially during the stress recovery phase. ABI3 got recruited to regions upstream to the transcription start site of these genes during dehydration stress response through direct or indirect DNA binding. Interestingly, ABI3 also binds to its own promoter region during such stress signaling. Nucleosomes covering potential ABI3 binding sites in the upstream sequences of the above-mentioned genes alter positions, and show increased H3 K9 acetylation during stress-induced transcription. ABI3 thus mediates dehydration stress signaling in Arabidopsis through regulation of a group of genes that play a role primarily during stress recovery phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Validation of early GOES-16 ABI on-orbit geometrical calibration accuracy using SNO method (United States)

    Yu, Fangfang; Shao, Xi; Wu, Xiangqian; Kondratovich, Vladimir; Li, Zhengping


    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) onboard the GOES-16 satellite, which was launched on 19 November 2016, is the first next-generation geostationary weather instrument in the west hemisphere. It has 16 spectral solar reflective and emissive bands located in three focal plane modules (FPM): one visible and near infrared (VNIR) FPM, one midwave infrared (MWIR), and one longwave infrared (LWIR) FPM. All the ABI bands are geometeorically calibrated with new techniques of Kalman filtering and Global Positioning System (GPS) to determine the accurate spacecraft attitude and orbit configuration to meet the challenging image navigation and registration (INR) requirements of ABI data. This study is to validate the ABI navigation and band-to-band registration (BBR) accuracies using the spectrally matched pixels of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) M-band data and the ABI images from the Simultaneous Nadir Observation (SNO) images. The preliminary results showed that during the ABI post-launch product test (PLPT) period, the ABI BBR errors at the y-direction (along the VIIRS track direction) is smaller than at the x-direction (along the VIIRS scan direction). Variations in the ABI BBR calibration residuals and navigation difference to VIIRS can be observed. Note that ABI is not operational yet and the data is experimental and still under testing. Effort is still ongoing to improve the ABI data quality.

  8. AbiA, a Lactococcal Abortive Infection Mechanism Functioning in Streptococcus thermophilus


    Tangney, Mark; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.


    The lactococcal abortive infection mechanisms AbiA and AbiG were introduced into Streptococcus thermophilus 4035, and a range of phages capable of infecting this host were examined for sensitivity to these mechanisms. AbiA proved effective against six phages when examined at a growth temperature of 30°C but had no effect on any of the phages when tested at 37 or 42°C. AbiG failed to affect any of the S. thermophilus phages at 30, 37, or 42°C.

  9. AbiA, a lactococcal abortive infection mechanism functioning in Streptococcus thermophilus. (United States)

    Tangney, Mark; Fitzgerald, Gerald F


    The lactococcal abortive infection mechanisms AbiA and AbiG were introduced into Streptococcus thermophilus 4035, and a range of phages capable of infecting this host were examined for sensitivity to these mechanisms. AbiA proved effective against six phages when examined at a growth temperature of 30 degrees C but had no effect on any of the phages when tested at 37 or 42 degrees C. AbiG failed to affect any of the S. thermophilus phages at 30, 37, or 42 degrees C.

  10. Douglas-fir tussock moth: an annotated bibliography. (United States)

    Robert W. Campbell; Lorna C. Youngs


    This annotated bibliography includes references to 338 papers. Each deals in some way with either the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata (McDunnough), or a related species. Specifically, 210 publications and 82 unpublished documents make some reference, at least, to the Douglas-fir tussock moth; 55 are concerned with other species in...

  11. Quantum mechanical features of optically pumped CW FIR lasers (United States)

    Seligson, D.; Leite, J. R. R.; Sanchez, A.; Feld, M. S.; Ducloy, M.


    Quantum mechanical predictions for the gain of an optically pumped CW FIR laser are presented for cases in which one or both of the pump and FIR transitions are pressure or Doppler broadened. The results are compared to those based on the rate equation model. Some of the quantum mechanical predictions are verified in CH3OH.

  12. First report of Phytophthora ramorum infecting grand fir in California (United States)

    K.L. Riley; G.A. Chastagner


    Phytophthora ramorum was detected on grand fir in 2003 and 2005 in a Christmas tree plantation near Los Gatos, CA, in association with infected California bay laurel. Isolates derived from stem lesions were used to inoculate grand fir seedlings in two tests. Isolations from lesions on inoculated plants were positive for P. ramorum...

  13. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions from Abies alba in a French forest. (United States)

    Moukhtar, S; Couret, C; Rouil, L; Simon, V


    Air quality studies need to be based on accurate and reliable data, particularly in the field of the emissions. Biogenic emissions from forests, crops, and grasslands are now considered as major compounds in photochemical processes. Unfortunately, depending on the type of vegetation, these emissions are not so often reliably defined. As an example, although the silver fir (Abies alba) is a very widespread conifer tree in the French and European areas, its standard emission rate is not available in the literature. This study investigates the isoprene and monoterpenes emission from A. alba in France measured during the fieldwork organised in the Fossé Rhénan, from May to June 2003. A dynamic cuvette method was used. Limonene was the predominant monoterpene emitted, followed by camphene, alpha-pinene and eucalyptol. No isoprene emission was detected. The four monoterpenes measured showed different behaviours according to micrometeorological conditions. In fact, emissions of limonene, alpha-pinene and camphene were temperature-dependant while eucalyptol emissions were temperature and light dependant. Biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions were modeled using information gathered during the field study. Emissions of the three monoterpenes previously quoted were achieved using the monoterpenes algorithm developed by Tingey et al. (1980) [Tingey D, Manning M, Grothaus L, Burns W. Influence of light and temperature on monoterpene emission rates from slash pine. Plant Physiol 1980;65: 797-801.] and the isoprene algorithm [Guenther, A., Monson, R., Fall, R., 1991. Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability: observations with eucalyptus and emission rate algorithm development. J Geophys Res 26A: 10799-10808.]; [Guenther, A., Zimmerman, P., Harley, P., Monson, R., Fall, R., 1993. Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability: model evaluation and sensitivity analysis. J Geophys Res 98D: 12609-12617.]) was used for the eucalyptol emission. With these

  14. Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications. (United States)

    Vatansever, Fatma; Hamblin, Michael R


    Far infrared (FIR) radiation (λ = 3-100 μm) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3- 12 μm) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects.

  15. Climate-Induced Mortality of Siberian Pine and Fir in the Lake Baikal Watershed, Siberia (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Petrova, IIya A.; Golyukov, Alexei S.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Yagunov, Mikhail N.


    Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) and fir (Abies sibirica) (so called "dark needle conifers", DNC) showed decreased radial growth increment within the Lake Baikal watershed since the 1980s with increasing mortality recorded since the year 2000. Tree ring width was strongly correlated with vapor pressure deficit, aridity and root zone moisture. Water stress from droughts made trees more susceptible to insect attacks causing mortality in about 10% of DNC stands within the Lake Baikal watershed. Within Siberia DNC mortality increased in the southern part of the DNC range. Biogeographically, tree mortality was located within the DNC - forest-steppes transition. Tree mortality was significantly correlated with drought and soil moisture anomalies. Within the interior of the DNC range mortality occurred within relief features with high water stress risk (i.e., steep convex south facing slopes with shallow well-drained soils). In general, DNC mortality in Siberia was induced by increased aridity and severe drought (inciting factors) in synergy with biotic attacks (contributing factor). In future climate scenarios with predicted increase in aridity DNC could be eliminated from the southern part of its current range and will be replaced by drought-resistant conifers and broadleaf species (e.g., Larix sibirica, Pinus silvestris, and Betula pubescence).

  16. Variation of Maximum Tree Height and Annual Shoot Growth of Smith Fir at Various Elevations in the Sygera Mountains, Southeastern Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Wang, Yafeng; Čufar, Katarina; Eckstein, Dieter; Liang, Eryuan


    Little is known about tree height and height growth (as annual shoot elongation of the apical part of vertical stems) of coniferous trees growing at various altitudes on the Tibetan Plateau, which provides a high-elevation natural platform for assessing tree growth performance in relation to future climate change. We here investigated the variation of maximum tree height and annual height increment of Smith fir (Abies georgei var. smithii) in seven forest plots (30 m×40 m) along two altitudinal transects between 3,800 m and 4,200/4,390 m above sea level (a.s.l.) in the Sygera Mountains, southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Four plots were located on north-facing slopes and three plots on southeast-facing slopes. At each site, annual shoot growth was obtained by measuring the distance between successive terminal bud scars along the main stem of 25 trees that were between 2 and 4 m high. Maximum/mean tree height and mean annual height increment of Smith fir decreased with increasing altitude up to the tree line, indicative of a stress gradient (the dominant temperature gradient) along the altitudinal transect. Above-average mean minimum summer (particularly July) temperatures affected height increment positively, whereas precipitation had no significant effect on shoot growth. The time series of annual height increments of Smith fir can be used for the reconstruction of past climate on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In addition, it can be expected that the rising summer temperatures observed in the recent past and anticipated for the future will enhance Smith fir's growth throughout its altitudinal distribution range. PMID:22396738

  17. Size of Douglas-fir trees in relation to distance from a mixed red alder - Douglas-fir stand (United States)

    R.E. Miller; D.L. Reukema; T.A. Max


    Variation in diameter, height, and stem volume of 57-year-old Douglas-fir(Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) was related to distance of these trees from a 27 m wide strip in the same Douglas-fir plantation that had been interplanted with red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.). Within the...

  18. Aby Warburg, Images and Exhibitions. Aby Warburg, Bilderreihen und Ausstellungen edited by Uwe Fleckner and Isabelle Woldt, Akademie Verlag, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Rampley


    Full Text Available This article reviews the latest volume in the collected works of Aby Warburg published by Akademie Verlag. The volume consists of exhibitions and plates of images Warburg compiled to illustrate lectures in the period between 1925-1929. The review focuses on two key issues raised by the publication: the light it casts on the Mnemosyne Atlas Warburg was working on at the same time, and, in particular, how it helps shape perceptions of the broader intellectual direction of Warburg's thinking in the final half decade of his life.

  19. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Abies nephrolepis (Pinaceae: Abietoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Keun Yi


    Full Text Available The plant chloroplast (cp genome has maintained a relatively conserved structure and gene content throughout evolution. Cp genome sequences have been used widely for resolving evolutionary and phylogenetic issues at various taxonomic levels of plants. Here, we report the complete cp genome of Abies nephrolepis. The A. nephrolepis cp genome is 121,336 base pairs (bp in length including a pair of short inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb of 139 bp each separated by a small single copy (SSC region of 54,323 bp (SSC and a large single copy region of 66,735 bp (LSC. It contains 114 genes, 68 of which are protein coding genes, 35 tRNA and four rRNA genes, six open reading frames, and one pseudogene. Seventeen repeat units and 64 simple sequence repeats (SSR have been detected in A. nephrolepis cp genome. Large IR sequences locate in 42-kb inversion points (1186 bp. The A. nephrolepis cp genome is identical to Abies koreana’s which is closely related to taxa. Pairwise comparison between two cp genomes revealed 140 polymorphic sites in each. Complete cp genome sequence of A. nephrolepis has a significant potential to provide information on the evolutionary pattern of Abietoideae and valuable data for development of DNA markers for easy identification and classification.

  20. Mechanical property estimation with ABI and FEM simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Kamal; Singh, P.K.; Das, Gautam; Bhasin, Vivek; Vaze, K.K.; Ghosh, A.K.


    A combined mechanical property evaluation methodology with ABI (Automated Ball Indentation) simulation and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) analysis is evolved to evaluate the mechanical properties for material. The experimental load deflection data is converted into meaningful mechanical properties for this material. An ANN database is generated with the help of contact type finite element analysis by numerically simulating the ABI process for various magnitudes of yield strength (σ yp ) (200 MPa - 500 MPa) with a range of strain hardening exponent (n) (0.1 - 0.5) and strength coefficient (K) (500 MPa - 1500 MPa). For the present problem, a ball indenter of 1.57 mm diameter having Young's modulus approximately 100 times more than the test piece is used to minimize the error due to indenter deformation. Test piece dimension is kept large enough in comparison to the indenter configuration in the simulation to minimize the deflection at the outer edge of the test piece. Further this database after the neural network training; is used to analyze measured material properties of different test pieces. The ANN predictions are reconfirmed with contact type finite element analysis for an arbitrary selected test sample. The methodology evolved in this work can be extended to predict material properties for any irradiated nuclear material in the service. (author)

  1. Similarity of nutrient uptake and root dimensions of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir at two contrasting sites in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanai, R; McFarlane, K; Lucash, M; Kulpa, S; Wood, D


    Nutrient uptake capacity is an important parameter in modeling nutrient uptake by plants. Researchers commonly assume that uptake capacity measured for a species can be used across sites. We tested this assumption by measuring the nutrient uptake capacity of intact roots of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmanni Parry) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) at Loch Vale Watershed and Fraser Experimental Forest in the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado. Roots still attached to the tree were exposed to one of three concentrations of nutrient solutions for time periods ranging from 1 to 96 hours, and solutions were analyzed for ammonium, nitrate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Surprisingly, the two species were indistinguishable in nutrient uptake within site for all nutrients (P > 0.25), but uptake rates differed by site. In general, nutrient uptake was higher at Fraser (P = 0.01, 0.15, 0.03, 0.18 for NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, and K{sup +}, respectively), which is west of the Continental Divide and has lower atmospheric deposition of N than Loch Vale. Mean uptake rates by site for ambient solution concentrations were 0.12 {micro}mol NH{sub 4}{sup +} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1}, 0.02 {micro}mol NO{sub 3}{sup -} g{sub fwt}{sup -1}, 0.21 {micro}mol Ca{sup 2+} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and 0.01 {micro}mol Mg{sup 2+} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1} at Loch Vale, and 0.21 {micro}mol NH{sub 4}{sup +} f{sub fwt}{sup -1}h{sup -1}, 0.04 {micro}mol NO{sub 3}{sup -} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1}, 0.51 {micro}mol Ca{sup 2+}g{sub fwt}{sup -1}h{sup -1}, and 0.07 {micro}mol Mg{sup 2+} f{sub fwt}{sup -1}h{sup -1} at Fraser. The importance of site conditions in determining uptake capacity should not be overlooked when parameterizing nutrient uptake models. We also characterized the root morphology of these two species and compared them to other tree species we have measured at various sites in the northeastern USA. Engelman spruce and subalpine fir

  2. Katastroofide järel heldelt lubatud abi pole alati kohale jõudnud / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo


    ÜRO peasekretär Kofi Annan kutsus üles täitma lubadusi anda abi Lõuna-Aasia tsunamis kannatanud riikidele. Artiklis tuuakse näiteid juhtumite kohta, kus looduskatastroofi järel on riikide abi jäänud lubatust väiksemaks

  3. Thinking Allowed: Use of Egocentric Speech after Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) (United States)

    Rees, Sian A.; Skidmore, David


    This paper explores the use of thinking aloud made by young people who have sustained a severe acquired brain injury (ABI). The phenomenon is compared with the concepts of egocentric speech and inner speech before the form of thinking aloud by pupils with ABI is examined. It is suggested that by using thinking aloud, this group of pupils is able…

  4. Students' Attitudes toward ABI/INFORM on CD-ROM: A Factor Analysis. (United States)

    Wang, Vicky; Lau, Shuk-fong

    Two years after the introduction of CD-ROM bibliographic database searching in the Memphis State University libraries (Tennessee), a survey was conducted to examine students' attitudes toward the business database, ABI/INFORM. ABI/INFORM contains indexes and abstracts of articles from over 800 journals on management, accounting, banking, human…

  5. “Lateral Control”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hanne Nina; Veierskov, Bjarke; Hansen-Møller, Jens


    In a conifer tree, such as Nordmann fir, Abies nordmanniana Spach, the leader bud and its immediate surroundings play a decisive role in crown architecture. As subapical branch buds are segregated from the leader meristem, resource allocation between ortho- and plagiotropic growth is determined....... The relationship between treetop buds in young trees was studied in the natural state and after surgical removal in early July of either the leader bud (decapitation) or the subapical whorl branch buds (destipitation). The two bud types showed consistent cytokinin profile differences but similar seasonal dynamics...... in cytokinins and auxin (IAA). After bud excision, ZRP increased dramatically in the subapical stem within 1 h, followed by ZR within 1 week. Supernormal levels of ZR were maintained through autumn and persisted in spring in the destipitated trees, but had returned to normal in the decapitated trees...

  6. Silver fir and Douglas fir are more tolerant to extreme droughts than Norway spruce in south-western Germany

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vitali, V.; Büntgen, Ulf; Bauhus, J.


    Roč. 23, č. 12 (2017), s. 5108-5119 ISSN 1354-1013 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : temperate forest trees * picea-abies karst. * climate- change * water relations * vosges mountains * growth-patterns * species stands * scots pine * alba * productivity * Abies alba * Central Europe * climate change * dendroecology * drought tolerance * forest management * Picea abies * Pseudotsuga menziesii Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 8.502, year: 2016

  7. Abscisic Acid Antagonizes Ethylene Production through the ABI4-Mediated Transcriptional Repression of ACS4 and ACS8 in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Dong, Zhijun; Yu, Yanwen; Li, Shenghui; Wang, Juan; Tang, Saijun; Huang, Rongfeng


    Increasing evidence has revealed that abscisic acid (ABA) negatively modulates ethylene biosynthesis, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To identify the factors involved, we conducted a screen for ABA-insensitive mutants with altered ethylene production in Arabidopsis. A dominant allele of ABI4, abi4-152, which produces a putative protein with a 16-amino-acid truncation at the C-terminus of ABI4, reduces ethylene production. By contrast, two recessive knockout alleles of ABI4, abi4-102 and abi4-103, result in increased ethylene evolution, indicating that ABI4 negatively regulates ethylene production. Further analyses showed that expression of the ethylene biosynthesis genes ACS4, ACS8, and ACO2 was significantly decreased in abi4-152 but increased in the knockout mutants, with partial dependence on ABA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR assays showed that ABI4 directly binds the promoters of these ethylene biosynthesis genes and that ABA enhances this interaction. A fusion protein containing the truncated ABI4-152 peptide accumulated to higher levels than its full-length counterpart in transgenic plants, suggesting that ABI4 is destabilized by its C terminus. Therefore, our results demonstrate that ABA negatively regulates ethylene production through ABI4-mediated transcriptional repression of the ethylene biosynthesis genes ACS4 and ACS8 in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Linking carbon supply to root cell-wall chemistry and mechanics at high altitudes in Abies georgei (United States)

    Genet, Marie; Li, Mingcai; Luo, Tianxiang; Fourcaud, Thierry; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Stokes, Alexia


    Background and Aims The mobile carbon supply to different compartments of a tree is affected by climate, but its impact on cell-wall chemistry and mechanics remains unknown. To understand better the variability in root growth and biomechanics in mountain forests subjected to substrate mass movement, we investigated root chemical and mechanical properties of mature Abies georgei var. smithii (Smith fir) growing at different elevations on the Tibet–Qinghai Plateau. Methods Thin and fine roots (0·1–4·0 mm in diameter) were sampled at three different elevations (3480, 3900 and 4330 m, the last corresponding to the treeline). Tensile resistance of roots of different diameter classes was measured along with holocellulose and non-structural carbon (NSC) content. Key Results The mean force necessary to break roots in tension decreased significantly with increasing altitude and was attributed to a decrease in holocellulose content. Holocellulose was significantly lower in roots at the treeline (29·5 ± 1·3 %) compared with those at 3480 m (39·1 ± 1·0 %). Roots also differed significantly in NSC, with 35·6 ± 4·1 mg g−1 dry mass of mean total soluble sugars in roots at 3480 m and 18·8 ± 2·1 mg g−1 dry mass in roots at the treeline. Conclusions Root mechanical resistance, holocellulose and NSC content all decreased with increasing altitude. Holocellulose is made up principally of cellulose, the biosynthesis of which depends largely on NSC supply. Plants synthesize cellulose when conditions are optimal and NSC is not limiting. Thus, cellulose synthesis in the thin and fine roots measured in our study is probably not a priority in mature trees growing at very high altitudes, where climatic factors will be limiting for growth. Root NSC stocks at the treeline may be depleted through over-demand for carbon supply due to increased fine root production or winter root growth. PMID:21186240

  9. Cooperation of three WRKY-domain transcription factors WRKY18, WRKY40, and WRKY60 in repressing two ABA-responsive genes ABI4 and ABI5 in Arabidopsis


    Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Yan, Lu; Wu, Zhen; Mei, Chao; Lu, Kai; Yu, Yong-Tao; Liang, Shan; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Da-Peng


    Three evolutionarily closely related WRKY-domain transcription factors WRKY18, WRKY40, and WRKY60 in Arabidopsis were previously identified as negative abscisic acid (ABA) signalling regulators, of which WRKY40 regulates ABI4 and ABI5 expression, but it remains unclear whether and how the three transcription factors cooperate to regulate expression of ABI4 and ABI5. In the present experiments, it was shown that WRKY18 and WRKY60, like WRKY40, interact with the W-box in the promoters of ABI4 a...


    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  11. The relation between ankle-brachial index (ABI and coronary artery disease severity and risk factors: an angiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current study aims to determine the relation between ankle–brachialindex (ABI and angiographic findings and major cardiovascular risk factors in patients withsuspected coronary artery diseases (CAD in Isfahan.METHODS: In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytic research, patients with suspected CADwere studied. Characteristics of studied subjects including demographics, familial history, pastmedical history and atherosclerotic risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension,hyperlipidemia and smoking were obtained using a standard questionnaire. ABI was measuredin all studied patients. ABI ≤ 0.9 (ABI+ was considered as peripheral vessel disease and ABI >0.9 (ABI- was considered as normal. Then, all studied patients underwent coronary arteryangiography. The results of the questionnaire and angiographic findings were compared in ABI+and ABI- groups. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15 using ANOVA, t-test, Spearman's rankcorrelation coefficient, and discriminant analysis.RESULTS: In this study, 125 patients were investigated. ABI ≤ 0.9 was seen in 25 patients (20%.The prevalence of ABI+ among men and women was 25.9% and 7.5%, respectively (P = 0.01. Theprevalence of atherosclerotic risk factors was significantly higher in ABI+ patients than in ABIones(P < 0.05. ABI+ patients had more significant stenosis than ABI- ones. The mean ofocclusion was significantly higher in ABI+ patients with left main artery (LMA, right coronaryartery (RCA, left anterior descending artery (LAD, diagonal artery 1 (D1 and left circumflexartery (LCX involvements (P < 0.05.CONCLUSION: The findings of this research indicated that ABI could be a useful method inassessing both the atherosclerotic risk factors and the degree of coronary involvements insuspected patients. However, in order to make more accurate decisions for using this method indiagnosing and preventing CAD, we should plan further studies in large sample sizes of generalpopulation

  12. Design and Implementation of Direct Form FIR Filter


    Kumar, Hanny; Kumar, Kamal


    The research article presents the design of the direct form of the Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter using VHDL programming language. Multimedia technology and broadband communication demand the low power and high performance design applications in Digital Signal Processing (DSP). The digital filters are most important element of the communication system and DSP. In the paper, 7 tap FIR filter is implemented in Xilinx 14.2 software and functionally simulated in Modelsim 10.1 b software. Th...

  13. FIR Filter of DS-CDMA UWB Modem Transmitter (United States)

    Kang, Kyu-Min; Cho, Sang-In; Won, Hui-Chul; Choi, Sang-Sung

    This letter presents low-complexity digital pulse shaping filter structures of a direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) ultra wide-band (UWB) modem transmitter with a ternary spreading code. The proposed finite impulse response (FIR) filter structures using a look-up table (LUT) have the effect of saving the amount of memory by about 50% to 80% in comparison to the conventional FIR filter structures, and consequently are suitable for a high-speed parallel data process.

  14. Arabidopsis ABI5 plays a role in regulating ROS homeostasis by activating CATALASE 1 transcription in seed germination. (United States)

    Bi, Chao; Ma, Yu; Wu, Zhen; Yu, Yong-Tao; Liang, Shan; Lu, Kai; Wang, Xiao-Fang


    It has been known that ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) plays a vital role in regulating seed germination. In the present study, we showed that inhibition of the catalase activity with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) inhibits seed germination of Col-0, abi5 mutants and ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines. Compared with Col-0, the seeds of abi5 mutants showed more sensitive to 3-AT during seed germination, while the seeds of ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines showed more insensitive. H 2 O 2 showed the same effect on seed germination of Col-0, abi5 mutants and ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines as 3-AT. These results suggest that ROS is involved in the seed germination mediated by ABI5. Further, we observed that T-DNA insertion mutants of the three catalase members in Arabidopsis displayed 3-AT-insensitive or -hypersensitive phenotypes during seed germination, suggesting that these catalase members regulate ROS homeostasis in a highly complex way. ABI5 affects reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis by affecting CATALASE expression and catalase activity. Furthermore, we showed that ABI5 directly binds to the CAT1 promoter and activates CAT1 expression. Genetic evidence supports the idea that CAT1 functions downstream of ABI5 in ROS signaling during seed germination. RNA-sequencing analysis indicates that the transcription of the genes involved in ROS metabolic process or genes responsive to ROS stress is impaired in abi5-1 seeds. Additionally, expression changes in some genes correlative to seed germination were showed due to the change in ABI5 expression under 3-AT treatment. Together, all the findings suggest that ABI5 regulates seed germination at least partly by affecting ROS homeostasis.

  15. The ABA-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor links redox, hormone and sugar signaling pathways. (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Kerchev, Pavel I; Hancock, Robert D


    The cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) hub processes information from metabolism and the environment and so regulates plant growth and defense through integration with the hormone signaling network. One key pathway of redox control involves interactions with ABSCISIC ACID (ABA). Accumulating evidence suggests that the ABA-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor plays a key role in transmitting information concerning the abundance of ascorbate and hence the ability of cells to buffer oxidative challenges. ABI4 is required for the ascorbate-dependent control of growth, a process that involves enhancement of salicylic acid (SA) signaling and inhibition of jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. Low redox buffering capacity reinforces SA- JA- interactions through the mediation of ABA and ABI4 to fine-tune plant growth and defense in relation to metabolic cues and environmental challenges. Moreover, ABI4-mediated pathways of sugar sensitivity are also responsive to the abundance of ascorbate, providing evidence of overlap between redox and sugar signaling pathways.

  16. Portugal palus ELilt abi põlengutega võitlemiseks / Kajar Kase

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kase, Kajar


    Sellel aastal on Portugali metsatulekahjudes hukkunud juba 15 inimest ja hetkel on kahjustatud 140 000 hektarit metsa. Appi on tõtanud Prantsusmaa, Saksamaa, Itaalia, Hispaania ja Hollandi helikopterid ja lennukid. Kaart: Abi Portugalile

  17. NOAA GOES-R Series Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) Level 1b Radiances (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) instrument samples the radiance of the Earth in sixteen spectral bands using several arrays of detectors in the instrument’s...

  18. Lignin distribution in waterlogged archaeological Picea abies (L.) Karst degraded by erosion bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nanna Bjerregaard; Schmitt, Uwe Schmitt; Koch, Gerald


    The lignin distribution in poles of waterlogged archaeological Picea abies (L.) Karst, which was decayed by erosion bacteria (EB) under anoxic conditions for approximately 400 years, was topochemically identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution UV-microspectrophotome......The lignin distribution in poles of waterlogged archaeological Picea abies (L.) Karst, which was decayed by erosion bacteria (EB) under anoxic conditions for approximately 400 years, was topochemically identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution UV...

  19. Fire severity unaffected by spruce beetle outbreak in spruce-fir forests in southwestern Colorado. (United States)

    Andrus, Robert A; Veblen, Thomas T; Harvey, Brian J; Hart, Sarah J


    Recent large and severe outbreaks of native bark beetles have raised concern among the general public and land managers about potential for amplified fire activity in western North America. To date, the majority of studies examining bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fire severity in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have focused on outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests, but few studies, particularly field studies, have addressed the effects of the severity of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) infestation on subsequent fire severity in subalpine Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests. In Colorado, the annual area infested by spruce beetle outbreaks is rapidly rising, while MPB outbreaks are subsiding; therefore understanding this relationship is of growing importance. We collected extensive field data in subalpine forests in the eastern San Juan Mountains, southwestern Colorado, USA, to investigate whether a gray-stage (fire) spruce beetle infestation affected fire severity. Contrary to the expectation that bark beetle infestation alters subsequent fire severity, correlation and multivariate generalized linear regression analysis revealed no influence of pre-fire spruce beetle severity on nearly all field or remotely sensed measurements of fire severity. Findings were consistent across moderate and extreme burning conditions. In comparison to severity of the pre-fire beetle outbreak, we found that topography, pre-outbreak basal area, and weather conditions exerted a stronger effect on fire severity. Our finding that beetle infestation did not alter fire severity is consistent with previous retrospective studies examining fire activity following other bark beetle outbreaks and reiterates the overriding influence of climate that creates conditions conducive to large, high-severity fires in the subalpine zone of Colorado. Both bark beetle outbreaks and

  20. Fifteen chord FIR polarimetry system on MTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, B.W.


    A far-infrared (FIR) polarimeter diagnostic has been added to an existing fifteen chord interferometer on the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX). The polarimeter utilizes a new technique for determination of the Faraday rotation angle based on phase measurements of a rotating polarization ellipse. This technique allows the rotation angle to be determined even in the presence of signal amplitude variations caused by refraction. The implementation of this instrument requires no new detectors and minimal optics, making it quite inexpensive to add on to existing multichord interferometers. The MTX polarimeter has been operating for about a year and has achieved a resolution of ≤0.2 degrees with a bandwidth of ≅1 kHz and a chord spacing of 1.5 cm. Typical Faraday rotation angles on MTX are in the range of 5--15 degrees. To obtain the poloidal field, the line-integrated density and Faraday rotation profiles are inverted in a manner consistent with the Grad-Shafranov equilibrium to first order in the inverse aspect-ratio expansion. Profile measurements during normal ohmic operation are presented

  1. Development of FIR arrays with integrating amplifiers (United States)

    Young, Erick T.


    The development of optimized photoconductor arrays suitable for far infrared space astronomical applications are described. Although the primary impetus is the production of a 16 by 16 element Ge:Ga demonstration array for SIRTF, the extension of this technology to Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) is considered. The optimization of Ge:Ga and Ge:Be photoconductor materials is discussed. In collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, measurements of FIR photoconductors with quantum efficiencies greater than 20 percent at 100 micrometers, and dark currents below 300 electrons/s are presented. Integrating J-FET amplifier technology is discussed. The current generation of integrating amplifiers has a demonstrated read noise of less than 20 electrons for an integration time of 100 s. The design is shown for a stackable 16 x n Ge:Ga array that utilizes a 16-channel monolithic version of the J-FET integrator. A part of the design is the use of a thin, thermally insulating substrate that allows the electronics to operate at the optimum temperature of 50 K while maintaining thermal and optical isolation from the detectors at 2 K. The power dissipation for the array is less than 16 mW. The array design may particularly be applicable to high resolution imaging spectrometers for LDR.

  2. Functional analysis of the isoforms of an ABI3-like factor of Pisum sativum generated by alternative splicing. (United States)

    Gagete, Andrés P; Riera, Marta; Franco, Luis; Rodrigo, M Isabel


    At least seven isoforms (PsABI3-1 to PsABI3-7) of a putative, pea ABI3-like factor, originated by alternative splicing, have been identified after cDNA cloning. A similar variability had previously only been described for monocot genes. The full-length isoform, PsABI3-1, contains the typical N-terminal acidic domains and C-terminal basic subdomains, B1 to B3. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis revealed that the gene is expressed just in seeds, starting at middle embryogenesis; no gene products are observed in embryo axes after 18 h post-imbibition although they are more persistent in cotyledons. The activity of the isoforms was studied by yeast one-hybrid assays. When yeast was transformed with the isoforms fused to the DNA binding domain of Gal4p, only the polypeptides PsABI3-2 and PsABI3-7 failed to complement the activity of Gal4p. Acidic domains A1 and A2 exhibit transactivating activity, but the former requires a small C-terminal extension to be active. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that PsABI3 is able to heterodimerize with Arabidopsis thaliana ABI5, thus proving that PsABI3 is functionally active. The minimum requirement for the interaction PsABI3-AtABI5 is the presence of the subdomain B1 with an extension, 81 amino acids long, at their C-terminal side. Finally, a transient onion transformation assay showed that both the active PsABI3-1 and the inactive PsABI3-2 isoforms are localized to nuclei. Considering that the major isoforms remain approximately constant in developing seeds although their relative proportion varied, the possible role of splicing in the regulatory network of ABA signalling is discussed.

  3. Frontiers in Reproduction (FIR): An Assessment of Success1 (United States)

    Ascoli, Mario; Mebane, Dorianne; Fazleabas, Asgerally T.


    The Frontiers in Reproduction (FIR) course has been held annually since 1998 at the Marine Biological Laboratories in Woods Hole, MA. The primary purpose of the course is to train young reproductive biologists in cutting-edge techniques that would strengthen their career opportunities. An initial evaluation of the FIR course was conducted by surveying the participants who took the course between 1998 and 2002. The findings of this survey were published in Biology of Reproduction in 2006, which highlighted the overall positive impact the course had on the training and upward career trajectory of the participants during the first 5 yr. The current study was designed to access the continued impact of FIR at the 10-yr mark by evaluating the participants who took the course between 1998 and 2008 using two different survey mechanisms. Based on these evaluations and feedback from the participants, it was evident that 1) FIR continues to have a significant positive impact on the careers of the participants, 2) the majority of the participants continue to be involved in research or administration related to the reproductive sciences, 3) nearly 90% of the attendees have been successful in obtaining funding for their research, and 4) most alumni have published at least five manuscripts in higher impact journals since they took the course. Therefore, it is evident that FIR participants are highly successful and continue to significantly impact the advances in the reproductive sciences worldwide. PMID:27335071

  4. 76 FR 16236 - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Tripoli (HLLL) Flight Information Region (FIR) (United States)


    ... Tripoli (HLLL) Flight Information Region (FIR) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department... the Tripoli (HLLL) Flight Information Region (FIR) by all U.S. air carriers; U.S. commercial operators...) Flight Information Region (FIR). (a) Applicability. This section applies to the following persons: (1...

  5. Methylated Fatty Acids from Heartwood and Bark of Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba, Picea abies, and Larix decidua: Effect of Strong Acid Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zidan Mohamed Salem


    Full Text Available Methylated fatty acid (FA compounds in the heartwood and bark of some softwood species, specifically Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba, Picea abies, and Larix decidua, grown in the Czech Republic were evaluated. Strong H2SO4 was used for methylation of the lipids. The highest content of lipid was found in P. abies bark (40.132 mg/g o.d. sample, and the lowest content was in A. alba wood (11.027 mg/g o.d. sample. The highest concentration of FAs was observed in L. decidua bark. The highest percentages of FAs in wood of P. sylvestris were arachidic acid and oleic acid. In bark, the highest percentages of FAs were stearic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid. The FAs with the highest concentrations in A. alba wood were arachidic acid, palmitic acid, pentadecanoic acid, and margarinic, and those in bark were behenic acid, lignoceric acid, and arachidic acid. P. abies wood FAs showed arachidic acid, palmitic acid, and margarinic acid, and the bark contained lignoceric acid and arachidic acid. The FAs of L. decidua wood were arachidic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid, and in bark they were pentacosylic acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, lignoceric acid, arachidic acid, and behenic acid. The lack of typically dominant unsaturated fatty acids (e.g. 18:1, 18:2, compared to literature values were attributed to the application of strong acid for the hydrolysis.

  6. Insect pests on firs in air pollution areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeffer, A


    Fir trees growing in areas contaminated by fluorine exhalations show clearly signs of a chronic injury leading finally to the death of the trees. In such contaminated areas individual trees show different degrees of susceptibility and resistance. In contaminated fir stands the disappearance of primary, monophagous bark beetles of the genus Pityokteines Fuchs was noted; while Pissodes piceae Ill. and the twig inhabiting bark beetles Cryphalus piceae Rtzb. C. abietis Rtzb. and Pityophthorus pityographus Rtzb. remained in small numbers. A population increase, however, occurred in Dreyfusia piceae Rtzb., D. nuesslini C.B. and in the wood-wasp Panrurus juvencus L.

  7. Simulations of a FIR Oscillator with Large Slippage parameter at Jefferson Lab for FIR/UV pump-probe experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, Stephen V.; Campbell, L. T.; McNeil, B.W.T.; Neil, George R.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Williams, Gwyn P.


    We previously proposed a dual FEL configuration on the UV Demo FEL at Jefferson Lab that would allow simultaneous lasing at FIR and UV wavelengths. The FIR source would be an FEL oscillator with a short wiggler providing diffraction-limited pulses with pulse energy exceeding 50 microJoules, using the exhaust beam from a UVFEL as the input electron beam. Since the UV FEL requires very short pulses, the input to the FIR FEL is extremely short compared to a slippage length and the usual Slowly Varying Envelope Approximation (SVEA) does not apply. We use a non-SVEA code to simulate this system both with a small energy spread (UV laser off) and with large energy spread (UV laser on)

  8. Inhibition of the growth of Alexandrium tamarense by algicidal substances in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata). (United States)

    Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Li, Hong-Ye; Zhang, Xin-Lian; Qi, Yu-Zao


    The wood sawdust from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) exhibited stronger inhibition on the growth of Alexandrium tamarense than those from alder (Alnus cremastogyne), pine (Pinus massoniana), birch (Betula alnoides) and sapele (Entandrophragma cylindricum). The water extract, acetone-water extract and essential oil from fir sawdust were all shown to inhibit the growth of A. tamarense. The inhibition of fir essential oil was the strongest among all the above wood sources while the half effective concentration was only 0.65 mg/L. These results suggested that the fir essential oil may play an important role in the algicidal effect of Chinese fir.

  9. AbiV, a Novel Antiphage Abortive Infection Mechanism on the Chromosome of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Jakob Brandt Borup; Moineau, Sylvain; Fortier, Louis-Charles


    phenotype was caused by a chromosomal gene turned on by a promoter from the inserted construct. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis confirmed that there were higher levels of transcription of a downstream open reading frame (ORF) in the phage-resistant integrants than in the phage-sensitive strain L. lactis...... searches revealed no homology to other phage resistance mechanisms, and thus, this novel Abi mechanism was designated AbiV. The mode of action of AbiV is unknown, but the activity of AbiV prevented cleavage of the replicated phage DNA of 936-like phages....

  10. Time consumption and productivity of skidding Silver fir (Abies alba Mill. round wood in reduced accessibility conditions: a case study in windthrow salvage logging form Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Alexandru Borz


    Full Text Available Natural calamities (especially windthrows may generate difficultwork conditions in timber harvesting operations. When associated with the reduced accessibility conditions, the work conditions become even harder. This study investigates the time consumptions on specific work elements in timber skidding, develops time prediction models for timber skidding work elements and assesses the production rates for timber skidding in reduced accessibility stands where windthrow salvage cuttings were applied.Following a time study done for two skidders (TAF 690 OP and TAF 657operating simultaneously in the same felling area, it has been found that, in average, in a delay free skidding cycle time, lateral winching accounted for a share of 26-33%, on-trail skidding accounted for a share of 64-71% and landing operations accounted for a share of 3%. Total delays accounted for 51% and 43% of the total work time in the case of TAF 690 OP skidder and TAF 657 skidder, respectively. Regression models for lateral winching(both skidders revealed that the winching distance and the number of logs were the relevant predictors for the time consumption estimation (p<0.01, whereas in the case of on-trail skidding only the skidding distance was relevant (p <0.01. For the overall skidding operation (excluding landingoperations winching and skidding distances were found as relevantpredictors (p <0.01 for 690 OP, whereas the number of logs became anadditional relevant predictor for 657. In conditions of an average winching distance of 19.90 m and an average on-trail skidding distance of 980.32 m, the time study yielded a net production rate of 7.70 m3 h-1 and a gross production rate of 3.75 m3 h-1 in the case of TAF 690 OP skidder. By comparison, in the case of TAF 657 skidder, for an average winching distance of 22.86 m and an average on-trail skidding distance of 871.00 m, the net and gross production rates were of 5.61 m3 h-1 and 3.20 m3 h-1 respectively.

  11. Time consumption and productivity of skidding Silver fir (Abies alba Mill. round wood in reduced accessibility conditions: a case study in windthrow salvage logging form Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Alexandru Borz


    Full Text Available Natural calamities (especially windthrows may generate difficult work conditions in timber harvesting operations. When associated with the reduced accessibility conditions, the work conditions become even harder. This study investigates the time consumptions on specific work elements in timber skidding, develops time prediction models for timber skidding work elements and assesses the production rates for timber skidding in reduced accessibility stands where windthrow salvage cuttings were applied. Following a time study done for two skidders (TAF 690 OP and TAF 657 operating simultaneously in the same felling area, it has been found that, in average, in a delay free skidding cycle time, lateral winching accounted for a share of 26-33%, on-trail skidding accounted for a share of 64-71% and landing operations accounted for a share of 3%.Total delays accounted for 51% and 43% of the total work time in the case of TAF 690 OP skidder and TAF 657skidder respectively. Regression models for lateral winching (both skidders revealed that the winching distance and the number of logs were the relevant predictors for the time consumption estimation (p<0.01, whereas in the case of on-trail skidding only the skidding distance was relevant (p<0.01. For the overall skidding operation (excluding landing operations winching and skidding distances were found as relevant predictors (p<0.01 in case of TAF 690 OP, whereas the number of logs became an additional relevant predictor in case of TAF 657.In conditions of an average winching distance of 19.90 m and an average on-trail skidding distance of 980.32 m, the time study yielded a net production rate of 7.70 m3h-1 and a gross production rate of 3.75 m3h-1 in the case of TAF 690 OP skidder. By comparison, in the case of TAF 657 skidder, for an average winching distance of 22.86 m and an average on-trail skidding distance of 871.00 m, the net and gross production rates were of 5.61 m3h-1 and 3.20 m3h-1 respectively.

  12. Factors affecting diurnal stem contraction in young Douglas-fir (United States)

    Warren D. Devine; Constance Harrington


    Diurnal fluctuation in a tree's stem diameter is a function of daily growth and of the tree's water balance, as water is temporarily stored in the relatively elastic outer cambial and phloem tissues. On a very productive site in southwestern Washington, U.S.A we used recording dendrometers to monitor stem diameter fluctuations of Douglas-fir at plantation...

  13. Predicting Douglas-fir's response to a warming climate (United States)

    Andrea Watts; Sheel Bansal; Connie Harrington; Brad. St. Clair


    Douglas-fir is an iconic tree in the Pacific Northwest. Although individual trees may appear to be identical, genetic differences within each tree have resulted from adaptation to the local environment. These genetic differences over time have resulted in differences among populations that are important to the species' survival and growth in changing climates....

  14. MIMO FIR feedforward design for zero error tracking control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heertjes, M.F.; Bruijnen, D.J.H.


    This paper discusses a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) finite impulse response (FIR) feedforward design. The design is intended for systems that have (non-)minimum phase zeros in the plant description. The zeros of the plant (either minimum or non-minimum phase) are used in the shaping of the

  15. Some economic considerations in thinning Douglas-fir. (United States)

    Norman P. Worthington


    Many thousands of acres of young Douglas-fir stands in western Washington are ready for commercial thinning. This is true even after liberal allowance is made for premerchantable and under stocked stands, unfavorable topography, and lack of markets. However, with but few exceptions, regular systematic thinning is not being practiced even in favorably located, operable...

  16. Developmental decline in height growth in Douglas-fir. (United States)

    Barbara J. Bond; Nicole M. Czarnomski; Clifton Cooper; Michael E. Day; Michael S. Greenwood


    The characteristic decline in height growth that occurs over a tree's lifespan is often called "age-related decline." But is the reduction in height growth in aging trees a function of age or of size? We grafted shoot tips across different ages and sizes of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees to determine whether...

  17. Effects of bear damage on Douglas-fir lumber recovery (United States)

    Eini C. Lowell; Dennis Dykstra; George McFadden


    Bear activily resulting in injury to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) trees has been documented as early as the mid-1850s in the Pacific Northwest. The study reported in this article was designed to help managers decide whether the common practice of removing the damaged but potentially valuable butt section of the bottom log and...

  18. Stem infection by dwarf mistletoe in California firs (United States)

    John R. Parmeter; Robert F. Scharpf


    In fir stands infested with dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium abietinum Engelm. ex Munz.), the majority of susceptible understory trees had one or more stem infections. Most stem infections entered through infected branches and grew slowly around the stem, resulting in small amounts of decay or stem killing. Decay was not found in trees less than 50...

  19. Two commercial thinnings in century-old Douglas-fir. (United States)

    Robert W. Steele


    As young-growth forests replace old-growth forests as the primary source of Douglas-fir raw material, the technique of managing young stands becomes increasingly important. Managers of young-growth timber need to know whether it is economical and silviculturally feasible to make thinnings in stands that are close to rotation age. Final harvest of some stands of this...

  20. Light thinning in century-old Douglas-fir. (United States)

    Robert W. Steele


    A stand-improvement study in century-old Douglas-fir at the Wind River Experimental Forest provides an example of a commercial thinning that gave a substantial intermediate harvest, salvaged considerable material that would have been lost through mortality, greatly increased the net growth rate, and improved the general vigor of the stand, leaving the forest in a more...

  1. FIR signature verification system characterizing dynamics of handwriting features (United States)

    Thumwarin, Pitak; Pernwong, Jitawat; Matsuura, Takenobu


    This paper proposes an online signature verification method based on the finite impulse response (FIR) system characterizing time-frequency characteristics of dynamic handwriting features. First, the barycenter determined from both the center point of signature and two adjacent pen-point positions in the signing process, instead of one pen-point position, is used to reduce the fluctuation of handwriting motion. In this paper, among the available dynamic handwriting features, motion pressure and area pressure are employed to investigate handwriting behavior. Thus, the stable dynamic handwriting features can be described by the relation of the time-frequency characteristics of the dynamic handwriting features. In this study, the aforesaid relation can be represented by the FIR system with the wavelet coefficients of the dynamic handwriting features as both input and output of the system. The impulse response of the FIR system is used as the individual feature for a particular signature. In short, the signature can be verified by evaluating the difference between the impulse responses of the FIR systems for a reference signature and the signature to be verified. The signature verification experiments in this paper were conducted using the SUBCORPUS MCYT-100 signature database consisting of 5,000 signatures from 100 signers. The proposed method yielded equal error rate (EER) of 3.21% on skilled forgeries.

  2. Quantifying the FIR interaction enhancement in paired galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Cong; Sulentic, J.W.


    We studied the ''Catalogue of Isolated Pairs of Galaxies in the Northern Hemisphere'' by Karachentsev (1972) and a well matched comparison sample taken from the ''Catalogue of Isolated Galaxies'' by Karachentseva (1973) in order to quantify the enhanced FIR emission properties of interacting galaxies. 8 refs, 6 figs

  3. Response of individual Douglas-fir trees to release. (United States)

    Donald L. Reukema


    To evaluate effects of different degrees of release on individual Douglas-fir trees, a study was started in 1952 in a 41-year-old, site IV stand at the Wind River Experimental Forest. A remeasurement at the end of four growing seasons showed that dominants respond more quickly and positively to the removal of competing trees than codominants or intermediates. A second...

  4. True fir-hemlock spacing trials: design and first results. (United States)

    Robert O. Curtis; Gary W. Clendenen; Jan A. Henderson


    A series of 18 precommercial thinning trials was established in true fir-hemlock stands in the Olympic Mountains and along the west side of the Cascade Range in Washington and Oregon from 1987 through 1994. This paper documents establishment of these installations and presents some preliminary observations and results. Substantial differences in growth rates in height...

  5. Reproduction following small group cuttings in virgin Douglas-fir. (United States)

    Norman P. Worthington


    Quick and adequate regeneration of Douglas-fir forests as they are harvested is a major forest management problem in the Puget Sound region. Clear-cutting by staggered settings has not always resulted in adequate regeneration even where no part of the area is more than one-fourth mile from a seed source. Single tree selection, experimented with extensively, has many...

  6. Effect of abscisic acid on stomatal opening in isolated epidermal strips of abi mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, MRG; Prins, HBA

    Abscisic acid-insensitive mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana L. var. Landsberg erecta were selected for their decreased sensitivity to ABA during germination. Two of these mutants, abi-1 and abi-2, display a wilty phenotype as adult plants, indicating disturbed water relations. Experiments were

  7. Nutrients in foliage and wet deposition of nitrate, ammonium and sulfate in washing tree top in Abies religiosa forests (United States)

    E.R Peña-Mendoza; A. Gómez-Guerrero; Mark Fenn; P. Hernández de la Rosa; D. Alvarado Rosales


    The nutritional content and tree top in the forests are evaluated of Abies religiosa, San Miguel Tlaixpan (SMT) and Rio Frio (RF), State of Mexico. The work had two parts. In the first, the nutritional content was evaluated in new foliage (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) in Abies religiosa trees, in periods of spring, summer and winter, in...

  8. Trapping Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae) with pheromone baited multiple-funnel traps does not reduce Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) mortality (United States)

    R.A. Progar; N. Sturdevant; M.J. Rinella


    Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins) (DFB) causes considerable mortality to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in western North American forests. We evaluated the use of semiochemical-baited multiple-funnel traps for the protection of small, high-value stands of trees, such as those occurring...

  9. Exogenous putrescine affects endogenous polyamine levels and the development of Picea abies somatic embryos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondráková, Zuzana; Eliášová, Kateřina; Vágner, Martin; Martincová, Olga; Cvikrová, Milena


    Roč. 75, č. 2 (2015), s. 405-414 ISSN 0167-6903 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13050 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Exogenous putrescine * Somatic embryogenesis * Picea abies Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.333, year: 2015

  10. In Vitro antioxidant activity of extracts from the leaves of Abies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditionally, the leaves of Abies pindrow Royle are employed as an ayurvedic remedy for fever, hypoglycaemic, respiratory and inflammatory conditions. In this study, dichloromethane, methanol and acetone extracts of A. pindrow leaves were analysed for their phytochemical content and in vitro antioxidant activities.

  11. Norway spruce (Picea abies) genetic transformation with modified Cry3A gene of Bacillus thuringiensis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bříza, Jindřich; Pavingerová, Daniela; Vlasák, Josef; Niedermeierová, Hana


    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2013), s. 395-400 ISSN 0001-527X R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71290; GA ČR(CZ) GAP502/11/1471 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cry3A gene modification * Picea abies * Agrobacterium tumefaciens Subject RIV: EB - Genetic s ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.389, year: 2013

  12. Complex bud architecture and cell-specific chemical patterns enable supercooling of Picea abies bud primordial (United States)

    Bud primordia of Picea abies, despite a frozen shoot, stay ice free down to -50 °C by a mechanism termed supercooling whose biophysical and biochemical requirements are poorly understood. Bud architecture was assessed by 3D-reconstruction, supercooling and freezing patterns by infrared video thermog...

  13. Pakistan vajab abi - kas maailma tõesti ei huvita? / Urmas Jaagant

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-


    Pakistan saab igal aastal suurt rahvusvahelist abi. Mitmed riigid on üleujutustes Pakistani toetanud nüüdki kümnete miljonite dollaritega, kuid riikide tahe annetada on erinev, sest mitte iga abidollarit ei suunata Pakistanis sinna, kus seda tegelikult vajatakse

  14. The ISS Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR): a Summary of Capabilities (United States)

    Gati, F.; Hill, M. E.


    The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) is a modular, multi-user scientific research facility that will fly in the U.S. laboratory module, Destiny, of the International Space Station (ISS). The FIR will be one of the two racks that will make up the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) - the other being the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR). The ISS will provide the FCF with the necessary resources, such as power and cooling. While the ISS crew will be available for experiment operations, their time will be limited. The FCF is, therefore, being designed for autonomous operations and remote control operations. Control of the FCF will be primarily through the Telescience Support Center (TSC) at the Glenn Research Center. The FCF is being designed to accommodate a wide range of combustion and fluids physics experiments within the ISS resources and constraints. The primary mission of the FIR, however, is to accommodate experiments from four major fluids physics disciplines: Complex Fluids; Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer; Interfacial Phenomena; and Dynamics and Stability. The design of the FIR is flexible enough to accommodate experiments from other science disciplines such as Biotechnology. The FIR flexibility is a result of the large volume dedicated for experimental hardware, easily re-configurable diagnostics that allow for unique experiment configurations, and it's customizable software. The FIR will utilize six major subsystems to accommodate this broad scope of fluids physics experiments. The major subsystems are: structural, environmental, electrical, gaseous, command and data management, and imagers and illumination. Within the rack, the FIR's structural subsystem provides an optics bench type mechanical interface for the precise mounting of experimental hardware; including optical components. The back of the bench is populated with FIR avionics packages and light sources. The interior of the rack is isolated from the cabin through two rack doors that are hinged near

  15. Spatial Pattern of the Mitochondrial and Chloroplast Genetic Variation in Poland as a Result of the Migration of Abies alba Mill. from Different Glacial Refugia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Litkowiec


    Full Text Available Currently, the information on the gene pool of silver fir (Abies alba Mill. at the northeastern edge of its distribution in Poland is scarce and insufficient. Using the advantage provided by markers with different modes of inheritance, a hypothesis that gene flow via both seeds and pollen contributed to the genetic structure across the entire analyzed region was investigated. The geographic distribution of maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, nad5-4 and paternally inherited chloroplast DNA (cpDNA, psbC variation was studied in 81 Polish populations and three reference populations from Ukraine and Romania. The spatial pattern of mtDNA haplotypes (dispersed via seeds indicated that the Apennine Peninsula was the only maternal glacial refugium for the entire territory of Poland and also the Ukraine no 1 population, whereas the other two populations—Ukraine no 2 and Romania—had the haplotype representing the Balkan origin. By contrast, the cpDNA haplotypes (dispersed via pollen from all studied Polish and reference populations showed that A. alba colonized the current natural range from two genetically distinct glacial refugia located on the Apennine and Balkan peninsulas. The occurrence of cpDNA haplotypes varied among the studied populations. Additionally, statistical analyses were used to infer the genetic structure of examined populations. Two distinct groups of A. alba populations were identified showing the postglacial geographic distribution of haplotypes of both mtDNA and cpDNA. A. alba is an important ecological and economic component of forest ecosystems in Europe. An understanding of the Holocene history of this species is relevant for planning sustainable forest management, and acquired data can contribute to strategies of conservation and restoration.

  16. A preliminary study of the deterioration of alder and Douglas-fir chips in outdoor piles. (United States)

    Ernest. Wright


    In the fall of 1952, E. E. Matson of the Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station learned that the Fir-Tex Insulating Board Company bf St. Helens, Oregon was considering mixing alder with Douglas-fir chips for outside storage. Since alder heartwood i s more susceptible to decay than that of Douglas-fir, the question arose whether mixing the two might...

  17. Significant mean and extreme climate sensitivity of Norway spruce and silver fir at mid-elevation mesic sites in the Alps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carrer

    Full Text Available Climate forcing is the major abiotic driver for forest ecosystem functioning and thus significantly affects the role of forests within the global carbon cycle and related ecosystem services. Annual radial increments of trees are probably the most valuable source of information to link tree growth and climate at long-term time scales, and have been used in a wide variety of investigations worldwide. However, especially in mountainous areas, tree-ring studies have focused on extreme environments where the climate sensitivity is perhaps greatest but are necessarily a biased representation of the forests within a region. We used tree-ring analyses to study two of the most important tree species growing in the Alps: Norway spruce (Picea abies and silver fir (Abies alba. We developed tree-ring chronologies from 13 mesic mid-elevation sites (203 trees and then compared them to monthly temperature and precipitation data for the period 1846-1995. Correlation functions, principal component analysis and fuzzy C-means clustering were applied to 1 assess the climate/growth relationships and their stationarity and consistency over time, and 2 extract common modes of variability in the species responses to mean and extreme climate variability. Our results highlight a clear, time-stable, and species-specific response to mean climate conditions. However, during the previous-year's growing season, which shows the strongest correlations, the primary difference between species is in their response to extreme events, not mean conditions. Mesic sites at mid-altitude are commonly underrepresented in tree-ring research; we showed that strong climatic controls of growth may exist even in those areas. Extreme climatic events may play a key role in defining the species-specific responses on climatic sensitivity and, with a global change perspective, specific divergent responses are likely to occur even where current conditions are less limited.

  18. Improved density measurement by FIR laser interferometer on EAST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Jie; Jie, Yinxian; Liu, Haiqing; Wei, Xuechao; Wang, Zhengxing; Gao, Xiang


    Highlights: • In 2012, the water-cooling Mo wall was installed in EAST. • A schottky barrier diode detector is designed and used on EAST for the first time. • The three-channel far-infrared laser interferometer can measure the electron density. • The improved measurement and latest experiment results are reported. • The signal we get in this experiment campaign is much better than we got in 2010. -- Abstract: A three-channel far-infrared (FIR) hydrogen cyanide (HCN) laser interferometer is in operation since 2010 to measure the line averaged electron density on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). The HCN laser signal is improved by means of a new schottky barrier diode (SBD) detector. The improved measurement and latest experiment results of the three-channel FIR laser interferometer on EAST tokamak are reported

  19. Improved density measurement by FIR laser interferometer on EAST tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Jie, E-mail:; Jie, Yinxian; Liu, Haiqing; Wei, Xuechao; Wang, Zhengxing; Gao, Xiang


    Highlights: • In 2012, the water-cooling Mo wall was installed in EAST. • A schottky barrier diode detector is designed and used on EAST for the first time. • The three-channel far-infrared laser interferometer can measure the electron density. • The improved measurement and latest experiment results are reported. • The signal we get in this experiment campaign is much better than we got in 2010. -- Abstract: A three-channel far-infrared (FIR) hydrogen cyanide (HCN) laser interferometer is in operation since 2010 to measure the line averaged electron density on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). The HCN laser signal is improved by means of a new schottky barrier diode (SBD) detector. The improved measurement and latest experiment results of the three-channel FIR laser interferometer on EAST tokamak are reported.

  20. Power and Aging Characterization of Digital FIR Filters Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calimera, Andrea; Liu, Wei; Macii, Enrico


    -variation, temperature and aging induced variations pose new challenges in the fabrication of the next generation of ICs. This work presents a detailed power and aging characterization of digital FIR filters in an industrial 45nm CMOS technology, and a design space exploration of different filter architectures...... with respect to throughput, area, power dissipation and aging. The exploration is intended to provide new design guidelines when considering aging of components in power/performance tradeoffs....

  1. Douglas-fir displays a range of growth responses to ... (United States)

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) growth in the Pacific Northwest is affected by climatic, edaphic factors and Swiss needle cast (SNC) disease. We examine Douglas-fir growth responses to temperature, dewpoint deficit (DPD), soil moisture, and SNC using time series intervention analysis of intra-annual tree-ring width data collected at nine forest stands in western Oregon, USA. The effects of temperature and SNC were similar in importance on tree growth at all sites. Previous-year DPD during the annual drought period was a key factor limiting growth regionally. Winter temperature was more important at high elevation cool sites, whereas summer temperature was more important at warm and dry sites. Growth rate increased with summer temperature to an optimum (Topt) then decreased at higher temperatures. At drier sites, temperature and water affected growth interactively such that Topt decreased with decreasing summer soil moisture. With climate change, growth rates increased at high elevation sites and declined at mid-elevation inland sites since ~1990. Growth response to climate is masked by SNC regionally. We conclude that as temperature rises and precipitation patterns shift towards wetter winters and drier summers, Douglas-fir will experience greater temperature and water stress and an increase in severity of SNC. By the end of the 21st century, climate models predict hotter, drier summers and warmer, wetter winters in the Pac

  2. GC/MS Analysis of Oil Extractives from Wood and Bark of Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba, Picea abies, and Larix decidua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zidan Mohamed Salem


    Full Text Available Wood and bark oil extractives components (OECs of Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba, Picea abies, and Larix decidua grown in the Czech Republic were analyzed using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The analysis showed the presence of monoterpene, sesquiterpene, diterpenoids, and resin acids. The highest percentages of OECs in the wood of P. sylvestris were α-fenchyl alcohol (26.04%, D-fenchyl alcohol (12.39%, and L-borneol (8.81%; the OECs in the bark included α-methyl-γ-butyrolactone (31.88% and isodecyl octyl phthalate (15.85%. The most frequently occurring OEC in A. alba wood were 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone (73.36%, α-cedrol (10.08%, and 2,6-dimethyl-1,3,6-heptatriene (7.35%; the most OECs in the bark were di(2-ethylhexylphthalate (59.83%, methyl cyclopentane (16.63%, and 13-epimanool (6.31%. P. abies wood OECs included 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone (29.42%, α-cedrol (26.98%, ∆3-carene (6.08%, and terpinen-4-ol (5.42%; the most OECs in the bark were di(2-ethylhexylphthalate (30.91%, cyclohexane (12.89%, caryophyllene oxide (8.90%, and α-pinene (4.59%. OECs of L. decidua wood were α-terpineol (26.06%, isoborneol (14.12%, camphene (11.78%, D-fenchyl alcohol (10.39%, and larixol (4.85%; OECs in the bark were larixol (33.29%, phthalic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (16.96%, 13-epimanool (15.40%, and cyclohexane (8.44%.

  3. ABI4 regulates primary seed dormancy by regulating the biogenesis of abscisic acid and gibberellins in arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Shu


    Full Text Available Seed dormancy is an important economic trait for agricultural production. Abscisic acid (ABA and Gibberellins (GA are the primary factors that regulate the transition from dormancy to germination, and they regulate this process antagonistically. The detailed regulatory mechanism involving crosstalk between ABA and GA, which underlies seed dormancy, requires further elucidation. Here, we report that ABI4 positively regulates primary seed dormancy, while negatively regulating cotyledon greening, by mediating the biogenesis of ABA and GA. Seeds of the Arabidopsis abi4 mutant that were subjected to short-term storage (one or two weeks germinated significantly more quickly than Wild-Type (WT, and abi4 cotyledons greened markedly more quickly than WT, while the rates of germination and greening were comparable when the seeds were subjected to longer-term storage (six months. The ABA content of dry abi4 seeds was remarkably lower than that of WT, but the amounts were comparable after stratification. Consistently, the GA level of abi4 seeds was increased compared to WT. Further analysis showed that abi4 was resistant to treatment with paclobutrazol (PAC, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, during germination, while OE-ABI4 was sensitive to PAC, and exogenous GA rescued the delayed germination phenotype of OE-ABI4. Analysis by qRT-PCR showed that the expression of genes involved in ABA and GA metabolism in dry and germinating seeds corresponded to hormonal measurements. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation qPCR (ChIP-qPCR and transient expression analysis showed that ABI4 repressed CYP707A1 and CYP707A2 expression by directly binding to those promoters, and the ABI4 binding elements are essential for this repression. Accordingly, further genetic analysis showed that abi4 recovered the delayed germination phenotype of cyp707a1 and cyp707a2 and further, rescued the non-germinating phenotype of ga1-t. Taken together, this study suggests that ABI4 is a key

  4. Identification and functional analysis of two alternatively spliced transcripts of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) in linseed flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). (United States)

    Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Tianbao; Song, Xiaxia; Zhang, Jianping; Dang, Zhanhai; Pei, Xinwu; Long, Yan


    Alternative splicing is a popular phenomenon in different types of plants. It can produce alternative spliced transcripts that encode proteins with altered functions. Previous studies have shown that one transcription factor, ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3), which encodes an important component in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, is subjected to alternative splicing in both mono- and dicotyledons. In the current study, we identified two homologs of ABI3 in the genome of linseed flax. We screened two alternatively spliced flax LuABI3 transcripts, LuABI3-2 and LuABI3-3, and one normal flax LuABI3 transcript, LuABI3-1. Sequence analysis revealed that one of the alternatively spliced transcripts, LuABI3-3, retained a 6 bp intron. RNA accumulation analysis showed that all three transcripts were expressed during seed development, while subcellular localization and transgene experiments showed that LuABI3-3 had no biological function. The two normal transcripts, LuABI3-1 and LuABI3-2, are the important functional isoforms in flax and play significant roles in the ABA regulatory pathway during seed development, germination, and maturation.

  5. Identification and functional analysis of two alternatively spliced transcripts of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3 in linseed flax (Linum usitatissimum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Wang

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing is a popular phenomenon in different types of plants. It can produce alternative spliced transcripts that encode proteins with altered functions. Previous studies have shown that one transcription factor, ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3, which encodes an important component in abscisic acid (ABA signaling, is subjected to alternative splicing in both mono- and dicotyledons. In the current study, we identified two homologs of ABI3 in the genome of linseed flax. We screened two alternatively spliced flax LuABI3 transcripts, LuABI3-2 and LuABI3-3, and one normal flax LuABI3 transcript, LuABI3-1. Sequence analysis revealed that one of the alternatively spliced transcripts, LuABI3-3, retained a 6 bp intron. RNA accumulation analysis showed that all three transcripts were expressed during seed development, while subcellular localization and transgene experiments showed that LuABI3-3 had no biological function. The two normal transcripts, LuABI3-1 and LuABI3-2, are the important functional isoforms in flax and play significant roles in the ABA regulatory pathway during seed development, germination, and maturation.

  6. Oxidative stability of cnicken thigh meat after treatment of abies alba essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková


    Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of the Abies alba essential oil in two different concentrations on oxidative stability of chicken thigh muscles during chilled storage was investigated. In the experiment were chickens of hybrid combination Cobb 500 after 42 days of the fattening period slaughtered.  All the broiler chickens were fed with the same feed mixtures and were kept under the same conditions. The feed mixtures were produced without any antibiotic preparations and coccidiostatics. After slaughtering was dissection obtained fresh chicken thigh with skin from left half-carcass which were divided into five groups (n = 5: C - control air-packaged group; A1 - vacuum-packaged experimental group; A2 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA solution 1.50% w/w; A3 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with Abies alba oil 0.10% v/w and A4 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with Abies alba oil 0.20% v/w. The Abies alba essential oil was applicate on ground chicken things and immediately after dipping, each sample was packaged using a vacuum packaging machine and storage in refrigerate at 4 ±0.5 °C. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA value expressed in number of malondialdehyde was measured in the process of first storage day of 1st, 4th, 8th, 12th and 16th day after slaughtering and expressed on the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA in 1 kg sample. The treatments of chicken things with Abies alba essential oil show statistically significant differences between all testing groups and control group, where higher average value of MDA measured in thigh muscle of broiler chickens was in samples of control group (0.4380 compared to experimental groups A1 (0.124, A2 (0.086, A3 (0.082 and A4 (0.077 after 16-day of chilled storage. Experiment results show that the treatment of chicken thigh with Abies alba essential oil positively influenced on the reduction of oxidative processes in thigh

  7. Early verification of a hybrid between noble and California red firs (United States)

    Roy R. Silen; William B. Critchfield; Jerry F. Franklin


    Hybrids between Abies procera Rehd., and Abies magnifica A. Murr., made reciprocally at Marys Peak near Corvallis, Oreg., and near Placerville, Calif., suggest that no significant genetic barriers prevent crossing of the two species where ranges overlap. Hence, maintenance of species differences must be looked for in other factors...

  8. Allelochemicals and activities in a replanted Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) tree ecosystem. (United States)

    Kong, C H; Chen, L C; Xu, X H; Wang, P; Wang, S L


    Autotoxicity is a major reason for replant problems in managed tree ecosystems. Studies have related phenolics-based allelochemicals to autotoxicity. We selected a 20-year-old replanted Chinese fir [Cunninghamia lancealata (Lamb.) Hook] tree ecosystem to isolate, identify, determine the biological activity of, and quantify soil phytotoxins. Eight common phenolics (coumarin, vanillin, isovanillin, and p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, benzoic, cinnamic, and ferulic acids), friedelin, and a novel cyclic dipeptide (6-hydroxy-1,3-dimethyl-8-nonadecyl-[1,4]-diazocane-2,5-diketone) were obtained by using the bioassay-guided isolation technique from toxic soil of the replanted Chinese fir tree ecosystem. Chemical structures were determined by spectroscopic means, including 2D-NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) experiments. High concentrations of soil phenolics and friedelin were observed in the natural evergreen broadleaf forest (CK) rather than in the Chinese fir tree ecosystem. The phenolics and friedelin were not phytotoxic to Chinese fir trees. However, the cyclic dipeptide inhibited Chinese fir growth at soil concentrations determined in the replanted Chinese fir tree ecosystem. There was a significantly higher soil concentration of cyclic dipeptide in the replanted Chinese fir tree ecosystem than in a fresh Chinese fir tree ecosystem. The results suggest that phenolics and friedelin are not key allelochemicals since they are weakly phytotoxic and are detected in low concentrations in the replanted Chinese fir tree ecosystem, while cyclic dipeptide is a highly active allelochemical with a phytotoxic effect that limits offspring growth in the replanted Chinese fir tree ecosystem. The discovery of cyclic dipeptide, as well as a further understanding of its potential action mechanism in the replanted Chinese fir tree ecosystem, may contribute to solving the replant problems in managed tree ecosystems.

  9. Activation of mRNA translation by phage protein and low temperature: the case of Lactococcus lactis abortive infection system AbiD1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrlich S Dusko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abortive infection (Abi mechanisms comprise numerous strategies developed by bacteria to avoid being killed by bacteriophage (phage. Escherichia coli Abis are considered as mediators of programmed cell death, which is induced by infecting phage. Abis were also proposed to be stress response elements, but no environmental activation signals have yet been identified. Abis are widespread in Lactococcus lactis, but regulation of their expression remains an open question. We previously showed that development of AbiD1 abortive infection against phage bIL66 depends on orf1, which is expressed in mid-infection. However, molecular basis for this activation remains unclear. Results In non-infected AbiD1+ cells, specific abiD1 mRNA is unstable and present in low amounts. It does not increase during abortive infection of sensitive phage. Protein synthesis directed by the abiD1 translation initiation region is also inefficient. The presence of the phage orf1 gene, but not its mutant AbiD1R allele, strongly increases abiD1 translation efficiency. Interestingly, cell growth at low temperature also activates translation of abiD1 mRNA and consequently the AbiD1 phenotype, and occurs independently of phage infection. There is no synergism between the two abiD1 inducers. Purified Orf1 protein binds mRNAs containing a secondary structure motif, identified within the translation initiation regions of abiD1, the mid-infection phage bIL66 M-operon, and the L. lactis osmC gene. Conclusion Expression of the abiD1 gene and consequently AbiD1 phenotype is specifically translationally activated by the phage Orf1 protein. The loss of ability to activate translation of abiD1 mRNA determines the molecular basis for phage resistance to AbiD1. We show for the first time that temperature downshift also activates abortive infection by activation of abiD1 mRNA translation.

  10. Prevalence and association of oral candidiasis with dysphagia in individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Lene; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk; Kothari, Mohit

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of oral candidiasis (OC) in individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) and to evaluate the association of OC with improvement in dysphagia. Design: Longitudinal observational study. Methods: Individuals with ABI admitted to a rehabilitation centre were...... recruited over a one-year period. OC-data were collected by clinical examinations and verified by cultivation/microscopy in every 3 weeks during first 10 weeks of admission. Data on dysphagia were collected through medical record reviews. Dysphagia improvement was defined by: 1) First positive change.......7%, respectively. The OC prevalence was 24.8% after one week of admission and reduced to 10.1% after ten weeks of admission. Adjusted hazard ratios for improvement in dysphagia were 0.64-0.77 in OC compared to without OC, though not statistically significant. Conclusion: Prevalence of OC was high at admission...

  11. Abies semenovii B. Fedtsch. at the Peter the Great Botanical Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Kirill


    Full Text Available Abies semenovii B. Fedtsch. (Pinaceae is an extremely rare flora species of the Central Asia (Kirghizia; it has been cultivated at the Peter the Great Botanical Garden of the Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS since 1949, where it was first introduced into general cultivation. Since 2000, upon reaching the age of 43 years, the seed reproduction of the plants is being marked. An X-ray test proved seeds, collected in 2014, to be filled and full. In spring 2015, first time in the 67 years of cultivating this specie in St. Petersburg area, first young crops were received. Abies semenovii – a cold hard and decorative tree – has to be introduced into the gardening of St. Petersburg and shall be promoted into the Karelia and further to the northern regions of the European part of the Russian Federation.

  12. Evaluation of the present genetic conservation efforts in Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Quercus spp., Fagus sylvatica, and Pinus pinaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.


    Information on genetic diversity and gene conservation activities were combined with climatic data to evaluate the present genetic conservation efforts in Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Quercus spp., Fagus sylvatica, and Pinus pinaster. Combinations of climatic variables explained much of the

  13. Proposed non-interferometric FIR electron density measuring scheme for Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodel, G; Kunz, W [Stuttgart Univ. (TH) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Plasmaforschung


    Extension of FIR polarimetry to electron density measurements in Tokamaks is suggested as a possible alternative for devices in which FIR interferometry is not applicable or difficult to handle due to reduced accessibility or strong mechanical vibrations. The method is numerically simulated. The relative experimental simplicity compared with interferometry has to be paid for with symmetry assumptions which enter into the evaluation process.

  14. An audio FIR-DAC in a BCD process for high power Class-D amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, T.S.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Schinkel, Daniel; Annema, Anne J.; Berkhout, M.; Berkhout, M.; Nauta, Bram

    A 322 coefficient semi-digital FIR-DAC using a 1-bit PWM input signal was designed and implemented in a high voltage, audio power bipolar CMOS DMOS (BCD) process. This facilitates digital input signals for an analog class-D amplifier in BCD. The FIR-DAC performance depends on the ISI-resistant

  15. Projected future suitable habitat and productivity of Douglas-fir in western North America (United States)

    Aaron R. Weiskittel; Nicholas L. Crookston; Gerald E. Rehfeldt


    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) is one of the most common and commercially important species in western North America. The species can occupy a range of habitats, is long-lived (up to 500 years), and highly productive. However, the future of Douglas-fir in western North America is highly uncertain due to the expected changes in climate conditions....

  16. Multi-decadal establishment for single-cohort Douglas-fir forests (United States)

    James A. Freund; Jerry F. Franklin; Andrew J. Larson; James A. Lutz


    The rate at which trees regenerate following stand-replacing wildfire is an important but poorly understood process in the multi-century development of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) forests. Temporal patterns of Douglas-fir establishment reconstructed from old-growth forests (>450 year) have...

  17. Balsam fir conservation and red spruce ecosystem restoration initiatives in the West Virginia highlands (United States)

    Corey A. Bonasso; David W. Saville


    The West Virginia Highlands Conservancy has been working for more than a decade to protect, conserve, and restore the spruce-fir forests in West Virginia. Beginning in the mid 1990s an effort was initiated to conserve balsam fir in West Virginia where it reaches its southern most extent in North America. This work led to further efforts which have focused on the...

  18. Conversion of SPORL pretreated Douglas fir forest residues into microbial lipids with oleaginous yeasts (United States)

    Bruce S. Dien; Junyong Zhu; Patricia J. Slininger; Cletus P. Kurtzman; Bryan R. Moser; Patricia J. O' Bryan; Roland Gleisner; Michael A. Cotta


    Douglas fir is the dominant commercial tree grown in the United States. In this study Douglas fir residue was converted to single cell oils (SCO) using oleaginous yeasts. Monosaccharides were extracted from the woody biomass by pretreating with sulfite and dilute sulfuric acid (SPORL process) and hydrolyzing using commercial cellulases. A new SPORL process that uses pH...

  19. Power Efficient Design of Parallel/Serial FIR Filters in RNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petricca, Massimo; Albicocco, Pietro; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo


    It is well known that the Residue Number System (RNS) provides an efficient implementation of parallel FIR filters especially when the filter order and the dynamic range are high. The two main drawbacks of RNS, need of converters and coding overhead, make a serialized implementation of the FIR...

  20. Belowground competition from overstory trees influences Douglas-fir sapling morphology in thinned stands (United States)

    Warren D. Devine; Timothy B. Harrington


    We evaluated effects of belowground competition on morphology of naturally established coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) saplings in 60- to 80-year-old thinned Douglas-fir stands in southwestern Washington. We separately quantified belowground competition from overstory and understory sources...

  1. Antibiotikaeinsatz in der Bayerischen Schweinehaltungspraxis ABYS: Antibiotikaeinsatz und Antibiotikaresistenz in ökologischen Betrieben


    Bassitta, R.; Bartuschat, A.; Harms, K.; Bauer, J.; Straubinger, RK; Poljak, S.; Storch, J.; Dennhöfer, J.; Schwaller, A.; Hamann, Jörn; Hölzel, CS


    Between 2012 and 2014, ABYS study recorded antibiotic use, detection and resistance data for 23 organic and 35 conventional pig farms. Antibiotic contents of farm-made fertilizers were assessed by LC/MS-MS. Phenotypic antimicrobial resistance was investigated in Escherichia (E.) coli (indicator bacteria); antimicrobial resistance genes of the total bacterial microbiota (sul(II), tet(A), tet(B), tet(M); marker Measured in nUDD (number of animals treated multiplied by treatment days), col...

  2. Chemodiversity of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Abies nebrodensis (Lojac.) Mattei. (United States)

    Schicchi, Rosario; Geraci, Anna; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Bruno, Maurizio


    Abies nebrodensis (Lojac.) Mattei (Pinaceae) is a species occurring in a very small population only in a restricted area of Sicily. Its taxonomic classification as different species has been object of discussion. In this work the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves is presented for the first time and compared to the essential oils from other euroasiatic species reported in literature. Peculiar characteristics of the essential oil of A. nebrodensis are highlighted. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  3. Modelling Age- and Density-Related Gas Exchange of Picea abies Canopies in the Fichtelgebirge, Germany


    Falge, Eva; Tennhunen, John D.; Ryel, Ronald J.; Alsheimer, Martina; Köstner, Barbara


    International audience; Differences in canopy exchange of water and carbon dioxide that occur due to changes in tree structure and density in montane Norway spruce stands of Central Germany were analyzed with a three dimensional microclimate and gas exchange model STANDFLUX. The model was used to calculate forest radiation absorption, the net photosynthesis and transpiration of single trees, and gas exchange of tree canopies. Model parameterizations were derived for six stands of Picea abies ...

  4. Chrysophycean stomatocysts from Morskie Oko and Żabie Oko lakes in the Tatra National Park, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Cabała


    Full Text Available Sixteen chrysophycean stomatocysts are reported from the lakes Morskie Oko and Żabie Oko in the Tatra National Park, Poland. Of these, six morphotypes are new to Poland, and two morphotypes plus one forma are new to science. These stomatocysts are illustrated with SEM micrographs and described according to International Statospore Working Group (ISWG guidelines. The comparison of stomatocyst community between Morskie Oko and Żabie Oko lakes is given.

  5. A leucine repeat motif in AbiA is required for resistance of Lactococcus lactis to phages representing three species. (United States)

    Dinsmore, P K; O'Sullivan, D J; Klaenhammer, T R


    The abiA gene encodes an abortive bacteriophage infection mechanism that can protect Lactococcus species from infection by a variety of bacteriophages including three unrelated phage species. Five heptad leucine repeats suggestive of a leucine zipper motif were identified between residues 232 and 266 in the predicted amino acid sequence of the AbiA protein. The biological role of residues in the repeats was investigated by incorporating amino acid substitutions via site-directed mutagenesis. Each mutant was tested for phage resistance against three phages, phi 31, sk1, and c2, belonging to species P335, 936, and c2, respectively. The five residues that comprise the heptad repeats were designated L234, L242, A249, L256, and L263. Three single conservative mutations of leucine to valine in positions L235, L242, and L263 and a double mutation of two leucines (L235 and L242) to valines did not affect AbiA activity on any phages tested. Non-conservative single substitutions of charged amino acids for three of the leucines (L235, L242, and L256) virtually eliminated AbiA activity on all phages tested. Substitution of the alanine residue in the third repeat (A249) with a charged residue did not affect AbiA activity. Replacement of L242 with an alanine elimination phage resistance against phi 31, but partial resistance to sk1 and c2 remained. Two single proline substitutions for leucines L242 and L263 virtually eliminated AbiA activity against all phages, indicating that the predicted alpha-helical structure of this region is important. Mutations in an adjacent region of basic amino acids had various effects on phage resistance, suggesting that these basic residues are also important for AbiA activity. This directed mutagenesis analysis of AbiA indicated that the leucine repeat structure is essential for conferring phage resistance against three species of lactococcal bacteriophages.

  6. Transactivation of the Brassica napus napin promoter by ABI3 requires interaction of the conserved B2 and B3 domains of ABI3 with different cis-elements: B2 mediates activation through an ABRE, whereas B3 interacts with an RY/G-box. (United States)

    Ezcurra, I; Wycliffe, P; Nehlin, L; Ellerström, M; Rask, L


    The transcriptional activator ABI3 is a key regulator of gene expression during embryo maturation in crucifers. In monocots, the related VP1 protein regulates the Em promoter synergistically with abscisic acid (ABA). We identified cis-elements in the Brassica napus napin napA promoter mediating regulation by ABI3 and ABA, by analyzing substitution mutation constructs of napA in transgenic tobacco plantlets ectopically expressing ABI3. In transient analysis using particle bombardment of tobacco leaf sections, a tetramer of the distB ABRE (abscisic acid-responsive element) mediated transactivation by ABI3 and ABI3-dependent response to ABA, whereas a tetramer of the composite RY/G complex, containing RY repeats and a G-box, mediated only ABA-independent transactivation by ABI3. Deletion of the conserved B2 and B3 domains of ABI3 abolished transactivation of napA by ABI3. The two domains of ABI3 interact with different cis-elements: B2 is necessary for ABA-independent and ABA-dependent activations through the distB ABRE, whereas B3 interacts with the RY/G complex. Thus B2 mediates the interaction of ABI3 with the protein complex at the ABRE. The regulation of napA by ABI3 differs from Em regulation by VP1, in that the B3 domain of ABI3 is essential for the ABA-dependent regulation of napA.

  7. Final Scientific/Technical report for "ABI8: Prototype of a novel signaling factor"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, Ruth R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)


    The Arabidopsis thaliana ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE8 locus encodes a highly conserved plant-specific protein that mediates abscisic acid (ABA) and sugar responses essential for growth. Although initial database comparisons revealed no domains of predictable function, it has recently been re-annotated as a member of the Glycosyltransferase family A. However, this function has not been demonstrated experimentally and no specific substrates have been identified. Mutations affecting ABI8 are near-lethal due to pleiotropic yet specific effects including altered ABA signaling, sugar transport, cell wall synthesis, root meristem maintenance, vascular patterning, and male sterility. Because the predicted sequence initially provided no clues, we used a guilt by association strategy to address function of this protein by determining its subcellular localization and identifying interacting proteins. Our studies showed that ABI8 is localized to the endomembrane system and may interact with proteins implicated in Golgi trafficking, lignification, and stress signaling. We found that the root meristem arrest reflects decreased auxin accumulation and resulting decreases in regulators required for meristem identity, all of which can be rescued by added glucose. Further studies showed that this glucose-dependence reflects reduced glucose uptake as well as the decreased expression of sugar-mobilizing enzymes. This work suggests that ABI8 may regulate trafficking of membrane proteins such as auxin transporters and cellulose synthase, but this hypothesis has not yet been tested. The altered gene expression is likely to be a secondary or later effect of this pleiotropic mutation.

  8. Massive decline of Cystoseira abies-marina forests in Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands, eastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Valdazo


    Full Text Available Brown macroalgae within the genus Cystoseira are some of the most relevant “ecosystem-engineers” found throughout the Mediterranean and the adjacent Atlantic coasts. Cystoseira-dominated assemblages are sensitive to anthropogenic pressures, and historical declines have been reported from some regions. In particular, Cystoseira abies-marina, thriving on shallow rocky shores, is a key species for the ecosystems of the Canary Islands. In this work, we analyse changes in the distribution and extension of C. abies-marina in the last decades on the island of Gran Canaria. This alga dominated the shallow rocky shores of the entire island in the 1980s; a continuous belt extended along 120.5 km of the coastline and occupied 928 ha. In the first decade of the 21st century, fragmented populations were found along 52.2 km of the coastline and occupied 12.6 ha. Today, this species is found along 37.8 km of the coastline and occupies only 7.4 ha, mainly as scattered patches. This regression has been drastic around the whole island, even in areas with low anthropogenic pressure; the magnitude of the decline over time and the intensity of local human impacts have not shown a significant correlation. This study highlights a real need to implement conservation and restoration policies for C. abies-marina in this region.

  9. Optimum FIR filter for sampled signals in presence of jitter (United States)

    Cattaneo, Paolo Walter


    The requirements of the integrated readout electronics for calorimetry at high luminosity hadron colliders pose new challenges both to hardware design and to the performance of signal processing algorithms. Both aspects have been treated in detail by the FERMI(RD16) collaboration [C. Alippi et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 344 (1994) 180], from which this work has been motivated. The estimation of the amplitude of sampled signals is usually performed with a digital FIR filter, or with a more sophisticated non linear digital filter using FIR filters as building blocks [S.J. Inkinen and J. Niittylahti, Trainable FIR-order statistic hybrid filters, to be published in IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems; H. Alexanian et al., FERMI Collaboration, Optimized digital feature extraction in the FERMI microsystem Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 357 (1995)]. In presence of significant signal phase jitter with respect to the clock, the phase dependence of the filter output can be a major source of error. This is especially true for measurements of large amplitudes for which the effect of electronic noise becomes negligible. This paper reports on the determination of digital FIR filters that optimize the signal over noise ratio due to known jitter distributions for different filter lengths. As the presence of electronic noise is neglected, the results are mainly relevant for measurements of large signals. FERMI is a collaboration with the aim of designing integrated electronics for the read out of calorimeter detectors in particle physics experiments at hadron colliders. It includes: CERN, Geneva, Switzerland; Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, University of Linköping, Sweden; Center for Industrial Microelectronics and Materials Technology, University of Linköping, Sweden; LPNHE Universities Paris VI-VII, Paris, France; Dipartimento di Elettronica, Politecnico di Milano, Italy, Sezine INFN, Pavia, Italy; Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica dell'Universitá e Sezione

  10. Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spera, D.A. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center); Esgar, J.B. (Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Cleveland, OH (USA)); Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.D. (Gougeon Bros., Bay City, MI (USA))


    This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue and strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 in. by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications. 9 refs.

  11. Phenotypic Consequences of Altering the Copy Number of abiA, a Gene Responsible for Aborting Bacteriophage Infections in Lactococcus lactis†


    Dinsmore, Polly K.; Klaenhammer, Todd R.


    The abiA gene (formerly hsp) encodes an abortive phage infection mechanism which inhibits phage DNA replication. To analyze the effects of varying the abiA gene dosage on bacteriophage resistance in Lactococcus lactis, various genetic constructions were made. An IS946-based integration vector, pTRK75, was used to integrate a single copy of abiA into the chromosomes of two lactococcal strains, MG1363 and NCK203. In both strains, a single copy of abiA did not confer any significant phage resist...

  12. Early testing of adaptedness to temperature and water availability in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonesson, Johan


    Long-term climate changes have been evident in the past. In the future an increase in the rate of climate change is predicted owing to man-made emissions. Studies of adaptedness to different climatic conditions are of great importance for the design of appropriate breeding and gene conservation programmes. This thesis presents studies of adaptedness to temperature and water availability in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies and explores the possibilities of utilising differences in adaptedness to obtain juvenile-mature (J-M) correlations strong enough for efficient early testing. Offspring from clones in two Swedish Pinus sylvestris seed orchards and one Picea abies seed orchard were grown in growth chambers for one and two growth periods respectively. Two temperature regimes and two irrigation regimes were applied in a factorial design. Both species expressed high phenotypic plasticity and additive variance for height growth and biomass traits. This implies that these populations should be able to adapt both to short-term and to long-term climate changes. Genotype by environment (GxE) interaction indicated strong differences in adaptedness to temperature and low differences in adaptedness to water availability. Parent rank changes between treatments indicated that climate change could seriously alter the ranking of clones in breeding populations and thus decrease the genetic gain obtained in previous selections. Differences in stability among parents suggested that culling of unstable genotypes could be a way to reduce the negative effects of GxE interaction. Genetic correlations between growth chamber and 14-30 year old field progeny trials with the same parents were mainly weak for both species. The correlations were improved by the drought treatment in the Picea abies experiment suggesting that further development of early testing methods for this species should include treatments with limiting water availability

  13. ELi abi ettevõtjale lükkub osaliselt edasi / Silva Männik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Männik, Silva, 1974-


    Eesti ettevõtjatele lubatud Euroopa Liidu tõukefondide raha taotlemine Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuses viibib majandusministeeriumis vastuvõtmata määruste tõttu. Diagrammid: Struktuurifondidest saadava abi kõrval peab Eesti liikmemaksu tasuma; EAS plaanis jagada tänavu ligi 800 miljonit krooni struktuurifondide raha. Nimekiri: Põhiosa euroabist läheb töötajate arengusse ja transporti. 5 prioriteeti. Vt. samas: Raha venimine kõige hullem. AS-i E-Arsenal juht Jüri Tümanok rahade viibimisest

  14. Effects of irrigation, fertilization and drought on the occurrence of Lophodermium piceae in Picea abies needles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtijaervi, Asko; Barklund, Pia [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology


    Effects of irrigation, drought and fertilization on the frequency of the fungal endophyte Lophodermium piceae in green needles was assessed in a 30-year-old experimental stand of Picea abies in southern Sweden. Frequencies of needles with L. piceae were lower in irrigation and ammonium sulphate fertilization treatments than in the control. Drought treatment frequencies were similar to the control. Needles were susceptible to colonization for at least 3 years; colonization increased with needle age. The results indicate that the increased availability of water to the root system as well as ammonium sulphate fertilization indirectly delays colonization of needles by L. piceae 21 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  15. The afterlife of antiquity and modern art: Aby Warburg on Manet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Latsis


    Full Text Available Aby Warburg’s manuscript on Édouard Manet – unpublished during his lifetime and presented here for the first time in English – constitutes one of his rare, substantial commentaries on nineteenth century art. Using “Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe” as a departure point, Warburg proceeds from his customary meticulous investigation of the central motif’s “visual archeology,” to a larger reflection on the evolution of the representation of nature in art and the image of antiquity that modernity has created for itself.

  16. E3B1/ABI-1 Isoforms Are Down-Regulated in Cancers of Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafia A. Baba


    Full Text Available The expression of E3B1/ABI-1 protein and its role in cancer progression and prognosis are largely unknown in the majority of solid tumors. In this study, we examined the expression pattern of E3B1/ABI-1 protein in histologically confirmed cases of esophageal (squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, gastro-esophageal junction, colorectal cancers and corresponding normal tissues freshly resected from a cohort of 135 patients, by Western Blotting and Immunofluorescence Staining. The protein is present in its phosphorylated form in cells and tissues. Depending on the extent of phosphorylation it is either present in hyper-phosphorylated (M. Wt. 72 kDa form or in hypo-phosphorylated form (M. Wt. 68 kDa and 65 kDa. A thorough analysis revealed that expression of E3B1/ABI-1 protein is significantly decreased in esophageal, gastro-esophageal junction and colorectal carcinomas irrespective of age, gender, dietary and smoking habits of the patients. The decrease in expression of E3B1/ABI-1 was consistently observed for all the three isoforms. However, the decrease in the expression of isoforms varied with different forms of cancers. Down-regulation of E3B1/ABI-1 expression in human carcinomas may play a critical role in tumor progression and in determining disease prognosis.

  17. In vitro binding of Sorghum bicolor transcription factors ABI4 and ABI5 to a conserved region of a GA 2-OXIDASE promoter: possible role of this interaction in the expression of seed dormancy. (United States)

    Cantoro, Renata; Crocco, Carlos Daniel; Benech-Arnold, Roberto Luis; Rodríguez, María Verónica


    The precise adjustment of the timing of dormancy release according to final grain usage is still a challenge for many cereal crops. Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] shows wide intraspecific variability in dormancy level and susceptibility to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS). Both embryo sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) metabolism play an important role in the expression of dormancy of the developing sorghum grain. In previous works, it was shown that, simultaneously with a greater embryo sensitivity to ABA and higher expression of SbABA-INSENSITIVE 4 (SbABI4) and SbABA-INSENSITIVE 5 (SbABI5), dormant grains accumulate less active GA4 due to a more active GA catabolism. In this work, it is demonstrated that the ABA signalling components SbABI4 and SbABI5 interact in vitro with a fragment of the SbGA 2-OXIDASE 3 (SbGA2ox3) promoter containing an ABA-responsive complex (ABRC). Both transcription factors were able to bind the promoter, although not simultaneously, suggesting that they might compete for the same cis-acting regulatory sequences. A biological role for these interactions in the expression of dormancy of sorghum grains is proposed: either SbABI4 and/or SbABI5 activate transcription of the SbGA2ox3 gene in vivo and promote SbGA2ox3 protein accumulation; this would result in active degradation of GA4, thus preventing germination of dormant grains. A comparative analysis of the 5'-regulatory region of GA2oxs from both monocots and dicots is also presented; conservation of the ABRC in closely related GA2oxs from Brachypodium distachyon and rice suggest that these species might share the same regulatory mechanism as proposed for grain sorghum.

  18. An Investigation on the antimicrobial activity of some endemic plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study performed on six endemic plant species, antimicrobial activity was observed in Campanula lyrata subsp.lyrata and Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmuelleriana plants. The minimum inhibitory concentration of C. lyrata subsp. lyrata (leaf and flower) extract was found to be 29 mg/ml for Baccillus subtilis and 14.5 ...

  19. FIR 1 TRIGA activity inventories for decommissioning planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raety, Antti; Kotiluoto, Petri


    The objective of the study has been to estimate the residual activity in the decommissioning waste of TRIGA Mark II type research reactor FiR 1 in Finland. Neutron flux distributions were calculated with Monte Carlo code MCNP. These were used in ORIGEN-S point-depletion code to calculate the neutron induced activity of materials at different time points by modelling the irradiation history and radioactive decay. The knowledge of radioactive inventory of irradiated materials is important in the planning of the decommissioning activities and is essential for predicting the radiological impact to personnel and environment. Decommissioning waste consists mainly of ordinary concrete, aluminium, steel and graphite parts. Results include uncertainties due to assumptions on material compositions and possible diffusion of gaseous nuclides. Comparison to activity inventory estimates of two other decommissioned research reactors is also presented. (authors)

  20. Provenance variation in subalpine fir grown as an exotic tree species in Denmark and Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skúlason, Brynjar

    Neonectria neomacrospora in Denmark. In Iceland the corkbark fir showed superior results, especially for survival rate and Christmas tree quality. The White River provenance from British Columbia is recommended for use in Denmark. The Mount Taylor provenance from the Cibola National Forest in New Mexico...... fir (A. lasiocarpa var. lasiocarpa) and corkbark fir (A. lasiocarpa var. arizonica (Merriam) Lemmon) was established at three sites in Denmark and at one site in Iceland in 1999. Adaptability, Christmas tree quality, growth rhythm and susceptibility to pests and pathogens were measured and assessed...... and the most spring frost damage on buds. The westernmost subalpine fir provenances from Washington state and British Columbia showed the overall best results in Denmark, with the highest survival (after 15 years), fastest height growth and highest Christmas tree quality and profitability, as well as both good...

  1. High Resolution Thz and FIR Spectroscopy of SOCl_2 (United States)

    Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Cuisset, A.; Sadovskii, D. A.; Mouret, G.; Hindle, F.; Pirali, O.


    Thionyl chloride (SOCl_2) is an extremely powerful oxidant widely used in industrial processes and playing a role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. In addition, it has a molecular configuration similar to that of phosgene (COCl_2), and is therefore of particular interest for security and defense applications. Low resolution vibrational spectra of gas phase SOCl_2 as well as high resolution pure rotational transitions up to 25 GHz have previously been investigated. To date no high resolution data are reported at frequencies higher than 25 GHz. We have investigated the THz absorption spectrum of SOCl_2 in the spectral region 70-650 GHz using a frequency multiplier chain coupled to a 1 m long single path cell containing a pressure of about 15 μbar. At the time of the writing, about 8000 pure rotational transitions of SO^{35}Cl_2 with highest J and K_a values of 110 and 50 respectively have been assigned on the spectrum. We have also recorded the high resolution FIR spectra of SOCl_2 in the spectral range 50-700 wn using synchrotron radiation at the AILES beamline of SOLEIL facility. A White-type cell aligned with an absorption path length of 150 m has been used to record, at a resolution of 0.001 wn, two spectra at pressures of 5 and 56 μbar of SOCl_2. On these spectra all FIR modes of SOCl_2 are observed (ν_2 to ν_6) and present a resolved rotational structure. Their analysis is in progress. T. J. Johnson et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 6183 (2003) D. E. Martz and R. T. Lagemann, J. Chem. Phys. 22,1193 (1954) H. S. P. Müller and M. C. L. Gerry, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 90, 3473 (1994)

  2. Molecular characterization of a genomic region in a Lactococcus bacteriophage that is involved in its sensitivity to the phage defense mechanism AbiA. (United States)

    Dinsmore, P K; Klaenhammer, T R


    A spontaneous mutant of the lactococcal phage phi31 that is insensitive to the phage defense mechanism AbiA was characterized in an effort to identify the phage factor(s) involved in sensitivity of phi31 to AbiA. A point mutation was localized in the genome of the AbiA-insensitive phage (phi31A) by heteroduplex analysis of a 9-kb region. The mutation (G to T) was within a 738-bp open reading frame (ORF245) and resulted in an arginine-to-leucine change in the predicted amino acid sequence of the protein. The mutant phi31A-ORF245 reduced the sensitivity of phi31 to AbiA when present in trans, indicating that the mutation in ORF245 is responsible for the AbiA insensitivity of phi31A. Transcription of ORF245 occurs early in the phage infection cycles of phi31 and phi31A and is unaffected by AbiA. Expansion of the phi31 sequence revealed ORF169 (immediately upstream of ORF245) and ORF71 (which ends 84 bp upstream of ORF169). Two inverted repeats lie within the 84-bp region between ORF71 and ORF169. Sequence analysis of an independently isolated AbiA-insensitive phage, phi31B, identified a mutation (G to A) in one of the inverted repeats. A 118-bp fragment from phi31, encompassing the 84-bp region between ORF71 and ORF169, eliminates AbiA activity against phi31 when present in trans, establishing a relationship between AbiA and this fragment. The study of this region of phage phi31 has identified an open reading frame (ORF245) and a 118-bp DNA fragment that interact with AbiA and are likely to be involved in the sensitivity of this phage to AbiA.

  3. Transcriptional regulation of ABI3- and ABA-responsive genes including RD29B and RD29A in seeds, germinating embryos, and seedlings of Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Nakashima, Kazuo; Fujita, Yasunari; Katsura, Koji; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko


    ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) are cis-acting elements and basic leucine zipper (bZIP)-type ABRE-binding proteins (AREBs) are transcriptional activators that function in the expression of RD29B in vegetative tissue of Arabidopsis in response to abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Dehydration-responsive elements (DREs) function as coupling elements of ABRE in the expression of RD29A in response to ABA. Expression analysis using abi3 and abi5 mutants showed that ABI3 and ABI5 play important roles in the expression of RD29B in seeds. Base-substitution analysis showed that two ABREs function strongly and one ABRE coupled with DRE functions weakly in the expression of RD29A in embryos. In a transient transactivation experiment, ABI3, ABI5 and AREB1 activated transcription of a GUS reporter gene driven by the RD29B promoter strongly but these proteins activated the transcription driven by the RD29A promoter weakly. In 35S::ABI3 Arabidopsis plants, the expression of RD29B was up-regulated strongly, but that of RD29A was up-regulated weakly. These results indicate that the expression of RD29B having ABREs in the promoter is up-regulated strongly by ABI3, whereas that of RD29A having one ABRE coupled with DREs in the promoter is up-regulated weakly by ABI3. We compared the expression of 7000 Arabidopsis genes in response to ABA treatment during germination and in the vegetative growth stage, and that in 35S::ABI3 plants using a full-length cDNA microarray. The expression of ABI3- and/or ABA-responsive genes and cis-elements in the promoters are discussed.

  4. Characterization of variable EST SSR markers for Norway spruce (Picea abies L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiess Nadine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norway spruce is widely distributed across Europe and the predominant tree of the Alpine region. Fast growth and the fact that timber can be harvested cost-effectively in relatively young populations define its status as one of the economically most important tree species of Northern Europe. In this study, EST derived simple sequence repeat (SSR markers were developed for the assessment of putative functional diversity in Austrian Norway spruce stands. Results SSR sequences were identified by analyzing 14,022 publicly available EST sequences. Tri-nucleotide repeat motifs were most abundant in the data set followed by penta- and hexa-nucleotide repeats. Specific primer pairs were designed for sixty loci. Among these, 27 displayed polymorphism in a testing population of 16 P. abies individuals sampled across Austria and in an additional screening population of 96 P. abies individuals from two geographically distinct Austrian populations. Allele numbers per locus ranged from two to 17 with observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.075 to 0.99. Conclusions We have characterized variable EST SSR markers for Norway spruce detected in expressed genes. Due to their moderate to high degree of variability in the two tested screening populations, these newly developed SSR markers are well suited for the analysis of stress related functional variation present in Norway spruce populations.

  5. ABI Base Recall: Automatic Correction and Ends Trimming of DNA Sequences. (United States)

    Elyazghi, Zakaria; Yazouli, Loubna El; Sadki, Khalid; Radouani, Fouzia


    Automated DNA sequencers produce chromatogram files in ABI format. When viewing chromatograms, some ambiguities are shown at various sites along the DNA sequences, because the program implemented in the sequencing machine and used to call bases cannot always precisely determine the right nucleotide, especially when it is represented by either a broad peak or a set of overlaying peaks. In such cases, a letter other than A, C, G, or T is recorded, most commonly N. Thus, DNA sequencing chromatograms need manual examination: checking for mis-calls and truncating the sequence when errors become too frequent. The purpose of this paper is to develop a program allowing the automatic correction of these ambiguities. This application is a Web-based program powered by Shiny and runs under R platform for an easy exploitation. As a part of the interface, we added the automatic ends clipping option, alignment against reference sequences, and BLAST. To develop and test our tool, we collected several bacterial DNA sequences from different laboratories within Institut Pasteur du Maroc and performed both manual and automatic correction. The comparison between the two methods was carried out. As a result, we note that our program, ABI base recall, accomplishes good correction with a high accuracy. Indeed, it increases the rate of identity and coverage and minimizes the number of mismatches and gaps, hence it provides solution to sequencing ambiguities and saves biologists' time and labor.

  6. The Andalusian Bipolar Family (ABiF) Study: Protocol and sample description. (United States)

    Guzman-Parra, Jose; Rivas, Fabio; Strohmaier, Jana; Forstner, Andreas; Streit, Fabian; Auburger, Georg; Propping, Peter; Orozco-Diaz, Guillermo; González, Maria José; Gil-Flores, Susana; Cabaleiro-Fabeiro, Francisco Javier; Del Río-Noriega, Francisco; Perez-Perez, Fermin; Haro-González, Jesus; de Diego-Otero, Yolanda; Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Moreno-Küstner, Berta; Cichon, Sven; Nöthen, Markus M; Rietschel, Marcella; Mayoral, Fermin


    Here, we present the first description of the Andalusian Bipolar Family (ABiF) Study. This longitudinal investigation of families from Andalusia, Spain commenced in 1997 with the aim of elucidating the molecular genetic causes of bipolar affective disorder. The cohort has since contributed to a number of key genetic findings, as reported in international journals. However, insight into the genetic underpinnings of the disorder in these families remains limited. In the initial 1997-2003 study phase, 100 multiplex bipolar disorder and other mood disorder families were recruited. The ongoing second phase of the project commenced in 2013, and involves follow-up of a subgroup of the originally recruited families. The aim of the follow-up investigation is to generate: i) longitudinal clinical data; ii) results from detailed neuropsychological assessments; and iii) a more extensive collection of biomaterials for future molecular biological studies. The ABiF Study will thus generate a valuable resource for future investigations into the aetiology of bipolar affective disorder; in particular the causes of high disease loading within multiply affected families. We discuss the value of this approach in terms of new technologies for the identification of high-penetrance genetic factors. These new technologies include exome and whole genome sequencing, and the use of induced pluripotent stem cells or model organisms to determine functional consequences. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Fine roots in stands of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies along a gradient of soil acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, Sabine; Cantaluppi, Leonardo; Flueckiger, Walter


    Root length of naturally grown young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) was investigated in 26 forest plots of differing base saturation and nitrogen deposition. The relative length of finest roots (<0.25 mm) was found to decrease in soils with low base saturation. A similar reduction of finest roots in plots with high nitrogen deposition was masked by the effect of base saturation. The formation of adventitious roots was enhanced in acidic soils. The analysis of 128 soil profiles for fine roots of all species present in stands of either Fagus sylvatica L., Picea abies [Karst.] L. or both showed a decreased rooting depth in soils with ≤20% base saturation and in hydromorphic soils. For base rich, well drained soils an average rooting depth of 108 cm was found. This decreased by 28 cm on acidic, well drained soils. The results suggest an effect of the current soil acidification in Switzerland and possibly also of nitrogen deposition on the fine root systems of forest trees. - Fine root length of Fagus sylvatica and fine root depth in stands of Fagus sylvatica and/or Picea abies were impaired in soils with low base saturation

  8. After a child's acquired brain injury (ABI): An ethnographic study of being a parent. (United States)

    Rashid, Marghalara; Goez, Helly R; Caine, Vera; Yager, Jerome Y; Joyce, Anthony S; Newton, Amanda S


    To explore the meanings associated with being a parent of a child with an aquired brain injury (ABI). An ethnographic study was conducted with parents of children aged 3 to 10 years who had acquired a severe brain injury. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit parents from the Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital in Edmonton, Alberta. Data collection involved participant observation, fieldwork and semi-structured interviews. Field notes and interviews transcriptions were analysed using a thematic analysis framework and informed by symbolic interactionism theory. Six parent dyads (mothers and fathers) and 4 mothers participated in the study.Parents' meanings of `parenting' a child with severe brain injury were shaped by the injury, wide range of familial dynamics, and interactions. Six main themes related to parental meanings emerged from our data: (1) Getting `back to normal'; (2) Relying on a support system; (3) Worrying something bad may happen after the injury; (4) Going through a range of emotions following the injury; (5) Changing family dynamics after the injury; and (6) Ongoing performativity. Parents' meanings of `parenting' a child are extensively impacted by their child's functioning after the ABI. Having a greater appreciation of these experiences may be beneficial for medical professionals.

  9. The dependence of water potential in shoots of Picea abies on air and soil water status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sellin

    Full Text Available Where there is sufficient water storage in the soil the water potential (Ψx in shoots of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst.] is strongly governed by the vapour pressure deficit of the atmosphere, while the mean minimum values of Ψx usually do not drop below –1.5 MPa under meteorological conditions in Estonia. If the base water potential (Ψb is above –0.62 MPa, the principal factor causing water deficiency in shoots of P. abies may be either limited soil water reserves or atmospheric evaporative demand depending on the current level of the vapour pressure deficit. As the soil dries the stomatal control becomes more efficient in preventing water losses from the foliage, and the leaf water status, in turn, less sensitive to atmospheric demand. Under drought conditions, if Ψb falls below –0.62 MPa, the trees' water stress is mainly caused by low soil water availability. Further declines in the shoot water potential (below –1.5 MPa can be attributed primarily to further decreases in the soil water, i.e. to the static water stress.Key words. Hydrology (evapotranspiration · plant ecology · soil moisture.

  10. ABI domain-containing proteins contribute to surface protein display and cell division in Staphylococcus aureus. (United States)

    Frankel, Matthew B; Wojcik, Brandon M; DeDent, Andrea C; Missiakas, Dominique M; Schneewind, Olaf


    The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus requires cell wall anchored surface proteins to cause disease. During cell division, surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides are secreted into the cross-wall, a layer of newly synthesized peptidoglycan between separating daughter cells. The molecular determinants for the trafficking of surface proteins are, however, still unknown. We screened mutants with non-redundant transposon insertions by fluorescence-activated cell sorting for reduced deposition of protein A (SpA) into the staphylococcal envelope. Three mutants, each of which harboured transposon insertions in genes for transmembrane proteins, displayed greatly reduced envelope abundance of SpA and surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides. Characterization of the corresponding mutations identified three transmembrane proteins with abortive infectivity (ABI) domains, elements first described in lactococci for their role in phage exclusion. Mutations in genes for ABI domain proteins, designated spdA, spdB and spdC (surface protein display), diminish the expression of surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides, but not of precursor proteins with conventional signal peptides. spdA, spdB and spdC mutants display an increase in the thickness of cross-walls and in the relative abundance of staphylococci with cross-walls, suggesting that spd mutations may represent a possible link between staphylococcal cell division and protein secretion. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Optimal uneven-aged stocking guides: an application to spruce-fir stands in New England (United States)

    Jeffrey H. Gove; Mark J. Ducey


    Management guides for uneven-aged forest stands periodically need to be revisited and updated based on new information and methods. The current silvicultural guide for uneven-aged spruce-fir management in Maine and the northeast (Frank, R.M. and Bjorkbom, J.C. 1973 A silvicultural guide for spruce-fir in the northeast. General Technical Report NE-6, Forest Service. U.S...

  12. Early survival and growth of planted Douglas-fir with red alder in four mixed regimes. (United States)

    Marshall D. Murray; Richard E. Miller


    To quantify between-species interactions, we measured and compared survival and growth of planted Douglas-fir and associated planted and volunteer red alder at a location on the west side of the Cascade Range in Washington. The planted alder were wildlings dug either from a nearby area or from a distant, coastal site and interplanted into a 3-year-old Douglas-fir...

  13. Scaling of Supply Voltage in Design of Energy Saver FIR Filter on 28nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Bishwajeet; Jain, Vishal; Sharma, Rashmi


    In this work, we are going to analyze the effect of main supply voltage, auxiliary supply voltage, local voltage of different power bank, and supply voltage in GTX transceiver and BRAM on power dissipation of our FIR design using Verilog during implementation on 28nm FPGA. We have also taken three.......33%, 86%, 90.67%, 65.33%, 52%, and 48.67% reduction in IO power dissipation of FIR Filter design on CSG324 package of Artix-7 FPGA family....

  14. A Radio Study of the Ultra-luminous FIR Galaxy NGC 6240 (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Wilson, A. S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.


    A number of galaxies observed in the IRAS mission are noted to emit ~ 99% of their bolometric flux in the FIR, with FIR luminosities in excess of 10(11) Lsun. The interacting galaxy NGC 6240 has often been referred to as the ``proto-typical'' ultra-luminous (L_FIR >~ 10(12) Lsun) FIR galaxy. The origin of the FIR excess remains a disputed subject in the literature. New observations of NGC 6240 were taken with the VLA at 20cm in the B-configuration, and at 3.6cm in the A-configuration. No significant radio emission was detected from or near the possible ultra-massive ``dark core'' hypothesized by Bland-Hawthorn et. al. (1991); however, approximately 30% of Seyfert galaxies have 20 cm radio luminosities weaker than the upper limit derived from the radio maps. The non-thermal radio emission from luminous FIR galaxies is tightly correlated with the FIR emission. Previous radio observations of NGC 6240 revealed two compact, steep-spectrum nuclear sources, nearly coincident with the two nuclear sources seen in optical images. The 2 images from the new VLA observations and 5 images from previous VLA observations are used to identify the morphological and spectral features of the strong, compact components in the nuclear regions (~ 3 kpc) from the nucleus. Feasible explanations for the radio emission are discussed. The models that have been proposed in the literature for the FIR excess of NGC 6240 are evaluated for consistency with the observed radio emission.

  15. Identification of varieties and gene flow in Douglas fir exemplified in artificially established stands in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Fussi


    Full Text Available Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco] is an economically valuable non-native tree species in Germany and is considered very promising in view of global climate change. Therefore, the genetic characterization of Douglas-fir populations and seed stands in Germany is essential. We studied coastal and interior Douglas-fir varieties, both present in Germany, by using eleven isoenzyme and four microsatellite loci. By analyzing eight reference populations of known origin we were able to identify the two varieties on the population level using Bayesian and distance based methods. Seven populations present in Bavaria were then successfully assigned to one of the two varieties. Within varieties we found stronger grouping within the interior variety than within the coastal one. Despite lower differences within coastal Douglas-fir we have first indications for the origin of two populations. For two Bavarian populations, natural regeneration was included and genetic data revealed no significant genetic difference between adults and offspring. The parentage analysis for one of the studied stands revealed that a large proportion of adults took part in the reproduction, but some trees were more successful than others in transferring their genes to the next generation. Our study was able to improve variety identification of Douglas-fir using isoenzyme markers and nuclear microsatellites and study reproductive patterns, both are important issues for the management of Douglas-fir stands in Bavaria.

  16. Stand structure and regeneration of a mixed forest (Abies alba-Fagus sylvatica in the Central Pyrenees, Ordesa National Park, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doležal, J.


    Full Text Available The locations and biometrical characteristics of 2391 living and dead trees > 1.3 m tall of Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica, and the 378 understory shrubs o/Buxus sempervirens, were mapped in a 1.4 ha plot on the northern slope of Ordesa Valley to evaluate several hypotheses about stand structural development, tree species regeneration and coexistence. The plot is located in relatively undisturbed old-growth forest, but contains areas at low elevation which were formerly pasture. Abies is typically represented by many young trees and gradually declining numbers of trees in successively older size classes, whereas Fagus has greater numbers of trees in larger size and older age classes. This would imply a shift in dominance from beech to fir if the two species have similar mortality rates. We tested two hypotheses about the coexistence of ecologically similar species: (1 based on differentiation of regeneration niches, and (2 by means of different life history strategies (preference for survivorship or fecundity. Redundancy analysis (RDA was used to determine if the two species prefer different habitats. The analysis of spatial patterns and interspecific associations by Ripley's K-function was used to estimate the role of competition among trees in forest dynamics. The data provide empirical support for both tested hypotheses, although it has been shown that their importance varies depending on the degree of environmental heterogeneity along the slope across the plot. Different life history strategies appear critical to the success of coexistence in moderate environment at lower elevations, where co-dominant species have overlapping regeneration niches.

    [fr] Dans une parcelle de 1, 4 Ha au versant nord de la vallée d'Ordesa nous avons cartographie à petite échelle et pris des données biométriques sur 2391 hêtres (Fagus sylvatica et sapins (Abies alba vivants ou morts mais tous s'élevant à plus de 1,3 m, ainsi

  17. Arabidopsis MADS-Box Transcription Factor AGL21 Acts as Environmental Surveillance of Seed Germination by Regulating ABI5 Expression. (United States)

    Yu, Lin-Hui; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Zi-Sheng; Miao, Zi-Qing; Zhao, Ping-Xia; Wang, Zhen; Xiang, Cheng-Bin


    Seed germination is a crucial checkpoint for plant survival under unfavorable environmental conditions. Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling plays a vital role in integrating environmental information to regulate seed germination. It has been well known that MCM1/AGAMOUS/DEFICIENS/SRF (MADS)-box transcription factors are key regulators of seed and flower development in Arabidopsis. However, little is known about their functions in seed germination. Here we report that MADS-box transcription factor AGL21 is a negative regulator of seed germination and post-germination growth by controlling the expression of ABA-INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) in Arabidopsis. The AGL21-overexpressing plants were hypersensitive to ABA, salt, and osmotic stresses during seed germination and early post-germination growth, whereas agl21 mutants were less sensitive. We found that AGL21 positively regulated ABI5 expression in seeds. Consistently, genetic analyses showed that AGL21 is epistatic to ABI5 in controlling seed germination. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further demonstrated that AGL21 could directly bind to the ABI5 promoter in plant cells. Moreover, we found that AGL21 responded to multiple environmental stresses and plant hormones during seed germination. Taken together, our results suggest that AGL21 acts as a surveillance integrator that incorporates environmental cues and endogenous hormonal signals into ABA signaling to regulate seed germination and early post-germination growth. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nuevos genes reguladores de la tolerancia a estrés abiótico en Arabidopsis.




    Martínez Macías, F. (2015). Nuevos genes reguladores de la tolerancia a estrés abiótico en Arabidopsis [Tesis doctoral no publicada]. Universitat Politècnica de València. doi:10.4995/Thesis/10251/48560. TESIS

  19. Koolieeliku hirmudega toimetulek kui oma probleemidega toimetuleku õppimine ja lähedaste abi selles / Merle Taimalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taimalu, Merle


    Eestis ja Soomes 1993-1994.a. läbi viidud ühisuurimusest laste turvalisuse kohta, kus üheks eesmärgiks oli välja selgitada, kuidas koolieelikud oma hirmudega toime tulevad ja kuivõrd nad saavad ja kasutavad lähedaste täiskasvanute abi


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Ieremia


    Full Text Available The paper present the influence of ascorbic acid upon the mitotic division of Larix decidua Mill ssp. carpatica and Picea abies (L. Karst. The treatment is applied of two variants, germinated seed in ascorbic acid (variantAand germinated seeds in disttilate water, than treated with ascorbic acid in 3 concentrations (variant B.

  1. In vitro testing of defense reactions in zygotic and somatic embryos of Abies numidica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Hřib


    Full Text Available Defense of desiccated cotyledonary somatic embryos and mature zygotic embryos of Abies numidica was tested in vitro by dual cultures with tester, fungus Phaeolus schweinitzii. Both types of embryos expressed defense reactions manifested by inhibited growth of fungal tester towards the embryos. Mycelial growth was described by logistic sigmoid growth model with a single asymptote. Mutual comparisons of mycelial growth in presence of zygotic and somatic embryos showed significant differences in parameters of mycelium growth curves towards the embryos. Larger defense reactions were observed in zygotic embryos relative to somatic embryos and unlimited control cultivations without embryo. The possible role of auxin in the defense response of plant embryos is discussed.

  2. An experimental study on the effects of exhaust gas on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautala, E.L.; Holopainen, J.; Kaerenlampi, L. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences


    Motor vehicle exhausts are significant contributors to air pollution. Besides fine particles and inorganic gases, like CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, exhaust gas contains a large group of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, many of which are phytotoxic. In field studies, exhausts are found to have both direct and indirect harmful effects on roadside plants. However, only few experimental studies have been made about the effects of exhaust gas emissions on coniferous trees. The aim of this study was to survey the effects of exhausts on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in standardized conditions. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components in the chamber atmosphere were detected simultaneously. The effects of exhaust on epistomatal waxes of first-year spruce needles are described. (author)

  3. Tree ring variability and climate response of Abies spectabilis along an elevation gradient in Mustang, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharal, D.K.; Meilby, Henrik; Rayamajhi, S.


    In mountainous areas including the Himalayas, tree lines are expected to advance to higher altitudes due to global climate change affecting the distribution and growth of plant species. This study aimed at identifying the tree ring variability of Abies spectabilis (D. Don) and its response...... to the climate along an elevation gradient in the high Himalayas of central Nepal. Tree core samples were collected from four sites in Mustang district. All sites were located in the same valley and exposed to similar weather conditions. Out of 232 samples collected from the sites, Titi lower (2700 m), Titi......-elevation sites the correlation between pre-monsoon precipitation and tree growth was positive, and for the month of May this was statistically significant (ptree growth at all sites, and at the upper elevation...

  4. Biochemical Content of Cambium of Abies nephrolepis Eaten by Bears on the Far East of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Seryodkin


    Full Text Available The peculiarity of bears behavior of stripping of bark is typical for all species. We have described the damage to trees, by Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus and brown bear (U. arctos in Primorsky Krai and by brown bears on the Sakhalin Island during 1998–2015. In this study, we studied the damaged bark of the tree only in cases where it was clear that part of the cambium was eaten by bears. Cambium of species Abies nephrolepis is the most preferred for bear consumption in Primorsky Krai. We distinguished very large seasonal fluctuations in the amount of its consumption. The greatest interest of bears in this kind of food is in the summer time. We have analyzed the composition of the cambium of A. nephrolepis. These results suggest that the important purpose of the use of this kind of food is to restore and maintain the normal functioning of the intestines.

  5. An experimental study on the effects of exhaust gas on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautala, E L; Holopainen, J; Kaerenlampi, L [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J; Ruuskanen, J [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences


    Motor vehicle exhausts are significant contributors to air pollution. Besides fine particles and inorganic gases, like CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, exhaust gas contains a large group of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, many of which are phytotoxic. In field studies, exhausts are found to have both direct and indirect harmful effects on roadside plants. However, only few experimental studies have been made about the effects of exhaust gas emissions on coniferous trees. The aim of this study was to survey the effects of exhausts on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in standardized conditions. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components in the chamber atmosphere were detected simultaneously. The effects of exhaust on epistomatal waxes of first-year spruce needles are described. (author)

  6. Photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] needles under sunlight irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Junfeng; Chen Jingwen; Martens, D.; Quan Xie; Yang Fenglin; Kettrup, A.; Schramm, K.-W.


    Photolysis of PAHs on surfaces may determine their ultimate fate in the environment. - Photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) sorbed on surfaces of spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] needles under sunlight irradiation was investigated. PAHs were produced by combustion of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), wood, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and styrene in a stove. The factors of sunlight irradiation on the surfaces of spruce needles were taken into consideration when investigating the kinetic parameters. The photolysis of the 18 PAHs under study follows first-order kinetics. The photolysis half-lives range from 15 h for dibenzo(a,h)anthracene to 75 h for phenanthrene. Photolysis of some PAHs on surfaces of spruce needles may play an important role on the fate of PAHs in the environment

  7. Importance of Arboreal Cyanolichen Abundance to Nitrogen Cycling in Sub-Boreal Spruce and Fir Forests of Central British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Kobylinski


    Full Text Available The importance of N2-fixing arboreal cyanolichens to the nitrogen (N-balance of sub-boreal interior hybrid spruce (Picea glauca × engelmannii and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa forests was examined at field sites in central BC, Canada. Host trees were accessed by a single-rope climbing technique and foliage as well as arboreal macrolichen functional groups were sampled by branch height in eight random sample trees from each of two high (High Cyano and two low (Low Cyano cyanolichen abundance sites for a total of 32 sample trees. Natural abundances of stable isotopes of N (15N, 14N and carbon (13C, 12C were determined for aggregate host tree and epiphytic lichen samples, as well as representative samples of upper organic and soil horizons (Ae and Bf from beneath host trees. As expected, N2-fixing cyanolichens had 2–6-fold greater N-contents than chlorolichens and a δ15N close to atmospheric N2, while foliage and chlorolichens were more depleted in 15N. By contrast, soils at all trees and sites were 15N-enriched (positive δ15N, with declining (not significant δ15N with increased tree-level cyanolichen abundance. Lichen functional groups and tree foliage fell into three distinct groups with respect to δ13C; the tripartite cyanolichen Lobaria pulmonaria (lightest, host-tree needles (intermediate, and bipartite cyanolichens, hair (Alectoria and Bryoria spp. and chlorolichens (heaviest. Branch height of host trees was an effective predictor of needle δ13C. Our results showed a modest positive correlation between host tree foliage N and cyanolichen abundance, supporting our initial hypothesis that higher cyanolichen abundances would elevate host tree foliar N. Further study is required to determine if high cyanolichen abundance enhances host tree and/or stand-level productivity in sub-boreal forests of central BC, Canada.

  8. Instrumentation renewal at the FIR 1 research reactor in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, Bruno; Kall, Leif


    The Finnish TRIGA Mark II reactor (FIR 1 100 kW, later 250 kW steady state power and pulsing capability up to 250 MW) has been in operation for 20 years. The reactor is the only research reactor in Finland and is an important research training and service facility, which obviously will be operated for 10...20 years ahead. The mechanical parts of the reactor are in good shape. Some minor modifications have previously been made in the instrumentation. However, the original instrumentation could hardly have been used for 10...20 years ahead without extensive modifications and modernization. After a careful evaluation and planning process the whole reactor instrumentation was renewed in 1981 at a cost of about 400 000 dollar. The renewal was carried out in cooperation with the Central Research Institute for Physics (KFKI) at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, which delivered the nuclear part of the instrumentation and with the Finnish company Valmet Oy Instrument Works, which delivered the conventional instrumentation, including the automatic power control system and the control console. The instrumentation, which is located in-a new isolated control room is based on modern industrial standard modular units with standardized signal ranges, electronic testing possibilities, galvanically isolated outputs etc. The instrument renewal project was brought successfully to completion in November 1981 after only about 10 working days of shut down time. The reactor is now in routine operation and the experiences gained from the new instrumentation are excellent. (author)

  9. Fast Adaptive Blind MMSE Equalizer for Multichannel FIR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed-Meraim Karim


    Full Text Available We propose a new blind minimum mean square error (MMSE equalization algorithm of noisy multichannel finite impulse response (FIR systems, that relies only on second-order statistics. The proposed algorithm offers two important advantages: a low computational complexity and a relative robustness against channel order overestimation errors. Exploiting the fact that the columns of the equalizer matrix filter belong both to the signal subspace and to the kernel of truncated data covariance matrix, the proposed algorithm achieves blindly a direct estimation of the zero-delay MMSE equalizer parameters. We develop a two-step procedure to further improve the performance gain and control the equalization delay. An efficient fast adaptive implementation of our equalizer, based on the projection approximation and the shift invariance property of temporal data covariance matrix, is proposed for reducing the computational complexity from to , where is the number of emitted signals, the data vector length, and the dimension of the signal subspace. We then derive a statistical performance analysis to compare the equalization performance with that of the optimal MMSE equalizer. Finally, simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed blind equalization algorithm.

  10. A SNP resource for Douglas-fir: de novo transcriptome assembly and SNP detection and validation. (United States)

    Howe, Glenn T; Yu, Jianbin; Knaus, Brian; Cronn, Richard; Kolpak, Scott; Dolan, Peter; Lorenz, W Walter; Dean, Jeffrey F D


    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), one of the most economically and ecologically important tree species in the world, also has one of the largest tree breeding programs. Although the coastal and interior varieties of Douglas-fir (vars. menziesii and glauca) are native to North America, the coastal variety is also widely planted for timber production in Europe, New Zealand, Australia, and Chile. Our main goal was to develop a SNP resource large enough to facilitate genomic selection in Douglas-fir breeding programs. To accomplish this, we developed a 454-based reference transcriptome for coastal Douglas-fir, annotated and evaluated the quality of the reference, identified putative SNPs, and then validated a sample of those SNPs using the Illumina Infinium genotyping platform. We assembled a reference transcriptome consisting of 25,002 isogroups (unique gene models) and 102,623 singletons from 2.76 million 454 and Sanger cDNA sequences from coastal Douglas-fir. We identified 278,979 unique SNPs by mapping the 454 and Sanger sequences to the reference, and by mapping four datasets of Illumina cDNA sequences from multiple seed sources, genotypes, and tissues. The Illumina datasets represented coastal Douglas-fir (64.00 and 13.41 million reads), interior Douglas-fir (80.45 million reads), and a Yakima population similar to interior Douglas-fir (8.99 million reads). We assayed 8067 SNPs on 260 trees using an Illumina Infinium SNP genotyping array. Of these SNPs, 5847 (72.5%) were called successfully and were polymorphic. Based on our validation efficiency, our SNP database may contain as many as ~200,000 true SNPs, and as many as ~69,000 SNPs that could be genotyped at ~20,000 gene loci using an Infinium II array-more SNPs than are needed to use genomic selection in tree breeding programs. Ultimately, these genomic resources will enhance Douglas-fir breeding and allow us to better understand landscape-scale patterns of genetic variation and potential responses to

  11. FIR Filter Sharpening by Frequency Masking and Pipelining-Interleaving Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIRIC, M. P.


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the improvements of digital filters with a highly sharp transition zone on the Xilinx FPGA chips by combining a sharpening method based on the amplitude change function and frequency masking and PI (Pipelining-Interleaving techniques. A linear phase requires digital filter realizations with Finite Impulse Response (FIR filters. On the other hand, a drawback of FIR filters applications is a low computational efficiency, especially in applications such as filter sharpening techniques, because this technique uses processing the data by repeated passes through the same filter. Computational efficiency of FIR filters can be significantly improved by using some of the multirate techniques, and such a degree of computation savings cannot be achieved in multirate implementations of IIR (Infinite Impulse Response filters. This paper shows the realization of a filter sharpening method with FIR filters combined with frequency masking and PI (Pipelining-Interleaving technique in order to effectively realize the filter with improved characteristic. This realization at the same time keeps the good features of FIR filters such as the linear phase characteristic.

  12. Zoological and productivity aspects of silver-fir die-back

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhorn, O.


    Using more recent findings and knowledge concerning root aphids, their taxonomy, host specificity, occurrence, distribution and damaging effect, the article shows that they are not the primary cause of silver-fir die-back despite their high level of constance and that they do not play any part in the course of the disease. Neither can other single insect species or several other insect species together which are harmful to silver firs like shoot bell-moth, bud bell-moth, weevil, longicorn and bark beetle, be blamed to be the primary cause of fir die-back. The article discusses reasons why constance and abundance of the bark beetle is surprisingly low even in seriously diseased trees. External appearance of the health condition of trees (proportion of dried-out crown or stag-headedness, number of needle-leaf generations, stork-nest-type crown configuration) and their rate of annual growth agree well. No phytopathogenic nematodes were detected in the inner bark/sapwood area of the trunks and in the roots of diseased silver firs. Nematodes, therefore, are ruled out as a primary cause of fir die-back.

  13. Global Reprogramming of Transcription in Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata during Progressive Drought Stress and after Rewatering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyang Hu


    Full Text Available Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata, an evergreen conifer, is the most commonly grown afforestation species in southeast China due to its rapid growth and good wood qualities. To gain a better understanding of the drought-signalling pathway and the molecular metabolic reactions involved in the drought response, we performed a genome-wide transcription analysis using RNA sequence data. In this study, Chinese fir plantlets were subjected to progressively prolonged drought stress, up to 15 d, followed by rewatering under controlled environmental conditions. Based on observed morphological changes, plantlets experienced mild, moderate, or severe water stress before rehydration. Transcriptome analysis of plantlets, representing control and mild, moderate, and severe drought-stress treatments, and the rewatered plantlets, identified several thousand genes whose expression was altered in response to drought stress. Many genes whose expression was tightly coupled to the levels of drought stress were identified, suggesting involvement in Chinese fir drought adaptation responses. These genes were associated with transcription factors, signal transport, stress kinases, phytohormone signalling, and defence/stress response. The present study provides the most comprehensive transcriptome resource and the first dynamic transcriptome profiles of Chinese fir under drought stress. The drought-responsive genes identified in this study could provide further information for understanding the mechanisms of drought tolerance in Chinese fir.

  14. Gladiolus hybridus ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (GhABI5) is an important transcription factor in ABA signaling that can enhance Gladiolus corm dormancy and Arabidopsis seed dormancy. (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Seng, Shanshan; Sui, Juanjuan; Vonapartis, Eliana; Luo, Xian; Gong, Benhe; Liu, Chen; Wu, Chenyu; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Fengqin; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang


    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and is crucial for abiotic stress response. In this study, cold storage contributes to reducing endogenous ABA content, resulting in dormancy breaking of Gladiolus. The ABA inhibitor fluridone also promotes germination, suggesting that ABA is an important hormone that regulates corm dormancy. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of the Gladiolus ABI5 homolog (GhABI5), which is a basic leucine zipper motif transcriptional factor (TF). GhABI5 is expressed in dormant vegetative organs (corm, cormel, and stolon) as well as in reproductive organs (stamen), and it is up-regulated by ABA or drought. Complementation analysis reveals that GhABI5 rescues the ABA insensitivity of abi5-3 during seed germination and induces the expression of downstream ABA response genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (EM1, EM6, and RD29B). Down-regulation of GhABI5 in dormant cormels via virus induced gene silence promotes sprouting and reduces the expression of downstream genes (GhLEA and GhRD29B). The results of this study reveal that GhABI5 regulates bud dormancy (vegetative organ) in Gladiolus in addition to its well-studied function in Arabidopsis seeds (reproductive organ).

  15. Gladiolus hybridus ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (GhABI5 is an important transcription factor in ABA signaling that can enhance Gladiolus corm dormancy and Arabidopsis seed dormancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian eWu


    Full Text Available The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA regulates plant development and is crucial for abiotic stress response. In this study, cold storage contributes to reducing endogenous ABA content, resulting in dormancy breaking of Gladiolus. The ABA inhibitor fluridone also promotes germination, suggesting that ABA is an important hormone that regulates corm dormancy. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of the Gladiolus ABI5 homolog (GhABI5, which is a basic leucine zipper motif transcriptional factor (TF. GhABI5 is expressed in dormant vegetative organs (corm, cormel and stolon as well as in reproductive organs (stamen, and it is up-regulated by ABA or drought. Complementation analysis reveals that GhABI5 rescues the ABA insensitivity of abi5-3 during seed germination and induces the expression of downstream ABA response genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (EM1, EM6 and RD29B. Down-regulation of GhABI5 in dormant cormels via Virus Induced Gene Silence (VIGS promotes sprouting and reduces the expression of downstream genes (GhLEA and GhRD29B. The results of this study reveal that GhABI5 regulates bud dormancy (vegetative organ in Gladiolus in addition to its well-studied function in Arabidopsis seeds (reproductive organ.

  16. Natural regeneration of Douglas-fir and associated species using modified clear-cutting systems in the Oregon Cascades. (United States)

    Jerry F. Franklin


    Clear cutting is the standard harvesting system in old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests in the Pacific Northwest. Usually these clear cuts are in "staggered settings" of 15 to 80 acres with the surrounding stand left uncut to provide seed and serve as a firebreak. However, satisfactory natural regeneration of Douglas-fir...

  17. Assessing the effects of vegetation types on carbon storage fifteen years after reforestation on a Chinese fir site (United States)

    Qinkui Wang; Silong Wang; Jianwei Zhang


    Forest ecosystems play a significant role in sequestering carbon (C) in biomass and soils. Plantations established in subtropical China since the 1980s, mainly of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) in monocultures, have proved to be major C sinks. However, information is lacking about whether mixing Chinese fir with broadleaved tree...

  18. Flight periodicity of the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Colorado, U.S.A (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Willis C. Schaupp; Lee Pederson


    There are about 500 species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in the United States (Wood 1982). A number of them are important disturbance agents in forested ecosystems, occasionally creating large tracts of dead trees. One eruptive species is the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, which utilizes Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga...

  19. Douglas-fir displays a range of growth responses to temperature, water, and Swiss needle cast in western Oregon, USA (United States)

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) growth in the Pacific Northwest is affected by climatic, edaphic factors and Swiss needle cast (SNC) disease. We examine Douglas-fir growth responses to temperature, dewpoint deficit (DPD), soil moisture, and SNC ...

  20. Growth of bear-damaged trees in a mixed plantation of Douglas-fir and red alder. (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Harry W. Anderson; Donald L. Reukema; Timothy A. Max


    Incidence and effects of tree damage by black bear (Ursus americanus altifrontalis) in a 50-year-old, coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) plantation are described. Bears girdled or partially girdled 35 dominant or codominant Douglas-fir trees per acre, but only in that...

  1. Changes in wood product proportions in the Douglas-fir region with respect to size, age, and time. (United States)

    R.A. Monserud; X. Zhou


    We examine both the variation and the changing proportions of different wood products obtained from trees and logs in the Douglas-fir region of the Northwestern United States. Analyses are based on a large product recovery database covering over 40 years of recovery studies; 13 studies are available for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)...

  2. An examination of the genetic control of Douglas-fir vascular tissue phytochemicals: implications for black bear foraging. (United States)

    Bruce A. Kimball; G.R. Johnson; Dale L. Nolte; Doreen L. Griffin


    Silvicultural practices can influence black bear (Ursus americanus) foraging preferences for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) cambial-zone vascular tissues, but little is known about the role of genetics. To study the impact of genetic selection, vascular tissue samples were collected from Douglas-fir trees in six half-sib families from five...

  3. Deterioration of beetle-killed Douglas-fir in Oregon and Washington: a summary of findings to date. (United States)

    Ernest Wright; K.H. Wright


    In 1952 and 1953 cooperative research was conducted by the Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment Station and the Research Department of Weyerhaeuser Timber Company to obtain information concerning the rate of deterioration of beetle-killed Douglas-fir. The study was prompted by an outbreak of the Douglas-fir beetle that developed in 1951 and has since killed an estimated...

  4. Determination of Screw and Nail Withdrawal Resistance of Some Important Wood Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Aytekin


    Full Text Available In this study, screw and nail withdrawal resistance of fir (Abies nordmanniana, oak (Quercus robur L. black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold and Stone pine (Pinus pinea L. wood were determined and compared. The data represent the testing of withdrawal resistance of three types of screws as smart, serrated and conventional and common nails. The specimens were prepared according to TS 6094 standards. The dimensions of the specimens were 5x5x15cm and for all of the directions. Moreover, the specimens were conditioned at ambient room temperature and 65±2% relative humidity. The screws and nails were installed according to ASTM-D 1761 standards. Nail dimensions were 2.5mm diameter and 50 mm length, conventional screws were 4x50mm, serrated screws were 4x45mm and smart screws were 4x50mm. Results show that the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value was found in Stone pine for the serrated screw. There were no significant differences between Stone pine and oak regarding screw withdrawal resistance values. Conventional screw yielded the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value in oak, followed by Stone pine, black pine and fir. Oak wood showed the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value for the smart screw, followed by Stone pine, black pine, and fir. Oak wood showed higher nail withdrawal resistances than softwood species. It was also determined that oak shows the maximum nail withdrawal resistance in all types. The nail withdrawal resistances at the longitudinal direction are lower with respect to radial and tangential directions.

  5. Molecular characterization of a genomic region in a Lactococcus bacteriophage that is involved in its sensitivity to the phage defense mechanism AbiA.


    Dinsmore, P K; Klaenhammer, T R


    A spontaneous mutant of the lactococcal phage phi31 that is insensitive to the phage defense mechanism AbiA was characterized in an effort to identify the phage factor(s) involved in sensitivity of phi31 to AbiA. A point mutation was localized in the genome of the AbiA-insensitive phage (phi31A) by heteroduplex analysis of a 9-kb region. The mutation (G to T) was within a 738-bp open reading frame (ORF245) and resulted in an arginine-to-leucine change in the predicted amino acid sequence of t...

  6. Phase I and pharmacokinetic trial of carboplatin and albumin-bound paclitaxel, ABI-007 (Abraxane®) on three treatment schedules in patients with solid tumors (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E.; Socinski, Mark A.; Walko, Christine M.; O’Neil, Bert H.; Collichio, Frances A.; Ivanova, Anastasia; Mu, Hua; Hawkins, Michael J.; Goldberg, Richard M.; Lindley, Celeste; Dees, E Claire


    Purpose Albumin-bound paclitaxel, ABI-007 (Abraxane ®), has a different toxicity profile than solvent-based paclitaxel, including a lower rate of severe neutropenia. The combination of ABI-007 and carboplatin may have significant activity in a variety of tumor types including non-small and small cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of ABI-007, on three different schedules in combination with carboplatin. Methods Forty-one patients with solid tumors were enrolled, and received ABI-007 in combination with carboplatin AUC of 6 on day 1. Group A received ABI-007 at doses ranging from 220 to 340 mg/m2 on day 1 every 21 days; group B received ABI-007 at 100 or 125 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days; and group C received ABI-007 125 or 150 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 every 21 days. Dose-limiting toxicities were assessed after the first cycle. Doses were escalated in cohorts of three to six patients. Fifteen patients participated in a pharmacokinetic study investigating the effects of the sequence of infusion. ABI-007 was infused first followed by carboplatin in cycle 1, and vice versa in cycle 2. Results The MTD of ABI-007 in combination with carboplatin was 300, 100, and 125 mg/m2 in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Myelosuppression was the primary dose limiting toxicity. No unexpected or new toxicities were reported. Sequence of infusion did not affect either the pharmacokinetics of ABI-007 or the degree of neutropenia. Responses were seen in melanoma, lung, bladder, esophageal, pancreatic, breast cancer, and cancer of unknown primary. Conclusions The recommended dose for phase II studies of ABI-007 in combination with carboplatin (AUC of 6) is 300, 100, 125 mg/m2 for the schedules A, B, and C, respectively. The combination of ABI-007 and carboplatin is well tolerated and active in this heavily pretreated patient population. PMID:17285317

  7. Properties of predictor based on relative neighborhood graph localized FIR filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted


    A time signal prediction algorithm based on relative neighborhood graph (RNG) localized FIR filters is defined. The RNG connects two nodes, of input space dimension D, if their lune does not contain any other node. The FIR filters associated with the nodes, are used for local approximation...... of the training vectors belonging to the lunes formed by the nodes. The predictor training is carried out by iteration through 3 stages: initialization of the RNG of the training signal by vector quantization, LS estimation of the FIR filters localized in the input space by RNG nodes and adaptation of the RNG...... nodes by equalizing the LS approximation error among the lunes formed by the nodes of the RNG. The training properties of the predictor is exemplified on a burst signal and characterized by the normalized mean square error (NMSE) and the mean valence of the RNG nodes through the adaptation...

  8. Effect of stand edge on the natural regeneration of spruce, beech and Douglas-fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumír Dobrovolný


    Full Text Available Our work aimed at studying the strategy of woody plants regeneration during the regeneration of a spruce stand with the admixture of beech and Douglas-fir by border cutting (NW-SE aspect on acidic sites of higher elevations in the Bohemian-Moravian Upland. Spruce is better adapted to bear shade than Douglas-fir. Nevertheless, in optimal light conditions up to a distance of ca. 35 m (about 16% DIFFSF from the stand edge, the Douglas-fir can put the spruce into danger as to height growth. By contrast to beech, the density of spruce is significantly higher within the distance of 45 m (about 15% DIFFSF from the stand edge but further on the situation would change to the benefit of beech. The density of Douglas-fir significantly dominates over beech within a distance of 35 m from the stand edge; from 55 m (less than 15% DIFFSF, the situation changes in favour of beech. Beech can survive in full shade deep in the stand core waiting for its opportunity to come. As compared to spruce and Douglas-fir, the height growth of beech was at all times significantly greater at a distance of 25 m from the stand edge. Converted to practical conditions, spruce and Douglas-fir with individually admixed beech seedlings showed good prosperity approximately up to a distance of one stand height from the edge. A mixture of spruce and beech did well at a greater distance but good prosperity at a distance of 2–3 stand heights was shown only by beech. Thus, border regeneration eliminates disadvantages of the climatic extremes of clear-cutting and specifics of shelterwood felling during which one – usually shade-tolerant tree species dominates in the natural regeneration (e.g. beech.

  9. Soil spore bank communities of ectomycorrhizal fungi in endangered Chinese Douglas-fir forests. (United States)

    Wen, Zhugui; Shi, Liang; Tang, Yangze; Hong, Lizhou; Xue, Jiawang; Xing, Jincheng; Chen, Yahua; Nara, Kazuhide


    Chinese Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga sinensis) is an endangered Pinaceae species found in several isolated regions of China. Although soil spore banks of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi can play an important role in seedling establishment after disturbance, such as in the well-known North American relative (Pseudotsuga menziesii), we have no information about soil spore bank communities in relict forests of Chinese Douglas-fir. We conducted bioassays of 73 soil samples collected from three Chinese Douglas-fir forests, using North American Douglas-fir as bait seedlings, and identified 19 species of ECM fungi. The observed spore bank communities were significantly different from those found in ECM fungi on the roots of resident trees at the same sites (p = 0.02). The levels of potassium (K), nitrogen (N), organic matter, and the pH of soil were the dominant factors shaping spore bank community structure. A new Rhizopogon species was the most dominant species in the spore banks. Specifically, at a site on Sanqing Mountain, 22 of the 57 surviving bioassay seedlings (representing 21 of the 23 soil samples) were colonized by this species. ECM fungal richness significantly affected the growth of bioassay seedlings (R 2  = 0.20, p = 0.007). Growth was significantly improved in seedlings colonized by Rhizopogon or Meliniomyces species compared with uncolonized seedlings. Considering its specificity to Chinese Douglas-fir, predominance in the soil spore banks, and positive effect on host growth, this new Rhizopogon species could play critical roles in seedling establishment and forest regeneration of endangered Chinese Douglas-fir.

  10. Regulation of somatic embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies). A molecular approach to the characterization of specific developmental stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabala, I. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics


    Embryo development is a complex process involving a set of strictly regulated events. The regulation of these events is poorly understood especially during the early stages of embryo development. Somatic embryos go through the same developmental stages as zygotic embryos making them an ideal model system for studying the regulation of embryo development. We have used embryogenic cultures of Picea abies to study some aspects of the regulation of embryo development in gymnosperms. The bottle neck during somatic embryogenesis is the switch from the proliferation stage to the maturation stage. This switch is initiated by giving somatic embryos a maturation treatment i.e. the embryos are treated with abscisic acid (ABA). Somatic embryos which respond to ABA by forming mature somatic embryos were stimulated to secret a 70 kDa protein, AF70. The af70 gene was isolated and characterised. The expression of the af70 gene was constitutive in embryos but was highly ABA-induced in seedlings. Moreover, expression of this gene was stimulated during cold acclimation of Picea abies seedlings. A full length Picea abies cDNA clone Pa18, encoding a protein with the characteristics of plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), was isolated and characterised. The Pa18 gene is constitutively expressed in embryogenic cultures of Picea abies representing different stages of development as well as in nonembryogenic callus and seedlings. In situ hybridization showed that Pa18 gene is expressed in all embryonic cells of proliferating somatic embryos but the expression of the gene in mature somatic and zygotic embryos is restricted to the outer cell layer. Southern blot analysis at different stringencies was consistent with a single gene. An alteration in expression of Pa18 causes disturbance in the formation of the proper outer cell layer in the maturing somatic embryos. In addition to its influence on embryo development the Pa18 gene product also inhibits growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens 195

  11. The COP9 Signalosome regulates seed germination by facilitating protein degradation of RGL2 and ABI5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Jin


    Full Text Available The control of seed germination and seed dormancy are critical for the successful propagation of plant species, and are important agricultural traits. Seed germination is tightly controlled by the balance of gibberellin (GA and abscisic acid (ABA, and is influenced by environmental factors. The COP9 Signalosome (CSN is a conserved multi-subunit protein complex that is best known as a regulator of the Cullin-RING family of ubiquitin E3 ligases (CRLs. Multiple viable mutants of the CSN showed poor germination, except for csn5b-1. Detailed analyses showed that csn1-10 has a stronger seed dormancy, while csn5a-1 mutants exhibit retarded seed germination in addition to hyperdormancy. Both csn5a-1 and csn1-10 plants show defects in the timely removal of the germination inhibitors: RGL2, a repressor of GA signaling, and ABI5, an effector of ABA responses. We provide genetic evidence to demonstrate that the germination phenotype of csn1-10 is caused by over-accumulation of RGL2, a substrate of the SCF (CRL1 ubiquitin E3 ligase, while the csn5a-1 phenotype is caused by over-accumulation of RGL2 as well as ABI5. The genetic data are consistent with the hypothesis that CSN5A regulates ABI5 by a mechanism that may not involve CSN1. Transcriptome analyses suggest that CSN1 has a more prominent role than CSN5A during seed maturation, but CSN5A plays a more important role than CSN1 during seed germination, further supporting the functional distinction of these two CSN genes. Our study delineates the molecular targets of the CSN complex in seed germination, and reveals that CSN5 has additional functions in regulating ABI5, thus the ABA signaling pathway.

  12. Pollution of spruce Picea abies Karst. by emissions of F, As, Pb, Cd, and S from an aluminium plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankovska, B


    In two year old needles of P. abies polluted by industrial emissions, the following elements were determined: As, Pb and Cd by atomic absorption, F spectrophotometrically and S gravimetrically. All values of F, As, Cd and S close to the aluminum plant exceed those from Cierny Balog and are statistically significant at the P/sub 0/ /sub 01/% level. Only the content of Pb is insignificant. 8 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Long-term Responses of Canopy-understorey Interactions to Disturbance Severity in Primary Picea abies Forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bače, R.; Schurman, J.S.; Brabec, Marek; Čada, V.; Deprés, T.; Janda, P.; Lábusová, J.; Mikoláš, M.; Morrissey, R. C.; Mrhalová, H.; Nagel, T.A.; Nováková, M. H.; Seedre, M.; Synek, M.; Trotsiuk, V.; Svoboda, M.


    Roč. 28, č. 6 (2017), s. 1128-1139 ISSN 1100-9233 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA15-14840S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Disturbance regime * Natural regeneration * Primary forest * Picea abies (L.) Karst * Windstorms * Bark beetle * Understory light availability * Saplings and poles * Canopy openness * Mountain forest Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 2.924, year: 2016

  14. Seasonal changes of Rubisco content and activity in Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies affected by elevated CO2 concentration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrstka, M.; Urban, Otmar; Babák, L.


    Roč. 66, č. 9 (2012), s. 836-841 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600870701; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Rubisco content * Rubisco activity * seasonal changes * elevated CO2 concentrations * Fagus sylvatica * Picea abies Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.879, year: 2012

  15. DNA-Methylierung nach abiotischen und biotischen Einflüssen und Expressionsanalyse pathogeninduzierter Gene in Picea abies (L.) Karst.


    Baumann, Ruediger


    Basierend auf Beobachtungen über phänotypische Änderungen in Vollgeschwisterfamilien der Fichte,Picea abies, aus unterschiedlichen Kreuzungsumwelten wurde nach der geneti-schen Untersuchung mit EST-Markern eine kapillarelektrophoretische Untersuchung der DNA durchgeführt. Dabei wurden signifikante Unterschiede im Methylcytosin(mC)-Gehalt festgestellt. Messungen der mC-Gehalte nach Hitzeschock zeigten, den Einfluss der Um-weltbedingungen auf die Methylierung der DNA. Untersuchungen zur Dynamik...

  16. Growth and Wood/Bark Properties of Abies faxoniana Seedlings as Affected by Elevated CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Zhou Qiao; Yuan-Bin Zhang; Kai-Yun Wang; Qian Wang; Qi-Zhuo Tian


    Growth and wood and bark properties of Abies faxoniana seedlings after one year's exposure to elevated CO2 concentration (ambient + 350 (=1= 25) μmol/mol) under two planting densities (28 or 84 plants/mz) were investigated in closed-top chambers. Tree height, stem diameter and cross-sectional area, and total biomass were enhanced under elevated CO2 concentration, and reduced under high planting density. Most traits of stem bark were improved under elevated CO2 concentration and reduced under high planting density. Stem wood production was significantly increased in volume under elevated CO2 concentration under both densities, and the stem wood density decreased under elevated CO2 concentration and increased under high planting density. These results suggest that the response of stem wood and bark to elevated CO2 concentration is density dependent. This may be of great importance in a future CO2 enriched world in natural forests where plant density varies considerably. The results also show that the bark/wood ratio in diameter, stem cross-sectional area and dry weight are not proportionally affected by elevated CO2 concentration under the two contrasting planting densities. This indicates that the response magnitude of stem bark and stem wood to elevated CO2 concentration are different but their response directions are the same.

  17. Resonance wood [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]--evaluation and prediction of violin makers' quality-grading. (United States)

    Buksnowitz, Christoph; Teischinger, Alfred; Müller, Ulrich; Pahler, Andreas; Evans, Robert


    The definition of quality in the field of resonance wood for musical instrument making has attracted considerable interest over decades but has remained incomplete. The current work compares the traditional knowledge and practical experience of violin makers with a material-science approach to objectively characterize the properties of resonance wood. Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] has earned a very high reputation for the construction of resonance tops of stringed instruments and resonance boards of keyboard instruments, and was therefore chosen as the focus of the investigation. The samples were obtained from numerous renowned resonance wood regions in the European Alps and cover the whole range of available qualities. A set of acoustical, anatomical, mechanical and optical material properties was measured on each sample. These measurements were compared with subjective quality grading by violin makers, who estimated the acoustical, optical and overall suitability for violin making. Multiple linear regression models were applied to evaluate the predictability of the subjective grading using the measured material characteristics as predictors. The results show that luthiers are able to estimate wood quality related to visible features, but predictions of mechanical and acoustical properties proved to be very poor.

  18. Experimental versus modelled water use in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies exposed to elevated CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eLeuzinger


    Full Text Available Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 have often been reported to reduce plant water use. Such behaviour is also predicted by standard equations relating photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and atmospheric CO2 concentration, which form the core of global dynamic vegetation models (DGVMs. Here, we provide first results from a free air CO2 enrichment (FACE experiment with naturally growing, mature (35 m Picea abies (L. (Norway spruce and compare them to simulations by the DGVM LPJ-GUESS. We monitored sap flow, stem water deficit, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and soil moisture in five 35-40 m tall CO2-treated (550 ppm trees over two seasons. Using LPJ-GUESS, we simulated this experiment using climate data from a nearby weather station. While the model predicted a stable reduction of transpiration of between 9 and 18 % (at concentrations of 550-700ppm atmospheric CO2, the combined evidence from various methods characterising water use in our experimental trees suggest no changes in response to future CO2 concentrations. The discrepancy between the modelled and the experimental results may be a scaling issue: while dynamic vegetation models correctly predict leaf-level responses, they may not sufficiently account for the processes involved at the canopy and ecosystem scale, which could mitigate the first-order stomatal response.

  19. Extraction of antioxidants from spruce (Picea abies) bark using eco-friendly solvents. (United States)

    Co, Michelle; Fagerlund, Amelie; Engman, Lars; Sunnerheim, Kerstin; Sjöberg, Per J R; Turner, Charlotta


    Antioxidants are known to avert oxidation processes and they are found in trees and other plant materials. Tree bark is a major waste product from paper pulp industries; hence it is worthwhile to develop an extraction technique to extract the antioxidants. To develop a fast and environmentally sustainable extraction technique for the extraction of antioxidants from bark of spruce (Picea abies) and also to identify the extracted antioxidants that are abundant in spruce bark. A screening experiment that involved three different techniques was conducted to determine the best technique to extract antioxidants. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined with DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) turned out to be the best technique and a response surface design was therefore utilised to optimise PFE. Furthermore, NMR and HPLC-DAD-MS/MS were applied to identify the extracted antioxidants. PFE using water and ethanol as solvent at 160 and 180°C, respectively, gave extracts of the highest antioxidant capacity. Stilbene glucosides such as isorhapontin, piceid and astringin were identified in the extracts. The study has shown that PFE is a fast and environmentally sustainable technique, using water and ethanol as solvent for the extraction of antioxidants from spruce bark. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Two lepidopteran pests and damage on the cones of Abies koreana (Pinaceae in Jeju Island, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Min Shin


    Full Text Available In the present study, we report two lepidopteran pests and their damage on the cones of Abies koreana E. H. Wilson from Mt. Halla, Jeju, South Korea: Cydia kamijoi Oku and Dioryctria abietella (Denis & Schiffermüller. The former is new to Korea, and the latter is well known as an insect pest on cones of various coniferous trees. Larvae of these species bore into the immature cones of the host tree. Damaged cones can be easily distinguished by reddish brown frass piled around the holes that were made by the moths, and the cones that are severely damaged become crooked and eventually are folded in half. The average damage rate on the cones was 75.3±2.34% from the survey sites in 2014, but the insect damage could not be found again from the sites as the host did not bear any cones in 2015. Descriptions and images of C. kamijoi and D. abietella are provided along with a list of host species and distribution.

  1. Patterns of nucleotide diversity at photoperiod related genes in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst]. (United States)

    Källman, Thomas; De Mita, Stéphane; Larsson, Hanna; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Heuertz, Myriam; Parducci, Laura; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Lagercrantz, Ulf; Lascoux, Martin


    The ability of plants to track seasonal changes is largely dependent on genes assigned to the photoperiod pathway, and variation in those genes is thereby important for adaptation to local day length conditions. Extensive physiological data in several temperate conifer species suggest that populations are adapted to local light conditions, but data on the genes underlying this adaptation are more limited. Here we present nucleotide diversity data from 19 genes putatively involved in photoperiodic response in Norway spruce (Picea abies). Based on similarity to model plants the genes were grouped into three categories according to their presumed position in the photoperiod pathway: photoreceptors, circadian clock genes, and downstream targets. An HKA (Hudson, Kreitman and Aquade) test showed a significant excess of diversity at photoreceptor genes, but no departure from neutrality at circadian genes and downstream targets. Departures from neutrality were also tested with Tajima's D and Fay and Wu's H statistics under three demographic scenarios: the standard neutral model, a population expansion model, and a more complex population split model. Only one gene, the circadian clock gene PaPRR3 with a highly positive Tajima's D value, deviates significantly from all tested demographic scenarios. As the PaPRR3 gene harbours multiple non-synonymous variants it appears as an excellent candidate gene for control of photoperiod response in Norway spruce.

  2. Warming delays autumn declines in photosynthetic capacity in a boreal conifer, Norway spruce (Picea abies). (United States)

    Stinziano, Joseph R; Hüner, Norman P A; Way, Danielle A


    Climate change, via warmer springs and autumns, may lengthen the carbon uptake period of boreal tree species, increasing the potential for carbon sequestration in boreal forests, which could help slow climate change. However, if other seasonal cues such as photoperiod dictate when photosynthetic capacity declines, warmer autumn temperatures may have little effect on when carbon uptake capacity decreases in these species. We investigated whether autumn warming would delay photosynthetic decline in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) by growing seedlings under declining weekly photoperiods and weekly temperatures either at ambient temperature or a warming treatment 4 °C above ambient. Photosynthetic capacity was relatively constant in both treatments when weekly temperatures were >8 °C, but declined rapidly at lower temperatures, leading to a delay in the autumn decline in photosynthetic capacity in the warming treatment. The decline in photosynthetic capacity was not related to changes in leaf nitrogen or chlorophyll concentrations, but was correlated with a decrease in the apparent fraction of leaf nitrogen invested in Rubisco, implicating a shift in nitrogen allocation away from the Calvin cycle at low autumn growing temperatures. Our data suggest that as the climate warms, the period of net carbon uptake will be extended in the autumn for boreal forests dominated by Norway spruce, which could increase total carbon uptake in these forests. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Daniel Castillo-Flores


    Full Text Available La declinación forestal en el Desierto de los Leones, D. F. afecta a Abies religiosa, una de las especies dominantes en la región con difícil capacidad de enraizamiento que requiere propagación en la zona. En el presente estudio se desarrolló un método de propagación vegetativa con el fin de determinar si el efecto de la procedencia, edad del material, tipo de hormona y la presencia de síntomas de declinación, influyen en la capacidad de enraizamiento de estacas de dicha especie. En este experimento se utilizó un sustrato compuesto por turba y agrolita para probar estacas de dos procedencias, con y sin síntomas de declinación, generadas en dos estaciones de crecimiento, y dos auxinas, manteniendo una humedad de 75-80 %. La combinación de estos factores produjo 16 tratamientos, los cuales se repitieron 50 veces. Los datos fueron procesados mediante un análisis de varianza factorial. Los resultados indican que a principios de diciembre es la mejor época de recolecta de material vegetal para enraizamiento de estacas de A. religiosa, siendo las estacas más jóvenes y las que recibieron indol-3-butírico las que mejor enraizaron. La procedencia y la sintomatología no tuvieron efecto en el enraizamiento.

  4. Evaluation of the stomatal conductance formulation in the EMEP ozone deposition model for Picea abies (United States)

    Wieser, G.; Emberson, L. D.

    It is widely acknowledged that the possible impacts of ozone on forest trees are more closely related to ozone flux through the stomata than to external ozone exposure. However, the application of the flux approach on a European scale requires the availability of appropriate models, such as the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) ozone deposition model, for estimating ozone flux and cumulative ozone uptake. Within this model stomatal conductance is the key variable, since it determines the amount of ozone absorbed by the leaves. This paper describes the suitability of the existing EMEP ozone deposition model parameterisation and formulation to represent stomatal behaviour determined from field measurements on adult Norway spruce ( Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees in the Central European Alps. Parameters affecting maximum stomatal conductance (e.g. seasonal phenology, needle position, needle age, nutrient deficiency and ozone itself) and stomatal response functions to temperature, irradiance, vapour pressure deficit, and soil water content are investigated. Finally, current limitations and possible alterations of the EMEP model will be discussed with respect to spatial scales of available input data for future flux modelling.


    Lagercrantz, Ulf; Ryman, Nils


    This study describes the population structure of Norway spruce (Picea abies) as revealed by protein polymorphisms and morphological variation. Electrophoretically detectable genetic variability was examined at 22 protein loci in 70 populations from the natural range of the species in Europe. Like other conifers, Norway spruce exhibits a relatively large amount of genetic variability and little differentiation among populations. Sixteen polymorphic loci (73%) segregate for a total of 51 alleles, and average heterozygosity per population is 0.115. Approximately 5% of the total genetic diversity is explained by differences between populations (G ST = 0.052), and Nei's standard genetic distance is less than 0.04 in all cases. We suggest that the population structure largely reflects relatively recent historical events related to the last glaciation and that Norway spruce is still in a process of adaptation and differentiation. There is a clear geographic pattern in the variation of allele frequencies. A major part of the allelefrequency variation can be accounted for by a few synthetic variables (principal components), and 80% of the variation of the first principal component is "explained" by latitude and longitude. The central European populations are consistently depauperate of genetic variability, most likely as an effect of severe restrictions of population size during the last glaciation. The pattern of differentiation at protein loci is very similar to that observed for seven morphological traits examined. This similarity suggests that the same evolutionary forces have acted upon both sets of characters. © 1990 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Review of Lepidoptera with trophic relationships to Picea abies (L. in the conditions of Czechia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modlinger Roman


    Full Text Available Trophic relationships of Lepidoptera (Insecta occurring in the territory of Czechia to the Norway spruce (Picea abies L. was evaluated on the basis of the excerption and critical evaluation of literature. Each species was classified into the following categories – spruce as the host plant, regular development on spruce, narrow trophic relationship, indirect relationship and episodical occurrence. The particular taxa were also characterized according to their distribution and the form of larval life was specified. The development on spruce was documented in 96 species of Lepidoptera, which represented less than 3% of taxa belonging to this group and being reported from Czechia. Of that, spruce was a common host plant for 67 species, 23 species were polyphagous and might develop on spruce, and 6 species belonged to soil species damaging spruce roots, mainly in forest nurseries. Among the species of Lepidoptera, which regularly develop on spruce in the Czech conditions, 55 species were classified. As narrow specialists with special trophic relationship to spruce, 33 taxa could be considered. There were 15 spruce species with forestry importance, which were able to outbreak their populations regularly or irregularly. Among spruce species it was possible to classify 16 taxa as rare. The provided information on Lepidoptera with trophic relationship to spruce is applicable also for other Central European areas. Besides the species with importance for forest pest management, also rare taxa, which can become endangered by climate change or by forest management, were indicated.

  7. Abies Concolor Seeds and Cones as New Source of Essential Oils-Composition and Biological Activity. (United States)

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Szoka, Łukasz; Karna, Ewa; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Monika


    The chemical composition, including the enantiomeric excess of the main terpenes, of essential oils from seeds and cones of Abies concolor was studied by chromatographic (GC) and spectroscopic methods (mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance), leading to the determination of 98 compounds. Essential oils were mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons. The dominant volatiles of seed essential oil were: limonene (47 g/100 g, almost pure levorotary form) and α-pinene (40 g/100 g), while α-pinene (58 g/100 g), sabinene (11 g/100 g), and β-pinene (4.5 g/100 g) were the predominant components of the cone oil. The seed and cone essential oils exhibited mild antibacterial activity, and the MIC ranged from 26 to 30 μL/mL against all of the tested bacterial standard strains: Staphylococcus aureus , Enterococcus faecalis , Enterococcus faecium , Escherichia coli , and Klebsiella pneumoniae . The cytotoxic studies have demonstrated that tested essential oils were cytotoxic to human skin fibroblasts and human microvascular endothelial cells at concentrations much lower than the MIC. The essential oils from A. concolor seeds and cones had no toxic effect on human skin fibroblasts and human microvascular endothelial cells, when added to the cells at a low concentration (0-0.075 μL/mL) and (0-1.0 μL/mL), respectively, and cultured for 24 h.

  8. The transcription factor ABI4 Is required for the ascorbic acid-dependent regulation of growth and regulation of jasmonate-dependent defense signaling pathways in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Kerchev, Pavel I; Pellny, Till K; Vivancos, Pedro Diaz; Kiddle, Guy; Hedden, Peter; Driscoll, Simon; Vanacker, Hélène; Verrier, Paul; Hancock, Robert D; Foyer, Christine H


    Cellular redox homeostasis is a hub for signal integration. Interactions between redox metabolism and the ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor were characterized in the Arabidopsis thaliana vitamin c defective1 (vtc1) and vtc2 mutants, which are defective in ascorbic acid synthesis and show a slow growth phenotype together with enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) levels relative to the wild type (Columbia-0). The 75% decrease in the leaf ascorbate pool in the vtc2 mutants was not sufficient to adversely affect GA metabolism. The transcriptome signatures of the abi4, vtc1, and vtc2 mutants showed significant overlap, with a large number of transcription factors or signaling components similarly repressed or induced. Moreover, lincomycin-dependent changes in LIGHT HARVESTING CHLOROPHYLL A/B BINDING PROTEIN 1.1 expression were comparable in these mutants, suggesting overlapping participation in chloroplast to nucleus signaling. The slow growth phenotype of vtc2 was absent in the abi4 vtc2 double mutant, as was the sugar-insensitive phenotype of the abi4 mutant. Octadecanoid derivative-responsive AP2/ERF-domain transcription factor 47 (ORA47) and AP3 (an ABI5 binding factor) transcripts were enhanced in vtc2 but repressed in abi4 vtc2, suggesting that ABI4 and ascorbate modulate growth and defense gene expression through jasmonate signaling. We conclude that low ascorbate triggers ABA- and jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways that together regulate growth through ABI4. Moreover, cellular redox homeostasis exerts a strong influence on sugar-dependent growth regulation.

  9. Evaluation of strength property variations across 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints using automated ball indentation (ABI) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaraju, S.; GaneshKumar, J.; Vasantharaja, P.; Vasudevan, M.; Laha, K.


    The variations of strength properties across 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints fabricated by different arc welding processes such as shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), tungsten inert gas (TIG) and activated tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) have been evaluated employing automatic ball indentation (ABI) technique. ABI tests were conducted at 298 K across various zones of the weld joints comprising of base metal, weld metal, heat affected zone (HAZ) and intercritical HAZ (ICHAZ) regions. The flow curves obtained from ABI tests were correlated with corresponding conventional tensile test results. In general, the tensile strength decreased systematically across the weld joint from weld metal to base metal. Inter critical HAZ exhibited the least strength implying that it is the weakest zone. The incomplete phase transformation in the ICHAZ during weld thermal cycle caused the softening. The A-TIG weld metal exhibited higher UTS and strain hardening values due to higher carbon in the martensite. The strain hardening exponent exhibited only slight variation across the various regions of the weld joints. A-TIG weld joint exhibited higher weld metal and HAZ strength, marginally higher UTS to YS ratio in the weld metal and HAZ compared to that of the other two processes. Hence, among the three welding processes chosen, A-TIG welding process is found to be superior in producing a 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joint with better strength properties.

  10. Static and dynamic bending has minor effects on xylem hydraulics of conifer branches (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris). (United States)

    Mayr, Stefan; Bertel, Clara; Dämon, Birgit; Beikircher, Barbara


    The xylem hydraulic efficiency and safety is usually measured on mechanically unstressed samples, although trees may be exposed to combined hydraulic and mechanical stress in the field. We analysed changes in hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to drought-induced embolism during static bending of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris branches as well as the effect of dynamic bending on the vulnerability. We hypothesized this mechanical stress to substantially impair xylem hydraulics. Intense static bending caused an only small decrease in hydraulic conductance (-19.5 ± 2.4% in P. abies) but no shift in vulnerability thresholds. Dynamic bending caused a 0.4 and 0.8 MPa decrease of the water potential at 50 and 88% loss of conductivity in P. sylvestris, but did not affect vulnerability thresholds in P. abies. With respect to applied extreme bending radii, effects on plant hydraulics were surprisingly small and are thus probably of minor eco-physiological importance. More importantly, results indicate that available xylem hydraulic analyses (of conifers) sufficiently reflect plant hydraulics under field conditions. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Natural Regeneration in a Multi-Layered Pinus sylvestris-Picea abies Forest after Target Diameter Harvest and Soil Scarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Drössler


    Full Text Available Forest management in Sweden can be characterized by even-aged silviculture heavily relying on three established harvest regimes: clearcutting, the seed-tree method, and the shelterwood system. Less intense, small-scale retention harvest systems such as single tree and group selection harvest are rarely used. In addition, natural regeneration dynamics without enrichment planting have barely been studied. Consequently, this study examined natural regeneration establishment in a multi-layered Pinus sylvestris-Picea abies forest stand in southwest Sweden after target diameter harvesting and soil scarification. The creation of forest canopy gaps had a positive effect on total seedling density five years after harvest, mainly due to a significantly higher number of Betula pendula individuals. Seedling density of more desirable tree species suitable for continuous cover forestry such as Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and Picea abies also increased substantially in gaps when compared to pre-harvest conditions or the unharvested plots. In contrast, soil scarification did not increase the number of seedlings of desired tree species due to a significant decrease in Picea abies abundance. Soil moisture and gap size significantly improved Betula pendula seedling establishment while a larger number of Quercus petraea seedlings were observed in Vaccinium myrtillus patches. We conclude that canopy gaps are beneficial under the encountered stand conditions to initiate forest regeneration, and that soil scarification without the timely occurrence of a mast year of desired tree species is not effective in the type of forest studied.

  12. Evaluation of strength property variations across 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints using automated ball indentation (ABI) technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaraju, S. [Nuclear Recycle Board, BARCF, Kalpakkam (India); GaneshKumar, J.; Vasantharaja, P. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Vasudevan, M., E-mail: [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Laha, K. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)


    The variations of strength properties across 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints fabricated by different arc welding processes such as shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), tungsten inert gas (TIG) and activated tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) have been evaluated employing automatic ball indentation (ABI) technique. ABI tests were conducted at 298 K across various zones of the weld joints comprising of base metal, weld metal, heat affected zone (HAZ) and intercritical HAZ (ICHAZ) regions. The flow curves obtained from ABI tests were correlated with corresponding conventional tensile test results. In general, the tensile strength decreased systematically across the weld joint from weld metal to base metal. Inter critical HAZ exhibited the least strength implying that it is the weakest zone. The incomplete phase transformation in the ICHAZ during weld thermal cycle caused the softening. The A-TIG weld metal exhibited higher UTS and strain hardening values due to higher carbon in the martensite. The strain hardening exponent exhibited only slight variation across the various regions of the weld joints. A-TIG weld joint exhibited higher weld metal and HAZ strength, marginally higher UTS to YS ratio in the weld metal and HAZ compared to that of the other two processes. Hence, among the three welding processes chosen, A-TIG welding process is found to be superior in producing a 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joint with better strength properties.

  13. Current activities at the FiR 1 TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmenhaara, Seppo


    The FiR 1 -reactor, a 250 kW Triga reactor, has been in operation since 1962. The main purpose to run the reactor is now the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The epithermal neutrons needed for the irradiation of brain tumor patients are produced from the fast fission neutrons by a moderator block consisting of Al+AlF 3 (FLUENTAL), which showed to be the optimum material for this purpose. Twenty-one patients have been treated since May 1999, when the license for patient treatment was granted to the responsible BNCT treatment organization. The treatment organization has a close connection to the Helsinki University Central Hospital. The BNCT work dominates the current utilization of the reactor: three days per week for BNCT purposes and only two days per week for other purposes such as the neutron activation analysis and isotope production. In the near future the back end solutions of the spent fuel management will have a very important role in our activities. The Finnish Parliament ratified in May 2001 the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent fuel in Olkiluoto, on the western coast of Finland. There is a special condition in our operating license. We have now about two years' time to achieve a binding agreement between VTT and the Nuclear Power Plant Companies about the possibility to use the final disposal facility of the Nuclear Power Plants for our spent fuel. If this will not happen, we have to make the agreement with the USDOE with the well-known time limits. At the moment it seems to be reasonable to prepare for both spent fuel management possibilities: the domestic final disposal and the return to the USA offered by USDOE. Because the cost estimates of the both possibilities are on the same order of magnitude, the future of the reactor itself will determine, which of the spent fuel policies will be obeyed. In a couple of years' time it will be seen, if the funding of the reactor and the incomes from the BNC treatments will cover

  14. Regeneration in mixed conifer and Douglas-fir shelterwood cuttings in the Cascade Range of Washington. (United States)

    K.W. Seidel


    A survey of shelterwood cuttings in mixed conifer and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests in the Cascade Range in Washington showed that, on the average, shelterwood units were adequately-stocked with a mixture of advance, natural postharvest, and planted reproduction of a number of species. Shelterwood cuttings in the...

  15. Geographical Variation in the Terpene Composition of the Leaf Oil of Douglas Fir, (United States)

    The two forms of Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii and var. glauca, differ quite considerably with regard to the monoterpenes of...their leaf oils. Several chemical races, differing quantitatively in certain monoterpenes , appear to exist in each variety and the leaf oil composition seems to be particularly useful in classifying intermediate forms. (Author)

  16. Management, morphological, and environmental factors influencing Douglas-fir bark furrows in the Oregon Coast Range (United States)

    Sheridan, Christopher D.; Puettmann, Klaus J.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Hagar, Joan C.; Falk, Kristen R.


    Many land managers in the Pacific Northwest have the goal of increasing late-successional forest structures. Despite the documented importance of Douglas-fir tree bark structure in forested ecosystems, little is known about factors influencing bark development and how foresters can manage development. This study investigated the relative importance of tree size, growth, environmental factors, and thinning on Douglas-fir bark furrow characteristics in the Oregon Coast Range. Bark furrow depth, area, and bark roughness were measured for Douglas-fir trees in young heavily thinned and unthinned sites and compared to older reference sites. We tested models for relationships between bark furrow response and thinning, tree diameter, diameter growth, and environmental factors. Separately, we compared bark responses measured on trees used by bark-foraging birds with trees with no observed usage. Tree diameter and diameter growth were the most important variables in predicting bark characteristics in young trees. Measured environmental variables were not strongly related to bark characteristics. Bark furrow characteristics in old trees were influenced by tree diameter and surrounding tree densities. Young trees used by bark foragers did not have different bark characteristics than unused trees. Efforts to enhance Douglas-fir bark characteristics should emphasize retention of larger diameter trees' growth enhancement.


    Purportedly, large Douglas-fir trees in the American Pacific Northwest use water stored in bole tissues to ameliorate the effects of seasonal summer drought, the water content of bole tissues being drawn down over the summer months and replenished during the winter. Continuous mo...

  18. Can a fake fir tell the truth about Swiss needle cast? (United States)

    A key question in dendrochronology to reconstruct forest disturbance history is how to distinguish between the effects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) and other forest disturbance agents (e.g., Douglas-fir beetle, tussock moth, western spruce budworm, laminated root rot, Armillaria ro...

  19. The economic significance of mortality in old-growth Douglas-fir management. (United States)

    R.O. McMahon


    Current mortality in the Douglas-fir subregion, exclusive of catastrophic mortality, approximates a billion feet a year. The Forest Service report "Timber Resources for America's Future" recommended "...utilizing a substantial portion of the unsalvaged mortality loss..." as one means of permanently increasing the Nation's timber supply and...

  20. Stump-to-truck cable logging cost equations for young-growth douglas-fir (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; Roger D. Fight; Tom L. Ortman


    Logging cost simulators and data from logging cost studies have been assembled and converted into a series of equations that can be used to estimate the cost of logging young-growth coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco var. menziesii) in mountainous terrain of the Pacific Northwest. These equations were...

  1. Lack of caching of direct-seeded Douglas fir seeds by deer mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.P.


    Seed caching by deer mice was investigated by radiotagging seeds in forest and clear-cut areas in coastal British Columbia. Deer mice tend to cache very few Douglas fir seeds in the fall when the seed is uniformly distributed and is at densities comparable with those used in direct-seeding programs. (author)

  2. Regional patterns of increasing Swiss needle cast impacts on Douglas-fir growth with warming temperatures. (United States)

    The fungal pathogen, Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii, occurs wherever Douglas-fir is found but disease damage is believed to be limited in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) to the Oregon Coast Range and is of no concern outside the coastal fog zone [1]. However, knowledge remains limited on...

  3. Ecology and silviculture of the spruce-fir forests of eastern North America (United States)

    Marinus. Westveld


    Using the climax forest as a guide to growing the species best suited to the climate and the site, the author offers a silvicultural system for managing the spruce-fir forests of eastern North America. Based on ecological principles, such silviculture is aimed to bring about forests that are inherently healthy and have a natural resistance to insects and disease.

  4. Estimating biomass of shrubs and forbs in central Washington Douglas-fir stands. (United States)

    Craig M. Olson; Robert E. Martin


    Understory plants in closed 70-year-old even-aged Douglas-fir stands in north central Washington were destructively sampled to determine the relationship of ground cover and height to dry weight. Weight of plant material can be estimated from the product of plant height and percentage of ground cover on 50- x 100-centimeter (cm) quadrats. Correlation coefficients for...

  5. Revised Site Index Curves for Balsam Fir and White Spruce in the Lake States (United States)

    Willard H. Carmean; Jerold T. Hahn


    The original site index curves for balsam fir and white spruce are revised from a breast height age to a total age basis. Site index values from these revised curves are thus comparable to index values for other species that are based upon total tree age. This note also includes formulations for estimating site index by using computers or programmable, hand-...

  6. Nitrogen turnover in fresh Douglas fir litter directly after additions of moisture and inorganic nitrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raat, K.J.; Tietema, A.; Verstraten, J.M.


    The effects of wetting and drying and inorganic nitrogen (N) addition on carbon (C) and N turnover in fresh Douglas fir litter (Speuld forest, the Netherlands) were investigated. Litter was incubated for 9 days in the laboratory, receiving different moisture and N addition treatments. Following the

  7. The Douglas-fir genome sequence reveals specialization of the photosynthetic apparatus in Pinaceae (United States)

    David B. Neale; Patrick E. McGuire; Nicholas C. Wheeler; Kristian A. Stevens; Marc W. Crepeau; Charis Cardeno; Aleksey V. Zimin; Daniela Puiu; Geo M. Pertea; U. Uzay Sezen; Claudio Casola; Tomasz E. Koralewski; Robin Paul; Daniel Gonzalez-Ibeas; Sumaira Zaman; Richard Cronn; Mark Yandell; Carson Holt; Charles H. Langley; James A. Yorke; Steven L. Salzberg; Jill L. Wegrzyn


    A reference genome sequence for Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco (Coastal Douglas-fir) is reported, thus providing a reference sequence for a third genus of the family Pinaceae. The contiguity and quality of the genome assembly far exceeds that of other conifer reference genome sequences (contig N50 = 44,136 bp and scaffold N50...

  8. Growth comparison of northern white-cedar to balsam fir and red spruce by site class (United States)

    Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Robert S. Seymour; John C. Brissette


    Though northern white-cedar is a common and economically important component of the Acadian Forest of Maine and adjacent Canada, there is little regional data about the growth and development of this species. Sixty sites in northern Maine were used to compare growth of cedar to that of red spruce and balsam fir along a range of site classes and light exposures. On...

  9. A diameter increment model for Red Fir in California and Southern Oregon (United States)

    K. Leroy Dolph


    Periodic (10-year) diameter increment of individual red fir trees in Califomia and southern Oregon can be predicted from initial diameter and crown ratio of each tree, site index, percent slope, and aspect of the site. The model actually predicts the natural logarithm ofthe change in squared diameter inside bark between the startand the end of a 10-year growth period....

  10. Prescribed fire opportunities in grasslands invaded by Douglas-fir: state-of-the-art guidelines (United States)

    George E. Gruell; James K. Brown; Charles L. Bushey


    Provides information on use of prescribed fire to enhance productivity of bunchgrass ranges that have been invaded by Douglas-fir. Six vegetative "situations" representative of treatment opportunities most commonly encountered in Montana are discussed. Included are fire prescription considerations and identification of the resource objective, fire objective,...

  11. Dynamic phenotypic plasticity in photosynthesis and biomass patterns in Douglas-fir seedlings (United States)

    A. C. Koehn; G. I. McDonald; D. L. Turner; D. L. Adams


    As climate changes, understanding the mechanisms long-lived conifers use to adapt becomes more important. Light gradients within a forest stand vary constantly with the changes in climate, and the minimum light required for survival plays a major role in plant community dynamics. This study focuses on the dynamic plasticity of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var....

  12. No relationship between fir decline and air pollution in the Bavarian forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandler, O. (Muenchen University, Muenchen (Germany))


    The alleged relationship between fir decline and air pollution in the Bavarian Forest, claimed by Visser and Molenaar (1992), is due to the use of an inadequate measure of the degree of air pollution and a biased set of tree ring data.

  13. Simulation of carbon and water budgets of a Douglas-fir forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.; Dekker, S.C.; Bouten, W.; Kohsiek, W.; Mohren, G.M.J.


    The forest growth/hydrology model FORGRO–SWIF, consisting of a forest growth and a soil water model, was applied to quantify the inter-annual variability of the carbon and water budgets of a Douglas-fir forest (Pseudotsuga menziessii (Mirb.) Franco) in The Netherlands. With these budgets, the water

  14. Overstory response to alternative thinning treatments in young Douglas-fir forests of Western Oregon. (United States)

    Liane R. Davis; Klaus J. Puettmann; Gabriel F. Tucker


    An increase in land dominated by young second-growth Douglas-fir forests in the Pacific Northwest has coincided with heightened concerns over loss of old-growth habitat. In search of options for managing young forests to provide late-successional forest structures, the Young Stand Thinning and Diversity Study was designed to test the effectiveness of modified thinning...

  15. Fungal endophytes in woody roots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) (United States)

    J. A. Hoff; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald; Jonalea R. Tonn; Mee-Sook Kim; Paul J. Zambino; Paul F. Hessburg; J. D. Rodgers; T. L. Peever; L. M. Carris


    The fungal community inhabiting large woody roots of healthy conifers has not been well documented. To provide more information about such communities, a survey was conducted using increment cores from the woody roots of symptomless Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) growing in dry forests...

  16. Effects of heat treatment on some physical properties of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) wood (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Qunying Mou; Yiqiang Wu; Yuan Liu


    In this study the effect of heat treatment on some physical properties of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) was investigated. Wood specimens were subjected to heat treatment at 160, 180, 200 and 220°C for 1, 2, 3 and 4h. The results show that heat treatment resulted in a darkened color, decreased moisture performance and increased dimensional stability of...

  17. Volume growth trends in a Douglas-fir levels-of-growing-stock study. (United States)

    Robert O. Curtis


    Mean curves of increment and yield in gross total cubic volume and net merchantable cubic volume were derived from seven installations of the regional cooperative Levels-of-Growing-Stock Study (LOGS) in Douglas-fir. The technique used reduces the seven curves for each treatment for each variable of interest to a single set of readily interpretable mean curves. To a top...

  18. Pest management in Douglas-fir seed orchards: a microcomputer decision method (United States)

    James B. Hoy; Michael I. Haverty


    The computer program described provides a Douglas-fir seed orchard manager (user) with a quantitative method for making insect pest management decisions on a desk-top computer. The decision system uses site-specific information such as estimates of seed crop size, insect attack rates, insecticide efficacy and application costs, weather, and crop value. At sites where...

  19. Nitrogen, corn, and forest genetics: the agricultural yield strategy-implications for Douglas-fir management. (United States)

    Roy R. Silen


    Agricultural yield strategy simply aims to increase number of grain bearing stalks per acre. Forestry strategies look to thinning, fertilizer, and genetics, each to provide gains. The agricultural strategies applied to Douglas-fir appear to be impractical for long rotations. Concern is expressed for commitments to perpetual inputs of materials and energy to keep a...

  20. Growth and morphogenesis of shoot initials of Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, P.W.


    An optimalized method of micropropagation of Douglas fir is described. Seasonal changes were found in optima for nitrate and sucrose in the medium and in the optimum for the light intensity during the culture of shoot initials. Differences in morphogenesis were obtained from shoot initials that had

  1. The vibrational properties of Chinese fir wood during moisture sorption process (United States)

    Jiali Jiang; Jianxiong Lu; Zhiyong Cai


    The vibrational properties of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood were investigated in this study as a function of changes in moisture content (MC) and grain direction. The dynamic modulus of elasticity (DMOE) and logarithmic decrement σ were examined using a cantilever beam vibration testing apparatus. It was observed that DMOE and 6 of wood vaned...

  2. Foliar essential oils and deer browsing preference of Douglas-fir genotypes (United States)

    M.A. Radwan


    Yield and composition of essential oils were compared in foliage of Douglas-fir. Five clones with different susceptibilities to deer browsing were used; foliage was collected during the dormant season. There were no qualitative differences among the oils of the different clones, but the oils differed quantitatively in all variables measured. Eight variables appeared...

  3. Effectiveness of fungicides in protecting Douglas-fir shoots from infection by Phytophthora ramorum (United States)

    G.A. Chastagner; E.M. Hansen; K.L. Riley; W. Sutton


    The effectiveness of 20 systemic and contact fungicides in protecting Douglas-fir seedlings from infection by Phytophthora ramorum was determined. Some systemic products were applied about a week prior to bud break, while most treatments were applied just after bud break. In addition to the fungicides, two surfactants were included in the post-bud...

  4. Growth phenology of coast Douglas-fir seed sources planted in diverse environments (United States)

    Peter J. Gould; Constance A. Harrington; J. Bradley St. Clair


    The timing of periodic life cycle events in plants (phenology) is an important factor determining how species and populations will react to climate change. We evaluated annual patterns of basal-area and height growth of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotusuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings from four seed sources...

  5. FiR 1 reactor in service for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auterinen, I.; Salmenhaara, S.E.J. . Author


    The FiR 1 reactor, a 250 kW Triga reactor, has been in operation since 1962. The main purpose for the existence of the reactor is now the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), but FiR 1 has also an important national role in providing local enterprises and research institutions in the fields of industrial measurements, pharmaceuticals, electronics etc. with isotope production and activation analysis services. In the 1990's a BNCT treatment facility was built at the FiR 1 reactor located at Technical Research Centre of Finland. A special new neutron moderator material Fluental TM (Al+AlF3+Li) developed at VTT ensures the superior quality of the neutron beam. Also the treatment environment is of world top quality after a major renovation of the whole reactor building in 1997. Recently the lithiated polyethylene neutron shielding of the beam aperture was modified to ease the positioning of the patient close to the beam aperture. Increasing the reactor power to 500 kW would allow positioning of the patient further away from the beam aperture. Possibilities to accomplish a safety analysis for this is currently under considerations. Over thirty patients have been treated at FiR 1 since May 1999, when the license for patient treatment was granted to the responsible BNCT treatment organization, Boneca Corporation. Currently three clinical trial protocols for tumours in the brain as well as in the head and neck region are recruiting patients. (author)

  6. DFSIM with economics: A financial analysis option for the DFSIM Douglas-fir simulator. (United States)

    Roger O. Fight; Judith M. Chittester; Gary W. Clendenen


    A modified version of the DFSIM Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) growth and yield simulator, DFSIM WITH ECONOMICS, now has an economics option that allows the user to estimate present net worth at the same time a silvicultural regime is simulated. If desired, the economics option will apply a...

  7. A tool for automatic generation of RTL-level VHDL description of RNS FIR filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Re, Andrea Del; Nannarelli, Alberto; Re, Marco


    Although digital filters based on the Residue Number System (RNS) show high performance and low power dissipation, RNS filters are not widely used in DSP systems, because of the complexity of the algorithms involved. We present a tool to design RNS FIR filters which hides the RNS algorithms to th...

  8. Physiological responses of planting frozen and thawed Douglas-fir seedlings (United States)

    M. Anisul Islam; Kent G. Apostol; Douglass F. Jacobs; R. Kasten Dumroese


    We studied the short-term (7-day) physiological responses of planting thawed and frozen root plugs of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings in 2 separate experiments under cool-moist and warm-dry growing conditions, respectively. Our results showed that shoot water potential, root hydraulic conductance, net photosynthesis (A), and...

  9. EuroFIR eBASIS: application for health claims submissions and evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiely, M.; Black, L.J.; Plumb, J.; Kroon, P.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Larsen, J.C.; Speijers, G.; Kapsokefalou, M.; Sheehan, D.; Gry, J.; Finglas, P.M.


    Background: The European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) network has established the eBASIS (Bioactive Substances in Food Information System) online food composition and biological effects database for plant-derived bioactive compounds (phytochemicals). On the basis of submitted evidence, the

  10. Habitat management for red tree voles in Douglas-fir forests. (United States)

    M.H. Huff; R.S. Holthausen; K.B. Aubry


    The relations between arboreal rodents and trees causes the animals to be particularly sensitive to the effects of timber harvesting.Among arboreal rodents,we consider the redtree vole to be the most vulnerable to local extinctions resulting from the loss or fragmentation of old-growth Douglas-fir forests. Redtree voles are nocturnal,canopy dwelling, and difficult to...

  11. Silvicultural research and the evolution of forest practices in the Douglas-fir region. (United States)

    Robert O. Curtis; Dean S. DeBell; Richard E. Miller; Michael Newton; J. Bradley St. Clair; William I. Stein


    Silvicultural practices in the Douglas-fir region evolved through a combination of formal research, observation, and practical experience of forest managers and silviculturists, and changing economic and social factors. This process began more than a century ago and still continues. It has had a great influence on the economic well-being of the region and on the...

  12. Structural lumber from dense stands of small-diameter Douglas-fir trees. (United States)

    David W. Green; Eini C. Lowell; Roland Hernandez


    Small-diameter trees growing in overstocked dense stands are often targeted for thinning to reduce fire hazard and improve forest health and ecosystem diversity. In the Pacific Northwest and Intermountain regions, Douglas-fir can be a predominant species in such stands. In this study, mechanical properties and grade yield of structural products were estimated for 2 by...

  13. Realized gains from block-plot coastal Douglas-fir trials in the northern Oregon Cascades (United States)

    Terrence Z. Ye; Keith J.S. Jayawickrama; J. Bradley. St. Clair


    Realized gains for coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) were evaluated using data collected from 15-year-old trees from five field trials planted in large block plots in the northern Oregon Cascades. Three populations with different genetic levels (elite--high predicted gain; intermediate--moderate predicted gain; and an...

  14. Management of spruce-fir in even-aged stands in the central Rocky Mountains (United States)

    Robert R. Alexander; Carleton B. Edminster


    Potential production of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir in the central Rocky Mountains is simulated for combinations of stand density, site quality, ages, and thinning schedules. Such estimates are needed to project future development of stands managed in different ways for various uses.

  15. Morphology and accumulation of epicuticular wax on needles of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) (United States)

    Constance A. Harrington; William C. Carlson


    Past studies have documented differences in epicuticular wax among several tree species but little attention has been paid to changes in accumulation of foliar wax that can occur during the year. We sampled current-year needles from the terminal shoots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) in late June/early...

  16. Early genetic evaluation of open-pollinated Douglas-fir families (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; David A. Perry


    In a test of early genetic evaluation of the growth potential of 14 families of open-pollinated Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) [Mirb.] Franco), measures of growth and phenology of seedligns grown in a coldframe were correlated with height of saplings in evaluation plantations at 9, 12, and 15 years. fifteen-year height was most strongly...

  17. The Douglas-Fir Genome Sequence Reveals Specialization of the Photosynthetic Apparatus in Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Neale


    Full Text Available A reference genome sequence for Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb. Franco (Coastal Douglas-fir is reported, thus providing a reference sequence for a third genus of the family Pinaceae. The contiguity and quality of the genome assembly far exceeds that of other conifer reference genome sequences (contig N50 = 44,136 bp and scaffold N50 = 340,704 bp. Incremental improvements in sequencing and assembly technologies are in part responsible for the higher quality reference genome, but it may also be due to a slightly lower exact repeat content in Douglas-fir vs. pine and spruce. Comparative genome annotation with angiosperm species reveals gene-family expansion and contraction in Douglas-fir and other conifers which may account for some of the major morphological and physiological differences between the two major plant groups. Notable differences in the size of the NDH-complex gene family and genes underlying the functional basis of shade tolerance/intolerance were observed. This reference genome sequence not only provides an important resource for Douglas-fir breeders and geneticists but also sheds additional light on the evolutionary processes that have led to the divergence of modern angiosperms from the more ancient gymnosperms.

  18. Effects of water suspension and wet-dry cycling on fertility of Douglas-fir pollen. (United States)

    Donald L. Copes; Nan C. Vance


    Studies were made to determine how long Douglas-fir pollen remains viable after suspension in cool water form 0 to 34 days. Linear regression analysis of in vivo and in vitro tests indicated that filled seed efficiency and pollen viability, respectively, decreased about 3 percent per day. The relation may have been nonlinear the first 6 days, as little decrease...

  19. Using silviculture to influence carbon sequestration in southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests (United States)

    Patrick T. Moore; R. Justin DeRose; James N. Long; Helga. van Miegroet


    Enhancement of forest growth through silvicultural modification of stand density is one strategy for increasing carbon (C) sequestration. Using the Fire and Fuels Extension of the Forest Vegetation Simulator, the effects of even-aged, uneven-aged and no-action management scenarios on C sequestration in a southern Appalachian red spruce-Fraser fir forest were modeled....

  20. Use of dominant tree heights in determining site index for Douglas-fir. (United States)

    George R. Staebler


    Measuring heights of Douglas-fir trees for the determination of site index is a time-consuming job, especially in dense stands. Both dominant and codominant trees must be measured since site index curves represent the average height of dominants and codominants. It has been suggested that considerable time might be saved if only dominant trees were measured, since...

  1. Ground-based forest harvesting effects on soil physical properties and Douglas-fir growth. (United States)

    Adrian Ares; Thomas A. Terry; Richard E. Miller; Harry W. Anderson; Barry L. Flaming


    Soil properties and forest productivity can be affected by heavy equipment used for harvest and site preparation but these impacts vary greatly with site conditions and operational practices. We assessed the effects of ground-based logging on soil physical properties and subsequent Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb) Franco] growth on a highly...


    Goicoechea, Javier R; Teyssier, D; Etxaluze, M; Goldsmith, P F; Ossenkopf, V; Gerin, M; Bergin, E A; Black, J H; Cernicharo, J; Cuadrado, S; Encrenaz, P; Falgarone, E; Fuente, A; Hacar, A; Lis, D C; Marcelino, N; Melnick, G J; Müller, H S P; Persson, C; Pety, J; Röllig, M; Schilke, P; Simon, R; Snell, R L; Stutzki, J


    We present the first ~7.5'×11.5' velocity-resolved (~0.2 km s -1 ) map of the [C ii] 158 μ m line toward the Orion molecular cloud 1 (OMC 1) taken with the Herschel /HIFI instrument. In combination with far-infrared (FIR) photometric images and velocity-resolved maps of the H41 α hydrogen recombination and CO J =2-1 lines, this data set provides an unprecedented view of the intricate small-scale kinematics of the ionized/PDR/molecular gas interfaces and of the radiative feedback from massive stars. The main contribution to the [C ii] luminosity (~85 %) is from the extended, FUV-illuminated face of the cloud ( G 0 >500, n H >5×10 3 cm -3 ) and from dense PDRs ( G ≳10 4 , n H ≳10 5 cm -3 ) at the interface between OMC 1 and the H ii region surrounding the Trapezium cluster. Around ~15 % of the [C ii] emission arises from a different gas component without CO counterpart. The [C ii] excitation, PDR gas turbulence, line opacity (from [ 13 C ii]) and role of the geometry of the illuminating stars with respect to the cloud are investigated. We construct maps of the L [C ii]/ L FIR and L FIR / M Gas ratios and show that L [C ii]/ L FIR decreases from the extended cloud component (~10 -2 -10 -3 ) to the more opaque star-forming cores (~10 -3 -10 -4 ). The lowest values are reminiscent of the "[C ii] deficit" seen in local ultra-luminous IR galaxies hosting vigorous star formation. Spatial correlation analysis shows that the decreasing L [C ii]/ L FIR ratio correlates better with the column density of dust through the molecular cloud than with L FIR / M Gas . We conclude that the [C ii] emitting column relative to the total dust column along each line of sight is responsible for the observed L [C ii]/ L FIR variations through the cloud.

  3. Chemical composition of douglas-fir foliage on mule deer winter range. Research report No. RR 91003-CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterhouse, M J; Armleder, H M; Dawson, R J


    In the interior of British Columbia, Douglas-fir litterfall is a major source of mule deer winter food. An earlier study found that preference for Douglas-fir foliage was correlated with tree diameter. This study identified the underlying factors of selection so that wildlife managers might have a wider range of forage enhancement options on mule deer winter range. Samples of Douglas-fir foliage were collected from trees at Knife Creek and Big Lake, and analyzed for minerals, tannins, and in vitro digestible dry matter.

  4. Coarse root topology of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and its effects on slope stability (United States)

    Lith, Aniek; Schmaltz, Elmar; Bogaard, Thom; Keesstra, Saskia


    The structural distribution of coarse roots and its beneficial effects on soil reinforcement has widely been assessed. However, it is still not fully understood how topological features of coarse roots (e.g. branching patterns) are affected by slope inclination and further influence the ability of young trees to reinforce soil. This study aims to analyse empirically the impact of slope gradient on the topological development of coarse roots and thus to assess its effects on soil reinforcement. We performed root system excavations on two young Picea abies: tree A on a gently inclined plane (β ≈ 12°) where slope failures are not expected; tree B on a slope (β ≈ 35°) with failure potential. The diameter (d) of the segments between distinct root nodes (root ends, branching locations, direction changes and attachments to stem) of coarse roots (d > 2mm) were measured in situ. The spatial coordinates (x,y,z) of the nodes and surface were measured on a plane raster grid, from which segment length (ls), direction and inclination towards the surface (βr) were derived. Roots and segments were classified into laterals (βr classifications (FSC), to obtain quantitative relations between the topological order and number of segments, total and average ls. The maximal root cohesion (cr) of each segment was assessed using material specific tensile forces (Tr), root area ratio (RAR) and βr, assuming that a potential slip surface would cross the root system parallel to the slope. Laterals depicted the majority of roots (57 %) for tree A orientated rather in upslope direction (76.8 %), whereas tree B showed mostly obliques (54 %) orientated rather in downslope direction (55.4 %). Vertical roots were scarcely observable for both trees. DSC showed a high r2 (> 0.84) for the segments and ls. FSC showed high r2 (> 0.95) for the number of segments and the total length. RAR values of tree B are distributed rather upslope (76.8 % of RARtot), compared to 44.5 % of RARtot for tree A

  5. [Growth response of Abies fargesii to climate in Shennongjia Mount of Hubei Province, Southeastern China]. (United States)

    Hou, Xin-yuan; Shi, Jiang-feng; Li, Ling-ling; Lu, Hua-yu


    A well-replicated Abies fargesii tree-ring width chronology in the Shennongjia Mount was developed to investigate its radial growth response to climate variables (e.g., monthly mean tempe- rature and total precipitation) and other growing season indicators (e.g., cumulative temperature, continuous days, initial and final dates). Correlation analyses showed that the tree-ring width was positively correlated to the mean temperatures of February, April and September, and negatively correlated to the total precipitation of September, prior September and prior December. The analyses between the chronology and other growing season parameters showed that tree growth responded positively to the cumulative temperature and continuous days of the growing season. The correlation was the highest when the growing season was defined as the days above the temperature threshold of 9.0 °C. Defined this way, the growing season typically started in late-May and ended in mid-September, lasting about 120 days. Correlation analyses were also conducted between the tree-ring growth and the initial and final dates of the growing season. Results showed that correlation was the highest for initial dates defined at 9.0 °C (with the coefficient of -0.25 and p-value close to 0.05), and for final dates defined at 9.3 °C (with the coefficient of 0.33 and p-value less than 0.05). All these results indicated that the sensitive temperature threshold for photosynthesis of A. fargesii was around 9.0 °C. The year 1978 marked an abrupt shift of climate in southeast China. We compared A. fargesii growth between pre-1978 and post-1978 periods. Results showed that as temperature rose, the growing season was lengthened with both earlier initial dates and later final dates. Longer growing season increased the A. fargesii growth in the Shennongjia Mount, southeastern China.

  6. Heterobasidion annosum root rot in Picea abies: Variability in aggressiveness and resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swedjemark, G.


    In greenhouse experiments 3-4 year-old plants of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris were inoculated with the root rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum. The growth rates of 25 S and 14 P isolates of the fungus were measured in the sapwood of about 25 rametes each of 98 Norway spruce clones and in 150 seedlings each of Norway spruce and Scots pine. Correlations were determined between fungal sapwood growth and a variety of variables, i.e. the physical stage, growth rhythm, size and condition of the cuttings, provenance and the growth capacity of the clones estimated in field tests. Genetic parameters such as phenotypic and genotypic variance, genotypic coefficient of variance and broad sense heritability were calculated. H. annosum infection incidence was close to 100 % for inoculated Norway spruce clones, and the mortality rate was about 1 %. Fungal growth in sapwood differed significantly among clones and among fungal isolates. The genotypic correlation coefficient was large (30 %) and broad sense heritability was 0.35. This suggests that good selection progress can be achieved in breeding programs. The physical stage (bud-flush, vegetative and post bud-set stage) of the clones contributed significantly to the total variation in fungal growth. The population structure of H. annosum was studied in two 25-year-old, first generation stands of Norway spruce. The stands had been thinned one and seven years earlier, respectively. All stumps and remaining trees were sampled for H. annosum isolates. The isolates were tested with somatic incompatibility to detect single genets and the distribution of genets in the stand was determined. About 70 % of the 7-year-old thinning stumps were colonized by H, annosum, and 50 % of these stumps were colonized by more than one fungal genet. Sixty-three percent of the remaining trees were infected with H. annosum but among them there was only one genet per tree. 104 refs, 12 figs

  7. Temporal variations of mobile carbohydrates in Abies fargesii at the upper tree limits. (United States)

    Dang, H S; Zhang, K R; Zhang, Q F; Xu, Y M


    Low temperatures are associated high-altitude treelines, but the functional mechanism of treeline formation remains controversial. The relative contributions of carbon limitation (source activity) and growth limitation (sink activity) require more tests across taxa and regions. We examined temporal variations of mobile carbon supply in different tissues of Abies fargesii across treeline ecotones on north- and south-facing slopes of the Qinling Mountains, China. Non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations in tissues along the altitudinal gradient on both slopes changed significantly in the early and late growing season, but not in the mid-growing season, indicating the season-dependent carbon supply status. Late in the growing season on both slopes, trees at the upper limits had the highest NSC concentrations and total soluble sugars and lowest starch concentrations compared to trees at the lower elevations. NSC concentrations tended to increase in needles and branches throughout the growing season with increasing elevation on both slopes, but declined in roots and stems. NSC concentrations across sampling dates also indicated increases in needles and branches, and decreases in roots and stem with increasing elevation. Overall altitudinal trends of NSC in A. fargesii revealed no depletion of mobile carbon reserves at upper elevation limits, suggesting limitation of sink activity dominates tree life across treeline ecotones in both north- and south-facing slopes. Carbon reserves in storage tissues (especially roots) in the late growing season might also play an important role in winter survival and early growth in spring at upper elevations on both slopes, which define the uppermost limit of A. fargesii. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Does carbon availability control temporal dynamics of radial growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies)? (United States)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas; Swidrak, Irene


    Intra-annual dynamics of cambial activity and wood formation of coniferous species exposed to soil dryness revealed early culmination of maximum growth in late spring prior to occurrence of more favourable environmental conditions, i.e., repeated high rainfall events during summer (Oberhuber et al. 2014). Because it is well known that plants can adjust carbon allocation patterns to optimize resource uptake under prevailing environmental constraints, we hypothesize that early decrease in radial stem growth is an adaptation to cope with drought stress, which might require an early switch of carbon allocation to belowground organs. Physical blockage of carbon transport in the phloem through girdling causes accumulation and depletion of carbohydrates above and below the girdle, respectively, making this method quite appropriate to investigate carbon relationships in trees. Hence, in a common garden experiment we will manipulate the carbon status of Norway spruce (Picea abies) saplings by phloem blockage at different phenological stages during the growing season. We will present the methodological approach and first results of the study aiming to test the hypothesis that carbon status of the tree affects temporal dynamics of cambial activity and wood formation in conifers under drought. Acknowledgment The research is funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): P25643-B16 "Carbon allocation and growth of Scots pine". Reference Oberhuber W, A Gruber, W Kofler, I Swidrak (2014) Radial stem growth in response to microclimate and soil moisture in a drought-prone mixed coniferous forest at an inner Alpine site. Eur J For Res 133:467-479.

  9. Technical and structural reading on ode Alraieah of Omar ibn Abi Rabieah and its emotional characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Abstract: This article examines the famous Rbheah ode of Omar ibn Abi With The aim of finding The Structural form and some nice features. Knowing that this ods is the most famous and longest ode of Omar and there is in it the most characteristic of his poetry in the storied format which includes elements of the short story with its modern sense and depicts a happy life of The Umayyad period particularly those aspects that relate to women. And from this perspective has become the registered office of the poet's life and Reflection for his inner emotions. The formation of discussion like the following: Discussion Started With the introduction of what it should be noted Based on the announce new version.Then Addressed in this fifth issues and termination: 1.the main Thoughts and ideas in the Ode and its position and the way in which the poet has written ode.2.The Storied Level and dialog in theOde.3.The music in the ode and role of its weighs.4.The imaging level of the Ode in reflection for the Hejaz life. 5. Structural level of the Ode and its emotional aspects. in the end, The Paper achieved some conclusions, such as: the most remarkable is that Ibn Rbia is Sensory and womanish school leader that could link the Old dialogue Soul to Our contemporary world with poeticlyrics and dialogue Fiction.He is first real poet that granted to lyric poem the numerous technical features such as storytelling and dialogue and simplifying weights to singing.and this ode became famous for High precision in the selection of words.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Guljaev


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of essential oil extracted from the roots of European Spruce (Lat. Picea abies.The aim is to establish the component composition of the essential oil and the peculiarities of its localization in the roots of European Spruce.Materials and methods. The objects of the study are the roots of European Spruce not longer than two centimeters in diameter, peeled and dried. The study of their anatomical signs was carried out according to the methodology of the State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation (the XIII-th edition with the”Biomed-6” microscope using the DCN 510 nozzle. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation of European Spruce roots using the device of Clevenger by Method 2 of the State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation (the XIII-th edition. The component composition of the essential oil was determined by an Agilent 7890A gas-liquid chromatograph with an Agilent 5975C mass-selective detector.Results and discussion. As a result of the microscopic examination of the roots of European Spruce, it was established that the essential oil is localized mainly in resinous courses located in the wood of the root. In the central part of the root, resin moves are of a larger diameter. More than 18 components were found in the essential oil of European Spruce roots, 14 of them were identifi ed. The main component of the essential oil is sesquiterpene lactone – tanbergol.Conclusion. The essential oil of European Spruce roots has a unique component composition that includes components not characteristic for the essential oil of spruce greenery. The difference in the component composition indicates the difference in properties and pharmacological activity. Further studies are of interest for determining the prospects of using European Spruce roots.

  11. Variation in phenology and monoterpene patterns of defoliated and nondefoliated Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca). (United States)

    Rose-Marie Muzika; Judith Engle; Catherine Parks; Boyd. Wickman


    Foliage was collected from paired Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) trees characterized as either "resistant" or "susceptible" western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) attack. Resistant trees produced more...

  12. Trace elements, potassium, 40K and 137Cs in distinctive parts of fir from Gorski Kotar - Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, D.; Vertacnik, A.; Lulic, S.; Kauzlaric, Z.; Hus, M.; Seletkovic, Z.; Kezic, N.


    Radionuclides, as well as other cations, which are either constitutive elements/trace elements of soils, or deposited as a fallout through wet/dry deposition processes due to global atmospheric contamination, can migrate upwards by plant uptake. Long-term observations of 137 Cs activities in nectar honeys indicate the uniform lowering of caesium transfer to nectar plants. In the same time, the 137 Cs activities of honey-dew honeys are significantly high and almost constant over long time period after contamination. Due to this, the research of potassium, caesium, as well as some other trace element content in distinctive parts of coniferous trees from Gorski Kotar has been started. The results of total K, Rb, Sr, Co, Cu, Zn and Cr, as well as of 40 K and 137 Cs determination in fir branches and needles from Lividraga (Table 1.) indicate the relatively high cations' mobility in youngest part of fir branches shoots. The majority of observed elements migrates into the youngest shoots, which is especially evident for univalent cations 40 K, total potassium, 137 Cs and rubidium in fir branches. Their concentrations generally are significantly higher in branches than in respective needles. The two-valent cations like strontium or zinc show less significant concentration increase in younger vs. older fir branches' parts (Figure 1.). Strontium concentrations have been increasing in the older needles in contrast to concentrations in fir branches. High 137 Cs activities found in the youngest shoots relatively long time after the soil contamination indicate the fir as a potentially good bioindicator for caesium. high mobility of cations in the youngest parts of fir branches, and theirs piling up in youngest tops of branches and needles suggest the fir to be used as the possible bioindicator of other, especially univalent cations fate. (author)

  13. Effects of manganese and manganese-nitrogen applications on growth and nutrition of Douglas-fir seedlings. (United States)

    M. A. Radwan; John S. Shumway; Dean S. DeBell


    Effects of manganese (Mn) on Douglas-fir grown in soil, with and without urea, and in nutrient solution were investigated. In addition, Mn sorption by forest soils was evaluated. Results show that Douglas-fir does not respond to added Mn and is quite tolerant to high Mn levels. Moreover, Mn sorption by soils is high. It is doubtful that Mn toxicity is of practical...

  14. Microdose fluorescence imaging of ABY-029 on an operating microscope adapted by custom illumination and imaging modules. (United States)

    Elliott, Jonathan T; Dsouza, Alisha V; Marra, Kayla; Pogue, Brian W; Roberts, David W; Paulsen, Keith D


    Fluorescence guided surgery has the potential to positively impact surgical oncology; current operating microscopes and stand-alone imaging systems are too insensitive or too cumbersome to maximally take advantage of new tumor-specific agents developed through the microdose pathway. To this end, a custom-built illumination and imaging module enabling picomolar-sensitive near-infrared fluorescence imaging on a commercial operating microscope is described. The limits of detection and system specifications are characterized, and in vivo efficacy of the system in detecting ABY-029 is evaluated in a rat orthotopic glioma model following microdose injections, showing the suitability of the device for microdose phase 0 clinical trials.

  15. Lignans from the shed trunk barks of the critically endangered plant Abies beshanzuensis and their anti-neuroinflammatory activities. (United States)

    Hu, Chang-Ling; Xiong, Juan; Xu, Peng; Cheng, Ke-Jun; Yang, Guo-Xun; Hu, Jin-Feng


    During a further and comprehensive phytochemical investigation on the shed trunk barks of the critically endangered plant Abies beshanzuensis, one new (1) and ten known (2-11) lignans with diverse structures were isolated. On the basis of spectroscopic methods, the new structure was established to be (7S,8R,8'R)-4'-methoxyl-α-conidendrin (1). Among the isolated lignans, (-)-matairesinol (5) and (-)-arctigenin (6) showed significant anti-neuroinflammatory activities by inhibiting the overproduction of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine BV-2 microglial cells, with IC 50 values of 11.5 and 19.0 μM, respectively.

  16. Rapid production of trees. [Acer platanoides, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robus, Sorbus, Picea, and Abies spp. , Betula verrucose, Populus trichocarpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarjorg, A.


    Seedlings of Acer platanoides approximately 2 m tall were produced in southern Norway in one year by seed stratification indoors. Similar results were obtained with Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robus and Sorbus spp. Trails were also carried out with Betula verrucose (B. pendula), Populus trichocarpa, Picea spp., Abies spp., and other conifers. In all trials growth was increased when plants were raised in a plastic house, and depended on the time that Spring growth was started or whether supplementary light was given and also depended on the seed strain. For northern and high altitude strains it was important to maintain critical day length.

  17. Total Stem and Merchantable Volume Equations of Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) Growing on Former Farmland in Sweden


    Johansson, Tord


    An equation was constructed to estimate the stem volume of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in 145 stands growing on former farmland in Sweden (Latitude 56-63 degrees N). The mean total age was 40 +/- 13 (range 17-91) years, the mean diameter at breast height (ob) was 15 +/- 4 (range 5-27) cm and the mean density was 1621 +/- 902 (range 100-7600) stems ha(-1). The equation which fits the data best used the diameter at breast height and total stem height as predictive variables. Merchan...

  18. Redundant and distinct functions of the ABA response loci ABA-INSENSITIVE(ABI)5 and ABRE-BINDING FACTOR (ABF)3. (United States)

    Finkelstein, Ruth; Gampala, Srinivas S L; Lynch, Tim J; Thomas, Terry L; Rock, Christopher D


    Abscisic acid-responsive gene expression is regulated by numerous transcription factors, including a subgroup of basic leucine zipper factors that bind to the conserved cis-acting sequences known as ABA-responsive elements. Although one of these factors, ABA-insensitive 5 (ABI5), was identified genetically, the paucity of genetic data for the other family members has left it unclear whether they perform unique functions or act redundantly to ABI5 or each other. To test for potential redundancy with ABI5, we identified the family members with most similar effects and interactions in transient expression systems (ABF3 and ABF1), then characterized loss-of-function lines for those loci. The abf1 and abf3 monogenic mutant lines had at most minimal effects on germination or seed-specific gene expression, but the enhanced ABA- and stress-resistance of abf3 abi5 double mutants revealed redundant action of these genes in multiple stress responses of seeds and seedlings. Although ABI5, ABF3, and ABF1 have some overlapping effects, they appear to antagonistically regulate each other's expression at specific stages. Consequently, loss of any one factor may be partially compensated by increased expression of other family members.

  19. Final cutting of shelterwood. Harvesting techniques and effects on the Picea abies regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloede, Dan


    During the last decade, environmental and biological aspects have grown increasingly important in forestry. At the same time conventional planting after clear-cutting has failed on many sites with a high ground water table, abundant competitive vegetation and frequent frosts. Therefore, on these sites the use of the shelterwood system for regeneration of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) has increased in Sweden. The main objective of the thesis is to study if it is possible to final-cut shelterwoods at acceptable harvesting costs, logging damage and release effects in the regeneration. Final cutting of three shelterwoods (180-200 m 3 /ha) in Sweden were carried out with single- and double-grip harvester systems in 1-1.5 m high regeneration (6 400-26 700 seedlings/ha). In a fourth shelterwood (140-165 m 3 /ha), also situated in Sweden, conventional felling with a single-grip harvester was compared with a more concentrated felling according to a method named 'tossing the caber', where the trees were felled top-end first over the 1.2-1.3 m high regeneration (9 530-11 780 seedlings/ha) and into the striproad. No differences in productivity and cost between single- and double-grip harvesters in final cutting of shelterwood were found. Despite few stems/ha and extensive regeneration the harvesting cost was considered low (33.5 SEK/m 3 ). Approximately one third of the seedlings suffered mortal logging damage, which was considered acceptable. No differences between conventional felling and the tossing the caber method were found regarding productivity, cost and damage to the regeneration. However, tossing the caber may be a more productive alternative in final cutting of pine-dominated shelterwood or seed tree stands. Seedling growth and survival after shelterwood removal was not influenced by the choice of harvester system. Seedling height and vitality were found to be good estimators of post-release survival and growth which, in total, was found to be acceptable

  20. Fertilization Changes Chemical Defense in Needles of Mature Norway Spruce (Picea abies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Nybakken


    -astragalins dominated. Condensed tannins did not differ between current and previous year needles from control trees. In conclusion, the phenolic defense of current year needles of mature P.abies trees was strongly changed upon fertilization. This may imply that nitrogen deposition and forest fertilization leave forests less robust in a time when pests may take advantages of a changing climate.

  1. Increased water deficit decreases Douglas fir growth throughout western US forests. (United States)

    Restaino, Christina M; Peterson, David L; Littell, Jeremy


    Changes in tree growth rates can affect tree mortality and forest feedbacks to the global carbon cycle. As air temperature increases, evaporative demand also increases, increasing effective drought in forest ecosystems. Using a spatially comprehensive network of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) chronologies from 122 locations that represent distinct climate environments in the western United States, we show that increased temperature decreases growth via vapor pressure deficit (VPD) across all latitudes. Using an ensemble of global circulation models, we project an increase in both the mean VPD associated with the lowest growth extremes and the probability of exceeding these VPD values. As temperature continues to increase in future decades, we can expect deficit-related stress to increase and consequently Douglas fir growth to decrease throughout its US range.

  2. The protostar OMC-2 FIR 4: Results from the CHESS Herschel/HIFI spectral survey (United States)

    Kama, Mihkel; Lopez-Sepulcre, Ana; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Dominik, Carsten; Caux, Emmanuel; Fuente, Asuncion


    The intermediate-mass protostar OMC-2 FIR 4 in Orion is the focus of several ongoing studies, including a CHESS key programme Herschel/HIFI spectral survey. In this poster, we review recent CHESS results on this source, including the properties of the central hot core, the presence of a compact outflow, the spatial variation of the chemical composition, and the discovery of a tenuous foreground cloud. The HIFI spectrum of FIR 4 contains 719 lines from 40 species and isotopologs. Cooling by lines detectable with our sensitivity contributes 2% of the total in the 480 to 1900 GHz range. The total line flux is dominated by CO, followed by H2O and CH3OH. Initial comparisons with spectral surveys of other sources will also be presented.

  3. High-intensity coherent FIR radiation from sub-picosecond electron bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, P.H.; Lihn, Hung-chi; Wiedemann, H.; Bocek, D.


    A facility to generate high-intensity, ultra-short pulses of broad-band far-infrared radiation has been assembled and tested at Stanford. The device uses sub-picosecond relativistic electron bunches to generate coherent radiation through transition or synchrotron radiation in the far-infrared (FIR) regime between millimeter waves and wavelengths of about 100 μm and less. Experimental results show a peak radiation power of greater than 0.33 MW within a micro-bunch and an average FIR radiation power of 4 mW. The average bunch length of 2856 micro-bunches within a 1 μsec macro-pulse is estimated to be about 480 sec. Simulations experimental setup and results will be discussed

  4. Modelling and prediction for chaotic fir laser attractor using rational function neural network. (United States)

    Cho, S


    Many real-world systems such as irregular ECG signal, volatility of currency exchange rate and heated fluid reaction exhibit highly complex nonlinear characteristic known as chaos. These chaotic systems cannot be retreated satisfactorily using linear system theory due to its high dimensionality and irregularity. This research focuses on prediction and modelling of chaotic FIR (Far InfraRed) laser system for which the underlying equations are not given. This paper proposed a method for prediction and modelling a chaotic FIR laser time series using rational function neural network. Three network architectures, TDNN (Time Delayed Neural Network), RBF (radial basis function) network and the RF (rational function) network, are also presented. Comparisons between these networks performance show the improvements introduced by the RF network in terms of a decrement in network complexity and better ability of predictability.

  5. Growth and yield of a managed 30-year-old noble fir plantation. (United States)

    Marshall D. Murray


    A thinned and fertilized noble fir plantation produced 3,450 cubic feet per acre 30 years after it was planted in western Washington. More than half of this volume was in trees with diameter at breast height of 10 inches and larger. Current annual increment the last 6 years was 295 cubic feet per acre. Ornamental boughs have been harvested annually for about a 15-year...

  6. Fire, fuels, and restoration of ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests in the Rocky Mountains, USA


    Baker, W. L.; Veblen, T. T.; Sherriff, R. L.


    Forest restoration in ponderosa pine and mixed ponderosa pine–Douglas fir forests in the US Rocky Mountains has been highly influenced by a historical model of frequent, low-severity surface fires developed for the ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern USA. A restoration model, based on this low-severity fire model, focuses on thinning and prescribed burning to restore historical forest structure. However, in the US Rocky Mountains, research on fire history and forest structure, and earl...

  7. Manipulating stand structure of Douglas-fir plantations for wildlife habitat and wood production (United States)

    Timothy B. Harrington


    In southwestern Oregon, a study was initiated by Oregon State University (OSU) in 1983 to determine effects of hardwood competition on Douglas-fir plantation development. The use of herbicides to uniformly suppress competing vegetation—especially fast-growing hardwoods—proved to be an effective approach to ensure dominance and a high level of productivity for planted...

  8. Inheritance of germinative energy and germinative capacity in Douglas-fir (United States)

    Thomas E. Greathouse


    In the West foresters have had considerable difficulty in reforesting south-facing slopes. We considered this problem when we selected plus-trees for the first Douglas-fir seed orchard in Region 6. We were, however, faced with the need to answer such questions as these: (1) Should we try to produce seed inherently suited for south slopes? (2) If so, should we strive to...

  9. Competitive relations between Douglas-fir and Pacific madrone on shallow soils in a Mediterranean climate (United States)

    Wang, Zheng Q.; Newton, M.; Tappeiner, J. C.


    A large area of Pacific Coast forests is characterized by shallow soil, with negligible rainfall in the growing season. This study explores water-seeking strategy on such a site. We studied availability of bedrock water and its effects on growth and ecophysiology of 11-yr-old planted Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) and sprouting Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii Pursh). The study was carried out at three regulated densities of madrone sprouts on shallow ( 0.05) among three densities of madrone. However, cover in plots with the highest density of madrone (1322 sprout clumps/ha) depleted 50 mm of water from the 1.5 m layer by June, whereas vegetation on lower density treatments withdrew 15-28 mm by June, with later withdrawal distributed more uniformly through the growing season. Madrone density significantly affected basal diameter (P a?? 0.0001) and height growth (P a?? 0.002) of Douglas-fir. Madrone was consistently taller than Douglas-fir in all plots. The height of 11-yr-old madrone sprout clumps (424-465 cm) did not differ significantly among densities. Madrone leaf area index and biomass were higher at the high density of madrone than at medium density (P a?? 0.045, LAI; P a?? 0.001, biomass). Physiological advantages and rooting habits of madrone give it a competitive advantage over Douglas-fir in this area that it might not have if bedrock did not provide the principal water reservoir for summer growth.

  10. CudaFilters: A SignalPlant library for GPU-accelerated FFT and FIR filtering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nejedlý, Petr; Plešinger, Filip; Halámek, Josef; Jurák, Pavel


    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2018), s. 3-9 ISSN 0038-0644 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-13830S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : CUDA * FFT filter * FIR filter * GPU acceleration * SignalPlant Impact factor: 1.609, year: 2016

  11. Dwarf mistletoe does not increase trunk taper in released red firs in California (United States)

    Robert F. Scharpf


    Dwarf mistletoe had no noticeable effect on trunk taper of young, dominant and codominant red firs 4 to 22 inches (10.2 to 55.9 cm) d.b.h. Also, taper was not influenced by live crown ratio of infected and uninfected trees. Trees less than 7 inches d.b.h. had significantly more taper than larger trees, irrespective of dwarf mistletoe.

  12. Growth after precommercial thinning in two stands of Douglas-fir. (United States)

    Robert W. Steele


    Twenty years ago, portions of two young Douglas-fir stands on the Wind River Experimental Forest in Skamania County, Washington, were thinned by removing some of the trees in the suppressed and intermediate crown classes. At time of thinning, one stand, (A), was 23 years old and the second, (B), was 30 years old. In both cases site quality is IV. The trees taken out...

  13. Plastic cages to protect Douglas-fir seedlings from animal damage in western Oregon. (United States)

    Glen C. Crouch


    Effects of plastic mesh cages designed to protect Douglas-fir seedlings from animals were evaluated in western Oregon. In two tests over 5-year periods, caging increased survival by 0 and 13 percent and increased height growth by 0.8 and 1.2 feet compared with uncaged trees. Benefits from caging might have been greater if damage had been more prevalent during the tests...

  14. Automated knot detection with visual post-processing of Douglas-fir veneer images (United States)

    C.L. Todoroki; Eini C. Lowell; Dennis Dykstra


    Knots on digital images of 51 full veneer sheets, obtained from nine peeler blocks crosscut from two 35-foot (10.7 m) long logs and one 18-foot (5.5 m) log from a single Douglas-fir tree, were detected using a two-phase algorithm. The algorithm was developed using one image, the Development Sheet, refined on five other images, the Training Sheets, and then applied to...

  15. Climate extremes and predicted warming threaten Mediterranean Holocene firs forests refugia. (United States)

    Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Camarero, J Julio; Carrer, Marco; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Alla, Arben Q; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Hevia, Andrea; Koutavas, Athanasios; Martínez-Sancho, Elisabet; Nola, Paola; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Pasho, Edmond; Toromani, Ervin; Carreira, José A; Linares, Juan C


    Warmer and drier climatic conditions are projected for the 21st century; however, the role played by extreme climatic events on forest vulnerability is still little understood. For example, more severe droughts and heat waves could threaten quaternary relict tree refugia such as Circum-Mediterranean fir forests (CMFF). Using tree-ring data and a process-based model, we characterized the major climate constraints of recent (1950-2010) CMFF growth to project their vulnerability to 21st-century climate. Simulations predict a 30% growth reduction in some fir species with the 2050s business-as-usual emission scenario, whereas growth would increase in moist refugia due to a longer and warmer growing season. Fir populations currently subjected to warm and dry conditions will be the most vulnerable in the late 21st century when climatic conditions will be analogous to the most severe dry/heat spells causing dieback in the late 20th century. Quantification of growth trends based on climate scenarios could allow defining vulnerability thresholds in tree populations. The presented predictions call for conservation strategies to safeguard relict tree populations and anticipate how many refugia could be threatened by 21st-century dry spells.

  16. An advanced strategy for wind speed forecasting using expert 2-D FIR filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Renewable energies such as wind and solar have become the most attractive means of electricity generation nowadays. Social and environmental benefits as well as economical issues result in further utilization of such these energy resources. In this regard, wind energy plays an important roll in operation of small-scale power systems like Micro Grid. On the other hand, wind stochastic nature in different time and place horizons, makes accurate forecasting of its behavior an inevitable task for market planners and energy management systems. In this paper an advanced strategy for wind speed estimation has been purposed and its superior performance is compared to that of conventional methods. The model is based on linear predictive filtering and image processing principles using 2-D FIR filters. To show the efficiency of purposed predictive model different FIR filters are designed and tested through similar data. Wind speed data have been collected during the period January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2009 from Casella automatic weather station at Plymouth. It is observed that 2-D FIR filters act more accurately in comparison with 1-D conventional representations; however, their prediction ability varies considerably through different filter sizing.

  17. Status and prospects of a compact FIR FEL driven by a magnetron-based microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Young Uk; Kazakevitch, Grigori M.; Lee, Byung Cheol; Kim, Sun Kook; Cho, Sung Oh; Gavrilov, Nicolai G.; Lee, Jongmin


    A magnetron-based microtron as a driver of FIR FEL has several prominent advantages in cost, size, beam quality and operation convenience. However, it has some disadvantages due to the instability of the RF frequency and a low current. In order to overcome these disadvantages, the frequency stability of the magnetron was improved, and the interaction between the electron beam and the FIR radiation was enhanced by using a high-performance undulator and a low-loss waveguide-mode optical resonator. The FEL is now under upgrade in order to extend the wavelength range to cover 90-300 μm, which can be done by increasing the energy range of electron beam to 4.3-7 MeV. In this paper, we report the results of investigations on output characteristics of the FEL depending on cavity detuning, electron beam matching, and RF instability. Based on the results, we discuss the prospects of wide-band FIR FELs driven by magnetron-based microtrons as potent sources of radiation for scientific applications

  18. Design optimisation of powers-of-two FIR filter using self-organising random immigrants GA (United States)

    Chandra, Abhijit; Chattopadhyay, Sudipta


    In this communication, we propose a novel design strategy of multiplier-less low-pass finite impulse response (FIR) filter with the aid of a recent evolutionary optimisation technique, known as the self-organising random immigrants genetic algorithm. Individual impulse response coefficients of the proposed filter have been encoded as sum of signed powers-of-two. During the formulation of the cost function for the optimisation algorithm, both the frequency response characteristic and the hardware cost of the discrete coefficient FIR filter have been considered. The role of crossover probability of the optimisation technique has been evaluated on the overall performance of the proposed strategy. For this purpose, the convergence characteristic of the optimisation technique has been included in the simulation results. In our analysis, two design examples of different specifications have been taken into account. In order to substantiate the efficiency of our proposed structure, a number of state-of-the-art design strategies of multiplier-less FIR filter have also been included in this article for the purpose of comparison. Critical analysis of the result unambiguously establishes the usefulness of our proposed approach for the hardware efficient design of digital filter.

  19. Douglas-fir plantations in Europe: a retrospective test of assisted migration to address climate change. (United States)

    Isaac-Renton, Miriam G; Roberts, David R; Hamann, Andreas; Spiecker, Heinrich


    We evaluate genetic test plantations of North American Douglas-fir provenances in Europe to quantify how tree populations respond when subjected to climate regime shifts, and we examined whether bioclimate envelope models developed for North America to guide assisted migration under climate change can retrospectively predict the success of these provenance transfers to Europe. The meta-analysis is based on long-term growth data of 2800 provenances transferred to 120 European test sites. The model was generally well suited to predict the best performing provenances along north-south gradients in Western Europe, but failed to predict superior performance of coastal North American populations under continental climate conditions in Eastern Europe. However, model projections appear appropriate when considering additional information regarding adaptation of Douglas-fir provenances to withstand frost and drought, even though the model partially fails in a validation against growth traits alone. We conclude by applying the partially validated model to climate change scenarios for Europe, demonstrating that climate trends observed over the last three decades warrant changes to current use of Douglas-fir provenances in plantation forestry throughout Western and Central Europe. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Software development for efficient description of FIR filters of wireless LAN systems, in VHDL


    Καινούργιος, Σωτήριος


    Υλοποίηση παραμετροποιημένων FIR φίλτρων με την βοήθεια της γλώσσας περιγραφής υλικού VHDL. Μελέτη των αποτελεσμάτων για χώρο και περιοχή που καταλαμβάνει ο σχεδιαμσός. FIR implementation with the description language VHDL. We discuss their results for area and the delay of each diagram (FIR filter).

  1. FIR: An Effective Scheme for Extracting Useful Metadata from Social Media. (United States)

    Chen, Long-Sheng; Lin, Zue-Cheng; Chang, Jing-Rong


    Recently, the use of social media for health information exchange is expanding among patients, physicians, and other health care professionals. In medical areas, social media allows non-experts to access, interpret, and generate medical information for their own care and the care of others. Researchers paid much attention on social media in medical educations, patient-pharmacist communications, adverse drug reactions detection, impacts of social media on medicine and healthcare, and so on. However, relatively few papers discuss how to extract useful knowledge from a huge amount of textual comments in social media effectively. Therefore, this study aims to propose a Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory network based Information Retrieval (FIR) scheme by combining Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (ART) network, Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), and association rules (AR) discovery to extract knowledge from social media. In our FIR scheme, Fuzzy ART network firstly has been employed to segment comments. Next, for each customer segment, we use LSI technique to retrieve important keywords. Then, in order to make the extracted keywords understandable, association rules mining is presented to organize these extracted keywords to build metadata. These extracted useful voices of customers will be transformed into design needs by using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) for further decision making. Unlike conventional information retrieval techniques which acquire too many keywords to get key points, our FIR scheme can extract understandable metadata from social media.

  2. Ion Flux in Roots of Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) under Aluminum Stress (United States)

    Ma, Zhihui; Huang, Binlong; Xu, Shanshan; Chen, Yu; Cao, Guangqiu; Ding, Guochang; Lin, Sizu


    Chinese fir is a tall, fast-growing species that is unique to southern China. In Chinese fir plantations, successive plantings have led to a decline in soil fertility, and aluminum toxicity is thought to be one of the main reasons for this decline. In this study, Non-invasive Micro-test Technology was used to study the effect of aluminum stress on the absorption of 4 different ions in the roots of the Chinese fir clone FS01. The results are as follows: with increased aluminum concentration and longer periods of aluminum stress, the H+ ion flow gradually changed from influx into efflux; there was a large variation in the K+ efflux, which gradually decreased with increasing duration of aluminum stress; and 1 h of aluminum stress uniformly resulted in Ca2+ influx, but it changed from influx to efflux after a longer period of aluminum stress. Changes in the different concentrations of aluminum had the largest influence on Mg2+. PMID:27270726

  3. Apuntes sobre algunos reguladores del crecimiento vegetal que participan en la respuesta de las plantas frente al estrés abiótico


    Chávez Suárez, Licet; Álvarez Fonseca, Alexander; Ramírez Fernández, Ramiro


    El estrés abiótico es una de las principales causas de las pérdidas de las producciones agrícolas a nivel mundial. Los reguladores del crecimiento vegetal tales como el ácido abscícico, el etileno, el ácido jasmónico y el ácido salicílico son esenciales en la respuesta de las plantas al estrés abiótico. Se describen las generalidades de estas moléculas así como su función en la respuesta de la planta frente al estrés abiótico. The abiotic stress is one of the most significative cause of th...

  4. Network Performance Evaluation of Abis Interface over DVB-S2 in the GSM over Satellite Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Musabekov


    Full Text Available This paper deals with establishing a GSM link over Satellite. Abis interface, which is defined between Base Transceiver Station (BTS and Base Station Controller (BSC, in a GSM network is considered here to be routed over the Satellite. The satellite link enables a quick and cost-effective GSM link in meagerly populated areas. A different scenario comparison was done to understand the impact of Satellite environment on network availability comparing to terrestrial scenario. We have implemented an Abis interface over DVB S2 in NS2 and evaluated the performance over the high delay and loss satellite channel. Network performance was evaluated with respect to Satellite channel delay and DVB S2 encapsulation efficiency under different amount of user traffic and compared with the terrestrial scenario. The results clearly showed an increased amount of SDCCH and TCH channels required in the case of satellite scenario for the same amount of traffic in comparison to conventional terrestrial scenario. We have optimized the parameters based on the simulation results. Link budget estimation considering DVB-S2 platform was done to find satellite bandwidth and cost requirements for different network setups.

  5. Quantifying species' range shifts in relation to climate change: a case study of Abies spp. in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Kou

    Full Text Available Predicting species range shifts in response to climatic change is a central aspect of global change studies. An ever growing number of species have been modeled using a variety of species distribution models (SDMs. However, quantitative studies of the characteristics of range shifts are rare, predictions of range changes are hard to interpret, analyze and summarize, and comparisons between the various models are difficult to make when the number of species modeled is large. Maxent was used to model the distribution of 12 Abies spp. in China under current and possible future climate conditions. Two fuzzy set defined indices, range increment index (I and range overlapping index (O, were used to quantify range shifts of the chosen species. Correlation analyses were used to test the relationships between these indices and species distribution characteristics. Our results show that Abies spp. range increments (I were highly correlated with longitude, latitude, and mean roughness of their current distributions. Species overlapping (O was moderately, or not, correlated with these parameters. Neither range increments nor overlapping showed any correlation with species prevalence. These fuzzy sets defined indices provide ideal measures of species range shifts because they are stable and threshold-free. They are reliable indices that allow large numbers of species to be described, modeled, and compared on a variety of taxonomic levels.

  6. ABI-like transcription factor gene TaABL1 from wheat improves multiple abiotic stress tolerances in transgenic plants. (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Bei; Gao, Shi-Qing; Ma, You-Zhi; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Zhao, Chang-Ping; Tang, Yi-Miao; Li, Xue-Yin; Li, Lian-Cheng; Chen, Yao-Feng; Chen, Ming


    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays crucial roles in adaptive responses of plants to abiotic stresses. ABA-responsive element binding proteins (AREBs) are basic leucine zipper transcription factors that regulate the expression of downstream genes containing ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) in promoter regions. A novel ABI-like (ABA-insensitive) transcription factor gene, named TaABL1, containing a conserved basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain was cloned from wheat. Southern blotting showed that three copies were present in the wheat genome. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that TaABL1 belonged to the AREB subfamily of the bZIP transcription factor family and was most closely related to ZmABI5 in maize and OsAREB2 in rice. Expression of TaABL1 was highly induced in wheat roots, stems, and leaves by ABA, drought, high salt, and low temperature stresses. TaABL1 was localized inside the nuclei of transformed wheat mesophyll protoplast. Overexpression of TaABL1 enhanced responses of transgenic plants to ABA and hastened stomatal closure under stress, thereby improving tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses. Furthermore, overexpression of TaABL1 upregulated or downregulated the expression of some stress-related genes controlling stomatal closure in transgenic plants under ABA and drought stress conditions, suggesting that TaABL1 might be a valuable genetic resource for transgenic molecular breeding.

  7. Normalizing gene expression by quantitative PCR during somatic embryogenesis in two representative conifer species: Pinus pinaster and Picea abies. (United States)

    de Vega-Bartol, José J; Santos, Raquen Raissa; Simões, Marta; Miguel, Célia M


    Suitable internal control genes to normalize qPCR data from different stages of embryo development and germination were identified in two representative conifer species. Clonal propagation by somatic embryogenesis has a great application potentiality in conifers. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is widely used for gene expression analysis during somatic embryogenesis and embryo germination. No single reference gene is universal, so a systematic characterization of endogenous genes for concrete conditions is fundamental for accuracy. We identified suitable internal control genes to normalize qPCR data obtained at different steps of somatic embryogenesis (embryonal mass proliferation, embryo maturation and germination) in two representative conifer species, Pinus pinaster and Picea abies. Candidate genes included endogenous genes commonly used in conifers, genes previously tested in model plants, and genes with a lower variation of the expression along embryo development according to genome-wide transcript profiling studies. Three different algorithms were used to evaluate expression stability. The geometric average of the expression values of elongation factor-1α, α-tubulin and histone 3 in P. pinaster, and elongation factor-1α, α-tubulin, adenosine kinase and CAC in P. abies were adequate for expression studies throughout somatic embryogenesis. However, improved accuracy was achieved when using other gene combinations in experiments with samples at a single developmental stage. The importance of studies selecting reference genes to use in different tissues or developmental stages within one or close species, and the instability of commonly used reference genes, is highlighted.

  8. Ozone fumigation under dark/light conditions of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris) (United States)

    Canaval, Eva; Jud, Werner; Hansel, Armin


    Norway Spruce (Picea abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent dominating tree species in the northern hemisphere. Thus, the understanding of their ozone sensitivity in the light of the expected increasing ozone levels in the future is of great importance. In our experiments we investigated the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of 3-4 year old Norway Spruce and Scots Pine seedlings under ozone fumigation (50-150 ppbv) and dark/light conditions. For the experiments the plants were placed in a setup with inert materials including a glass cuvette equipped with a turbulent air inlet and sensors for monitoring a large range of meteorological parameters. Typical conditions were 20-25°C and a relative humidity of 70-90 % for both plant species. A fast gas exchange rate was used to minimize reactions of ozone in the gas phase. A Switchable-Reagent-Ion-Time-of-Flight-MS (SRI-ToF-MS) was used to analyze the VOCs at the cuvette outlet in real-time during changing ozone and light levels. The use of H3O+ and NO+ as reagent ions allows the separation of certain isomers (e.g. aldehydes and ketones) due to different reaction pathways depending on the functional groups of the molecules. Within the Picea abies experiments the ozone loss, defined as the difference of the ozone concentration between cuvette inlet and outlet, remained nearly constant at the transition from dark to light. This indicates that a major part of the supplied ozone is depleted non-stomatally. In contrast the ozone loss increased by 50 % at the transition from dark to light conditions within Pinus sylvestris experiments. In this case the stomata represent the dominant loss channel. Since maximally 0.1% of the ozone loss could be explained by gas phase reactions with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, we suggest that ozone reactions on the surface of Picea abies represent the major sink in this case and lead to an light-independent ozone loss. This is supported by the fact that we detected

  9. Kto zje żabę Haberschracka? : symbolika żaby w Poliptyku Augustiańskim Mikołaja Haberschracka, XV w


    Tytko, Marek Mariusz


    Tekst dotyczy symboliki żaby w Poliptyku Augustiańskim namalowanym przez Mikołaja Haberschracka z Nowej Wsi koło Krakowa w XV w. Obraz powstał w 1468 r. Ufundowany był przez przeora klasztoru i konwent zakonu augustianów w Krakowie. Augustianie krakowscy byli twórcami programu ideowego tego poliptyku. W tekście opisano konteksty biblijne, teologiczne i historyczne dla tego obrazu. Autor artykułu stawia hipotezę o symbolicznym znaczeniu żab w obrazie. Żaby oznaczać mogą tam (alternatywnie): 1)...

  10. Structure and productivity of mixed spruce and fir forests on Mt. Kopaonik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šljukić Biljana


    Full Text Available The subject of this research are mixed forests of spruce and fir in the area of NP Kopaonik, which belong to the community of spruce and fir - Abieti-Piceetum abietis Mišić et Popović, 1978. The basis for the study of the structural development and production potential of these forests are data from 12 sample plots, with the average size of 0.18 ha. In terms of coenoecological affiliation all the sample plots belong to the group of ecological units - forests of spruce and fir (Abieti-Piceetum abietis, Mišić et Popović, 1978 on acid brown and brown podzolic soils, which are differentiated into 5 ecological units: Abieti-Piceetum abietis oxalidetosum on brown podzolic soil, Abieti-Piceetum abietis oxalidetosum on acid brown soil, Abieti-Piceetum abietis vaccinietosum on brown podzolic soil, Abieti-Piceetum abietis typicum on brown podzolic soil and Abieti-Piceetum abietis Dr.ymetosum on brown pozolic soil. In structural terms, these forests are characterized by very diverse structural forms, ranging from the structure of even-aged stands to typical multi-storey, unevenaged-aged stands. The form of cumulative curves of tree distribution is in most cases determined by spruce as the dominant species. At the same time, thin and medium-thick trees dominate, while the presence of stems with large dimensions is minimal. The average volume of these forestse is 777 m3•ha-1, with a mixture ratio of 0.7: 0.3 in favor of spruce. The average value of the current volume increment is 14 m3•ha-1, with a 68% share of spruce and 32% of fir. The percentage of increment ranges from 1.6% to 2.5% in all sample plots and is somewhat higher for fir. The site potential, stand characteristics and relations among the tree species have resulted in structural complexity, high productivity and ecological stability of these forests. Therefore, future forest management should avoid radical measures and procedures that would violate the established relationships and

  11. Effects of sulfuric, nitric, and mixed acid rain on Chinese fir sapling growth in Southern China. (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Fu, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Bo; Zhai, Lu; Meng, Miaojing; Lin, Jie; Zhuang, Jiayao; Wang, G Geoff; Zhang, Jinchi


    The influence of acid rain on plant growth includes direct effects on foliage as well as indirect soil-mediated effects that cause a reduction in root growth. In addition, the concentration of NO 3 - in acid rain increases along with the rapid growth of nitrogen deposition. In this study, we investigated the impact of simulated acid rain with different SO 4 2- /NO 3 - (S/N) ratios, which were 1:0, 5:1, 1:1, 1:5 and 0:1, on Chinese fir sapling growth from March 2015 to April 2016. Results showed that Chinese fir sapling height growth rate (HGR) and basal diameter growth rate (DGR) decreased as acid rain pH decreased, and also decreased as the percentage of NO 3 - increased in acid rain. Acid rain pH significantly decreased the Chlorophyll a (Chla) and Chlorophyll b (Chlb) content, and Chla and Chlb contents with acid rain S/N 1:5 were significantly lower than those with S/N 1:0 at pH 2.5. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, maximal efficiency of Photosystem II photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ), with most acid rain treatments were significantly lower than those with CK treatments. Root activities first increased and then decreased as acid rain pH decreased, when acid rain S/N ratios were 1:1, 1:5 and 0:1. Redundancy discriminant analysis (RDA) showed that the Chinese fir DGR and HGR had positive correlations with Chla, Chlb, Fv/Fm ratio, root activity, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in roots under the stress of acid rain with different pH and S/N ratios. The structural equation modelling (SEM) results showed that acid rain NO 3 - concentration and pH had stronger direct effects on Chinese fir sapling HGR and DGR, and the direct effects of acid rain NO 3 - concentration and pH on HGR were lower than those on DGR. Our results suggest that the ratio of SO 4 2- to NO 3 - in acid rain is an important factor which could affect the sustainable development of monoculture Chinese fir plantations in southern China

  12. A postal survey of data in general practice on the prevalence of Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) in patients aged 18-65 in one county in the west of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Finnerty, Fionnuala


    BACKGROUND: Very little is known about the prevalence of acquired brain injury (ABI) in Ireland. ABI prevalence has previously been obtained from Belgian general practitioners using a postal survey. We attempted to ascertain the prevalence of ABI in County Mayo through a postal survey of all general practitioners in the county.The specific objectives of this project were to:1. identify whether general practitioners are a. aware of patients with ABI aged 18-65 in their practices b. able to provide prevalence data on ABI in patients aged 18-65 c. able to provide data on age, gender and patient diagnosis 2. analyse prevalence of ABI from any available data from general practitioners. METHODS: A pilot postal survey was performed initially in order to assess the feasibility of the study. It was established that general practitioners did have the necessary information required to complete the questionnaire. A main postal survey was then undertaken. A postal questionnaire was administered to all general practices in County Mayo in the west of Ireland (n = 59). The response rate was 32.2% (n = 19). RESULTS: General practitioners who replied on behalf of their practice could provide data on patient age, gender and diagnosis. In the nineteen practices, there were 57 patients with ABI. The age-specific prevalence of ABI in the area surveyed was estimated at 183.7 per 100,000. The mean patient population per practice was 2,833 (SD = 950). There were found to be significantly more patients with ABI in rural areas than urban areas (p = 0.006). There were also significant differences in the ages of patients in the different ABI categories. Patients whose ABI was of traumatic origin were significantly younger than those patients with ABI of haemorrhagic origin (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Although this is a small-scale study, we have ascertained that general practitioners do have data on patients with ABI. Also, some prevalence data now exist where none was available before. These can

  13. In vivo evaluation of the effect of stimulus distribution on FIR statistical efficiency in event-related fMRI. (United States)

    Jansma, J Martijn; de Zwart, Jacco A; van Gelderen, Peter; Duyn, Jeff H; Drevets, Wayne C; Furey, Maura L


    Technical developments in MRI have improved signal to noise, allowing use of analysis methods such as Finite impulse response (FIR) of rapid event related functional MRI (er-fMRI). FIR is one of the most informative analysis methods as it determines onset and full shape of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) without any a priori assumptions. FIR is however vulnerable to multicollinearity, which is directly related to the distribution of stimuli over time. Efficiency can be optimized by simplifying a design, and restricting stimuli distribution to specific sequences, while more design flexibility necessarily reduces efficiency. However, the actual effect of efficiency on fMRI results has never been tested in vivo. Thus, it is currently difficult to make an informed choice between protocol flexibility and statistical efficiency. The main goal of this study was to assign concrete fMRI signal to noise values to the abstract scale of FIR statistical efficiency. Ten subjects repeated a perception task with five random and m-sequence based protocol, with varying but, according to literature, acceptable levels of multicollinearity. Results indicated substantial differences in signal standard deviation, while the level was a function of multicollinearity. Experiment protocols varied up to 55.4% in standard deviation. Results confirm that quality of fMRI in an FIR analysis can significantly and substantially vary with statistical efficiency. Our in vivo measurements can be used to aid in making an informed decision between freedom in protocol design and statistical efficiency. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Diameter Growth, Biological Rotation Age and Biomass of Chinese Fir in Burning and Clearing Site Preparations in Subtropical China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhou


    Full Text Available Sustained forest management of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese fir plantations in subtropical China is restricted by the limited availability of quantitative data. This study combines inventory data and tree-ring analysis of Chinese fir from natural and plantation forests that were subjected to controlled burning or brush clearing site preparations. Inter-annual variation of Chinese fir tree-ring widths were measured for the controlled burning, brush clearing and natural forest sites. The mean annual diametric growth of Chinese fir was 0.56 cm·year−1 for the natural forest, 0.80 cm·year−1 for the brush clearing site and 1.10 cm·year−1 for the controlled burning site. The time needed to reach the minimum cutting/logging diameter of 15 cm was 14 years in the controlled burning site, 19 years in the brush clearing site and >40 years in the natural forest. The biological rotation ages for the burning, cutting and natural forest sites were 15, 26 and >100 years, respectively. The total aboveground biomasses for the burning and clearing sites were 269.8 t·ha−1 and 252 t·ha−1, respectively. These results suggest that the current 25-year cutting cycle greatly underestimates the growth rate of Chinese fir plantations.

  15. Analyses on the diffusion of aerosol pollutants caused by the experimental plant ABI-2000 situated close to the center of Casaccia; Analisi della diffusione di inquinanti aeriformi emessi dall'impianto sperimentale ABI-2000, sito presso il centro della Casaccia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbone, A I; Racalbuto, S; Grandoni, G [ENEA - Dipartimento Protezione Ambientale e Salute dell' Uomo, Centro Ricerche Energia, Casaccia (Italy)


    Atmospheric diffusion and ground deposit of some macro and micro-pollutants have been modelled. The considered pollutants will be emitted from the stack of the pilot plant ABI-2000 that will be soon operating in the Energy Research Center of Casaccia. In this plant, research activities will be performed in order to study the development of new processes for the fuels and/or wastes combustion and to set up technologies for pollutant containment. The average air concentration of pollutants and their deposition on ground have been evaluated both during normal operation and incidental conditions using some computer codes developed by ENEA. The comparison between the average air concentrations at ground level for various sampling times and those averages imposed by air quality standards, shows that the resulting situation following the emissions of the examined plant is by far lower than the acceptable one defined by the laws in force. Therefore, the environmental and sanitary consequences should be considered as negligible. (author)

  16. Variations of wood delta 13C and water-use efficiency of Abies alba during the last century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bert, D.; Leavitt, S.W.; Dupouey, J.L.


    Variations of intrinsic water-use efficiency during the last century were investigated based on analysis of δ 13 C in tree rings of Abies alba from the Jura Mountains (eastern France). To separate the effects related to the age of the tree at the time the tree ring was formed from effects due to environmental changes, analyzed wood samples were extracted from a very large sample set including different tree ages and calendar dates of wood formation. For the first 75 yr of the life of Abies alba, δ 13 of wood holocellulose increases with the age of the tree from -24.4%o at age 15 to approximately -22.5%o at age 75. Between the ages of 75 and 150 values remain constant at -22.5%. Consequently, the effect of the tree age on isotopic discrimination has to be taken into account in studies on the long-term environmental effects on δ 13 in tree rings. Divergent trends of δ 13 during the last century were observed between tree rings formed at age 40 and bulk air data. The isotopic discrimination Δ varied insignificantly around a mean of 17.3%o between the 1860s and the 1930s. It then decreased to 15.8%o from the 1930s to the 1980s. Using these results and classical models of carbon discrimination, we calculated that the intrinsic water-use efficiency (A/g w , the ratio of CO 2 assimilation rate to stomatal conductance for water vapor), integrated over the year, has increased by 30% between the 1930s and the 1980s. These results, obtained at the level of mature trees, are consistent with the physiological effects of increasing CO 2 concentrations as observed in controlled experiments on young seedlings. They are consistent with the strong increases in radial growth observed for Abies alba in western Europe over the past decades. However, other long-term environmental changes such as increasing nitrogen deposition could cause similar effects. (author)

  17. Tree-ring stable isotopes record the impact of a foliar fungal pathogen on CO2 assimilation and growth in Douglas-fir (United States)

    Swiss needle cast (SNC) is a fungal disease of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) that has recently become prevalent in coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest. We used growth measurements and stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen in tree-rings of Douglas-fir and a non-susceptible...

  18. Functions for biomass and basic density of stem, crown and root system of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Jens Peter; Bald, Caroline; Nord-Larsen, Thomas


    Models for predicting the biomass of forest trees are becoming increasingly important for assessing forest resources and carbon sequestration in forests. We developed functions for predicting the biomass and basic density of above- and below-ground parts of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.)...

  19. Lactococcal Abortive Infection Protein AbiV Interacts Directly with the Phage Protein SaV and Prevents Translation of Phage Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Jakob Brandt Borup; Samson, J.E.; Labrie, S.J.


    RNAs and proteins suggested that AbiV blocks the activation of late gene transcription, probably by a general inhibition of translation. Using size exclusion chromatography coupled with on-line static light scattering and refractometry, as well as fluorescence quenching experiments, we also demonstrated that both...

  20. Examination of the "Theory of Guidance" in the View of 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib (A): An Exploration into the Nahj Al-Balaghah (United States)

    Rostami-Nasab, Abas Ali; Tajedini, Oranus; Sadatmoosavi, Ali


    This study examines the "Theory of Guidance" according to 'Ali ibn Abi Talib (a). This theory is based on three divine covenants or fundamentals in guidance including the divine Prophet, the divine Book, and the divine human nature ("fitrat"). Research in this regard seems essential because this theory has not been previously…

  1. Migration and population expansion of Abies, Fagus, Picea, and Quercus since 15000 years in and across the Alps, based on pollen-percentage threshold values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaap, W.O. van der; Leeuwen, J.F.N. van; Finsinger, W.; Gobet, E.; Pini, R.; Schweizer, A.; Valsecchi, V.; Ammann, B.


    Aims: The aim of this study is to explore the migration (colonization of new areas) and subsequent population expansion (within an area) since 15 ka cal BP of Abies, Fagus, Picea, and Quercus into and through the Alps solely on the basis of high-quality pollen data. Methods: Chronologies of 101

  2. Bacterial and abiotic decay in waterlogged archaeological Picea abies (L.) Karst studied by confocal Raman imaging and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nanna Bjerregaard; Gierlinger, Notburga; Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht


    Waterlogged archaeological Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst] poles were studied by means of confocal Raman imaging (CRI) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) analysis to determine lignin and polysaccharide composition and distribution in the cell......, and minor oxidation of the lignin polymer compared to recent reference material. This is evidence for abiotic decay in the course of waterlogging....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Anca Ieremia


    Full Text Available The paper present the influence of ascorbic acid, riboflavin, citric acid and sodium bisulphit upon the mitotic division of Larix decidua Mill ssp. carpatica, Picea abies (L. Karst and Thuja orientalis L. The treatment was applied in one variant, germinated seeds in ascorbic acid, riboflavin, citric acid and sodium bisulphit in 3 concentrations.

  4. Liming effects on the chemical composition of the organic surface layer of a mature Norway spruce stand (Picea abies [L.] Karst.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberg, W.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Knicker, H.; Jager, de P.A.; Kreutzer, K.; Weiá, T.


    The application of lime in a mature Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) forest in southern Germany induced major changes in the activity of soil organisms and root growth. Since this may influence the chemical compostion of the soil organic matter (SOM) of the organic surface layer, its

  5. Evaluating Interest in Acids-Bases: Development of an Acid-Base Interest Scale (ABIS) and Assessment of Pre-Service Science Teachers' Interest (United States)

    Çiçek, Ö.; Ilhan, N.


    Students are more likely to be successful in topics they are interested in than others. This study aims to develop an Acid-Base Interest Scale (ABIS) and subsequently evaluate the interest of pre-service science teachers in acids-bases according to gender, years at the university, type of high school the pre-service science teachers attended, and…

  6. Carbon Sequestration in Protected Areas: A Case Study of an Abies religiosa (H.B.K. Schlecht. et Cham Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo I. Fragoso-López


    Full Text Available The effects of global climate change have highlighted forest ecosystems as a key element in reducing the amount of atmospheric carbon through photosynthesis. The objective of this study was to estimate the amount of carbon content and its percentage capture in a protected Abies religiosa forest in which the study area was zoned with satellite image analysis. Dendrometric and epidometric variables were used to determine the volume and increase of aerial biomass, and stored carbon and its capture rate using equations. The results indicate that this forest contains an average of 105.72 MgC ha−1, with an estimated sequestration rate of 1.03 MgC ha−1 yr−1. The results show that carbon capture increasing depends on the increase in volume. Therefore, in order to achieve the maximum yield in a forest, it is necessary to implement sustainable forest management that favors the sustained use of soil productivity.

  7. Demonstrating a New Census of Infrared Galaxies with ALMA (DANCING-ALMA). I. FIR Size and Luminosity Relation at z = 0-6 Revealed with 1034 ALMA Sources (United States)

    Fujimoto, Seiji; Ouchi, Masami; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Nagai, Hiroshi


    We present the large statistics of the galaxy effective radius R e in the rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) wavelength {R}{{e}({FIR})} obtained from 1627 Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 1 mm band maps that become public by 2017 July. Our ALMA sample consists of 1034 sources with the star formation rate ˜ 100{--}1000 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1 and the stellar mass ˜ {10}10{--}{10}11.5 {M}⊙ at z = 0-6. We homogeneously derive {R}{{e}({FIR})} and FIR luminosity L FIR of our ALMA sources via the uv-visibility method with the exponential disk model, carefully evaluating selection and measurement incompletenesses by realistic Monte-Carlo simulations. We find that there is a positive correlation between {R}{{e}({FIR})} and L FIR at the >99% significance level. The best-fit power-law function, {R}{{e}({FIR})}\\propto {L}{FIR}α , provides α =0.28+/- 0.07, and shows that {R}{{e}({FIR})} at a fixed L FIR decreases toward high redshifts. The best-fit α and the redshift evolution of {R}{{e}({FIR})} are similar to those of R e in the rest-frame UV (optical) wavelength {R}{{e}({UV})} ({R}{{e}({Opt}.)}) revealed by Hubble Space Telescope (HST) studies. We identify that our ALMA sources have significant trends of {R}{{e}({FIR})}≲ {R}{{e}({UV})} and {R}{{e}({Opt}.)}, which suggests that the dusty starbursts take place in compact regions. Moreover, {R}{{e}({FIR})} of our ALMA sources is comparable to {R}{{e}({Opt}.)} of quiescent galaxies at z ˜ 1-3 as a function of stellar mass, supporting the evolutionary connection between these two galaxy populations. We also investigate rest-frame UV and optical morphologies of our ALMA sources with deep HST images, and find that ˜30%-40% of our ALMA sources are classified as major mergers. This indicates that dusty starbursts are triggered by not only the major mergers but also the other mechanism(s).

  8. Calculation methods of reactivity using derivatives of nuclear power and Filter fir; Metodos para o calculo da reatividade usando derivadas da potencia nuclear e o filtro FIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Daniel Suescun


    This work presents two new methods for the solution of the inverse point kinetics equation. The first method is based on the integration by parts of the integral of the inverse point kinetics equation, which results in a power series in terms of the nuclear power in time dependence. Applying some conditions to the nuclear power, the reactivity is represented as first and second derivatives of this nuclear power. This new calculation method for reactivity has special characteristics, amongst which the possibility of using different sampling periods, and the possibility of restarting the calculation, after its interruption associated it with a possible equipment malfunction, allowing the calculation of reactivity in a non-continuous way. Apart from this reactivity can be obtained with or without dependency on the nuclear power memory. The second method is based on the Laplace transform of the point kinetics equations, resulting in an expression equivalent to the inverse kinetics equation as a function of the power history. The reactivity can be written in terms of the summation of convolution with response to impulse, characteristic of a linear system. For its digital form the Z-transform is used, which is the discrete version of the Laplace transform. In this method it can be pointed out that the linear part is equivalent to a filter named Finite Impulse Response (Fir). The Fir filter will always be, stable and non-varying in time, and, apart from this, it can be implemented in the non-recursive way. This type of implementation does not require feedback, allowing the calculation of reactivity in a continuous way. The proposed methods were validated using signals with random noise and showing the relationship between the reactivity difference and the degree of the random noise. (author)

  9. Star Formation Under the Outflow: The Discovery of a Non-thermal Jet from OMC-2 FIR 3 and Its Relationship to the Deeply Embedded FIR 4 Protostar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, Mayra; Díaz-Rodríguez, Ana K.; Anglada, Guillem; Gómez, José F. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC) Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n E-18008 Granada (Spain); Megeath, S. Thomas [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Toledo 2801 West Bancroft Street Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Rodríguez, Luis F.; Loinard, Laurent; Carrasco-González, Carlos [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM Apartado Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Tobin, John J. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Stutz, Amelia M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Concepción Concepción (Chile); Furlan, Elise [IPAC, Mail Code 314-6, Caltech 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fischer, William J. [Space Telescope Science Institute 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Manoj, P. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); González-García, Beatriz; Vavrek, Roland [European Space Astronomy Center, ESA P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Stanke, Thomas [European Southern Observatory Garching bei München (Germany); Watson, Dan M., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)


    We carried out multiwavelength (0.7–5 cm), multi-epoch (1994–2015) Very Large Array (VLA) observations toward the region enclosing the bright far-IR sources FIR 3 (HOPS 370) and FIR 4 (HOPS 108) in OMC-2. We report the detection of 10 radio sources, 7 of them identified as young stellar objects. We image a well-collimated radio jet with a thermal free–free core (VLA 11) associated with the Class I intermediate-mass protostar HOPS 370. The jet features several knots (VLA 12N, 12C, 12S) of non-thermal radio emission (likely synchrotron from shock-accelerated relativistic electrons) at distances of ∼7500–12,500 au from the protostar, in a region where other shock tracers have been previously identified. These knots are moving away from the HOPS 370 protostar at ∼100 km s{sup −1}. The Class 0 protostar HOPS 108, which itself is detected as an independent, kinematically decoupled radio source, falls in the path of these non-thermal radio knots. These results favor the previously proposed scenario in which the formation of HOPS 108 is triggered by the impact of the HOPS 370 outflow with a dense clump. However, HOPS 108 has a large proper motion velocity of ∼30 km s{sup −1}, similar to that of other runaway stars in Orion, whose origin would be puzzling within this scenario. Alternatively, an apparent proper motion could result because of changes in the position of the centroid of the source due to blending with nearby extended emission, variations in the source shape, and/or opacity effects.

  10. Star Formation Under the Outflow: The Discovery of a Non-thermal Jet from OMC-2 FIR 3 and Its Relationship to the Deeply Embedded FIR 4 Protostar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Mayra; Díaz-Rodríguez, Ana K.; Anglada, Guillem; Gómez, José F.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Loinard, Laurent; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Tobin, John J.; Stutz, Amelia M.; Furlan, Elise; Fischer, William J.; Manoj, P.; González-García, Beatriz; Vavrek, Roland; Stanke, Thomas; Watson, Dan M.


    We carried out multiwavelength (0.7–5 cm), multi-epoch (1994–2015) Very Large Array (VLA) observations toward the region enclosing the bright far-IR sources FIR 3 (HOPS 370) and FIR 4 (HOPS 108) in OMC-2. We report the detection of 10 radio sources, 7 of them identified as young stellar objects. We image a well-collimated radio jet with a thermal free–free core (VLA 11) associated with the Class I intermediate-mass protostar HOPS 370. The jet features several knots (VLA 12N, 12C, 12S) of non-thermal radio emission (likely synchrotron from shock-accelerated relativistic electrons) at distances of ∼7500–12,500 au from the protostar, in a region where other shock tracers have been previously identified. These knots are moving away from the HOPS 370 protostar at ∼100 km s −1 . The Class 0 protostar HOPS 108, which itself is detected as an independent, kinematically decoupled radio source, falls in the path of these non-thermal radio knots. These results favor the previously proposed scenario in which the formation of HOPS 108 is triggered by the impact of the HOPS 370 outflow with a dense clump. However, HOPS 108 has a large proper motion velocity of ∼30 km s −1 , similar to that of other runaway stars in Orion, whose origin would be puzzling within this scenario. Alternatively, an apparent proper motion could result because of changes in the position of the centroid of the source due to blending with nearby extended emission, variations in the source shape, and/or opacity effects.

  11. Examining the Relationship Between Edaphic Variables and the Rooting System of Abies concolor in the southern Sierra Nevada (United States)

    Wilson, A.; Jackson, R. B.; Tumber-Davila, S. J.


    An increase in the frequency and severity of droughts has been associated with the changing climate. These events have the potential to alter the composition and biogeography of forests, as well as increase tree mortality related to climate-induced stress. Already, an increase in tree mortality has been observed throughout the US. The recent drought in California led to millions of tree mortalities in the southern Sierra Nevada alone. In order to assess the potential impacts of these events on forest systems, it is imperative to understand what factors contribute to tree mortality. As plants become water-stressed, they may invest carbon more heavily belowground to reach a bigger pool of water, but their ability to adapt may be limited by the characteristics of the soil. In the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory, a high tree mortality zone, we have selected both dead and living trees to examine the factors that contribute to root zone variability and belowground biomass investment by individual plants. A series of 15 cores surrounding the tree were taken to collect root and soil samples. These were then used to compare belowground rooting distributions with soil characteristics (texture, water holding capacity, pH, electric conductivity). Abies concolor is heavily affected by drought-induced mortality, therefore the rooting systems of dead Abies concolor trees were examined to determine the relationship between their rooting systems and environmental conditions. Examining the relationship between soil characteristics and rooting systems of trees may shed light on the plasticity of rooting systems and how trees adapt based on the characteristics of its environment. A better understanding of the factors that contribute to tree mortality can improve our ability to predict how forest systems may be impacted by climate-induced stress. Key words: Root systems, soil characteristics, drought, adaptation, terrestrial carbon, forest ecology

  12. Time stamp generation with inverse FIR filters for Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namias, Mauro


    Photon coincidence detection is the process by which Positron Emission Tomography (PET) works. This requires the determination of the time of impact of each coincident photon at the detector system, also known as time stamp. In this work, the timestamp was generated by means of digital time-domain deconvolution with FIR filters for a INa(Tl) based system. The detector deadtime was reduced from 350 ns to 175 ns while preserving the system's energy resolution and a direct relation between the amount of light collected and the temporal resolution was found.(author)

  13. Modified Particle Swarm Optimization for Blind Deconvolution and Identification of Multichannel FIR Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanagha Ali


    Full Text Available Blind identification of MIMO FIR systems has widely received attentions in various fields of wireless data communications. Here, we use Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO as the update mechanism of the well-known inverse filtering approach and we show its good performance compared to original method. Specially, the proposed method is shown to be more robust against lower SNR scenarios or in cases with smaller lengths of available data records. Also, a modified version of PSO is presented which further improves the robustness and preciseness of PSO algorithm. However the most important promise of the modified version is its drastically faster convergence compared to standard implementation of PSO.

  14. A low-power asynchronous data-path for a FIR filter bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Skovby; Sparsø, Jens


    This paper describes a number of design issues relating to the implementation of low-power asynchronous signal processing circuits. Specifically, the paper addresses the design of a dedicated processor structure that implements an audio FIR filter bank which is part of an industrial application....... The algorithm requires a fixed number of steps and the moderate speed requirement allows a sequential implementation. The latter, in combination with a huge predominance of numerically small data values in the input data stream, is the key to a low-power asynchronous implementation. Power is minimized in two...

  15. [Quantification of Wood Flour and Polypropylene in Chinese Fir/Polypropylene Composites by FTIR]. (United States)

    Lao, Wan-li; Li, Gai-yun; Zhou, Qun; Qin, Te-fu


    The ratio of wood and plastic in Wood Plastic Composites (WPCss) influences quality and price, but traditional thermochemical methods cannot rapidly and accurately quantify the ratio of wood/PP in WPCss. This paper was addressed to investigate the feasibility of quantifying the wood flour content and plastic content in WPCss by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. With Chinese fir, polypropylene (PP) and other additives as raw materials, 13 WPCs samples with different wood flour contents, ranging from 9.8% to 61.5%, were prepared by modifying wood flour, mixing materials and extrusion pelletizing. The samples were analyzed by FTIR with the KBr pellets technique. The absorption peaks of WPCss at 1059, 1 033 and 1 740 cm(-1) are considered as characteristic of Chinese fir, and the absorption peaks at 1 377, 2 839 and 841 cm(-1) are typical of PP by comparing the spectra of WPCss with that of Chinese fir, PP and other additives. The relationship between the wood flour content, PP content in WPCss and their characteristic IR peaks height ratio was established. The results show that there is a strong linear correlation between the wood flour content in WPCss and I1 059/l 1 377/I1 033, /I1377, R2 are 0.992 and 0.993 respectively; there is a high linear correlation between the PP content in WPCss and I1 377/I1 740, I2 839 /I1 740 R2 are 0.985 and 0.981, respectively. Quantitative methods of the wood flour content and PP content in WPCss by FTIR were developed, the predictive equations of the wood flour content in WPCss are y = 53.297x-9. 107 and y = 55.922x-10.238, the predictive equations of the PP content in WPCss are y = 6.828 5x+5.403 6 and y = 8.719 7x+3.295 8. The results of the accuracy test and precision test show that the method has strong repeatability and high accuracy. The average prediction relative deviations of the wood flour content and PP content in WPCss are about 5%. The prediction accuracy has been improved remarkably, compared to

  16. Efficient design of FIR filter based low-pass differentiators for biomedical signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulf Michael


    Full Text Available This paper describes an alternative design of linear phase low-pass differentiators with a finite impulse response (type III FIR filter. To reduce the number of necessary filter coefficients, the differentiator’s transfer function is approximated by a Fourier series of a triangle function. Thereby the filter’s transition steepness towards the stopband is intentionally reduced. It can be shown that the proposed design of low-pass differentiators yields to similar results as other published design recommendations, while the filter order can be significantly reduced.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moric, I.; Smolcic, V.; Riechers, D. A.; Scoville, N.; Kimball, A.; Ivezic, Z.


    We extend the Unified Radio Catalog, a catalog of sources detected by various (NVSS, FIRST, WENSS, GB6) radio surveys, and SDSS, to IR wavelengths by matching it to the IRAS Point and Faint Source catalogs. By fitting each NVSS-selected galaxy's NUV-NIR spectral energy distribution (SED) with stellar population synthesis models we add to the catalog star formation rates (SFRs), stellar masses, and attenuations. We further add information about optical emission-line properties for NVSS-selected galaxies with available SDSS spectroscopy. Using an NVSS 20 cm (F 1.4 G Hz ∼> 2.5 mJy) selected sample, matched to the SDSS spectroscopic ('main' galaxy and quasar) catalogs and IRAS data (0.04 < z ∼< 0.2) we perform an in-depth analysis of the radio-FIR correlation for various types of galaxies, separated into (1) quasars, (2) star-forming, (3) composite, (4) Seyfert, (5) LINER, and (6) absorption line galaxies using the standard optical spectroscopic diagnostic tools. We utilize SED-based SFRs to independently quantify the source of radio and FIR emission in our galaxies. Our results show that Seyfert galaxies have FIR/radio ratios lower than, but still within the scatter of, the canonical value due to an additional (likely active galactic nucleus (AGN)) contribution to their radio continuum emission. Furthermore, IR-detected absorption and LINER galaxies are on average strongly dominated by AGN activity in both their FIR and radio emission; however their average FIR/radio ratio is consistent with that expected for star-forming galaxies. In summary, we find that most AGN-containing galaxies in our NVSS-IRAS-SDSS sample have FIR/radio flux ratios indistinguishable from those of the star-forming galaxies that define the radio-FIR correlation. Thus, attempts to separate AGNs from star-forming galaxies by their FIR/radio flux ratios alone can separate only a small fraction of the AGNs, such as the radio-loud quasars.

  18. Evaluation of the FIR Example using Xilinx Vivado High-Level Synthesis Compiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Zheming [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Finkel, Hal [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yoshii, Kazutomo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cappello, Franck [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    Compared to central processing units (CPUs) and graphics processing units (GPUs), field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have major advantages in reconfigurability and performance achieved per watt. This development flow has been augmented with high-level synthesis (HLS) flow that can convert programs written in a high-level programming language to Hardware Description Language (HDL). Using high-level programming languages such as C, C++, and OpenCL for FPGA-based development could allow software developers, who have little FPGA knowledge, to take advantage of the FPGA-based application acceleration. This improves developer productivity and makes the FPGA-based acceleration accessible to hardware and software developers. Xilinx Vivado HLS compiler is a high-level synthesis tool that enables C, C++ and System C specification to be directly targeted into Xilinx FPGAs without the need to create RTL manually. The white paper [1] published recently by Xilinx uses a finite impulse response (FIR) example to demonstrate the variable-precision features in the Vivado HLS compiler and the resource and power benefits of converting floating point to fixed point for a design. To get a better understanding of variable-precision features in terms of resource usage and performance, this report presents the experimental results of evaluating the FIR example using Vivado HLS 2017.1 and a Kintex Ultrascale FPGA. In addition, we evaluated the half-precision floating-point data type against the double-precision and single-precision data type and present the detailed results.

  19. Progress on FIR interferometry and Thomson Scattering measurements on HIT-SI3 (United States)

    Everson, Christopher; Jarboe, Thomas; Morgan, Kyle


    Spatially resolved measurements of the electron temperature (Te) and density (ne) will be fundamental in assessing the degree to which HIT-SI3 demonstrates closed magnetic flux and energy confinement. Further, electron temperature measurements have not yet been made on an inductively-driven spheromak. Far infrared (FIR) interferometer and Thomson Scattering (TS) systems have been installed on the HIT-SI3 spheromak. The TS system currently implemented on HIT-SI3 was originally designed for other magnetic confinement experiments, and progress continues toward modifying and optimizing for HIT-SI3 plasmas. Initial results suggest that the electron temperature is of order 10 eV. Plans to modify the TS system to provide more sensitivity and accuracy at low temperatures are presented. The line-integrated ne is measured on one chord by the FIR interferometer, with densities near 5x1019 m-3. Four cylindrical volumes have been added to the HIT-SI3 apparatus to enhance passive pumping. It is hoped that this will allow for more control of the density during the 2 ms discharges. Density measurements from before and after the installation of the passive pumping volumes are presented for comparison.

  20. Efficient FIR Filter Implementations for Multichannel BCIs Using Xilinx System Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Ghani


    Full Text Available Background. Brain computer interface (BCI is a combination of software and hardware communication protocols that allow brain to control external devices. Main purpose of BCI controlled external devices is to provide communication medium for disabled persons. Now these devices are considered as a new way to rehabilitate patients with impunities. There are certain potentials present in electroencephalogram (EEG that correspond to specific event. Main issue is to detect such event related potentials online in such a low signal to noise ratio (SNR. In this paper we propose a method that will facilitate the concept of online processing by providing an efficient filtering implementation in a hardware friendly environment by switching to finite impulse response (FIR. Main focus of this research is to minimize latency and computational delay of preprocessing related to any BCI application. Four different finite impulse response (FIR implementations along with large Laplacian filter are implemented in Xilinx System Generator. Efficiency of 25% is achieved in terms of reduced number of coefficients and multiplications which in turn reduce computational delays accordingly.

  1. EuroFIR Guideline on calculation of nutrient content of foods for food business operators. (United States)

    Machackova, Marie; Giertlova, Anna; Porubska, Janka; Roe, Mark; Ramos, Carlos; Finglas, Paul


    This paper presents a Guideline for calculating nutrient content of foods by calculation methods for food business operators and presents data on compliance between calculated values and analytically determined values. In the EU, calculation methods are legally valid to determine the nutrient values of foods for nutrition labelling (Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011). However, neither a specific calculation method nor rules for use of retention factors are defined. EuroFIR AISBL (European Food Information Resource) has introduced a Recipe Calculation Guideline based on the EuroFIR harmonized procedure for recipe calculation. The aim is to provide food businesses with a step-by-step tool for calculating nutrient content of foods for the purpose of nutrition declaration. The development of this Guideline and use in the Czech Republic is described and future application to other Member States is discussed. Limitations of calculation methods and the importance of high quality food composition data are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, A. K.; Shimizu, I. [College of General Education, Osaka Sangyo University, 3-1-1 Nakagaito, Daito, Osaka 574-8530 (Japan); Tamura, Y. [Institute of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Matsuo, H. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Okamoto, T. [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, N10 W8, Kitaku, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Yoshida, N., E-mail: [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)


    We investigate the potential use of nebular emission lines in the rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) for determining spectroscopic redshift of z > 8 galaxies with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). After making a line emissivity model as a function of metallicity, especially for the [O III] 88 μm line which is likely to be the strongest FIR line from H II regions, we predict the line fluxes from high-z galaxies based on a cosmological hydrodynamics simulation of galaxy formation. Since the metallicity of galaxies reaches at ∼0.2 Z {sub ☉} even at z > 8 in our simulation, we expect the [O III] 88 μm line as strong as 1.3 mJy for 27 AB objects, which is detectable at a high significance by <1 hr integration with ALMA. Therefore, the [O III] 88 μm line would be the best tool to confirm the spectroscopic redshifts beyond z = 8.

  3. Efficient FIR Filter Implementations for Multichannel BCIs Using Xilinx System Generator. (United States)

    Ghani, Usman; Wasim, Muhammad; Khan, Umar Shahbaz; Mubasher Saleem, Muhammad; Hassan, Ali; Rashid, Nasir; Islam Tiwana, Mohsin; Hamza, Amir; Kashif, Amir


    Background . Brain computer interface (BCI) is a combination of software and hardware communication protocols that allow brain to control external devices. Main purpose of BCI controlled external devices is to provide communication medium for disabled persons. Now these devices are considered as a new way to rehabilitate patients with impunities. There are certain potentials present in electroencephalogram (EEG) that correspond to specific event. Main issue is to detect such event related potentials online in such a low signal to noise ratio (SNR). In this paper we propose a method that will facilitate the concept of online processing by providing an efficient filtering implementation in a hardware friendly environment by switching to finite impulse response (FIR). Main focus of this research is to minimize latency and computational delay of preprocessing related to any BCI application. Four different finite impulse response (FIR) implementations along with large Laplacian filter are implemented in Xilinx System Generator. Efficiency of 25% is achieved in terms of reduced number of coefficients and multiplications which in turn reduce computational delays accordingly.

  4. A Method for Designing FIR Filters with Arbitrary Magnitude Characteristic Used for Modeling Human Audiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZOPOS, E.


    Full Text Available This paper presents an iterative method for designing FIR filters that implement arbitrary magnitude characteristics, defined by the user through a set of frequency-magnitude points (frequency samples. The proposed method is based on the non-uniform frequency sampling algorithm. For each iteration a new set of frequency samples is generated, by processing the set used in the previous run; this implies changing the samples location around the previous frequency values and adjusting their magnitude through interpolation. If necessary, additional samples can be introduced, as well. After each iteration the magnitude characteristic of the resulting filter is determined by using the non-uniform DFT and compared with the required one; if the errors are larger than the acceptable levels (set by the user a new iteration is run; the length of the resulting filter and the values of its coefficients are also taken into consideration when deciding a re-run. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method a tool for designing FIR filters that match human audiograms was implemented in LabVIEW. It was shown that the resulting filters have smaller coefficients than the standard one, and can also have lower order, while the errors remain relatively small.

  5. Tolerance to multiple climate stressors: A case study of Douglas-fir drought and cold hardiness (United States)

    Bansal, Sheel; Harrington, Constance A; St. Clair, John Bradley


    Summary: 1. Drought and freeze events are two of the most common forms of climate extremes which result in tree damage or death, and the frequency and intensity of both stressors may increase with climate change. Few studies have examined natural covariation in stress tolerance traits to cope with multiple stressors among wild plant populations. 2. We assessed the capacity of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii), an ecologically and economically important species in the northwestern USA, to tolerate both drought and cold stress on 35 populations grown in common gardens. We used principal components analysis to combine drought and cold hardiness trait data into generalized stress hardiness traits to model geographic variation in hardiness as a function of climate across the Douglas-fir range. 3. Drought and cold hardiness converged among populations along winter temperature gradients and diverged along summer precipitation gradients. Populations originating in regions with cold winters had relatively high tolerance to both drought and cold stress, which is likely due to overlapping adaptations for coping with winter desiccation. Populations from regions with dry summers had increased drought hardiness but reduced cold hardiness, suggesting a trade-off in tolerance mechanisms. 4. Our findings highlight the necessity to look beyond bivariate trait–climate relationships and instead consider multiple traits and climate variables to effectively model and manage for the impacts of climate change on widespread species.

  6. Current utilization and long term strategy of the Finnish TRIGA research reactor FiR 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auterinen, Iiro; Salmenhaara, Seppo


    FiR 1 (TRIGA Mark II, 250 kW) has an important international role in the development of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for cancer. The safety and efficacy of BNCT is studied for several different cancers: - primary glioblastoma, a highly malignant brain tumour (since 1999); - recurrent glioblastoma or anaplastic astrocytoma (since 2001); - recurrent inoperable head and neck carcinoma (since 2003). It is one of the few facilities in the world providing this kind of treatments. The successes in the BNCT development have now created a demand for these treatments, although they are given on an experimental basis. Well over 100 patients treated now since May 1999: - at least 1 patient irradiation / week, often 2 (Tuesday and Thursday) - patients are referred to BNCT-treatments from several hospitals, also outside research protocols; - the hospitals pay for the treatment. The FiR 1 reactor has proven to be a reliable neutron source for the BNCT treatments; no patient irradiations have been cancelled because of a failure of the reactor. The BNCT facility has become a center of extensive academic research especially in medical physics. Nuclear education and training continue to play also a role at FiR 1 in the form of university courses and training of nuclear industry personnel. FiR 1 is one of the two sources in Scandinavia for short lived radioisotopes used in tracer studies in industry. The main isotope produced is Br-82 in the form of either KBr or ethylene bromide. Other typical isotopes are Na-24, Ar-41, La-140. The isotopes are used mainly in tracer studies in industry (Indmeas Inc., Finland). Typical activity of one irradiated Br-sample is 20 - 80 GBq; total activity produced in one year is over 3 TBq; the reactor operating time needed for the isotope production is one or two days per week. Accelerator based neutron sources are developed for BNCT. The prospect is that when BNCT will achieve a status of a fully accepted and efficient treatment modality for

  7. Tree-ring stable isotopes record the impact of a foliar fungal pathogen on CO(2) assimilation and growth in Douglas-fir. (United States)

    Saffell, Brandy J; Meinzer, Frederick C; Voelker, Steven L; Shaw, David C; Brooks, J Renée; Lachenbruch, Barbara; McKay, Jennifer


    Swiss needle cast (SNC) is a fungal disease of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) that has recently become prevalent in coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest. We used growth measurements and stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen in tree-rings of Douglas-fir and a non-susceptible reference species (western hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla) to evaluate their use as proxies for variation in past SNC infection, particularly in relation to potential explanatory climate factors. We sampled trees from an Oregon site where a fungicide trial took place from 1996 to 2000, which enabled the comparison of stable isotope values between trees with and without disease. Carbon stable isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C) of treated Douglas-fir tree-rings was greater than that of untreated Douglas-fir tree-rings during the fungicide treatment period. Both annual growth and tree-ring Δ(13)C increased with treatment such that treated Douglas-fir had values similar to co-occurring western hemlock during the treatment period. There was no difference in the tree-ring oxygen stable isotope ratio between treated and untreated Douglas-fir. Tree-ring Δ(13)C of diseased Douglas-fir was negatively correlated with relative humidity during the two previous summers, consistent with increased leaf colonization by SNC under high humidity conditions that leads to greater disease severity in following years. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Pruning high-value Douglas-fir can reduce dwarf mistletoe severity and increase longevity in Central Oregon (United States)

    Helen M. Maffei; Gregory M. Filip; Nancy E. Grulke; Brent W. Oblinger; Ellis Q. Margolis; Kristen L. Chadwick


    Mid- to very large-sized Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menzieseii var. menziesii) that were lightly- to moderately-infected by dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium douglasii) were analyzed over a 14-year period to evaluate whether mechanical pruning could eradicate mistletoe (or at least delay the onset of severe infection) without...

  9. Canopy structure and tree condition of young, mature, and old-growth Douglas-fir/hardwood forests (United States)

    B.B. Bingham; J.O. Sawyer


    Sixty-two Douglas-fir/hardwood stands ranging from 40 to 560 years old were used to characterize the density; diameter, and height class distributions of canopy hardwoods and conifers in young (40 -100 yr), mature (101 - 200 yr) and old-growth (>200 yr) forests. The crown, bole, disease, disturbance, and cavity conditions of canopy conifers and hardwoods were...

  10. Occurrence of shrubs and herbaceous vegetation after clear cutting old-growth Douglas-fir in the Oregon Cascades. (United States)

    Vern P. Yerkes


    Land managers often express a need for more complete information about the vegetative cover that develops on cutover areas between harvest of old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and establishment of a young-growth forest. The composition and density of this cover frequently determines the management techniques that must be used to...

  11. Relationship between canopy structure, microclimate, and Swiss needle cast severity among different ages of Douglas-fir forests (United States)

    Swiss needle cast (SNC) is an endemic disease of Douglas-fir caused by Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii. The fungus infects newly emerged needles between May and August. As the fungus develops, its fruiting bodies (pseudothecia) block the stomata and inhibit gas exchange, reducing the p...

  12. The importance of seasonal temperature and moisture patterns on growth of Douglas-fir in western Oregon, USA (United States)

    Douglas-fir growth in the Pacific Northwest is thought to be water limited. However, discerning the relative influence of air temperature and plant available soil water (W) on growth is difficult because they interact with each other, with other climate factors and with the inher...

  13. Regional effects of Swiss needle cast disease and climate on growth of Douglas-fir in western Oregon (United States)

    The fungal pathogen, Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii, occurs wherever Douglas-fir is found but disease damage is believed to be limited to the Coast Range and is of no concern outside this region (Shaw et al., 2011). However, knowledge remains limited on the spatial distribution of Sw...

  14. Vegetation and Ecological Characteristics of Mixed-Conifer and Red Fir Forests at the Teakettle Experimental Forest (United States)

    Malcolm North; Brian Oakley; Jiquan Chen; Heather Erickson; Andrew Gray; Antonio Izzo; Dale Johnson; Siyan Ma; Jim Marra; Marc Meyer; Kathryn Purcell; Tom Rambo; Dave Rizzo; Brent Roath; Tim. Schowalter


    Detailed analysis of mixed-conifer and red fir forests were made from extensive, large vegetation sampling, systematically conducted throughout the Teakettle Experimental Forest. Mixed conifer is characterized by distinct patch conditions of closed-canopy tree clusters, persistent gaps and shrub thickets. This heterogeneous spatial structure provides contrasting...

  15. Ecological adaptations in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca). IV. Montana and Idaho near the Continental Divide (United States)

    Gerald Rehfeldt


    Seventy-seven seedling populations of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) sampled from near the Continental Divide in Idaho and Montana exhibited pronounced genetic differences when compared in three common environments. Differentiation involved several traits that are components of an annual developmental cycle that must be completed within a growing...

  16. Fire-mediated pathways of stand development in Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA (United States)

    A.J. Tepley; F.J. Swanson; T.A. Spies


    Forests dominated by Douglas-fir and western hemlock in the Pacific Northwest of the United States have strongly influenced concepts and policy concerning old-growth forest conservation. Despite the attention to their old-growth characteristics, a tendency remains to view their disturbance ecology in relatively simple terms, emphasizing infrequent, stand-replacing (SR...

  17. Inheritance of restriction fragment length polymorphisms, random amplified polymorphic DNAs and isozymes in coastal Douglas-fir (United States)

    K.D. Jermstad; A.M. Reem; J.R. Henifin; N.C. Wheeler; D.B Neale


    A total of 225 new genetic loci [151 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and 74 random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPD)] in coastal Douglas- fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii] have been identified using a three-generation outbred pedigree. The Mendelian inheritance of 16 RFLP loci and 29...

  18. Fingerprints of a forest fungus: Swiss needle cast, carbon isotopes, carbohydrates, and growth in Douglas-fir (United States)

    Andrea Watts; Frederick Meinzer; Brandy J. Saffell


    Swiss needle cast is caused by a fungus native to the Pacific Northwest. Its host is Douglas-fir, an iconic evergreen tree in the region. The fungus does not kill its host, but it adversely affects the tree's growth. The fungal fruiting bodies block the stomata, small openings on the underside of the needle where carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases are...

  19. Levels-of-growing-stock cooperative study in Douglas-fir: report no. 18--Rocky Brook, 1963-2006. (United States)

    Robert O. Curtis; David D. Marshall


    This report documents the history and results of the Rocky Brook installation of the cooperative levels-of-growing-stock (LOGS) study in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), over the 41-year period 1965 to 2006. This 1938 plantation is one of the two site-IV installations among the nine installations in the study. Much public...

  20. Short-day treatment alters Douglas-fir seedling dehardening and transplant root proliferation at varying rhizosphere temperatures (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Anthony S. Davis; BArrett C. Wilson; R. Kasten Dumroese; Rosa C. Goodman; K. Francis Salifu


    We tested effects of shortened day length during nursery culture on Douglis-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedling development at dormancy release. Seedlings from a 42 N source were grown either under ambient photoperiods (long-day (LD)) or with a 28 day period of 9 h light: 15 h dark photoperiods (short...

  1. A strategy for monitoring Swiss needle cast and assessing its growth impact in Douglas-fir plantations of Coastal Oregon (United States)

    Doug Maguire; Alan Kanaskie; Mike McWilliams


    Many Douglas-fir plantations along the north coast of Oregon are exhibiting severe symptoms of Swiss needle cast disease (SNC). These symptoms include premature loss of foliage, abundant fungal pseudothecia on needles, yellowing of foliage, and apparent reduction in diameter and height growth. The development of the disease and its impacts on growth are currently being...

  2. History of fire and Douglas-fir establishment in a savanna and sagebrush-grassland mosaic, southwestern Montana, USA (United States)

    Emily K. Heyerdahl; Richard F. Miller; Russell A. Parsons


    Over the past century, trees have encroached into grass- and shrublands across western North America. These include Douglas-fir trees (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) encroaching into mountain big sagebrush Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) from stable islands of savanna in...

  3. Growth response of Douglas-fir seedlings to nitrogen fertilization: importance of Rubisco activation state and respiration rates. (United States)

    Daniel K. Manter; Kathleen L. Kavanagh; Cathy L. Rose


    High foliar nitrogen concentration ([N]) is associated with high rates of photosynthesis and thus high tree productivity; however, at excessive [N], tree productivity is reduced. Reports of excessive [N] in the Douglas-fir forests of the Oregon Coast Range prompted this investigation of growth and needle physiological responses to increasing foliar N concentrations in...

  4. Removal of non benzidine direct red dye from aqueous solution by using natural sorbents: Beech and silver fir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Muntean, S.G.; Todea, A.; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Bologa, C.


    Roč. 66, MAR (2017), s. 235-250 ISSN 1944-3994 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Adsorption * Beech * Direct red * Kinetics * Silver fir Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 1.631, year: 2016

  5. Timber supply in the Pacific Northwest: managing for economic and ecological values in Douglas-fir forest. (United States)

    R.O. Curtis; A.B. Carey


    The Douglas-fir region of western Washington and Oregon and coastal British Columbia contains the most productive forestlands in North America. Yet disagreement among user groups and conflicting goals, policies, and laws have nearly paralyzed timber management on federal lands and greatly increased costs and complexity of management on nonfederal lands. Constructive...

  6. Height-growth response to climatic changes differs among populations of Douglas-fir: A novel analysis of historic data (United States)

    Laura P. Leites; Andrew P. Robinson; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; John D. Marshall; Nicholas L. Crookston


    Projected climate change will affect existing forests, as substantial changes are predicted to occur during their life spans. Species that have ample intraspecific genetic differentiation, such as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), are expected to display population-specific growth responses to climate change. Using a mixed-effects modeling approach,...

  7. Spatial and population characteristics of dwarf mistletoe infected trees in an old-growth Douglas-fir - western hemlock forest. (United States)

    David C. Shaw; Jiquan Chen; Elizabeth A. Freeman; David M. Braun


    We investigated the distribution and severity of trees infected with western hemlock dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium tsugense (Rosendahl) G.N. Jones subsp. tsugense) in an old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) - western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.)...

  8. Slow and fast pyrolysis of Douglas-fir lignin: Importance of liquid-intermediate formation on the distribution of products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Shuai; Pecha, Brennan; van Kuppevelt, Michiel; McDonald, Armando G.; Garcia-Perez, Manuel


    The formation of liquid intermediates and the distribution of products were studied under slow and fast pyrolysis conditions. Results indicate that monomers are formed from lignin oligomeric products during secondary reactions, rather than directly from the native lignin. Lignin from Douglas-fir

  9. Seasonal carbohydrate dynamics and growth in Douglas-fir trees experiencing chronic, fungal-mediated reduction in functional leaf area (United States)

    B. J. Saffell; F. C. Meinzer; D. R. Woodruff; D. C. Shaw; S. L. Voelker; B. Lachenbruch; K. Falk


    Stored non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) could play an important role in tree survival in the face of a changing climate and associated stress-related mortality. We explored the effects of the stomata-blocking and defoliating fungal disease called Swiss needle cast on Douglas-fir carbohydrate reserves and growth to evaluate the extent to which NSCs can be mobilized...

  10. The influence of weather variation on regional growth of Douglas-fir stands in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. (United States)

    Charles E. Peterson; Linda S. Heath


    In this paper we examine the influence of precipitation and temperature deviations on regional volume growth rates in even aged, onnen.,ed second growth Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) stands. Between 1969 and 1986, average volume growth rates in natural stands of coast Douglas fix in western Washington and Oregon were negatively...


    We conducted a 4-year full-factorial study of the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and temperature on Douglas fir seedlings growing in reconstructed native forest soils in mesocosms. The elevated CO2 treatment was ambient CO2 plus 200 ppm CO2. The elevated temperature treatm...

  12. Genetic variation in tolerance of Douglas-fir to Swiss needle cast as assessed by symptom expression. (United States)

    G.R. Jonhson


    The incidence of Swiss needle cast on Douglas-fir has increased significantly in recent years on the Oregon coast. Genetic variation in symptoms of disease infection, as measured by foliage traits, was assessed in two series of progeny trials to determine whether these "crown health" indicators were under genetic control and correlated with tolerance;...

  13. Fine-scale variability in growth-climate relationships of Douglas-fir, North Cascade Range, Washington. (United States)

    Michael J. Case; David L. Peterson


    Information about the sensitivity to climate of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) is valuable because it will allow forest managers to maximize growth, better understand how carbon sequestration may change over time, and better model and predict future ecosystem responses to climatic change. We examined the effects of climatic...

  14. Simulating historical disturbance regimes and stand structures in old-forest ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forests (United States)

    Mike Hillis; Vick Applegate; Steve Slaughter; Michael G. Harrington; Helen Smith


    Forest Service land managers, with the collaborative assistance from research, applied a disturbance based restoration strategy to rehabilitate a greatly-altered, high risk Northern Rocky Mountain old-forest ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir stand. Age-class structure and fire history for the site have been documented in two research papers (Arno and others 1995, 1997)....

  15. Transcriptome Characterization of the Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook. and Expression Analysis of Candidate Phosphate Transporter Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li


    Full Text Available Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook. is the most important afforestation tree species in China because of its excellent timber quality and high yield. However, the limited availability of phosphorus in forest soils is widespread and has become an important factor in the declining productivity of Chinese fir plantations. Here we used the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 DNA sequencing platform to sequence root, stem, and leaf transcriptomes of one-year old Chinese fir clones with phosphorus treatment. Approximately 236,529,278 clean reads were obtained and generated 35.47 G of sequencing data. These reads were assembled into 413,806 unigenes with a mean length of 520 bp. In total, 109,596 unigenes were annotated in the NR (NCBI non-redundant database, 727,287 genes were assigned for GO (Gene Ontology terms, information for 92,001 classified unigenes was assigned to 26 KOG (Karyotic Orthologous Groups categories, and 57,042 unigenes were significantly matched with 132 KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes predicted pathways. In total, 49 unigenes were identified as exhibiting inorganic phosphate transporter activity, and 14 positive genes’ expression patterns in different phosphorus deficiency treatments were analyzed by qRT-PCR to explore their putative functions. This study provides a basic foundation for functional genomic studies of the phosphate transporter in Chinese fir, and also presents an extensive annotated sequence resource for molecular research.

  16. Estimation of population structure in coastal Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii] using allozyme and microsatellite markers (United States)

    Konstantin V. Krutovsky; John Bradley St. Clair; Robert Saich; Valerie D. Hipkins; David B. Neale


    Characterizing population structure using neutral markers is an important first step in association genetic studies in order to avoid false associations between phenotypes and genotypes that may arise from nonselective demographic factors. Population structure was studied in a wide sample of approximately 1,300 coastal Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii...

  17. Family differences in equations for predicting biomass and leaf area in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii). (United States)

    J.B. St. Clair


    Logarithmic regression equations were developed to predict component biomass and leaf area for an 18-yr-old genetic test of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco var. menziesii) based on stem diameter or cross-sectional sapwood area. Equations did not differ among open-pollinated families in slope, but intercepts...

  18. Direct-Digital Modulation (DIDIMO) Transmitter with -156dBc/Hz Rx-Band Noise using FIR structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukuda, Shuichi; Miya, Shinji; Io, Miho; Hamashita, Koichi; Nauta, Bram


    A direct-digital modulation (DIDIMO) transmitter employing 3-taps 10-bit Finite Impulse Response configuration is proposed and evaluated. FIR-DIDIMO provides simultaneous combination of D/A conversion, up-conversion, power control and also quantization noise filtering at arbitrary offset frequency

  19. Two-dimensional heat flow analysis applied to heat sterilization of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir square timbers (United States)

    William T. Simpson


    Equations for a two-dimensional finite difference heat flow analysis were developed and applied to ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir square timbers to calculate the time required to heat the center of the squares to target temperature. The squares were solid piled, which made their surfaces inaccessible to the heating air, and thus surface temperatures failed to attain...

  20. Relationships among chilling hours, photoperiod, calendar date, cold hardiness, seed source, and storage of Douglas-fir seedlings (United States)

    Diane L. Haase; Nabil Khadduri; Euan Mason; Kas Dumroese


    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) seedlings from three nurseries in the Pacific Northwest United States were lifted on five dates from mid-October through mid-December 2006. Each nursery provided seedlings from a low- and a high-elevation seed lot. Photoperiod and accumulated chilling hours (calculated using two methods) were evaluated...

  1. Growth of Douglas-fir near equipment trails used for commercial thinning in the Oregon Coast Range. (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Jim Smith; Paul W. Adams; Harry W. Anderson


    Soil disturbance is a visually apparent result of using heavy equipment to harvest trees. Subsequent consequences for growth of remaining trees, however, are variable and seldom quantified. We measured tree growth 7 and 11 years after thinning of trees in four stands of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii(...

  2. Tree growth and soil relations at the 1925 Wind River spacing test in coast Douglas-fir. (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Donald L. Reukema; Harry W. Anderson


    The 1925 Wind River spacing test is the earliest field trial seeking to determine the most appropriate spacing for planting Douglas-fir. Spacing treatments were not replicated, although individual spacings were subsampled by two to four tree-measurement plots. Previously, greater growth occurred at the wider spacings (10 and 12 ft) than at the closer spacings (4, 5, 6...

  3. Detecting response of Douglas-fir plantations to urea fertilizer at three locations in the Oregon Coast Range. (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Jim Smith; Harry. Anderson


    Fertilizer trials in coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Oregon Coast Range usually indicate small and statistically nonsignificant response to nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Inherently weak experimental designs of past trials could make them too insensitive to detect growth differences...

  4. Monitoring intra-annual dynamics of wood formation with microcores and dendrometers in Picea abies at two different altitudes. (United States)

    Cocozza, Claudia; Palombo, Caterina; Tognetti, Roberto; La Porta, Nicola; Anichini, Monica; Giovannelli, Alessio; Emiliani, Giovanni


    Seasonal analyses of cambial cell production and day-by-day stem radial increment can help to elucidate how climate modulates wood formation in conifers. Intra-annual dynamics of wood formation were determined with microcores and dendrometers and related to climatic signals in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The seasonal dynamics of these processes were observed at two sites of different altitude, Savignano (650 m a.s.l.) and Lavazè (1800 m a.s.l.) in the Italian Alps. Seasonal dynamics of cambial activity were found to be site specific, indicating that the phenology of cambial cell production is highly variable and plastic with altitude. There was a site-specific trend in the number of cells in the wall thickening phase, with the maximum cell production in early July (DOY 186) at Savignano and in mid-July (DOY 200) at Lavazè. The formation of mature cells showed similar trends at the two sites, although different numbers of cells and timing of cell differentiation were visible in the model shapes; at the end of ring formation in 2010, the number of cells was four times higher at Savignano (106.5 cells) than at Lavazè (26.5 cells). At low altitudes, microcores and dendrometers described the radial growth patterns comparably, though the dendrometer function underlined the higher upper asymptote of maximum growth in comparison with the cell production function. In contrast, at high altitude, these functions exhibited different trends. The best model was obtained by fitting functions of the Gompertz model to the experimental data. By combining radial growth and cambial activity indices we defined a model system able to synchronize these processes. Processes of adaptation of the pattern of xylogenesis occurred, enabling P. abies to occupy sites with contrasting climatic conditions. The use of daily climatic variables in combination with plant functional traits obtained by sensors and/or destructive sampling could provide a suitable tool to better


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, Toshiya; Suto, Yasushi; Taruya, Atsushi; Yahata, Kazuhiro [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kayo, Issha [Department of Physics, Toho University, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8510 (Japan); Nishimichi, Takahiro, E-mail: [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan)


    The most widely used Galactic extinction map is constructed assuming that the observed far-infrared (FIR) fluxes come entirely from Galactic dust. According to the earlier suggestion by Yahata et al., we consider how FIR emission of galaxies affects the SFD map. We first compute the surface number density of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 galaxies as a function of the r-band extinction, A {sub r,} {sub SFD}. We confirm that the surface densities of those galaxies positively correlate with A {sub r,} {sub SFD} for A {sub r,} {sub SFD} < 0.1, as first discovered by Yahata et al. for SDSS DR4 galaxies. Next we construct an analytical model to compute the surface density of galaxies, taking into account the contamination of their FIR emission. We adopt a log-normal probability distribution for the ratio of 100 μm and r-band luminosities of each galaxy, y ≡ (νL){sub 100} {sub μm}/(νL) {sub r}. Then we search for the mean and rms values of y that fit the observed anomaly, using the analytical model. The required values to reproduce the anomaly are roughly consistent with those measured from the stacking analysis of SDSS galaxies. Due to the limitation of our statistical modeling, we are not yet able to remove the FIR contamination of galaxies from the extinction map. Nevertheless, the agreement with the model prediction suggests that the FIR emission of galaxies is mainly responsible for the observed anomaly. Whereas the corresponding systematic error in the Galactic extinction map is 0.1-1 mmag, it is directly correlated with galaxy clustering and thus needs to be carefully examined in precision cosmology.

  6. Five-Year Impacts of Swiss Needle Cast on Douglas-fir in Interior Forests of Oregon, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FILIP, Gregory


    Full Text Available In 2001 and 2006, we examined 590 Douglas-firs in 59 stands age 10-23 years in the northern Cascade Mountain foothills in Oregon, USA. Mean 5-year-dbh growth was 6.1 cm and total-height growth was 3.6 m. Mean needle-retention index increased by 3.4 over 5 years, and mid-crown retention increased by 1.2 years. Mean percentages of stomata occluded by pseudothecia of Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii were 13.6% for 2000-(2-year-old needles and 1.7% for 2001-(1-year-old needles sampled in 2002, and 13.3% for 2004 (2-year-old needles sampled in 2006. Mean crown-length to sapwood-area ratio was 5.2 cm/cm2 in 2006. There were poor correlations (R2 <0.3 among all variables except for a moderate correlation between stand elevation and either 2000-stomata occluded (R2 = 0.43 or 2004-stomata occluded (R2 = 0.50, where there were fewer pseudothecia at the higher elevations. Either 5 years is not enough time to evaluate the affects of Swiss needle cast on Douglas-fir growth in the Oregon Cascades or there was no significant effect of Swiss needle cast during the latest outbreak on Douglas-fir growth. Based on our results and their interpretation, forest managers may need not alter their current practices in the northern Oregon Cascades, and managing a mix of Douglas-fir and western hemlock at lower elevations and noble fir at higher elevations will help offset any future stand-growth declines due to Swiss needle cast.

  7. Evolutionary history of two endemic Appalachian conifers revealed using microsatellite markers (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; John Frampton; Sedley A. Josserand; C. Dana Nelson


    Fraser fir (Abies fraseri [Pursh] Poir.) and intermediate fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill. var. phanerolepis Fern.) exist in small populations in the Appalachian highlands of the southeastern United States. We used ten nuclear microsatellite markers to quantify genetic variation within Fraser fir and intermediate...

  8. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of SA 333 Gr.6, AISI 304 and Zr-2.5% Nb through Automated Ball Indentation (ABI) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, K.S.; Rath, B.N.; Shriwastaw, R.S.; Ramadasan, E.; Kulkarni, R.V.; Sahoo, K.C.


    Automated Ball Indentation (ABI) technique has been employed in evaluating the tensile property data on three materials, namely SA333 Gr.6 carbon steel (used as PHT piping), AISI 304 (used as calandria vessel) and Zr-2.5% Nb (used as coolant tube) in Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) with a view to exploring the applicability of ABI technique in providing reliable mechanical property data. The exercise was carried out in cooperation with a second laboratory where conventional tension tests alone were conducted such that the output of the study could be independently monitored and evaluated in an unbiased manner. The results generated in the authors' laboratory were found to be fully in agreement with what were obtained through conventional tension tests. Thus the study has been successful in establishing the reliability of the data obtained through miniature route especially in the case of coolant tube which has immense applications. (author)

  9. Forestry adaptation measures at the decline of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst. stands as exemplified by the Silesian Beskids, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Čermák


    Full Text Available At the beginning of this century, particularly after 2003, decline of Picea abies occurred at Forest District Jablunkov in the Silesian Beskids. This decline is of the complex character disease caused by the synergetic effects of abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. Under conditions of climatic changes, it is possible to expect that similar episodes will repeat and appear also in other regions. Forestry will have to respond to them by changes in forest management. Measures proposed and discussed in this paper can be a starting point in their basic principles for other similar regions. Fundamental spheres of possible measures are as follows: chemical adaptations of the soil environment, i.e. liming or fertilization (if to realise them or not, changes in the species composition (particularly the rate of the decrease of Picea abies, participation of Fagus sylvatica and increasing the diversity of tree species, modification of the rotation (decrease and regeneration period (increase.

  10. Expression of the gene encoding transcription factor PaVP1 differs in Picea abies embryogenic lines depending on their ability to develop somatic embryos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischerová, Lucie; Fischer, L.; Vondráková, Zuzana; Vágner, Martin


    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2008), s. 435-441 ISSN 0721-7714 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A081; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA AV ČR KJB6038402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : ABI3/VP1 transcription factor * Alternative splicing * Anatomy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.946, year: 2008

  11. Regional patterns of increasing Swiss needle cast impacts on Douglas-fir growth with warming temperatures. (United States)

    Lee, E Henry; Beedlow, Peter A; Waschmann, Ronald S; Tingey, David T; Cline, Steven; Bollman, Michael; Wickham, Charlotte; Carlile, Cailie


    The fungal pathogen, Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii , causing Swiss needle cast (SNC) occurs wherever Douglas-fir is found but disease damage is believed to be limited in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) to the Coast Range of Oregon and Washington (Hansen et al., Plant Disease , 2000, 84 , 773; Rosso & Hansen, Phytopathology , 2003, 93 , 790; Shaw, et al., Journal of Forestry , 2011, 109 , 109). However, knowledge remains limited on the history and spatial distribution of SNC impacts in the PNW. We reconstructed the history of SNC impacts on mature Douglas-fir trees based on tree-ring width chronologies from western Oregon. Our findings show that SNC impacts on growth occur wherever Douglas-fir is found and is not limited to the coastal fog zone. The spatiotemporal patterns of growth impact from SNC disease were synchronous across the region, displayed periodicities of 12-40 years, and strongly correlated with winter and summer temperatures and summer precipitation. The primary climatic factor limiting pathogen dynamics varied spatially by location, topography, and elevation. SNC impacts were least severe in the first half of the 20th century when climatic conditions during the warm phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (1924-1945) were less conducive to pathogen development. At low- to mid-elevations, SNC impacts were most severe in 1984-1986 following several decades of warmer winters and cooler, wetter summers including a high summer precipitation anomaly in 1983. At high elevations on the west slope of the Cascade Range, SNC impacts peaked several years later and were the greatest in the 1990s, a period of warmer winter temperatures. Climate change is predicted to result in warmer winters and will likely continue to increase SNC severity at higher elevations, north along the coast from northern Oregon to British Columbia, and inland where low winter temperatures currently limit growth of the pathogen. Our findings indicate that SNC may become a significant

  12. Growth, allocation and tissue chemistry of Picea abies seedlings affected by nutrient supply during the second growing season. (United States)

    Kaakinen, Seija; Jolkkonen, Annika; Iivonen, Sari; Vapaavuori, Elina


    One-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings were grown hydroponically in a growth chamber to investigate the effects of low and high nutrient availability (LN; 0.25 mM N and HN; 2.50 mM N) on growth, biomass allocation and chemical composition of needles, stem and roots during the second growing season. Climatic conditions in the growth chamber simulated the mean growing season from May to early October in Flakaliden, northern Sweden. In the latter half of the growing season, biomass allocation changed in response to nutrient availability: increased root growth and decreased shoot growth led to higher root/shoot ratios in LN seedlings than in HN seedlings. At high nutrient availability, total biomass, especially stem biomass, increased, as did total nonstructural carbohydrate and nitrogen contents per seedling. Responses of stem chemistry to nutrient addition differed from those of adult trees of the same provenance. In HN seedlings, concentrations of alpha-cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin decreased in the secondary xylem. Our results illustrate the significance of retranslocation of stored nutrients to support new growth early in the season when root growth and nutrient uptake are still low. We conclude that nutrient availability alters allocation patterns, thereby influencing the success of 2-year-old Norway spruce seedlings at forest planting sites.

  13. Impact of soil drainage to the radial stem growth of Norway spruce (Picea Abies L. Karst. in peatland forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klempířová Barbora


    Full Text Available Peatland Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst. forests represent very valuable ecosystems with considerable importance for nature conservation. However, a lot of peatland forests have been drained or used for opencast mining of peat. Since dendrochronological and dendroecological studies on trees growing on peatlands in Europe are not many, this study aimed to reconstruct the impact of drainage to the growth of trees in forest stands older than 100 years in the moment of drainage. Dendrochronological analysis was performed on two 0.25-ha square sampling plots (50*50 m in two pre-selected stands (control site vs. drained site with similar natural conditions and age. The mean-value functions of the ring indices, comparing the drained site with the control site, in the period after 1940 revealed very similar radial-growth trends. After the year 1992, when one site was substantially drained, the radial-growth trends not showed any significant change. Likewise, the result of the independent two sample t-test for the period after 1992 has not revealed any substantial statistically important difference in the mean index between the control site and the drained site.

  14. Wood density variations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. under contrasting climate conditions in southwestern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke van der Maaten-Theunissen


    Full Text Available We analyzed inter-annual variations in ring width and maximumwood density of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. at different altitudes in Baden-Württemberg, southwestern Germany, to determine the climate response of these parameters under contrasting climate conditions. In addition, we compared maximum, average and minimum wood density between sites. Bootstrapped correlation coefficients of ring width and maximum wood density with monthly temperature and precipitation, revealed a different climate sensitivity of both parameters. Ring width showed strong correlations with climate variables in the previous year and in the first half of the growingseason. Further, a negative relationship with summer temperature was observed at the low-altitude sites. Maximum wood density correlated best with temperature during the growing season, whereby strongest correlations were found between September temperature and maximum wood density at the high-altitude sites. Observed differences in maximum, average and minimum wood density are suggested to relate to the local climate; with lower temperature and higher water availability having a negative effect on wood density.

  15. Wood density variations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. under contrasting climate conditions in southwestern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke van der Maaten-Theunissen


    Full Text Available We analyzed inter-annual variations in ring width and maximum wood density of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. at different altitudes in Baden-Württemberg, southwestern Germany, to determine the climate response of these parameters under contrasting climate conditions. In addition, we compared maximum, average and minimum wood density between sites. Bootstrapped correlation coefficients of ring width and maximum wood density with monthly temperature and precipitation, revealed a different climate sensitivity of both parameters. Ring width showed strong correlations with climate variables in the previous year and in the first half of the growing season. Further, a negative relationship with summer temperature was observed at the low-altitude sites. Maximum wood density correlated best with temperature during the growing season, whereby strongest correlations were found between September temperature and maximum wood density at the high-altitude sites. Observed differences in maximum, average and minimum wood density are suggested to relate to the local climate; with lower temperatures and higher water availability having a negative effect on wood density. 

  16. Effects of simultaneous ozone exposure and nitrogen loads on carbohydrate concentrations, biomass, and growth of young spruce trees (Picea abies)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.F.D.; Braun, S.; Flueckiger, W.


    Spruce saplings were grown under different nitrogen fertilization regimes in eight chamberless fumigation systems, which were fumigated with either charcoal-filtered (F) or ambient air (O 3 ). After the third growing season trees were harvested for biomass and non-structural carbohydrate analysis. Nitrogen had an overall positive effect on the investigated plant parameters, resulting in increased shoot elongation, biomass production, fine root soluble carbohydrate concentrations, and also slightly increased starch concentrations of stems and roots. Only needle starch concentrations and fine root sugar alcohol concentrations were decreased. Ozone fumigation resulted in needle discolorations and affected most parameters negatively, including decreased shoot elongation and decreased starch concentrations in roots, stems, and needles. In fine roots, however, soluble carbohydrate concentrations remained unaffected or increased by ozone fumigation. The only significant interaction was an antagonistic effect on root starch concentrations, where higher nitrogen levels alleviated the negative impact of ozone. - Simultaneous ozone fumigation and nitrogen fertilization have no synergistic impacts on carbohydrate concentrations, biomass, or growth of Picea abies saplings

  17. Influence of Binasal and Uninasal Inhalations of Essential Oil of Abies koreana Twigs on Electroencephalographic Activity of Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Seo


    Full Text Available Objectives. The present work investigates the effect of essential oil from the twigs of Abies koreana on electroencephalographic (EEG activity of human brain in order to understand the influence of binasal and uninasal inhalations. Methods. To accomplish this study, the essential oil from the twigs of A. koreana (AEO was isolated by steam distillation and the EEG readings were recorded using QEEG-8 system from 8 grounding electrodes according to the International 10-20 System. Results. D-Limonene (25.29%, bornyl acetate (19.31%, camphene (12.48%, α-pinene (11.88%, β-pinene (6.45%, and eudesm-7(11-en-ol (5.38% were the major components in the essential oil. In the EEG study, the absolute alpha (left frontal and right parietal and absolute fast alpha (right parietal values significantly increased during the binasal inhalation of AEO. In the uninasal inhalation, absolute beta and theta values decreased significantly, especially in the right frontal and left and right parietal regions. The results revealed that the AEO produced different EEG power spectrum changes according to the nostril difference. Conclusion. The changes in EEG values due to the inhalation of AEO may contribute to the enhancement of relaxation (binasal inhalation and alertness/attention (right uninasal inhalation states of brain which could be used in aromatherapy treatments.

  18. Comportamiento en flexión estática de vigas de madera antigua de Picea abies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ramón Sotomayor-Castellanos


    Full Text Available Las tipologías arquitecturales encontradas en el contexto del análisis estructural de construcciones con significado histórico y cultural son complejas. El modelado numérico es propuesto como una solución para diagnosticar la seguridad estructural de estas edificaciones. En esta investigación se realizaron pruebas de flexión estática de acuerdo a la norma Europea EN 408 y se calcularon los módulos de elasticidad y de ruptura en 5 vigas antiguas de Picea abies. La densidad de la madera fue de 422 kg/m3 para las vigas con un contenido de humedad de 12 %. El módulo de elasticidad promedio fue de 9,059 MPa y el módulo de ruptura fue de 29.18 Pa. Los módulos presentaron una variabilidad aceptable. Los resultados experimentales se contrastaron con las predicciones numéricas empleando el método del elemento finito. Las predicciones numéricas en los dominios lineal y no lineal mostraron buena aproximación con los resultados experimentales.

  19. The Transcription Factor ABI4 Is Required for the Ascorbic Acid–Dependent Regulation of Growth and Regulation of Jasmonate-Dependent Defense Signaling Pathways in Arabidopsis[C][W (United States)

    Kerchev, Pavel I.; Pellny, Till K.; Vivancos, Pedro Diaz; Kiddle, Guy; Hedden, Peter; Driscoll, Simon; Vanacker, Hélène; Verrier, Paul; Hancock, Robert D.; Foyer, Christine H.


    Cellular redox homeostasis is a hub for signal integration. Interactions between redox metabolism and the ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor were characterized in the Arabidopsis thaliana vitamin c defective1 (vtc1) and vtc2 mutants, which are defective in ascorbic acid synthesis and show a slow growth phenotype together with enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) levels relative to the wild type (Columbia-0). The 75% decrease in the leaf ascorbate pool in the vtc2 mutants was not sufficient to adversely affect GA metabolism. The transcriptome signatures of the abi4, vtc1, and vtc2 mutants showed significant overlap, with a large number of transcription factors or signaling components similarly repressed or induced. Moreover, lincomycin-dependent changes in LIGHT HARVESTING CHLOROPHYLL A/B BINDING PROTEIN 1.1 expression were comparable in these mutants, suggesting overlapping participation in chloroplast to nucleus signaling. The slow growth phenotype of vtc2 was absent in the abi4 vtc2 double mutant, as was the sugar-insensitive phenotype of the abi4 mutant. Octadecanoid derivative-responsive AP2/ERF-domain transcription factor 47 (ORA47) and AP3 (an ABI5 binding factor) transcripts were enhanced in vtc2 but repressed in abi4 vtc2, suggesting that ABI4 and ascorbate modulate growth and defense gene expression through jasmonate signaling. We conclude that low ascorbate triggers ABA- and jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways that together regulate growth through ABI4. Moreover, cellular redox homeostasis exerts a strong influence on sugar-dependent growth regulation. PMID:21926335

  20. Affiliative and "self-as-doer" identities: Relationships between social identity, social support, and emotional status amongst survivors of acquired brain injury (ABI). (United States)

    Walsh, R Stephen; Muldoon, Orla T; Gallagher, Stephen; Fortune, Donal G


    Social support is an important factor in rehabilitation following acquired brain injury (ABI). Research indicates that social identity makes social support possible and that social identity is made possible by social support. In order to further investigate the reciprocity between social identity and social support, the present research applied the concepts of affiliative and "self-as-doer" identities to an analysis of relationships between social identity, social support, and emotional status amongst a cohort of 53 adult survivors of ABI engaged in post-acute community neurorehabilitation. Path analysis was used to test a hypothesised mediated model whereby affiliative identities have a significant indirect relationship with emotional status via social support and self-as-doer identification. Results support the hypothesised model. Evidence supports an "upward spiral" between social identity and social support such that affiliative identity makes social support possible and social support drives self-as-doer identity. Our discussion emphasises the importance of identity characteristics to social support, and to emotional status, for those living with ABI.